Influence of food preservatives and artificial colors on digestion and health ..

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Title:
Influence of food preservatives and artificial colors on digestion and health ..
Series Title:
United States. Bureau of Chemistry. Bulletin
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pt. : illus. ; 23 cm.
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English
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United States -- Bureau of Chemistry
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Subjects / Keywords:
Food -- Preservation -- Physiological effect   ( lcsh )
Coloring matter   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Also available in electronic format.
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Issued in parts.

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University of Florida
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aleph - 029774366
oclc - 30311099
lccn - agr06001828
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lcc - S584 .A3 no.84
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Full Text



S.- DEARMEN OFAGICULTURE,








Of FOD PESEYATIVYES AND ,ARTIFICIAL COLlllo N IUS INAN4J HEALTH,




V.-FRMALDEHYDE.






7.*fllTHE OL RATON O W.D. BGELW,7. C. WEBER, AND OTHERS.









U.S. DEPOSIOR








GOVERNMENT PRNMX~ ( FFICE,



198














ORGANIZATION OF BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY.

IT. W. WILEY, Chemist and Chief of Bureau. F. L. DeLmAP, Aseociate Chemist. W. D. BIGELOW, AS at
F. B. LINToN, Chief Clerk. A. L. PERCE, Editorial
M. W. TAYLoR, Librarian. Division of Foods, W. D. BIGELOW, Chief.
Food Inspection Laboratory, L. M. ToLMAN, Chief.
Food Technology Laboratory, E. M. CHACE, Chief, nd Ai8tant CGifofDi
Oil, Fat, and Wax Laboratory. (Not appointed.] Division of Drugs, L. F. KEBLER, Chief.
Drug Inspection Laboratory, G. W. HOOVER, Chief.
Synthetic Produncts Laboratory, W. O. EMERY, Chief.
Essential Oils Laboratory. (Not appointed.]
Pharmacological Laboratory. [Not appointed.
Chief Food and Drug Inspector, W. G. CAMPBELL. Miscellaneous Division, J. K. HAYWOOD, Chief.
Water Laboratory, W. W. SKINNER, Chief.
Cattle Food and Grain Investigations Laboratory, J. 8. CHAMBERLAIN, O .
Insecticide and Fungicide Laboratory, C. C. McDONNELL, Chief
Trade Wastes Laboratory, Under Chief of Division. Contracts Laboratory, P. II..WALKER, Chief. Dairy Laboratory, G. E. PATRICK, Chief. Food Research Laboratory, Mf. E. P ENNINGTON, Chief. Leather and Paper Laboratory, F. 'P. VcEITCI, Chief. Microchemical Laboratory, B. J. HOWARD, Chief. Sugar Laboratory, A. I. BRYAN, In Charge. Nitrogen Section, T. C. TRESCOT, In Charge. Special Investigations:
Physiological Chemistry (Animal), F. C. WEBER, In Charge.
(Vegetable), J. A. LECLERC, In Charge. Bacteriological Chemistry, G. W. STILES, In Charge.
Enological Chemstry, W. B. ALWOOD, In Charge. Food and Drug Inspection Laboratories:
Boston, B. 11. SMITH, Chief. New Orleans, C. W. HA, SO, Cf.
Buffalo, W. L. DUsois, Acting. New York, R. E. DOOLTLE,
Chicago. A. L. WINToN, Cief. Omsh'a, 8. II. Ross, Acting.
Cincinnati, B. It. lART, Acting. Philadelphia, C. 8. BrNTo, C .
Denver, A. E. LEACH, Chief. Pittsburg, M. C. ALBREC, A .
Detrouit, 11. L. -.CuLTZ, Acting. Portland, Oreg., A. L. KNI ELY, At.
Galveston. (Not apponted.j St. Louis. 'Not appointed.]
Honolulu, H. 1.. it. A. DUNCAN, Acting. St. Paul, A. S. MITCELL, Chie.
Kansas City, Mo., A. V. 11. MoaY, Acting. San Francisco, R.A. GO ,
Nashvile. [Not appointed.j Savannah, W. C. BUANET, Ac*.
Seattle, I. M. Loomis, Acting.










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S. DEPART-MENT OF AGRICT'LTURE,
BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY-BLILETIN Ncj. S4, PART Y.
11. W. WILEY, Cllil f (,I-- PUREAU.




T
lNiFLUENCE OF FOOD M ) 11TI H(J AL

COLORS-' ON bli'ESTION AND IIEALTHI




V.-Folilk -it A 1.4 1 E I r y I )IIJ 0




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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY,
Washington, D. C., March 26, 1908.
SI: I have the honor to transmit for your approval the results of the investigations which have been made in this Bureau to determine the effects of formaldehyde on digestion and health. The work is a continuation of that reported in Parts I, II, III, and IV of Bulletin 84, dealing, respectively, with boric acid and borax; salicylic acid and salicylates; sulphurous acid and sulphites, and benzoic acid and benzoates, and I recommend that this investigation be published as Part V of that bulletin.
As in the previous investigations, the analyses of the foods and feces were made under the supervision of W. D. Bigelow, Chief of the Division of Foods; the microscopic examinations were conducted by B. J. Howard, while the urinalyses, the study of the body weight, and the conduct of the food table were under the supervision of F. C. Weber. Acknowledgment is also due to the Bureau of Statistics for the valuable aid rendered in calculating and compiling the analytical data.
Respectfully,
H. W. WILEY, Uif of Bureau.
Hon. JAMES ILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.
M


















~CONTENTS.


Page.
itroduction 1295
SERIES IX.

Administration of the preservative ......................................... 1298
Schedule of administration ............................................ 1298
Method of administration ............................................... 1299
Daily medical and clinical notes ............................................1299
Individual data ........................................................ l3(o
Discussion of temperature chart ......................................... j307
Conclusions ---------------------------------------------------------- 1310
Body weights ------------------------------------------------------ 1:
Variations in body weights ......................................-1310
Ratio of food weight to body weight ..................................... 1313
Weight and water content of the feces ...................................... 1322
Individual data ........................................................ 1322
Summaries ........................................................... 1324
The u ................................................................ 133
Volume, specific gravity, and total solids ............................... 1:33
Individual data .................................................... 0
Sum m aries ....................................................... 1332
Presence of albumin and reaction of the urine ............................ 1337
Quantity of urea an(l ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates to nitrogen in the urine ..................................................... I..
IndiVidual data .................................................... 13s
Sum m armies .............................................13 2
Changes in the relative quantities of sulphur compounds in the urine ..13
Individual data .................................................... 13 2
Sum m aries ....................................................... 3
Microscopical examination of the urine ...-................................1:70
Microscopical examination of the blood-- ...................................... I
Indivi(d1 l data ........................................................ 1;7
Sum m ries .:............................. 3. ..
M et ab ic proc s ...........-.-.-.-.-.-........................... ........ 3i
N itrogen balance .......................-...............................
Individual data- .................................................... 13
Sum m aries...................................................... .
Phosphoic-acid balance ..............-..-.-.-...-.-.-.-.-.-.-..-..-.. 1 1
Individual data ........-..-.-.-..-.-.-.-..-..-..-.-.-.-.-.-..-..-.. 14..1
Series ...................................................... 1107
Sulphur balance ....................................................... 1423
Individual data .................................................... 1423
Summarivs ............. ......................................... 14
v






VI CONTENTS.

Metabolic processes-Continued. Page.
Fatblace........... 1444
F Itdb vidu.......................................... ..... ......... ..... 144
Individual data 144
Summaries 1447.
Calories balance ...................................................... 1461
Individual data .................................................... 1461
Summaries ...................................................... 1463
Solids balance ......................................................... 1477
Individual data .................................................... 1477
Summaries ....................................................... 1479
Summary of results ....................................................... 1493
General conclusions ....................................................... 1497
List of tables ................................................ 1500





ILLUSTRATIONS.

Page.
FiG. 1. Daily and average temperature record for Series IX, Nos. I to 6, and
summary-......................................... 1308
2. Daily and average temperature record for Series IX, Nos. 7 to 12, excluding Nos. 8 and 9, and summary, together with the general summary for the entire series ......................................... 1309
3. Daily and average body weights for Series IX, Nos. 1 to 6, and summ ary ........................................................... 1311
4. Daily and average body weights for Series 1X, Nos. 7 to 12, excluding
N's. 8 and 9, and summary, together with the general summary for the
entire series ...................................................... 1312








INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES AND ARTIFICIAL COLORS ON DIGESTION AND HEALTH.


V.-FORMALDEHYDE.


INTRODUCTION.
Formaldehyde is one of those preservatives the use of which in foods has been almost universally condemned by experts, physicians, and the general public. Nevertheless, as formaldehyde has heretofore been used to quite an extent in certain foods, especially dairy products, and is still advertised under its own and other names for use in such products to a limited extent, it seemed wise W include this substance in the plan of investigation.
Formaldehyde is derived from the first member of the alcohol group, namely, methyl or wood alcohol. Each of the alcohols has an aldehyde corresponding thereto, as, for instance, formaldehyde from methyl alcohol, acetaldehyde derived from ethyl alcohol, which is the ordinary alcohol of conmmnerce, and so on with the other alcohols. It has been very generally believed that the toxicity of alcohols, and they are more or less toxic, was greater as the series ascended-that is, if methyl or ethyl alcohol is considered as the basis of comparison the toxicity of the higher alcohols (such as butyl, propyl, and amyl) is greater than that of methyl or ethyl alcohol. Following this plan of classification the toxicity of methyl alcohol should be less than that of ethyl alcohol. There is a lack of exact experimentation on this point, but the evidence which has lately been secured leads to the conclusion that some modification of this common belief is necessary. The degree of toxicity of methyl and ethyl alcohol in small amounts is largely in favor of the methyl alcohol, while if relatively larger quantities are employed the methyl alcohol is far more toxic than the ethyl alcohol, and, as a corollary from this, formaldehyde under the same conditions should be more toxic than acetaldehyde. Attention should also be called to the fact that formaldehyde represents the simplest form of aldehyde known that is, its chemical constitution shows that it is made up of carbon and water. By multiplying the simple molecule, for instance, by six the ordinary formula for a sugar is obtained. In other words, if a chemist could start with six molecules of fornirmaldehyde and put 1295





1296 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES WN HEALTH.

them ti)frether in a strict]N- natural waN-, lie would produce sugar whicli a hi,(rhly nutritiotis food in respect of its power to furnish heat, (,ner(rN-, and fattN- ti 4-;ue.
Pli-\-- 1(Ao(,ical botanic ts suppose that formaldehyde is the first pro(Itict of cheillical synthesis, tending to build tip the cellulose, or woo(IN- ti""tie of plants, and forming, bv condensation the starch and Sti(r,11. Nvlticli tlie plant, contains. Its biological activity is supposed by sollie pll -Siologlsts to extend even further, so ils to be a. very illiport'alit aid ill tlie billing up of nitroorenous tissues. In this collnection it nitist be remembered that formaldehyde not only p()',I- e'-,-!;eS to "t inial-ked degree the property of combining with itself to fi)rlli liew bodies but as has already been sucr(rested it unites in a verN- intiniate manner with the protelds. Therefore, when added to milk which contains, a very large proportion of nitrogenous materials formaldeliN-de may enter into a cher*cal combination witli these substances. To determine whether any difference would be observed in the activity of the preservative under these conditionsl the formal deln-de was administered iiiiinediately after it was mixed with milk and also after allowin(r it to stand for forty-eight. llotirs in contact, with the milk. This length of time gave ample opl)orttinity for the completion of any chemical reactions which the fol-111"ll(lehyde might undergo in comiection with the protein subStalices.
Anotlier point which was carefully considered was that presumRI)IN- ill the case. of formaldehyde, we are dealing, with a substance 1111IN-el-S'ally considered to be of a poisonotis character, and for this 1111111__1011 11111ch iiiore care was necessarily exercised in re(ftilatin(Y. the (11.1alitity administered in order that no, sudden or unexpected toxic (41'ects iniglit, be Im-odticed.
AllOtIM11, fact. wortli y of consideration is that inasmuch as milk i.,; Ille illost I)I-olle of all ordinary foods to deterioration and requires flie Illost careftil ti-eatillelitl t1le telill)tation to Ilse Stich all efficient pl-c'-wi-v"'Itive as fol-Ill-al(lellple Is proportionately (ri-eatery especially (1111-*Il(r tll(, sillijillel- 'I'lle al-trillilents Njjicjj have J)V(,lj a(lvalice(t Ill fa\-ol- of otliel. j)l.vsel-\-atiN-vs ill Sillall (1111111tities Should 111em,01call \- cal.l. N, ilml-e N ciglit, ill flie case of inillc than of other
I'(0)(Ls *lll(l It, t1lese al.(rilillelits Itiv -\'alid ill 111111 CllsV, thVV
1w N\11ell apl)lied to (laii-y pro(Ilicts. It. is (wilvi.'111 a(1111011'(1 111"It tliciv Is ito kiio\\-ii I)ivser\,atiN-v so elfectk?-v, so 1'emillN. c111p1()Yc(1, aw l ill SoIlle I't",I)ects So lil vl y to ("Scalw detectioll, ,1.1_ 111jillite (111:111title"4 14 1,oI-IlI1ll(lvI1Y(1(%7 1111(l) tll(q-(%1,oIv1 till t1le con(litioll-, MIN-11 I-clate to Its Ilse (lesene tlie (ri-elitel. carv and collsiderat if) I I. It ll()t be lIo\Nv\,vI. tilat, it sil qm sititiolls
(IM1111101111til IWC(ISSIt\, call ll()t be cite(I as all exctise for t1le addition
fm)&- (d, -- 111),Allllces \\1114.11 n1v ilijill-lolls.






FORMALDEHYDE. 1297

in tliis connection it seems not Out of place to call attention to the fact that apart from the injurlotis effects of foriiial(leliyde itclf, it,- ti>e as a preservative would be especially ina(IN-1-aLle lit inilk (w creaili because its addition ill- dilute soltition pre'\-ellt-, t1le gnm-til ()f acl(lformin(r bacteria, but lias no effect lit retar(Iiin, tit(, acti()it 4 niaw,harmful organisms; in other words, the milk I ) preN-eilte(l fl-()Ili Iwci)Itling sour and thus indicating its a(re and tit(- (lan,zer sl_(rnal Is ditts
while the other or(ranisnis wlilcli are cal):.ible (d removed, Z71
disease continue to multiply in the milk witli practically flic ,,lilie
degree of rapidity as if the fornialdeln-de were not prc>(,IIt.
Attention is a(rain called to the proper an(I Ictritimate sl(rinfication of the term "injurious to health," when ill tliliThis phrase does not si(rillf-\- that .1 foo(I 11;1 111 IIIJUNMI -llbstance added to it must in every instance prodtice notably flijtiriou s effects upon the constimer iinme(Hately. Till, (Itte-4lioll can ()idy
be logically and fairly studied by colisi(lering the c()ntIww(1 ()I- ciiiiiiilative effects, nor are these necessarliv of such a, cliai'zicter t- to result in objectlVe Sympt ()Ills. 111sl(lious cflects' wilicli '11-o prmllicc(l
on the cells of the organs or on tilell. ]list ological titictili'(1 '11V It()
less important,; in fact, tli(,-\- are more iiii1mi-talit. Tlw ,e (11v III(,
injuries which at, first escape (Ictectioll 111(t 111(i y ('() to ii-l-ellic(li'lhle lengths before 1111V Outward symptoins of flicir exlstellc(l it'(, 111,011fested.
All of these points have been kept ill view in flie (-wi-,iJeratI()ii t)f* this question, btit none of t1will ]Ias 11"Id aII \- 11111twilce ()It tile (d)-wn-ntion and recording of flie data. As ill all otlier ca- (- 011", P'll't 44 tilt,
-work has been con(lucted absolutely wit'llwit refel-ellce to .111 V PIVconceived theory. Tile sole en(leavol, lia beell to t1le (111:111fity an(I (ItialitV of t1le foml, till, litltntlN-c \-allic (d, tit(, rath)II. 111d the cotirse of life of t1le SlIbject, 111(1 to IIW (Iffert 101
the healt1i alid t1le IlletalmliC P1,0CO"-Cs Ill krellel"ll. T111> 11,1J)(x(ql diStI-Ij)jjt( (j -Illl()Iitr ,I 1,-jprt 11111111)(qControl of a pal-ticill"ll. pall 4 tit(, 111VO -ti (_rl1IWl "[1111 \\(wI\11l lildcpendelit ly. fil tills ("ZISCI, as Ill '111 id 11w it \\,I- 11()t 1111111 dw
E011INIS NVOIV (101111te(17 lahillate(l, '111(i stlidied 111,11 1114, Induced 1) V t1w NVITO kil(m ]1, 111(1 11,)l 1111111 1 1w il (.,)Ilh!
W IV 10t(IIIII)t 1w 111,1(le to) till, (w It) th'M
COM1111sioll., fi-mil t1le (I"Ita.
W 1111v it i" ll()t to he eXI)o-ted Illit the 14 rM lIP11t. i 1i I 11,4
P IV -w lltv(l 111-v \- fl-ce t* 1.4 )111 1, 1.1.( ) I.. I Ile _"rilcl.,11 A111,41CI H1,11
W (T e I)I-m itico l it n I 1111111isl akal I ( 3 1111 ( I It I I )I I I v f I I t I I ( 1 4 4 11 k I I I d ra w it t 11( n 4 n I I I it 1.( 4 .4 111 ( .( ( I ) I I 'A )I I I I( 1 1-111 ( -11 ) , I f 1 -1 1 11111 111 i 11 tv it st '1 1 4 ) I I n 1 1 a I ) I t a I I I I I f I I I I I-k- ( ( I I I I I I I', Irl I I I 1 4 1 1 111 ;1 1 ( n I rVslI s 1111 14. it h ,(-Ilcc Id, c(M t 1,41(lict 11 Ill ill I he I m I \ I I I I I 1'e-,jwcIa11Y niw-ke(l it, till, exlwi-1111(.111.














SERIES IX.

ADMINISTRATION OF THE PRESERVATIVE.

SCHEDULE OF ADMINISTRATION.

This series of investigations was begun on the 12th of November 1904, and concluded on the 17th of December, 1904. The fore
period covers ten days of observation, the preservative period fifteen days, and the after period ten days. The dates of the several subperiods are given in Table I.

TABLE I.-Dates of periods anl subperiods, Series IX.

Date of Date of
Period and subperiod. Dae n ding.
Ding.

1904. 1904.
Fore period ......................................................................... Nov. 12 Nov. 21
First subperiod.................................................................do... Nov 16
Second subperiod ............................................................. Nov. 17 Nov. 21
Preservative period ................................................................. Nov. 22 Dec. 6
First subperiod .................................................................. ....do ... Nov. 26
Second subperiod............................................................. Nov. 27 Dec. 1
Third subperiod................................................................ Dec. 2 Dec. 6
After period........................................................................ ;Dec. 8 Dec. 17
First subperiod...................................................................... do... Dec. 12
Second subperiod.............................................................. Dec. 13 Dec. 17

a In tabulating the results the data for December 7 are omitted owing to the fact that the preservative was administered only on the morning of that day, and it was then deemed advisable on account of the condition of the subjects to begin the after period.

Table II shows the administration of the formaldehyde during the preservative period. The quantity given daily during the first preservative subperiod is 100 milligrams, during the second preservative subp)eriod 200 milligrams, and during the third preservative subperiod(l 200 milligrams, making a total of 2.5 grams administered
during the entire preservative period.

TABLE I1 Schedule of administration of preserative, Series IX.

Formaledede added to milk inunme- Formaldehyde added to milk i'eri-d and date (1014). diately before taking. two days before taking.a
No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. No. 5. No. (6. No. 7. No. 8. No.10. No.11 No.12.

I r t iod Grims. Grims. Grins. Grins. Grins. Grms. GIrms. Gris. Grins. Grins. Orms.
N ,v ....... ...... 1 0. 1 0.1 0.1 .1 .1 .1 .1 .1 0.1 .1
...... ... ........ 1 .1 .1 .1 .1 1.
'2
Totaul.......... ......... .5 .5 .5 .. .5


No. 9 left the city before the entire observation was completed and therefore his data are omitted.
1298






FORMALDEHYDE. 1299

TA3LE II.-Schedule of administration of preservatire, Series IX-Continued.
Formaldehyde added to milkimme- Formaldehyde added to milk diately before taking. two days before taking. Period and date (1904).
No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. o. 5. No. 6. No. 7. No. 8. No.10. No.11. No.12
Second subperiod: Grms. Grms.Grms. Grms. Grms. Grms. Grms. Grms. Grns. Grms. Gris.
Nov.27 ..................... 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
28...................... .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2
29 ...................... 2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2
30.................... .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2
Dec.1........................ 2 .2 .2 .2 ..2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2
Total...................... 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Third subperiod:
Dec.2... ........... ......... .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2.
3....................... .2 .2 .2 2 .2 .2
4....................... .2 .2 .2 .2 2 20 .2
........................2 .2 .2 .2 .2 1 .2 1 .2 1
6........................ .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .0 .2 .0 .0 .2 .2
Total a.................... 1.0 1.0 1.01 1.0 1.0 .7 1.0 .1 .7 1.0 1.0
*On Dec. 7 those subjects who were still receiving the preservative were given 0.1 gram, but it was deemed inadvisable to continue the preservative period for another five days, and the after jwriod was accordingly begun on Dec. 8, the data for Dec. 7 being disregarded in thle tabulations.
It will be noted that only Nos. 6, 8, and 10 failed to take the scheduled amount of preservative. No. 8 received the smallest
amount, taking only 0.1 gram on the first day of the last subperiod
and none thereafter, while Nos. 6 and 10 took only 0.1 gram on the next to the last day of the preservative period and none on the last day, making a total for the subperiod of 0.7 gram.
METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION.
An aqueous solution of formaldehyde was administered in milk. The strength of a stock solution was determined from time to time
and the proper volume to secure the amount required b)y the schedule was added to the milk taken by the subjects. On account of the
liquid nature of this substance it was not possible to administer it in any better way. The quantity added in the first sublperiod was not
sufficient to impart any taste to the milk, but in the larger quantities a slightly disagreeable taste was noticeable. In the case of half of the men (Nos. I to 6) the preservative was added to the milk ionnediately before it wNas drunk; and in order that ample time might he given for any chemical union wlich might take place between the fonmaldehiyde and thle protein constituents of the milk, that adiinistered to Nos. 7 to 12 was added to the milk two dlays )efore consumption.
DAILY MEDICAL AND CLINICAL NOTES.
All the men who became iiiembers of the table for testing the
effects of fora1ldehyde on health and digestion were carefullyV ex1111am1eed before 1the beVinngi of the expellnlentl s ill rel us ca ses. The mIedical history of eaclh man was ascertained, no one beillng admitted who wva not free from organtilic (111 or who had suffered






1300 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

Loin -- ci-iou illness of anv kind wit1lin a vear or two who was predi-,po-w(l to ally llere(litarv maladv, or who exhibited anv feebleness of con-titlitioll which would make hini an easv victim to disease. I'lle 11<11,11 (lally exanlinations were inade of vach man, the temper-all(l 1m)(1v be* I e d. AA
lllCr 1'eCol
r, -lien anv variation
fi.olll the was noticed the observation was checked by an
-11o was always present and Supervised the securing of the (lata for the clinical and medical history- and anv svin tonis relmi-te(l. welv carefully considered, to determine how far such disoi-ders nii(rht be attributed to the use of the, preser-\-ative.

INDIVIDUAL DATA.
NO. 1.
At the becrinnino- of the, fore period -No. I was normal in all respects. Vie temperature was slightly below the average, while the, average Puls,16,011 Was 70 beats per minute. 'No. 1 passed t1irough the fore penod witliout any notable variation from the normal. On Noveniber IS flie tempei-ature was slightly higher, namely, 98.6', but fell t1le next day. On "November 22, the first day of the preservative penml, tlIe temperatui-e of No. 1 was (98.3' and his pulse 6S beats pei- ininute. On the next. day flie temperature NN-as sliglitly increased, 11('UlWly WS.G'. On the 24tit lie developed syniptoins of headache,
I llowevel. not v(,i--\- severe land passed away the next, day.
f,,tlllll(r one. (lav to (98'
The teiiij)ei-at utv, i\-as a little below the normal, n and oil aiiothei- to 98.1'. On November 97 the teiliperatui-e was only 9 7. 9'. Dunng the night of the 29th ]I(, was unable to sleep, and i\-as
and I ]I*,, I-estlessiless
restle,,:- ) increased the llext day, aCC0IIIPalledNN-itl1
It Ilit'llked t1iii-st. ()it the 3d of Deceinber a troublesome rash was deN-clol)('4 o\-el. "1111lost tlle wilole of tlle clie'st, and the illabilltv to Sleep cwItillue(l. The rash and tit(' sleel)lessness continued throll(Th Deceinbei- 4Y (,III(] on tile next, (I"IN- lte:I(lac1I(,, all(I soI-ejl(,,;,; ill t1le 1-(,trioll of the "11)(Ionlen wen, I-el)oi-ted ill ad(lition to the otiler sylliptoills. 0]1 Decellibel. G alld till-oturlt t1le fil-st of tile aftel, pel-iod tlle,,e SYMptoills ewltifilled alld tite sol-eness in t1le I-egion of tlie abdonien i HC IVIIS(41. Oil 11w sec()n(l (laY and fot- tile ivinain(lei- of tlie after penml, Imwe\'cl-I Hie Iillfa\,onable sylliptollis (li1Saj)j)ea1'v(1 and the Sub.1 rwraillc(l Ill-, u";11:11 "tate of licalth. "I'lle 11lost pi-onoulIC(ld effect, (J the pi-(,s(,rN-n11\,e ()it No. I wa" the (le\-e1()j)IlleIIt- of t1le rash 111)oll 111c clw ,tl (weiivss in tit(- almlonieii, lica(lacliel I'VAICS.-11VISSY and inahIlItY to leep,

N( 2 began tlie exjwninent in a, pei-1 ectly llonlial condition and d('\(A()jw(l I]() I ill fa \'(wabl( S\-Illptollis or 1111N J jljd (1111-ilitr tjj( fol-e Pe 1' 4)(1. fle viltel-e(I t1w 1) I-ese1w lit IN,(, lwl-iod ill all 11011nal s ate and no






FOP, AIALDE HYDE. 1301

symptoms of any kind were developed, except a decrease in temper'I December 4 -\Oien a creneral feelincr of inalai toms had disappeared and no further (11.sconifoi-t wa- exP(Tielliced until December 8, the first (11,Lty of tile after period, wlicil. iiait,,ea aiid a sli(yht headache, were noted, the ten(lerness ill tile 1-( (rloll I)f tIlf. 1IV(T continiiin(r for several davs after tile close of tlle On December 1:3 tile -;--Iljpt0jjj- -\-(1I-t'(T0 oI' (I;ZZ'
; o f 1 Ztll(l 11 111-ca
recurred, btit were. of short (Itti-ation. Tlii,- fact N\-ould i l()t y
indicate that the pi eservatiN-e NN-,is t1w catise of flie (11 -ttill)ZIllco,"
althoucrh it inziv have had oiiie coni-lection witli flicil, I FIVI Ice,
since -No. 2 was not stibject to -ucli Tilt, (lata t zi Nvliole,
however, indicate fliat little ()I- no effect is prodticed lit t1w 4)f
N o. 2 b v the adininisti-tition of tlie foniialdeli-\-de.
A-0

No. 3 entered tile, fore period III zill excellelit "t"Ite of llealth 6111 temperature, ptilse, .,iii(l till the otlier ftlllctD)11- (d Ille "l)()(I .No symptonis of a distm-b1ii(e character Well,(' I'Oport (l t1w fl)re
period, altliowdi the averzi(re tellipel"Iture Wzl Al -rlltlv 111)11(11-111,tl throughout tile obser -atioii. No sN-iiiptoin-,-; ()f ill
were developed iiiitil tile fii-.,,t (IiN- of tlie tliff(I pre,(,]*Vallv when pain In the ltiiiibar le(rioll 111(1 throLigliotit the (Iny. Oil tlie f()1lowliw (lay, Dcccill1wi. :)) t1w ,t]Lj -t was natiseated for al)(0tit all llotir after all(l 1,01t "i dull
pain in tile grolii. Oil Deceiiiber -4 paiii ill tilt, al)(1t)iiwil ilid and restlessiwssl 11CCollipallied N6111 111-J)1lity 1() sleep. wclv At abotit 9 o'cl()ck of t1ils day ilic ul)ject ,tlffelvd .111
11C111st'117 "(111(l tile paill-, ill tile abd()l1lell :111(i Ille ,%\-Itll llett(lacile, the 111-lo ()ll klic litA I
D ecelliber 6, tll(,I.(, Nvas il I t1le (d ilk, '111d ill
the 111(ylit ille sIP'llt 11,111- ea ;111d jecl)lt, rcIIII'lled. A ll lht, ,e SN'Illptoljj. ; ex(,( I)j sl",rilt Ill Ihe 1'e'11411i 411, IlW (h
appeltred aftei- ill(, (lkV (4 Ille T l1P- 1 1-lkl(i
])lit flj)jll Illit t"llie (0 1 Ille

taIN-lable effect Id, tile ill deVel"Pill" 'Icelde-,lic- ;111(1 't
feelifig 4 1 ill Ille al)(14)IIIell, 1),1111 ill Ille hillihar
regloii nji(l trI'M 11, :111(l Ilen(lacliv, A ftel. Ille 11f tilt, fol.1111141elly(le flle-,-;e





1302 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.
No. 4.
No. 4 was in good condition when entering the fore period, with normal temperature and pulse, which continued to the close of the period. On the first day of the preservative period his temperature registered 98.30 and his pulse 80 beats per minute. No unfavorable symptoms were developed, except a tendency to a somewhat lower temperature, until December 4. On this day slight pains in the abdomen accompanied by nausea and loss of appetite were reported. These symptoms practically disappeared on the following day, but on December 6 the headache returned, attended by a severe catarrhal cold, which continued throughout the next day, disappearing on the second day of the after period. From this time until the end of the observation the subject remained in a normal condition. From these data it is seen that No. 4 endured the action of the preservative for a period of time without apparent discomfort. There are then developed the symptoms of nausea, headache, and general malaise.
No. 5.
No. 5 entered the fore period with normal temperature and a somewhat accelerated pulsation of 84 beats. On the second day he developed a slight cold, which, however, was not attended by a rise in temperature. This cold grew worse, and on November 14 it was accompanied by headache and the temperature of the subject had risen to 1000, while the pulse was 104 beats per minute. On the next day the headache had disappeared, but the cold still continued and the subject was given 18 grains of quinine within twenty-four hours. In consequence his condition on the next day was improved, the temperature being normal. Again 18 grains were administered. Only a slight cough remained, and on the 17th he was entirely normal again, with no unfavorable conditions for the rest of the fore period. At the beginning of the preservative period the temperature and pulse of No. 5 were normal, and except for a slight decrease in temperature he continued in excellent condition until November 29. At this time he reported pains in the back, in the region of the kidneys. These, however, passed away the next day and no unfavorable symptoms appeared(l until December 4, when he suffered pain in the stomach during the night. On December 6 the pains in the back recurred, especially around the kidneys, with headache during the afternoon. The pains in the stomach returned on December 7; nevertheless the subject complained of being hungry. lHe entered the after period with normal temperature but with somewhat accelerated pulse. All unfavorable symiptomis disappeared immediately on entering the after period until December 12, when the subject complained of feeling weak and ill. The remainder of the after period, however, passed without further unfavorable symptoms. The data in the case of





FORMALDEHYDE. 1303

o. 5 show a remarkable toleration of the formaldehyde administered until toward the end of the preservative period, when pain in the stomach, the back, and the head were developed.
No. 6.
No. 6 began the fore period in a normal state in every particular, which condition continued until November 19, when a slight cold developed and his temperature rose to 99.40. On November 20 the temperature was still high, registering 100.50, pulse 100 beats per minute. The temperature on the following day was 10 above normal and 6 grains of quinine were administered. On November 22 the febrile disturbance and the rapid pulse had disappeared and no effects of the cold remained. This normal condition continued during the preservativ period until November 29. During dinner on that day No. 6 was seized with severe cramps in the stomach. Three attacks occurred within an hour, but there was no disturbance either of temperature or of appetite. On December 1 the subject complained of dryness in the mouth and thirst, and on December 3 a dull headache lasting for several hours was reported. Soreness in the region of the stomach was developed on December 4, with a feeling of uneasiness which lasted the whole day. This soreness had increased greatly by the next day and a very severe headache had developed, so that it was deemed advisable to discontinue the administration of the preservative. On December 6 the rapidity of the heart action was noted. There was still soreness in the region of the stomach, but to a less degree, and in the evening a feeling of nausea was reported. On December 7, the second day after the cessation of the administration of the preservative for this subject, there was still a trace of soreness left in the stomach, and on the third day a slight headache. During the next two days the unfavorable symptoms disappeared, but on December 10 the soreness in the region of the stomach returned. On the two following days a dull headache was reported, which disappeared for a day and recurred again on December 14. On the 16th slight indigestion was experienced and on the 17th a headache lasting allday was recorded. This subject was not entirely restore(l to normal condition at the close of the after period. A general survey of the data of No. 6 shows the development in the latter part of the preservative period of abdominal soreness, nausea, and general malaise attended with headache; and these symptoms continued, though with decreasing intensity, throughout the after period.
No0, 7.

No. 7 entered the fore period in normal condition as to temperature, pulse, and the general functions of the body. There was no disturbance of this state during the whole of the fore period, and






1304' INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

until the tllll.(l day of the preservative period, when a feeling of nausea developed at about 7 1). in. -%vhicli basted two or three. hours ajid was accompaiiied 1)v a dry feelin(y in the mouth and throat. I'liese symptoms passed away oil the following day and did not
rai Novembel, 24 7 NN-lien a, burniii(r sensation in the
recur I- in miti 7 1"
throat Nvas reported oil (Ir*iil,-,iii(,, the milk which contained the foriiial(leliN-de. Oil -November 30 a rash appeared on the back and oil tliv 111 i(le of the tlll().Ils attemled bv considerable itell-ing. This r(I-1i Nvas similar M cliaracter to Iliat developed in the case of -No. 1, excel)t zt -; to locatimi, luid continued duriiig the following days, beincr vem- in'lhitim- oil the 5tli.7 especially after g0iiicr to bed. Oil Decembel. G palls W(To developed ill tile, reo-ion of the stomach lastin(r
throll(diout tile evellilig. ()it the -;econd dziy of the after period the rasli. be(ran to (leciease, but oil December 13 the, lower part of the flP).11 Nvas Still much irritated. Oil DecellIN't. 15 while the rash still Pe ed Y the in-itatimi liad almost ceased alid oil the last day of the
aftei pemod the ra.sh liad practically disappeared. These data, shmA.the irrilatill(r effect of t1le forllialdelivde lit the last part of the preservative peril, mid especially do tliev Indicate the tendeiiev of the preservative to develop a ras"ll. upon the body, which ill tlie case of \o. 7 Nvas extremely persistent.
NO. 8.
Ko. 8 entered upon the fore period in a nominal condition as to plitso, tvillperatilley and (ronenal bodily functions, which condition contillued Nvitliout clumo.( (ittr'iig tliv vliolv of tile fore period. On tlle second (lay of tll(' pl-eservative peril, tt slight. soreness of the throat Nvitli (it (fi-v and pai-cho(I feelliv- of tile faces is recorded, alid tile-'e sellsatimi- oil tile follmvillo. day. Durill(r tile
111"'llt, 0I' N()vcmbvi- 24Y -No. S Nvas seized Nvith severe paiiis ill the Itillibal. 1-wriml NvIlk-11 d1s;Tpeared oil flie folloNN-Mg day but, Ills t1irmit. was -0 1 mv "lild (11.y. Noniial comlitimis aj)pear to liave. been r,,cshtJ)1'.,lw(1 ()it N()vembei- 2G but mi tlio -tli there was a feeliiio- (4 ftilliics.- In tlio licad aii(I t1io t1iroat Nvas a(raili sore. aild Tll(- (, -,v1llj)to1ll1_1 W0111 less ill"ll-ke(I on flio folloNvilig (11-tv, but oil N()vc1lll)v1- :),() tit(, v 1,0 11mle(l \vitll 111ol'o fol-ce am l a. rasli (ICIVOlloped M I dW W 1101, .1_dde ()I* dle 1111(dis. 'I'll(, subject \vl.,. l'ostless (1111,111(r the
able 0) -,Icej), all(I kmll(l (liflicultv (1111-111(r tIlo day ill couceill l*at 111(f llis 111111(i lip(m stli(I v. 'I'lle P:ffl ls Ox.1)(11,1011Ced 11.1-c' do"cril)(A its I)v I I I a (11111 clull-actol, and accomi),aiiied by it. I'volim), of fulliless in t1le llca(l. A I'lel, cat 11141, seVel.0 1)"lill" devel(q)o(I ill tile" 111)(1m ilell \vlllcll 11mvevel'y lasti'd I'm. old v a (111211-tol. of all lioul'. Oil Decelliber 2) 111(mr1l ollIv 1)"111, tile allmullt ()I* P111SVI'vative sclie(lilled was takvil 0. v., OA 4rl-alll) flicl-v \vas sevel-v nalls(.21 likel. 1) I-eak f ast, tile appetite (11sappeal-e(l, 1111(l lit 11111cileml time tit(, sul)joct could not eat at





FORMALDEHYDE. 1305

all. Thirst with continued headache was experienced all day and there was more or less rash on the arms as well as on the legs. The administration of the preservative was discontinued on December 3 but nausea was nevertheless developed after breakfast and lasted for about one hour and a half, being attended with considerable vomiting. The condition of No. 8 was becoming abnormal and his further participation in the experiment was abandoned. Later he underwent a successful operation for appendicitis at a local hospital. The data for this subject are accordingly excluded from the summaries, his individual data being submitted as a matter of record.
No. 9.
The data for No. 9 are omitted, as he left the city before the period of observation was completed, and they are therefore of no value.
No. 10.
No. 10 entered the fore period with normal temperature and pulse and with no evident disturbance of any of the functions of the body. There was no change in this condition during the entire fore period. The temperature on November 22 was 98.30 and the pulse 67. This normal condition continued through the first and second subperiods of the preservative period, and not until December 3 did the subject report any abnormal symptoms. On that day severe pains of the character of neuralgia developed in his face, which continued on the 4th and became so severe on the 5th that No. 10 was compelled to go to bed during the latter part of the day. On the 6th he returned to the table feeling generally ill, with temperature slightly above normal, severe headache, pains in the back, soreness in the stomach, and nausea. Nine grainis of quinine were administered during the day. On the 7th the symptoms had somewhat improved, but the temperature was still slightly above normal at the beginning of the after period. The unfavorable symptoms, however, soon disappeared and normal conditions had returned by the middle of the after )eriod which were maintained to the end of the observation. The data in this case show a fair tolerance of the administration of formaldehyde until toward the end of the preservative period, when a sudden illness occurred and the symptoms which have been noted in the other cases-headache, soreness in the stomach, nausea, anId general malaise-were developed in a high degree. These symptoms, however, passed away rapidly after the withdrawal of the formiialdehyde.
0. II.
The functions of the body were entirely normal in the case of No, 11 at the beginning of the observation, the temperature being 9s.: and the pulse 74. These normal conditions continued without any
4542-Bull 4 pt v-1,






1306 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

notable change, except slight variations in temperature and pulse, throughout the whole of the fore period. On November 22, No. 11 entered the preservative period with a temperature of 98.60 and a pulse of 82. All of the other functions of the body were as before. No disturbance of any kind, except a slight decrease in temperature, were noticed in the case of No. 11 until November 29, when chilly sensations in the lower extremities are recorded. On the next day itching of the skin developed in addition to the chilly sensations and a sore throat is recorded. The temperature was normal but the pulse was slightly accelerated. On December 1 the subject felt a burning sensation on the chest and about the knees. The temperature was normal, but at 4.30 p. m. a severe dull and heavy pain in the region of the heart developed. There was also a slight disturbance of the digestion, with belching. On the following day it was difficult for the subject to eat breakfast and he had no appetite at all for dinner. There was slight nausea, also pain, and the itching sensation much like that reported in the other cases, but without marked development of coloration. There seemed to be distinct effects produced upon the heart by the administration of the preservative. The temperature was below normal and the itching and burning about the body continued during December 3, also the sensation of chilliness in the lower extremities. On Decemnber 4 the itching became more pronounced, especially after eating, the sensation of cold continued, and on the following day a burning in the throat and a dull headache were added to the other symptoms. The itching and burning continued on December 6, although coloration had disappeared, and the headache also persisted. No. 11 entered upon the after period with temperature and pulse normal but with continued itching and burning of the skin, though these symptoms were not so well marked on the first day of the after period as on the last day of the preservative period. On the second day the sensation of cold in the lower extremities had almost disappeared and the burning and(l itching, the symptoms of rash, were much less pronounced, and on December 9 they had practically ceased, although the subject reported a slight itching sensation about the hips. By December 11 there was no trace of the symptoms of rash left, although slight indigestion with fermentation and belching was reported on this day. The normal condition was restored on December 13 and no further symptoms were developed except that, on the last day, No. 11 became nauseated after eating the oysters of the diet, and this nausea was repeated to some extent on the following day. These data show a marked development of the itching and burning of the skin, more severe than in the other two cases, although the coloration was not so pronounced.






FORMALDEHYDE. 1307
No. 12.
No. 12 was in excellent physical condition at the beginning of the fore period, with temperature, pulse, and all the other functions of the body normal. This condition continued until early in the preservative period, when there appeared to be a slight depression of temperature. No symptoms of diagnostic value, however, were recorded until December 1, when marked pain in the intestines was experienced after dinner and continued till about midnight. On the third day thereafter, December 5, they recurred with greater intensity. Severe cramps in the stomach continued from 3.30 p. im. until midnight, especially on the right side of the stomach, and neuralgic pains developed in the face and head. On December 6 pains were experienced throughout the abdominal region, and on the next day, which was the beginning of the after period, the subject suffered from pain in the region of the kidneys. Restlessness, insomnia, and an itching sensation in the legs were recorded for the night of December 8, but these symptoms disappeared on the following day, and from this time until the end of the observation the subject was entirely normal. The data in this case show a considerable disturl)ance developed by the administration of the formaldehyde in the latter part of the preservative period manifested chiefly by abdominal pain, and during the after period as an itching sensation of the skin, recalling the itching sensation and rash experienced by the three other subjects during the administration of the formaldehyde.
DISCUSSION OF TEMPERATURE CHART.
The variations of temperature are a matter of special importance in this case inasmuch as there appears to be a tendency on the part of the preservative to depress the temperature of the body. This is shown in figs. 1 and 2, in which the variations in temperature from day to day are recorded for the three periods and also the average temperature for each period, represented as a straight line, in Worder to secure a better copil)arison. Though the average decrease is slight, the effect indicated is of interest and the )roblem ipresented will be further studied.
In th e cse of Nos. 1 and 3 Ionly is there a slight illcea.s in t11lperature in thie preservative and after p1)eriods, while N4. 11 shosm\ no change thlroughoultit, and No. 10 no decrease until the after period Nos. 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and( 12 show a decrease illn temperaturie in tihe preservative period, and in tihe cases of Nos. 6, 7. and 10 the decrease is augmented in tIhe after period. IThe summary for Nos,. 1 to 6 shows an average decrease in tellilmperature of 0.30 in the preservative period and an increase of (0.1 inll the after period over the preservative period. The summary fotr Nos. 7, 10, 11, and 12 shows a de-








1308 INFLTJENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


NOVEMBERDCCMBER 12 L3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 23 24 25 2627 28 29 3& '12 34 5689ii12 0141

86'T














































-F -=T= -__ -L 1 7


49v V -


F OEPRO ~ ~ 'y ~O

Fm. I~llyatidavtr~g~tciipi~rtur~ rtvordforS~rh8 IX so. 1 ...........ary






FOR-MALDEHYDE. 1309

crease of 0).10 in the preservative period and a further- decrease 4 0.2' in the after period,, the general summary for all the Individuals NOVEMBER E C EBR
T-1Z 0 141516 17 18 9 2 1 23 4 25 2627 6293 2 4 5 68 e '0111 3 14 i5 i6 7



zzzjzzft



97H-.


.....I...
71ii















IT





~ndsum ar, tgeteri~ t~ Th $ I1wn) I I I~ Idrv n
giving~~ I decrease IRf 7-0-1212 inte1jroladn ute
chng in.... .h .......riod





1310 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.
CONCLUSIONS.
A general survey of the medical and clinical history shows that for about eight or ten days no abnormal symptoms of note were produced by the administration of formaldehyde. During the third preservative subperiod, however, pain in the stomach and intestines, often attended by cramps and sometimes by nausea and vomiting, occurred in all but two cases. In four cases out of eleven there appeared a well-marked rash on the chest and thighs, attended by itching and great discomfort. In a fifth case slight symptoms of this nature are recorded. The general symptoms, therefore, are headache and abdominal pains, while the tendency to lower the temperature is a minor symptom, and the development of a rash, though marked, occurs in only about half of the cases.
BODY WEIGHTS.
VARIATIONS IN BODY WEIGHTS.
Charts have been constructed (figs. 3 and 4) in which the daily variations of weight are recorded for each individual, the mean weight for each period being indicated by a straight line for the easier comparison of the effect produced in the three periods. Summaries for the men receiving the preservative under the same conditions are also given and a general summary for the entire series.
In the case of No. 1, it is seen that there is practically no change in the weight of the body throughout the observation, the total increase being negligible, i. e., 0.23 kilogram, or about one-half pound (luring a period of five weeks. The data for No. 2 show a very slight decrease in weight during the preservative period, and this decreasee is repeated in the after period. The total decrease amounts to about 1 kilogram.
In the case of No. 3 there is again a decrease in weight of about half a kilogram during the preservative period, with practically no further change, as compared with the average, in the after period, the total average decrease in weight amounting to only 0.66 kilogram. The data for No. 4 show a negligible decrease in weight during the preservative period, there being practically no change. In the case of No. 5 there is a very slight increase in weight during the preservative period( (0.18 kilogram), and this increase is repeated (during the after perio(l, the entire average gain amounting only to
0.29 kilo(ram.
In the case of No. 6 there is a slight decrease in weight during the preservative period of 0.58 kilogrami which is practically restored during the after period, The data for No. 7 show marked daily variations in weight (luring the preservative period, the average loss being only 0.17 kilogram, while a decided loss of weight takes






FORMALDEHYDE. 1311

NOVE MBER DECEMErR
A_ _ ~
NI







69N9







r0 m-. m No. 6





0




N96
-Q -- _i
m --- LT~ ISUMMARYN0 6F FVJT TI
F0"rvAMAY 0LCE IN MILK IMMEDIATELY BEOE TAKING




L EGEFf1 IUJY


Yao. 3. Iailly afnd lkverligv body woighlti bor scric, I X, Nu# It ad~na






1312 INFLUE-NCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

NOVEMBER ECEMBER




t* -) 1 % m m

N4- - N -.N 'N" tot-4) D()
N07O










4

56
68--- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ NI 10- - - -- - - -






P I OR tA







F m u m m aN% m

FORE P~0eODFmumm :hi _______ __;E-mm_ __ __ __

56 l n oy egt O $ad9 ~
6 8m a y t o e r w i h t e g e e a u m a y f r th e e tir e i s






FORMALDEHYDE. 1313

place during the after period, aniountin(r to 1.15 kilograiiis, zis C0111pared with the preservative perio(L
The data for -No. 8 are not charted, as the subject was (JAI(red to withdraw from the experii-lient, by reason of illness (at tit(, be(rillninCt
of the third preservative subperRA; jjo-)tNN-*tljSt jIj(j'lj(r tit, I I is ;i it average gain of weight, aniountino, to 1.12 kilograiiis 1 r(.,c()r(1e(1 for the preservative period.
The data for 'No. 9, are not charte(l, as he left the cIt y bef()i-e tit(, conclusion of the experiinei-it. '_V). 10 slioNN-s a (lecrVIls(I III N -( *(rjlt
during the preservatix-e period of half a kilognaiii, aii(] dils decreasee is increase(I luringo, the after peril, tile total avenue ing to 1.32 kilograins.
No. 11 shows a marked increase of weiglit in tbe
period (almost I kilograiii) an(l anotlier ii-tcrease (d liell-I N- ]I-Ilf ,I
kilogram ill the after perlo(l. -No. 12, 4)11 tile (olier juiwll shmv.- a decrease of about half a k1lo(rraIjI ill tit(, 2
still further decrease of OJII 1xilograiii lit tit(, aftel, P(Timl.
Though the individtial (lata vary, ,-;oiiie *11(r *Ill(
decreasin(y in wei(rht, the average N\ eiglit for Xos. I to f f()t- t1te
three periods shoNN-s a Sl*(rllt increasee, ainotuitilltr ()Illy to 0.2- k1bigram during the preservati,%-e perlml, Nvlille Iliere 1'1_ practically Iw
further change ill the after perlml. riiese (iata are f"], t1h, .1-1kilderts
to whoiti the forinal(lel-ty(le N\-as (),IN-en iiiiiiie(liately after 1111xillr. it with the milk.
In the general st-iiiiiiiary for Nos. 7, M, 11, ,iiid 12 (wli() t(i()k
nlilk wbich lia(l been preserve(i i\-Itli foniitil(lell N-(Ie f(il, t\\'( (IAYS the average N\-ej(rlIts sit()\\- -I (jeo--l-(,.l ,e (Jill-III(y- tit(, 1)IcseIN-,11ivv lwnf)(l so slight as to bV PracticlIfly :I
in the after p( rio(l aIljt)jIIjtjIjtr to lialf a kllwrraiii. The r(,ll(q*,ll averacre of -.\()s. I to 12, iiichisl\-e (excew1wr No-,. S alld 9 ,
slicylit, prwrressiN-e 1().ss ()f \\-el(rht Ill tit(, 1)IvSVIV41tIV(1 411141 :Iher perio(is. "Flic, gnijAile cli,-irt, 1livi-ef()n,, M (11(14110S "I tell(lelic 4)11 Ille part of tlie preset'N',-itIN-e, \\-hethet- :l(1IlI1IIIs1vI*c(1 frvsh ()I. llN(ld A-Ifter standiii(y III colit2ict \\-Itll tit(, 11111k 1,()I. \--vlilrht JIM 11's, ti) P1,q)(111ce a Slight loss 44 Ill 111c PCIAMI, alill this 111thiclice
colitilitles (1111,111(r tit(' aftel, 1)(111(ml.
RATIO OF FOOD WEIGHT TO BODY WEIGHT.
(rI\-(qI tjl( \\ I-Prjlj ()f Jill,
of liloist all(I (]I.\- f(iml c(illsilille(l, :111(l ille hitter, ltfIWIpercew it(re of 6 )(1y \\-elglit. G iiiiiiiiiir die (IPciis 'Iitill 1() till, dr\
fo()(1, it IS SVVIl Ill tit(, Cli.,.;e 44 V i. I thitt tit(, 1,10 11) fM (111ch 1)(11,14"1 is 0.92 i)er ceiitiiji(I tit(, iibs()11I1(. (illikiltitV 4 (11,V fo"(l W1111111l'-fervil (1111-ill(r tjj(, q, is 111SO tjj' 1.-)'2:)
en lit, iiaiiicl.v -7).
allot .522 trj, Ijljs 411111\-.





1314 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

The data for No. 2 show also an almost constant ratio (0.90) and but slight variation in the dry food consumed (610, 618, and 609 grais daly for the three periods, respectively).
No. 3 shows also an almost constant ratio of 0.92, with scarcely any variation in the quantity of dry food consumed (from 636 to 639 grams daily).
In the case of No. 4 the ratio is again practically constant (about 0.89). The quantity of dry food administered increases 10 grams per day in the preservative period, and there is practically no further change in the after period.
In the case of No. 5 the ratio is larger than in any of the preceding cases, amounting to 1.08 in the fore and preservative periods, and 1.05 in the after period. The quantity of dry food is slightly less in the after period than in the preservative period (12 grams daily), but there is no important variation.
The data for No. 6 show an almost constant ratio (1.02) and that the weight of the food was practically the same in the fore and preservative periods, but increased 10 grams daily in the after period.
In the case of No. 7 the ratio is practically unchanged throughout, averaging 0.94. The quantity of dry food administered is almost identical in all the periods and amounts to 608 grams daily in the
preservative period.
In the case of No. 8 the largest ratio indicated in the'series is given, namely, 1.29, but the data for the after period are lacking, as the subject was so ill that he left the table at the beginning of the third preservative subperiod. The quantity of dry food administered varies little between the two periods (708 and 714 grams daily, respectively).
In the case of No. 10 the ratio diminishes slightly in the preservative period and was increased in the after period, the figures being 0.95, 0.92, and 0.99 for the three periods, respectively. The weight of dry food diminished 26 grams daily in the preservative period and is increased in the after period to an amount exceeding by 9 grams that of the fore period, amounting to 608 grams. These variations are not of a magnitude to be of great importance.
The ratio in the case in No. 11 is practically constant for the three periods (1.12), and the quantity of dry food administered is also quite constant, increasing 9 grams in the preservative period and amounting to 641 grams.
In the case of No. 12 the ratio is practically constant for the three periods (0.98), and the quantity of dry food administered varies only
6 grams, amounting to 659 grams in the preservative period.
Summaries are given for Nos. 1 to 6, who received formaldehyde directly after it was added to the milk, and for Nos. 7, 10, 11, and 12, who took milk that had been preserved for two days; a general







FORMALDEHYDE. 1315


summary is also given. It will be noticed in the summary of Nos. 1 to 6 that the ratio is 0.95 during the preservative period and 0.94 in the fore and after periods. In the case of Nos. 7, 10, 11, and 12 the
ratio in the fore and preservative periods is 0.99 and in the after period 1.00. The general summary shows that there is no difference in the ratios for the fore and preservative periods (0.96), and the increase of 0.01 per cent in the after period is negligible. It is evident from these data that there has been no measurable effect produced upon the ratio of the weight of the body to the weight of the food consumed by reason of the administration of the preservative.

TABLE II I.-Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body weight, Series IX.

[Averages are per day.]

No.1. No. 2.

Average daily Average daily
ratio of food ratio of food
Period. w3ody Weight of food.weight to Body weight of food. right to
weight. body weight. weight. body weight.
Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. 1)Dry. Moist. Dry.

Fore period.
First subperiod: Kilos. Grams. Grams. P. ct. P. ct. Kilos. Grams. Grams. P. ct. P. ct.
Tota. .... ..... 283.94 12,099 2,595 4.26 0.91 344.51 14,121 2, 992 4.24 0.7
Average.......... 5.79 2,420 519 ....... .....s.90 2,924 58..........
Second subperiod:
Total ............. 283. 55 12,218 2,634 4.31 .93 344. 39 15,0 3 10 4. 38 90
Average ......... 56.71 2,444 527 ....... 3,7 ....... 88 3017 21

Entire fore period:
Total ............ 517.49 24,317 5,229 4.29 .92 68.90 29,707 t~.7 4. .1
Average.......... 56. 75 2,432 523 .............. t s.89 2,971 .....
Presertative period.

First subporiod:
Total............. 284.04 12,519 2,60 4.41 .95 343.18 15,84 3, 184 4.1 .
Average .......... 56.81 2,504 538 ,S.............. I6& .4 3,1 w;* ....... ...
Second subperiod:
Total ........ 283.78 12,535 2,555 4.42 .90 342..94 1 t 2 990 4, .
Average ..... 56 2,507 ....... t. 51 3371 ......
Third subperiod:
Total. ..... 284.31 14,61 2,636 5.16 .93 340.7t 15.353 3,1110 4 31 .91

Entire pn ervativ~
period:
Total ............. 852.13 39,71 7,881 4.66 .9 2 1,t0t4 42,034 9,274 4 .9o
Average........ 2,t4 .......... 4 3, 'l
After period.
First subperiod:
Tota............285.10 13500 2,1to 4.74 .02 3140. 1
Average.......... 57.02 2,700 52 ,.... ..... I 13 3313 I
Second su bperiod:
Total ............. 284.17 12,1l 2,585 4.40 .91 t,1 477
Average......... !0.93 2 5lilOi 517 ........... 7N 3. 1l

Entire after period:
Total.....5..... W).77 $1, l 5,215 4.I i4 l) ,u .Ct 4Lt 1
Average........ 2,i 52 .. -I.91 ',. 14








1316 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE Ill.-Amnottn of toist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body
weight, Series LX-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 3. No. 4.

Average daily Average daily
Period. 1Weight of ratio of food Weight of food. rtio of foo
Body weight to Body weight to
weight. body weight. weight. body weights

Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry.

Fore period.

First subperiod: Kilos. Grams. Grams. P. ct. P. ct. Kilos. Grams. Grams. P. ct. P. ct.
Total.............3.51.x2 13,434 3,164 3.82 0.90 356.56 12,908 3,062 3.62 0.8i
k(erage.......... 70.36 2, ix7 633 ....... ....... 71.31 2,582 612
Second subperiodl:
Total......... 349.5 13,432 3,198 3.84 91 355.49 13,613 3,190 3.83 .90
Lyerage........... (19 91 2,Iixti (40 .-..... ....... 71.10 2,723 638 ...- ..

En1ire fore period:
Total............701.38 2B,8tl 6,362 3.83 .91 712.05 26,521 6,252 3.72 .88
Average........... .14 2,1iS7 636 ....... ....... 71.21 2,652 625............

Pr's r alier p riod.

First subporiod:
Total......... .317.79 13,341 3,242 3.84 .93 355.52 13,6A4 3,226 3.85 .91
Average..........9.6i 2,Gi8 648 ............ 71 10 2,737 45.
Second suhperiod:
Total............ 348.21 13,725 3,091 3.94 .89 356.45 13,245 3,071 3.72 .86
Average........... 19.6(4 2,745 i18 -.- ...... 71.29 2,649 614 ..............
Third sublxperiod;
Total............ 347.5 13,500 3,25 3.88 .94 355.96 13,761 3,227 3.87 .91
Alverage.......... (19.51 2,700 651 ....... ......71.19 2,752 645 .......

Entire preservativ
pr iod:
Total..... .. 1,043.s 40,5()G 9,589 3.89 .92 1,0617.93 40,690 9,524 3 81 .89
Aver1g7..... .......957 2,704 639 ....... ....... 71. 19 2,713 635 ..............

After period.

First suhporiod:
Total ............346.(4 14.030 3,192 4.05 .92 35.5.53 12,813 3,166 3.(60 .89
Average 6ge 69.33 2 806 138 ....... ....... 71.10 2,53 633 ....... .......
second subperiod:
Total............. 348. 11 13,68 3,167 3.93 .91 355.22 13,328 3,139 3.75 .88
Average...... .....9.t52 2,734 6 33........ ......71.04 2,66i 628

Entire after period:
Total. ....... 694.75 27,698 6,359 3. 99 92 710.75 26,141 6,305 3.c8 .89
A r ... ... 9.48 2,770 63... 71.08 2,6G14 6 1








FORMALDEHYDE. 1317


TABLE III.-Amount of moist and dry food contsurnid, expre ssed as pe~rcetae o:/ of' weight, SerieVs IX-o'(ntinu*A(.

[ve rage s a re per day.]

No. 5. c'N. 6i.

Average daily 1, 1~g dilyv
Period. Wegtofo.ratio(of food) We~ighit (,f fo. raiiof oo
wevight to Bod w'ihtt
weight. body weight- w bdy tgiht

Moist. Dry. Moist. D~ry. MoI-t. Dr. Mit ry

Fore period.

First subperiod. Kilos. 'Grains. G ramIns. 1P. cf. P. 1. ils Grams. Grain.P 1 .t
Toa ------ 271. 75 12,874 2,93 1 4. 74 1. 0% 217. "2 11,1A4 3 oIPJj 1O
Avea e 54-.35 2, 575 586',.5 2,32 o
Seond subperiodTota............. 272. 65 12,2-20 2,92S 4.4 1.L07 197t! 121 'l4 2,97 7 4.14 .0
Average...........54'.5 2,444 .5's,......... .....5 5)1 2.t J1-%

Etiefore pe-riod:
Toal .........J 54A4. 40 25,094 -5,859 4. 11 1.0 WI .15, 1 21),12 ,i 4o 11
*Ave rag .......... A4.44 2,509) 586 ....... ....... 59.5 2N I

Preeri'atie period.

First aulperiod:
Total ........ 272,.20 12,794 2,9,84 4. 70 L. 10) 194. 1,75.1,4 44
A ve rag......,... 54. 44 2, 5590 597 11.......~ 2 2,59
Second subperlod:
Total............. 273. 77 12,8125 2.,s7-3 4.69 1.05 295. 14 11 's4l 2,92 1 99q
Avrage .......... 54. 7 5 2.5615 -5. .......J 3 2:t ss
Third suhperiod:
Total.I........... 273. 30 12,570 2,9804 4.4#10 1.09 241 1" 12, 224 ,4 4 1.1 ,
Average....... .... 5 A.61 2 514 5941i ...... . I '.99A 2,445 1:1

Entire 1 preservutl t
pe riod: 2~ .lI 1 ..7 1.3~90. ,1. 10
Total ............ 819.27 3s,1Is9 8 7 .. 1) 1.11 1 1

Afler period.

First aultperiod:
Tota............. 273.960 12,38 3 2,92.1, 5 10 2 971 12,11i~7 42 1 04
A verafe....... 54. 79 2, 477 5 ......... 59.3 2.52 1'1'
S(.ondsuhiperiod:.
Total...... 273- 31 12,752 2.,42 '.17 I 14 29, 49 I15 I,1 I fit/ 0
A Nverge. ... ;A. A' 2,,-J ) .......... "r 2,I

Entire atfto-r period. 1
Toit,,lI............. 5)47. 27 2 5, 137 i"i 4.9 10 eth 2,K I1 4T 11
A vcrg ......... 54, 73 2,5.,141 77 .......... 5945 2 I







1318 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE III-Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body weight, Series IX-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 7. No. 8.
Average daily Average daily
ratio of food Weight of food, ratio of food
PeodBody Weight of food weight to Body weight to
weight, body weight. weight. body weight.
Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry.

Fore period.
First subperiod: Kilos. Grams. Grams. P. ct. P. ct. Kilos. Grams. Grams. P. ci. P. cl.
Total ............ 323.85 9,709 3,013 3.00 0. 93 272.44 13,869 3,523 5.09 1.29
Average ......... 64.77 1,942 603.............. 54.49 2,774 705............
Second subpertod:
Total ............ 32&79 12,739 3,041 3.91 .93 274.59 14,087 3,W 5.13 1.29
Average ......... .65. 16 2,548 608 ............. 54.92 2,817 711...........
Entire fore period:
Total ........... 649. 64 22,448 6,054 3.46 .93 547.03 27,956 7,076 5.11 1.29
Average ......... 64.96 2,245 605 .............. 54.70 2,796 708. .........
J'reseritive period.
First subperiod:
Total ............ 324. 98 12,838 3,127 3.95 .96 278 66 14,214 3,606 5.10 1.29
Average .......... 64.99 2,568 625 ....... ....... 55.73 2,843 721............
Second su period:
Total ............ 325.31 12,495 2,949 3.84 .91 279.50 13,945 3,534 4. 99 1.26
Average ...........65.06 2,499 590 .............. 590 2,789 707
Third suhperiod:
Total ............ 321.56 12,614 3,047 3.92 .95 ............................. ....
Average ...........64.31 2,523 609 ........................................ ......
Entire preservative
Period:
Total ............. 971.85 37,947 9,123 3.90 .94 558.16 28,159 7,140 5.04 1.28
Average .......... 64.79 2,530 608 .............. 55.82 2,816 714 ............
After period.
First subperiod:
Tota I............. 319.40 12.817 33. 6 4.01 .95 ....................... .............
A .e ........... 63. 8 2,17 60 ...... ....... ...........................
SecondI su )perlod:
Total ............ 317.01 12,701 2,983 4.01 .94 ..................................
Average .......... 3. 40 2,540 597 ....................................... ......

Entire after priod:
Total ............636 41 25,518 6019 4.01 .9.5 ......
Average .......... W.64 2,552 602 ....................... ........ ..... ......







FORMALDEHYDE. 1319


TABLE 11.-Amount of moist and dry Jood consumed, expressed as percentage of body weight, Series IX-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 10. No. I1.

Average daily Average daily
Period. Weight of food. ratio of food Weight of food ratio of foot
Body weight to Body weight to
weight. body weight. weight. body weight.

Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry.

Fore period.
First subperiod: Klos. Grams. Grams. P. ct. P. ct. Kilos. Grams. Grams. P. rt. P1. t.
Total............ 315.87 13,622 2,946 4.31 0.93 280.95 14,343 3,107 5.11 1.11
Average.......... 63.17 2,724 589 ....... ....... 19 2, 869 621 ......
Seco-d subperiod:
Total............. 313.49 14,053 3,041 4.48 .97 2s3.3. 14,294 3,213 5.04 1.13
Average.......... 62 69 2,811 608 .............. -6.67 2,9 643............

Entire fore period.
Total ............ 629.36 27,675 5,987 4.40 .95 564.33 28, 637 6,320 5.07 1.12
Average......... 62.94 2,768 599 .............. 6.43 2, 4 632 ......

Preservative period.

First subperiod:
Total............ 313.98 13,785 3,129 39 99 2. 8s 14,0.t 3, 4 4.93 1.16
Average.......... 62.79 2,757 626 .............. .97 2,,11 59 .
Second subperiod:
Total............. 312.06 13,695 2,964 4.39 .95 26. 14,170 3, 110 4.6 1.09
Average .......... 62.41 2,739 593 .............57.30 2, 834 622
Third subperiod:
Total ............ 310.50 11,664 2,509 3.76 .81 286.96 13 3,213 4.84 1.12
Average ..... 62.10 2,333 502 .............. 57.39 2,779 64 ..... ....

Entire preservative
period:
Total............. 936.54 39,144 8,602 4.18 .92 8.34 42,121 9,617 4.91 1.12
Averag .......... 62.44 2,610 573 .............. 57.22 2,1S 641 .

After period.
First sub period:
Total............. 309.11 13,515 3,053 437 .99 288.70 14, 0 3,176 4. 1.10
Avera .......... 61.K2 2,703 611 ....... 5...... 7.74 2,517 6 .. .
Second subperiod:
Total............. 307.08 13, 317 3, 027 4.34 99 9.36 14,25 3, 11-5 4. A3 1. 09j
Average.......... 61.41 2, 663 ) ... ...... 57.87 2, 1 633.
Entire after period:
Total . . . . . . 616.19 26,832 6,80 4.35 .99 578.06 28,340 6,341 4.90 1.10
Averae .......... 61. 62 2,6 i3 60 ....... 57.81 2,,34 634








1320 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE 111.-AmoUnt of moist and dry food consumed, crpressed as Percentage of body weight, Series IX-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 12.

Average daily ratio
eri. Body eight of food. of food weight to
oeigt. body weight.
Moist. Dry. Moist, Dry.

Fore pe riod.
First subperiod. Kilos. Grams. Grams, Per cent. Per cent.
Total................ ...................... 339.15 13,872 3,314 4.09 0.98
Aver ....................................... .. 67.83 2,774 663 .......... ..........
Second subperiod:
Total........................................... 337.81 14,243 3,316 4. .98
Average........................................ 67.56 2,-49 663 ..... .......

Entire fore period.
Total............... 676.96 28,113 6,630 4.15 .98
Average .................................. 67.70 2.812 663

Pre ratire peril.

First subierod.
Total...................... .............. 33.07 14,769 3,365 4.37 1.00
Average.......................................6 2,954 673
Second subperiod:
Total........................... ............... 335.96 14,395 3,209 4.28 .96
average ...................................... 67.19 2,679 642 .......... ..........
Third suqwriod:
Total........................................... 335.08 13,926 3,312 4.12 99
A verage... .................. .................. 67.01 2.783 662 .-- .....- -...-...-Entire preservative perioi1:
Total............... ..................... 1009.11 43,090 9,886 4.27 .98
Average.................... .................. 67.27 2.873 659 ..........

Aftrrp r re!.
First subperiod:
Total....................... ............. 333.77 14,995 3,286 4.49 .Q8
Averae............. ...................... 66.75 2,999 657
Weion subhperiod:
Total...................................... 332.78 13,280 3,284 4.59 .99
Average........................... ......... 66 5 3,056 657 ..........

Entire aftcr period:
Total........................ ............ 66.5 30,275 6,570 4.1347
Jove~rage ........................................ 66. 66 3,0Q26 657 .. . ... . .








FORMTALDE HYDE. 1321


T~ABLE IIlL-Amount of moist and dry food cnu ed, epressed as percetage of body
weight, Series IX-Co(-ntinuediI SUMMARIES.
[Averages are per man pe-r dauy.]

Nos I to to N os. 7. 10,. 11, a nd 12.

-k~~f~mI9P (lAver n t il %
Period. BoyWeighit (of food. weit to od Wegh f((i wight tu ~oo
Weight.hody weight. wegh'ody eiht

Moi St. Dry. -NIoist. 1)ry. I)~t Dry., Mois.t, Dry

Fore period.
First subperiod: Kio.G m.Gu..1'ct.1. .
Totl 1, 906.50 A 77,5)5-0 17, 706 1,2, .4,I......... .,5>25,4 2sM
Av rg ..... 63.55, 2,C N5 .-),,2 4.07 0. 93 77A~ f:, 1,4 4.9 0AIJTotal 10.3.8S8 S,32.........~. 1,2900.47 55,329 122.1.2fs4-;47
Average .......... M34 ,2J C0 4. 14 ,j 30 ,6 J .9 l

Entire fore period:
Total ......... 3,809.3 156,433 353,795. .... ...,.... 2,.-)0. 29 Pit', 3 24, si ........
Average........ 6 3.50) 2,60 1 5 97 4.11 .94 63. 01 2,.2 2 4. 24

Preseruative perriod.

First subperiod: 11,6,11,1

Avre..... 6>3.24 2, 705 6 12 42-, 97 t63.10) 2,772 47 1 r4..

Total ............. 1, 899.8 81,02I.(C5 17,504 1...,., 12598 4751,3
Average ......,.. 63.33i 2.701 58 4. 21 i o2 612.9 2. 73- 012 4 5~
Third subperiod:
Total ----------- 1, 896i.898S2,6 18,Pt I248...........254.1) 5-2.,199 12.- -- ---Average .......... 63. 23 2, 736 b(1$ 4, 33 ;96 62701 2t0 614 4. 15
Entire preservative
period:I

Average .......... 63. 27 2,7-14 601 4.2 495 293 2,705L- t2 141 J l

After period.


Fiost subperod:
Total ............. 1,072 79,96 1,7 Wo,.......,... 1,246 .3 "I,% 5'I3 12,459
Average .......... 63.2 2,66 593 4.21:06.1 27> 63 44 M


Entire after period:
Total ------------ 3, 79', 10 161, 765 V, 41 -.. .. 2,447.21 1110,96 25,010
Averag .......... 63.27 2.6 9 4.2 .9i 4 123 2,74,2 4.4


4Ci429-BulI 8'-4, lit S--







1322 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE 11.-Amount of moist and dry food consumed, expressed as percentage of body weight, Series IX-Continued.

SUMMARIES-Continued.

[Averages are per man per day.]

Nos. 1, 2 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, U11, and 12.

Average daily raPeriod. Body Weight of food. tio of food weight
Bod weight to body weight.
wveighit.
Moist. Dry. Moist. Dry.

Fore period.
First subperiod: Kilos. Grams. Grams. Per cent. Per cent.
Total ......................................3,166.32 129,096 30,143 .......... ......
Average .... ..............................63.33 2,582 603 4.08 0.95
Second subperiod:.
Total.......................................... 3,163.80 134,212 30,643 .......... ..........
Average ....................................... 63.28 2,684 613 4.24 .97
Entire foro period:
Total...................................... 6,330.12 263,308 60,786 ....................
Average....................................... 63.30 2,633 608 4.16 .96
Preservative period.
First subperiod:
Total.......................................... 3,159.24 136,607 31,281 ....................
Average....................................... 63.18 2,732 626 4.32 .99
Second subperiod:
Total........................................... 3,159.72 135,780 29,736 ...................
Average........................................ 63.19 2,716 595 4.30 .94
Third subperiod:
Total......... .................................. 3,150.99 134,168 30,329 ...................
Average....................................... 63.02 2,683 607 4.26 .96
Entire preservative period:
Tr tal........................................... 9,469.95 406, 555 91,346 .......... ..........
Average ...................................... 63.13 2,710 609 4.29 .96
After period.
First subperiod:
Total.......................................... 3,149.85 137,213 30,619
Average........................................ 63.00 2,744 612 4.36 .97
Second subperiod:
Total.......................................... 3,143.46 135,517 30,240 .. .. ......
Average ....................................... 62.87 2,710 605 4.31 .96
Entire after period:
Total......................................... 6, 293. 31 272,730 60, &59 ..................
Average........................................ 62.93 2,727 609 4.33 .97



WEIGHT AND WATER CONTENT OF THE FECES.

INDIVIDUAL DATA.

In Table IV are found the data relating to the weight and water
content of the feces for Series IX. The weight of moist feces diminishes 3 grains daily in the preservative period in the case of No. 1 and
in the after period it is increased 15 grams, exceeding the amount in
the fore period. The percentage of water is very slightly decreased
in the preservative period and remains practically the same in the
after period. The weight of the dTry feces is the same in the fore and
preservative periods, but is increased 3 grams in the after period. In
this case the decrease in the preservative period is due solely to the
moisture but in the after period the increase is due to dry material.






FORMALDEHYDE. 1323

In the case of No. 2 there is a slight diminution in the weight of the moist feces in the preservative period and a marked loss in the after period, the figures being 99, 93, and 73 grams daily for the three periods, respectively. This is chiefly due to the decrease in the content of moisture, which diminished about 2 per cent both in the fore and after periods. The quantity of dry feces is very slightly increased in the preservative period and is notably less in the after period, namely, 4 grams daily. The data for the after period for No. 2 show an opposite tendency as compared with those for No. 1.
The figures for No. 3 show that the quantity of moist feces is notably increased both in the preservative and after period, and this is due to the increase in the percentage of moisture, as the amount of dry feces is slightly less in the preservative period (1 gram) but is notably increased in the after period (4 grams).
No. 4 shows a very large increase in the amount of moist feces in the preservative period (42 grams), and this increase is practically maintained in the after period. The quantity of moisture is markedly greater in the preservative period (5.5 per cent), and decreases in the after period to a figure midway between the figures for the fore and preservative periods. The weight of dry matter increases by
3 grams daily in both the preservative and after periods.
In the case of No. 5 the data show a decrease in the moist feces in the preservative period of 22 grams daily, and another decrease of 12 grams in the after period.. This decrease in weight is attended by a decrease in the percentage of moisture in the feces of about 4 and 1.4 per cent for the two periods, respectively. There is only a decrease of 1 gram daily in the weight of the dry feces in the prese-rvative period, but a further loss in the after period of 2 grams daily. It is seen, therefore, that the decrease in moisture is the most marked effect.
In the case of No. 6, the moist feces are considerably increased in weight during the preservative period (17 grams daily) and dimiinished in the after period by 39 gramins. There is a correspondingly large increase in the percentage of moisture in the feces in the preservative period, namely, 6 per cent, and a decrease of about 4-1 per cent in the after period. The dry matter in thle feces is diminished notably in the preservative period (5 grams daily), and in the after period an additional loss of 2 grams takes place. The increase, therefore, is seen to be due entirely to the increase in moisture.
In the case of No. 7 there is a diminution in the weight of the moist feces which is very marked both in the preservative and after periods, amounting to 16 and 13 grams, respectively. There is a slight increase of water in the feces during those two periods (about 2 per cent in the preservative period), and a notable decrease of dry matter, amounting to 6 and 3 grams daily, for the preservative and after






1324 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

periods, respectively. In this case, the decreased excretion is due solely to the decrease in solids.
The data for No. 8 afford only a partial comparison by of
the omission of the third preservative subperiod and the whole of the after period. There is an increase in the moist feces in the pr rvative period, amounting to 10 grams daily, while the weight of dry feces remains unchanged. As would be expected the of
water is increased about 1 per cent.
The data for No. 10 show a decrease in the moist feces in the preservative period, amounting to 9 grams daily, and a marked increase in the after period of 19 grams. The percentage of moisture in the feces does not vary greatly for the three periods, decreasing slightly in the preservative period and increasing about 1 per cent, as compared with the fore period, in the after period. The dry feces are 2 grams less daily in the preservative period and slightly greater (1 gram) in the after period than in the fore period. In this case the decreased excretion is due both to the moisture and the solids, and the increase in the after period is also to be attributed to both sources.
In the case of No. 11 there is noted a marked loss in the weight of moist feces in the preservative period, amounting to 32 grams daily, attended by a decrease in the percentage of moisture of about 5 per cent. The solids or dry matter in the feces also decreased 2 grams per (lay. These conditions are partially overcome in the after period, the moist feces and percentage of moisture increasing but not regaining the figures of the fore period. There is, however, a larger excretion of dry feces in the after period than in the fore period.
In the case of No. 12 there is a marked loss in the weight of the moist feces (24 grams) and also in the percentage of moisture (2 per cent) in the preservative period, and this decrease is even more striking in the after period, a loss of 43 grams in moist feces being recorded. There is little difference in the weight of dry feces in the fore and preservative periods, but in the after period a loss of 7 grams daily is shown, indicating in this case that the decrease is due both to the moisture and the solids.
SUMMARIES S.
In the summary for Nos. 1 to 6, inclusive, "who received formaldehyde added to milk immediately before it was drunk, results show a slight increase in the weight of the moist feces (7 grams daily), and an increase of about 2 per cent in the percentage of water in the proservative period. There is a slight decrease in the weight of dry feces, amounting to I gram per day. The data for the after period are almost the same as those for the fore period. In this case it is seen that the increased excretion is due entirely to increase in moisture






FORMALDEHYDE. 1325

and that the conditions of the fore period are reestablished in the after period.
In the summary for Nos. 7, 10, 11, and 12, who took milk that had been preserved for two days with formaldehyde, the quantity of moist feces is notably diminished during the preservative period (20 grams per day) and the moisture therein decreases 1.56 per cent. This diminution in quantity is continued in the after period to a modified degree (5 grams per day), while there is but little change in the percentage of moisture between the after and the preservative periods. The quantity of dry feces is notably decreased both in the preservative and in the after period, the total average decrease amounting to 4 grams per day. In this case, both solids and moisture content are decreased in the preservative period and the effect is continued in the after period.
A comparison of these two summaries would seem to indicate that the formaldehyde when administered immediately after adding to milk has a less disturbing effect upon the quantity and water content of the feces than that which has stood for forty-eight hours. In the latter case there seems to be a marked tendency to decrease the quantity of both the moist and dry feces excreted, which effect is continued in the after period.
The average data for all the members of the table as given in the third summary show a slight decrease in the quantity of moist feces in the preservative period of 4 grams daily, and a further decrease of 5 grams in the after period. The moisture in the feces shows less than 1 per cent of change during the three periods, being slightly increased in the preservative period. There is a general tendency to decrease the quantity of dry feces excreted, a d(iminution of 2 gramsis per day taking place in the preservative period, while the figures for the after and preservative periods are the same. The general conclusion, therefore, to be drawn is that there is a slightly disturbing effect upon the character of the feces produced by the formaldehyde, and that this effect is more marked when the formaldehyde is mixed with milk for a period of forty-eight hours before its administration. The results, however, are not of a character to warrant any important conclusion as to the relation between this slight disturbance of the weight and water content of the feces and the administration of the preservative.







1326 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE IV.-Weight and water content of feces by periods, Series IX.

[Averages are per day.]

S No. 1. No. 2. No. 3.
Perid.sFeces. Wter.s. Water rs. Feces. Water. frs.


Fore period.

First suhperiod: Grions. Per c. Grams. Grams. Per ct. Grams. Grams. Per cf. Grams.
Total .................. a 271 73.80 a 71 584 77.23 133 (28 78.98 132
Average ............... 54 ........ 14 117 27 126 ........ 26
Second subIperiod:
Total ................... 550 81.45 102 409 70.42 121 469 76. 76 109
Average ................ 110 ........ 20 82 ....... 24 94 ....
Entire fore rriod:
Total .................. 821 78. 93 173 993 74. 42 254 1 097 78.03 241
Average ................82 17 99 ........ 25 11 0-------- 24
Preservative period.
First subpriod:
Total ................... 412 78.40 89 401 67. 83 129 592 80.07 118
Average................. 82 ........ 18 80 ........ 26 118 -------- 24
Second sub period.
Total ................. 367 77.39 83 397 72.29 110 439 80.64 85
Average .................73 17 79 -------- 22 88 17
Third suhperiod:
Total ................... 40 79.00 84 597 75. 71 145 797 82.18 142
Average ................ s8 ........ 17 119 ........ 29 159 ........ 28
Fourth subpriod:
Total ................... 495 80.20 98 415 71.81 117 .....................
Average ............... 99 ......... 20 83 ........ 23 ........................
Entire preservative period:
Total .................. 1,179 78.29 256 1,395 72. 47 384 1,828 81.13 345
Average ................79 17 ........ 26 122 ....... 23
After period.
First suhperiod:
Total...................495 80.20 98 415 71.81 117 468 77.78 104
Average ............... 99 ....... 20 83 ........ 23 94 ........ 21
Second subperiod:
Total .................. 441 75. 96 106 314 67.20 103 1,011 83.18 170
Average ................. 21 63 ....... .. 21 20Y ........ 34
Entire after period:
Total .................. 936 78 21 204 729 60. 8 220 1,479 81.47 274
Aver ................ 94 .. 73....... 22 148 ...... 27

a These figures are given in round numbers only.








FORMALDEHYDE. 1327


TABLE IV.-TWeight and water content of feces by periods, Series IX-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 4. _No. 5. No, o.
Period. --Feces. Water. D ry Fces- Water. Dry Fivi-. Water. Dry fece. ..es f...es...

F'ore period.

First sulbperiod: Gra ms. 1PeTr ci. Gramins. Gramrs. Per (t. Gmrms. Gram. P,,r t.Gruams'.
A e a e. ... .. ...:8:.. ...)1 127 ------- 22 107 .. . 2ti

Tota t......... 552 77.17 1, 126 336 5. 9 ~ 1 7014 7.,9
Average................ 110 2-7 -..----- 1411 -------Entire fore period:
Total .................. 962 7.5.78~ 233 970 80.21 19J2 1,241 77 1
Average .... 9) ------- 2: 9 ---- 19 11.,. ~ 2

Preserixjiive period.

First subperiod:
T otal 8..... 8N 2. 12 123 430 7907 90 7,,) 47 1l
Average................ 138 ........ 25 86 i....... 5 24
Second subperlod:

Average................ 128 2 6........ 24I .61 6 ...... 27
Third aubperlod:
Total .................. 744 80.3 146 3 4. 73 1, 518 0 12 1 13
A ve rage ................ 149 ........ 2 74 19--- 104 ----- 2

Entire preservative period:
Toa ......... 2,074 81.24 38%9 1, 130 71. 19 21,9 2,117 8323 371
Average............... 13's ........ 211 75 ........ p- 141 .....41

After period.

First mabperlod:
Total ......... 647 78.05 142 3141 76. %&1 79 T5 $28 1113
Average.................129 ...8. D,6 15 ....... 2
Secod superiod:
Tot ......... 725 79.17 1 5 1 25 72.28 79 4117 77.4 f 112

Avrg2........94 .... 3 6257 1 02 79t 212
Entire after period: 27&4416-







1328 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE IV.-Weight and water content of feces by periods, Series IX-ontiuued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 7. No. 8. No. 10.
We r.1 Dry F,,e, Water. Dry. Feces. Water. Dry
Sfeces. fece's feces.

Fore period.
First subperiod: Grams. Per ct. Grams. Grams. Per cf. Grams. Grams. Per cf. Grams.
Total ................... (44-) (70.9 ) (130) 763 80. 73 147 404 75.99 97
Average ............... 90 -------- 26 153 ------ 29 81 ........ 19
Second subperiod:
Total.............. 44 .70.798 813 14 7505 130
Average .............. 90 ........ 26 10 ........ 30 104 ........ 26
Entire fore period:
Total ................... 896 70. 98 260 1, 56 81.04 296 925 75.46 227
Average ................ 90 ........ 26 156 ........ 30 93 ........ 23
Preservative period.
First subpriod:
Total .................. 393 73.79 10:3 836 82.30 148 514 75.49 126
Average................. 79 21 167 30 103 ........ 25
Second subperiod: I..
Total ................... 329 71.73 93 821 81.97 148 397 75.31 98
Average ................ ........ 19 14 ........ 30 79 ........ 20
Third subperiod:
Total ................... 391 73.15 105 345 73.04 93
Aver ge.. ................ 78 1 ........ 21.69 19
Entire preservative period:
Total .................. 1,113 72.96 301 1,657 82.14 296 1,256 74. 76 317
Average ................ 74 -------- 20 166 ..... 30 84 ........ 21
After period.
First subperiod:
Total ................... 132 71.97 37 ........................ 07 76.13 121
Averag ..................2 7 ........................ 101 ........ 24
Second subphriod:
Total ................... 479 72.23 133 ........................ 520 76.92 120
Average .................. 96. .......27................. ........104 ------- 24

Entire after period:
Total ................... 611 72.18 170 ....... .........1,027 76. 3 241
age ................ 6 ........ 110 ....... 24







FORMALDEHYDE. 1329


TABLE IV.-Weight and water content offices by periods, Series IX--ontinued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 11. No. 12.
Feces. Water. Dr Fces. Wtvr. r
feces. Water .

Fore period.
First subperiod: Grams. Per cf. Grams. Grams. Per a. Grams.
T ............................................ 57 79. 24 120 797 gi. ii 13.5
Average......................................... 116 -------- 24 159 ....... 27
Second subperiod:I



Total .........................................1,144 79. 63
Average .......................................... 23 129 ........ 29
Preservatire period.
First subperiod:
Total ..................................410 77.07 94 1,(06 81t 95 ]7
Ave ................................... 82 ........ 19 207 ....... 37

Total ............................................. 323 70.28 96 644 82.61 112
Average ..........................................65 19 129 ........ 22
Tbrdsbperiod: "
T l .............................................- 1 501 76.05 ) 493 76.8 1t
A v r p .......................................... I0W ........ 24 ( 2 .. ..

Entire preservative period:
Totl .............3...... ... ,4 74.88 310 2.173 r.9's 413
Average .................................. 82 ....... 21 145 ........ 2

First period: After period.
To a ............................................. 4309 73. 58 .1116 1%6 04 113
A ver g ..................................... .3 13....... 2i 132
Second au period.
Total......................................... 5,7) 78. 36 119 45t; &07 1, 0
A ve rage............................ ........... 110 ........ 24 91 -... 201
ntire after period:
Total............................................. 989 71.24 235 1,022 i 79.16 213
Avera4 1 .......................................... 102 ........2 21







1830 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE IV.-Weight and water content offices by periods, Series IX-Continued.

SUMMARIES.

[Averages are per man per day.]

Nos. I to 6. Nos. 7 to 12 (omitting Nos. I to 12 (omitting
Nos. 8 and 9). Nos. 8 and 9).
Period.
Feces. Water. Dry Feces. Water Dec.Feces. WNater. Dry
fee. feces. feces.

Fore period.
Grams. Per cf. Grams. Grams. Per cf. Grams. Gramto. Per cf. Grams.
First subperiod:
Total ................... 3,064 77.68 684 2,227 78.36 482 5,291 77 96 1,166
Average ..... ..... 102 ........ 23 111 ........ 24 106 ........ 23
Second subperiod:
Total ................ 3,020 77. 02 694 2,423 78.33 525 5,443 77. 60 1,219
Average ................ 101 ........ 23 121 ........ 26 109 ........ 24
Entire fore period:
Total ................... 6,084 77 35 1,378 4,650 78.34 1,007 10,734 77.78 2,385
Average ................ 101 ........ 23 116 ........ 25 107 ........ 24
Preservatire period.

First subperiod:
Total ................... 3,303 79.81 667 2,353 78. 33 510 5,656 79.19 1,177
Average ................ 110 -------- 22 118 ........ 26 113 -..... 24
Second subperiod:
Total ................... 2,996 79.37 618 1,693 76.43 399 4,689 78.31 1,017
Average ................ 100 ........ 21 84 ........ 20 94 --.... 20
Third subperiod:
Total ................... 3,424 79.18 713 1,730 75 03 432 5,154 77.78 1,145
Average ................ 114 24 86 ........ 22 103 ........ 23
Entire preservative period:
Total ................... 9,723 79.45 1, 98 5,776 76.78 1,341 15,499 78.46 3,339
Average ................ 109 ........ 22 96 ........ 22 103 ........ 22
After period.
First subperiod:
Total ................... 2, 891 77.76 643 1,644 76.46 387 4, 5 77.29 1,030
Avera ge................ 96 ........ 21 82 ........ 19 91 ........ 21
Second subperiod:
Total ................... 3,273 77.97 721 2,005 76 46 472 5,278 77.40 1,193
Average .................109 24 100 ........ 24 106 ........ 24
Entire after period:
Total ................... 6,164 77.87 1,364 3,649 76.46 859 9,813 77.35 2,223
Average ................ 103 ........ 23 91 ....... 21 98....... 22



THE URINE.

VOLUME, SPECIFIC GRAVITY, AND TOTAL SOLIDS.

Table V contains the data relating to the volume of urine excreted,
its specific gravity, and the total solids therein.

INDIVIDUAL DATA.


There is a notable increase in the volume of the urine in the case
of No. I during the preservative period, amounting to 317 cc daily,
attended by a decrease in specific gravity of 0.0038. T is increase
in volume is practically maintained in the after period, and the specific gravity is again decreased. The quantity of solids excreted is
larger in the preservative period than in the fore period by 3 grams
daily, and im the after period a loss of 2 grams occurs






FORMALDEHYDE. 13381

In the case of No. 2 there is an increase in the volume of the urine in the preservative period of 276 cc daily, attended by a decrease in specific gravity. This increase in volume is continued in the after period, and the specific gravity is slightly increased. The total solids excreted are the same in the fore and preservative periods and slightly greater in the after period.
In the case of No. 3 the volume of urine excreted is almost the same in the preservative period as in the fore period (an increase of only 9 cc daily), and is very slightly decreased in the after period. The specific gravity is increased slightly in the preservative period and to a greater extent in the after period. The total solids excreted in the urine remain almost the same for the three periods, increasing by 1 gram throughout.
The data for No. 4 show a very slight increase in the volume of urine in the preservative period, amounting to 47 cc daily, and a very slight decrease in specific gravity. In the after period there is a decrease of 70 cc in the volume of urine and a notable increase in the specific gravity. The quantity of total solids voided daily is the same in the fore and after periods and increased only by 2 grams daily in the preservative period.
The data in the case of No. 5 show an increase in the volume of urine in the preservative period (63 cc daily), and this increase is partially maintained in the after period. The specific gravity is the same for the fore and preservative periods, increasing very slightly in the after period. The quantity of solids excreted daily in the urine is increased slightly (3 grams) in the preservative period, and is still further increased by 1 gram in the after period.
No. 6 excretes a smaller quantity of urine in the preservative period than in the fore period and a still smaller quantity in the after period, the difference between the daily average for the fore and after periods being 50 cc. The smallest quantity of urine, however, has the highest specific gravity, the total solids excreted being the same for the fore and preservative periods, and only decreased by 1 gram in the after period.
The data for No. 7 show an increase in le of the e t urine inii
the preservative p1)eriod of 69 cc daily, and a further increase of 65 cc in the after period. The specific gravity falls both in the l)eserlvative and in the after period, and the quantity of total solids excreted is 4 gramis less in the preservative period Ilithan in the fore period, and there is another decrease of I gram in the after period.
There is also ani increase of 62 cc daily in thle volumiiie of urilnel excreted by No. 8 in the preservative period and a slight decrease in the specific gravity thereof, the total solids ,voided increasing 2 grams. There are no (Idatai for No. 8 for the after 1)period, and the figures for the preservative period cover only ten111 days. (S page)I ).






1332 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

The data for No. 10 show a marked decrease in the of
urine in the preservative period, amounting to 109 cc daily, and for the after period practically the same volume as in the fore period is recorded. The specific gravity of the urine during the pr rvative and after periods is higher than in the fore period. The quantity of total solids excreted is decreased in the preservative period by 2 grams, and is 2 grams greater in the after period than in the fore period.
No. 11 shows a very slight decrease in the volume of urine in the preservative period (29 cc) and a notable increase in the after period, exceeding the amount of the fore period by 92 cc. The specific gravity is low throughout, being a little higher in the preservative period than in any other. The quantity of solids excreted is increased 4 grams in the preservative period, and an additional increase of 3 grams is shown in the after period.
The data for No. 12 show a notable increase in the volume of urine in the preservative period, amounting to 153 cc daily, and an additional increase of 180 cc during the after period. This increase in the volume is attended by a steadily diminishing specific gravity. The quantity of total solids excreted is increased 4 grams in the preservative period and an additional gram in the after period.
SUMMARIES.

The summary for Nos. 1 to 6, who received formaldehyde a soon as it was mixed with the milk, shows an excretion of urine in the fore period of 970 cc, in the preservative period of 1,085 cc (an increase of 115 cc daily), and in the after period of 1,062 cc. The specific gravity of the urine is slightly decreased when the larger quantities are excreted, the total solids excreted in the urine being only 1 gram greater in the preservative and after periods than in the fore period. The data, therefore, show a tendency during the administration of the preservative to increase the volume of urine excreted, to diminish its specific gravity, and to increase slightly the total quantity of solids excreted.
The summary for Nos. 7, 10, 11, and 12, who received formaldehyde after two days' contact with milk, shows a very slight incr in volume of urine in the preservative period (only 21 cc daily), and a notable increase in the after period of 118 cc. The specific gravity of the urine in the fore and preservative periods is almost the same, but is somewhat decreased in the after period. The quantity of total solids excreted is increased I gram in the preservative period and an additional 2 grams in the after period. These data show a slight tendency on the part of the formaldehyde to increase the volume of the urine and to decrease specific gravity, and also to increase slightly







FORMALDEHYDE. 1333


the quantity of total solids excreted in the preservative and after periods.
The average effect produced, ascertained by combining in one expression the data for all the subjects except Nos. 8 and 9, indicates a slight increase in the volume of urine in the preservative period (77 cc daily), followed by an additional increase in the after period. The specific gravity decreases in almost the same proportion as the volume of the urine increases, the quantity of total solids excreted being 58, 59, and 60 grams daily for the three periods, respectively.
The general effect of the formaldehyde, therefore, may be regarded as slightly diuretic, considerably increasing the volume of the urine, especially in the case of Nos. 1 to 6 during the preservative period, while for Nos. 7, 10, 11, and 12 the greater increase occurs in tihe after period. Practically no influence is exerted on the total solids excreted.

TABLE V.- Urine determinations- Volume, specific gravity, and total solids, Scrics X.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 1 No. 2. No. 3.

Specific Total Specific Total grait Total
Prio. Vol- gravity solids Vol- gravity solids Vo- gravity solids
aat t at
ume 25/.5 (factor ume 25 (factor ume. 250 ,o factor
c. 0.245) C. 0.245). 0 (.245).

Fore period.
First subperiod: cc Grams. cc. Graw.ms.. cc Grams.
Total.................. 5,350 1.0192 252 5,770 1.0218 308 4,640 1.021i 2
Average................ 1,070 ...... 50 1,154 ........ 62 92 .---- )
Second subperiod.
Total.................. 4,5 0 1. 0230 257 6,205 1.0211 321 4,4t0 1.0267 '92
Average............... 912 ........ 51 1.241 ........ 1 64 592 ........ 4
Entire fore period:
Total.................. 9,910 1.0211 509 11,975 1.0214 62 9,100 10265 9171
Average................ 9 1 ........ 51 1,1! ........ i 910 .
Preservative period. 4
First subperiod:
Total................... 5,485 1.0201 270 7,315 1.0173 310 4, 1A 1.0274 313
Average................ 1,097 ........ 54 1, 41'3 ...... f 2 932 .... (3
Second subperiod:
Total .......... ...... 6,230 1.0178 272 8,220 1.0157 316 4,5101) 1.02t 5 93
Average................ 1,246 ........ 54 1, 644 ........ G3 102 59
Third subperlod:
Total -................ 7.905 1.0139 269 16,570 1.019s 319 4, 615 1.0 264 29
Average ................ 1, 581 ........ 54 1,314 ........ 14 1r .......
Entire preservative period.
Total .................. 19,20 1.0173 811 22 ,10-5 1.0176 945 13,7N5 1.02t 904
Average ................ 1,3 ........ 4 1. 474 ....... t 919 ........
After period.
First subperiod:
Total................... 7,3 0 1.0145 21i 7,8 1.0164 321 4, 4 40 1.4 3#l I
Average ...... .. 1,470 ........ 52 1.,59 .4 61
Second sulrperiod:
Average.................. 1,13i .. 1 ... 1,W ll . t 4 1 .. .. ..
Entire after period:
Tot j.................. 13,030 1.01167 524 14,760 1.01 6CI 8,945 1 ) -4
Averge ...... 1,303 52 1,476 .l. 1. .95 Cit







1334 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE V.- Urine determinations- Volume, specifi gravity, and total solids, Seies IXContinued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 4. No5. No..

Speciftc Total gravic Total Total
Vol- "vtY solids Vol- gravity solids Vol- vity sjdsT
at at at
une 25O50 (factor urne. 25 (factor u (factor
c.50.245). 0.245). c. 0.245).
C. 0.C.) C.


Fore period.
First subperiod: cc. Grams. cc. Grams. cc. Grams.
Total .................. 4,985 1.0228 278 4,355 1.0214 228 4,045 1. 0251 249
Average ............... 997 ........ 56 871 ........ 46 80 ------- 50
Second subperiod:
Total ................. 5,070 1.0246 306 4,635 1.0232 263 4,100 1 4
Average ............... 1,014 ....... 61 927 ......... 82 0 ....... 57

Entire fore period:
Total ................. 10, 055 1.0237 584 8,990 1. 0223 491 8,145 1.0268 534
Average .............. 1,006 -------- 58 899 ....... 49 815 ......53
Preservative period.
First subperiod:
Total ...................5, 260 1.0238 307 4,165 1.0252 257 3,80 1. 281 266
Average ............... 1,052 ......... 61 8 ......... 51 772 ........ 53
Second subperiod:
Total .................. 5,385 1. 0227 300 4,930 1.0219 26,5 4,040 1. 273 270
Average ................ 1,077 ........ 60 986 ........ 53 808 ....... 54
Third subperiod:
Total ................... 5,150 1.0238 300 5,330 1.0197 257 4,005 1.0267 262
Average ................ 1,030 ........ 60 1,06W ........ 51 801 ----- 52

Entire preservative period:
Total .................. 15,795 1.0234 907 14, 425 1.0223 779 11,90 0274
Average ................ 1,053 ..---- 962 ........ 52 794 ....... 53
After period.

First subperiod:
Total .................. 4,805 1.0241 284 4,720 1.0217 251 3,78 1.0274
Average................91 ....... 57 944 ........ 50 756 ........ 51
Second subperiod:
Total ................... 5,020 1.0242 298 4,770 1.0235 275 3,8W 1.0276 261
Average ................ 1,004 .... 60 954 ........ 55 773 ........ 52

Entire after period:
Total ................... 9,825 1. 0292 582 9,490 1.0226 526 7,646 1.0275 515
Average ............. 983 ....... 58 949 ........ 53 765 62







FORMALDEHYD. 1335

.....E V.- Urine determinations- Volume, specific gravity, and total solids, Seris IXContinued.

[Averages are per day.]

No. 7. No. 8. No. 10.

Specific Specific Total Speial
Period.igrav ta gravity gravity- Total
Period. Vol- gravity solids Vol- solids Vol- g i solids
at at at
ume. 5f5o(factor umie. 252(factor unie. 2505 (fractor
c.0o.24). 0.24-5). e 0.24-5).


Fore period.
First subperod: cc. Grams. cc. Grams. cc. Grams.
Tota.................. 4,820 1.026 1 308 6, 110 1. 0217 325 6, 60 1.0197 31
.Average-------------- 94 -62 1, 222 -------- 5 1,332 .......64
Second suhperlod:
Total ................... 4,820 1. 0261 308 5, 355 1.0254 333 5,290 1. 026 332
Ave ge ............... 964 ......... 2 1,071 ........ 67 1,058 ..... 6.

Entire fore period:
Total.---------------9,640 1.0261 616 11,465 1.0236 658 11,950 1.0226 653
Average............... 964 ........ 62 1,147 ........ 66 1,195 ........

Preservative period.
First subperiod:
Total.................. 5,380 1. 0226 298 6,090 1.0228 340 5,470 1.0247 331
Average.............. 1,076 -....... 60 1,218 ..... 68 1,094 ...... 66
Second subperiod:I
Total ................... 5,200 1.0236 301 5.995 1.0234 344 5,510 1.0240 324
Average ........... 1,040 ....... G 1, ... 1,102 ........
Thiird subperlod: I.,.,I6
Total .................. 4,920 1. 9230 1 277 ....................... 5,310 1. 0222 2Average ................ 984 ......1 55 .... ... ..... ........ 1, 0 2 ....... 58
Entire preservative period:
Total ............... 15,500 1.0231 876 12,085 1.0231 684 16,210 1.Y236 944
Ave rag ...... .. 1,033 ....... 58 1,209 6 1,06 ------ G3
After period.
First subperiod:
Total.... ........... 5,325 1.0203 265 ............. 6, 0 1. '26 336
A ve s .............. 1,()( ........ 53 .. ... ... i .. .
S e o n s. .ei o :. . . . . . . . 1 2 1 2 . . .6 7

Total ...................5, 650 1.0217 300........................ 5,8 o) 1.0233 t335
Average.............. 1, 130.......... R .............. ........ 1,172 67
Entire after period:
Total 1........ ........ 111,920 1.0230 671
Ave ra .. .. ... 1,09 .7....... ........ ........ I, m2 ... .7







1386 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE V.-Urine determinations-Volume, specific gravity, and total solids, Series IXContinued.

[Average3 are per day.]

No. 11. No. 12.
Speific
Perioi Total Specifle Total
Period gravity sol gravity
Volume. at solids Volume. at solids
0.24-5).c. 0.245).
252o4Of r)5e (factr


Fore period.
First subperiod: cc Grams. cc. Grams.
Total................................. 6,795 1.0159 265 6,410 1.0207 325
Average. ..... .................... 1,359 ---..... 53 1,282 ......... 65
Second subperiod:
Total............................... 6. 010 1 1. 0202 297 5,990 1.0204 299
Average............................. 1,22 .......... 9 1,1 ......... 60

Entire fore period:
Total .... ....................... 12, 805 1.0180 562 12,400 1.0208 624
Average ............................. 1,281 ......... 56 1,240 ......... 62

Preser~atire period.

First subperiod:
Total ................................ 6,150 1. 004 307 6,875 1.0208
Average ............................. 1,230 ........ 61 1,375 .......... 70
Second subperiod:
Total .............................. 5,990 1. 0206 302 6,875 1.0190 320
Average ............................. 1,198 ........ 60 1,375 .......... 64
Third subhperiod:
Total............................... 6, 635 1.0180 293 7,140 1.0187 327
Average .............................. 1,327 ....... 59 1,428 ......... 65

Entire preservative period:
Total............................ 18,775 1. 0197 90 20, 80 1. 0195 997
Average ............................. 1,252 ......... 1,393 ......... 66
After period.

First subperiod:
Total ................................ 6,815 1.0185 309 8,135 1.0167 333
Average............................. 1, ......... 13 62 1,627 .......... 67
Second subperiod:
Total................................ 6,910 1.0190 322 7,590 1.01s3 340
Average ............................. 1, ... .4 1, 518 ......... 68
Entire after period:
Total ................................. 13,725 1.0188 631 15,725 1.0175 673
Average .......... 1,373 ........ 63 1,573 ......... 67







FORMALDEHYDE. 1337


TABLxV.- Urine deter minat ins- Volume, specific gravity, and total solids, Series IXC'ontinued.

SUMMARIES.
[Averages are per man per day.]


'Nos. 1 to 6. Nos, 7 10 11, aind 12. Nos. I to 12, omittig


Period. Specific Total Specific Total ISpecific TIOtal
Vol- grat solids Vol- 9rit solids N ol- gravity Solids
ume. 25t2 (factor um11e. 2 5P .24 atitrune 55 (Lictor
at25) (factor, une. 230~ 0.245-).

Fore period.
First subperiod: CC. Gra ms. cc. Grams. cT. Gni is.
Total .................. 29,145 1.0228 1614 24,685 1.0(016 1219 53.,83)0 1. (12 1,1 21%33

Average .................972...8 57 1,104 ----- 6G 1,077 *..., .. )
Sneor superiod:
Total................589,175 1. 0236. 3338 46,793 1.0(218 1 236 40 1 (y5793
Average. ~ 970 I... 6 110.... 1 100*~,5



PreservGttve period.
First subperlod:
Total .,................ 30,745 1. 0236 1723 23, 875 1.0221 1281 st54,6G20 1.021 3109
Second subperiod:
Total ...,............... 33.,313 1. 0220 1716; 23,575 1.021S 12417 5689 110219 296.3
Average ............... 1,110) 5.... 7 1,179 ...~...... .~2 1, 13S .,,. 5
Third subperlod:
Total ,.................. 33,,575 1.0217 1705 24.W003 1.0205 165731 1.02 1 -2 11
Av rg .. ... 1,119 ..... .57 1, 201 ....1,1...
Entire preservative period:
Total.................. 97,633 1.0224 5144 71, 453 1.021-5 319 169,90.Y 1 1.01) s3

After r pe riod.
First subperiod:
Total .................. 33,07 1.0Q220 16 77 26335 1. 0105 1243 5m, 410o 1.112 10o 2!2

Total ..........,.. 30,6G20 1 02:37 1737 26, 010 1. 0206 W 1297 56.63 1. I-0224 3"3_1
Average.,.,.... 1,021 ..... ,3)S I 63m 1,33 .,61
Entire after period:
Total ....... ...... 63,t105 1. 0228 3414 52,3457 1, 02101 2.-40) 111 .1)0401 1 2 17 i
Average. ... ... ...,.... 1,0 2 ..... 57 1 ,309 ---- 14 1, 160 ....,... (.0



PRESENCE OF ALB'UMIN AND REACTION OF THE URINE.

Only qualitative data were obtained showiiig the reaction of the, urine.1 expreVssed ats the niiuberl of times it was aml or aII (Wri to
litmus paper and the oecurre-nce o)f album111in III the three peri.ods,.
InI the c-ase of No. 1 thre I's one occurrenc11e of anl a11uIlhoteric

rettetion du I1-1ri th prsrvtveprid whe allt of 1 th ow(thewr obs11 a
tions show an acid re acting No albumin Is found Ii theII-m u il at any

time during(I the( o)bservation,.
No. 2, In the first preserwivat peid shoms it decided change,1 inl
the reaction of the( urline, which is, aniphow-ti In fourl of the five
det4ermIinait tionls ma1de. At till of te othe Ir o)bser-vationils thew urine isacid with t he exce-ption of one, iIll Pho te(c reaict Ion Ii t he secondmi fore sub1)period. Th'lere is it trace of IalbumI~inl1 pre-sen It throughout rI It thej(

4154129)-flul $4, lit v'OS -4






1388 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

entire observation, but the data do not establish any tendency to increase or decrease the occurrence in the preservative period.
There is evidence in the case of No. 3 of a reduction in the acidity of the urine during the preservative period and a strong tendency to increase the occurrence of albumin.
In the case of No. 4 there is a slight relative increase in the acidity; albumin is found at all nine observations in the preservative and after periods, and occurs at only four out of seven in the fore period.
There is a slight reduction in the acidity of the urine in the case of No. 5 throughout th'e observation, and albumin is reported in only one instance near the close of the preservative period.
The data for No. 6 do not show any change either for acidity or the occurrence of albumin, the urine remaining acid and showing a trace of albumin throughout the entire period of observation.
In the case of No. 7 the urine is acid throughout, with the exception of one observation in the fore period, while in the case of albumin there is a constant occurrence reported, with the exception of two observations in the fore period.
There is no change shown in the data obtained for No. 8 up to the time he was forced to withdraw from the experiment, the urine being acid throughout, and no albumin present.
No. 10 gives an acid reaction for the urine and shows no tendency toward albuminurea throughout the entire period of observation.
In the case of No. 11 there is practically no change in the acidity of the urine and no occurrence of albumin is reported at any time during the experiment.
The same is true for No. 12 in regard to acidity, though the single amphoteric reaction obtained occurs in the preservative period, and for albumin the only positive test reported ocurs in the after period.
From the individual data it is seen that there is a slight tendency manifested in a few cases to decrease the acidity in the urine and to increase the occurrence of albumin, but, taken as a whole, the data do not show any consistent general tendency on the part of the preservative to affect the acidity of the urine, or the presence of albmin therein; though in three cases the occurrence of albumin seems to be increased during the administration of the preservative.

QUANTITY OF UREA AND RATIO OF SULPHUR, SULPHATES, AND
PHOSPHATES TO NITROGEN IN THE URINE.
INDIVIDUAL DATA.
It is important to determine whether or not the administration of formaldehyd(le had any notable influence upon the excretion of urea, and the relation of the sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates in the urine to the nitrogen therein. The data for the determination of these points are given in Table VI.






FORMALDEHYDE. 13389

In the case of No. 1 there is a larger quantity of nitrogen excreted in the preservative period and a smaller quantity in the after period than in the fore period. The percentage of urea nitrogen based on the total nitrogen is larger both in the preservative and after periods than in the fore period. The ratio of sulphur to nitrogen is very slightly diminished and the ratio of phosphoric acid to nitrogen is notably diminished in the preservative period, with a further decrease in the after period. These data indicate an increase in the excretion of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphoric acid both in the preservative and after periods in relation to the nitrogen.
The data for No. 2 show that the percentage of nitrogen occurring as urea in the urine is quite constant throughout the three periods. The quantity of total nitrogen is notably diminished in the preservative period, while the increase in the after period does not bring the number back to the magnitude of the fore period. The total sulphur and sulphur excreted as sulphates are slightly diminished in the preservative period, while the quantity of phosphoric acid is slightly increased both in the preservative and after periods. Thie ratio of sulphur to nitrogen is' diminished in the preservative period, and the same is true of the ratio of sulphates and of phosphoric acid to nitrogen. In this case the quantity of sulphur and sulphates excreted is diminished, but not in proportion to the diminished quantity of the nitrogen in the urine. The increase in the phosphoric acid excreted, together with the decrease in the nitrogen, causes a notable change in the ratio of the phosphoric acid to nitrogen. Again, in this case, there is shown a greater relative increase in the phosphoric acid excreted, while in the excretion of sulphur there is practically the same decrease as of the nitrogen.
There is a slight diminution of the total nitrogen excretel in the urine in the case of No. 3 in the preservative and after periods, aiid the same is true of the urea nitrogen. The percentage of the urea nitrogen in terms of total nitrogen is decidedly larger in the reservative period. The quantity of urea is slightly less in the lreservative period and decidedly decreasedd in the after period. The quantityy of total sulphur as S excreted is less (luring the preservative period, while very little change is shown in the quantity of sulphur as suiphates excreted( in the three periods. There is a slight increase in the quantity of phosphoric acid excreted both in the preservative and after periods. The ratio of the sul)hur to the nitrogen is almost the same in the preservative period as in the fore period and is slightly less in the after period, and the ratio of sulp)hates to nitrogen decreasess very slightly throughout. 'The1 ratio of phosphoric acid diminishes to some extent in the prese'rvative period and very slightly in the after period, showing an increased excretion of phosphoric acid as compared with nitrogen.






1340 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

The data for No. 4 show a slight increase in the excretion of both nitrogen and urea nitrogen in the preservative period and a diminution in the after period. The percentage of urea nitrogen is slightly diminished in the preservative and after periods. The total urea excreted is increased in the preservative period and notably diminished in the after period. The amount of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphoric acid excreted is greater in the preservative period than in the fore period. The ratios of sulphur and sulphates to nitrogen are slightly decreased in the preservative and after periods. The ratio of phosphoric acid to nitrogen is also decreased in the preservative and after periods. In this instance there is shown a slight tendency to increase the proportions of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphoric acid in respect of the nitrogen excreted.
The data for No. 5 show a slight decrease both in the nitrogen and the urea nitrogen in the preservative period, and this decrease is almost restored in the after period. The percentage of urea nitrogen diminishes slightly in both the preservative and after periods. The total urea is also less in the preservative period, and this loss is only partly restored in the after period. The quantity of sulphur and sulphates excreted is notably diminished in the preservative period and this loss is only partially restored in the after period. There is an increase in the quantity of phosphoric acid excreted both in the preservative and after periods. In this instance there is quite a decrease of sulphur compounds in relation to the nitrogen excreted, which is contrary to the results obtained for Nos. 1 to 4, while in the case of phosphoric acid the same relative increase is maintained as in the previous subjects.
From the data for No. 6 it is seen that the quantities of nitrogen and urea nitrogen excreted in the preservative period are slightly greater than in the fore period, while in the after period they are slightly less. The percentage of urea nitrogen is low in the fore period and notably increased in the preservative and after periods. The quantity of urea excreted is largest in the preservative period and least in the after period. Less total sulphur and more sulphur as SO, are excreted(l in the preservative period, while the quantities of each in the after period are less than in the fore period. There is again a very Iiotable increase in the quantity of phosphoric acid in the preservative period, and this increase is alhnost mamitained in the after period. The ratio of sulphur to nitrogen is notably increased both in the preservative and after periods as compared with the fore period. The ratio of sulphates to nitrogen is very slightly increased in the preservative period, and is diiminished in the after period. The ratio of l)hosl)lphoric acid is notably decreased both in the preservative and after periods. These data show a decrease in the quantity of sulphur and sulphates, and a marked increase in the quantity of phosphoric






FORMALDEHYDE. 1341

acid excreted in relation to nitrogen under the influence of the preservative.
In the case of No. 7 there is a slight diminution in the excretion both of nitrogen and urea nitrogen in the urine during the preservative period and also during the after period. The percentage of urea nitrogen in terms of total nitrogen does not vary in the fore and preservative periods, but there is an increase in the after period. The quantity of urea excreted is notably diminished both in the preservative and after periods. The quantity of sulphur and sulphates excreted in the preservative period is slightly diminished as compared with the fore period, and there is also a diminution in the quantity of phosphoric acid in the preservative period. The ratios show a notable increase in the quantity of sulphur and sulphates excreted in relation to the nitrogen, and in the case of the phosphoric acid excreted in relation to nitrogen a slight increase is shown, which, however, is not so marked as in most of the previous cases.
The data for No. 8 are not complete. They show a slight relative increase in the quantity of sulphur and sulphates and a notable increase in the quantity of phosphoric acid excreted in relation to the nitroge in the urine.
The data for No. 10 show a slight decrease in the total nitrogen during the preservative period and a marked increase in the after period. This is also true of the urea nitrogen excreted. The percentage of urea nitrogen is almost the same in the fore and preservative periods and slightly increased in the after period. The total urea excreted is diminished in the preservative period and increased in the after period. The ratios show a very slight decrease in the quantity of sulphur, no change in the quantity of sulphates, and a slight increase in the quantity of phosphoric acid excreted in relation to the nitrogen in the urine.
The data for No. 11 show an increase in the total nitrogen excreted both in the preservative and after periods. The percentage of urea nitrogen, based on the total nitrogen in the urine, is notably dirninished in the preservative period, and though partly restored in the after period it does not reach the magnitude of the figure for the fore period. The quantity of urea and of urea nitrogen excreted is almost the samIe inll thle fore an11d thle preser'ative periods and is notably increased in the after period. The absolute quantities of sulphur and sulphates are increased in the preservative period andl still fuirtlher increased in the after period. The absolute quantity of phosphoric acid excreted is increased both in the pre atie tv and after periods. The ratios show a slight increase in the relative (uiant ities of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphoric acid compared with the nitrogen excreted in the preservative period. In so far as sulphur is concerned this relation is reversed in the after period( ascompared with the fore period, but it is maintained for sulphates and phosphoric acid.






1342 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.
The data for No. 12 show a slight decrease both in the total nitrogen and in the urea nitrogen during the preservative period, followed by an increase in the after period, the decrease being more than restored in the case of the nitrogen. The percentage of urea nitrogen is diminished both in the preservative and after periods. The total urea excreted is less in the preservative period and this loss is almost restored in the after period. The absolute quantities of sulphur and phosphoric acid are increased in the preservative period and further increased in the after period, while the sulphur as sulphates is slightly decreased in the preservative period. The ratios show that the quantities of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphoric acid excreted in relation to the total nitrogen are increased during the preservative period, and this relation is practically maintained in the after period.
SUMMARIES.
Three summaries are given, representing the subjects from Nos. 1 to 6, inclusive, who received the formaldehyde as soon as it was added to the milk; Nos. 7, 10, 11, and 12, who received formaldehyde which had stood in contact with milk for two days, and the complete summary for Nos. 1 to 12, excluding Nos. 8 and 9.
In the first summary, namely for Nos. 1 to 6, inclusive, the data show a slight diminution in the total nitrogen excreted and a slight increase in the total urea nitrogen in the preservative period. There is a marked diminution of both in the after period. The percentage of urea nitrogen is greater both in the preservative and after periods than in the fore period. The total urea excreted is almost the same in the fore and preservative periods and somewhat less in the after period. The total sulphur excreted is very slightly diminished throughout, while the sulphates are almost the same in the fore and preservative periods and slightly less in the after period. The phosphoric acid excreted is notably greater in the preservative period and there is only a very slight diminution as compared with this amount in the after p)erold. The ratio of total sulphur to nitrogen is the same in the fore and preservative periods and slightly less in the after period. In thie sulphate ratio there is a very slight decrease in the preservative period and no further change in the after period. The ratio of phosphoric acid to total nitrogen is notably less- in the preservative period and there is a slight further decrease in the after perio(ld.
These data show a tendency on the part of the preservative to increase the excretion of sulphates and of phosphoric acid in proportion to the total nitrogen excretedl in the urine, and this tendency is continued and somewhat accentuated in the case of phosphoric acid in the after period. The only marked feature brought out in this





FORMALDEHYDE. 1848

summary is the actual and relative increase in phosphoric acid and this is also uniform for each individual.
In the summary for Nos. 7, 10, 11, and 12, the data show a slight decrease in total nitrogen and total urea nitrogen excreted during the preservative period and this decrease is practically restored inl the after period. The percentage of urea nitrogen, expressed in terms of total nitrogen in the urine, is slightly diminished in the preservative period, but is restored in the after period to almost the same percentage as in the fore period. The quantity of urea excreted is diminished in the preservative period and is almost restored in the after period to the figure of the fore period. The total sulphur excreted is almost the same in the three periods, being slightly greater in the after period, while the amount of total sulphates excreted is notably greater in the preservative period and.decreases in the after period to almost the same magnitude as in the fore period. The most marked effect in this case, as in the previous summary, is exerted upon the phosphoric acid. The quantity excreted is notably increased in the preservative period and this increase is somewhat accentuated in the after period. The ratios show that the total quantities of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphoric acid excreted in proportion to the nitrogen in the urine are all greater in the preservative period, and that this increase is most marked in the case of the phosphoric acid.
The data show a tendency on the part of the preservative to diminish slightly the total quantity of urea excreted and to increase uniformly the relative quantities of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphoric acid in the urine as compared with the total nitrogen.
The general effect produced on the ten men is shown in the summary for Nos. 1 to 12, inclusive, omitting Nos. 8 and 9 because of incomplete data. This general summary indicates a slightly smaller quantity of nitrogen and urea nitrogen excreted during the preservative period, and this diminution is carried further in the after period. The percentage of urea nitrogen excreted, expressed in terms of total nitrogen, is almost the same in the three periods, being very slightly increased in the preservative and after periods as compared with the fore period. The total urea excreted is slightly diminished in the preservative and after periods. The quantity of sulphur excreted is very slightly decreased in the preservative period and is further diminished in the after period. The quantity of sulphates excreted is almost the same in the three periods, showing a negligible decrease in the preservative period. In phosphori acid, however, there is a notable increase both in the preservative anid after p)erludIs as CoIlpared with the fore period. The ratios show a slightly increased excretion of sull0hur and sulphateios in relal tion to the lltrgen inll the preservative period, and in the after period the increase is maintained.





1344 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

There is a notable increase in the relative quantity of phosphoric acid excreted, and this increase is slightly augmented in the after period.
From the study of the individual data and summaries it would appear that the manner of administering the preservative, that is, directly in milk, and after being in contact with the milk two days, has no appreciable effect on the results. The most marked effect shown is the actual and relative increase of phosphoric acid as compared with the nitrogen excreted. There is also a slight tendency manifested to increase the total sulphur and sulphates in relation to the nitrogen, and also to decrease slightly the excretion of urea.









FORMALDEHYDE. 1345




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1346 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.



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1348 I.NLFLUE.TCE, OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


















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FORMALDEHYDE. 1349




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1350 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.







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FORMALDEHYDE. 1351











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_ _ V .







1852 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE VI.-Urine determinations- Urea and ratio of sulphur, sulphates, and phosphates to nitrogen, Series IX-Continued.

SUMMARIES-Continued.
[Averages are per man per day.]

Nos. I to 12, omitting Nos. 8 and 9.

Urea nitrogen. Sulphur. Ratio.

Period. In PhosNitro- terms Urea. phoric
gen. Total. tof As S. As acid SN 03:N. PO:N.
total S03. (105)nitrogen.

Fore period.
First subperiod: Grams. Grams. P. ct. Grams. Grams. Grams. Grams.
Total ............ 693.65 633.983 91.401,357.167 45.743103.525 109.300 1:15.2 1:6.7 1:6.4
Average......... 13.87 12.680 ....... 27.143 .915 2.070 2.186I ...................
Second subperiod:
Total ...684.79 636.780 92.991,363.155 46. 724103. 669 128.190 1:14.7 1:6.6 1:5.3
Averag, ......... 13.70 12.736....... 27.263 .932 2.073 2.564...................
Entire fore period:
Total ............. 1,378.441,270.763 92.192,720.322 92.467207.194 237.490 1:14.9 1:6.7 1:5.8
Average......... 13.78 12.708....... 27.203 .925 2.072 2.375 ......................
Preservative period.

First subperiod:
Total............ 673.16 611.529 90.841,309.100 46.148105.009 132.222 1:14.6 1:6.4 1:5.1
Average......... 13.46 12.231....... 2t;.182 .923 2.100 2.644 ....... ................
Second subperiod:
Total............ 683.65 635.566 92.971,360.556 46.397 103.447 127.867 1:14.7 1:6.6 1:5. 3
Average......... 13.67 12.711....... 27.211 .928 2.069 2.557....... ........ ........
Third subperiod:
Total............ 670. 61 625.751 93.31 1,339.545 45.489t 101.321 124.551 1:14. 7 1:6.6 1:5. 4
Average.......... 13.41 12.515....... 26.791 .910 2.026 2.491....... ................
Entire preservative
period:
Tota............ 2,027.421,872.846 92. 384, .201 138.034309.777 384.640 1:14.7 1:6.5 1:5.3
Average ........... 13.52 12.486....... 26.728 .920 2. 065 2.564......................
After period.
First subperlod:
Total ........... 655.03 605.305 92.411,295.776 45.39110,2.111 125.363 1:14.4 1:6.4 1:5.2
Average ......... 13.10 12.106 ....... 25.915 .908 2.042 2.507 ...... ................
Second subperiod:
Total........... 688.14 634.272 92.171,357.786, 45.720 105.132 130.653 1:15.1 1:6.5 1:5.3
Average........ 13.76 12.685....... 27.156 .914 2.103 2.613 ....... ...............
Entire after period:
Total............. 1,343.171,239.577 92.282,653.562 91.111207.243 256.016 1:14.7 1:6. 1:5.2
Average....... 13.43 12.3 2....... 26. 535 .911 2.072 2.560 ....... ........ ........


CHANGES IN THE RELATIVE QUANTITIES OF SULPHUR COMPOUNDS IN THE URINE.

INDIVIDUAL DATA.

In the case of No. I the most marked change in the distribution of
the sulplhur compounds in the uriine is seen in the increase of inorganic
sulphates (luring thie preservative period. The neutral sulphur is
decreased, while the ethereal sulphates remain practically constant in
amount. The total sulphur is slightly increased in the preservative
period and falls in the after period. The ratio of the ethereal sulphates to the inorganic does not show any marked change, being
slightly increased during t he preservative period. The figures representing the aIllounts in percentage of thfle total sulphur show these






FORMALDEHYDE. 1858

variations more clearly and indicate about the same relations as the figures for actual amounts.
In the case of No. 2 practically the opposite results from those shown for No. 1 are found. The total sulphur excreted in this case is slightly decreased during the preservative period and rises during the after period to a quantity greater than in the fore period. The neutral sulphur is increased throughout; the ethereal sulphates, though slightly decreased in the preservative period, are again remarkably constant, while the inorganic sulphates are slightly decreased. The ratio is just a little below the average and remains very constant throughout.
The data for No. 3 in a general way appear to agree with those obtained for No. 1. The total sulphur excreted, however, shows a slight diminution in the preservative period. The neutral sulphur shows a notable decrease in the preservative period, with a tendency to return to normal in the after period; the ethereal sulphates are again practically constant in quantity in the fore and preservative periods, and the inorganic sulphates are also quite constant, being slightly increased in the preservative and after periods. These changes are more markedly shown, in their relation to the total amount of sulphur excreted, by the percentage figures, which show a decrease in neutral sulphur, while in all the other forms there is an increase.
In the case of No. 4 there is a considerable varnition shown in the distribution of the sulphur compounds during the three periods. The quantity of total sulphur excreted is somewhat increased during the preservative period and is slightly diminished (luring the after period. A marked change is shown in the case of neutral sulphur, which is increased by 0.088 gram daily during the preservative period, decreasing in the after period to a quantity but little larger than in the fore period. The ethereal sulphates are quite constant, even in this case being but 0.008 gram less in the preservative period and 0.009 gramless in the after period than in the fore period. The inorganic sulphates are slightly increased (luring the preservative period and diminished during the after period. The ratio in this instance shows a notable increase during the preservative period, showing a relative decrease in the excretion of ethereal sulphates to inorganic sulphates. In this case the results expressed in the percentage of the total sulphur show a notable increase in the neutral sulphur, and a decrease in all the other forms during the preservative period, just the opposite of the results obtained for No. 3.
The data for No. 5 show quite a marked diminution in the metabolized sulphur during the preservative period. The neutral sulphur and the inorganic sulphates are also notably reduced. In this case the quantity of ethereal sulphates shows more variation than
4 B429-Hull 84, pt v-4JS--5






1354 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

heretofore, an increase being noted during the preservative period, which with the decrease in the inorganic sulphates causes the ratio of these two forms to decrease to quite an extent during the preservative period. The ratio of the preservative period is practically maintained in the after period. The percentage results show a decrease in the neutral sulphur and a slight increase in all the other constituents, agreeing in this respect with No. 3.
In the case of No. 6 there is a diminution of 0.035 gram of sulphur as S during the preservative period and of 0.092 gram in the after period as compared with the fore period. The neutral sulphur shows a decrease of 0.095 gram during the preservative period and is still further decreased in the after period. The quantity of ethereal sulphur is slightly diminished while there is an increase during the preservative period in the inorganic sulphates, which accounts for the decided increase in the ratio between these substances. The percentage figures show a very marked decrease in the neutral sulphur and a slight decrease in the ethereal sulphates, while the total and inorganic sulphates show a notable increase.
In the case of No. 7 there is a gradual decrease in the total sulphur excreted during the observation. There is an increase in the amount of neutral sulphur and a slight increase in the ethereal sulphates during the preservative period and a decrease in both substances in the after period. The inorganic sulphates are notably reduced during the preservative period and remain the same in the after period. The ratio is therefore somewhat decreased in the preservative and after periods as compared with the fore period. There is quite a marked increase in the percentage figures for neutral sulphur and a slight increase in the case of ethereal sulphates. The total and inorganic sulphates are quite markedly reduced.
The data are incomplete for No. 8, who became ill on December 4, and was consequently dropped from the experiment. The striking feature of the data obtained is the small quantity of ethereal sulphates excreted by this subject.
No. 10 shows a diminution in actual amount of all the forms of sulphur during the preservative period, with the exception of the ethereal sulphates, which remain remarkably constant throughout. There is a tendency manifested to return to the normal during the after period, with the exception of the neutral sulphur, which continues to decrease. The ratio of ethereal to inorganic sulphates is quite constant, being but slightly less in the preservative period. Only very slight variations are shown by the percentage figures, indicating slight increases in all cases except that of neutral sulphur. This contradiction of the figures for actual amounts is due to the greater relative decrease of sulphur as So,, on which the percentages are based.






FORMALDEHYDE. 1355

In the case of No. 11 very nearly the opposite results are shown to those obtained in the case of No. 10. The ethereal sulphates are not quite as constant in this instance, being very slightly less in the preservative and after periods than in the fore period. The percentage figures do not show any great variation, but, with one exception (total sulphates) show the same relations as the figures for actual amounts, namely, an increase in total sulphur and inorganic sulphates, and a decrease in total and ethereal sulphates.
No. 12 shows a slight increase in the amount of total sulphur excreted in the preservative period, and a further increase in the after period. There is a notable increase in the neutral sulphur and a slight decrease in the amount of inorganic sulphates (luring the preservative period, with an increase in both instances in the after period, as compared with the fore period. The ethereal sulphates in this case are again practically constant throughout the observation. The ratio shows very little change in the preservative period, though there is a slight tendency to increase it throughout. The percentage figures show an increase in the amount of neutral sulphur and a decrease in the other forms during the period in which formaldehyde was given, with a tendency to return to the conditions of the fore period in the after period, in all cases except that of ethereal sulphates, which continue to decrease.

SUMMARIES.

The data are first summarized for Nos. 1 to 6, who received the formaldehyde immediately after it was placed in the milk.
In the case of total sulphur, there is a very slight decrease in the excretion during the preservative period which is augmented during the after period. Individually this is shown in four out of the six cases for the preservative period. The neutral sulphur is also decreased during the preservative period and still further decreased during the after period. This change is also shown to have occurred in four out of tie six cases here averaged. The ethereal sulphates are practically- constant, a fact which was quite noticeable throughout the entire individual data, while the inorganic sulphates are slightly increased during the preservative period( and decreased during the after period. The average ratio of ethereal sulphates to the inorganic is 1 : 13.0 in the fore period, I : 13.3 in the preser\'atiVe period, and 1:12.5 in the after period(, a very slight d(lecrease in the excretion of the ethereal sulplhates in relation to the inorganic sulphates, which condition is reversed in the after period. There is a little over 1 per cent decrease in neutral sulphur show~ in the figures representingthe percentage excretion in the preservative period, and an increase of the same magnitude in inorganic and total sulphates, while the ethereal sulphates are practically the same throughout. During the






1856 INFLUE-N-CE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

after period there is a decrease in the percentage amounts of both the neutral and inorganic sulphates.
From the data in this table there is evidence of a slight tendency to derange the normal relations of the sulphur compounds, but not of a magnitude to warrant ascribing the change entirely to the effect of the preservative administered.
In the summary for Nos. 7, 10, 11, and 12, the subjects who received milk preserved two days with formaldehyde, there is no change in the total sulphur during the preservative period and a very slight increase during the after period. There is a notable increase in the quantity of neutral sulphur d(luring the preservative period, which occurs individually in three of the four subjects, while in the after period the average results show a decrease. The ethereal sulphates are constant throughout, while the inorganic sulphates show a slight decrease, rising again in the after period to a little larger quantity than in the fore period. The ratio conforms to these variations and is slightly smaller in the preservative period and larger in the after period.
In this summary there are also shown differences of slightly more than 1 per cent between the preservative and fore periods (ethereal sulphates excepted, which are again constant). The differences, however, are contrary to the results obtained for Nos. 1 to 6, the neutral sulphur being increased and the inorganic and total sulphates decreased. Thus, there is shown a difference to this extent between these two summaries under the conditions described, but from these data alone the difference is hardly of sufficient magnitude to be ascribed to the form in which the formaldehyde was administered.
The summary for the ten men who completed the experiment, and which is a combination of the above summaries, naturally shows practically no change in the distribution of these elements throughout the entire period of observation, inasmuch as the tendencies shown by the two groups counteract each other.
The only conclusion which can be drawn from the data is the slight tend(lency evidenced in the case of the formaldehyde-preserved milk to retard the )roteid metabolism. In this connection, it should be observed that thei balance sheets show an increased ingestion of sulphur in the preservative period, and also a decrease in the excretion of metabolized( nitrogen, and a marked increase in the phosphoric acid excreted in the urine.







FORMALDEHYDE. 1357


TABLE VI.- Urinte deferrminations-Rtatio of 1wcftriued sidphat>8 to e thrreald suiPhates and neural sujlphuir, Series IX.

[Averages are per day.]

..... .. .......
Results expressed in per cent
ToalNeu- th- nr Ratio of total sulphuir in termzs of
TtTotal tral Total rtel ganic reato
sul- sul- Sul- Sul- reul sul-, in o phur phur phur phates phates phate gancTota Ethe- Inoras S. as SO'2. as Jas S03 pas pats suli- t ri Il ota roal ganlic S 0 pat S s ul 4il- phtl.- ul suilphtsIhurl. p, phates. phates.

Fore period.
First subperfod: Gmns Gm8. Gins. Gras. G In8 G rn,. P.C1.. 11. P. r. P.
Total ......... 4.114 10. 27:3 1.174 9.0(99 0. 1 3 8.411; 1: 12. 3: 11. 43 8.-7 U~6 M9
Average ------- .823i 2. 055 .235 1.820 1:37 1 ~ .... . .....
Second subperiod.:
Average ........ .81S 2. 043 .225 1.81S .120 1.698 ........ ... ...
Entire fore period:
Total .......... 8.204 20.'485- 2.2 97 18.18S9 1.2,,,- 16. 9(4 1:13. 2 ,..
Average ........ .820 2.049 .230 1.89 .128, 1. t9Of..----- 11.21 'S.79 2 8,2.2
Presiervatitve period.
First subperlod:
Total ---------- 4.322 10.792 1.171 9. 621 NO0 9.,012 1:14.18 10., J.%5Cs!40..F,
Avera........ .864 2.18 .234 1.-924 .122 12 --------Total ........ 4-.423 11. 0441 943 10. 101' .598 9- -503 1:1-. 9 %..J4 91- 44 .41 o5,
A verage....... .8S 2 209 .189s 2.1)20' .120 1. 90p)__....,..,.,
Third aubperlod:
Total...... 4- 253 10.0120 982 9.638i 783 s 8$ 1: 11.3 i. 25 9117 7.7 8 _. 13. 38
Average.----- .8511 2.124 ]1 1, 928s .1.-7 1.771 ---. ----- .... .

Entire Vreservativ
Total .,...... 12. WJ8 32. 4.,# 3.096 29.360 1. 990 27. 370 1: 13-S8----Average ........ 1.867 2. 114 206 1.95.-7 .133 1.8Is2d..---- 9--"4 4t. 1;,v 3 4.:1:3
After period.

First subperiod:
Total ........... 4.087 10,205 1. 4110 8795 6017 8. 17-s 1:13.31 13.82 IS6f1I I.01 SO,13
Average....... .817 2.041 .28N2 1.75 123 1.613t ....
Second stbrlrod:
TotalI........... 3i.9%1 9j.8 .808 ,(is 08 .37 1.71 '13.l 8.23 !1.,77 649 8.2
Average........ .7S6 1.6 11 187 17 175,

Entire after period:
ToS.,.,. .1 2002 2.21 17.81 1 2-,4 lb .P)4 1:13,. i,
Average... w42 2.01W2 222 1. 780 12 1... 11.0s s. r2 6. 21 fill,








1358 TXIFLITENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE VII.- Urine determinations-Ratio of jreformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and neutral sulphur, Series IX-Continued.

[Averages ar, per day.]

1To. 2.

Results expressed in per cent Neu- Ratio of total sulphur in term of
Total Total tral Total Ethe- Inor- ethe- o s.
sul- sul- sul- sul- real ganie real to Period. phur phur phur phates sul- sl- inor- Neu- Ethe- Inora. as ua a Sa phates'phates, gaen eu- Total
as S as SO-. as as S O sul tral real ganic
S03-as S03. as S03. Sal- Sul-sl
phts sul- p s. Sul- SulSphates. ph plates. phates.

Fore period.
First subperiod: Gains. Gins. Gins. Gains. Gins. Gins. P. ct. P. (. P. ct. P. Ct.
Total _. ...... 5.095' 12.722 1.317 11.405 1.199 10.206 1:8.1" 10. 35 80.65. 9.42 80.23
Average....... 1.019 2.544 .263 2.281 .240 2.041 .....................................
Second subperiod:
Total ........... 4.908 12.255 1. 2G5 10.990 1.079 9.911 1:9.2 10. 32 89.68 8.80 80.88
Average........ 982 2.451 .253 2.198 .216 1.982. ................. ..............

Entire fore period:
Total.......... 10.003 24.977 2.582 22.395 2.278 20.117 1:8.8...... .... ......
Average....... 1.000 2.498 .258 2.240 .228 2.012........ 10.34 89. 9.12 80.54
Preservative period.
First subperiod:
Total......... .4. 630 11.561 .81 10.750 1.031 9.719 1:9.4 7.01 92.99 8. 92 84.07
Avera e ........ .926 2.312 .162 2.150 .206 1.944 ........ ...... ........ ........ ........
Second subperiod:
Total ........... 5.170 12.909 2.075 10.834 1.094 9.740 1:8.9 16.07 83.93 8.47 75.46
Average........ 1.034 2.582 .415 2. 167 .219 1.948 .............. ........ ..............
Third subperiod: I
Total........... 5.065 12.647 1.190 11.457 1.181 10.276' 1:8.7 9.41 90.59 9.34 81.25
Average....... 1.013 2.529 .~238 2.291 .236 2.055 ........ ... ...........
Entire preservative
period:
Total.......... 14.865 37.118 4.077 33.041 3.306 29.735 1:9.0.........................
Average ........ .991 2.475 .272 2.203 220 1.982........10.98 89.02 8.92 8010

After period.
First subperiod:
Total........... 5.107 12.752 1.720 11.032 1.22f 9.806i 1:8.0 13.49 86.51 9.61 76.90
Average ........ 1.021 2.550 .344 2.20 .245 1. ........ ...... ....... ........ ........
Second subperiod:
Total........... 5.153 12.867 1.136 11.731 1.095 10.636 1:9.7 8.83 91.17 8.51 82.66
Average........ 1.031 2.573 .227 2.346 .219 2.127 ..................... ...............

Entire after period:
Tota......... 10.260 25.619 2.856 22.763 2.321 20.442 1
Average........ 1.026 2.562 .286 2.276 .232 2.044 ........ 11.15 88.85 9.06 79.79







FORMALDEHYDE. 1359


TABLE VII.-Urine determtinations-Ratio Of pref'ormed suiphates to ethereal suiphates and neutral sulphutr, Soeries IXV-Cntinued.

[Averages are per day.1

]Yco. 3.


Ratio Result. expre-tsse(d in pe~r cent I Neu- o (f Total sulphur in terms.- of
Tota Totl tal TtalEthe- Inor- ethe- S
Tota Totl tal Ttalreal garlic realI to Period.Sul- Suil- Sul- Sul- sul- Sul- IMrphur phur phur phate-spae ht"gl 1CNeu- oz Ete Inr
as S. as SO. a sSO3. pas ph3.as3 gtil- TotaISil rEte I ao1r
as3 SOatseO. sul sill l 'III- stiph, ph ates p1I(SIhates. phates.


Fore period.
First subperiod: Gm8. Gins. Gins. Gins. Gins. Gns. P. It. P. cI P. I P. I't.
Total ....... 4.807 12.003 1.118 10.8W5 0.6f 32 10.23, 1:16,2 9.31 90.69 1, .7 2 s5.42
Average........ .961 2.401 .224 2. 177 .12(1 2.051........... ...... ... .......
Second eubperiod:
Ttal ------- 4.964, 12.395 1.740 10.655 .621 10. 034 1:16. 2 14.04 '5 5.1i .
Average......... .993 2. 479 .348 2. 131 124 2.007 .... ..........
Entire foreperiod:
Tot..... 9. 771' 24. 398 2.8568 21.540 1 ,253 20. 287 1:16 2 ..
Average ..........977 2.440 .286 2.1 5 4 .125 2.0(219 ........ 11.71 $2!; .14 83.
Preservative period.
First subperlod:
Tota~l..........4.777 11.928 .478 .45 651.2 :73 40 95. 99 52 07
Avere ----- 955 2. 386 .096' 22190 .125 2.D6, ....
Total .......... 4.844 12.095 1. 370' 10.725 .626 10. 109 1:D;.1 11.33 I6 3.1 8349
Average ........ .969 2.419 .274 2. 145 .125 2.0Q20...................
Third subperiod:
Average ...........903 2.254 .200) 2.054 .129j 1. 925...........
Entire0ANreservatlve
TotaL,.,. 14. 134 35.293 2.85 <)32. 443 1.,895 30.4,481 1:16,.. ....
Average.,.. .942 2.353 .190 2. 166 .126 2. (37: 9.... 8.0 91.2 33 65
After period.
First aubperlod:9j
Total .......... 4.93 12.318 1.4070 10.918 CA58S 10.21)0 1:15.6o 11.3 7 886 5.3 %%3.2_9
Average ........ .987 2.,464 .280O 2.18S4 .132 2.o52 .... ....... ........
Second subperlod:
Total .......... 1 4.712 11.,760A 9Q3 10.8S03 .701 10.10(2 1:141,4 818% 91.8s2 5.96 v58I
Average ........ .942 2.353 .192 2. 161 .140 2021 ..,...,........,.

Entire after period:
Total ........... 9. 645 24. 0814 2.363i 21.721 1. 3 -9 2(1 .2 113 )..,.,,,,
Averge .... 965 2.,408' .236o 2. 172 136l 2.036o)....... 9,1.s 90.-19) 1, t4
.. ..._ _.......... ......._ .... ...._......... ...... ..... .. ....... .







1360 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE VII.-Urne (dterinations-Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal slphates and neuttral sulphur, Series IX-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]
1To. 4-.

Results expressed in per cent
Neu- I Ratio of total sulphur in terms of
Total Total trial Ethe- Inor- ethe- SO.
Total otal tral Total real ganic real to
Period. sul- sul- s ul- sul- sul- inorphur phur phur plates phates phates ganie Neu- Total Eth- InorasS. asSOS. as as S03. as SO3. as SO3. sul- l ulSul_ ral
sS03! s- u -Sl80s. phates.1sl phates.. sul- sl
plates phur. phates. phates.

Fore period.
First subperiod: Gms. Gins. Gms. Gins. Gms. Gins. P. ct. P. ct. P. ct. P. ct.
Total.......... 4.367 10.904 0.462 10.442 0.742 9.700 1:13.1 4.24 95.76 6.80 88.96
Average ....... .873 2.181 .092 2.088 .148 1.940 ........ ...... ........................
Second subperiod:
Total........... 4.933 12.318 1.042 11.276 .729 10.547 1:14.5 8.&46 91.54 5.92 85.62
Average ........ .987 2.464 .208 2.255 .146 2.109 ........ ...... ................ ........

Entire fore period:
Total........... 9.300 23.222 1.504 21.718 1.471 20.247 1:13.8 ....... ........
Average........ .930 2.322 .150 2.172 .147 2.025........ 6.48 93.2 6.33 87.19
Preservative period.
First subhperiod:
Total .......... 5.097 12.727 1.050 11.677 .682 10.995 1:16.1 8.25 91.75 5.36 86. 39
Average ....... 1.019 2.545 .210 2.335 .136 2.199.............. ........................
Second subperiod:
Total........... 4.8521 12.115 1.201 10.914 .728 10.186 1:14.0 9.91 90.09 6.01 84.08
Average ....... .970 2.423 .240 2.183 .146 2.037 .............. ........................
Third subtperiod:
Total .......... 4.944 12.343 1.324 11.021 .671 10.350 1:15.4 ...... .....-......-... .......
Average .........989 2.469 .265 2.204 .134 2.070 ........ 10.78 89.28 5.44 83.84
Entire preservative
period:
Total........... 14.893 37.187 3.575 33.612 2.081 31.531 1:15.2..............................
Average........ .993 2.479 .238 2.241 .139 2.102........ 9.61 90.39 5. 84.79
After period.
First subperiod:
Total........... 4.680 11.686 .976 10.710 .669 10.041 1:15.0 8.35 91.65 5.72 85.93
Average........ .936 2.337 .195 2.142 .134 2.008 ........ ....... ........
Second subperiod:
Total .......... 4.458 11.132 .761 10.371 .714 9.657 1:13.5 .............................
Average........ 892 2.226 .152 2.074 .143 1.931........ 6.84 93.16 6.41 8.75

Entire after period:
Total .......... 9.138 22.818 1.737 21.081 1.383 19.698 1:14.2......................
Average ....... .914 2.282 .174 2.108 138 1.970 ........ 7.61 92.39 6. 06 86.33







FORM.NALDEHYDE. 1,361


TAL VII.- Urine determinations-Ratio of preformed sulphates to e'thereal slpbhls and neutral sulphur, Serie s !X -('ontinued,

[Averages are por dfay.j



Rai esults express ed in per cent
Neu Raio of total slphultr inl terms of
Totl Tta tNle Tta Ethe- Inor- ethe- so3
'Totl Totl ul sutal realI ganic real to
phur phur phur phates sul- sub fle~ Neu- Tt l Ethle- I noras S. as 803. as as 803. phates phates gani kral oa real ganwi
S03. as SO-. as 803. sul- sil- sll S111 SillI phates, p~hates.phts hte

Fore period.
First subperlod: (Ims. Gms. Gms. Gm.. Gins. Gals. P. ct P. I t P. 0 11.
Total ...... 3. 863 9.64A6 0.849 S. 797 0. 470 S.327 1:17. 9 91.2 .7 .3
Average .......,. .773 1. 9291 .170, 1.759 .094 1.665 ---- ----------------Second subperod.
Total ........... 4. 306 10. 752 1.471 9. 281 .583 S.648 1: 14.91 13.6 832 .42 u0
Average....... .861 2.150 .294 1.85st .117 1.740)-------............

Entire fore period:
Tota ...... 8.169 20.398, 2.320 18.078 1. 053 17.025 1:16. 2..... ........ ........
Average ...........817 2. 040; .232 1.8 08 .105 1.7402 ........ 11.37 1 5.16 ~47

Preservative period.
First subperiod: a 1:33 lt 642 .I
Total .......... 3.686 9.2041 66C 8428 59C
Avrg ---- .737 1.841 .153 1.8 .118s 1. 51 9....................
Total........... 3.781 9.441 .830 8.61 .ilI 652 7.9159 1: 12,.2 s. 7; 91.21 ". 91 4:i30
Average ........ .756, 1888 .166 1.722 .130 1.9 ----- --- .. ... ....
Third subperlod:
Toa ..... 3.704 9.249 .956- 8.293 .591' 7.702 1: 13. 1 10).4 A 9.6 ho 61.311 8327
Average ........ .741 1.8S50 .191 1. 659 ~118s 1. 540

Entire reservativeI
Tota.......... 11.171 27.894 2.552~ 25. 34 2 1.834 2:3.708s 1:12.........,.,.,.
Averge ....... .745; 1. 860 .17-0 1. 689 ,122 1. 567.-------9.1 F) $ .3 42
After period.

Total ....... 3.464 8.65 .277 .21118321 jN 7. .-i4 G9.
Average -- 693 1.,730 055 1.6t 75 ,13 1.,5'44 .... .... -- -Second subpeuiod:
Total,,. .... '4.131 10.315 .91S 9.397 .628 8. 769 1:14.0) f.~ o1.1 'it ,
Avera(........ K821 2. (P 3 .184 1.8179 .126 1.754 ...

Enti re after pe riod:
Total ...,...... 7_54;% 1 ". 916 1.195 17.,7701 1. 24 4904 1: 12. 97: I.i
A verge......,.. .760 1,8916 .120 1. 777 .12S 1 11.3o 3US







1362 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TA.BLE VII.-Urine determinations-Ratio of preformned sulphates to ethereal sulphates and neutral sulphur, Series IX-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]
No. 6.

1Results expressed in per cent
Neu- Ratio of total sulphur in terms of
Total Total tral Ethe- Inor- ethe- SO.
Sul tl Sul Total real ganic real to
Periosul- sul- sulphr hu pursu- ul s a-ni~l Neu- .. rte- anorPeriod. phur phur ph u phates phates phates ga Tot Ethe- Inora s a s s u enT
S 03. as 83. as S03. as 83. Sul- .a Sul- ra I u!80as phateS phates. Sl- Sulp ephur. p phates. phates.

Fore period.
First subperiod: Gms. Gms. Gins. Gins. Gins. Gms. P. Ct. P. ct. P. Ct. P. ct.
Total........... 3.810 9.514 1.108 8.406 0.627 7.779 1:12.4 11.65 88.35 .59 81.7
Average........ .762 1.903 .222 1. 681 .125 1.56 ........ .......... ...........
Second subperiod:
Total.......... 4.383 10.944 1.190 9.754 .586 9.168 1:15.6 10.87 89.13 5.35 83.78
Average........ .877 2. 189 238 1.951 .117 1.834 ...................................

Entire fore period:
Total.......... 8.193 20.458 2.298 18.160 1.213 16.947 1:14.0 ..................... ........
Average........ .819 2.046 .230 1.816 .121 1.695.......11.23 88.77 5.93 82.84
Preserrative period.
First subperiod.
Total........... 4.041 10.090 .621 9.469 .471 8.99S 1:19.1 6.15 93.85 4.67 88.18
Average........ .808 2.018 .124 1.894 .094 1.800
Second su period:
Total..........3.834 9.573 .689 8.884 .494 8.390 1:17.0 7.2 92.80 5.16 87.64
Average........ .7(7 1.915 .138 1.777 .099 1.678 ....... .. ............... .......
Third subperiod:
Total..........3.885 9.701 .710 8.991 .603 8.388 1:13.9 7.32 92.68 6.22 86.46
Average........ 777 1.940 .142 1.798 .121 1.677 ....... .......................
Entire preservative
period:
Total.......... 11.760 29.3M5 2.021 27.344 1.568 25.776 1:16.4 .......... ........ ........
Average ........ .784 1.958 .135 1.823 .105 1.718 ........ 6.88 93.12 5.34 87.78

After period.
First subperiod:
Total.......... 3. 546 8.854 .481 8.373 .551 7.822 1:14.2 5.43 94.57 6.22 88.35
Avera g........ .709 1.771 .090 1.675 .110 1.565.... .............. ........ ........
Second su period:
Total.......... 3.726 9.304 .743 8.561 .599 7.962 1:13.3 7.99 92.01 6.44 85.57
Average........ .745 1.81 .149 1.712 .120 1.592 ......... ....... ........
Entire after period:
Total ...... 7.272 18.158 1.224 16.934 1.150 15.784 1:13. 7 ........ ..........
Average........ 727 1.816 .123 1.693 .115 1.578........ 6.74 93.26 6.33 86.93
xv~~~~~ ra ....... 1 ......







FORMALDEHYDE. 1363

TABLE VII.- Urine determinations-Ratio of preformed suilphates to ethereal sul phates
and neutral sulphur, Series IX-0 0ntinud.

[Averages are per day.
No. 7.

Results expressed in per cent
Neu-Ratio of total iulphur in terms of
Total Total trial Total Ethe- Inor- ethe- su,
sol Totl ul subal real ganic real to Period.Sul- Sul- Sul- SulPeriod.sul- sul- inorphur phur phur phateS esNeu- 'otal Ethe- Inoras S. as SO. as as SO3 ph.as SO h.ast0. gl- ra bul real gmnie
S03. as[I s O.~l- u-sl- uLl80s. _phates. 'hr phates. p s. plates.


Fore period.
First subperiod: Gms. Gms. Gms. Gms. Gms. Gims. P. TotaL........... 4.608 11.506 0.762 10.744 0.716 10.028 1:14.0 t.62 9..3 ti22 87.16
Average ........ .922 2.301 .152 2.149 .143 2.006i............... ........ ........ ........
Secod superiod:
Total.......*.... 4.608 11.506 .762 10.744 .716 10.028 1:14.0 6.62 !1.0: ti.22 87'. 16
Average........ .922 2.301 .152 2.149 .143 2.M........... ................ ........
Entire fore period:
Total.......... 9.216 23.012 1.524 21.488 1.432 20.05t6 1:14.0.........................
Average....... .922 2.301 .152 2.149 .143 2.006.........t.62 8:> 6.22 87.16
Preservative period.
First subperiod:
Total........... 4.621 11.539 .922 10.617 .745 9.872 1:13.3 7.99 92.01 .46 55
Average........ .924 2.308 .185 2.123 .149 1.974 ........ ...... ........ ....
Second subperiod:I I
Total ......... 4. 560 11. 38i 1.135 10. 251 .785 9.466 1:12.1 9.97 ). 013 t.89 Ki. 14
Average........ .912 2.277 .227 2.050 .157 1.893........ ...... ......................
Third subperiod:
Total .......... 4.374 10.922 1.380 9. 542 .76 8. 786 1:11.6 12- A-4 S7. 3I 6.92 80.44
Average........ .875 2.184 .27ti 1.908 .151 1.757 ..................... ... ........
Entire preservative
period:
Total...... 13.555 33.847 3.437 30.410 2.286 28.124 1:12.3
Average.. .904 2.256 .229 2.027 .152 1.875 10.1I 89.8 6.75 $3.10
After period.

First subperiod:
Total.......... 4.244 10.597 1.083 9.5141 .679 8.N35 1:13.0 10.22 S. 6.4 .37
Average ........ .849 2.119 .216 1.903 136 1.-f7 ....... .... ...... ........ ....
Second subperiod:
Total........... 4.599 11.484 .794 10. 690 .77I 9.919 1:12.9 i. 91 93.09 o.I 71 0.3
Average ........ .920 2.'29 V .159 2, 13S I. 14 1. 4 ........ ...... . . .... .
Entire after period.
Total ........... 8.843 22.081 1.877 20.204 1.4.-0) 18.754 1:12.9
Average........ .884 2..145 1 .1 t2.17 M.:3







18364 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE VII.- Urine determinations-Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and neutral sulphur, Series IX-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]
:No. 8.

Results expressed in per cent
Neu- Ratio of total sulphur in terms of
Total Total tral Total Ethe- Inor- ethe- SOs.
Sb sb gncreal to ________sPeriod. phur phur pbur plates Sl sul- inor- Neu- Ethe- InorPeriod. phur phur phur pha~ hates phates ganic trial al g ic
as S. as SO3. as as S as SO3. as SOa. sul- sul sul- real gani aOs S0.asS3-Sl-Sl SO. phates. phu phates. p p
phur.phates. phates.

Fore period.
First subperiod: Gins. Gins. Gins. Gms. Gs. Gms. P. ct. P. P. ct. P. ct.
Total........... 5.560 13.883 0.951 12.932 0.524 12.408 1:23.7 6.85 93.15 3.77 89.38
Average........ 1.112 2.777 .190 2.586 .105 2.482 ..................................
Second subperiod:
Total.......... 5.526 13.798 1.399 12.397 .432 11.965 1:27.7 10.16 89.84 3.13 86.71
Average........ 1.105 2.760 .280 2.479 .086 2.393 ........ ...... ........ ................
Entire fore period:
Total..........11.086 27.682 2.350 25.329 -956 24.373 1:25.5 ...... ........................
Average........ 1.109 2.768 .235 2.533 .096 2.437 ........ 8.50 91.50 3.4 5 88.05
Preservative period.
First subperiod:
Total .......... 5.481 13.686 1.041 12.545 .418 12.127 1:29.0 8.34 91.66 3.05 88.61
Average........ 1.096 2.737 .208 2.509 .084 2.425 .............................. ......
Second subperiod:
Total........... 5.641 14.086 1.185 12.901 .421 12.480 1:29.6 8.41 91.59 2.99 88.60
Average........ 1.128 2.817 .237 2.580 .084 2.496 ........ ..............................
Entire preservative
period:
Total.......... 11.122 27.772 2.326 25.446 .839 24.607 1:29.3.........................
Average........ 1.112 2.777 .232 2.545 .084 2.461........ 8.38 91.62 3.02 88.60







FORMALDEHYDE. 1365


TABI.EVII.- Urine determnat~ors-Ratio of preformeiwd siphates to the real suilphates and neut ral sulphur, Seriecs IX-('4rntinued.

[Averages are per day.]
No). 10.

Results expressed in) Tier cet'l
Neu- ato of total sulphuin emso
Totl Ttaltra ToalEthe- Inor- etheTotal Totl ual Toul real ganic realI to_____ _Pfd.phur phur phur phates Bs- 8U1- Etw Neii
as a SS. s aSO phates plates gamel TotalEh- nas S as S3. asaS3as S3. as so_3. sui- trl Sul- r(t'aI gaie

Foe erod pats.phur. phates. phates.


First subperiod: Gms. Gins. Gins. Gms. Gins. Gins.Pc P. 0- P'. f. P. If.,
Total........... 5. (t68 14.,53 1.554 12. 599 0.752 11.8S47 1:15. S 10). 9, Y1.0ti2 i I 83. -71
Average ........ 1.134 2.831 .311 2.520 .154) 2.369 ....... .......... ........ ........
Second subperiod:

Average ........ 1 101 2.750 .301 2.449, 163 2.287 ........... ....... ................

Entire fore period:
'~Total-------11. 175 27.904 3.0,59 24.845 1. 565 23. 84), 1: 149................
A verage ........ 1.118 2.790 .306 2. 4s4 .15o 2.328 ........9 S9. (4 3.1 34 3

Preservative period.
First subperiod:
Total,....... 5.5851 13.946i 1.551 12.395 .750) 11. 645 1:1.5. 5 11,1 -).0
average .... -- 1.117 2.789 .310 2. 479 .150 2.3219...............
Total .......... 5.493 13.716 1.309 12.347 .788 I 15 59 1:14.7 9. ko L02I..75284,27
A verage ........ 1.099 273 .7 .49 15% .1
Third subperiod: 274 .74 249 18 231
Total ........... 5.0 76 12. 675 1.347 11.328 .834 10).494 1: 12. 6 10).6 s93 i3 2.9
A verage ........ 1.015 2. 535 .269 2.2w; .167 2.019!4. ......... ..............

Entire Xreservative

Total ........... 16.154 40.337 4.,267 36. 070 2.372 33 COS 1:14. 2......... ..........
Average ....... 1. 077 2.6G89 .284 2.405 .15s 2. 247 ....... 10(.5 s9.42 3. 354

After period.
First subperlod:
Total ........ 5,496 13.724 1.240 12.4184 .8,17 11.C-67 1:14.:) 9,04l 90!,9 5I9 I I0
A v e rag e .. .. .. 1.099Y 2. 74 5 .24TS 2. 497 .1 16 3 2.33. .. ..3.. .
Tota,.._..,-- :397 13. 476 1.15 12.311, .731 11. -k87 1L15.9 1 11 41
Average ..... .. 1.079 2. 69,5 12 2 2.46 -P .146 2,3 17..... .. .....
Entire after period.
Total....a...,... 10.,893 27.,200 2. 398 24.s02 1.5.-48l 23 2:4 1.-,. 0. .......
Average .......4 1.089s! 2.720) .240 2.480 .15,7 2,2.... )2,, 2 91. 1 1 1,9 854V








1366 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE VII.- Urine detexminations-Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and neutral sulphur, Series IX-Continued.

[Averages are per day.]

No 1.

Results expressed in per cent
Neu- Ethe- Ratio of total sulpbur in terms of
Neu Ehe-'iInor- ethe- SO
Total Total tral Total real ganic real to S .
sul- sul- sul- sulPeriod. phur phur phur phates sul- sul- inor- Neu- Ethe- Inoras S. as SOs. as as hates hates ga c tral Total real ganime
so.as SO3. as SO3. ps. si- sni
SOa. h sul- h sul- sulphtes.~ phate
p te.phur. p te'phates. phates.
w1
Fore period.
First subperiod: mGins. Gins. Gins. Gins. Gins. Gins. P. ct. P. ct. P. Ct. P. ct.
Total ........... 4.328 10.807 1.221 9.586 0.G606 8.980 1:14.8 11.30 88.70 5.61 83. 09
Average........ .866 2.161 .244 1.917 .121 1.796 ........ .............. ........ ........
Second subperiod:
Total .......... 4.5S6 11.451 1.448 10.003 .656 9.347 1:14.2 12.65 87.35 5.73 81.62
Average......... .917 2.290 .290 2.001 .131 1.869.................................

Entire fore period:
Total ......... 8.914 22.258 2.669 19.589 1.262 18.327 1:14.5 ........ ........ ........
Average........ .891 2.22ti .267 1.959 .126 1. 833........ 11.99 88.01 5.67 8 2.34
Preser atire period.
First subperiod: 44
Total .......... 4.50 11.25i 1.404 9.852 .605 9.247 1:15.3 12.47 87.53 5.37 82.16
Average........ .902 2.251 .281 .970 121 1.849 ........ ...... ....... ................
Second subperiod:
Total........... 4.834 12.070 1.50V 10.564 .620 9.944 1:16.0 12.48 87.52 5.14 82.38
Average........ .967 2.414 .301 2.113 .124 1.989 ..................... ................
Third subperiod:I .577 1:17.8 1191 88 83.41
Total........... 4.598 11.481 1.317 10.114 .537 9.577 1:17.8 11.91 88.00 4.68 83.41
Average........ ..920 2.296 .273 2.023, .107 1.915 .....................................
Entire preservative
Period: I
Total.......... 13.940 34.808 4.278 30.530 1.762 28. 768 1:16.3 .........................
Average.........929 2.321 .285 2.03 .117 1.918........12.29 87.71 5.06 82.65
After period.
First subperiod:
Total ........... 4.839 12.083 1.255 10.828 .624 10.204 1:16.4 10.39 89.61 5.16 84.45
Average.... ... 968 2.417 .251 2.16(1I .125 2.041 .............. ........................
Second subperiod.
Total........... 4.657 11.629 .;530 11.099' .559 10.540 1:18.9 4.56 95.44 4.81 90.63
Average ........ 931 2.326 .10i 2.220 .112 2. 10 ........ ....... ........ ........
Entire after pwriod2 1
Total ........... 9.491 23.712 1.785 21.927 1.183 20.744 1:175 .. ........ .... ... ........
Average ........ .950 2.371 .178 2.193 .118 2074........7.53 92.47 4.99 87.48







FORMALDEH YDE. 1367


TABLE VII.- Urine deterininat ions- Rat(*( of preforlmed suplplwtes to ethe reztl suiphate sp and neutral sulphur, Series IX-Conmtinued.

[Averages are per day.I

No-c. 12.


Ratio Re-sultsz expwsed- InI pr- enft Neu- 1f toa4 upu ntrso
Total Total tral Total rtel Ianr- j eto
Perod.1u- Sul- Sul- Sul- rUl gncrelt
phur phur ptrnr phates s u~ Neun- Etliw- Inoras S. as S03. as as SO3- phte phates gamt c tral Totalll(
asoS)-, ;IsO, su1 Sl- mll rea gan
S03. phates. p~h r. phates. phltes Iphates.


Fore period.
First subperlod: Gms. Gins. Gins. Gins. G insq. G in, P. t. P. a. P. P. 1
Tota ......... 5.083 12.11W2 1. 140 11 -5612 0. 6q7 1W.81 1sf. 8.0) 91.10 549 8511
Average ....... 1.017 2. 538 226 2.312 .1319 2. 17:1....3....... ........
Second subperiod:
Total .......... 4.4:39 11.084 1.454 9.(60 .75 8,. o0 1-11-8 1:3.12 NI I..7 %'IN11
Average....... S888 2.217 291 1. 9261 1 LA) 1. 7t1.................... ...

Entire fore period:
Total .......... 9.522 23. 7 76 2.584 21. 192' 1. 447 19.745 I:13.11
Average ...........952 2.378 .258 2. 119 .145 1. 974 ..... 10(.8s7 S-4 1., 6. 1 F; 1)

Preservattve period,
First subperiod:
Tota........... 4.881 12.188S 1.458 10.730 .721 10(.009 1 :13.91 11. 90; (.4 5.92 s2.12
Average .... .9706 2.43842S 2.146) .144 2.00x 2 ...
Total.---------- 4. 601 11. 501 1.285 10.216 t0172 9.5-44 1:14. 2 11. 17, 8.3 58 29
A verage ........ .921 2.300) .257 2. 04:3 .134 1. 91 --Third subperiod:
Tota ........... 5.077 1211f77 2.00s 10.6419 .757)- 9 912 1: 13 1 1,.,4 %A 84. ltip 59 819
Average ........ 1.015 2. 53 5 .401 2. 134 .)51 1 IS2 ...

Entire reservative

Total .......... 14.564 36.364' 4. 7 1 31.11115 2.1 5o 2,9.4415 1:37,
Average ...... .971 2.424 :316 2. 10* 143 1. 961 5 .... 13._ (" 8 1 ,4, (A
After period.
First subperlocl:
Total....,. 4,995 12-47:3 1388 11.085- .113 ]10.40)2 1:15 2 11,.1 88* .
Average ....... .999 2. 495 .278 2.217 .137 2.100 ...........,
Second subperiod:
Total .......... 4.95O6 12.37.5 1. 22 1 11.154 D7o3 I1I.3i91 1:13.6 U8 90.1 i. 17 I, I
Average.. .,. .91 2. 4 75 244 2.231 .73 2. 07 ,,.,,,..

Entire after period.
Tot.al ...,. 9. 951 24. 848 2WO9 22 239 1 4416211-20. i1.; 1.14 4
Average. !0.95 ?48 .-6 261 2 224 .145 20179 .. 105 90 .2 S








1368 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

TABLE VII.- Urine deterninatis-Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates
and neutral sulphur, Series IX-Continued.

SUMMARIES.
[Averages are per man per day.]

Nos. 1 to (6.

Results expressed in per cent
Neu- Ratio of total sulphur in terms of
-N u tne- 1nor- ethe- S s
Total Total tral Total Etle- Inor- ethe- so.
u,,I su- sul- sul- real ganic real to .Sul Sul Suu- s uOlerio phur phur phur phates phtes phtes ni Neu- Total Ethe- Inoras S. asSOs. as as SOs.phas p8s gaul tral _u- real ganic
So ~ as S03. as S03. Sul Sul1~
80.phates Sul- phates. Su- Sl
.. . .... .........

Fore period.
First subhperiod: Gins. Gas. G s. Gms. Gms. Gins. P.ct. P. d. P. ct. P. td.
Total ........... 26.056 65.062 6. V28 59.034 4.353 54.681 1:12.6 9.127 90.73 6.69 84.04
Average........ .869 2.169 .201 1.968 .145 1.823 .............. ......... ............
Second subperiod:
Total.......... 27.584 68.877 7.831 61.046 4.200 56.846 1:13.5 11.37 88.63 6.10 82.53
Average........ .919 2.296 .261 2.035 .140 1.895 .............. .......... ........ .......

Entire fore period:
Total.......... 53.640133.93913.859120.080 8.553111.527 1:13.0 ...... ........ ........
Average ....... .894 2.232 .231 2.001 .143 1.859........ 10.35 89.65 6.39 83.26
Preserratire period.
First subperiod:
Total ........... 26.553 66.303 4.898 61.405 4.009 57.396 1:14.3 7.39 92.61 6.T05 86. 56
Average........ .885 2.210 .163 2.047 .134 1.913........ ...... ....... ........ ........
Second subperiod:
Total .......... 26.904 67.179 7.110 60.069 4.192 55.877........ ........................
Average ....... 897 2.239 .237 2.002 .140 1. 863 1:13.3 10.-8 89. 42 6. 24 83.18
Third subperiod:
Total.......... 26.364 615.831 6.163 59.66(8 4.473 55.195........ ...... ........ ........ ........
Average........ .879 2.194 .205 1.989 .149 1.840 1:12.3 9.36 90.64 6.79 83.85

Entire preservative
period:
Total.......... 79.821 199.313 18.171 181.142 12.674 148.468 1:13.3 .............. ........ ........
Average........ .887 2.215 .202 2.013 .141 1.872 ........ 9.12 90.88 6.36 84.52

After period.
First subperiod:
Total.......... 25.817 64.465 6.264 58.201 4.373 53.828 1:12.3 9.72 90.28 i.78 83.50
Average ........ .861i 2.149 .209 1.940 .146 1.794 ....... .............................
Second subperiod: 1 9
TotaL ....... 26.111 65.199 5.328 59.871 4374 55.497, 1:12. 7 8.17 91.83 6.71 8K5. 12
Average....... .870 2.173 .177 1.996 .146 1. 850........ ...... ........ ........ ........

Entire after period:
Total .......... 51. 9 28 129. 664 11.592 118.072 8.747 10.32 112.5 ...... ........ ........ ........
Average........ .865 2.11 .193 1.968 .146 1. 822.......j 8.94 91.06 6.75 84.31







FORMALDEHYDE. 1369


TABLE VII.-Urine determina tions-Ratio of preformed sulphates to ethereal sulphates and neutral sulphur, Series IX-Continued.

SUMMARIES-Continued.
[Averages are per man per day.]

11Tos. 7, 10, 11, and 12.

Results expressed in per cent
Neu- Ratio of total sulphur in terms of
Total Total tral Total Ethe- Inor- ethe- so3.
sul- sul- sul- sul- real ganic real to Period. I sul- sul- inorphur phur phur ptes sp plates gai Neu- Total Ethe- Inoras S. as S03a. as as sSO s SOc su trl sul- real ganic
S0. phates,. Su phates, stl- slphur. phate plates. phates.


Fore period.
First subperiod: OGins. Gins. Gras. Gms. Gas. Gms. Pa.ct P. t. P. t. P. t.
Total.......... 19.687 49.158 4.667 44.491 2.771 41.720 1:15.1 9.49 90.51 5. (4 84.87
Average ........ .984 2.458 .233 2.225 .139 2. 086 ..........
Second subperiod:
Total........... 19.140 47.7935.17042623 2.93539.688 1:13.5 10.82 89.18 ti.14 83.04
Average........ .957 2.390 .258 2.131 .147 1.984 ....... ......
Entire lore period:
Total......... 38.827 96.951 9.837 87.114 5.700i 81.408 1:14.3
Average........ .971 2.424 .246 2.178 .143 2.035........ 10.15 89.85 5.89 83.9
Preservative period.
First subperiod:
Total .......... 19.595 48.929 5.335 43.594 2.821 40.773 1:14.5 10.90 89.10 5.77 83.33
Average ........ .980 2.446 .267 2.180 .141 2.039........ .....................
Second subperiod:
Total........... 19.493 48.674 5.296 43.378 2.865 40.513 ........ ...... ...... ..
Average ........ .975 2.434 .2165 2. 169 .143 2.026 1:14. 1 10. 89. 12 5.89 83.23
Third subperiod:
Total ........... 19.125 47.755 6.102 41.653 2.884 38. 7t69 .. ... ..... ..
Average ........ .956 2.388 .305 2.083 .144 1.938 1:13.4 12.78 87.'22 6.04 81.18
Entire preservative
period:
Total .......... 58213145.358 16.73312. (25 8.570120.(0 1:14.0....- .
Average....... .970 2.423 .279 2.144 .143 2. 001...... 11. 1 88.49 .90 .s_.9
After period.
First subperiod:
Total .......... 19.5.74 48.876 4.965 43.911 2. 803 41. 108 1:14.7 10. 1 G 89.54 % 73 R4. 11
A verage ........ .979 2. 444 .248 2. 19f 140 2. 0: ------ - ....... .......
Second subperiod.
Total .......... 19.609 48.964 3.703 45.261 2.824j 42.437 1:1.0 7.5t 92.44 577 8.7
Average ........ .980 2. 448 .18 2.233 .l141 2. 122
Entire after period:
Total ... ....... 39.183 97.840 .(iGN 89. 172 5. 627 83._.45 1,14. ......
Average....... 980 2.441 .217 2.' .141 2.089.... 9114 .75 M..9

4 -I.ul 84. t v--.-.---.
4429-Bull S4, p~tv







1370 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE VIL.- Urine determinations-Ratio of preformed suiphates to ethereal sulphates
and neutral sulphur, Series IX-Continued.
SUMMARIES-Continued.
[Averages are per man per day.]
Nos. 1 to 12 (omnitting 8 an~d 9).

Results expressed in per cent
-Neu- Ratio of total sulphur in terms of
Total Total trial Total Ethe- Inor- ethe- SOu.
sul- sul- sul- sul- real ganic real to
Period. Sul- sul- inorphur phur phur phates phates phates ganic Nen- Total Ethe- Inoras S. as SO3. as as as as SO. sul- trial l- real gani
S. phates. u hates a
phur. hates. phates.

Fore period.
First subperiod: Gns. Gins. Gma. Gms. Gins. Gins P. Total .......... 45.743114.22010.695103.525 7.124 96.401 1:13.5 9.36 90.64 6.24 84.40
Average .... .915 2.284 .214 2.070 .142 1.928 ........ ................
Second subperiod:
Total.......... 46.724116.67013.001103.669 7.135 96.534 1:13.5 11.14 88.86 6.12 82.74
Average ........ .934 2.333 .260 2.073 .143 1.931 ........ ...... ........ ........ ........

Entire fore period:
Total ... ...., 92.467230.89023.696207.194 14.259192.935 ........ .....-. .....-............
Average........ .925 2.309 .237 2.072 .143 1.929 1:13.5 10.2 89.74 6.18 83.56

Preservative period.
First suibperiod:
Total ........... 46. 148'115. 232 10. 233 104. 999 6. 830 98. 169 1:14. 4 8.88 91. 12 5.93 85.19
Average........ .923 2.305 .205 2.100 .137 1.963 ................. .......
Second subperiod:
Total ........... 46. 397'115. 85 12. 406 103. 447 7. 057 96. 390 1:13. 7 10. 71 89.29 6.09 83. 20
Average ........ .928 2.317 .248 2.06(9 .141 1.928 ........ ...... ........ ........ ........
Third subperiod:
Total.......... 45.489113.586 12.25 101.321 7.357 93.964 1:12.8 10.80 89.20 6.48 82.72
Average ........ .910 2.272 .245 2.026 .147 1.879 ........ ....- ........ ..............

Entire preservative
period:
Total ........... 138. 034 344. 671 34. 904 309. 767 21.244 288.523 ............., ........ ........
Average......... .920 2.298 .233 2.065 .142 1.923 1:13.6 10.13 89.87 6.16 83.71

After period.
First subperiod:
Total ....... 45.391113.34111.229102.112 7.176 94.936 1:13.2 9.91 90.09 C.33 83.76
Average........ .908 2.267 .225 2.042 .143 1.899-..-....
Second subperiod:
Total........... 45.720114.163 9.031105.132 7.198 97.934 1:13.6 7.91 92.09 6.31 85.78
Average ........ .914 2.283 .181 2.103 .144 1.959 ......-. ..

Entire after period:
Total ..........91. 111 227. 504 20. 260 207. 244 14.374192.870 ........ ....
A vra ......... 911 2. 275 .203 2. 072 .144 1.929 1:13.4 8.91 91. 09 6. 32 84. 77



MICROSCOPICAL EXAMINATION OF THE URINE.

The figures used to express the relative numbers of microscopic
bodies a1ppearing In the urinle are the same as in the previous studies,

nal ely, 0, non ; 1, very few; 2, few; 3, fi1ly numerous; 4, numer011s; 5, eXtrIlly Illelllrols. Five exil lialltions of the urine were

made for each subject, one in the fore period and two in both the
preservatives l aid after )eerlots, the appearances of microscopic bodies

()f the varlus kinds neeurrin in normal and abnorim al urine being
11()(t II or(dr to bring the (latat iII the1 ti)les containing the results

of the 1i ur10 op0101 o)bservations of the urin into ia. form convellent

for colllpa r aill thl 1111111 rs delloing the relative occurrence of the
illcroscopic organisms have been added together, multiplied by 100,

1111d
period, the preservative period, and the after period. These data

are placed in the tables under the heading "Relative occurrence."






FORMALDEHYDE. 1371

URIC-ACID CRYSTALS.
No crystals of uric acid are found in any case throughout the observation.
RATES.
Rates are found only in one instance, namely, toward the close of the preservative period in the case of No. 11, when a very few crystals of urates are observed.

CALCIUM-OXALATE CRYSTALS.
These are observed in every case except in the urine of No. 8. A very few are uniformly found in the urine of No. 1, except ini thie latter part of the preservative period, when none is found.
In the case of No. 2 none is found in the fore period and very few at each observation in the other periods.
No. 3 shows these crystals to be fairly numerous in the fore period, a few and a very few are recorded for the two observations of the preservative period, and the same conditions are maintained in the after period.
The record for No. 4 shows the crystals of calcium oxalate to be fairly numerous in the fore period, a few crystals in the first part of the preservative period, and none at the last observation, while a few and a very few occur at the observations in the after period.
No. 5 shows a very few crystals of calcium oxalate at all the observations except in the first part of the preservative period, when a few are recorded.
Nos. 6, 7, and 12 show very few in all of thie periods except the fore period, when none is found.
Nos. 10 and 11 show a very few throughout.
There seeins to be no relation here between the administration of the preservative and the occurrence of crystals of calcium oxalate in the urine, though the figures for relative occuIrrence indicate a slight increase throughout by the percentages 90.9, 95.5, and 110 for the three periods.
CRYSTALLINE PHOSPHATES.
These bodies are found in a few cases mionly, none occurring in the urine of Nos. 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, and 10. Nos. 4 and 11 show a very few and a few, respectively, in the fore period; No. 3 shows a few and Nos. 4, 5, 11, and 12 a very few once in the pre rvative period and none at the second( observationi: Nos. 3 and 12 show a very few and No. 4 a few at the last obl)servation in the after period. 'Thle currence of these bodies is not affected in a systelmatic 1 ay by theV I admlllilsitration of t i e formalehyde, the igures for relative oc.urreneO showing the samile percentage (27.3) for the fore and l)rtervatitve periods, with a decrease (20.0) in the after period.






1372 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

AMORPHOUS PHOSPHATES.

No amorphous phosphates are found in the urine of Nos. 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, S, and 10. In only two cases (Nos. 4 and 11) were any of these bodies found in the fore period, there being a very few in the former case and numerous particles in the latter. In two cases they occurred in the after period, being extremely numerous at the last observation for No. 4 and only a very few present in the case of No. 12. In the preservative period a few were found at one observation in the case of No. 3. The data for No. 4 show these bodies to be fairly numerous in the first part of the preservativ' period and extremely numerous at the second observation. In the case of No. 11 they are fairly numerous in the first part of the preservative period, and then disappear.
Thre seems to be a slight tendency in this case on the part of the formaldehyde to increase the amorphous phosphates in the preservative period, the figures for the relative occurrence being 45.5, 59.1, and 30.0 for the three periods, respectively. But this tendency is not sufficiently marked to warrant any definite conclusion as to the effect produced by the formaldehyde upon the occurrence of amorphous phosphates in the urine.

EPITHELIAL CELLS.

Epithelial cells of the different forms are found uniformly at all the observations except one, the first examination for No. 1 in the preservative period. In five cases very few are reported in the fore period(, in five cases a few, and in one case they are fairly numerous. At the first examination in the preservative period only one case is reported as very few, while seven cases show a few, and in two instances they are fairly numerous. At the second test in the preservative period six cases are reported as showing a very few, three a few, and in two cases they are numerous. In the after period the epithelial cells for Nos. 2 and 7 continue numerous, with a slight decrease a the second observation for No. 2, and the cells are in sheets in three out of the four observations. Four cases show a few at 1)oth observations, the remainder show a very few or a few at all observations. At 30 peri cent of the observations the cells are reporte(l in sheets. There wouhl seem to be a slight tendency again in thiIs case to increase the epithelial cells, the figures for .relative occurrence being 163.6, 186.4, and 205.() for the three periods.

LEUCOCYTES.

ieulc( 'yt es appeal (jit lie illlfl'ly thrlugh tlihe bseVation, the t(,lilency to 111increase being more marked in the after than in the preserVatIive Ieriod. Ns. 3, 4, andl 10 show a very few leucocytes






FORMALDEHYDE. 1373present at each observation. No. 2 sliows none M the fore periml and a very few at each other ()bser'%-at1()ii mitil tit(, last, NN-lien a few are recorded. Nos. 5, 6 11, an(l 12 sliow it verv feN\- iii t lie fore period, while for No. 7 tliey are faii-ly.miiiiei-otis. a1i(l -No. S siloN\-s a few. No. 5 has a feN%- an(I a verv few at tit(, tN\-() (A)servatioiis M the preservative period, and the sarne restilt is ol)taiiied iii flie after period. No. 6 has only a very few until the last exaiiiiiiatioii in tli(. after period, when a few are recorded. No. 7, N\-Iio.,;e rec4)r(l slioN\-s the highest figures given, has a few present at the becrimmicr of the preservative period; thev are fairIv nuiiierous ,it tli(1 S(IC011(l exallilliation, and numerous at botli observations M the after periml. X os. I I
and 12 have a very few and a few tit all observatioiis. The figures for relative occurrence and the individual (hita m(licate laii iticrease in leucocytes throughout, whicli is more worked In tlie after 1)erio(], Hit, percentages being 118.2, 122.7, and 155.0 for the fore, preservatIVV and after periods.
RED 111,001) CELT-q.

No red blood cells are foun(l. ip tlie, uriiie (luriiig aii I)ai-t of tlie observation.
11YALINIF: CASTS.

Hyaline casts are found quite milfi)i-iiii y t1irougliout tlie lwl-iotl of observation. In tliree cases (Nos. 1, 7, aii(l 11) 1wile Is fi)tiji(l ill t lit. fo re p e ri o (1, while M the 1)reservative lwnml 11 feN\- ()1. 11 vel-ly 1'ew 111-e found at all observatioiis, N\-Itll tlie exceptioll (d tile first cX11111111:1t](01 for No. 7 in the preservative perio(l' ali(l t It(" secoll(I exa 11111)at i()11 fol. Nos. S and 10, NOieii noiie Is recoi-(le(l. Nos. 2 awl 5 sliow it x-ei-Y feN\throughout, aii(I Nos. :3 aiid 12 averv feN\- at all ()l).Servilt Oxcel)t t I Ie last one, when no liyallile casts are 1:0iiii(l. T'liviv is it teii(lenc.y slio\\ it to increase the millibers of 11IN-til, sts jjj(
period, aii(l tit(, iiicreiise is niaijitaille(l Ill ille al'tel. l)v1'1(1(1' SI'S' 104.5, ati(l 105.0 flie i-elitt"N't, (wc111Tt111c(1 (d Illese 1)(0(lie".;
in the t1iree perio(Is.
FIN-1111.1, GIZA NI'l-kit CASTS.

Finely granu lit r casts it Iv ill 411wilt -11) 1)(.1,ccill 44 111c ()bsel.vations, but wfly it vel-Y 1'eN\' al-e I)I-c"'clit Ill ill) V case excew tilat 40f N o. 11 9 \0 1)(11 sll()\\-s it fv\\ lit tN\ 0) (d)"el.\-at W 11S. T hen. F'-t 1141 IcIldelic \oil t1le I)III-t of tit(- l)r(-se1-N'ltt1N v to) III(Tva.-w tite 11111111jel., the 1i"111-CS 1'(W relatIN't, ()CCU 1,11111ce 1)(q11(r ,1112111(q- ill tilt, 1111111 ill eitlier tile fore ()I- aftel. PVI'iml.






1374 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

COARSELY GRANULAR CASTS.

These casts are present at about 38 per cent of the observations and are quite uniformly distributed throughout the three periods. Only a very few casts are present at any one observation, with the exception of one instance in the case of No. 11, when a few are recorded. The figures for relative occurrence are 45.5, 36.4, and 40.0, showing a slightly decreased occurrence in the preservative period.

EPITHELIAL CASTS.

These casts are found only in two instances, both in the preservativo period, and only a very few are reported. Their occurrence is probably of no clinical importance.
MUCOUS CYLINDROIDS.

These bodies are present at every observation made and are apparently more prevalent in the preservative an(d after periods than in the fore period, the figures for relative occurrence being 154.5, 177.3, and 170.0. In six cases in the fore period a few are reported and in five cases a very few. In one case (No. 6) they are reported as fairly numerous or numerous in the preservative and after periods, while in all the other cases there are only a few or a very few. There would seem to be in this case a slight tendency to increase the occurrence of these bodies by the administration of the preservative.

MUCOUS STRANDS.

These strands are present at all observations, a few being present at 34 of the 53 observations. In five instances they are reported as fairly numerous and as numerous at only two observations, both in the preservative period. The relative increase in these bodies in the preservative and after periods is represented by the following figures: 172.7, 190.9, and 210.0 for the three periods, respectively.The relative number of all of the microscopic bodies occurring in the urine is somewhat increased in the preservative period, rising from a percentage of 63.6 to 70.0, and in the after period this number is again increased(l to 72.7. Only a slight tendency to increase the occurrence of these bodies can be argued(l from these figures, and(l this tendency is not of suficient uniformity or extent to warrant ascribing any specific effect to the preservative.








FORMALDEHYDE. 1375


TABLE VIII.-M Cr scopical eaiitinm tion of te uriS, riefs IX.

[None, 0; very few, 1; few, 2; fairly numerous, 3; nimerouI, 4; extremely numerous, 5.]
:~ RAT ES,


u..er...er.od. Preservative period. After peril .

Nov. 17-1s. Nov. Deci. De. 1-3. Dec. 9-10. Dec.
--.-------.................0 0
.........................................0 0 o o o

.. ......................................0 0 0 0 0
......................................... 0 0
5..... ....................................0 0 0 0 0
6 .......................................... 0 0 0 0
7. ........................................ 0 0
.........................................o 0 o o o
10.......................................... 0 0 0


Total ..................................0 00
Relative currency ...........................0 4o o0


(AtYSTALS OFCA IM XLAE
1 .......................................... 1 1 1
..........................................0 1 1 1 1
T2 ............................... 0.0.....




3 ............. ........................ 2 1 o
4 ........................ 1 1. 1 1
6 ....................... 0 1 1 1 1
7.........................................0 1 1 1 1
7..........................................0 2 1
8 ........................................... 1 1 1 1 1
10-, ............... ............... .. 1 1 1 1
11 ....................................... . . . . . . .
12 .......................................... 0
12, ... ................. .......... 0 1 1 1 1
1O|.. . . . . . . . 0 13 S 12 10
Relative occurrenc ...................... ..9 9 95. 5 110




......... 0 0 .
2 . .. . .. . . . .. . . 0 0 t 0
0 2 0 0 1
S.................................... 0
S.........................................
S................ ........................ 0 0
S.....................o o o o o
7 ......................................00
11 .......................... ... ....... 2 i 0 .. 0
10 ...... ..0 1 . 0. 0

To l ................................. 3 4
12 .............occurence ... ....... 27.3 27. 3 .io o


a A few of the "eo'ulin lid" t' I

AMI)R P114)1'S 1114 )S IAI\ES..
............................................ ..... ... .} .) ....





2 2 0 0
To a ... . ............................. o 4







6 .. .. .. .. .. .. . ... .. .. .. U oU o o o
S.................... ..... ... ... o o
2 .. .............. ... -...... .. .. ..... .. ot
3 ....,........oi
il.. .. .. .. .. ..... ............ ........4 0



Totl .5.... -s it
e. tive c r r.. ........ . . 5 1 It ot








1376 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


TABLE YII-Mficroscopical examination of the urin-e, Series IX-Coutinuad.

[Noiie, 0; very few, I,; few, 2; fairly numerous, 3; numerous, 4; extremely nuerous, 5,.]

EPITHIELIAL CELLS.

F ore
Nubrperiod. Preservative period. After period.
Nov- 17-1 8. Nv256.Dec. 1-3. D~ec. 9-10. Dec. 1547.

1 ................................... ~ 1 0 i 1 1
2........................................--a2 a3 1a4l a4 a3
3.......................................... 1 2 1 2 2
4......................................... 2 2 1 2 2
5.......................................... 2 a 2 1 2 1j
6.......................................... 1 2 a2 2 2
7......................................... a3 a 3 a 4 4

P- - - - - - - - - - -a 2 a2 a2 a 22
1......................................... 1 2
12......................................... 2 2 2 1 1

Total................................ 18s 21 20 21 20
Relative occuirrence........................ 163.6 186.4 205.0

a Few in sheets.

LEUCOCYTES.


2....................................... 0 1.
23 -----------------------------------------.1 1 1 12
4......................................... 11 11
5 - - - - - - - - - - -1 2 11 2
6..........................................1 1 1 1 2
7..........................................3 2 3 4 4
8........................................--a2 1 0------------10......................................... 1 1 1 1 1
11..... .................................... 1 1 2 2 2
12......................................... 1 2 1 1 1

Total............... ................. 13 14 13 14I 17
Relative occurrence ------------- 118.2 122.7 155.0

a Some in shreds.

HTYALINE CASTS,


1.I ............................... ------.0 1 2 1 1
2...................................1 1---1--1 1
3 .. . . . . 1-- -1-- -- -- -1 0
4........................................ 2 1 1 2 1
S......................................... 11111
.......................................... 1 0
7......................................... 0 0 1 .1 1
8.........................................1 1 0.............
10......................................... 1 2 0 1 2
11 .......................................... 0 2 1 2 2


To a . .........9 12 11 129
Relative occur jrrenice. ......... 81.8 104. 5 105. 0


FINELJY GRANUL1AR CASTS.


1. ..............~....... .......0 0 1 01
2 .. . . . . .. . . . . 1(0) 01
3 .. .. . .. . .. . .. .0.. 0 1 0
4 .. .. .. . .. .0.. .. .0. 1 0
5 0.. . . . . . . . . . 0 1 0
o I 1 0 0
7 00o 0 0
... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. .. 1 0 - . .
01 0 0 1
.. .. .. 0.. . . . . 2 0 2 1
12 ....~..... ........ .. 1 o 0 0

Total ...... --................. iI 4








FORMALDEHYDE. 1377


TABLE VIII.-M roscopical eXxmimnitio, ) thb urinv, Series IX-continued.

[None, 0; very few, 1; few, 2; fairly numerous, 3; numerous, 4; extremely numerous, 5.]
COARSELY GRANULAR CASTS.

.......... .F o re

NumberpPrrvative priod. After period.
-Nov. 17-1s. Nov. 2C1-2t' Dec. 1-3. Dec. 1-10) Dee. 1II7.

1.: .... . . . . . . . . 0 1 1 0 o
------------------------------------- -0 0 0 0
2 -- - - - - - - - - - 1 00 1o
4.... ................................... 1 0 1 0
: 4 ---------------------------------------..-1- 0 10
................ ..................... ......0 0 0 1 0
7... ......................................0 1 1 0 0
7..,,...................................... 00.......... ............
- ----------------------------------------0 ... 0 .
10 1 0 1 0
11 1- -- - -1-- -- - -0-- 2 0
... . . . . . . . . .1 1 0 1 0

Total. .............................. 5 6 2 7 1
Relative occurrene ....................... 45.5 36. 4 41. 1


EPITHELIAL CASTS.

S...........................0 0 0 0 0
2.........................................0 0 0 0 0
2..........................................0 0 0 o 0
4..........................................0 0 o 0 0
4 ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0
S........................................ 0 0 1 0 0
8 .........................................0 1 0 0
10....................................... 0......................................... 0 ........ ........
0 0 0 0 0
il........................................ 0 0o0o
12 ......................................... o

Total................................ 0 1 1 o
Relative occ e ............................. 0 9. 1


MUCOUS CYLINDI)OIDS.


.......................... 2 1 1 12
2 ....... ....................... 2 2 2 2
3 ...................................... 2 2 2 2 1
4 ...................................... 2 1
5 ........................................ 1
......................................... 2 4 3 4
7 ~................................. 1 2 2 2
........................... ........2 1 .. .
10 .........................................1 2 1 1 1
11 ............. ... .... . ............. 1 2 1 2 1
12 ...... .............................. 2 2 1

Relative occurrence .... 1.....4.5 17,3171.
1 u n .............. 14 5.17.3....

MUCOUS STUANI)S.

.... ........ 3 1 2
2 ........................................ I 1 2
2 .......... ................ 2 3 3 2.
4 ........ 1 2 '2 .
4 ................................ 1 1.1.2 2
.. .. .. .. ...... ..... .. .

7 ...................................... 2
................ .. ... 22 2
20 .. .. . 2
12 ..~......... .................... 2 4222

Relative oc z-trmet .. ...... 172. 7I1J 1

Generalmumma.y105- ...... Relative occurrne,. 1. 711, u~






1378 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

MICROSCOPICAL EXAMINATION OF THE BLOOD.
In Table IX are collected the data showing the results of the examination of the blood, the number of red and white corpuscles and the percentage of hemoglobin therein having been determined, Only one count, however, was made in each period, and therefore the data can only be considered as tentative.
INDIVIDUAL DATA.
The number of red corpuscles in the case of No. 1 increases slightly during the preservative period (155,000), while the number of white corpuscles diminishes by 194, and the percentage of hemoglobin in the blood is increased from 95 to 98. In the after period the red corpuscles and the hemoglobin show a tendency to return to the conditions obtaining in the fore period, while the white corpuscles continue to decrease.
From the data for No. 2 it is seen that there is a marked decrease both in the red and white corpuscles in the preservative period (375,000 and 2,770, respectively). In the case of the red corpuscles a tendency is manifested in the after period to increase the number above that of the fore period. The number of white corpuscles, however, continues to decrease in the after period. The percentage of hemoglobin during the preservative period is less than in either the fore or after period.
No. 3 shows a marked increase in the number of red corpuscles during the preservative period, amounting to 490,000, while in the after period the figure falls again almost to that of the fore period. The number of white corpuscles is also increased during the preservative period, while the hemoglobin is decreased during the preservative period, but increased in the after period.
In the case of No. 4 there is a decided increase in the number of red corpuscles in the blood in the preservative period (390,000), while in the after period they fall to a smaller number than in the fore period. The number of white corpuscles and the percentage of hemoglobin are increased in both the preservative and( after periods over the fore period.
In the case of No. 5 there is very little variation in the number of red corpuscles in the preservative period, but the number of white corpuscles is increased. During the after period the number of red corpuscles increases slightly and the number of white corpuscles decreases. The percentage of hemoglobin is the same in the preservat ive as in the fore period, while in the after period it is slightly greater.
In the case of No. 6 there is a decrease in the number of red corpuscles in the blood in the preservative period amounting to 220,000 and in the white corpuscles of 859, and this decrease is augmented in






FORMALDEHYDE. 1379

the after period. The percentage of hemoglobin remains unchanged in the preservative period and slightly decreases in the after period.
In the case of No. 7 there is a great decrease in both the red and the white corpuscles in the preservative period (1,007,000 and 1,080, respectively). In the after period there is an additional decrease in the number of red corpuscles, while the number of white corpuscles is so enormously increased as to render the figures open to suspicion of error. The percentage of hemoglobin remains unchanged.
No. 10 shows a slight increase in the number of red corpuscles (163,000), a marked decrease of the white corpuscles (1,994), and no change in the percentage of hemoglobin in the preservative period. In the after period the number of red corpuscles is very much decreased, being smaller than in the fore period, while the number of white corpuscles is increased approximately to the number in the fore period. The percentage of hemoglobin remains unchanged throughout the observation.
In the case of No. 11 there is an increase in the number of red corpuscles (320,000) and a decrease in the number of white corpuscles (609) in the preservative period and a slight d(lecrease in the percentage of hemoglobin. In the after period there are fewer red corpuscles than in the preservative period, while the white corpuscles are increased, and the percentage of hemoglobin remains unchanged.
No. 12 shows a marked decrease in the number of red( and of white corpuscles (490,000 and 692, respectively), and( a d(lecrease in the percentage of hemoglobin in the preservative period. In the after period the number of red corpuscles rises to a larger number than in the fore period, while the number of white corpuscles again decreases. The percentage of hemoglobin increases, being greater than in the fore period.
SUMMARIES.
In the summary for Nos. 1 to 6 the average number of red corpuscles in the blood is increased( in the preservative petrio(l by 76,666, while the number of white corpuscles is slightly diminished (by 157), and the percentage of hemoglobin slightly increased. In the after period the number of red(l corpuscles is less than in the f)ore plerilod, there is a further decrease in the number of white corpuscles, and the percentage of hemoglobin is greater than in either of the other periods.
In the sunmmnary for Nos. 7, 10, 1 1, and 12 there is a notable decrease in the number of red corpuscles, amounting to 253,500, and also of white corpuscles, which are diminished by 1 ,094, while the percentage of hemoglobin remains unchanged. In the after period there is a further decrease in the number of red( corpuscles, but there is an increase in the number of white corpuscles exceeding the figure of the fore period, and the percentage of hemoglobin remains unchanged.







1380 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.


These two summaries lead to conflicting views. There is apparently a tendency on the part of the preservative in the case of Nos. 1 to 6 to increase slightly the number of red corpuscles in the blood, to diminish slightly the number of white corpuscles, and to increase
slightly the percentage of hemoglobin. When the formaldehyde is
administered after contact with the milk for two days there is a very marked tendency to decrease both the number of red and of white corpuscles.
The average effect produced, shown in the general summary, indicates a slight tendency on the part of the preservative as a whole to diminish the number of red and of white corpuscles, while the hemoglobin remains practically unchanged. Owing to the limited number of observations made and the conflicting evidence offered by the two summaries, no conclusion can be drawn as to the effect of the administration of formaldehyde upon the composition of the blood in respect of the number of its red and white corpuscles and the percentage of coloring matter contained therein, though the tendency to decrease the red corpuscles, shown by Nos. 7, 10, 11, and 12, is muc the stronger of the two influences indicated by the data submitte, TABLE ID.-Average, by periods, of corpuscles and hemoglobin in the blood, Series IX.

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3.

White White White
Red cor- cor- Red cor- cor- Red cor- corPeriod. puscles puscles Hem- puscles puscles lem- puscles puscles Hemper cubic per oglo- per cubic per oglo- per cubic per oglomilli- cubic bin. milli- cubic bin. milli- cubic bi. meter. milli- meter. milli- meter. millimeter. meter. meter.

Fore period........... 5,495,000 7,756 95 5,150,000 9,778 98 5,185) 000 6,094 .96
Preservative period... 5,6 50,(X0 7,562 98 4,775,000 7,008 96 5,675,000 7,257 95 After period........ 5,585,000 6,731 97 5,390,000 5,290 97 5,275,000 6,786 100

No. 4. No. 5. No. 6.

White White White
Red cor- cor- Red cor- cor- Red cor- corPeriod. puscles puscles HIem- puscles puscles Hem- puscgles pusc les Hemper cubhic per oglo- per cubic per oglo- per cubic per oglomilli- cubic bin. milli- cubic bin. milli- cub bin.
meter. milli- meter. milli- meter. millimeter, meter. meter.

Fore period ........... 5,715,0M) 4,459 90 5,(-),000 7,03 96 5,820,000 8,642 97
Preservative period.. 6,105, 0) 5,124 9O 5,980,000 8,116 96 5,X),000 7,783 97 After period .......... 5,480, () 5,32 97 6,025,000 5,844 97 5,105,000 7,202 96

No. 7. No. 10.

White White
Period. Ited cor- corpus- Red cor- corpuspuscIes per cles per Hlemto- puseles per cles per Hlemocubic millli- -cubhic globin. cubic miti- cuble globin. meter. milli- meter. millimeter. meter.

Fore period .... 7,292,0xx 6,807 9) 4,762,00 6,584 97
Preservative period .... 6,25,(XX) 5,817 4,925,0)0 4,570 97
After riod .................. 5 0110 ( ) 11,523 98 4510 000 6,094







FORMALDEYIYD .

TABLE IX.-Average, by periods, of corpuscles and hemoglobin in the blood. Strips Ix-continued.

No 12.
White While
Red cor- Corpus- I? ed co r- corpusPeriod.
puscles per cles per I I VT110- pu wles 1wr cle, per Ileumcuhic milli- cubic glohin. cul)ic milli- ciihic glol in. meter. milli- meter. inilhmeter. meter.

Fore period .......................... 4, (W, OW 6:95 97 5, 141), s, 143
Preservative period .................. 4, 955, (X X) ; 343 #C) 4,t-a1,(Xx) 7, 4- I
After period .......................... 4, 8,1 5, OW 7) 2Q2 96 5, 21,5, 1 X W) 5,

SU- 3JN[A 111 E S.
... ..... ...
Nos- 1, 2, 3, -1, 5, c, 7. in,
Nos. I to 6. N o,,. 7, 10, 11, anl 12,
12.
White I i t e
Period. Red cor- cor- Rei cor- co r- ReA eor- c-rp u se I e s puseles I felil puseles puscle pusllk"; pliscic", 11cmper cubic per oglo- per ethic per ovIi- percuhic pc r oglom illi- Cubic bill. m illi- Cubic hill. 111illi- c I 11, i c hin. meter. milli- met v r. milli- nivt- r. willimeter. meter. inel c r.

Fore period ...... ---- 5,554, 167 7,299 95 5,457,250 7, 1: ,) 97 5, 515, #0 7, 23:
Preservati ve period 5, 630, S:, i 7,142 (A, 5, 203, 7, o ti,045 97 5,444),iM I i After period 5,476,(Ai7 197 97 5, Wit i, 250 7,tI24 t17 G, 7t, %


METABOLIC PROCESSES.

NITROGEN BALANCE.

INDIVIDUAL DAT.N.

In the case of _No. I the liverlI01C, quallit1tv of 111ti-wrcil III flic
food is exaetlv the saine ill t1le fore l1lul plvservoiv( p-l-D)(k 1111(i only 0.36 grain, less ill die after periml. Tlivre Is pnicticillIN- Iw change in the quaiitity of jiltrocrell excreted Ill t1le feces Ill tlic preervative perio(l, idtlioliffli fliere is a teli(lellcv to HICIVIII-le t1w 11111mllit tile, ii1crellse ill t1le after periml 11111oulitIlltr to 0.2 irram till-ougliout, 2-1
(Jafly (j(tSj)*te tile Sli(rllt (je(-I-ellse ill tile 11111oullt 4 t1w foml. Ill tile
I r"N
urine it is seeii fluit flier is till im-reitse of 0.57 trram dall\- Ili tlic
quantity 4 Ilitrogell excrete(I (1111-111(-r t1le presvi'ViltiVo 1)(11,k)(1, \0111v in flie after 1wriml tliv figure falls sliglitIN. lw1mv tillit ()f tilt' fm'v
()f 111trwrcli Ill tho f(wd w1licli (wcurs Ill Iliv feces is IlInrel. ill t1w pn-svi-vativo pol-Iml tillill Ili tilt' forv 1)(11,h)(1 alld verv 11111cli 1111-gel. Ill t1w aftvi. porit)(1 diall Ill Ilw f0ro pol-Wil. all increase 4 I.;-)s 1)(.I. celit. 11)v pcrc('Iltl1(r(, 4 1lItI,(j(rjqj
tile 111-ilie is 4 per cclit (ri'vator (11111*11(r tll(, pq**( (j 1111(
decreases Ill t1le llft(,I- p-I-Mil to 11 Jitrjjl-( ill tlj( fol.41 1wriml,
Tliv perceii Itn)(rell vXcretcd 1)4)tll III t1w fvccs wid flic III-III0
jS JjjI-(reSt (]III-illtr t1j(- lit 1\,(i p .I. vvitt 1 2111(1 Is

ft1)1)l'()XlllIlktv1v 90 pvr cvlit In 1)(011 dw fmv 1111d lifit.l. jwri()(k.
le 1)()sItlV V lit it11 (-jt,,t.S Zjlj(l ()f tilt, rI*(,?jt(,,, j IIj j1rI1lI1I(l4 Ill tile fore periml (1.50 1111(l tll(, 1( jk,-t '11 t1w prvservative pel-14)(1, lialliviv, 0.91 (ri-IIIII.






1882 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

In this case the preservative appears to have increased the nitrogen excreted in the urine without producing any notable effect upon that in the feces during the preservative period, with the result that the balance is diminished. In the after period the nitrogen excreted in the feces is markedly increased, while the excretion of metabolized nitrogen returns to the condition of the fore period.
In the case of No. 2 there are very slight variations in the quantity of nitrogen in the food, the average amount in the preservative period being 0.25 gram greater d(laily and that in the after period 0.20 gram less than in the fore period. The quantity of nitrogen excreted in the feces is practically the same in the fore and preservative periods and notably less (0.31 gram) in the after period. In the urine the greatest quantity of nitrogen is found in the fore period and the least in the preservative period. In the feces and urine together there is not a very great d(lifference in the quantity of nitrogen excreted, but the figure is slightly greater in the fore period and almost the same in the preservative and after periods.
As to the percentage of nitrogen excreted in the feces, it is seen that there is scarcely any difference between the fore and the preservative periods, while that in the after period is decidedly less (1.6 per cent). In regard to the percentage of nitrogen excreted in the urine, it is greatest in the fore period and least in the preservative period, where a diminution of about 6 per cent is shown. The percentage figures for total excretion indicate an inhibition of the excretion of nitrogen during the preservative period amounting to 6 per cent and( due entirely to the metabolized nitrogen. The balances in this case are all positive and the largest one is in the preservative perio(l, 1.23 grams, while the balance for the fore period is only 0.19 grain. The d(lata for this man, therefore, are seen to be somewhat contradictory as compared( with those for No. 1.
In the case of No. 3 there is practically no variation in the quantity of nitrogen in the food in the fore and preservative periods and only a very slight decrease (0.4 gram) in the after period. The quantity excreted(l in the feces is very slightly decreased in the preservative period and( is notably increased(l in the after period as compare(l with the fore period, namely, 0.2 gram. The quantity excreted in the urine is also slightly (lilninished in the preservative period atnd is still further (lecrease(l in the after period, the entire decrease amounting to 0.65 gram. The total quantity excreted in the feces and( urine is least in the preservative period and greatest in the fore period.
The largest percentage of nitrogen excreted in the feces occurs in the after period and1 the smallest in the preservative period, but the variations are very slight. The largest percentage of nitrogen excreted in the urine is foiundl in the fore period and the smallest






FORMALDEHYDE. 13S3

in the preservative period, tile greatest variation amountino, to almost 3 per cent. The total excretl()n decreases 3.3 per cent in the pre,
servative period and returns to the con(llitions of the f( re periml ill the after period. The balances are positive in all cases aii(I are ()f
the greatest magnitude (lurinor the preservative pem)(1, 1wing alinost the same for the fore and after perimis. Ili tile preserN-atiN-e periml
they amount to 2.02 grains, ,Is coiiipaie(l with 1.44 grani:-; Ili tile fore period.
In the case of No. 4 it is seen tliat the nitro(ren ill tit(, foml in tit(, fore and after periods is alinost i(lentical. wlille Ili the preei-%-aiiN-e period it is slightly greater, naiiiely, (gaill
tll Z7 ) I .
quantity excreted in the feces is fotlII(l III the fol-e pel-liml and the greatests t in the after periml, naiiiek-, 2 'I'l i (, lanest
quantity is excreted Ili the uriiie Ili the 1)(11*11)(I (111d the
smallest Ili the after period. In tit(, feces ai-id unll(i t(O(r(ither tit(,
larcrest excretion of nitrogen is foun(l ill the preser-N-ati\-e penml, amounting to 16.36 g-ranis.
The percentage excretion in tit(, feces increases
2.17 per cent greater in the after perio(l than Ili tit(, fiwe penml. In
the urine the percentage excreti(ai is tlle saille III the fore alild
preservative perlmls, but is (lecrease(I almut 5 pei, cent ill tit(" after period. The percentage of total excretlo,)n sliows an *I1cITa,,-;e 4 about I per cent in tile preservative peiiml, with a (lecl-ease ()f per cent in the ,tft(,,-r periml. The balaiwes 2ii-e aII posit I \-e ali(I ()f I lie greatest niagnituo.le in the after penml, amountillo, to I (ri'allis
and of the least niagnitutle in tlie pi-e-s(,r,\-atP%-(, jwiiml. ()1- 1.2.) ()11*, 111 IS. Evi(lently no important effect tile nitro(ren iiietal)(disill is 1)1,()duced In tills CIII.Se.
In the case ()f N o. 5 tile (1111111tlt\- ()f 1lItI-()(reII ill Ill(, 1,()()(I is
ticallv (..()Ilstalllt in the ft)n, 1111(l 1weselwatIN-0 beill(r N,(11*,\,
slightly less in tlie after penml (0.29 There 1'- practi(- IIIN- Ilo
variation Ill tile quantityy ()f introgeii lit Ili(, feces lit the I)1*v,-wI*\-.Itl%-V period, tliougli tit(-,, lai-irest 11111(allit I-, foull(l ill tit(, f(we 1)(11,h)(I ( 1.2.'-s grants) an(l flie slllalle.-. I III tit(' aftel. pel-Im l 1M.7) jrrajll- ). Tile quantity ()f nitni(reii exci-cie(l ill Ille III-Ille vanc- (111IN, Ill the fl iree perim is, bVII11,- r IjjI-(rt-St ill I ljt fj)I-j- ( I .111(l I Ili.
preser\-ati\,e pet-im l, \\Iwii it aiii0iiiiis top 11.27 tIt\, ()f IjItr()(reII ill tit(, 1111(i feces 1w rellit.l. Ill the folki perlm l (13.1-1 (Irniiiis) ai)(l simillest Ill 11w perim l ( 12. 1 G
urraiiis), blit tit(, ('11H IV VIII'lathIll 111:111 1
,ne pei-ceita(rv f(W fo()(I rx(TvItl(l Ill the fect's --IW\V
little (lect-va"1111, flM 11 S.O 1 1)(11, celit Ili Ille f(II.0 P4111ti(I 10)
7.29 iii t1w 2iftei, pvnml, The 111('11111(dize(I 1611*401,011 Oxcreted M the 111w ill 1 1)(11. velit Ill tlktl plv -k :11141
the 11"FU1,41 4 (lit, fl)lj, PiTh)d M Ille aftel* Pfll*l( 41.






1384 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

The total percentage excretion decreases about 5 per cent in the preservative period and is almost the same in the after period as in the fore period. The balances are positive in all cases and of the greatest magnitude in the preservative period (2.24 grams), being least in the fore period, for which the figure is 1.55 grams. The only marked variation in this case is in the decreased excretion of metabolized nitrogen in the preservative period and the consequent increase in the balance.
There is but little variation in the quantity of nitrogen in the food in the three periods, an increase of 0.13 gram taking place in the preservative period and a decrease of 0.11 gram in the after period as compared with the fore period in the case of No. 6. There is a loss of nitrogen in the feces in the preservative period of 0.32 gram, and there is practically no further change in the quantity excreted in the after period. The percentage decrease of nitrogen in the food that is excreted in the feces in the preservative period amounts to 2.27 per cent, this loss being maintained in the after period. In the urine there is an increased excretion of 0.22 gram in the preservative period, with a decrease of 1.1 grams in the after period. The percentage data show less than 1 per cent increase in the preservative period, but a decrease of about 6 per cent in the after period. In the feces and urine together the quantity of nitrogen excreted in the preservative period is only slightly decreased (0.1 gram), while it is notably less in the after period (1.11 grams), owing to the decrease in metabolized nitrogen. The percentage data show the same relation, the total decrease in the preservative period amounting to 1.52 per cent and in the after period to 6.11 per cent. The balances are positive in all cases and increase throughout, the figures for the three periods being 1.03, 1.26, and 2.13, respectively.
The data for No. 7 show only slight variation in the quantity of nitrogen in the food, the largest quantity being 16.60 grams in the preservative period, and the smallest 16.20 grams in the after period. There is a notable loss in the amount of nitrogen excreted in the feces in the preservative period, namely, 0.53 gram, and an additional loss of 0.19 gram in the after period. The quantity of nitrogen in the urine also diminishes both in the preservative and in the after period, the total daily decrease in metabolized nitrogen amounting to 1.88 grains. In consequence, the total quantity excreted in the feces and urine is notably diminished in the preservative period (2.19 grams) and a small additional decrease takes place in the after period. The percentage of nitrogen excreted in the feces decreases throughout, the decrease amounting in the preservative pleriol to 3.36 per cent of the amount ingested. There is a decreasee of 10.97 per cent of the nitrogen ingested that is excrete(l in the urine in the preservative period and the percentage excretion in the after period is practically the same as in the






FORMALDEHYDE. 1385

preservative period. The balance is negative in the fore period
0.48) and increases, bPin(r practically the same in the preservative. and after periods (1.9 grants).
The data for -No. 8 are given, but not discusse(I as the illnes--, of the subject, previousli- explaine(l, deprivess thein of si(rilificance. -N Is omitted entirely, I'Cis lie left the city before the experin-lent was fiiil:-a lied and the data were too inconiplete to be of valtie.
In the case of No. 10 the quantity of nitrogen in the food is slightly decreased in the preservative period (O.S3 (),raiii (lall.v). The aiiiount of nitrogen in the feces diminishes slightly in the presei-N-ative periml, but in the after period it exceeds the figure of the fore periml. Tlie amount of nitrogen in the urine is slightly diii-iiiiislie(I in the pi-esei-N-ative period (0-43 gram (laily) and is niore than restore(l. in flie after period. The an-iotint of nitrogen excreted in ])()tit fece-; an(I iii-ine is largest in the after period and sniallest in the pre.-,,erN-atI\-(, periml. The percentage data show the saiiie general relations a-, tile fi(rtires for actual amounts, with the excepti()li ()f tImse for nitro(reii in flic urine, and for total excretion I ill the preservative perlml, NN-111(.11 sli(ma relative increase owln(r to the sli(rlltlN- decrease(l aI11()tIIIt (d nO rwrell ingested and the very slight decrease ill ainotijit excrete(i. Ti e
excretion of nitrogen in the case of No. 10 appears to have I)een abnormally stin-itilated the balance beill(r Iie.rati\-O in all czr'e.-- Illcreasincr throughout the ficrures for the three perio&'- 0.59, and 0.85, respectively. This is all (1XC(1Pt 1011 to t 11(l 111,1,1011itY
of cases, the balance haN-111(r 1)(1011 iiwrease(l in tile in six of the preceding eight cases.
In the case of N(). I I flier Is oifly it sli(rht variation lit Hie (Iiialit ltl" of nitro(ren in the foml, aii 1I1(,I,(,,,1s(,, ()f ().:'I preservative periml, aii(l a decreasee ()f otily 01 (rram ill the 'Ificl.
'I'llere 's a (1,111,1111t,(Ill (tf
perio(l as compact ( I NN'th tlle fi)re per'ml. I I I I
tile, nitrogen I n t I ic feces I ji t I ie p resvi-N- I It We perl( ()f 0.2.5 rlllll (1,111Y. an(I tile (111antity is 111-A01141 Ill tile after pel-iml h) IffacticallY I lit, aniount its NN-as excrete(I Ill t Ile f(II'v 1)(111m l. "I'llcl-c 1"', :1 S11"llf 1Y 4,1-vatel, amount: of nitroppeii excrete(l ill the iii-Me III die pi-esei-vnIINA, 1)(111ml and it still ftirtlier iiicna-w tAes place ill till- after pen()(1, t1w tq tal daily iiicrease to 1.1:)' 1()Ial 2111111111it 4)f
nitrogeii vxcrelv(l ill tliv fvcvs 111(1 III-Ille im'- Z11111(ist t1le ill till, ff)nitn(l. pre-ser\,at I ve 1)(111( )(Ill lilt( I Ill )t "I b i '111CIV II.-W (l Ill t Ill, aft (11, 1)411*1( )(1.
W hen it 1,, 1.12 (ri-ains gi-vater (1lkIlY til"ill Ill tile flon, p(Tim l, Till. pf-I.celitare (111t(ft 1*()I' HIC VXCI*0tI()I1 ()f 1)()tll II(IIIIIIetalwlize(l Mill 111111:11m)lize(l liitro(r(,Il tliit saiiie rellitIM IS tilt, llh ,(dlltv (1111111tille" tiltmost iiiitrke(l (.111111're ))(.Ijl(r tilt, ii-icrease of 6-2:) pei- cew ill metill)(1lized 11itn itrell Ill t1le after perk)(11. 'I'lle perct-11111"l. (Intil fill* 1,0111 excretioll it (lecl-vilse 4 111m ilt 1 1)4.1. (.4-Ilt ill till- pn- ,er\ lit 1\ V
period all(l 2111 11)(11,4111.1-W ()f IlearlY s per (.4,111 Ill lilt, after vel-Im l. Tile
45429-Bull S.I, 14 V--4)s ---7






1886 INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES ON HEALTH.

balance in this case is abnormally large, and positive in all three periods, being slightly increased in the preservative period and decreased 1.44 grams in the after period.
The nitrogen ingested in the preservative period is practically the same as in the fore period, while in the after period there is a slight decrease of 0.43 gram as compared with the fore period. The amount of nitrogen excreted in the feces in the preservative period is increased 0.13 gram (an increase of less than 1 per cent as compared with the amount ingested), while in the after period there is a decrease of 0.5 gram daily, or 2.66 per cent. The metabolized nitrogen excreted in the preservative period shows but little change, namely, a decrease of 0.2 gram, or about 1 per cent, while in the after period there is an increase of 0.45 gram daily, representing 4.6 per cent as compared with the amount ingested. The data for total excretion show practically no change in either the preservative or after period as regards actual amounts, though the percentage data indicate a relative increase in the after period.
The balance is positive throughout and increases very slightly in the preservative period, decreasing again in the after period to a figure below that of the fore period, namely, 0.70 gram. The variations in this case are very slight, but show the same general tendency as the majority of cases, namely, to decrease the excretion, especially of the metabolized nitrogen, and to increase the balance.
SUMMARIES.
The summary for Nos. 1 to 6, inclusive, who received formaldehyde freshly added to the milk, shows a very'slight increase in the nitrogen in the food in the preservative period (0.13 gram) and a slight decrease (0.35 gram) in the after period. There is a very slight d(lecrease in the quantity of nitrogen in the feces in the preservative period, but this figure is restored in the after period to practically the same amount as in the fore period. The percentage data show the variations betweenii the three )erlmods to be less than half of 1 per cent. The largest quantity of nitrogen excreted in the urine is in the fore period, 13.26 grams. There is a very slight diminution in the preservative period, amounting to 0.12 grami daily, and a further d(lecrease in the after period of 0.44 gram. The percentage decrease in the preservative periodl amounts to 1.42 per cent of the amount ingested and in the after period to about 1 per cent additional. In the feces and urine together the largest quantity of nitrogen is excreted in the fore perio(l (14.81 grams)and the smallest in the after lperiod(l (14.23 grams). The percentage d(lata show a total decreased excretion of 1.82 per cent in the p)reservative period and(l practically no fulrth er change in the after l)eri (I, a decrease of only 0.51 per cent being given. The I)alane are positive in all cases and increaSe slightly throughout from 1.18 in the fore period to 1.54 in the after period.