Weights of various woods grown in the United States

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Material Information

Title:
Weights of various woods grown in the United States
Series Title:
Technical note ;
Physical Description:
8 p. : chiefly tables ; 21 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
Publisher:
Forest Products Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Madison, Wis
Publication Date:
Edition:
Rev. 1953.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Wood -- Weight   ( lcsh )
Timber -- Weight -- Mathematical models -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available online.
Statement of Responsibility:
Forest Products Laboratory, Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture.
General Note:
Cover title.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029722806
oclc - 33185951
System ID:
AA00026019:00001

Full Text
,\


TECHNICAL NOTE NUMBER 218
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREST SERVICE
FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY
MADISON 5, WISCONSIN by ti re rDecembern 1953
p b o dv or t, lg


WEIGHTS OF VARIOUS ()OODS -GR.OWNn,,n
IN THE UNITED TIMBES
-- u).Ub-POSITORy

Calculated values of weights are necessarily approximate values owing
to variations in moisture content, density, sapwood thickness, and the
like that occur in different parts of the same timber. The calculated
average weights obtained by the methods given here are w not 100 percent
accurate but are more accurate than the weight tables commonly given
in grading rules as a basis for estimating timber transportation costs
or other exacting transactions. The methods are also useful in roughly
determining truck capacity needed to haul a given lot of timbers or the
possibility of driving or towing logs.

There is enough difference between the weights of sawed and round tim-
bers to require separate methods for estimating their average weights.


PART I. SAWED TIMBERS


Table 1 gives for various woods grown in the United States the average
weights per cubic foot of sawed timbers at moisture content valde, .3f
8 and 15 percent, and the average weight of 1, 000 board-feet when air-
dry (15 percent moisture content). Factors for adjusting values for each
1 percent change in moisture content are given.

Table I is based on the weights and volumes of 2- by 2-inch, clear speci-
mens from the top 4 feet of 16-foot butt logs of typical trees.

In any lotof lumberof given species in the air-dry condition at 15 per-
cent moisture content, the weight per cubic foot will rarely vary more
than 10 percent from the figure given in table 1. The greatest changes
in weight are those that occur in the early stages of drying of green wood.
Changes in the moisture content of air-dry wood are attended by only


iAiUL OF r UB
JAN 2 6 1954


UNIVERSITY of FR







relatively small changes in weight per cubic foot, owing to the counter
effect of change in volume as a result of accompanying shrinkage and
swelling.

The values given in table 1 for weight per 1, 000 board-feet at 15 per-
cent moisture content were determined by multiplying the values per
cubic foot at 15 percent by 83. 3. The weights per 1, 000 feet given in
column apply to theoretical board-foot measure (1, 000 linear feet actu-
ally 1 inch thick and 12 inches wide, or equivalent) and not to a 1, 000
board-feet lumber scale. Rough lumber is sometimes oversized and
dressed lumber usually undersized with respect to nominal sizes. The
values given in column 5 of table 1 will generally, therefore, need to be
adjusted for actual shipments of lumber. The adjustment for 1- by 8-
inch boards dressed to 25/32 inch in thickness and 7-1/Z inches in width
is as follows:

25/32 X 7-1/2= 0. 7324.
1X 8

The value given in column 5 of table 1 (actual board-feet 15 percent
moisture content) multiplied by this adjustment factor, gives the weight
of the dressed lumber. The adjustment for rough oversized lumber is
made in similar fashion, that is, actual size divided by nominal size.
In like manner constants for any dressed size may be worked out and
the weight per 1,000 board-feet computed.

Column (6) is an example of the weight per 1,000 board-feet of 1- by 8-
inch boards dressed to 25/32 inchin thickness and 7-1/2 inches in width
for various species. It has been computed by multiplying the values in
column 5 by the foregoing constant 0. 7324.


PART II. ROUND TIMBERS


The weight per unit volume of green round timbers, such as logs, pulp-
wood, posts, poles, and piling, may be estimated by means of tables 2,
3, and 4. Table 2 gives the average specific gravity and moisture con-
tent of sapwood and heartwood of various species in the green condition.
Table 3 gives the percentage of sapwood in round timbers for various
thicknesses, and diameters. Table 4 gives the weight per cubic foot of
green wood at various specific gravities and moisture content values.







All three tables are necessary for estimating the weight per cubic foot
of round timbers because in round timbers the proportions of sapwood
and heartwood in the total volume often differ widely. Furthermore,
the sapwood generally contains more water than the heartwood and both
the sapwood and heartwood contain more moisture in the butt logs than
in the top logs.

The following example illustrates how to determine the approximate
weight per cubic foot of green round timber using tables 2, 3, and 4:

Example:

Given a species, say, black tupelo. The average specific gravity for
the species is found from table 2 to be 0. 46. The moisture content of
the sapwood can be determined by actual measurement or estimated
from table 2 as 115 percent. The moisture content of the heartwood
can be determined by actual measurement or estimated from table 2 as
87 percent.

Next measure the average diameter of the timber and average width of
sapwood. If the average diameter is, say, 10 inches and average sap-
wood thickness is 1-3/4 inches, then from table 3 the percentage of the
volume of the round timber occupied by the sapwood is found to be 58
percent. The percentage of the volume occupied by the heartwood will
therefore be, 100 percent minus 58 percent, or 42 percent.

Turning to table 4, and looking under a specific gravity of 0. 46 for a
sapwood moisture content of 115 percent, the weight per cubic foot is
found to be 61. 7 pounds per cubic foot. Under the same specific gravity
value and a moisture content of 87 percent the weight of the heartwood
is estimated to behalf way between that given for moisture content val-
ues of 86 percent and 88 percent, or 53. 7 pounds per cubic foot. (Mois-
ture content values in the left column may be applied to either sapwood
or heartwood. )

To find the weight in pounds per cubic foot of the round timber it is nec-
essary to multiply the weight of sapwood by the percentage of sapwood
divided by 100. Similarly for heartwood. Their sum gives the weight
of the round timber in pounds per cubic foot.

