Record of experiments conducted by the commissioner of agriculture in the manufacture of sugar from sorghum and sugar ca...

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Material Information

Title:
Record of experiments conducted by the commissioner of agriculture in the manufacture of sugar from sorghum and sugar canes at Fort Scott, Kansas, Rio Grande, New Jersey, and Lawrence, Louisiana 1887-1888
Series Title:
U. S. Dept. of agriculture. Division of chemistry. Bulletin
Physical Description:
118 p. : incl. tables. 6 pl. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Publisher:
Govt. print. off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sorghum sugar   ( lcsh )
Sugar -- Manufacture and refining   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029705513
oclc - 29525617
lccn - agr09001062
Classification:
lcc - S584 .A3 no.17
System ID:
AA00026008:00001

Full Text





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Norman J. Colman,


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DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
ULLETIN No. 17.



RECORD OF EXPERIMENTS

CONDUCTED BY THE

arc"" TONEr, OF AGRICULTURE

SIN THE

MANUFACTURE OF SUGAR

FROM

SORG-HUM AND SUGAR C ANiES

AT

FORT SCOTT, KANSAS, 1R0 GRANDE, NEW JERSEY,
AND LAWRENCE, LOUISIANA.


S1887-1888.







WASHINGTON:
VERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
15-449-No. 1-1










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INTRODUCTORY LETTER.



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
Washington, D. C., January 26, 1888.
SIR: Complying with your instructions I beg to submit herewith for
yur approval Bulletin No. 17 of the Division of Chemistry, containing
a recod of the experiments made by your direction in the manufacture
of sugar from sorghum and sugar canes.
Te bulletin is divided into three parts, viz:
PART I, experiments with sorghum at Fort Scott.-Containing the re-
pot of M. Swenson; drawings and description of apparatus; a digest
f the report of E. B. Cowgill to the State board of agriculture at
Teka, Kans.; and a statement of the action taken by the Depart-
mnt in respect of certain letters patent granted to M. Swenson for the
ue of lime carbonates in the cells of the battery.
PART II, experiments at Rio Grande.-Containing the report of H. A.
Hughes, drawings and description of apparatus usedl, and analytical

PART III, experiments ia Louisiana.-Containing the report of I. W.
Wiley of the results of the experiments conducted at Lawrence, La.
In obedience to your further orders, I took charge of the chemical
work of the three stations. During the summer of 1887 the necessary
apprtus and chemicals were purchased and sent to the several stations.
Of my assistants, C. A. Crampton and N. J. Fake were directed to take
chae of the analytical work at Fort Scott, and were furnished with
writen instructions for their guidance in taking samples and the gen-
era method of analyses to be followed.
V. Broadbent and H. Edson were sent to Rio Grande. They had
the same instructions as were given my assistants at Fort Scott. In
adition to this I personally directed the beginning of their work. On
obr 11887, Mr. Broadbent resigned his position in the Department
r the purpose of pursuing his studies abroad. Mr. Edson from that
dat had sole charge of the analytical work until the end of the season.
On April 2, 1887, G. L. Spencer was sent to Fort Scott to secure the
removal of certain machinery to Lawrence and joined Mr. Barthelemy
nthe work of preparation at that station.
At the close of the work at Fort Scott, Dr. Crampton and Mr. Fake
also to Lawrence to assist in the chemical work at that place.
3
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4-

In the following pges only such chemical data are
sary to illustrate the experiments made. Much of th cal
is yet undone, and it would delay too long the publihin of this
to wait for its completion. All the details of the chemi ork f
three stations will therefore be collected and publis in a
bulletin, viz, o. 18. The success of the work at all three stations
been most gratifying, and the diffusion process for the manufacte
sugar has been advanced beyond the experimental sta by the l
of this Department, beginning in 1883, and it is no offered to the sug
growers of the country with the confident assurance that it is the
most simple, and most economical method of extracting sugar both fro
sorghum and sugar canes.
Respectfully,
H. W. WILEY,
Hon. NORMAN J. COLMAN,
Commissioner.













PART I.


RIMENTS WITH SORGHUM AT FORT SCOTT.


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.

FORT SCOTT, KANs., Vorember 9, 1887.
S : I herewith submit my report of the experiments in the mann-
cture of sugar from sorghum cane, conducted at Fort Scott, Kans.,
during the present year.
I beg to acknowledge my appreciation of the hearty support that you
ve accorded me while in charge of this work.
Very respectfully,
MAGNUS SWENSON.
Hon. NORMAN J. COLMAN,
Commissioner of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.


REPORT OF M. SWENSON.
Pevious to my appointment to take charge of the experiments in the
manfture of sugar from sorghum cane at Fort Scott, Kans., all at-
tmpts to make sugar from this source in paying quantities had failed.
is was due to many difficulties, of both a mechanical and a chemical
re, in the manipulation of the cane and juice. The most important
robems to be solved were the proper cutting and cleaning of the cane,
th prevention of inversion of cane sugar in the diffusion battery, and to
A a cheap and effective method for treating the diffusion juice.

PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS.
As soon as the earliest of the amber cane approached ripeness a large
number of preliminary experiments were made in defecation alnt filtra-
t of juices. The experiments in filtration were made with a sall
lter with a hand pump. The cloth used was the same as that
ud in the large p r s, and every precaution was taken to make the
tsjust as aluble as if made on a larger scale. These experients
on July 9. Theiltering materials used were inely pow
5







dered lignite, bituminous coal, shale, several kinds of
carbonate of lime. The following onlusions were deried
experiments:
(1) None of the above materials would filter juie tifcti
had an acid reaction.
(2) Neutral juice filtered very slowly and a hard w
form in the press.
(3) With a decidedly alkaline juice the filtration took place
mor readily, but was not entirely satisfactory except with
of lime.
(4) Lignite did not have any apparent decolorizing effect on ji
except when the juice had become highly colored by adding an ex s
lime, when a slight decolorization took place. A large number of e
periments were made with varying quantities of lignite, but in no
did it show any superiority over fine sandy loam, either a
or filtering medium.
Experiments for testing the cutting, cleaning, and elevating machi
were also conducted as early as the condition of the cane would
mit.
The method of unloading the cane and getting it on the caier w
similar to that employed last year. The seed heads, however, were cut
off in the field. The cutters were made by the Belle City Manufa
ing Company, of Racine, Wis. They did the work well, but the ma-
chines were too light to stand the very severe work they were called
upon to do.
The cane was cut into pieces about an inch long d then elevated by
a drag to the top of a series of four fans standing straight over each
other, each fan being furnished with a separate set of shakers. The
cleaning apparatus, after considerable adjustment, did fairly good work.
The leaves and sheaths were removed by a sution fan. The c
pieces of cane were cut by a rapidly revolving cutte, consisting of a
cylinder carrying thirty knives. The cylinder was made up of thr
separate sections, each with ten nives. Although no difficulty was en
countered in cutting, the work of the cutter was very unsatisfactory. A
large portion of the chips consisted of long pieces with the bark on o
side. Diffusion in this case could take place but in one direction, a
in the largest chips of this kind the extraction of the sugar was very
perfect. The drag for conveying the chips to the cells was reuilt a
placed higher and on one side of the battery so as not to interf it
the pcing of th chips i the cells. The exhausted chips wrdu
directly into a car running on rails under the battery.
run up an incline onto a trestle work about 20 feet fro
by the aid of an endless cable. Two friction clutches, runn
posite directions, served to run the ca forward or bckw
was so arranged that the charge of exhausted chips ~4d b
at any point by simply reversing the motion of the






7

EXPERMENTS WITH CRUSHER.
It was the opinion of a number of men interested in this industry
a a very much larger yield and better quality of juice could be ob-
tained by the crushers if the cane, previously to being pressed, were
ane and macerated, and it was deemed best to give the matter a
oh trial. For this purpose a 3-foot cane mill was purchased from
A. Fied& Co., of Saint Louis. It consisted of a three-roller mill and
Sental two-roller mill. The principal trouble encountered was
in eding the mill. Even with an arrangement for forcing the chips
weethe rolls not over three tons per hour could be forced through,
d te yield of juice was but little if any greater than when whole
ane was fed to the mill.
Saverage yield of syrup was about 10 gallons per ton of cane
wordThe same kind of cane yielded by diffusion 25 gallons of syrup
p ton of cane. The cane used in this trial was very poor, being
mostly lodged. These experiments show conclusively the great supe-
ioity of the diffusion process for syrup making, a very good quality of
sip being produced from very poor cane. It was superior in both
solornd flavor to the sirup from the mill juice. The juices from the
mill a battery were treated precisely alike and they were skimmed
and evaporated in an open steam evaporator. This is a matter of great
tceto all engaged in the sugar business, as both at the beginning
andoof the season there will be considerable cane that is not fit for
sug aking, and the fact that 25 gallons of first-class sirup can be
made fm such cane by diffusion makes it possible to work even such
material at a godd profit.
Sfirst rn for sugar was begun on August 26. The juice was made
lline with lime, and about 2 per cent. of carbonate of lime was added.
t was then filtered. To other portions of juice, instead of carbonate of
ime, 3 per cent. of ground shale, bituminous coal, and sandy loam were
added respectively. The filtrations were very im perfect excewpt with
th carbonate of lime and in every way corresponded with the pre-
iminary experiments. Lignite was not used on a large scale because
Jhd at the time no means of grinding it; but judging from a large
umber of. experiments made in the beginning of the seaon, it is safe
t conclude that it would not have filtered any better than the other
materials used.
Satisfactory filtrations were only produced when the juice had been
made strongly alkaline, and no material was found which would filter
the juice when left slightly acid.
On August 30 the first strike was made, and the yield was a little
more than 100 pounds of washed sugar per ton of clean cane.
INVERSION OF CANE SUG AR.
To prevent the inversion of the sugar in battery, about 10 pounds of
ryprecipitated carbonate of lime was mixed with enough wter to pro







duce a thin paste. This was added to the fresh chips whle the cell wa
being filled, and entirely prevented any loss of sugar by inveroon.n
The carbonate was made by forcing carbonic acida by the aid of a
pump into thin milk of lime. The injection pipe was perforated and lay
along the bottom of a 10 by 10 feet tank containing the milk of lime.
The gas was produced by burning coke in a smal fu W n
lime showed but a slight alkaline reaction it off i
hole in the ground where the water soon drained awa, l ng ar
bonate nearly dry.

EXPERIMENTS WITH DEFECATION.

On September 1 filtration was dispensed with and e i tried
with simple defecation. The defecators were similar to those in ordi-
nary use, being simply round tanks with conicl bott
with coils for heating the juice. This ethod of dn, hoever
was not satisfactory, and defecation was tried in a shallow pan 1 feet
long and 26 inches wide, with a partition running lengwise in the
center, the inlet and outlet for the juice being on the e end of the
pan on opposite sides of the partition.
This pan was gotten up very hurriedly and was supplied with iron
pipes for heating the juice. The juice, after being pre sly limed and
somewhat heated, was pumped into one side of the long heating pan and
run out at the opposite side continuously.
Being compelled by the center partition to flow down one side and
back on the other the juice made a circuit of 32 feet. T steamasso
regulated that during the first 16 feet it was gradually but to the
boiling point, while in the opposite side it boiled vigorsly. In this
way a strong current was produced which carried all the impurities in
the form of scum to the quiet portion of the juice, where it was removed
and returned to the battery, thus avoiding all waste and annoyance
from this source.
EVAPORATION.

The juice was evaporated to from 200 to 300 Bauma in a double ef-
fect evaporator built by the Pusey & Jones Company, of Wilmington,
Del. This apparatus gave perfect satisfaction. All the eVaporati
was done by exhaust steam of 4 pounds pressure, a small amunt of live
steam being used only when part of the machinery was stoppe
EXPERIMENTS IN BOIL*NG TO GRAIN.

Every strike was boiled to grain in the pan. ev ents
were made to ascertain the result in boiling "in and inhjuie bi
enriched by the adition of sugar made from previs s Its
very doubtful, however, whether this is to be reco in
when the juice is so poor that a good grain can not be obt d n any
other way.






Owing to the fact that we were unable to secure a sufficient supply
of ca the work progressed very irregularly. Only twice during the
re on was the battery kept in operation continuously for twenty
and during the sugar-making season the diffusion battery was
empt sixty-two times. This entailed no inconsiderable loss, amount-
St f 1 to 2 tons of clean cane each time a stoppage occurred.

CANE WORKED FOR SUGAR.

Th total amount of cane worked for sugar was 2,610 tons. In this
isnluded all that was used for experiments in filtration and defecation
'drng the first part of the season. I have no r.ecord of the exact amount
lot in this way. The total amount of first sugar made was 235,476
und. This sugar was all washed, and polarized on an average 96 per
cnt. The total amount of molasses produced was 51,000 gallons.

TRIAL RUNS.

In order to ascertain as nearly as possible the average yield of sugar
per ton of cane two trial runs were made.

FIRST TRIAL.

On September 15 a strike was made from 133 tons of clean cane. In
ordr to obtain a better grain 2,600 pounds of sugar was added to the
i after it had been defecated; 2,200 pounds of juice were drawn from
each cell.
S" following is a record of this experiment:
I Sucr e in mill, juice from chips.... -.......... .... ...... ..... ....... .... .... 10.00
Gluose in mill, Juice from chips. ...... .....- ............ .......... 3.41
ds notsugar, juice from chips--...-... .......... ......... .... .3.20
Ra o of sucrose to glucose........................................ ....... .. 2. 9
Coef ient of purity ......................................................... -60. 3
n d i ion juice .. ....... ..... ....... .............. .. .... .... 7. 91
o in diffusio juice ...... .. ...... ..... ... ............. ...... 2.60
Solids not sugar, diffusion juice ..... ...... .............................. .
Rati o of ucrose to glucose ..... ......-.. ...... .... ..... ............ 3.04
oeficient of purity .............. ................... ...... .......... ....... -60.4
def td juice... .. .. ... .... ..... .. .. .. .... ..... .. .. .. .. .. .... .
Sin defecated j ie ..... .. .... ....... ........ ................ .. .... 40
Solids not sugar, defecated juice............................................. 2.46
o f t sucrosetoglcose. ... ....................... ............... 3.47
cient f purity. ....... .. 6.

Total weightof first sugar. ................ ...... .............. pounds.. 17, 60S
gar adde to juice ................................................ do .... 2,

Total yield frst sugar .................... ......................... ..do.... 1
Total yield of second sugar..................... .... .......... ....do... 2
Total ield of olasses .................. .... .................... gallons.. 2, ZQ






10

Yield per ton :
First sugar -- - - -- -.. . .. .. .o s ." ----1. PO n
Second sugar ...........................---- ......... .......- do.....5
Molasses ...................
First su ar polarized ...... ...........-- .... ...........-- 93.0
Second sugar polarized ----- ------ ..- -- 88.7
Temperature in battery was between 750 and 800 C.

SECOND TRIAL.

Eighty-six tons of clean cane were worked; 4 tons on 1, and
33 tons on October 2. All was boiled in one strike. No analyses were
made on October 2, and unfortunately the complete data can not there-
fore be given. The juice was not enriched as in the preou.
The following are the results:
Yield of first sugar ............... ...----------------------------pound.. 9,292
Yield of second sugar ..-...................-.....-...-.......-.... ...do... 1,
Yield of molasses......s............. .... ............. ......... ... on. ,42
Yield per ton :
First sugar ........................................o...s..........po.. 108
Second sugar ..... ..... ............................do....
Second sugar .....-do---. 23
Molasses ......-..-......-. .....-..-...- ......-...... -g...allons.. 17
First sugar polarized- .... -.... ..-....... ...-. ...... *-.. ..... .. .. 97
Second sugar polarized .................. ......--.. ............ ....... ... 88.

AVERAGE YIELD OF SUGAR.
Making a fair allowance for cane and juice lost in experiments during
the first part of the season, the average yield of first sugars will be fu
100 pounds per ton, polarizing 97. A strike of averae molasses boiled
to string proof yielded 12. per cent. of the weight of the masse cite in
sugar, containing 88 per cent. of sucrose. This is at the rate of 28
pounds per ton of cane. Had the entire crop been boiled for seconds
the e yield er ton of cane would not have bee less than 1
pounds of sugar and 16 gallons of molasses. From a financial stand-
point the advantage of working for seconds depends entirely on the
sirup market. In my judgment it would not have paid this season, a
the market is better than for years past. The entire product of 51,000
gallons has already been sold at a good price.

AVAILABLE SUGAR.

It is at once apparent that the old method of calculating available
sugar must be abandoned. According to this rule the ould be but
61.6 pounds available sugar per ton of cane in the diffusion uice of the
first trial, when as a matter of fact 130 pounds was obtained. It would
therefore seem that instead of preventing an equal weigt ocane sugar

prevented only two-fifts of their weight of cane sugar crstalliz
ing. This is also borne out by the data furnished by th l f th
juices during the entire season.







Average analyes from ta prepared by Dr. Crampton.

Sl juices. Diffusion juices. Total
or we nding'_- - sugar
(exhaust
SBix. Sucrose. Glucoie. Brix. Sucrose. Glucose. chips).

18p.......... 9 99 9 3.46 12.8 7.74 2.28 .9
p17.3 9.63 -.52 12.2 6.88 2.35 .96
tober ......... 16. 94 44 3.21 10. 9 6 34 2. 21 .63
16.4 9.96 3.3 11.0 6.60 2.31 .9
ober 1........... 14.8 9.34 2.98 10. 6. 38 1.90 1. 10
S eason. 16.3 9.67 3.31 11.4 6. 79 2.21 .93

erage ratio of se to goucose in mill juices.. ........................................ 2. 92
egcoicintof purity of mill juices ................. 59. 3
erage ratio of sucrose to glucose in diffusion j ices ........................ .................... 3.07
eragecoefient of purity of diffusion juices ................................................ 59. 5

Sabove table discloses two very important facts:
1) The very uniform condition of the cane throughout the entire sea-


2) By the use of a small quantity of carbonate of lime in the cells
version of cane sugar is entirely prevented.
Th amount of sugar left in the chips is larger than it ought to be.
is due, as previously stated, to the bad shape of some of the chips.
ortis reason the juice was also more dilute, as larger charges had to
Sdrawn in order to get a more complete extraction. Up to Septem-
ir 22 te amount drawn was 2,200 pounds. From this to October 4
40 pounds, and from October 4 to the end of the season 2,420 pounds


temperature of the battery was maintained near 80 .

EFFECT OF HEAT.


ic evaporated to sirup, in an open pan, the following experiments
Smade. Juice was boiled down in the open pan used for defecating,
d samples taken at different intervals.
The following are the analyses:

x, Su G o Ratio of sucrose
ix. Sucrose. Glucose.
to glucose.

13. 8.08 2. 9 3. 38
21.7 13. 49 3. i 7 3. 48
27. 7 33.30 9. ') 3. 5
37.220 11.36 .27
411. 1 lost.

[Tril on Po ters evarator.

Scrose. Gucos. atio of sucrose

* ,To 1 014 1.4
1ts l s :l 2|1

0. 1 2 0 3.
li.^11^ Il|tW, ifc *>i






12

The juice in both cases was made as nearly neutral with lime as po
sible.
It seems from the above that the invertive action
been greatly overestimated, and that when the jice is not id no ap-
preciable inversion takes place even when the juice is redued to a1
moderately heavy sirup in an open pan.
From Mr. Parkinson's report it will be seen that the l in le
and sheaths amounted to about 11 per cent. of the weightof the
cane. This loss can no doubt besomewhat rednued wen te lei
machines become better adapted to the work.
According to a number of trials with freshly cut cane th
leaves and sheaths amounted to 10 per cent. and the d ts to
per cent. of the weight of the whole plant. Late in the seaon w
the leaves become dry this proportion is of course coy

COST OF A FACTORY.

A very important fact to determine is, the capacity and cost of
factory that will work the cane most economically. There can be no
doubt but the advantages are greatly on the side of the large factory.
The office expenses and cost of management will be but little, if any,
greater. All the machinery required in a large factory is equaly nec
sary in a small one and the proportionate price of this machinery is in
favor of the larger factory. In other words, a factory working 200 t
of cane per day will cost much less than double he cost of a fa
working 100 tons. Again, the cost of operating a large factory is
portionately much less. It takes no more men to operate a di ffion
battery with a capacity of 200 tons of cane than one half as Iar a
this is true of the larger part of the machinery in the ftory. A p t
may of course be reached where the size of the machinery becomes too
large for economical working, and when the amount of cane need
working will be greater than can be grown within easy h h
factory.
Judging from our present knowledge, a factory capable of working
from 200 to 250 tons of cleaned cane per day seems the m .st
This would require a diffusion battery of 12 cells, ah cell ha a
capacity of 112 cubic feet. The evaporating apparatus should hae a
capacity of 250 tons of water per day and a strike pn with a
tionate capacity. The cost of such machinery will, of course, depend
largely on its kind and quality. and can be readily o m
reliable manufacturer. The cost of a factory is am always u
estimated, owing to many items which are not taken into acunt. T
capital for building a factory of the above capacity should not be less
than $100,000 to $125,000, any thing below being
Nothing but the best machinery should be used and e n
should be taken to prevent breakage of machinery and
x;;i, li;~i" ;;;;;ii il





13

ae'epairs quickly by having duplicate parts of such machinery as are
able to break. There is no manufacture which depends more for its
ucess on the proper working of the machinery than the sugar industry.
COST OF WORKING.
The ess of this industry does not depend a!together on how much
gar can be produced per ton of cane, but the cost of this production
mst also be considered.
The success of the work during the past season has been largely.due
the simplicity and cheapness of the processes employed. For the
tual cost of production and other data of the utmost interest to those
ho contemplate engaging in this industry, I can not do better than
fer them to the report of W. L. Parkinson to the board of directors
the Parkinson Sugar Company, which I have the permission to em-
bdy in this report. 1
There is no doubt but that $2 per ton for working cane are sufficient
cover all legitimate expenses connected with the manufacture.

UTILIZATION OF THE EXHAUST CHIPS.
It will soon become a matter of necessity to dispose in some way of
e exhausted chips from the battery.
he great amount of this material accumulating about the factory
kes it imperative that they be utilized in some way. Three methods
disposition have been suggested: (1) To return them to the land as
fertilizer; (2) to use them for fuel; (3) to manufacture into paper
lp. One of the last two methods will no doubt be adopted. Some
periments in using for fuel were made during the season. A large
rtion of the water was pressed out by passing the chips through a 3-
t cane-crusher. The chips dropped from the last roll into a hopper,
m which they were taken up by a suction-fan and blown over to the
iler-house. This method of handling the chips has many features to
ommendit. It is very simple, and, besides, the chips are dried some-
hat by being subjected to the strong current of air. No doubt the
king of paper pulp from the chips will become the most profitable
sposition to make of them. Tue cane after being reduced to finle chips
d thoroughly washed in the diffusion battery is certainly in an ex-
llent condition for this work. No attempts have been made, as far as
now, to make paper pulp on a large scale from this source, but very
e samples of pure white pulp have been made in a small way. This
atter is certainly deserving of thorough investigation.
NEEDS OF THE INDUSTRY.
One of the greatest difficulties which will be encountered by those
gaged in developing this industry will be the scarcity of men capable
operating factories. This will be the most serious hinderauce to rapid
Ie Cowgill's Report, p. 21.)





14

development, as nothing but time can prod of
perience. The establishment of a school for training yi i
work would be of inestimable value. Here they should
technical training, which should be supplemented with a drill in the
factories while they are in operation. This would in a sot time de-
velop a number of men capable not only of taking charge of a fac
but also qualified to conduct independent research, whi, in so
ful a field, could not but result in great good to the industry.
The improvement of the sorghum cane is also o f the subts
which should receive immediate attention.
Although very little has been attempted in this line, enough has been
done to show that the cane sugar is greatly increased by good culture,
and that it is susceptible of very great improvement by the various
methods known to scientific agriculture there can be no doubt. The
idea that sorghum cane will grow anywhere and do well with any kind
of treatment is one of the main causes of poor cane. Instead of re-
ceiving thorough culture, it generally gets only such attention as can be
spared from the other crops. If the price paid for cane could be reg-
ulated by the actual amount of sugar it contained, the farmer would
soon find it to his advantage to devote more time to his cane field.
The establishment of a sugar refinery within easy reach of the sorghum
sugar factories will be one of the imperative needs in the near future.
The demand for any kind of sugar but white granulat is omaa
tively limited. The sugar produced at Fort Scott averag within 2
per cent. of being as pure as the best granulated, while the selling price
has been about 11 cents per pound less, or a difference of about 25 per
cent. The most feasible manner of conducting the refinery, at least in
the near future, will be to supply one or more factor with the addi-
tional appliances needed, and when the season's work is over the sug
from a number of factories could be refined there durin the balance of
the year.
Before closing this report I wish to extend my thanks to Mr. W. L
Parkinson, manager of the Parkinson Sugar Companys fr his rty
co-operation. The successful handling, cutting, and cleaning the cane
were due to the results of his thought and labor
I also desire to express my appreciation of the faithful and valu
services renered by y m assistants Messrs. J. C. Hart and J. N. Wil
cox; and my thanks are due Dr. C. A. Crampton and Mr. N.J. Fake,
chemists of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, for aid and
extended.
CONCLUSIONS.
In reviewing the work te most important point suggested is the
complete success of the experiments in demonstrating th commercial
practicablity of manufacturing sugar from sorgum calne
(2) That sugar was produced uniformly throughout the etire






15

(3) That this was not due to any extraordinary content of sugar in
he canebut, on the contrary, the cane was much injured by severe
drought and chinch-bugs.
(4) That the value of the sugar and molasses obtained this year per.
on of sorghum cane will compare favorably with that of the highest
ields o ined in Louisiana frora sugar-cane, and, taking into consid-
ation the much greater cost of the sugar-cane, and that it has no
quivalent to the 2 bushels of seed yielded per ton of sorghum cane,
r ch cheaper fuel, I say without hesitancy that sugar can
Sproduced fully as cheaply in Kansas as in Louisiana.
M. SWENSON.



SUMMARY OF CHEMICAL WORK DONE AT FORT SCOTT, 1887.

[Abstract of report of C. A. Crampton.]

Analyses were begun on the 3d of September, but a full chemical control of the
not established until the 8th.
Sa sof the fresh chips, diffusion juices, and exhausted chips were taken in the
y, great care being taken to have them represent as accurately as possible
he m n properties of the several substances mentioned.

TABLE 1.-A#aly8se of juices of fresh chips.
Number of analyses .-....-....-..... .......................... 55
S crose: Per cent
,, .... .............................. 9. 54
Maximum .................. ........... ............................... 11.51
Minimum.............................................................. 6.20

Mean................................................................... 3. 40

Minimum -----------------. ------------1.39
Total solids (spindle):
..............1................................................ 1 4.14
*Maximum ...... .............. ........ ...... ....... .-.. 17.18


"TABLE 2.-Diffusio juics.
Sanalyses......................................
Sucrose: Per cent.

Maximum e-... as -. ***- -**- ..e.. ,,, i8
Minimum .......... .. ........ ..... ..... ......., .. .. .... ..... .. 5


M axim um ---- --- ---*- --- ------- ---*--- - ..-- .. ...... *...... 3.07



**Maximum ...... ............ t...... ...... .......... -*........-.......... .... 13. 10
8.64
]b






16

TABLE 3.-Exhanwted chips.
Number of analyses ......................................................... 29
Both sugars: Per cent.
Mean ................................................................... 1.03

M inimum ......................................................... -......... .49.

TABLE 4.-Clar ifed juices.
Nuimber of analyses .....25.
Sucrose
M aximum .............. .................................................. 6.91
Maxi nm-- ----............................................................... 8.25
Minimum .. ............ ...... .................................... 5.11
Glucose:
Mean ...................................... ..................... ..... .. 2.19
Maximum ............................ ................................. 85
Minimum ...................................... ................ ....... 1.69
Total solids (spindle):
Mean ......................... ....-.. .. ........ ........-..- ..-.... 11.31
i .......... ...... ..................,..... .. ........ .. ..- 13.35
Minimum ................. ......................... ........... ........... 8.94

TABLE 5.-Sirups.
Numaber of analyses -............ .......................,............... 14
Sucrose: Percent.
ea ............................. .................................... 29.
Maxinum... ....................................................... 41.90
Minimum .......................................................... ...... 16.10
Glucose :
Mean ........... ..................................................... 106
M1aximum .............................................................. 16.26
Minimum ............................................................ 7.52
Total solids (spindle):
Mean ................... ............. ..... ...... -........ ....... 46.02
Maximum ...................................... .. ......... *..,. ... 40
Minimum .............................................................36.20

TXBLu 6.-First s8gar8.
Number of analyses........... ..... ........ ...... ..... ....... ....... 28
Sucrose: Percent
M ean ... ............ .................. .......... .... ......... 95.64
Maximum ...... ............. ............ ............................. 98.10
Minimum .......................................... ..................... .40

TABLE 7.-Scond sugars.

Sucrose: Percent
Mean... .................. ........ ............................... 85. 80
Maximum ............................................................... 88.70
M inim um ............... ............................................... 82.30

The analyses of the molaswes, massoe cites, and some other products are nt yet com-
plete, but will he given in full in Bulletin. No. 18.
The ratio of sucroso to glucos in the fresh chips and di isio ces fr th season
was as follows :
Mill juirea..........,....... . ...,,.,,,. -.... ......... ... ....... 1 :l 2.80
Diffu io ic ...... ...... .... ..... ...... ...... ...... .. ...... ...... .... 1: 2.95






17


in the ba ery or that the glucose in the cane was not so readily diffused as
ros The latter bypotesis seems to be borne out by the analyses of the ex-
Sa wn iu the followiig table of analyses:

cro nd glucose i juicefrom exhausted chips and corresponding difusion juices.


Exhausted chips. Diffusion juices.
Date.
No. Sucrose. Glucose. No. Sucrose. Glucose.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Oct. 8 ............ 248 .78 .57 247 5.90 3.06
Oct. 11 ............ 2 .87 .51 259 6. 58 2. 09
Oct. 12........... 267 .63 .29 266 6.17 2.03

Oct. 15........... 24 75 .27 293 5.66 1.75
Oct. 18 .... 313 .99 .43 312 5.66 2.02

Avecrage ..... .78 .40 .... 5.99 2.

15 49-No. 17-2














THE 0SORGHUM-SUGAR INDUSTRY IN KANSAS.*


REPORT OF E. B. COWGILL.


OFFICE OF THE STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE


had, prior to the present season, resulted in disa
cial disaster, confidence was not destroyed. Theth
and the obstacles to success, which many of large experience had de.
clared to be insurmountable, seemed only to nerve those whose co
de ce in the final success of the industry remai nshaken, to renewed
and more determined effort. Congress had been inded to provide
means to aid in the further prosecution of experimen
ital was required to enable Kansas to avail herself
offered, Those having the greatest financial interest in the industry
were generally discouraged, and individuals having nothing at risk
could hardly be expected to invest in so unpromisg an enterprise.
Under these circumstances the legislature wa
March 5, 1887, an act to encourage the manufacture of sugar was
secured, which provides: First, that a bounty of two cents per pound
ll be paid upon all sugar manufactured in this
c or pl ::: '
sorghum, or other sugar-yielding canes or plants grown in Kansas.
Second, that no bounty shall be paid upon sugar containing less than
90 per cent. of crystallized sugar, the quantity and q
mined by the secretary of the State board of agri r r tr
son ppointed by him, the cost of such inspection e rne
claimant. Third, the sum of money so to be paid shall not exceed in
any one year $15,000.
The secretary of the board, reco zing his inability to perform the
duties imposed by the act above referred to, did, on the 15th day of
Atugust, 187, by virtue of the authority in him vested appoint and
conmmission Prof. E. B. Cowgill inspector, under the provisions of said
act, and authorized and einowered him to do and perform, all and sin-
gular, the duties as such inspector also to make such observation and
Ti report a een orrecd by the author, several errors havig been over-
looked in the advance sheets.
18






19

estigation of and ods employed in the manufacture
sugar as the publi interest might seem to require; and to report to
is o e, as required by law, and indicated in the instructions trans-
Si i comission, as follows:

STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE,
Topeka, Kans., August 15, 1887.
: In inspecting sugar, on which bounty is claimed under the act of the
ature ved March 5, 187, and in your observations of processes, and in
tigating te subject of sugar making in Kansas under the commission herewith
ed, yowill observe the following instructions:
with section of said act, you will proceed to inspect sugar ade
cs wn lled upon by the manufacturers, and,
tdetermine the percentage of crystallized sugar, uncrystallized sugar, and of
st s n ar, coutained in each package presented for inspection.
kp a full and correct record of the quantities and qualities of sugar on
whch bounty is claimed.
In determining the quality of sugars you will make analyses by the copper
ction, or suh o r method or methods as you may deem best.
II. You will weih and brand all sugars inspected, and keep possession of the
a n vered or consigned to purchaser, and you will keep a correct record of
h del and consignent: Provided, That you may permit delivery and ship-
t tobe de, during your absence from the works, by some person to be desig-
a ,who iball keep a full and correct record of such delivery and consign-
ad p t to you a sworn statement of the same, together with receipts of
aseror trnsportation companies.
also take such sworn testimony of maufacturers, employs, station
tso, and such other evidence as shall fully determine the quantity
Sbe reported for payment of bounty.
Sentire product of the season at any factory has been ispected, and
Sas above directed, you will transmit to this office a sworn state-
the quality and quantity of sugars made by said factory, and will turn
r to the manufacturers all unsold products.
Sobserve processes and experiments, and make ivestigatios as oppor-
and report fully to this office, to the end that the people of the State
yhav advatage of all information gained and pr developed under the
t of the bounty providd n the act above referred to.

WMr. SiMs,
Secretary State Board of g riculture.
rof. E. B. COWGILL,
Sterling, Kane.

The appointment above referred to was, on the 21st day of August,
7, cepted by Professor Cowgill, who filed herein his oath of
e, and at once entered upon the duties of his said appointment, and
o, on the 7th day of December, 1887, delivered to the ecretary of
board his report, as such inspector, showing the quantity and quality




This report shows 842 packages, cotaing 234,07 pounds of sugar,
ave been inspected and branded as provided by law and that the








sugar, respectively.
The amount claimed as bounty, and due thereon fiom the Stat
ury, is $4,692.14, leavingi of the appropriation for 1887, above
to, unclaimed, the sum of $10,307.86.
And afterwards, to wit, on the 15th day of December, 1887, t
filed in this office, by Professor Cowgill, his complete and inal
relating to the sorghum-suar industry in Kansas, which is
submitted for the information of the public.




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

SIR: Under commission from your office dated August 15, 1
instructions to inspect and brand ugars made in this State du
season of 1887, as provided in the act of the legisla
5, 1887, and under your further instructions to ascertain whethe
making in Kansas is a success or a failure, and why, I proceede
Parkinson Sugar Works, at Fort Scott, the only sugar factory in
tion in the State, and inspected and branded the sugar produ
set forth in detail in Exhibit A. I also made a careful stud
processes used, and submit herewith my report. I am aware t
that is contained in the following pages is not new to those
with the usual methods of making sugar; but realizing that to
those who will read this report the details of the entire sub
I have deemed it proper to describe the old as well as the net
processes employed in the manufacture as at present condu
have not hoped to enable persons unfamiliar with the subject to
enter upon the profitable manufacture of suar but to help tho
are studying the subject, and to place reliable information on
important new industry within the reach of the intelligent
public.
I am, sir, yours respectfully,

Hon. WA. SIls,...
Secretary State Board of Agriculture.













REPORT OF E. B. COWGILL.



HISTORICAL SKETCH.

The sorghum plant was introduced into the United States in 1853-'54
y th Pte Office, hich then embraced all there was of the United
tates Department of Agriculture. *Its juice was known to be sweet,
Schemists were not long in discovering that it contained a consider-
able percentage of some substance giving the reactions of cane sugar.
The opinion that the reactions were due to cane sugar received repeated
in the formation of true ane-sugar crystals in sirups ade
msrgh Yet the small amounts that were crystallized, compared
withtnts present in the juices as shown by the analyses, led
any toe e that the reactions were largely due to some other sub-
stance than cane sugar.
LY INVESTIGATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE.

g the years 1878 t 1882, inclusive, while Dr. Peter Collier was
Schemist of the Department of Agriculture, much attention was
given to the study of sorghum juices from canes cultivated in the gar-
s of te D artment, at Washington. Dr. Collier became an en-
h astibeliever in the future greatness of sorghum as a sugar-pro-
g plant, and the extensive series of analyses published by him
attracted much attention from sugar-makers in the South, and students
Sof suar throughout the country.

SUGAR FACTORIES ERECTED IN KANSAS.

Stimu d by the analytical results published by Dr. Collier, inter-
ested parties erected large sugar factories and provided them with costly
apHon. John ennyworth erected one of these at Larned,in
this S.A. Liebold & o. subseqently erected one at Great Bend.
Both of ctories imade oe nisugar, both lost money, and both quit

Sterling and Hutchinson followed with factories which made con-
siderable amounts of merchantable sugar at no prfoit.
The factory at Sterlin, was erected by It RM. Sandys & Co., of New
'Orleans, who sought, by combining1 r. Sandys' thorough knowledge of
s0 U ai -
H illiii;aln1i1 |J"11 'ii








sugar with the best practical skill of the South, to'establish the

worked faithfully, and while the irup produced paid the e
the factory, not a crystal of sugar was made. The factory the
changed hands, and passed under the superintendency of Pr
Scovell,then of Champaign, Ill., who, withProfessor Webera
out, in the laboratories of the Illinois Industrial University, a
method for obtaining sugar from sorghum in quantities which
then prevalent would pay a profit on the business. But prices
and after making sugar for two years in succession the Sterlia
succumbed.
The Hutchinson factory at first made no sugar but subs
passed under the management of Prof. M. Swenson who had
fully made sugar in the laboratory of the University of WisconiL
amounts of sugar were made at a loss, and the Hutchinson fact
its doors. In 1884 Hon. W. L. Parkinson fitted up a comple
factory at Ottawa, and for two years made sugar at a loss. Mr
son was assisted during the first year by Dr. Wiloxandd
second year by Professor Swenson.

INFORMATION GAINED.

Much valuable information was developed by the experiene
several factories, but the most important of all was the fact t
the best crushers, the average extraction did exceed ha
sugar contained in the cane. It was known to scientists
formed sugar-makers in this country that the process of diff
theoretically efficient for the extraction of sugar from plant cel
that it had been successfully applied by the beet-ugar-makers op
for this purpose.
FURTHER WORK OF THE U. S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICT
In 1883, Prof. H. W. Wiley, chief chemist of the Departmen
culture, made an exhaustive series of practical experiments i
oratories of the Department on the extraction of the sugars from
by the diffusion process. His report sums up the results of
ments as foMows:
(1) The extraction of at least 8 per cent. of the total sugars present w
In many of the experiments, as will be seen by consulting the table, scar
of sugar could be detected in the exhausted chips.
(2) The production of a quantity of melada represented by from 10.9 t
cent. of the weight of the cane diffused.
This was secured with a cane in which the total sugars did not excee
cent. The percentage of melada by this process will be found just about e
per cent. of total sugars in the cane.
It ought to be greater with a more perfect extraction, but I am speak
results actually obtained.
This yield is just about double that obtained by the large factories at R
Champaign, and other places.









I consider the experiments, however, to have their chief value in the fact that they
il call the attention of canto the advantages which a rational system of
siowill have over pressure in the extraction of the saccharine matter.
d of her n to report further progress i this in-

Stheent condition of the sora ugar industry, in which it has alike to be
tete from the over-eal of i friends and the opposition of its enemies, the pro
the m promising outlook for sucess. It therefore seems the
sito make a more practical test of this process and on a larger
wale.
To make the necessary further experiment with diffusion required
di of large sums of money. As already shown, the pri-
ad lost heavily. They were utterably unable to co-
e t ents so hopefully began by the Department of Agri-

THE AID OF CONGRESS SOLICITED.

At this crisis Hon. W. L. Parkinson and Mr. Alfred Taylor, of Ot-
tawa, Kans., after consulting with others interested in the then lan-
gisig s hm-sugar industry, went t o Washingtn to call the atten-
to the important results promised for the diffusion
pr s anto show that, without the aid of an appropriation, all that
had raccomplished would be practically lost. The Kansas
delegation in Congress became interested. Senator Plumb made a
thorogh study of the entire subect, and,with the foresight of states-
anship, gave his energies to the work of securing an appropriation of
50,000 for the development of the sugar idustry. This appropriation
uri the last days of the session of 1884. The season was
too far advanced to erect and use the difl'sion apparatus with sorghum
ane, and it was, by the Commissioner of Agriculture, sent to Louisi-
ana, and sorghum got no benefit from this first appropriation.

',AOTHER APPROPRIATION.

In 1885 natorPlumb, at the request of Judge Parkinson, Professor
others, again labored for an appropriation for experiments
Sus It was shown by Judge Park inson, and all others in-
ere d in te srghum-sar industry, that this was the only hope for
success. Fifty thousand dollars for this purpose was apain added to
the agricultural appropriation bill, on the amendment of Senator Plumb.
This was expended at Ottawa, Kaus., and in Louisiana. The report
of the work at Ottawa closes as follows:

and the yield was fully double that obtained in the ordinary way.


he*
^klik *^cfil*i tt^'iiijL'gj l^ K 'l-'^iT^ ..snui i:" ";i:' J;jffi- s^9 ;; Wjtf&K RX lfca igB. ;ug~ii~i-i;; -- ;fi ;; tri ,,l i~i;; ;.. ; ""i~P I










a few minor changes in order to prevent choking. (d) The apparatus for delivering
the chips to the cells should be remodeled so as to dispense with th laborof one man.
(3) The process of carbonatation for the puriftion of the jes the only method
which will give a limpid juice with a minimum of waste and a maximum of prity.
(4) By a proper combination of diffus
demonstrated that fully 95 per cent. of the sugar in the cane can be placed on the
market either as dry sugar or molasses.
(5) It is highly important that the Department complete the experimets so -
cessfully inaugurated by making the changes in the machinery mentioned above and
by the erection of a complete carbonatation outfit.
Respectfully,

But while so much had been accomplished by the joint eorts of the
United States Department of Agriculture and the Ottawa company,
the financial results were so disastrous to the company as to leave them
utterly unable to further co-operate with the Government in the prose
cution of the work.

THE FORT SCOTT COMPANY ORGANIZED.

At this juncture Judge Parkinson saw that he must either submit to
defeat or organize a new company to cooperate with the Department
of Agriculture, should Congress be wise enough to make another ap
propriation. In this straight he ent to Fort ott and organied the
Parkinson Sugar Company, which is now composed as follows: J. D.
Hill, president; Eli Kearnes, vice-president; M wenson, secretary
and chemist; W. Chenault, treasurer; W. L. Parkinson, manager;
F. Drake, A. W. Walburn, W. W. Pusey, J. W. Converse, and David
Richards.
Taking up the work where all others had faile;d this company has
taken a full share of the responsibilities and losses, until it has at last
seen the Northern sugar industry made a financialscess.

THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES MAKES AN APPROPRIATION.

The report of 1885 showed such favorable results that in 1886 the
House made an appropriation of $94,000, to be used in Louisiana, New
Jersey, and Kansas. A new battery and complete crbonatation appa-
ratus were erected at Fort Scott. About $60,000 of the appropriation
was expended here in experiments in diffusion and carbonatation.
In his report Dr. Wiley arrived at the following conclusions:
In a general review of the work, the most important point suggested is the abso-
lute failure of the experiments to demonstrate the commercial practicability of man-
facturing sorghum sugar. The causes of this failure have been pointed out in the
preceding pages, and it will only be necessary hereto recapitulate them. Theywere:

chips and for removing the exhausted chips.








The deterioration of the cane due to much of it becoming over-ripe, but cbefly
Sfact that mh time would generally elapse after the canes were cut before
reached the diffusion battery. The heavy frost which came the first of October
what, but not until ten days or two weeks after it oc-

The deteriorated cane caused a considerable inversion of the sucrose in the bat-
on which was increased by the delay in furnishing chips, thus caus-
ips hbattery to remain exposed nder pressure for a much longer time
was necessary. The mean time required for diffusing one cell was twenty-one
tes, three times as long as it should have been.
)The process of carbonatation, as employed, secured a aximum yield of sugar,
seasure a maximum yield of su
make a molasses which was marketable. This trouble aros from the
of lime remaining in the filtered jices, causing a blackening of the
tration, and the failure of the cleaning apparatus to properly pre-
the chipfor diffusion.

THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE- DISCOURAGED.

fter expenditure of so much money, and the publicaton of so
ourang a report as that of 1886, the Commissioner of Agriculture
St ask for further appropriations. But Senator Plumb again
rescue, and, by a faithful presentation of the possibilities
induced Congress to make an appropriation of $50,000, of
h $24,0 was apportioned to Louisiana, $6,000 to Rio Grande, N.
0,00 to Fort Scott, Ka&s.t

SUCCESS AT LAST.

is year the Fort Scott aaemen made careful selection of essen-
parts of the processes already used, omitted non-essential and cuni-
availed themselves of all the experience of the past in
country, and secured a fresh infusio of experience from the beet-
r factories of Germany, and attained the success which finally
esorhum sugar-making among the profitable industrie of the

STATE ENCOURAGEMENT.

S t of Kansas had, b all reports, been indicated a the center
t sorghum-sugar industry, when it should be developed. Kansas
esmenin the legislature, as early as 1885, conceded that the State
d assist i the development of the new industry. In that year
. F. Bond, member of the house from Rice County, prepared and
uced a bill providing for a bounty of ent per pound, to be
Sthe State treasury, on all scuar manufactured in the State
he non-action of the Coimmissioner is misunderstood byMr. Cowgill. When the
H m Committeeon Agriculture made the appropriation of the preceding year it was
d that no subsequnt grant should be demanded. It was in harmony ywith this
ment and not for the reasons stated that the Comnissioner did not ask for a
her appropriation.
ie distribution of the money to the various tations was left to the discretion of
theCommissioner, and was not nitied in the bill.
Jitri lL.^. aaea J A A t& a as .J I JI ^A
II Mg i z ^' w ii i i MW

~~-~~j1 Iu~~--4 Ijvi
sias'''' 1^ i "iii si , "I j.jtes ;n~ s ~ s 1 | AB." tfi^









1887 Senator Bawden, of Bourbon County, introduced a bill p
for a bounty of 2 cents per pound, to be paid upon all sugar a
ured in the State for five years, the maximum amount to be pai
year being limited to $15,000. This bill became a law.
It will thus be seen that the present condition of the sorgh
industry is due to private enterprise, aided by Government a
appropriations, and directed by scientific and practical skill.
COMMISSIONERS OF AGRICULTURE LE DU,LORING,AND
It should be mentioed in this connection that United ta
missioner of Agriculture Le Due extended a strong and frien
to the sorghum-sugar industry during his term of ofice. Hi
sor, Commissioner Loring, had the work continued by Profes
but was himself skeptical as to results. The present Com
Hon. Norman J. Colman, had been an advocate of sorghum
years before his accession to office, and had probably written a
lished more on the subject than any other man in the United
Every friend of the struggling industry was gratifed at his
ment. He has extended all the aid at his command, and ma
feel proud of the attainment of the present suess under his
tration of the Department of Agriculture.
THE PRESENT STATE OF THE INDUSTRY.
The experiments in making sugar from sorghum, which, a
shown, have been in progress for several years at the expense o
capital and the United States Department of Agriculture,
year reached so favorable results as to place the manufact
ghum sugar on the basis of a profitable business, as will be see
report to his company of Hon. W. L. Parkinso manager of
Scott works.
The success has been due to, first, the almost complete extr
the sugars from the cane by the diffusion process;secondthe
and proper treatment of the juice in defecating and evaporatin
the efficient manner in which the sugar was boiled to grain in t
pan. That these results may be duplicated and improved upo
readily understood from the showing made in Mr. Parkinson'
and the descriptions of methods and processes used, and the di
of the same as they appear in the subsequent pages of
REPORT OF W. L. PARK1NSON.
To the Board of Dircotors Parkinhon Sugar Company:
GENTLEMEN: I respectfully submit for your consideration the following
the operations of the works of your company for the season just closing:
It is provided in our contract with the United States Departmnt of A
that certain experiments in sugar-making shall be made by the Departmen
tain maebinery of its own and at Its own expens uing the mpany's











tion of the factory during the season. At the same time it is highly important that
y know as precisely as possible the cost of working and the profit or loss on each

As y a ware, the crop of cane contracted for last spring was very much less than
e paty of or works to consume. It was considered prudent to limit our dan-
gr from ose, by reason of the experimental nature of the work, and at the same time
to have safent cane to determine thoroughly the value of the work on a practical
manatring basis. This has been done, though it is now apparent that had the
op been twice as large, the expenses for working it would have been relatively much
le. Indeed, a crop double the size of the one just finished could have been worked
in about the same time, and at a comparatively trifing additional expense.. The
p methods, and processes which have made the work of the season successful be-
yd our most sangine expectations, were adopted early in the season, so that the
rk incident to experiments taken into account when contracting' for a crop were
reduced to the minimum. The fact that at least a portion of these highly successful
processes were not tried and adopted last season was no fault of your company, nor
of any one connected with this season's work.
To aive at the cost per ton of cane worked, let us take the working of a single
average day, when in full operation, and apart from the cost of experiments referred
to.
The capacity of our factory, aside from deficient centrifugals, is limited to the ca-
pacity of the diffsio battery. Working twenty-two hours per day, this battery can
comfortably handle 135tons of chips, or cleaned cane. This represents a capacity of
eld cane or cane with seed tops and blades, of about 170 tons. To handlethis, aside
from rin and handling seed, costus nper day of twenty-two hours, when running
regularly, as follows:

1 team, pulling cane onto storage racks, at $2.50 ............................. 2.50
menunloing and getting caneto cutters, 22 hours, at 12 cents......... 13.75
Sman, tting machine, at 15 cents .................................... 3.30

1 man, grinder, etc., at 15 cents---------.. ...... ...........e............ 3.30
1aman, oiler, at 15 cents................,.a.......a.... .. ..........a. 3.30
en, o battery, 1 at carand2 above, at 12 cents .................. 8. 25
1 man, di on battery, director of battery, at 20 cents .................. 4 40
2 men, defecating, at 15 cents .... ........................................... 6.60
2 men, double effects, at 15 cents-...---.. ------- ...----- .-- -- ........ ...... 6.60

IL man, hot room, at 121 cents........... ...... ... ... C ...,.,..,,, ...,..,.... 2.75
1 manbarreler, at12 cents .............................................a. 2.75


2 menengineer, at 20 cents .... .... ....... ........ ... ... .... .... .... 4.40

2menroustaboute, at 121 cents................................. .... .... a...... 5.50
1 man, water boy ............. .... ... ca a.. . S ........ ... ...... 2.00
Sman, night watch ............ .................................... ........ 1.50



O teo S..O ........... .* .................. ...... .... .... ...... .... 0A. 50
Coal23 tons slack, at 90 cents.... ............................. .......... 20.7








This makes the cost of working a ton of cleaned cane, with a factory ofth cap
ity of ours, about $1 per ton for labor and fuel, or 90 cents per ton offeld cane. Th
cost per ton for salaries, insurance, wear and tear, etc., must depend, of course,
only upon the size of the salaries and other general expenses, butotenumberoton
worked. This plant, rated as above, is capable, in seventy dayo, of working 9,
tons of chips, or 11,900 tons of field cane. Thre is ssss
preparig for the e n's work, and aain in closing up
and for the proper management and control of the w
expenses, outside the cost of labor nd fuel, at 1 per ton un t a
to this the cost of labor and fuel, and we have 2 per ton
working cleaned cane. These figures are fully verified by our payrolls, coal b
and other expenses while wrking to our capacity during
expenditures in the completion and changing of machinery
experiments made. And to work a factory with a capacity at least one-alf grea
than this one would require very little additional expense except in the matter
fuel, and that would be relatively less. It seems to me a very conervative bas
with a factory of the capacity of ours, to place the actual cost of manafacture at
per ton of cane; and with such a factory as I have indicated, and with a season
say, seventy days, it is safe to place the cost of manufacture at considerably less th
that sum. It reqire but little figuring upon his basis,
$3 per ton, and the yield of cane and product secured thisw tt we
here developed a business of great interest and profit to or S a N o.
To run a factory at the maximum profit it must be operated
working season. The loss this season by reason of the irregu
tory for want of sufficient cane was very cosiderale During
factory was operated but three whole days of twenty-two hours
the loss from this source may be gathered from the fact that
chips were lost at each brea in the operation of the diffusi
much breaks or stoppages were made while running for sugar. With a larger crop
cane and better arranements for delivery upon the part of te
but little or no difficulty from this source need be apprehended in t
Total cane bought ........................................... ......... *... ,
Total seed tops bought..................................... .. .......
Total field cane ...... ...-. ............--.... .... , .
This represents the crop, less about 30 tons of seed tops yet to
450 acres of land. There were somethin over acres plan
to come at all, some fell upon the rocky places, where they had
when the sun was risen they were scorched
about 450 acres of cane were actually harvested and delv
would make the average yield of cane 9 tons per acre, or $
cents. I beg to observe, in this connection, that the present ws
nage of the five successive crops I have handled. It was ,.pr
rystallizable sugar, covering the same period of time, in the State. It
amiss to observe, too, in this connection, that a very commonly acc d t y,
"the dryer the weather the sweeter the cane, is not verifed by my experience.
Of the total cane worked, 162 tons were consumed in experiments with our cutt
and cleaning machinery befor e the cane was ripe enough r ue for either si
sugar. No product whatever, not even seed, was saved from this, nor from 10 t
additional brougt in ince the factory closed down About 300tons of mostly do
and inferior cano was worked in the early part of the season on the crushers, a
without diffusion. The only product from this was molasses, and of that but a a
quantity. About 375 tons were also worked for molasses only on the diffusion batte
This, with the exception of 50 tons at the closo of the season, and which came in
irregularly to be worked for sugar, was worked before the sugar season began, a








comprised suh down pathes and poorer quaty of cane as co e gatere, maly

cane cold be worked successfully, even for sirups, on a diffusion battery. Nothing
this direction had hitherto been attempted. The total yield of molasses from this
ha taken, is 4,157 gallons. From tis are sold
57 The ning 1,000 gallons are still on hand, and are

Tons.
eting from total tonage, less seed .................... .................. 3, 840
nt not worked for sugar .......... .................................... 897
We have total cane and leaves for sugar........................ ,943
The totanumberof diffsion cells worked for sugar is 2,643. The weight of a cell
of chips 9With this as a basis there was worked by diffusion for sugar
as t entered the cells Deducting thi from 2,943 tons of
e, eaend blades, and we have 333 tons of leaves and blades. The latter
SA small portion has been hauled away by farmers for feed, but
he lk of this large tonnage is now fit only for manure. This waste was consider-
Si by t failure of our separating machines, especially in the early part
St s t p ly discharge their duties. This whole subject was new; ma-
ins, and their adjustment, which is not yet perfect, caused con-
S The weight of blades and leaves will not be far from 10 per
lFor either feed or fuel, especially wher e latter is much of an
be utilized so as to at least cover their own cost. At present
we igre the loss from this source to seed account.

SEED.

delivered of seed tops 437 tons As nearly as we can estimate,
S delivered 30 tons, aking in ll 467 tons. From the best calla-
tions we can make, and judging from our experience in former years, seed yields
about 70 per cent. of the weight of beads, as bought in over the scales, in cleaned
e at 6 per cent., and with 56 pounds to the bushel, we shall have
S l leaned seed. A portion of this, estimated at 1,000 bushels, has, at
al expense, been picked over by hand, head by head, tied into
small bndles, and hung up in the dry. This has been done to provide ourselves with
nt varieties for planting, nd to supplya probable want in the
same diretion from others. For this hand-picked seed we expect to get not less than
$2perb The cost of handling the seed has not been kept separate from the
cosning te tory. The total cost of curing, stacking, and hand-picking
wi $700, fully $200 of which has been expended in seuring pure and
Sc for o lves a thers willing to pay the extra price. To
e seed for market the seed will cost about 6 cents r bushel
atthatwe hallgetforour seedcrop $7,000net. There will
left of seed tops, after thrashing, fully 100 tons. These are good for feed or fuel.

SIRUPS.

Thsi are stored in the large citer o r the warehouse
The amount on hand we etiato at 50,000 gallons. This includes the whole crop,
except the 3,157 gallons sold in early part of season. Of this we have sold, to be
delivered within thirty ays, and on car-loa of which has already gone, barrels,
or about 12,50 gallons, at a price that will net us hero 20 cents. This sale includes
the bulk of our poorest sirups. I think we can safely estimate our sirulp product,


eir sale, without boiln, for second.











Of our su ar product, the St.b.. e inspector, Prof. E. B. Cowgill, has weighed and
certified for State bounty 206,326 pounds. We have now in addiion ad ready for
inspection 22,500 pounds. The centrifugals are still running. We estimate that we
sball still have, exclusive of seconds, from 7,000 to 10,000 pound, or, in all, 5,86
pounds. This, at 51 cents, present price to jobbers, will produce us $13,559.98. To
this add the State bounty of 2 cents per pound, and we have for or total ugar
product $17,276.50.
TOTAL PRODUCT OF THE SEA8ON.

Sugar, 235,26pounds, at 5cents .............. ...................... $13,559.98
Sugar, State bounty, at 2 cents......................................... 4,716.5


Siraps, 51,000 gallons (estimated), at 20 cents .. ........................ 10,00.00
Seed (estimated) ..................................... ...... 7, ,00

Value of total product ... ................ ...................... 34,476.50

TOTAL COST.
Cane, 3,840 tons, at $2 ...... ...... ...... .............. ............. 7, 680.00
Seed, 967 tons, at $2... ............................. 1,34.00


Labor bill from August 15 to October 15, including labor for Department
experiments .......................................... 5737.16
Coal, including all exeriments......................................... 5.
Salaries, etc..__. ..........s...... 3,500.00
Insurance, sundries, etc.... .....1,500.00
et . . . .em *... *eaA> ....

Total .............................................. ........ ...... 21,746.93

Total value .............. ..................................... 34,476.50
Total c t ...................................... .... ............... 21,46.93

Net ......................- ........................... ....3 9.57
Of the above labor bill, there has been paid-
By the Department .......................... .............2,575.1
By the company ................................................... 3,161.79
Of the above coal bill, there has been paid-
By the Department .................................................. 32400
By the company. 1, 071.77.C......e .
Of the above cane account, there has been paid-
By the Department .................................................. 324.00
By the company.... ........ ........................................... 9,290.00

Or, of the above expenditures the Department has paid $3234.75. Bills are now
pending for $3,300, making in all $6,534.75, reducing our total cost from $21,746.93 to
$15,212.18, and leaving a profit from the season's work of $19,764.32. It will thus be
seen that in the working of the crop, including cane for experimental purposes, the
Department of Agriculture has paid or been charged with $6,534-75. This includes
The amount of sugar branded was 234,607 pounds. The number of cells ful of
cane fron which the juice was boiled for sugar was 2,501, according to the record of
the sugar-boiler.-E. B, C.








abor for the various experiments, the chaning and erection of new machinery
for the trial of the same, and the salaries and wages of most of the high-priced help,
and which, in the practical operation f a factory, will not be required.

W. L. PARKINSON,
Manager.
'FoRT St0 Y, 3n2I., October 28S, 1887.
UTLINE OF THE PROCESSES OF SUGAR-MAKING.
As now developed, the processes of making sugar from sorghum are


grow it.
p ae is deive rt the fo by the farmers who

Seanis cut by a machine into pieces about 1; inches long.
Ties and sheaths are separated from the cut cane by fan-

F ,ned cane is cut into fine bits called chips.
ips are placed in iron tanks, and the sugar "diffused"
oaked out with hot water.
jue obtained by diffusion has its acids nearly or quite
neut d th milk of lime, and is heated and skimmed.
ST defecated or clarified juice is boiled to a semi-sirup in

hsemi-sirup is boiled 1 to grain" in a high vacuum in the

Ninth, The mixture of sugar and molasses from the strike-pan is
hr h a mixing machine into centrifugal machines, which
throw out the molasses and retain the sugar.
DETAL OF THE PROCESSES OF SUGAR-MAKING.
An account of the po of sugar-making ought doubtless to be-
gin with the planting and cultivation, growth and ripening, of the cane,
for it is here that the sugar is made. No known processes of science
r a, se t e of plant growth, produce the peculiar combination of
arb ith he elements of water which we call sugar. Not only is
this te the chemist utterly fails in every attempt to so modify
isig simir combinations of these elements as to produce cane
SI l interesting here to note three substances of nearl
the same composition, viz: Starch, su or cane sugar, and glucose
or grape sugar. Their compositions are much alike, and may be stated


Carbon, Water.

Can sugar 1 11

-: 22 U
~ IlslillP I18 IIIIIBI:o', ';818olliU;;~~; ~;, ,Is11 il









sugar by reatment with acid but all attempts have fa toprodu
cane sugar from either starch or grape gar.
THE FARMER- THE REAL SUGAR-MAKER.
The farmer the, or perhaps more accurately the
the plant to select and combine in proper form and proportions the
three elements, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, is the real sugar-maker.





The process of the formation of sugar in the cane is not fully deter-
mined; but analyses of canes made at different stages of growth show
that the sap of growing cane contains a soluble substance having a
composition and giving reactions similar to starh. As maturity ap-


at fll maturity perfect canes contain much cane sugar and little grape
sugar and starchy matter.
In sweet fruits the change from grape sugar to cane gar does not
take place, or takes ple but paringly. The grape
however.

INVERSION OR CHANGE OF CANE SUGAR INTO GRAPE UGA.

ane sugar, called also sucrose or crystallizable gar, when in dilate
solution, is changed very readily into grape sugar or

change, called inversion, takes place in overripe canes; it sets in very
soon after cutting in any cane during warm weather; it ocrs in cane
which has been injured by blowing down or by insects o
and it probably occurs in cane which takes a second growth after nearly
or quite reaching maturity.
Inversion will be further considered in another place.

THE FAR1ER'S PART MOST IMPORTANT OF ALL.

Since sugar is produced only by nature's processes of growth and is
easily lost through inversion, it is evident that the farmers part in the
processof sugarmaking is firt and most importantof all. Itissub
ject which invites most careful, scientific, and practical attention, and
will be further considered under the subject Improving the cane."
It is apparent from what has already been said, that to isure a suc-
cessful outcome from the operations of the factory, the cane must be so
planted, cultivated, and matured as to make the sugar in its iice:







that itmust elIt t fdeiLeeathvactory very soon after cutting; and that
I must be taken care of before the season of heavy frosts.

THE WORK AT THE FACTORY.
THE FIRST CUTTING.

The operations of the factory are illustrated in the large drawing, to
which the reader is referred in tracing the successive steps. The first
Smplished in the ensilage or feed-cutter. This cutter
is d with three knives, fastened to the three spokes of a cas-
which makes about 20 revolutions per minute, carrying the
nivwi a shearing motion past a dead knife. By a forced feed the
ed as to be cut into pieces about 11 inches long. This cut-
tig frees the leaves and nearly the entire sheaths from the pieces of
ane. By a suitable elevator the pieces of cane, leaves, and sheaths
a to the second floor.
THE CLEANING.

ator empties into a hopper, below which a series of four or
e f s is nged one below the other. By passing down through
these fans the cane is separated from the lighter leaves much as grain is
from chaff The leaves are blown away, and finally taken
o t bilding by an exhaust fan. This separation of the leaves
d oer rese is essential to the success of the sugar-making, for in
them the largest part of the coloring and other deleterious matters are
contained. If arried into the diffusion battery these matters are ex-
itr d reports of Chemical Division, U. S. Delartment of Agri-
ult d go into the juice with the sugar. As already stated, the
s o manufacturing stugar is essentially one of separation. The
ech cl elimination of these deleterious substances at the outset at
oe ovias the necessity of separating them later and by more diffi-
cult methods, and relieves the juice of their harmful inflnences. From
Sf t pieces of cane are delivered by a screw carrier to an ele-
or, which discharges into

THE FINAL CTTING-MACHINE.

onird for. This machie coists of an 8-inch ast-iron ylinder
h k like those of a planing-machine. It is rally three cylin-
ders placed d to end on the same shaft, making the entire length 18
The knives are inserted i slots and held in place with set-
scrwlinder revolves at the rate of about 1,200 per minute,
ica ies past an iron dead knife, which is set so close that
no cane can pass without being cut into tine chips. From this cutter

of the diffusion batery. The conveyor passes above and at one side of
lyB ~ixianrl "- mi ft ~ tmol jthe~~







the battery, and is provided with an opening and a spot oppoite each
cell of the battery. The openings are closed at pleasre by a lide. A
movable spout completes the connection with any cell which it is desired
to fill with chips.
WHAT IS DIFFUSIO
The condition in which the sugars and other s
in the cane is that of solution in water, This sw h liquid i
tained, like the juices of plants generally, in cells. The
cells are porous. It has long been known that if a n of
water be placed in a porous or membranous sack a t ced
in water, a action called osmose takes place, whereby the
the outside and the sugar solution fro the inside
through until the liquids on the two sides of the mee ae
sweet. Other substances soluble in water behave similarly, but ugar
and other readily crystallizable substances pass through much more
readily than uncrystallizable or difficultly crystallizable bodies. Toiap
ply this property to the extraction of sugar the c t cut into
chips. as already described, and put into he di i
is applied and the sugar is displaced.

WHAT HAS TAKEN PLACE IN TIHE DIFFUSION CEL
For the purpose of illustration, let us assume that whn a cl
been filled with chips just as much water is pas ito th c s t
was juice in the chips. The process of osmose or d
in a few minutes there is as much sugar in the liquid outside of
cells as in the juice in these cane cells; e., the watr jui
have divided the sugar each taking half. Again, a e tt as
liquid can be drawn from one as there was water add. It is
that if the osmotic action is complete the liquid drawn off w be hal
us sweet as cane juice. It has now reached fresh chips in two,
again equalization takes place. Half of the sugar from one was brought
into two, so that it now contains 1k portions of sug diled in 2
portions of liquid, or the liquid has risen to of the strgth of
juice. This liquid having strength passes t three, and we have in
three 1| portions of liquid, or after the action as ta l li
in three is 7 strength. One portion of this liquid passes to four, and
we have 1o portions of sugar in 2 portions of liquid, or the li
',comes 4 strength. One portion of this liquid passes to f
conies strength. ()pie

have in five: ] portions of sugar in 2 portions ofor the
is strength. I is now called jui, and is drawn
to the processes of te subsequent operations of the factory. From i
time forward a cell is drawn for every one filled.






35

102 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 10 11 12

2 w I
35w w

4 I





S 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 w 1 1w 1 1 I 1

14 13lw ll 11







11 or lll jw 11
17 1l 1 l i I I
12 1 1 1 A1 11

21 w I I I Iw I. I I j






t the operation the temperature is kept as near the boil-
22 nvenienly without danger of filling some of1 1 1
21 W 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i



25 j ww slpidly atI
27 1 1 1
2 i 1 I 1 1


Throughout the operation the temperature is kept as near the boil-
ing point as can be done conveniently without danger of filling some of

t low temperatures, and the dager of fermentation, with
the consequent loss of sugar, is avoided. The process will be readily
understood from the above diagram, in which the columns represent
th cellsof the battery, the numbers at the left the number of diffusions;
liquid i the cells, or passing through them, and j, jic to

INVERSION OF SUGAR IN THE DIFFUSION CELLS.

In the experiments at Fort Scott in 1886 much difficulty was experi-
ece t of iion of the sugar in the diffusion battery. The
report shows that this resulted from the use of soured cane and from
delays in the operation of the battery on account of the imperfect work-
ing of the cutting and elevating machinery, much of which was then
experimental. Under the circumstances, however, it became a matter
of the gravest importance to fid a method of preventing this inversion
without in any manner interfering with the other processes. On the
suggestion of Professor Swenson a portion of freshly precipitated car-
bonate of lime was placed with the chips in each cell. In the cas of
soured cane this took up the acid which otherwise produced inversion.
In ca no harful acids were present this chalk was entirely inactive.
Soured canes are not desirable to work under any circumstances, and
should be rjected by the chemist and not allowed to enter the factory.
So, also, delays on account of imperfect machinery are disastrous to
profitable manufacturing and must be avoided. But for those who de-








sire to experiment with deteriorated canes and untried eatting-maohla
the addition of the calcium arbonate provides against disastrous
sults which would otherwise be inevitable.
CLARIFYING OR DEFECATING THE JUICE .
Immediately after it is drawn from the diffusion battery the jic
taken from the measuring tanks into thed tig s oer
are large, deep vessels, provided with copper steam coil in the bott
for the purpose of heating the juice. Sufficient
here to nearly or quite neutralize the acids in the juice, the test be
made with litmus paper. The juice is brought to the boiling point, a
as much of the scum is removed as can be taken quickly. The s s
returned to the diffusion cells, and the juice is sent by a pump to
top of the building, where it is boiled and thorough ly ski ed. The
skimmings are also returned to the diffusion cells.
This method of disposing of the skimmings was
Parkinson. It is better than the old plan of th
decompose and create a stench about the factory. a
method would be to pass these skimmings through ome sort of
or perhaps better still, to filter the juice and all skimming. A
this last skimming the juice is ready to be boiled down to a thin
in
THE DOUBLE-EFFECT EVAPORATORS.
These consist of two large closed pans provided within with ste
pipes of copper, whereby the liquid is heated. They are also conne
with each other and with pumps in such a way as to reduce the pre
ure in the first to about three-fifths and in the to
fifth the normal atmospheric pressure.
The juic e boils rapidly i the first atomewhat below e e e
of boiling water, and in the second at a still lower t
exhaust steam from the engines is used for h g te firt pa,
the vapor from the boiling juice in the first pn is hot eo
the boiling in the second, and is taken into the
nd for this purpose. In this way the evaporation s
so great expenditure of fuel as is necessary in open pans, or in si
effect vacuum pans, and the deleterious influences of long-contin
high temperature on the crystallizing powers of th
From the double effects the sirup is stored in tanks rad
into the strike-pan, where the sugar is crystalliz

TE YFIRST CHANCE TO PAUSE.
At ths point the juice has just reached a coni
keep. From the moment thee is cut in the fiell nw
delay is liable to entail loss of sugar by inversion. After the watel
put into the cells of the battery with the chips, the temperature is car







y kept above that at which fermentation takes place most readily,
the danger of inversion is thereby reduced. But with all the pre-
ation known to s e up to this point the utnmos celerity is neces-
ry to seure the best results. There is here, however, a natural divis-
on in the process of sugar-making, which will be further considered
St a of 1 auxiliary facories." Any part of the process
retoe escribed may be learned in a few days by workmen of intel-
gnand observation who will give careful attention to their respect-
BOILING THE SIRUP TO GRAIN THE SUGAR.

This operation is the next in course, and is performed in what is
ngar facy aas the strike-pan, a large air-tight vessel
f hi e air and vapor are almost exhausted by means of a suit-
abl condensing apparatus. As is the case with the saccha-
rie j 'of oher plants, the sugar from sorghum crystallizes most
readily at medium temperature. There are two ways of proceeding.
simlest tboil the sirup in te vacuum pan until it has reached
about the density at which crystallization begins, then draw it off into
s and set it away in a hot room (about 1100 to 1200 F.) to
wl The proper density is usually judged by the boiler,
y og the legth to which a sample of the hot liquid from the
pan can be drawn. This is called the string proof" test. A far bet-
to boil to grain in the pan. This is better because it
gives the operator control of the size of the grain within certain limits,
ae i gi a better appearing sugar, and more important still, be.
skil it gives a better yield. Sevral descriptions of
this licate ration have been published. After reading some of the
best of these, the writer found, on attempting to boil to grain, that more
ttion was necess ary and after obtaining the instruction
it beca app t that while almost any one can learn to boil to
gra yetto tain the best yield requires persoal skill and powers
Sobservation and comparison which will be obtained in widely differ-
eat degrees by different persons. To become a good sugar-boiler, one
must be an enthusiastic specialist. The Parkinson Sugar Company
were fortunate in securing for this important work the services of r.
Sa native of Hanover, Germany, and gduate of the
"Sugar Industry School" at Braunschweig. Though a young man,
Mr. Hinze has ad a large experience, having assisted his brother in
the erection andoperation of sugar factories in Geri-any, and since con-
ing to America having worked in the beet sugar factory at Alvarado,
es n Louisiana and in Cub. Since the
close o eg s nat Fo t, Mr. Il has again gone to
Louisiana and taken charge of a strike-pan at the sugar house of Ex-


tion of the 8i~rn is taken into the pn, and boiled rapidly in racuo to






the crystallizing density. If in ia srap the molecales of sugar an
brought sufficiently near to each other through concentration-the r
moval of the dissolving liquid-these moleles attract eah other
strongly as to overcome the separating power of the solvent, and the
unite to form crystals. ugar is much more soluble at high than a
low temperatures, the heat acting in this as in almost all cases as
pulsive force aong the molecules. It is therefore necessary to mai
tain a high vacuum in order to boil at a low pressure, in boiling to gra
When the proper density is reached, the crystals sometimes fail to a
pear, and a fresh portion of cold sirup is allowed to enter the pa
This must not be sufficient in amount to reduce the density of the co
tents of the pan below that t which crystallization may take plac
This cold sirup causes a sudden though slight redtion of temper
ture, which may so reduce the repulsive forces as to allow the attracti
among the molecules to prevail, resulting in the inception of crstalli
tion. To discover this requires the keenest observation. Whenbegi:
ning to form, the crystals are too minute to show either form or si
even when viewed through a strong magnifying glass. There is to b
seen simply a very delicate cloud. The inexperienced observer wo
entirely overlook this cloud, his attention probably being direted
some curious globular and annular objects, which I have nowhere se
explained. Very soon after the sample from the pan is placed up
glass for observation the surface becomes cooled and omewhat ha
ened. As the cooling proceeds below the surface contraction ensue
and consequently a wrinkling of the surface, causing a shimmer of
light in a very attractive manner. This, too, is likely toact mo
attention than the delicate, thin cloud of crystals, and may be even co
founded with the reflection and refraction of light, by which alone te
minute crystals are determined. The practica operator learns to d
regard all other attractions, and to look for the cloud and its peculiai
ties. When the contents of the pan have again reached the prop
density another portion of sirup is added. The sugar which this co
tains s attracted to the crystals already formed, and goes to enlar
these rather than to form new crystals, rovided the first are sufficient
numerous to receive the sugar as rapidly as it can crystallize.
The contents of the pan are repeatedly brought to the proper densit
and fresh sirup added, as above described, until the desired size
grain is obtained, or until the pan is full. Good management shou
bring about these two conditions at the same time. If auiientu
r of crystals has not been started at the beginning of the operation
receive the sugar from the sirup added, a fresh crop of crystals wi
be started at such time as the crystallization becomes too rapid to
accommodatel on the surfaces of the grain already formed. The old
and larger crystals grow more rapidly, by reason of their greater a
tractive force, than the newer and smaller ones on succeeding add
tions of sirup, so that the disparity in size will increase as the wo







proceeds. This condition is by all meanstobeavoided,sinceitentail
i'ions difficulties on the process of separating the sugar from the
molasses.- In case this second crop of crystals, called "false grain" or
hs appeared, the sugar boiler must act upon his
by his experience, as to what is to be done. He may
Itake e g upnt i into the pan to dissolve all of the crystals, and
,,f very skillful, he may so force the growth of the false
Sa ig itup to a size that can be worked.
Swil be made here to describe the methods of boiling
Sy n to point out the methods by which many special diffi-
Sovercome. Not only does the limited experience of the
writm him hesitate to enter upon these intricate subjects, but
theirowould unduly extend this report. It may be remarked
Sdig of the cane, the tretment of the juice, and the prep-
S sirup, have much to do with the difficulties and success
of th h t intricate of all.
THE PFTAL SEPARATION OF THE SUGAR FROM THIE MOLASSES.
The completion of the work in the strikepan leaves the sugar mixed
wit lThe mixture is called melada or masse ite. It may be
d into iron sugar wagons and set in the hot room above nen-
tioned in which ase still more of the sugar which remains in the un-
cd ste generally joins the crystals, somewhat increasing the
ld o sugar At the proper time these sugar wagons are
em in a mixing machine, where the mass is brought to a uni-
fo consi If the sugar wagons are not used, the strike-pan is
em d d tly into the mixer.
THE CE~NTRIFUGAL MACHINES.

om the mixer the melada is drawn into the centrifugal machines.
fr~s t, of an iron case resembling in form the husk of mill.
stout at the bottom of the husk connects with a molasses
tWithin this usk is placed a metallic veael with perforated
vesl is either mounted or hung on a vertical axis, and is
cloth. Having taken a proper portion of the melaa
o t cgal, the operator starts it to revolving, and by means
of a frictio tch makes such connection with the engine as gives it
50 rolutons per minute. The centrifugal force developed
id m through the meshes of the wire loth, and
out against the husk, from which it flows off into a tank. The sugar,
being solid, is retained by the wire cloth. If there is in the melada
the false grain already mentioned, it passes to the meshes of the
and prevents te pof the fter the o-
la has been nearly all trown out, small quantity of water 1i
sprayed over the sugar while the centrifugal is in motion. This is
forced through the sugar, and carries with it nuch of the molasses








which would otherwise adhere to the s;gar, and dilor :it. If
sugar is to be refined, this washing with water is omitted. When the
sugar has been sufficiently dried, the m1achine is stopped, the gar taken
out, and put into barrels for market.
Simple as the operation of the centrifugals is, the direction of the
sugar-boiler as to the special treatment of each strike is necessary,
since he, better than any one else, knows what
pected on account of the condition in which the
pan.

It has already been shown that the operation of the diffusion battery
should be continuous. The experience so far
indicates eight minutes as the proper time for fll ll; or on
should be filled and another emptied every eight minutes. This, with
a battery of twelve cells, nine of which are under pessurgis s
two minutes as the time during which te chips ect to te ai
of the water. If the chips are cut sufficiently fn ti
duced to seven or even to six minutes to the cell wit t ple l
from poor extraction. The time may be extend t t
celL without danger of daage when working s
Taking eight minutes as the mean, we shall have one
eighty as the number of cells diffused in a day. se
sts, all other parts of the factory must be ajus
as the diffusion battery, so that the capacity of the ba y wl
mine the capacity of the fiactory.
A plant having a battery like that at Fort ott, i wich
are each capable of containing a ton of cane chipsso thn
capacity of 180 tons of leaned cane, or 200 tons of can with leave
240 tons of cane as it grows in the field, per day of twenty-fou
Those who have given most attention to the suhje t t
tery omposed of 11-ton cells may be operated quiite as succy a
Sbatter of 1-ton cells. Such a batter would have capty
tons of field cane per day.
SI[MPLIFICATION OF THE DIFP SION RATTEY.

The diffusion battery as used at the Parkinson f
and expensive apparatus, and yet it is simple c w
first used in Germany and France. The Germans have, however, within
a few years constructed batteries even simpler th
An apparatus has even been constructed composed of a single vessel
through which the water passes in one direction while the chips are
moved slowly in the other by a screw conveyor. The batteries which
will be used in this country, however wil doubtless be constructed on
the general phin of that used at Fort Scott, with sch modifications as
will cheapen the construction and reduce the labor of operating.







THE CUTTING AND CLE.ANING APPARATUS.





The diffusion battery in good hands works perfectly; the clarification
of the jie causeno delays; the concentration to the condition of
semi-sirp may e readily, rapidly, and surely effected in apparatus
which has been brought to great perfection by long experience, and in
many forms; the work at the strike-pan requires only to be placed. in
th ands of an expert; the mixer never fails to do its duty. There
are various frms of centrifugal machines on the market, some of which
are nearly perfect. If, then, the mechanical work of delivering, cutting,
eaning, and elevating the cane can be accomplished with regularity
ad rapidity, the operation of a well-adjusted sugar factory should pro-
eed without interruption or delay from Monday morning to Saturday

The achines used at Fort Scott for these purposes have not been
described in detail. They need only to be made stronger and simpler.
Their general plan is not far from that which is likely to be in general

The methods of handling cane need some modifications as to details.
The arrangement for making the factory engine unload the cane from
the farmers' wagons will probably never be abandoned, since it is much
more rapidad leaves the cane in better shape than it can be left by

THE SCIENTIFIC WORK.
The present favorable condition of the sorghum-sugar industry, like
ie immse development of the beet-sugar industry of Europe, is in-
debted for its existence largely to long-continued scientific work; and
while much of the scientific manipulation which it was once feared would
be necessary to success as been eliminated in practice, yet the scientist
has not been able to so far simplify the subject as to enable the manu-
facturer to dispense with his services. I shall try here to make a plain
statement of the scientific work necessary in a sugar factory under de-
velopments so far made.
WHERE THE SCIENTIFIU WORK IS NEEDED.
It has already been shown that it is only on reaching maturity that
sorghum is a profitable sugar plant. To determine when most farm
products are ripe is a simpl matter of inspection. Bt it is astonish-
ing to note bow greatly different will be thoviews of, eay, a dozen prac-
deal farmers as to when a given field of wheat is ripe. Experience in
jud g of the ripeness of orhum is far less extended than in the case
i~i-~~J~~ C i~ tr i~a ua- c f~~-~a isil
;isiis811 !~~~tr lj~'.~E~J OXj~~~fiaeZ~rc~s%~t 7"1 On








affet the appearance of ripeness, i. e.,the hardness of the seed, the on
dition of the leaves, etc., that the manufacturer, who must know before
he uses cane whether it is ripe or green, is left no other than the test
chemical analysis. This determines the one point of nterest to him
namely, whether the cane has reached such a dree of maturity as t
have made its sugar.
Again, although the cane may have reachedll maturity, if it sha
have been cut and exposed to the atmospheric influene of the earlie
part of the season for any considerable time, the sugar may have bee
changed to glucose. In moist weather this chan
out any accompanying change in the appearance of
instance illustrating this kind of depreciation
works during the season just closed. A farmer brought in a sample o
excellent-looking cane. he book-keeper, who
experience about sugar factories, examined it, and t t
by the hydrometer that the juice contained about 13 p od
solved solids, was about to direct the farmer to bring in the ane
An analysis showed that about 8 of this 13 per cent was gluose,
cent. sugar, and 2 per cent. other substances not more valuable thn
glucose. Inquiry disclosed the fact that the cane had been u~~ f
three days. The weather had been moist, so th no chan in a
pearace had taken place. To have worked such cane
have been worse than useless, since the glucose and o subst
its juice contained would have held from crystallization not only the
per cent. of sugar which this cane contained, but, considera
more had it been worked with better juice.
Instances might be multiplied to show the perpliis d di
pointments which are liable to result unless a most
be had of the condition of the cane when it enters the ftory.
tainly no field of cane should be cut until the devlopment of i s
gar has been reached and determined by the best means available
In the early part of the season, while the weather is
cut in the forenoon should be worked the same day, and that cu
in the afternoon should be worked by noon the next day. During tie
cooler weather of the latter part of the season it is not necessary to b
quite so prompt. The delays which will be admissible can e deter
mined by analysis of the cane.
Not only is it necessary to know that the cane enters the factory
its sugar intact, but it is important to see that it does not sffer inve
sion during the process of manufacture. To prevent this all delays m
be avoided. The cane must go promptly and regularly through the cut.
ters and cleaners as rapidly as it can be thoroughly diffused. In a pile
of cane chips inversion of the suga very soon beginsandissoonfol
lowed, not, ifby acetic fermentation. iccetic or othe
active acid be present in the diffasion cells it causes rapid inversion o







gar under the high temperature of the battery. After leaving
battery the treatment of the juice must be prompt to guard against
ion. Indeed, as has been remarked above, every part of the fac-
Swork is done until the juice has been reduced to a
Sshould be of ch a capacity that it can surely do its work at all
asradly as the battery can be operated. It is a matter of great
poathe manufacturer to know whether, at any stage of the
n is taking place. To deterine this the analysis of
les freshly-cut chips may be compared with analysis of
Sprodt at other stages. For example: To determine whether in-
ierio t ng place in the battery, crush out and analyze the juice
Ss lof chips as they enter; then analyze samples of the difi.
iit comes from the battery. If the relation of sugar to
e same in these analyses it may be concluded that no in-
i i taking place. If, however, the proportion of sugar to glucose
sl the diffusion juice than in that obtained directly from the
pushing, inversion is probably taking place, and its cause
t be sought and remedied.
uent processes of manufacture give little occasion for in-
on, unls from delay before the juice has been reduced to sirup.
Te eplan is to not let it cool until it is ready for the strike-pan.
Inavd e delays lead to a suspicion that inversion may have taken
e, t atter may be determined by analysis. Inversion is not the
y ef loss to be guarded against in the battery. As shown by
Sthe chemist of the United States Department of Agricult-
tha e extraction of the battery at the Parkinson factory
Ssowas 9.01 per cent. of all the sugars the cane contained.
Alo avra extraction thn tn 95 per cent. is scarcely to be expected,
tion of less than 90 per cent. should be considered inad-
ible. Poor extraction may result from overhurrying the battery,
Sawig the temperature to run too low, from raising the tem-
att highl .oi thereby filling the upper parts of the cells with
m i of water, or from improper manipulation of the valves.
ure of the cutting machines to properly prepare the chips.
tion of the extraction may be determined by analysis of the
ated chips from the battery, and if not found satisactory, the
Sis ofcurse to be sought out and remedied.
t i irble for the manufacturer to know how much sugar he is
ving ithe molasses, and also how much molasses he is leaving in
ugar; i.e., the purity of the sugar. These points are readily deter-


WHO CAN DO THIS SCIENTIFIC WORK
Srable though not e ntial,that the superintend-
of a gar factory be also a chemist. The analyses idicated in the
e pages are not intricate. To mak them all, however, will require
I







considerabe time, and whethe the superintendent be capable or ina


pable of making them, he will sarcely be able to spa the time w



ought to be devoted to them.
Any of the graduates of ou agricultural or other' colleges who s
taken a good course of chemistry, with laboratory practice, can
few months' special training in sugar chemistry and practice in a
analysis become entirely competent to do the work required in the
dinary operation of a factory, under the direc

HOW TO MAKE THE ANALYSES NECESSARY IN THE SUGAR FACTORY

It is hoped that the following discussion of the methods of ma
sugar analyses will be of interest to some who
work, and throw some light on the suject for the general reader.




yf byen of a
fuller dscusions of the subject, the reader is
Sugar Analysis, and the bhuletins of the Chem l D .
partment of Agriculture.
It is well to remember here, that on account of the gar and
substances dissolved in it cane juice is denser tha
pounds of water and 1 pound of sugar be mixed together the water
dissolve the sugar, and any given volume of the mixture, say a pintw
weigh one and four-hundredths times as much as a pint of water. T
another illustration: A gallon of water weighs a
a gallon of the above supposed sugar solution weighs n
If a sugar solution be made, containing 20 per cent. of it~ s wei
sugar, a gallon of it will weigh about 9 pounds. A gallon of a sol
of equal parts by weight of suar and water weighs about 10po
and sirups containing three parts sugar to one of water weigh at
11J pounds to the gallon.

THE HYDROMETER OR SACCHARIETE.

Instruments called hydrometers or s acharimeters have been a
for determining the relative amounts of sugar and water in solut
These would be sufficiently accurate for the pur t
urer if the juice contained nothing but cane su
grape sugar and other substances contained in the je increase
density in about the same proportion as it is increased by the cane s
While, therefore, the hydrometer is of use in determining the am
of solid matter contained in the juice, and may be used in some ca
as in determining the degree of extraction, etc., it does not determ




of juice are available. These are the chemical and the optical. By
iie '" pli, of li e siiii






45

may. be determined the percentages of, first, cane sugar; second,
e gar otherwisecalled glucose; third, not'sug ar; fourth, water;
itting the jice. By the nd method, the cane sugar alone is
method is, howeve, convenienly used in con-
on withhe chemical, in making complete analyses. One of the
al methods will be considered first. I shall go as little as possi-
into tenicality here.

FEHLING I S SOLUTION OF COPPER.
principal reant used in the chemical methods of analy-
are several modifications of it. Perhaps none of these ig
ter than Violette's solution:
4.64 grams pure crystallized copper sulphate.
40 gam tartrate soda and potash (Rochelle salt).
78.00 grams caustic soda.
e coesalt is to be dissolved in 140 cubic centimeters of distilled
a, soy added to a solution of the tartrate and caustic soda, and
whemade up to 1 liter at standard temperature (17Po Centigrade;
reneit). This should be a clear blue solution.

iTHE GRAPE-SUGAR TEST.

Sa portion of this copper solution be brought to a boil, and to
e a d a solution containing grape sugar, the blue color will be
ad togh various shades of purple to crimson, and finally to
let. The reaction has reached the decisive stage when the color is
;son. On standing, the crimson precipitate settles to the bottom of
elThis is the reaction for the determination of grape sugar.
dene quantity, say 10 cc., of the copper solution be used in the
e exement, a definite quantity of grape sugar, .05 grams, will
avo added to perfect the reaction. Now by noting the amount
s added to complet the reaction, the determination of the per-
a of grape sugar from the experimental data becomes a mere
t farithmetic. Thus, if 4 grams of the sample had been added
e the complete reaction, we should have known that those 4
s of smpl contained five-hundredths ofa gram of grape s gar.
4=. or 1 per cent. of grape sugar.

THE CANE SUGAR TEST.

has no such efect on the copper solution. It has bee
arked already that cane sugar changes very readily into grap
ar. This change is easily produced by boiling the solution of cane
ar; for exal, the cane juice with dilute hydrochloric orsulphuric
The canejuice will now contain the grape sugar it originally con-
Tucker's Sugar Analysis, p. 1$6.








tained, and in addition that which resblted from the iversion of the
cane sugar. It- now only remains to nearly netralie the id in h
solution, cool it, and execute the test and calculations for grape r
as before. Subtracting the percentage of grape sugar originally found
from that shown by the last determination gives the percentage of
grape sugar resulting from the inversion of the cane gar. The per-
centage of cane sugar is .95 of the grape sugar proded by inversion
of the cane sugar. The soluble solids "not sugar t contained in the
juice may be estimated by subtracting the sum of the percentages of
the two sugars from the entire percentage of soluble solids as deter-
mined by the hydrometer.
THE OPTICAL METHOD.

The optical method of determining the percentage of cane sugar do.*
pends upon the fact that a beam ofpolarized light is rotated to the right
in passing through a solution of this sugar. Whil apparatus for
executing this test is expensive and the explanation intricate, the
manipulation is simple and rapid and the results satisfactory; so that
it is probable that all well-regulated sugar factories will be provided
with these instruments.
For many of the purposes of the factory the de terminations of the
percentage of cane sugar is all that is required. The anayst will prob-
ably be able to make forty or fifty of these determinations per day by
the optical method, if so many are required.

THE FURTHER SCIENTIFIC WORK.

The money, skill, and knowledge which have during the last few years
been expended upon the sorghum plant have made available a new in
dustry. The possibilities of this new industry can be fully understood
only on more fully considering some of the facts which chemical science
has made known.
The analyses made at the Parkinson Sugar Works during the season
of 1887 by Dr. C. A. Crampton and Mr. Norman J. Fake, chemists of
the U. S. Department of Agriculture, are of great value in this connec-
tion, and when supplemented by the further work now in progress in
the laboratories of the Department at Washington will become a basis
for future work.
In tables of analyses the percentages given are usually computed on
the weight of the juice contained in the cane. Those who are familiar
with the habit of the plant will readily see that the cane may be con-
sidered in three parts, viz: (1) The tops, including the seed and 12 to
18 inches of the upper part of the stalk; (2) the leaves, including the
leaf sheaths; (3) the body of the cane after te tops and leaves have
been removed. This body of the cane contains nearly all of the juice,
and practically all of the sugar.








ton of sorghum as it grows is composed of these three parts in
[aut tha following average proportions:t
ed and cleaned cane ................. ...... .... ...... .... ...... pounds_ 1,500
s -......-...... -.... ...............-..-. ....-......_.... do 300
La s and sheaths ................................................... do-.... 200
Total.... ................................................... do........ 2,000


jice constitutes about 90 per cent. of the topped and cleaned
Aaltical estimates and the estimates of the sugar factory are
d on the ton of topped and cleaned cane. In order to place the
er learly before the reader, and at the same time to compare the
ntof gar contained in Louisiana cane with that contained in
m, and to make other studies of the subject, I have computed
Sthe analytical tables of the United States Department of Agri.
re the weights of" cane sugar,"" grape sugar," and soluble solids
t sga found to exist in the ton of topped and cleaned sorghum
the years 1883-'87, and in the ton of cleaned Louisiana cane for
the years 1884--186.

seugarigrape sugar," and soluble solid "not sugar" contained in a ton of cleaned
sorghum and cleaned Louisiana cane.
ted the analytal tables of the United States Departmeut of Agriculture, the weight of
g at 1,800 pounds per ton in either cane.

1884. 1885. 188. 1887. Means.



___ __ _coc

Lb. Lb8. Lbs. Lbas. Lb. Lbs Lbs. Lbs. Lb. Lbs. Ab. Lb.
S.... ...... 00 0 188. 2 17 ......1 20.
...... ... 73.44 32 15. 50.00 18.00 2.00 60.00 ...... 53.55 14.80
Total sugars ....... 236.14. i8. 7. 22 242. 66 227.'48 238. O0250. 82 254. 00231.80 ...... 248. 65 244. 89
i ..r............. ... 30.4 64.4 47..0. 00 44.00 55. 00 .6.... 43.
oi 61 ...... 36. 64 290. 54 277.,882 00305.82291.62. 1 .8296. 62 288. 05

-ling, KanSs., i 1884, taking the juie
> writer made a series of analyses of canes grown near Sterling, Kans., in 1884f taking the juioe
ame from te crusher in the rgular coure of manufacture. The niwan of these from the first
ae 222 12 pounds of sugar per ton ofcane. In his reportof the c:opof 1884 Dr. Wiley saysthe
n which the cane analyzed by him and included in the above summary was grown had a top.


IMPROVING THE SEED.

e study of this table s most interesting. The first and most im

ed, there being a variation of 102.2 pounds of cane sugar per ton
1883 to 1884. Every practical suarmaker knows that the differ-

in the aailablesugar is greater than the actual difference shown

eceeded that in the Louisiana cane of any year of the record.
ni,
lg~p*








If a naturalist were seeking a plant whose record indicated that
would yield readily to the influences of cultivation, a plati whic migh
be changed in its characteristics, e would select one showing just
extreme variations as this. L is doubtless necessary only to reprod
the conditions, whatever they may have been, under which the crop
1884 was produced to reproduce like results. These conditions may


tunity doubtless exists to build up the sugar-producing properties
sorghum-making improvements not inferior to those by which the E
peans have made the sugar-beet a most valuable source of sugar.
In this connection, I can do no better than to prod e and second t
remarks of Dr. Wiley, in his report for 1883, onImprovement by
Selection.
I am fully convinced that the Government slould undertake the experiments whi
have in view the increase of the ratio of sucrose to other substances in the j
These experiments, to be valuable, must continue under proper scientif direction
a number of years. The cost will be so great that a private citizen wilt ardlyb
willing to undertake the expense.
The history of the improvement i the sugar beet should be suficient to encour
all similar efforts with sorghum.
The original forage bet, from which the sugar beet has been developed, contai
only 5 or 6 per cent. of sucrose. The sugar beet now will average 10 per cent
8ucrose. It seems to me that a few years of careful selection may secure a simi
improvement in sorghum.
It would be a long step toward the solution of the problem to secure a sorgm
would average, field for field, 1 per cent. sucrose and only 2 per cent. of other
and with such cane the great diffiulty would be to make sirup and notgar.Th
varieties and individuals of each variety of cane whch show the best analyti
results should be carefully selected for seed, and.this selection contiued until a
dental variations become hereditary qualities in harmony with the well-knowa pr
ciples of descent.
If these experiments in selection cold be made in different parts of the count
and especially by the various agricultural stations and colleges, they would
additional value and force. In a country whose soil and climate are as dversifie
in this, results obtained in one locality are not always reliable for anoter.
If some unity of action could in this way be established among thosegaged
grcultural research, much. time and labor would be saved and o valuable res
be obtained.
A VALUABLE CONTENT OF SORGUM CANE.

The grape-sugar content of sorghum is very large. When freed fr
such of the "not sugar" produts as have an unpleasant taste, this
stitutes an elegant sirup constituent. It is composed chiefly of t
sugars, called, respectively, dextroseand levulose. The ast is seeter
than cane sugar. This grape sugar is that to which most sweet fru
owe their sweetness. The large amount of it--over 53 pounds to t
ton of cane-is likely to be recognized in the near future a one of th
most valuable contents of sorghum cane.









At present we are able to separate only a portion of the cane sugar
rom theother constituentsof thejuice. t is believed tobeimpossible
by methods at present used to separate more than the difference between
the cane r and the grape sugar. Thus the sorghum of 1883 could
have yielded not more than 162.,7-73.44=89.2C pounds per ton, while
that of 1884 ould, by the same computation have yielded 264.9-22.32
=242.58 or ton. The available sugar in the sorghum crop of
7 by t s method, was 171.8-60=111.8 pounds, and the av-
e aailale ar in the sorghum for the five years was 193.1-
535 nd This is suppsing that the juice is all obtained
frm te c and hat there is no waste in the subsequent processes.
A r otthowever, only a little more thun 92 per cent. of the sugar
wasbm the cane, so that the above figures should be multi-
plied b maing the mean available sugar with this extraction 128.38
p and te available sugar of 1887, 102.8 pounds per ton of cleaned

THE YIELD OBTAINED AT FORT SCOTT.

The actual yield obtained was 234,607 pounds of first sugar, from
Il. I w, the cell be taken as a ton, the yield of first sugar
wa2 +2501 =93.8 pounds. Enough of the molasses was reboiled
of crystals, and the sugar separated to ascertain that
S, per ton. of cane erepsented, could be obtained. Call-
ing e for the entire yield 93.815= 108.8 pounds per ton of
ln ane. This is a larger yield than is obtainable according to the
etofore acc ed theory. There is some uncertainty about the weight
may account for the discrepancy between the theoretical
d te t results. It is possible however, that the theory may
neeron. In any case the yield actually obtained is most

Shae made noineution in the above of the exceptionally large yields
iastrikes miade during the season. One strike gave 100
pounds of merchatable sugar for each cellful of chips. The seconds
from is uld doubtless have brought the yield up to 10 pounds.
Sreader and the prospective manufturer are moe in-
Si average than in special results. It seems safe to assume
ithat e f 1 pounds of sugar and 12 gallons of molasses can be
made fm eh ton of cleaned sorghum cane of average richness
Science suggests several methods for the complete separation of the
cane sugar from the grape sugar and the not sugar," and further ex-
direction should be the work of the near fUttur. As
yet almost nothing has b done towards te developmet of methods
of separating the grape sugar from the not sugar. This subject pre-
ents. a most inviting feld for the chemist.
I 15440-No. 17-4








THE FUTURE OF THE SORGHTM-SUGAR INDU RY1

The sorghum-sugar industry now seems to have an asured t
The quatities of sugar and molasses, and other valuable poducts
taied from each ton of the cane and from each acref land, well
munerate the farmer for his crop and the manufacturer for his inve
ment and the labor and skill required to opera
An acre of land cultivated in sorgum yields a greater tonnage
valuable products than in any other crop, with the posble excepti
of hay. Under ordinary methods of cultivation, 10 tons of leaned ca
per acre is somewhat above the average, but the larger varieties oft
exceed 12, while the small Early Amber sometimes goes below 8. to
per acre. Let 74 tons of cleaned cane per acre be assumed for the
lustration. This corresponds to a gross yield of 10
and at $2 per ton gives him $20 per acre for his rop
of clean cane will yield-
Sugar .................. ..................... .. ....
MUlasses ....----------------------------------.-------------------------....| 1, 0
lSseed--------------------------------------------------------- 900a .
Seed ...................... ................................... ...........
Fodder (green leaves)...... .................. ........................... 1,00
Exhausted chips (dried) ....................... ...---------------------------

Total ............................................ .... ..
The first three items, which are as likely to be w
or corn, aggregate 2,650 pounds per acre.
Sorghum will yield 74 tons of cleaned cane per acre more sua
corn will yield 30 bushels, or wheat 15 bushels per acre.
In the comparison, then, of products which bear t
crops stand as follows:
Sorghum, at 7. tons, 2,650 pounds per acre.
Corn, at 30 bushels, 1,680 pounds per acre.
Wheat, at 15 bushels, 900 pounds per acre.
The sugar from the sorghumm is worth say 5 cets tu ;
molasses, 11 cents per pound the seed, I cent per po
The products give market values as follows:
7 0 pou s gar at say 5 cent .....................................
1,000 ponds molasse at say It cents .-----.........-..... ......... :,. .. 17.
900 pounds sced at say j cent ................... .......... ...... .......... 4.
Total value of sorghu ,lessfodder .................................. 59.

The corn crop gives 1,80 pounds, at I cent .................................. .4
The wheat crop gives 900 pounds, at I cent.......... .......................
Thus it wilt be seen that the sorghum yields to the farmer more th
twice as much per acre as either of the leading
Th sugr sold ths year at 5 cents per pound, the m
and theed at perbuhel of 56 pouds. The seed is of about equal value wi
corn for feeding stock.







asi is o

asmuchperacre as is usually realized from either of these stand-


LNGTH OF THE SEASON FOR WORKING SORGHUM.

eas for harvesting sorghum is limited to the months during
ich it may be worked. At present, this dates in our southern coun-
S the last of July to the middle or last of October, if a
io of varieties of cane has been made. Without doubt
Sseason y, and will be, lengthened. On ltis point I can do no
ter han te from my report to this Department in 1884:
sown by the reports of the sugar factories of Kansas for the last two years, the
is conined almost exclusively to the months of September and Octo-
SW hen e great cost of sugar-works, the expense of keeping them in repair, and
f the specilists, are considered, the importance of lengthening the work-
eason bec s painfully apparent. That a $100,000 factory should lie idle for
monthv ye implies that it must be run at an enormous profit during the
n fail to pay interest on the investment.
everal plans have been proposed for extending the time during which the works
yrun. One of these is the development of earlier varieties of cane by systematic
ectionof seed, cultivation, and breeding. The researches of modern pbysiological
anists give reason to hope for good results in this direction.
nother plan proposed is to reduce the juice to a semi-sirup in small auxiliary fac-
s t semi-sirup, and make it into sugar during the winter months. This
much to commend it.
i STORING CANES IN SILOS.

s e been made repeatedly in keeping canes in sheds, but with indif-
A good deal has been done in the line of preserving green forage crops
pit, and expensive silos have been made and used. Sorghum has been laid away
d kept in these with fair success.
Spraccal pa for keeping cane by simply covering it with a few inches of soil
Si three experiments now on record. The firt of these was made at
Ontaro, in 11-'5I 2, by Mr. Frank Stroback, now of Sterling, Kans. Mr.
bac has kindly handed me a copy of his record, which is given below, with the
itn of te column giving the density of the juice in degrees Baum, to render
se rese ily comparable with the other analyses given in this paper.
Frank Stroback's expci iment in keeping cane in silo.

Whe t in silo. au ng. dai ion.

O ober 1881 .................. ............ ......... 8.20 to 80. 14.0o0 1 N). 0 ..
December3,1981 ................ ................. .8.15 14 0 12.28



hecane used in this experiment was the early amber. The juice showed a de-
pcation, but the results were encouraging.
thefallof18, Professor Wiy, chief cheist of the U Departmet of Agri-
Stof early r in a llow pit,d plad over it a covrig of
thn of the artmentof Agriculture at Wasi In hi reort











The canes were placed in silo November 1, 183. Numerous analyses of juie
canes similar to those preserved showed-
-Sucrose, about 9 per cent.
Other sugars, about 3 per cent.

Professor Wiley's analysis of cane from 8iLo, JanuaT y 14, 1884.

Percentage ofuice expressed..........................
Speci gravi ......... ....... .... ................ ...........
Perceage of sucrose .. ................ .......... ..........:.
Pereta of other .. ........................... ..

Analysi of cane from silo, February 27, 1884.

Percentage ofjuice expressed ............................. 73.
Specific gravity ...............---- ............-------........--.......
Percentage of sucrose ...................................................... 7.
Percentageofother sgars................................................ 3.1

Analysis of cafro si, April 1, 1

Percentage of juice expressed ........ ..................................... 73.81
Specific gravity ........................- ..................... 1.05
Percentage of sucroe-------------------.
Percentage of sucrose.................... ................. ............... 5.89
Percentage of other sugars .............. ....--------------------............ .---------------- ......... 3.
I was greatly interested in these results, which showed that the early amber n
can be kept during the greater par of the winter with very
content of sugar.
In order to extend the experimet to other varieties, and to

1 ton of early orange in winrows between rows of stubble, and placed thereon a co
oring of about 2 inches of sandy soil. Analyses were ade on the day on which the
were buried, and subsequently, as sown in the following ta

Analyses of juices of canes kept in silo.

Date. Remark s. B. Glucose.


EAMLY ORANGE.
c by B.




(Poducedby J.. Ke eley2 miles southwestfrom StLl-
1$88 ing.)
Oct. 15 Cut y terday afternoon, buried to .................. 1.8 .5 15.2 4.
ov. 15 Leavesmole, canes green-iuiior of canes eddened
188f.
.2 15thi ... ...... ......

Jan 24 18 pounds cne gave 10i pounds Jc =- 53 per cent. o



Oct. 15 C t and b red to-d y ............ .. .................. .8 1.16 11.21 5.
Nov. 15 L eaves ole canes green-vinterior f canes reddene
to it node, opand ott ......10.2 1.11 13.02 4.
Nov. 29 Appearauce unchanged since 15th instant ................. 10.3 1.49 12.26 4.
Dec. o B ome of tb canes show dcomposition wer they had
been r d .......... ..... ... ............ 10.7 2.72 1 3 8.

Jan. 29 s$ilD l >ampla analyzed .......................... ..- ...... 11.0 ,.49 1140 2.
Ja. 0 onds e e poco 2 per on
,han d-,ri er; dvfecated by addii4 milk of lime, boiling
and SkinlninA '* ......., 11.5 5.35 11.22 4.2
Feb. 2 Above boiled to 17) B., hot, In open-hrop an ............... 25.0 11.4 24.10 10.2









ample of the canes taken from the ilo, on the 26th of December were sent to
or Swnson, superintendent of the Hutchinson Sugar Works. On the 4th of
anary, 1885, Professor wenson reported the following as the resuls of his exami-
on of the Link's Hybrid cane:

JUICE.






Ss1172
Suroe th- il............................ ..................... 1:.3
he. ............................................................. 1.10


To.......... .................... ..................... .......... 1.00
solids ........................................................ 2.25
S.................................................................... 71.00

T a cl-- --.-.-. ----........----.-----.............1. 100.00
Mr. J. C. Hart, super intendent of the farm of the Hutchinson Sugar Works, reported
e following results of examinations of the Early Orange cane taken from the silo


Analsi of January 5, 89008oe and glucosc taken from diffu8ion juice.
Per cent.
ter t.. ea.......... ....................................................... 67.7
e -olubles .................................................................. 13.9
Sucrosen, 14.8

se ........................... 2.0

Total .............................................................. 100.0

Analy si of January 7, from expsresed juice.
Sucrose .14.0
lucose .................................................................... 3.2
um, etc ................................................................... 4.8

On the 9th of January canes wereagain taken from the silo and submitted t Prof.
. A. Scovell, superintendent of the Sterling works, for analysis. The following re-
lt are taken from his report:

LINK'S HYBRID.
mount of canes taken ............................................. pounds.. 18
mountofjuiceexpressed .... ...... .................................. do .... 7
eice ........................ .. ... .................... .. a ....per cent.. 41j
)en8ity of juice, 10.6 B.
lucose. ........................................................ r ent.. 5. 3
S o e .............................................................. do .... 9.73

ORANGE.
moantof cane .tak en ... .............. .......................... pounds.. 12
Amountouice,4 pounds ............ ........................... per cent.. 33
Densityofju.ice,10.7 1.
c e ......................................................tana s ....percent.. 5.83
S t t t t n ................ .........................................st,....a 8.84










son gar Works, to the State Agricultural college, and to the State Univer ty
analysis.

avera ge of two analyses, crushed juice.


oeOrange Link's H








-r
W atu r ....................................................................... 6 0 6
Insoluble solids .......................................... .......... ......... 10.50 1






the following report of his analyses of these canes o January 14:



cane. brid cane.

t o 18M................................ ............................ ?i i





Summarizing the results of these analyses as to cane sugar, we find that they sta
asfollows:


Date. Variety of cane. Variety of e.


Oct. 15 Link's Hybrid, 11.21 per cent. sugar........ Orange, 15.62 per
Nov. 15 Link's H 'brid, 13.02 per cent. sugar ........ Orange, 10.72 per Cent.uar ...... Cwg
Nov. 29 Link's Hybrid, 12.20 per cent. sugar........ Orange, 9.45 per cent. sgar i
Dec. 26 Link's HObrid 12.93 per cent. sugar ....... Orange,11. per...... Cow
Jan. 4 Link's Hybrid, 15. 25 per cent. sugar..........................
Jan. 5 ..........--.... ...... ..... ................. .. Orange,14.8 per c t. g r ....... Hart.
Jan. ...... ...................................... Orange,14.0 per cent.u r ....... Hart.
J. 9 Link's ybd, 9.73 per cent sugar .........Orange 8.84 per cent i S
Jan. 12 Links Hybrid, 12.19 per cen. gar ........ Orange, 1234 p ent. sur .
Jan. 14 Link's Hybrid, 9.06 per cent sugar ......... Orange, 82 cent. r ....... F er
Ja 24 ...... .. ...... .... ..................... ..... .5 per cent. sugar.
Jan. 29 Links Hybrid,11.40 per cent. sugar ..... ... .. ..................


It shonld be remarked that the samples taken from the si,
which had been most exposed to the action of the sun and w
frequent opening of the silo. This may account for the great
the analysis of these samples.
The juice obtained on January 24 from the Early Orange can was defeated w
ilk of lie, boiled, skimm and settled, and reducedto seii
the usual way in open fire pan. It was then taken nto a smEall vacuum pan d boi
to nearly the crystallizing point by Mr. Frak trobak, a experieced uar-boil
It was then drawn off and set away in a warm place, and is crystallizing into a
melada.
The juice obtained on January 29 from the Link's Hybrid cane was tresated i
manner precisely similar to that above described for the Early Orange, excpt tha
was boiled to grain in the vacnum pan by Mr. Stroback. This was effeted








lows: 'Ton quarts of semi-sirp were first introduced, and boiled in vatuo to the

Iof the pan again reduced to the crystallizing density. The process of adding a
pint of semi-sirup and reducing to the crystallizing density was repeated until the
boiling was complete.' After a few of these additions bad been made, a slight tur-
bidiy of he sip was observed. On placing the sirup now under a microscope and
examining by transmitted light, the turbidity was seen to result from countless
micros rystals of uar. The subsequent additions of semiirup fed these



r juices. The success, therefore, of this last experiment abun-
y vrresults of the chemical analysis, which showfed that this Link'
ntaied on the 29th of January very nearly the same percentage of
gar as when put away on the 15th of October. Mr. Stroback states that the crys-
talliation was as easily produced as at any time during the working season of Ml84.
t is tefor flly established that some varieties of sorghun cane can be pro-
served in an in sie way without impairment of the sugar until the last of Jan-
It is le that the experiment be extended to other of the late varieties,
notablh, which yields 15 tons to 30 tons per acre, but does not perfect its
sugar g the regular fall working season.

NTRAL AND AUXILIARY FACTORIES-SIZE OF FACTORIES.



ordinary intelligence, there will be required in each of such factories,
whether la or small, at least two men whose attainments will comn-
mand liberal p tion. These are the hemist, or the superintend-
et with a cheaper chemist for an assistant, and the su ar-boiler.
Good biness management is of coEurse also necessary tso success. The
chemist and the sugar-boiler can preside over a large as well as over
a small factory. Moreover, many of the labors of the factory can be
perfrmed with no fewer men in a small than in a large factory. It will
therefore be cheaper to work a given amount of cane and to turn out a
ug n t of product in large than in small factories. The limit,
howe be d which experi nce so far does not warrant manufact.
ure g s believed to be at a capacity of about 270 tons of cleaned

In order to use to the best advantage the services of the specialists
of the busin it has been proposed to establish at convenient places
auxiliary factories which shall carry the processes so far as to prepare
sip for the strike-pan. This sirup will be stored in suitable tanks
or cisterns and worked for sugar after the close of the season for 1hand-
ling cane. In this way the working season for the central factory may
be prolonged to occupy almost the entire year. The auxiliary factories
ill cost about half or two-thirds as imuch as the complete faory,
capable of taking care of the same amount of cane. As thus arranged.
the cntral f y wi, in aditi to its own regular j sea 's work
-"-'-i






hiic hii
It will doubt be found economical to provide the tral facto
with sugar apparatus of two or three ties the p ty required
take care of its own sirup, thereby increasing the number of auxiliari
which may be made dependent upon it. It must not be inferred fro
what is here said that the sugar factory can make sugar from ordina
sorghum molasses. The auxiliaries will necessarily be under the sup
vision of the central factory, and the value of its sips will depe
upon the proper execution of the processes of manufacture. The
from the auxiliaries may be trnsported to the central i
ars or by pipe lines.

HOW FAR MAY CANE BE HAULED?

The price paid for cane delivered at the sugar fa
been $2 per ton. It needs only to be stated that
would cost too much to leave any profit o the farmer this
is doubtful whether the farmer who lives more than 3 miles from
factory can afford to raise cane unless he can transpo it mos
way by rail. Again, the factory will easily obtain all it ork
farmers whose distance does not exceed 2 miles, a ll
patronize these on account of the greater regularity with hich
can deliver their crops, as well as the greater facility it i
supervision of the factory may be extended. Farmers lving n a
of railroad may be able to ship their cane on such fav
avail themselves of the market at the factory. In C n
parts of Louisiana, light railroads are constructed wr the dta
is too great for hauling on ordinary roads. On these a hauls
13 tons at a load. ''
The system of central and auxiliary factories seems however, to off
the best solution for the problem of distance.

CAN THE FARMER MAKE H1IS OWN SUGAR FROM SORGHUM

Several experimenters have sought to answer this question in a pra
tical way. The developments of the last few years e
lished the flat that the canecrusher has had its day.
juice will be extracted by the process of diffusion, wh l
double the yield possible with crushers is obtained, -at the sam tim
giving a juice which may be readily treated.
Mr A. A Hughes, of R GranIe, N. J., has been e
a small difsion battry, and has this season worked
with a battery whose capacity is 25 tons per ay. I
Mr. Hughes' official report, but the results claimed e ful
able as those obtained at Fort Scott. His 'report
with interest.
Messrs. Densore Brothers, ofed Wing Minn., had an evaporati
apparatus at Fort Scott during a part of thepresent season and ma








mall amounts of sugar ftom the difFusion juice of the factory. They
ave furnished the following report, which will be of interest to those
part of the subject:
DENSMORES' REPORT.
The John orter steam evaporator deserves speial notice in this report. It can
Ssafely and economically employed by every manufacturer of sorghum sirup and
Tof operation employed in this evaporator is that of a shallow body
Sj h ntinuous flow forward among and over the pipes of steam-heated
coils while being purified and concentrated.
tor is composed of two pans or compartments, each of which is pro-
a oiof copper pipe. By reason of a peculiar but simple method of ap-
Sthese coils, the development and throwing out of scum and impurities,
is b n as s as the juice enters the evaporator, and is kept up until the juice is
t u purged of all impurity. The scum collects along one side of each pan,
an average distance of 8 inches from the point where it was developed,
d is r from the pan as required by a simple and effective arrangement of

While fiction as been in progress the juice has been concentrated to a heavy
emi- w is then finished to the desired density.
Slin o ration is continuous and uninterrupted, the juice being admitted to
St product escaping from the evaporator in a continuous stream.
D g the moth of September last one of the largest of these evaporators was set
p ad o at the Parkinson Sugar Works, Fort Scott, Kans., by the manufact-
urers t purpose of investigating the adaptation of the principle therein em-
p to t manufacture of sugar, and with special inquiry as t tthe per cent. or
mount of in ion of sugar which it might cause.
For rs or tests were made with this question in view, and the results-given in
to sucrose-were as follows:
No. L-Juice.-....... ......... .1 of glucose to 3.2 ofsucrose.
Finished product ............ 3.05
Test No. i ....................... 1 3.29 "
Finished product ............ 1 L 3.27 "

Finished product .........-------- 3.36
Test No. 4.-Jice ...................... 3.60
Finished product ........... 1 3.53 "
from these results show as follows: In the first test, a loss by inversion
lil over 1 per cnt. ; in the second and third tests there was practically no
lss, ad in the fourth test a loss of less than a third of i per cent. The averae ls
on the four tests was less than three-eighths of I per cent. ractically, this process
causes no inversion of the sucrose of the juices.
To the wants of the sirup manufacturer, the Porter evaporator is fully adapted in
r ntial and particular necessary to success. It works rapidly and produces a
p bright color and best quality. It is easily operated, and the line of opera-
tn is wholly within the control of the operator, whether working for sirup or

M. A A. Denton made some experiments in air evaporation at the
Sterling Sirup Works, and has furnished the following report of his
apparat and operations:
DENTON'S i{EPORT.
The Sterli Sirp Woks have mad careful tets of two forms of air-evaporating
apparatus in manufacturing irup this and believe the results are of mor








tance to the cane industry, as they show that a cheap and easily-managed appar
for evaporating at a low temperature, suited to the e of thousands of small t
ries, may be found in machines for drying or e
the method seems peculiarly adapted to the dry air of the Western States and T
tories.




were kept uniformly wet with sirup in thin lms by the adhesion of sp to
surfaces. A fair forced a blast of air through all the surfaces of the liquid-carr
Hot sirup from the finishing pan ws r into the tank,
over the 32 square feet of surface on the liqid-carrier
carrier, where it came in contac y t with the current of air. r
siderable water escaped from the hot sirup in the form of steam, instead of conds
ing in the sirup, as it does when hot sirup is cooled in the ordinary way, and
increased the density of the sirup. The blast of air also a
siderable water from the sirup, and the density of the sip was
four degrees by the Baum6 saccharometer. This was equivalent to boilivng the 8-rp
greater density without the injury caused by the excessive
heavy sirup. The sooner sirp is removed from the eat of nishing pan


The output of the Sterling Sirup Works is 2 to 3 arrel per
years we have had trouble and loss in coling that quantity f sp in s
and night runs. The above-described apparatus cool ht p iq
and also increases its density quickly and perfectly. It redu
100 gallons of boiling sirup from 236 degrees to 110 degrees in five minutes.
In boiling sirup we usually boil until the sirup has a d y wile hot of
degrees, as tested by the Baum6 sacharometer, but after testg tis app
boiled only to 30 degrees, and then reduced it to the proper
this apparatus exposed to the blast of air until it becomes as as
boiled to 36 degrees and had then been cooled in the ordinary We
an established fact, that sirup at 30 Baum6 can be evapo g
air to any density required, and also that the color and flavor of
than when exposed longer to the high eat of the finishing pa. By
sirup to remain for some time in this apparatus the irp was eva d or
the current of air to such density that it was impossible to drawthe
tank through a 2-inch outlet until it had been diluted. All
son from 700 acres of cane was cooled ready to barrel and was fi d fm
varying from 30 Baum6 to 36 Baum6 by air evaporation in
built an apparatus on the same plan as the abovd ribed a
had no fan to cause a current of air; the current of air was c b
in a furnace, as is done in hot-air fruit evporators. Hot air
more rapidly than cold air, and in operating on thin or dilute liq
essary to heat the air above the fermenting point-above
chemical action on the liquid. This is shown by drying fruit
perature; the product is the inferior sun-dried fruit, because the air has acted ch
ically on the saccharine liquid in the fruit; but when fruit is dried by hot air, a
the modern friuit-evaporators, the product is perfect,
action on the sweet liquid in the fruit. This hot-air apparatus ad 27 square fee
surface covered with semi-sirup in thin films, and exposed toacurrentof hot airw
absorbed and carried off the water of the sirup. In this apparatuscane juice w
had been boiled until the scum was white and free from green color was eva or R









SB according to the quality of the juice, and as was necessary to clarfy
e, and only boiled as long as it was necessary to skim the boiling jice. It
Sdried, or evaporated by hot air, at a temperature of 130 to 140 degrees, until

eate of 140 to e which is the best temperature for evaporating fruit
aa bh is the al temperature in vacum-pan boiling. In the cold-

Stemperature would ot act chemically upon the sirup or ferment it, and then
f h the'evaporation by air at ordinary temperature.
it was ne ry to boil the juice only long enough to
Si a t the evaporation uo by air heated above the point of chemical
To illustrate this point: Ordinary sirup may be exposed to
S rature without change or fermentation, while a dilute sweet
eposed to air at summer temperature would be chemically changed; but a
exposed to air heated to 10 degrees, wich is the scalding-pot,

i hot-r appa s had 273 square feet of surface, ilosein a box 3 by 2feet
Sf h a temperature of 140 degrees it evaporated 1 pound of water
or fom e sqre foot of surface-that is, it evaporated 273 pounds of water
e an ofat 140 degrees. Aa cane juice weighs 8.8 pounds. Reducing 7gal-
f canejue, or 61.6 pounds of juice, to 1 gallon of heavy sirup at sugar density
S1 p to the gallon, requires the evaporation of 48.6 pounds of water
Sg o s Where the evaporation from cane juice to heavy sirup is
y performed by hot air, the hot-air apparatus gives gallons of sirup, weigh-
Sgallon, per hour, as the product of the evaporation from 273
e. fefain a current of air at 140 degrees. When cane juice is boiled
nsity of 0o 25 degrees au in order to clarify it, and the hot-air apparatus
yrequiredtofinish the evaporation, it produces from 10 to 15 gallons of heavy
per hr, for the greater part of the evaporation has been performed by boiling.
e hot-air apparatus above described is of a size and capacity suited to a two-
would nish the semi-sirup produced by sch a mill to heavy
ure of 140 es instead of 240 degrees, which is required in
finishing heavy sirup by boiling.
e principle of the air-evaporating apparatus is, that evaporation is as rapid from

sely heated, and that in evaporating dilute sweet liquids it is necessary to heat
ir above the point of chemical action upon the liquid. Solid substances have
quantities of water removed from them by exposing large surfaces to the evapo-
Saction of the air. A bushel of apples weighing 50 pounds is reduced by hot
6 poundsof perfect product. The same can be done with liquids under similar



r i.e.,make sugar for hisown use in a small way, I apprehend
the answer shouldbe much the sae as would be given to the ques.
imer profitably make his own woolen goods his own
If, indee, I have s eded in the preceding pages in convey
an adequate idea of what sugar-making is, I apprehend that my
rders will omit to ask the questions about manufacturing in a very

T farmer who is so fortuate as to be ntear a sugar factory can do
m h better than to erect ad try to operate sugar machinery on a







small scale. An acre of good sorghum deliver at the factory will
for a barrel of nice nearly-white sugar. The farmer who is not s
tunately situated will probably try to induce some company to ere
factory near him, or will join with hi neighbors in forming a comp
for the purpose of building a factory as soon as the skilled labor ne
sa-kry for its operation can be secured, thereby providing not only
own sugar from his own soil, but at the same time a sure and ste
market for the most certain and profitable 'rope can raise.

SUGAR REFINERIES.

The sugar produced by the processes herein described is light
not white, in color. Its sweetening power is not surpassedy any aw
sugar, and its taste is very agreeable. The demand of the age is, ho
ever, for the best possible goods, and sorghm sugar must be refined
the purest whiteness, and made into the various conditions demand
by the market.
To do this requires the work of the sugar refnery. The
the central factories soon to be erected will doubtless be provided w
refining facilities, and when located at convenient shipping centers
be developed into large refineries as rapidly as the raw sugar can
obtained to give them work.
CONCLUSION.

There seems to be no doubt but that there is here developed a
dustry of vast importance to our State and nation Fr the year e
ing June 30, 1886, there was consumed in the United States forei
grown and manufactured sugar amounting to 2,
if two thousand new sugar factories were at once erected, and e
should produce an annual product of one and a quarter million poun
of sugar, they would not supply the place of the sugars now import
The annual consumption of sugar per capita in the United State
about 56 pounds. The population of Kansas may be taken as 1,500
These people consume each year 56 x 1,500,000 8000000 pounds
sugar. It will be safe to say that the annual average product of
factories will not exceed 1,500,000 pounds, so that ffty-sx fcories
be required to supply the sugar consumed by the present populatio
Kansas, and for which they pay over $5,000,000 nually.
Processes whereby sugar can be made at a prot from sorghum h
been worked out. These are far from perfect, but present devel
ments give promise of others in the near future, and will eable us
produce our own sugar on our soil, with the labor of our people. Th
who invest in the new industry will be cautious about experiment
with unknown conditions. Kansas is therefore likely to lead in
development, and become the first Northern sugar State.
Address of Dr. II. W. Wiley before the Chemical Society, December 91886.














LETTERS PATENT GRANTED TO M. SWENSON.



UNITED STATES DEPARTMNT OF AGRICULTURE,
COMMISSIONER'S OFFICE,
"Washington, D. C., December 10, 187.
: In rsponse to the resolution of the Senate of the 7th instant,
eting me to inform the Senate whether any person in the employ of
Dpt has applied for or obtained a patent on any process
o t tcertain experiments in the manufacture of sugar from
hm, ounder the auspices of the Government, I have the
Se following statement of facts:
or the isal year 1886-'87 Congress made an appropriation of $94,000
cont ngand concluding experiments in the manufacture of sugar
he diffionand saturation process, from sorghum and sugar-cane."
irtue of this appropriation the Commissioner appointed, under date
S1 Mr. Magnus Swenson "an agent of this Department
i uder the direction of the chemist, the experiments in
manufacture of sugar from sorghum at Fort Scott, Kans."
to me, under d(ate of December 21, 18, rofessor Wi-
the cief chemist of this Department, in detailing the experiments
e a to, stated that an acidity existed in the diffusion bath,
iaconversion of a portion of sucrose (sugar) into glucose, and that
ralxperiments had been made to correct this acidity. Among
se pments was one in which he added "freshly precipitated car-
e of lie to the extraction bottle," a method which he states was
t rofessor Swenson. At the close of these experiments,
em r 15 1888, Mr. Swenson's service ceased. On April 27, 1887,
as aai appointed superintendent of sugar experi ents at Fort
tt, K .," which position he now holds. On October 21, 1887, I
info d that Professor Swenson was seeking a patent for the
which he had suggested as above stated, and while in the
o duty and which had been tried in a public experiment with

had ii .
Smoney d or the benefit of he country. O that ate I
i with the Commissioner of Patents my protest against any action
the part of his office by which Professor Swenson, as an individ-
,shouldreapthe beefit of this experiment. n answer to that
er I received a communication from the Comissioner of Patents,
61







under date of October 26, stating that Professor Swenson bad bee
lowed letters patent on the process, under dateof October 11, 1837.I
that patent the ollowing claims were allowed to Professor S
(1) As an improvement in the diffusion process of making sugar, the mode
described of preventing the invertive action of the organic cid in the cane
upon the sugar during the process of extraction, saidii
the diffusion bath a carbonate of the alkaline earths, sbsai assetforth.
(2) As an improvement in the diffusion proces of making r, the mode
described of preventing the invertive action of the organic acids in the cane
upon the sugar during the process of extraction, said
the diffusion bath calcium carbonate, substantially as set
The application for this patent was filed on December 1 ,
Professor Swenson's employment by the Government had ceased,
the nature of the claims is so closely allied to t
with carbonate of lime, heretofore alluded to, thtitt
doubt that Professor Swenson intended to cover his patent the
gestion which he made in the line of his duty, wh
his employment, and which amounted only to an
process which had been conceived, planned, and was then being perfe
by the Government of the United States.
I deem it proper to add that I have had an exh tie s h
of judicial decisions and legal pinions bearing upon the validity
patent granted under these circumstances, and that I have beco
vinced that the state of the art, and the fact of Mr. Swe s
ment and employment by this Department, will affect the validity o
claim, and that I have therefore called the attentioof te
General to all the facts in the case and sugested to e i
of a suit looking to a perpetual injunction to restrain Professor Swe
from making any use of this patent.
As bearing upon this case, I beg respectfully as a ap
dix to this communication, certai citations and mema fr
formation of the Senate, and in this connection I beg a
such immediate action on the part of the legislative branch of the
ernment as will enable the Attorneyeneral, if he
authority, to institute a suit looking to the cancellation
question.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Hon. JOHN J. INGALLS,
President pro tempore United States Senate










etterPatentNo.371528, ied to Magn w Manufacture of sugar.

STATEMENT OF FACTS.
The Departm of Agriture directed its attention to the manufacture of sugar
from maie and sorghm cane in the year 1877, and ine that time has continuously
of a pro -


been engaged in investigations and experiments for the purpose of discovering a pro-
from these canes in a commercially cessful man
nts have been carried on by direct authorization of Congress.
Forty-seventh Congress appropriated, For experiments in
acture of sugar from sorghum, beets, and other sugar-producing plants,
ty e thousand dollars." (Stat. L., vol. 22, p. 91.)
at its second on appropriated $16,000 (vol. 22, p. 410); the
Sat its rst session apppriated $50,000 (vol. 23, p. 38), and at
$40,000 (vol. 3, 354) for the same purpose. In 1883 the chemist
et conceived the idea of adapting the "diffusion process," sucess-
fullysed i Europe in the manufacture of beet sugar, to the extraction of sugar
cane. The results of the experiments carried on in this di-
883 are cntinued in special Bulletins Nos. 2 and 3, issued by
the Chemical Division of the Department in 1884.
rtrons were made during the year 1884, and a chemist from the
emical Diisionasent to Europe to study the "diffusion process" as practiced
used in its application. Te re ts of the work for this
year are fllye ou in Bulletin No. 5. Bulletin No. 6 contains a record of the work
for the year 1885.

proceed to Europe to study the diffusion process." Bulletin No. 8 gives the result
con ions reached as to the proper adaptation of process and
yture sugar in this country from sorghua cane by the "diffusion

As a r of the investigations and experiments brought down to 1886, this De-
that it had reached a satisfactory solution of sugar man-
Sa to sorghum, and that it had secured a scessful method and
devlnery to establish this work as one of the commercial indutries
Stest the process and the machinery devised on a commercil
scale, and for the purpose of perfecting by experiments any defect that might arise
Si t c p of the process or mechanical arrangement of the
machinery, the Department received from Congress an appropriation for these pur-

there was appropriated as fows: "For purcha, erection,
transportation, and operation of machinery, and necesary traveling within the
United States, and other expenses n continuing and concluding experiments in the
by the diffusion and saturation pfrom sorghum and
garcane, so much thereof as may be necessary to be immediately available, $94,000."
(Stat. L., vol. 23, p. 101.)
Under this act of Congress th Commissioner of Agriculture on the 19th of July,
18, employed and appointed one Magus Swenson to superintend, under the di-
tion of the chemist, the experiments in the manufacture of sugar from sorghum at
Sat a salary of ,400 per annum, during the continuance of the
Sts appointment i (Exhibit A.)

tout in detail in Bulletin No.14, a copy of which is appended. (Exhibit B.)

Exhibit B, namely, an acidity in the diffusion battery, which caused an inversion








of a portion of sucrose into glucose, thereby diminishing the amount of sugar
should be obtained. On the same page are detailed the experimets made to o
come this defect. Experiment No. 4, the addition of freshly preipitated carba
of lime to the extraction bottle was suggested by Mr. Swnson, the peri
ont of the experiments, under the foregoing employment. Comments on the reu
of this experiment will be found on pages 32 and 33 of Bll. 16.
Experiments at Fort Scott, Kans., were discontin
the service of Mr. Swensor as agent of this Department ceased on that day.
On December 9, 1886, Mr. Swenson filed an application for letters patent f
improvement in the manufacture of sugar, and on October 11, 1887, letters pate
371528 were issued to him.
This patent is for the use of carbonate of lime and carbonates of other alk
earths in the diffusion bath to prevent the invertive action
the process of extraction. It is simply a patent for experiment No. 4, s ma
Fort Scott, Kans., by this Department, and set out on page 28 of Bull. 1
I am informed that Mr. Swenson is now threatening to all
shall use the method described and covered by his patent,
being engaged in experimentation for the manufacture of sugar, will
Swenson in damages for using a process discovered by itself, if
is rightfully the property of Mr. Swenson.

II.

CONDITION OF THE ART.

The aforesaid patent is for the use of carbonate of the alkaline earths to neutr
organic acids present in saccharine solutions, and thus prevent inversio of su
into glucose. This is not new, and has been known to those engaged in the a
manufacture of sugar for years, and allusions are to be met with to its use
describing this art, and patents have been issued for this sae means for neutr
acidity in saccharine solutions in England. A brief referene to some of
made.
In a work entitled Sugar Growing and Refining," by W and Harland,
lished in London in 1882, the following allusions ar made pertinent
the art.
On page 185, in describing the diffusion process, it says:
"In order to insure the solidification in the tissues of the
ons to the sugar, especially of pectine, which is not coagulat y hot wa
lime or some other suitable agent may be added to the water or iquor."
On page 504 of the same work, in speaking of the ulum
"After the separation of the alum it is possible to neutralize the acid liquor
chalk (carbonate of lime) only, and this has been done on a
able time. The use of chalk has an advantage over lime in that ould an e e
added it does no harm to the sirup beyond simply increain the insoluble deposit i
filters."
A description of the identical advantage claimed by Mr. Swenson in
lines 52 to 58, * "it is possible to neutralize the acid liquor with soo
alkaline body instead of lime; among other substances which have been tri
this purpose are ammonia, carbonate of ammonia, baryta, carbonate of baryta,
tia, carbonate of strontia, magnesia, car1bonate of magmnsia. Thse ar t car
ates of alkaline earths mentioned in the patent, lines 58 to
In a pamphlet published in Cincinnati in 1876, tled Extraction Ju
des Plantes saccharifvre, par Diffusion," the author of which is 0 Bo ar
found, on page 2, a description of the alleged improvent ptented by Swouun
it mpeaks of the addition of chalk (carbon ate of limo) to either the water of the
fusion battery or to the pulp of the cane itself before it goes into the battery.






65

The lowing is a translation of the paragraph referred to:
e solidification of the albumen, pectine, and other elements injurious to the
ar ing made in the tissue of the pulp itself by the addition of a prper quantity
of cer water of alimentation or to the pulp itself before its introduc-

Of the English patents that have been issued may be noted the following: In 1813
No. 354 to on Howard, the use of alum, lime, and chalk.
In 1874, No. 1736, to Johnson, the use of alkaline carbonates prior to treatment of
the sugar with alcohol.
119, to James Danen, the neutralization of the free acids arising in
charine solutions by means of carbonate of lime.
III.
Freg statements the following conclusions may be drawn:
(1) Tt te above patent is held by Mr. Swenson in trust for the use and benefit
of the Government and its citizens, the discovery patented having been made by him
S aly employed in experimentation, and under an implied contract granting
ment all property in the results of such experimentation.
t the thing pa teed was a suggestion made by an employ6 specially em-
pyed fr the p se, and which only amounted to the curing of a defect in a part
Sp a planned in its entirety by another, and which of itself was not a
Sinvention, and which suggestion would belong to the inventor of the process
under whom he was working.
t patent is invalid in that the thing patented is not ne.
U r te f head it is sufficient to say that Congress having authorized the
m g of t e sugar experiments at public expense, they are made for the benefit
of u at and the results that spring from them become the property of
Sthe free use of which all citizens are equally entitled. Persons
d in t carryig on of such experiments, so authorized, by the acceptance of
the emp n waive all personal right to any discoveries they may make in the
o r employment, and by implication contract that such discoveries shall
bec~ te p y of the Gvernment. It would be incompatible with the object of
Sa o C s authorizing the making of experiments, that any personal prop-
St d made by person semployed under the law should be retained by
S if so, then the end had in view, the general benefit of the public, would be
de d public moneys would be expended merey to enable private persons to
makesfor their own personal use and advantage, and not for the general
the people. Congress would be granting public moneys for private use,
and this it can not constitutionally do.
e tr are no adjudicated cases bearing upon the right of aperson employed
St rment to ake experiments to discoveries made by him in the course of
experiments, there s a dictum by Justice Field, in the case of the United States v.
W page 246, where he says: "If an officer in the military service, not
peciay e d to make experlent wit a view to suggested improvements, devises a
improvement, he is entitled to the benefit of it, and to letters patent," etc.
Smay be held to imply the conwere, that where such officer was employed to
ex m he would ot be entitled to patent is improvement.
Uderhe d ead, it s sufficient to state that the uggestion made by Mr.
n a cas o all f with the general doctrine laid own the leading
ae of Aaam v. Woolen Company (7 Wallace, 583) on the relations between em-
loyers and emloy, and that such improvement as he suggested would be for the
use and benefit of his employer.
The dotri is thus stated In the opinion by Justice CLfford:
Person employed, as much as employers, are entitled to their own independent
inventions, but where the employer has onceived the pla of an ivetio and is on.
15449--o. 17--5






gaged in experimenis to perft it, no suggestions from an elployil, not amiiiIt

a new method or arrangement, which in itself is a complete inveti, s n t
deprive the employer of the exc ive property in the perftedimpveme
where the suggestions go to make up a perfect and complete maehine, em in
substanc he title of all that is embodied in the patented to th
whom the suggestions were made, the patent is invalid, be se the real i
d iscovery belongs to another," and cas ited.
Underthe third head it is unnecessary to comment, for the thing patented
new, the patent is invalid.
IV.

REMEDY.

The possession by Mr. Swenson of this patent has a serious and damaging
the progress of the manufacture of sugar from sorghum cane in this county
clod on the title of the people of this country to make use of a discovery
Government has at public expense made. Congress, in authorizing the exp
$225,000 to promote this manufacture, was mindful of it great importan
benefits to arise from utilizing sorghum cane, which could be grown over a
area of this country, and make valuable thousands ofacres of land, and at
time cause the production of the home supply of sugar.
This new enterprise has received a damaging blow, and it is desirable tha
department of the Government should take all necessary steps to protect th
prise, to remove the cloud that to-day prevents the free use of this manuf
perfected by the Department of Agriculture, and secure to the people the fu
of all its works.
It is suggested that where a patent has been imprope
ployed by the Government to carry on experiment for discoveries made in
of the experiments, the patentee may be reetrained by inj
to his own use any of the rights granted by the patent. This is the view a
Attorney-General Cushing in an opinion to be found in vol
General, page 656.









(BX ~
~* 1 i!

111N 11';1Oli BIBA u














PAR T IL.


iEPERIMENTS AT RIO GRANDE, N. J,


REPORT OF H. A. HUGHES,


: I have the honor to present herewith my report, as superintend-
So xperimets conducted at Rio Grande the past season, on the
nufacture of sugar from sorghum.
he Hugs Sugar House Company is located at Rio Grande, Cape
y Co J. The building of this company i constructed of brick
Siron, 30 feet square, and fully equipped with machinery for extrat-
Sing into merchantable products all of the sugar from 15
ns of cane per day.
Sconssts of a cleaning and shedding apparatus, a dif-
sion battery, an open evaporator, vacuum pan, hot room, wagons, and

he cane is cut into sections, freed from leaves, sheaths, and seed tops,
Spassed in at once to the shredding knives. The leaves and seed
s are also separated and collected into different receptacles. All
Smachinery is automatic, and the capacity of the cleaning apparatus
ved to be equal to the cleaning of 44 tons in twenty-two hours.
oed without delay or repairs of any description, and the wear
St so slight that at the close of the season its condition ap-
to be as good as when first started. All this apparatus had been
hroughly tested during the season of 1886.
he shredded cane is packed into perforated baskets and it is then
y for the diffusion battery.
battery differs radially from those in ordinary u, and was
Sin 188. During this season its work wa not perfectly satis
tory-oncentration of juice being gained only at a serious loss of
ar in he waste produts-but after the close of the season and when
was properly managed, it was proven and the tests recorde,
ich h shown that it can extract practiall all of the sugar in the
cse at an for evaporation of 10 per cent. only in excess of that
mill juice; this result is satisfactory, and is believed to better than
t given by any other battery. The diffusion juice from this battery
p7





." i' iii 88


it was then drawn into the vacuum, still further concentrated, grain




ind were not used The vacu pan and cen
.p .... :* ^ -
differ from well-known forms.
THE CROP.
Eighty acres of cane were planted for the se of the mll,
7 acres were grown by neighboring farmers and t
company. Varieties planted were Amber, White African, Kana
Orange, and Late Orange, from which 910 pounds a a
of molasses per acre were madeIn this account is ed
ripe cane used in breaking in the house and all
tonnage far exceeded our greatest expectations. This
by carefully planting the hills closer and giving it nn
gether with favorable rains. The cost of raising
per acre. This includes the hauling out of fertilizers and placing the
upon the land, which consisted of 150 pounds mure of pot
acre, and rotten chis from previous seasons,
stable manure in spots. The cost of potash and h is not
in the above. The cost of cutting the cane and bri g i to
tory was 45 ents per ton. We paid $3 per day use of
and farm hands, and laborers were paid $1.205 per day.
The average yield was 1 tons per are. All
worked and 27.38 acres of that raised by the co n. 47
were left in the fields. One tract (8.43 acres) av
per acre, from which 1,400 pounds of raw sugar and 120 ll
lasses per acre were extracted.
Part of the field was used in breaking in the hou
The yields of the farmers' crops varied widely,
1,970 pounds of raw sugar and 120 gallons of moses per
was mad? from 17 tons and 675 pounds of field c Te tm
cane" means neither stripped nor topped. The was
pounds of sugar and 0 gallons of molasses. All the seed used by t
farmers was the same. The variations in yield we
Sin cltcontion. Oth. yields Fourt



agar ............................................... *p nds 1,940 1,560 1,444 1,
dola wles...................................... ..... g lolls 120 120 801

The company grew this cane on shares, giving the farmers one-l
the products viz, suar, molasses and seed. The basis of settleme






Wan fora agar 4 cents per pound and molasses at 25 cents per gallon.
ae tly the four best acre yielded-reduced to a cash basis-as


Quantity. Amount. Total.

at 4 ent a............................. ............pounds 1, 970 78 80
S2 n ........ .... .. ...................g llns 120 30.
at 4 ents...........................................ponds 1,560 62.40
as at cents...................................... gaon o120 30.00
il, at 4 cents...........................................pounds 1,.444 57.6 7
oa ses, at 25 cents ......................................gallons 80 20.00
Joh Brown :
gar, at 4 cents...........................................pounds 1, 254 50 106 79 1


Sdoe not include the seed which has not been thrashed

WORKING SEASON.

T company commenced breaking in its machinery on September 5
losed on November 8, making fifty-two days. Twelve days in the
encement of the season were consumed in training men to man-
e nw m nery. The working season was the most unfavorable
occurred in the last week in September, but did little
f inch thick was found o October 15. The crop
at time was growing beautifully and the sugar tests rising rapidly,
the day following this freeze the leaves turned white and died.
Sthat tim e were working on the Kansas Orange fields. This
ety did not deteriorate for e~veral days, but at the expiration of this
it d ly declined until October 28, when the purity of the
wa reducd o low that it did not warrant our working any loner
ugar. Durig this period there were several frosts.
other eft of the ice on this variety of cane was to make it un-
to withstad the repeated heavy gales of wind, which finally blew
wn and broke it badly.
was especially our desire to study the effects of frost on the differ-
and we were fully aware tha we could at any tie in-
e our average sugar per acre by leaving this variety and working
ge. After October 28 we co ence cutting on the Late
ge fies, which had withstood frost and ice in marked contrast
the other cane. This variety stood the freezes and thaws with
little ng, and at the time of the closing of the house it was still
theaverageof the season in purity.
e cane was worked after this date at intervals in the difrusion
ry u November 2. The cane brought in at this time was
n solidly, but the juice was in good condition. Warm weather hav-
ntervened from the 22d to the 26th the cane was sampled and
So November 26 with the intention of making a run for sugar







on December 1. Other matters having interfered this was not carri0
out. There is not the slightest doubt that good gar ryal col
have been obtained until December 1.
This cane has at last been weakened by the unusually severe weath
during the past week. It is faling down badly and is only
on this date, December 7.
The sugar per acre could have been increased fully 23 per cent. on t
season's work by good extraction. It must not
raw sugar made this season would have to be reduced from 20 to 25 p
cent. in order to make it chemically pure.
Another source of loss to which I desire to call your
the harvesting of the seed. The seed tops are cu
elds to dry,, stacked up,an a afterwards thrashed. By t m
rarely obtain more than 1 bushels of seed from aton Iof
There is a constant loss in the field during the dryin b
ing out and the ravaging of birds. Field mice and
stacks. Samples of seed tops carefully saved from these same
show an average yield, on well developed canes, of bshls
If this seed could be saved it wouldbe of sufficient to
cal bill for working up the crop in this place.
In making the above statements I wish it to be dis y
that neither time nor expense was spared in order make the
ords accurate; the house being frequently delayed n
records might be secured.
I believe that a ton of field cane is too uncertain a fcto to b
as a standard for calculation, as it varies considerably in wet
weather. Wagons containining 3,000 pounds of cane, as it comes fro
the field, will increase to 3,400 pounds and moreg ryd
There is a variation in the weight of the cane be and afr
also in the percentage of leaves of the large and small nes. r
reasons it is better to use clean chips prepared for bat
acre of ground.
It might be worth while to state that this sugar hou with
alteration, could be made to work 25 tons per day, having fre
worked at this rate from six to eight hours.
Believing that sorghutm-sugar manufacture is to be an established i
dustry and that reports of this nature will have
general public, I have written in this simple style and tried to avo
technicalities. Those who wish the details I refer to the reports of yo
chemists, Messrs. Broadbent and Edson, who, I belie, he fai
recorded the workings of the house; also to the r
mental station'of New Jersey, soon to be issued.
Respectfully,


1Hon. NORNAN J. COLJAN,
Commissioner of Agricultureo, Wa hinton, D. C.






71' .


S tMMARY OF CHEMICAL WORK ATBrO G1R) ADE.
[ Abtract of report of Hubert Edson.]
e manufacturing season at Rio Grande commenced September 5 and closed No-
b .ses ofjuices were begun September 8 and con tinued throughout

n O r 15 there f a heavy frost, one of the earliest known in Rio Grande,
killed all the leaves on the cane and stopped the growth of all
SThe late orange was the only variety which was not seriously in-
nd the cold weather folowing it. This hady cane, although the
Sit before it was matured, held its sucrose to the end of the season, even
wishstadintwo slight freezes.
t w b n cd from Table III that the extraction of sugar by the battery was
y is arose from improper management of the battery by the men em-
Si diffusion room, much sugar being thrown out with the exhausted chips
m this cause.
EXPERIE NTS IN CRYSTALLIZING SUGARS.

Sas first run from the centrifugal were full of "smear," and after the
l a had closed experiments were made as to the advisability of re-crystal-
,ing the r but it was found that the loss in weight was too great to make it
fi e, oy 8,329 pounds of re-crystallized sugars being obtained from nearly
ble that amount of smear sugar.
n Tabe VIII are found the analyses of the re-crystallized sugars.
n e er 19and 22 experiments were made with the diffusion battery to see if
was poble to obtain a better extraction than the season's work had given.
n ercell was made and placed outside the battery. Then instead of emptying
Sce of difsion juice at a time e e two heaviest juices were drawn into the out-
Scll. B drawing off two cells at a time two baskets of fresh chips could be im-
d eh time in the outside cell, and the diffusion juice be brought up within 10
x of the mill juice, and at the same time an excellent extraction obtained. Both
S in which these experiments were made were very cold. This, of course,
d itdifut to keep the battery at a sufficiently high temperature for a proper

n app d table the degree Brix is all that is given, as the juices were not



C hipjuice Diiffusion Exhansted
juice. chip juice.

erage degree Brix:
Novemb r 19 ................................................. 15.4) 14.65 1.30
Noveuber 22, a. m2 .......................................... 13.)42 i. 6 1.48
November 22, p.m ........................................... 15. 18 1B. 79 .88


experiments were conducted by Mr. Hughes and Dr. Neale, chemist of the
w Jersey experimental station. The degrees Brix were taken by Dr. Neale and

sampleof chip juice was polarized and found to contain 8.98 per cent. sucrose,
th a purity of 59.27.











TABLE 1-Analyses of juicefrom freak chip,.
mberof an ......lys......................................................

ansurose ............................................................... .





Meanglucose ............................................................... 3.2
ean totaloli spindle) ......................................... ..







Total solids:
Miniaum .....----......... .......................... .......... .. ... .... .






an sucrose ...............................................................
Mean glucose .........-................ -......... ......... ... ..... 2.8
Mean total olids (spindle) ............. ..................... .a.11...... .. 1.1
Sucrose:
Maximum ........................................... .................. 10.0
Minimum .......................... .................................... 3.8
Glucose:
Maximum 3.9






TABLE 3.-Sirups.
Numberof analyses .C...................*..................... .C..... 5

Mean sucrose ...... ......................... ....... ...... .. ...* .......... 1
Mean glucose.......... ..8 ....................*.............. .6
Mean total solids (spindle) ...... ............................................ 32.4
Sucrose:
M aximum ........................ ..................... .. .. .. .......... 25.
M inimum ....................... ...................................... 10.7
Glucose:
Maximum ..........---..-.... -------e----- C C C C CCC C*.......... 15.70







Number of analyses.*..

Mean sucrose................................................................ 2.4
Mean glucoe ............................................................. .
Mea total solis (indle) ....................... 4.0
~~ ',',






T~~ ~fdis;iio~~iii











S............................................................... 4.23
M>inemuma.............................................................. .81

a um ..............................................................s 1.62
Mimuna ..............e................................................. .30

Ma a e ........................s...................................... 6.64
nimu .............................................................. 1.33

TABLE 5.-JMange cuitee.
m rof analyses ........................................................ 6
Per cent.

age e .............. ...............................................e 23.44
an ter.. ease. ma.... se...e.mess..m a.mesa .....e ....m .e .........e ..a...... 18.50
sanaasht....e.ease.a......... m. acces... e.. m....... m... m.e. a. ace..ease..m 4.44

TABLE 6.-Raw u8gars.
mbeere n.. ............. 14
Per cent.
Men suc rosee .........c e. e....................................... 73.80
caan glmaca.sees.m.. .. .e. .as..s.esmee. .s... .me.. .. ... as 13.63
ean e......... 5.89
Maat asheacee.a...cease..ae.ea. .see...ees.a. s.ease..m. ss.. mat.... sate 2.56

TABLE 7.-Mo las88.
eeNuaer of analyses.....__-_s.m.. .tm... t. 14
Per cent.
tcantsucrose ............................................................... 35.48
a gluc e .......................................... ...................... 32.20
a watertm ................................................................. 34.72
Sash ..................................... ..................... .45

TABLE 8.-Re-crystallize4 8ugar8.

Per cent.
Mesuarose .................................... ........................... 90.73
ca glucose ............................................................... 4.63
a water ..........c....................................................... 4.19
aa ash ..................................................... ............. 71
OTI.-The analyses of masse cuitee sugars and molasses are only partial. The
lete analyses will be given in Balletin 18.)

IMATES OF COST OF SUGAR FACTORIES MADE BY MR. H. A. HUGHES.

SMALL CENTRAL SUGAR HOUSE.
Cost and summary of machinery.
vacuum-pan, 4 feet .................................................. s$850. 00
vacum-pump ....................................................... 500. 00
tyouar-wagons, at $14 .............................................. 720. 00
eston centrifigals, conwplete with NN ixerat$850................ 1,700.00
rtanks, water, sirup, dumps, and extra, at $25........................ 100.00
One50oe-power boiler ................................................ 600.00

ittings ........ I ...................................................... 800.00
boiler feed-p psat 90 t.c. ..am.cte .......................atctc 180.00
..Oee aater-punap. eat...................... ..... 200.00
chtot sa m ac a cssseat t90 .......e.t 180.00










Extra work, machinist two mont and labor............................. $0.00
Buildings .................................... ........................... 3,000.00
Freights, lights and extras ............................................... 250.00

Total .............................................................. 9000.00

Capacity of house per day.

Six wgos on 1,080 gallons molasses worked into e for a aver-
age, say 4 pounds suarto a gallon, or ........................pounds. 4
And 45 per cent. sirp .............. ........................... gallons 488
For 260 days, fromSeptember 1 to July 1 .......................pounds 123,200
For 260 days, from September 1 to July 1 ..-------..... ............... gallons 1 8

Day shift: Crew, cost of manning, and cost per gallon.
One fireman .........-................................. c..$1.50
One centrifugal .................................. *1.50
One sirup and coopering ............................................. .50
One sugar boiler .......................... ............ ............ 3.00
Night shift:
One fireman............................................. ........ 1.50
One pan man ....................................................... 1.50

Three tons soft coal, at $2.50 ..... ........ ............... ......... 750


Cost per gallon ......................................................... 1.77
Twenty-five gallons for 1 ton field cane ........................... cents.. 44

SMALL AUXILIARY PLANTATION HOUSE.
One diffusion battery, 50 to 75 tons, complete ........................ 526o 75 tons, complete .......
Cutting and cleaning apparatus ......................................... 800.00
One double effect..... ........................................ .......... 2 500.00
Two juice-pumps, at $90 ................................ .....3 180.00,
Seven small tanks ...................................... ...... ... . 100.00
One large tank .... ..................................... ..... ..... 25.00
Engine, 8 horse-power ............ . ...................... ......... 200.s00
Boilers, 100 horse-power ............................. ............ c.... 1,000.00
Two boiler feed-pumps, at $125 .......................................... 250.00
One water-pump ............ .................. .......................... 250.00
One hot-water pump .......................................... .......... 125.00
Pipe-fittings ............................................... ............ 00.00"" ""
Building one-story shd ..... ........... ....................... ... .... 1000.00
Labor, freight, and incidentals ...... ...... .. 800.00

Total ...... ...... ....... ...... .. .................. 13330,00

Capacity per day.

.Lowest estimate, 50 tons field cane; 25 gallons molasses, 45 to 56 per cent test for


per season of eighty days.
Three such plants would supply 300,000 gallons in a weorkin season.






75

re, cost of manufacture, and cot per ton.

Sman t wing c on carrier ... $1. 25

emanonseedtopper ........................................ 1.25


nan lling baskets ......................................... 1.25
emanoneleventh cell .................................. 1.25
Sman hagig on basketa ................................... 1. 25
O e m an center ------------------------------------------------.... 1. 25
*e man bgasse.... 1.25
e man double effect ...--.-.-. -e e... .---------. -----........ 1.50

e man driving away seed and leaves ............ .............. 1.25

Total 0 men............................................. 13.00
Shorse on art.............................................. 1.00

14.00 X 2= $28. 00

S.............................................. .... .. .... 28.00







spital invested, mall cetral house $9,000
pital invested, three small auxiliaries, $13,300.... ...... .. 39,990

Total. 4...... e.....e 1 .. e ... 48,990

Tons.
Amount of cae worked, 150 tons for eighty days....... ...... e.. .... 12,000

Product.
000 tons, yielding 25 gallons molasses each ................ gallons.. 300, 000
3),000,gallons molasses, yielding 4 pounds sogar each ...........pounds.. 1,200,000
d 45 per cent l. ...... .............. 135,000

00,000 pounds, at 4 cents.. .....*e..... ...., ...aa.. ... $48, 000
5,000 gallons, at 20 cents ...... ......e................................ 27, 000
000 bushels seed, at 40 cents .......... ......... ... ....... 20







C trl of p s, per t on. .. .... e a....s ........... 30.00.




rmershalf, $41,100 or 3.43 per ton; the company's half, $41,100, $1811,
,589 for interest, .insurance, superintendence, etc.
n working 1,000 tons a day there should be ten 100 to 17 ton batterile and a large
ntral house. Auxiliary houses of this pize would cost complete about $20,000 each
Sthe central house would cost without bone black $90,000. Ther would also ma
onding reduction in working expenses.
y, u

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PART III.


EXPERIMENTS AT LAWRENCE, LA.



The Department of Agriculture having determined to continue the
periments in th manufacture of sugar by diffasion in Louisiana,
r. E. C. Barthelemy, of New Orleans, was appointed general superin-
ndent of the work January 27, 1887.
Follwing is a copy of the order assigning him to this duty:
JANUARY 27, 1887.
E. C. Barthelemy, of Louisiana, is hereby appointed general superintendent of the
ifsion experiments to be conducted in Louisiana by this Department.
NORMAN J. COLMAN,
Commiesioner.
The following instructions were sent with the order to Mr. Barthe-
my:
JANUARY 27, 1887.
DA SIR: I inclose you herewith your formal appointment as general superin-
dent of the experiments in diffusion which are to be made in Louisiana next

At present your instructions will be of a simple nature.
The contract for the building of the machinery has been awarded to the Colwell
n Works of New York, the lowest responsible home bidders.
This company has also takehe contract of erecting the battery in Louisiana and
utting it in order for use.
First of all you will consult with prominent sugar planters and others interested
tin respect of the best place for locating this experimental machinery.
p in view that good double-effect and strike pans and convenient crystallizing

Sexpect to visit Louisiana early in March, and by that time you will have secured
ch information as will enable me to decide upon the location at once.
mmediately thereafter the machinery and building material now at th Her-
tage plantation will be transferred to the new quarters, and then the apparatus
at Fort Scott, which Is to be used in Louisiana, will be secured. The details of
is work I will send you later. As soon as you enter upon the performance of your
ties February 1, you will proceed to Judge Emil Rost's plantation and make a
refl study of the machinery on hand, and submit to me, at your earliest poseible
nvenience, a full report thereon, and add thereto your own judgment concerning the
itability of the place for the proposed experiments.
It is my earnest wish that all persons intereste in the succe of the sugar indus-
Sshould heartily co-operate in this work.
NORMA J. COLMAN,
Coinmmission, r.









to Mr. Barthelemy:
First of all, however, I desire to secure a comparative test of dison with
ing. When all is in readiness for work, only a few days will be required to ma
this t, and therefore it would not interfere very much
work.
I have contracted for a 12-cell circular battery, to be built on the plan for
Saigerhausen apparatus. All the plans and specifcat fr t n batr
been purchased by the contractors (the Colwell Iron Works of New Yor)
Sangerhausen Company. The battery is to be erected by s e C e
delivered to the Department there ready for use on or befe te
think it is important to select a place, such as you describe to be, w
all the evaporating ond other machinery for workin the i i
I propose to make the mahinery as simple as possible and to d all
gies to solving the problem of diffusion.
I expect to go to Louisiana early in March and hope to be ae to m e s
able arrangement without delay. The only hope for the su
is to work with some one who will use every endeavor to make cess possible.
The work of the Department will be purely experimental. If it is cessf
planter will reap the full benefit of the success; if it is not no one will suffer a
loss.
I do not think I shall ask for more than ten days for the experimental work, a
would like to have five days of that time near the first of the sea
five near the middle of it.
Do you know of any other place where there is a complete for
making which you think would be more favorable than Judge R os
Respectfully,
NORMAN J. CoLM.&-,


In March, 1887, the honorable Commissioner of Agriculture visi
Louisiana to consult with a committee of the Sugar Pla
of that Sta repeting a suitable plantation on which the w
be done. This committee was composed o the folloig gen
viz: Hon. D. F. Kenner, John Dymond, Henry McCall, T. S. Wilk
son, L. C. Keever, W. B. Schmidt, J. C. Morris, W. C. S s.
The Commissioner of Agriculture visited in company with the gent
men named, the plantations which were thought the
imental work. After acareful examination the committee made the
lowing report:
Whereas the Government of the United States has determined
effect of the diffusion process upon the sugar manufcturing interests of the count
and Hon. N. J. Colman, Commissioner of Agriculture, accompanied by
Dr. W. Wiley, having come to Louisiana to arrange for a co
methods now in use in our State, and Commissioner Colman
of the Sugar Planter's Association to select a locality for making the test, the asso
tion, appointed the undersigned a committee for that p
nquired nto and examined all the pla available uder
the Departent of Agriculture.
One of the principal considerations that has guided the committee in making
selection has been to choose that locality which has furnished the most favorable
sults under the old system, in order that the test should be as severe, as thorough,
complete, and as decisive as possible.








Shave examined the various laces ee gly available on the Mississippi River,
e carefully inquired concerning those on the Tche or Attakapas country, and
a areful examination and thorough consideration have determined to recom-
Governor . Warmoth's Magnolia plantation, in the parish of Plaquemines, as
t itable locality, from the fact that it would afford the severest competitive
of any place in the State, as the yield on this plantation during several years



arch 16, 1887.1




d on an othe e ber our
Jo ON DYOian.





oonC ofirmn
D. F. KNE R.
HizNRY MCCALL.
T. S. WILKINSON.
L. C. KEEVER.
W. B. SCIMIDT.
J. C. MORRIS.
W. C. STUBBS.





Sadvantages afforded by Governor Warmoth's sugar-
Ssurplus boiler service at his command, and the facilities
S ered for an independent working of the diffusion apparatus
re the considerations which led the committee to select his place as
St suitable to the character of the contemplated work.
t theeuest of the Commissioner there was appointed by Mr. Ken-
president of the Sugar Growers' Association, an advisory committee
asist those in charge of the work, and thus to help to its successful
This comittee consisted of Hon. John Dymond, of Belair,
HenryMcCall, of Donaldsonville. These gentlemen visited the
nt n from time to time during the progress of the work, both of
Sow ao and by the request of the Commissioner. Following
which they made of the progress of the work :
BELAIR, LA., July 15, 1687.
S : In accordance with your request in your favor of 18th instant, I have
ted Magnolia plantation, Tuesday, 12th, and Wednesday, 13th instant. The work
ed genalyto be well advanced. The house was completed, except the floor.
carbonic-acid pump, filter-press pump, and cutter-engine were all in position and
ded only connecting up.
he foundations for the diffsers were being built and will soon ie completed. The
avation for cutter was made, but not yet walled up. The lime-kiln was finished,
Sthe wasers and connections will be completed this week.
f the diffusiou battery comes along promptly, it would seem probable that the
le plant should be ready by October 1, as anticipated.
n consultaion with the gentlemen in charge of the work, as you suggested, the
tter of a water supply for the diffusers came up. They named 1,200 gallons, I be-
live, "being the contemplated reservoir of water. It would seem to me desirable to
ve much more than this, as this limited supply might be exhausted any moment,
dit would seem a pity to have the success of diffusion dependent on a water supply
ich might be cut off in an hour or two from some quite trivial cause. I therefore
s ested a 10,000 or 12,000 gallon wooden cistern, which could probably be erected









hours any way, and during that time any accident interfering with the water supp
might be overcome.
As one of the most important points to be determined would be the capacity of
battery for twenty-four consecutive hours, it would be unfortunate to have any sto
page for water.
Always glad to act on your suggestions, I am,
Yours, truly,


Hon. NORAN J. COLMAN,
Commiasioner of Agriculture.



DEAR SIRI: I have a letter from Mr. McCall, that he will go with me to Magnoi
August 12, and that he can not well go soouer. W shall then report at once to y
as fully as practicable.
There is considerable apprehension of danger to the diffusion experiments now fe
here, owing to the newspaper report of the choking of the cutters used in Demerr
which cutters are the same used, or contemplated using here.
In response to your request for suggestions, would it not be well to promptly f
by telegram or otherwise, what the exact cause of the trouble is, and whether or n
it can be remedied.
This seems to be a serious matter.
Yours, truly,

Hon. N. J. COLMAN,
Commiioner of Agriculture.

NEw ORLEANS, August 15, 1887.
DEAR Sia: Your favor of the 3d instant to Mr. Dymond came duly to hand, a
on the 12th instpnt we went to Magnolia and carefully inspe
now going on in the matter of the proposed experiments in diffusion, and we wou
respectfully report :
That we found the cane-cutter in position, as also the engine for driving it. T
shafting and counter-shafting are not yet in place.
The boot of the chip conveyer is in position, but the conveyer Is not yet recte
nor is there yet any device to deliver the chips from the cutter to the boot of the co
veyer, and we understand Mr. Bartheleny to say that none has been provided.
The diffusers were all in position upon the foundations and columns, but were n
connected by any pipe-work, and no platforms or floors were yet constructed abo
them.
The cars for the discharge of the chips were there, but the circular track for the
was not yet down.
The cold-water-supply cistern is not erected.
The carbonating tanks are in position and connected together and ready for co
nection with the diffusion battery.
The air-compressing pump and the air-receiver, to dry the exhausted chips, we
there, and the former in position.
The lime-kiln is completed except the placing of the top casting in position and t
erecting of the house and platforms around it.
The washing arrangement for the carbonic-acid gas and the pump to force the g


the filter presses is in ositionu as are lso t filter presse except one, that we we:







was to come from Fort Scott. The conntions with the presses were not com-

he lphring tanks, and also the sulphur stoves and sulphur air pump, were in
such '' "* ^ rf A

ttr for the sulphured juice were also in position
o write of the matter more generally, we should say that while there seems yet

Snless sor n delay occrs the apparatus will be ready in due time for

he cane-utter is a beautiful machine, but its complete failure in Demerara, where
plicate was used, and whence we now have the report of Mr. Quintin Hogg, the
prietor, that it took forty-eight hours to slice 108 tons of cane, indicates its com-
for the purpose, as it is now constructed.
Sconsiderable anxiety here, as with all of our machinery now in position
ae ay without any cutter that can cut the canes.
thrmay demand different arrangements of gearing and shafting that
in delay if not at once considered and provided for.
Bar emy thinks that the difficlty with the present cutter arises from the
Srt ends of the canes can not be held in position for the cutters to act
hem, a that a system of spring rollers might be added to hold thse ends in poi-
until the slicing is completed.
his a and it might be well for you to give him authority to exper
t tion, but it seems to be almost too late to experiment now, and
y so when we know that the failure of the same machie has terminated the
erimen in Dmerara, making it a disaster . Hogg reports they return to the
p there until proper cutters are provided. He does not seem disposed
txperiment with the cutters.
Sextremely desirable to provide the cutters that succeeded in Java, as
su ad further to provide those you now have at Fort Scott, as you suggest,
iment may be placed in peril from these difficulties in cutting. We
Sb to be of any further service we can, and remain,

JotN DYMOOND,
IHENRY MCCALL,
Advi orq Conmmittee.

Chemit, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

CANE-SLICER.

n o to secure a multiple fed for asingle cutter it was deter-
d to opt the horizontal disk system. Cutters of this kind not
ng mae i this country, it was necessary to purchase one in Erope.
tter built by the Sanerauser Company, of Sanerausen,
many, was selected. This cutter was guarantied to give from 200
50 tons of chips per twenty-four hours, suitable for diffusion.
Sslicing-nmachine, having been tried in Demerar in the early
mer, proved ineficient. To guard against failure from lack of a
per cutter, another machine which had already proved s cessfl in
a was ordered from the Sudenburg Company of Madgeburg.
he small cutter,with a horizontal disk, tried at Fort Scott last year,
alo sent toNew York fr crtai altertions, and thence to ag
fortunately the new knives sent with the ucline li4d uot
15449-No. 17- 6








the preliminary experiments.
Mr. R. Sieg, of New Orleans, who had had large experience in work
ing canecutters in Louisiana in 1874 and the following years, was also
instructed to build a cutter with vertical disk and multiple feed. We
found, however, that the time at his disposal was too ort to permit
the building of such a machine as he desired.
On October 6, 1 received the following instrutions:
You are hereby instructed to go to Fort Scott, and afr ig te
of the Department there in the manufacture of sugar, you will proceed to Lawrence,
La., to conduct the work of the Department at that place in the application of d-
sion to the extraction of sugar from sugar-cane.
You are also authorized to travel between Magnolia Station and New Orleans as
often as may be necessary to secure the prper conduct of plic bi
Very respectfully,
Commiassiner.

In obedience to the above instructions I reached gnolia
evening of October 17, 1887. The experimental
without being complicated by the use of anyprocess or machinery in
which any one in the employment of the Departn n
or firancial interest whatever The sole object in v w
those engaged in the manufacture of sugar in all par the oun
Experiments conductpiniat public epense should, in pin be for

poration.
On the morning of the 1th the diffusion building was dly i
by a cyclone. The water tank to supply the battery, tog r wh
tower supporting it, was blown on to Governor Warmoth's sugar-house,
causing great damage. Nearly a month was required to repair thedam-
age and restore the building and apparatus to te cond in whi
was before te t storm.
The delays incident to the working of new machinery were numerous.
The original plan contemplated having all the machiny b
1st of October, thus permitting a series of preliminary trs
over a month before the regular season began.
Instead of this, however, unavoidable delays, incident to the imper-
fctions of the machinery and the damage of the s
the preliminary experiments until the beginning of Dece
A recital of the details of these delays would only lengthen the re-
port without adding anything to its value. It must be said, however
in this connection that the gentlemen associated
nestly and faithfully through all the discouragements attending the
preparation of the machinery.
Mr. Ernest Schulze, representing the Sangerhauser Company,
also present, and rendered valuable assistance in putting his Ca
alicer in working order.






The numerous defects in the battery and the cutter having been
-i-edied, the apparatus of the Colwell Company was accepted on Do-

Mr. A. W. Colwell, the president of the company, was present during
S nal trials of the battery, and rendered valuable assistance in
tting it to working order. The defects in both cutter and battery
re of a minor character, but were such as to greatly delay the use of
wmachineryfor new purposes. The final working of all the machin-
y was excellent and satisfactory. The season's experiments, how-
erdisclosedmany improvements of a seemingly trivial nature, but
Sthe adoption f which a more economical working of the diffusion
obe secured. These improvements will be discussed in

The rst results from the experiments were obtained from the run of
ecember 3, 1887.
The j was treated with .3 per cent. its weight of lime, and after
e precipitation of the lime with carbnic dioxide, an amount of lignite
al to 10 per cent. of the weight of the sugar present was added.
The j e filtered readily through the presses, forming firm, hard
kes. The filtered juice was treated with phosphate of soda, 15 pounds
Ssalt being added for each 5,000 pounds of juice.
The phosphate produced an abundant flocculent precipitate, which
tered easily through the twin filter presses, giving a juice of remark-
le limpidity. The masse-uite, however, was dark, and the molasses
ch inferior in color to that made by the use of bone-black and ordi-

The.phosphate of soda did not produce as favorable results as had
en expected, an its further use was discontinued.
Following are the data obtained in the first run:
First diffuaion run, December 3, 1887.
STotl
sols. Sucrose. Glucose.


uice from chips: Per cent. Per cent.
First ................................................................ 1. 20 12.01 .96
Second ........................................ ............ ....I ...... 14. 45 11. 92 1.o00
Third................................................................. 15 45 1 1.
A verage........................................................... 12.26 .99


Average.................... .................... ............ ......61 8.7 .7




rbonatated juice ................................ ...................... 11.09 9.20 .


DBown sugar .......... ................................................... ........ 91.60








Cane used ... . ......... tons.. 8,S 9 .,te .
First sugar per ton ...................................................................pounds.. 14.1
Second sugar per ton ........................................................... .........do.. 40.1
Total first and second sugars................................. -..a... ........-- - 186,
Third n ugar.ar......................... ........................................................ 1

Thetotal suar inthe cane at 90 per cnt.ice was.............. .............................
Of this there was obtained 146.1 pounds at 97.50................................................ 144.4
And 40.1 pounds at 91. ................... .................................................... 6.
Total pure sucrose obtained .................................................................... 181.1
Left in chips ................. .......... ..................................... 14.6
Total left in molasses and lost in manufacturng ................... .. 24 9
(NOTE.-The third sugar will not be dried until in May or June, 1888. The eati
mates of third sugar have been made byMr. E. C. Barthelemy.)

EXTRACTION.

The percentage of sucrose left in the spent chips was .73. Sucrose
in cane was 11.03 per cent. The per cent. of extraction is therefore
11.03 .73 = 10.30 -+ 11.03 x 100 = 93.4.

SECOND TRIAL.

Another trial was made of the diffusion machinery beginning Decem-
ber 9. Carbonatation was again used, but without lignite or any further
treatment. The juice passed directly from the filter presses to the
double effect pan.
The quantity of lime employed was .6 per cent. the weight of the
juice. The filtration was perfect. The experiment was remarkable in
showing that a perfect defecation can be made with carbonatation with a
much smaller percentage of lime than had been su posed necessary.
The masse cuite was dark, but the sugar a fair yellow.
Following are the data of the run:

Second difusion run, December 9, 1887.

Total



Fresh chips:
First sam ple ......................................................... 140 11.70 1.04
Second ample....................................................... 15.65 13.64 .76
T rd sa lple........................................................ 15.70 13.52 .75
F rth J auimple ....................................................... 15.. 13.02 .81
Fifth sample......................................................... 14.00 11.18 1.02
Avera(e ............................... ............................ 14.98 12.61 .88
Diffusion juice:
First sample ......................................................... 9.36 7.83 .67
Second a le............................ ..................... 8.7 7.25 .58
T.ird sample........................................................ 9.68 7.61 .55
Ffurth na M ple....................................................... 10.40 8.69 .91
FiTh samnple. ...................................................... 10.20 &45 .78
Average ........................ ................................... 9.66 7.96 .09
Carbonatated Juice:
First sample) ........................................................ .12 7.78 5
Second an le....................................................... 8 74 7.5 .57






econd diff n ra, December 9, 1887-Continued.

Total
olids. Sucrose. