Weights of various woods grown in the United States

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Material Information

Title:
Weights of various woods grown in the United States
Series Title:
Technical note ;
Physical Description:
8 p. : chiefly tables ; 21 cm.
Language:
English
Publisher:
Forest Products Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Madison, Wis
Publication Date:
Edition:
Rev.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Wood -- Weight   ( lcsh )
Timber -- Weight -- Mathematical models -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available online.
General Note:
"October 1952."
General Note:
Cover title.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029722914
oclc - 761391191
System ID:
AA00026020:00001

Full Text
A >,* oc ^ *- 6 2? -
TECHNICAL NOTE NUMBER 218
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREST SERVICE
FOREST PRODUCTS LrBORATORYiV QF FL LIB
DOCUMENTS 3 PT L
MADISON 5. WISCONSIN I "V,-"- lU 1952


WEIGHTS OF VARIOLJS WOODS GROWN IN "HE UNITED STnW^"'

The exact weight of either sawed oriround L-* WFI-^PRF- ter-._F
mined by weighing. Calculated values ofr.wrsights i' en- tMa- a
here, are necessarily approximte values owing to variations in moisture
content, density, sapwood thickness, and the like that occur in differ-
ent parts of the same timber. The calculated average weight obtained by
the method given here is, therefore, not accurate enough to afford a
basis for estimating timber transportation costs or other exacting
transactions. On the other hand, the method is useful in making rough
estimates of timber weights for less exacting purposes, for example,
truck capacity needed to haul a given lot of timbers, storing logs under
water, or determining the possibility of driving or towing logs.

There is enough difference between the weights of sawed and round
timbers to require separate methods for estimating their average weights.
Part I of this note is applicable to sawed timbers; Part II is applicable
to round timbers.

PART I. SAWED TIMBERS

Table 1 gives for various woods grown in the United States the av-
erage weights per cubic foot of sawed timbers at moisture content values
of 8 and 15 percent, and the average weight of 1,000 board feet when air
dry (15 percent moisture content). Factors for adjusting values for
each 1 percent change in moisture content are given.

Table 1 is based on the weights and volumes of 2-by 2-inch, clear
Specimens from the top 4 feet of 16-foot butt logs of typical trees.

In any lot of lumber of a given species in the air-dry condition at
15 percent moisture content, the weight per cubic foot will rarely vary
more than 10 percent from the figure given in table 1. The greatest
changes in weight are those that occur in the early stages of drying of
green wood. Changes in the moisture content of air-dry wood are attended
by only relatively small changes in weight per cubic foot, owing to the
counter effect of change in volume as a result of accompanying shrinkage
and swelling.

The values given in table 1 for weight per thousand board feet at
15 percent moisture content were determined by multiplying the values per
cubic foot at 15 percent by 83.3. The weights per thousand feet given
in column 5 apply to actual board feet and not to a thousand board feet
lumber scale. Rough lumber is generally oversized and dressed lumber
undersized with respect to thickness. The values given in column 5 of
table 1 will generally, therefore, need to be adjusted for actual ship-
ments of lumber. The adjustment for 1- by 8-inch boards dressed to
25/32 inch in thickness and 7-1/2 inches in width is as follows:

25/32 x 7-1/2 = 0.7324.
1x8








Table 1.--Weights of sawed wood of various trees grown in the United States, under
different conditions of moisture, and accompanying adjusting factors


Species commonn and botanical names)


:Weight in pounds :Factors!1 Weight per 1,000
pbpr cubic foot : for :board feet air dry
: :adjust- : (15 percent
:Based on:Based on: ing : moisture content)
: weight : weight : values ---------
: and : and :for each: Actual : Dressed
:volume : volume: 1 :board : (l xz 8
: at a : at a :Dercent : feet dressed


:moisture: i
:content :c
: of 15 :
:percent :j


moisture: change : : to
content : in : : 25/32 x
of 8 :moisture: : 7-1/2)
percent :content :


------- -- -- --- ---- -- -- --
(2)^^ __ (2)- :_ (3 ^^ _4 :^ (5 ) ^^ (6)1 ^ ^ -^ .^ ^ ^ ^ i


Alder red (Alnus rubra)
Apple, wild (al TAus pumila) var.
Ash, black (Frazinus Rigra)
Ash, commercial vhitet (Fraxinus sp.)
Aspen, commercial2 (Populus sp.)

Baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)
Basswood, American (Tilia americana)
Beech, American (Faus -ifolia)
Birch, Alaska paper (Betula papyrifera
var. neoalaskana)
Birch, paper (Betula papyrifera)

Birch, sweet (Betula lenta)
Birch, yellow (Betula lutea)
Buckeye, yellow (Aesculus octandra)
Butternut (Juiglans cinerea)
California-laurel (Umbellularia californica)

Cherry, black (Prunus serotimna)
Chestnut, American (-Castanea dentata)
Chinquapin, golden (Castanopsis chrysophylla)
Cottonwood, black (Populus trichocarpa)
Cottonwood, eastern (Populus deltoides)

Cucumbertree (Magnolia acuminata)
Dogwood, flowering (Cornus florida)
Dogwood, Pacific (Cornus nuttalui)
Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia)
coast type
Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia glauca)
Inland Empire type

Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia glauca)
mountain type
Elm, rock1(Ulmus thomasi)
Elm, soft (Uimis .
Fir, alpine (Abies lasiocarpa)
Fir, balsam (Abies balsamea)

Fir, noble (Abies procera)
Fir, California red (Abiea magnifica)
Fir, commercial white (Abies sp.)
Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis)
Hemlock, eastern (Tsuga canadensis)


(Sheet 1 of 3)


28.2 :
47.2 :
34.5 :
40.6 :
26.6 :

32.0 :
25.3 :
43.3 :
37.9 :

37.9

46.2 :
42.4
24.9
27.0 :
38.8

35.5
30.0
31.7
24.0 :
28.3

33.6
50.0
44.8 :
33.9 :

51.2


30.1

43.4
36.3
22.3
26.1

26.6
27.9
27.0
36.8 :
28.5 :


27.7 :
46.8 :
33.9 :
39.6 :
26.0 :

31.1 :
25.1 :
42.6 :
37T.5

37.7 :

45.4 :
41.9 :
24.4 :
26.2 :
37.8

34.5 :
29.2 :
31.0 :
23.5
27.7

32.9
49.8
44.3
33.0 :

30.5 :


29.0

42.3
35.7
21.2
26.0

25.9
27.0
26.3
35.9
27.7


0.075 :
.050 :
.092 :
.137 :
.087 :

.129 :
.029 :
.095 :
.054 :

.029 :

.108 :
.071 :
.067 :
.117
.13T7 :

.145 :
.108 :
.104 :
.071
.087 :

.095 :
.025
.071 :
.129 :

.100


.154 :

.158 :
.083 :
.154 :
.021

.095 :
.129 :
.095
.133 :
.117


2,50 :
3,930 :
2,870 :
3,080 :
2,220 :

2,670 :
2,110
3,610 :
3,160 :

3,160

3,850 :
3,530 :
2,070 :
2,250 :
3,20 :

2,960 :
2,500 :
2,640
2,000 :
2,360 :

2,800
4,160 :
3,730
2,820

2,600 :


2,510 :

3,620
3,020 :
1,860
2,170

2,220
2,320
2,250 :
3,070 :
2,370 :


1,720
2,880
2,100
2,480
1,630

1,960
1,550
2,640
2,310

2,310

2,820
2,590
1,520
1,650
2,370

2,170
1,830
1,930
1,460
1,730

2,050
3,050
2,730
2,070

1,900


1,840

2,650
2,210
1,360
1,590

1,630
1,700
1,650
2,250
1,740








Table 1.--Weights of saved wood of various trees grown in the United States, under
different conditions of moisture, and accompanying adjusting factors (continued)

:Weight in pounds :Factorsl: Weight per 1,000
per cubic foot : for :board feet air dry
---------------- :adjust- : (15 percent
:Based on:Based on: ing : moisture content)
Species (comon and botanical names) weight : weight : values ----------------
and and :for each: Actual : Dressed
volume :volume: 1 :board :(1 x 8
at a : at a :percent : feet : dressed
moisture: moisture: change : : to
:content :content : in : : 25/32 z
: of 15 : of 8 :moisture: : 7-1/2)
:percent :percent :content
(i) : (2) : (3) : (^) ": (5) : (6)
---------------------------------------------------------.------ ------
Hemlock, western (Tuga heterophylla) : 29.1 : 28.4 : 0.095 : 2,420 1,770
Hickories, true (Carya p.) : 50.3 : 50.2 : .021 : 4,190 3,070
Hickry, water (Cara quat ) : 44.2 : 42.0 .508 : 3,680 2,700
Holly, American MIe{ _l ) : 38.9 : 38.4 : .071 : 3,240 : 2,370
Honeylocust (Gledltila triacanthoe) : 44.7 : 43.2 : .208 : 3,720 : 2,720

HophOrmbez, eastern (Otrya virginiaa) : 48.9 : 48.3 : .087 : 4,070 : 2,980
Incenme-cedar, California (Libocedrus : 25.3 : 24.1 : .170 : 2,110 : 1,550
decurrens)
Juniper, alligator (Juniperus pachyphloea) : 36.1 35.1 .137 : 3,010 : 2,200
Larch, western (Larix occldentalis): 38.3 : 37.7 : .092 : 3,190 : 2,340
Locust, black (Bobinia pseudacacia) : 48.6 : 46.5 : .295 4,050 : 2,970

Mdrone, Pacific (Arbutus menziesii) : 44.5 : 43.9 : .079 : 3,710 : 2,720
Magnolia, southern (Magnolia grandiflora) : 34.9 : 34.1 .120 2,910 : 2,130
Mangrove (hizophora mangle: 68.3 67.4 .133 5,690 : 4,170
Maple, biglaf (Acer macrophyllum) : 33.5 : 32.8 : .100 : 2,790 : 2,040
Maple, hart. (Acer p.) 41.7 : 41.1 : .087 : 3,470 2,540

Mhple, soft (Acer up.) : 34.9 :. 33.9 : .137 : 2,910 : 2,130
Mounimtailn-laurerKalmila latlfolia) : 47.7 : 7.1 : .083 : 3,970: 2,910
Oak, red2 (Quercan s--. 43.4 : 42.8 : .079 : 3,620 : 2,650
Oak, v.ite.-(-QuercuB s .) : 45.9 : 45.4 : .071 : 3,820 : 2,800
Osage-orange (Maclura pomifera) : 56.7 : 54.7 : .291 : 4,720 : 3,460

Palmetto, cabbage (Sabal palmetto) : 28.9 : 28.6 : .042 : 2,410 : 1,770
Pecan (Cary Illinoensis) : 45.6 : 44.5 : .151 : 3,800 2,780
Persl-n (Diospyros virginiana) : 49.5 : 49.o : .075 : 4,120 3,020
Pine, eastern white (Pinus strobus) : 25.1 : 24.0 : .150 : 2,090 : 1,530
Pine, Jack (Pinus banksiana : 29.9 : 29.0 : .129 : 2,490 1,820

Pine, lodgepole (Pinus contorta latifolia) : 28.7 : 27.9 : .108 : 2,90 : 1,750
Pine, pitch (Pinus rigid) : 34.3 : 33.5 : .108 : 2,860 : 2,090
Pine, ponderoa--Pinus ponderosa) : 28.3 : 27.3 : .142 : 2,360 : 1,730
Pine, red (Pinus resinosea) : 30.9 : 30.2 : .104 : 2,570 1,880
Pine, slash Pinus carlbasa) : 43.1 : 42.3 : .120 : 3,590 2,630
Pine, southern yellow:
Loblolly (Pinus tasda) : 35.6 : 34.8 : .108 : 2,970 : 2,180
Longleaf (Pintu palustris) : 40.8 : 39.9 : .129 : 3,990 : 2,920
Shortleaf TPinu's echinata) : 35.0 : 34.2 : .108 : 2,920 : 2,140
Pine, sugar (Pinus lambertiana) : 25.8 : 24.8 : .145 : 2,150 : 1,570
Pine, western white (Pinus monticola) : 27.5 : 26.8 : .095 : 2,290 1,680
Poplar, balsam (Popuu! s tacaahaca : 22.7 : 2.2 : .071 : 1,890 : i,380
Redceder, eastern (Juniperus virginiana) : 3.1 : 32.0 : .158 : 2,760 : 2,020


(Sheet 2 of 3)




Table 1.--feIght atof saed wood aof varlom t re. r In tbU Ibltal Statp.S, ae-
differmat conitlow of -itare, id M-a adaitl g fact= (at.Uamd)

fflahot 4la- ponds "F P I1a v Il~t per 1, 000
: -rde fooat : for :bm.dE et &J dry
-.. :@ .mt.- : (35 w w c 1 -1
Speiem ( ao n --- botanical ) ) : 22Vt: 017: ulIn : 1,
: me1 : =a :far esl.5 .9 t21: 2 D0 1
: w : vlm : 1 :bIoIE :(Iz8-
: at, : aaa -3p"-eFmt: et dre7md
:iddtosuln:- :c* -- to
:wl :bt : Sm : : 2a z
cc 15 0:orS MIMI-]/
----- ---- --



Nedcdq1 wtwul- (P~e licalmn) : 23.1:7 253 -1047 1,970 1,13D
.......~1.... r........ :--- : ~... : .329..-2-20: -----_
(P) : (8) : (3) : (6) : (,) : (,)


Spus,~in 2..: D.0: .3: 1 ,l0:.1o
Spruce, 8lika (Picea itdaan sl 2.8 : .320 2,W 1,700


SycmRe, ica M e Platnm occIa mtu ) 25.9 .5 : .08 2,9oM 2,130
(Lrox ari T 7.1 : ..0 .0 ,090 2,26.

Welut, black (-l nh-m) : 8. 36.7 : .iI.4 3,170: 2,320
qr# (PIC2T.8 :,2F.0 M ,M ,8 0


Iiote-edr, Atl)ntin (e4a): 23.9 : :2.7 .09: 1,950: 1,130
9hite-egdr, nwrlharn ha 1dSmli : 21.6 : 30.7 : .029 2,8%00: 1,320
te-e amr, Pt fort oc ULU 29.8 : 28.3 .: OB: 2,480 1,820
WiU, M L -ak (Salix ig ) --: 2.1 : 6.8 .06 : 2,170: 1,90
elnu-ced, Acak 1nWj2r: 31.1 36. : .202 : 2,9: 1,900
s A~et~ RVapotartwsg






-To adjust value to any desired moisture content between 0 and 30 per-
cent, add factor to be adjusted for each 1 percent increase in :oi-
ture content; subtract factor frm value to be adjusted for each 1
percent decrease in moisture content. Thee factom take asrinkage
or selling vlith anoisture changes into consideration. For weight
values above 30 percent moisture content, use table I.
-Includes blue ash, green ash, and white ash.
2Includes bigtooth aspen and quaking aspen.
-Includes American elm and slippery e/I.
5Includes grand fir, Pacific silver fir, sand white fir.
-Includes mockernut hickory, pignut hickory, hobagbark hickory, and
shellbark hickory.
7Includes black maple and sugar maple.
-Includes red maple and silver maple.
9Includes black oak, laurel oak, northern red oak, southern red oak,
swamp red oak, water oak, and willow oak.
10Includes bur oak, post oak, swamp chestnut oak, and white oak.
1Includes virgin redwood and second-growth redwood.
!Includes black spruce, red spruce, and white spruce.
1-Includes black tupelo and water tupelo.

(Sheet 3 of 3)




The value given In column 5 of table 1 (actual board feet 15 percent
a.c.) multiplied by this adjus+ment factor, gives the weight of the
dressed limber. The adjustment for rough oversized limber is made in
similar fashion, that is, actual size divided by nominal size. In like
m er constants for any dressed size y be worked out and the weight
per 1,000 board feet computed.
Colun (6) Is an example of the weight per 1,000 board feet of 1-
by 8-Inch boards dressed to 25/32 inch in thickness and 7-1/2 inches in
width for various species. It has been computed by multiplying the
values in columm 5 by the foregoiig constant 0.724.
PART II. BOUND TIMBE
The weight per unit volume of green round timbers, such as logs,
lulpwood, posts, poles, and piling, aay be estimated by means of tables
2, 3, and 4. Table 2 gives the average specific gravity and moisture
content of sapwood and heartvood of round timbers of various species in
the green condition. Table 3 gives the percentage of sapwood in round
timbers for various thicknesses, and diaaeters. Table 4 gives the
weight per cubic foot of green wood at various specific gravities and
moisture content values.
All three tables are necessary for estimating the weight per cubic
foot of round timbers because in round timbers the proportions of sap-
wood and heartwood in the total volume often differ widely. Furthermore,
the sapwood generally contains more water than the heartwood and both
the sapvood and heartwood contain more moisture in the butt logs than in
the top logs.
The following example illustrates how to determine the approximate
weight per cubic foot of green round timber using tables 2, 3, and 4:
example:
Given a species, say, black tupelo. The average specific gravity
for the species is found from table 2 to be 0.46. Themoisture content
of the sapvood can be determined by actual measurement or estimated from
table 2 as 115 percent. The moisture content of the heartvood can be
determined by actual measurement or estimated from table 2 as 87 percent.
Next measure the average diameter of the timber and average width
of sapwood. If the average diameter is, say, 10 inches and average sap-
wood thickness tis 1-/A inches, then from table 3 the percentage of the
volume of the round timber occupied by the sapwood is found to be 58
percent. The percentage of the volume occupied by the heartwood will
therefore be, 100 percent aminum 58 percent, or 42 percent.
Turning to table 4, and looking under a specific gravity of 0.46
for a sapvood moisture content of 115 percent, the weight per cubic foot
is found to be 61.7 pounds per cubic foot. Under the sae specific
gravity value and a moisture content of 87 percent the weight of the
heartvood is estimated to be half way between that given for moisture
content values of 86 percent and 88 percent, or 53.7 pounds per cubic
foot. (Moisture content values in the left column may be applied to
either sapwood or heartwood.)








Table 2.--Average moisture content and specific gravity
of green timbers


Species : Moisture content : Average
:------. .-----: specific
1
: Heartwood : Sapwood : gravity=
.. -------- ------- : ---- C----


Softwoods:

Baldcypress
Cedar, western red
Douglas-fir (coast)
Fir, grand
Fir, white
Hemlock, eastern
Hemlock, western
Larch, western
Pine, loblolly
Pine, lodgepole
Pine, longleaf
Pine, ponderosa
Pine, eastern white
Pine, western white
Pine, red
Pine, shortleaf
Pine, sugar
Redwood (virgin)
Spruce, Engelmann
Spruce, Sitka

Hardwoods

Ash, green
Ash, white
Beech, American
Birch, sweet
Birch, yellow
Chestnut, American
Elm, American
Elm, cedar
Hickory, water
Maple, silver
Maple, sugar
Oak, black
Oak, northern red
Oak, southern red
Oak, swamp red
Oak, water
Oak, white
Oak, willow
Tupelo, black
Tupelo, water
Sweetgum
Sycamore, American
Yellow-poplar


*
* 1
*
ft
*
*
*
*
*
II
*
*
*

*
*
*
II
*
*
*
*
*
tt
*
*
*
w
*
*
* 1
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
w
*

*
ft
*
II
*
*
*
* *
9
*
*
*
tt
*
II
III
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
<*
*
*
II

I
W
*
*
*u
*
*
*
*
*
*>
*
II
0
tt
w
*
*
*

*
*
*


Percent



121
58
37
91
98
97
85
54
33
141
31
40


62
32
32
98
86
51
41


46

55
75
74
120
95
66
97
58
65
76
80
83
79
81
64
82
87
158
79
114
83


Percent



171
249
115
136
16o
119
170
119
110
120
o106
148

148
134
122
219
210
173
142


t








...


58
44
72
S70
S72

92
61
62
S97
72
75
69
S75
66
81
S78
S74
115

137
130
S 106


S
S


oven dry and volume when green.


0.42
.31
.45
.37
.35
.38
.38
.50
.47
.38
.58
.38
.34
.56
.41
.46
.35
.38
.32
.37




.53
.55
.56
.60
.55
.40
.46
.60
.61
.44
.56
.56
.56
.52
.61
.56
.60
.56
.46
.46
.44
.46
.38


!Based on weight when











To find the weight in pounds per cubic foot of the round timber it
is necessary to multiply the weight of sapwood by the percentage of sap-
wood divided by 100. Similarly for heartwood. Their sum gives the
weight of the round timber in pounds per cubic foot.


Thus:


61.7 x 58/100 = 35.8 pounds


53.7 x 42/100 = 22.6 pounds

Total weight of round timber per cubic foot = 35.8 + 22.6 = 58.h
pounds.









Table 3.--Sapwood, in percent of volume of round timbers


Sapwood : Average diameter cf timber in inches
Sth ic kness:-----------------------------------------------
: 4 : 5 : 6 : 7 : 8 : 9 : 10 : 11 : 12 13 : 14 : 15 : 16
---------- ----------. - : - : - : - - --...: .... -.. ...: -.. ..: -... .- -....- -.. ..


Inches

1/4 23:
1/2 44:
3/1 61 :
1 75 :

1-1/!1 C

1-3/4 :
2 1CO:


2-1/2



3-1/4


14 : .

r,-I/, ....
S- 1/2


19
2
51


75
V4
1:
*3X


16

44


66:
75
r14

' 14
'.7

1 :


14
27
53:


r. :

67
75



912


12:
23 :

44

61


75


,1
if'


... : 1 :


..... : ... : 1' :
. : . : 1 :


.. .. . : 1 :


* 1


17 :
25 :
33:

40 .
47








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C7


95'


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21
51


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4

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74

7:


8
15

21 -

35
41
'47
52

.)7
67
71


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