Thus; 61.7 X 58/100 = 35.8 pounds

53.7 X 42/100 = 22. 6 pounds
Total weight of round timber per cubic foot = 35. 8 + 22. 6 = 58. 4 pounds.


Agriculture -Madison


Z M 8227-5 F





Table 1j.-Weifht, of eased wood of various tree gro In the United Statesa, under different eondltons of aolture, and accoamsiny i adjuetiny factors
Specle. : Weight in pounds par : Weight per : Specles Weight in pounds per : Weight per :: Specie. : Weight In pounds per W WI ght par
cubic fact :1,000 board- :: cubic foot : 1,000 board- ::cubic fOOt : 1,000 board-
-.------------------------: feet air-dry :: ---------------.---- ;;i7: faet air-dr7 ---- --------------.---- 1- feet alr-dry
:Based on:.ased on: Factcrea1 : (15 percent :Based on:Based B:Bctorue. : (15 percent :: :Based on:B-aed on: Factor-a : (15 percent
: eight : welght :for edjnust< moisture :t : weight : weight :for adjust" olature : weigt weight :for adjustq aolstura
:and vol--t" 1OI-:A lgne-e: co- nt) :: ;and wol-;and vol-Al-g values: contend) :: :and vol-;and vol-;ng valsem: contact)
:a at a:ae at a:for ah !...............:: : at s:e at a. for each : ------ :: ua at a:u at a: for each ----------------
,aoletre =Molatc-:l percent :Actua: tl oead: : :Dolat...lao18tu e : percent Actusl: Dressedi: :oleture:aolota: percent :Actual: Dressed
:contact :content :change in iboard-:(l by 8 :r :content :content :Change in :board-:(l by 8 :: :content :content :chaega in lboard-:(l by 8
= of 15 : of 8 : -olet- : feet : dressed:: : of 15 : of 8 :-olet- : fast : dressed:: of 15 : of 8 : moisture : fast : dressed
jpereoat :percat ; content :to 25/32:: :percent -percent conat *to 25/52:: percent percent : contest I Ato 25/32
; ; ; by i:: ; : ; by !:; ; : i : by
t : : 7T-1/2) !! : : 1 1 : 7-1/2) 1: : : ; I 7-1/2)
- :: : : --------
EAMDOOIB W. ! ! iaola, I I i i;Dougas-tlr
s- *outher...: 35.5 3 54.4 0.162 2,960: 2,170 :: Coaat type.: 34.3 33.1 0.170 1 2,860: 2,090
Alder, rad...! 28.8 28.0 0.112 2,400: 1,760 !diaogro.....i 70.0 68.5 l .841 5,850 4,270 Inter-dl-
A ppl ........ k&85 47.6 .15 4,o040o 2,960 d'oJple I : : : :: at* typ.:, 1.8 50.8 .137 2,600' I,940
Ah .. : 1.f : ,0 aa...... 34.2 : 33.2 I .145 2,8,0- 2,090 :: Bokn-: I
Black ...... "35. 54.3 l .2 ,940: 2,150 Black ...... : 40.9 5 59.8 1 .150 : 3,410: 2,500 :! tain type: 30.5 ; 29.2 : .1 2,540 1,860
Ric .......: 40.7 3 59.2 .208 z ,390:8,480 :: Red ........: 57-0 : 35.6 .195 : ,080: 2,260 -:Fir I -
Orne ......: *0.7 3 59.4 .179 3:5903 2,480 : Siler .....: .9 t 32.8 : .154 2,820: 2,070 :: Alpine .....: 22.5 21.3 .167 1,870: 1,570
vwlt ...... 1 42.7 : 415. : .175 : 5,560 2,610 : Sugar ...... t 4.5 45.4 : .15 ,710: 2,720 :: Bala ......: 26.9 : 26.4 : .071 2,820: 1640
Aspeo n : t t I ountain- : : : :: California : : ;
Ugtooth... 7.5 2.6 : ... l 2,27o: 1,660 ,: l,,,1 ...... 48.8 f7-.7 .158 4,070! 2,980 red ....... 28.3 7.2 .158 t,236o, 1,7
uaXtIM....: 27.0 : 26.1 : .129 2,250i 1,650 ::oat : I. : k Grand ......: 28.5 8 2753 .1*5 1 2,530: 1,730
B:maowd : Bed Rohl ......; 27.1 26;2 .129 2,260s 1,660
A oar c-a...: 26.0 5.5 .075 l 2,1701 1,590 Black....: o.0 5 .15. W t,670: 2,690 t: Pacific I
Beech, : : l : :: Cherry : : : : : :: 811 r... 28.1 27.5 l .117 t 2,340: 1,T10
Ansricau...; t.5 *3 15.2 .162 : 3,690: 2,700 :! bark...: 47.2 5 5.8 ; .200 5,950: 2,880 ': wiht......: 26.7 25.8 .12 2 ,220: 1,630
Birch l : Laurel...: k5.5 4 4.7 : .108 3,790: 2,780 :;;Halock : : : :
Ala~a : : ; : : :: North.r ; : Zasten.,...: 29.0 :28.0 .150 :2,4>20! 1:T70
paper....: 58.8 : 58.0 .117 5,250; 2,370 :: red....: l58 *4 -.5 .187 : ,650i 2,670 !: Westen..: 29.6 : 28.7 : .129 2,470: 1,810
Paper ...... 5 8.9 3 38.2 : .095 3 M,2;0 2,570 :: Southam : : : : :JUmllar, : : :
Swreet...; 11T.2 : 6.0 : 175 31}930: 918W60: red.... 41.1 : 0i.1 .142 3 ,1420: 2,500 t: aligator..! 56.7 1 35.4 .179 3 ,060- 2,2140
Yollov .....4: 1>.1 ; 2.4 .112 1 3,620; 2,650 Water....: l.6 43.8 .120 3 5,720: 2,720 !-lar, : : :
Boakeye, l ; : i: Willow...: 44.6 13.8 : .112 3 ,720: 2,720 -.- woutrar....: 39.14 3 8.2 .170 3 ,280i 2,400
2.....: 25.5 24.8 i .10 : 2,:20: 1,550 White :Fl- : : :;pine : :
Buttrnut....; 27.4 26.4 ; .15 2 ,280: 1,670 b! r ...... : 5.o : 4. 5.5 : .208 5,750: 2,750 E atern :: :
Callfornt : : : s l :: Post.....: T7.9 s t7.1 : .120 ,990i 2,920 w: vhlte....: 25.I 24.2 : .167 2,1201 1,550
lAure .....! c59.5 3 8.2 t .185 3 ,2901 2,410 Sweep, : :i : ; Jack .......: 30.3 29.2 Z 25 8520: 1,890
C.1r1, black: 56.1 3.8 : .185 : 5,010: 2,200 :! cetaut t: k. : 47.9 : .087 ,040z 2,960 :: LedWgpole..! 29.2 : 28.2 14 .ll2 2,:t30: 1,780
Chestnut, : w l : : : Whlte....: t.8 i 5.6 : .16T 3:,9002,8600 Pitch......: .9 3 556 3.8 .150 2,910: 2,130
Aarican...: 30.-5 29.5 *145 1 2,5o0: 1,86o ::0gB-ormg-.: 57.3 : 54.9 -M57 4 1,770: 3,490 :: Pondsroa..! 28.6 ; 27.5 .162 2,580. 1,740
Chlakepin, I i : : l :!Palmatto, : : : : i: Bad........: 31.4 1 50.4 : .142 2,620 1,920
golden,.....i 58.3 3 1.3 .145 **2,690: 1,970 :*cabbage ....: 29.6 :29.o .087 **2,470: 1,810 S* ontherc t
Cottonwood : : : Yellow : :
Black ...... ; 24.5 t 25.8 t .104 !2,040; 1,490 ;;coanoon.....! 5o.8 1 49.7 .158 :4,23o: 5.100 I: Lblolly.: 36.3 3 5.2 ; .154 : 5,020: e,210
I jtar....: 28.9 28.0 ; 125 2 2410: 1,770 ::-Pol-, I : : Lougleef. : 41.6 40.5 .19 r 3,470, 2,540
Ciuobe ros. 9 34-3 33- 5. 142 2 2860. 2,090 :: balsa ...... 23.2 !22.5 100 1 1930.' 1, t0 Shurtlaat: 55.7 **3. 154 2 2970z 2,lfl0
Do~god I : : : !;garberrT... 4 36.5 3 55.5 1 .67 5,0O4! 2,250 a8sah....: 45.9 4 42.6 : .179 3,660: 2,680
loverag,.1 51.5 1 50.7 1 .120 4,290: 3,140 ::8veetg= ..... 36.4 3 5.5 : .133 1 5,030: 2,220 : Sugar ......: 26.0 : 24.9 : .162 2,1701 1,590
Paific....i 45.9 z 44.9 : .142 38,20: 2,800 ::Syta-or, : : : : I :: West.r- I : t -
Zia I i : t :: Aamericn...: 35.7 34.7 .17 2,970: 2,180 : w vhit....: 28.0 i 27.1 .19 2,530: 1,7l0
Asarlcan..., 36.3 t 55.5 .117 3,020: 2,210 :,' pelo : : : : ::Redvood (old-: : l
Codar ......: 45.9 t 44.6 .187 5 O88-2,800 !: Black ......: 6.4 35.5 .129 ,030. 2,220 :. growth).... 1 28.6. s 27.4 t .175 B2,0: 1,740
Book.......t 44.2 : 42.7 t .208 i 3,680o 2,700 :; Water ......: 35.1 54.0 .162 22,920; 2,140 t Spiuce i I I
8UIpary..., 37.68 36.7 .15%k l 3,150, 2,310 :!;Wa t, black; t58.6 37.0 .233 3 5,2201 2,360 : Black ...... 28.8 1 27.8 W .48 t 2,:00 1,760
Backberry....: 37.4 3 ]6.2 .175 3 ,120: 2,290 ::Wilier, black: 27.6 i 26.9 i .104 2,500: 1,680 :i ugae' ..: 24.1 23.2 i .129 2 ,01011,470
tlor, : : : : ::Tellow-pePlar! 30.3 i 29.2 1 .150 i 2,520: 1,850 t. Red ........! 28.4 1 27.2 t .175 2,370; 1,740
Nfookannt.. 51.4 !50.4 r .145 4,280: 3,130 t; : : : : Sitka ....... 28.1 i 27.1 : .145 :2,340: 1,710
paecn......; 46.5 : 45.0 : .212 1 5,870: 2,830 ,;0ESM'S White ......: 29.4 1 28.7 t .104 2,4502 1,790
Pgut.....! 55.4 52.6 : .120 4,450:5, 260 B elncyp-ras..! 52.6 : 51.4 : .367 2,20;: 1,990 ::Tasarck ..... 1 37.6 5.5 : .l6T 5,350:2,290
Shagbark...: 51.2 i 50.3 : .129 l ,270: 3,10 ;:Ceda" : : ::Yaw, Pacific.: 45.7 s 44.0 z .250 3,810: 2,790
Shelbsrk..! 49.0 : 47.8 s .170 4 4,080; 2,990 i: Alak -..... 31.6 30.4 .170 2,630. 1,950 :, I
Water ...... t 44.6 v 42.3 i .29 3,720: 2,720 s: Atantic : I : : :: : : : %
Holly, t : : : : wh lta-.... 23.8 z 83.0 .120 : 1,980: 1,450 : !
Assirlean...! 39.8 !38.9 1 .133 3 ,320: 2,430 1:* Reataro i t *
Sonaloent-.. 45.3 43.6 l .250 5,oT0: 2,760 -s redcadar.: 33.5 l 32.2 .18T 2,790: 2,040 : : :
Hoparnbeeza, : t I :: Incense-...: 25.5 : 24.2 : .13 2,120: 1,550 : : !
eastera....: 50.0 4 48.8 .167 : ,170: M,050 t: Northamr : : :: : : i ;
Locust, black: 49.0 46.7 .324 :4.080: 2,990 ti white-....! 21.8 2o8.8 .145 1 1.801 1,330 :
ro, : : : : port-Orfoxd 30.1 : 28.9 : .175 2,510; 1,840 : : z
Pactf5c....t 45.6 44.6 .150 3,800 2,780 ;3 West.-i : I: i : : : : I
_______ l ____ ____ l ______ ____ l r acadar.: 23.4 22.4 : .137 a 1,950: 1,450 t:; ________ _______ ___
ITo adju* t Tlls to any desired Aoiature cunentmt add factor to value to be adjusted for each 1 percent increase in moisture content; subtract factor froo alue to be aedjuated
for each 1 percent decrase In enolsture content. These factor. take shrinkage or svellian with wolsture changes Into consideratlo.





















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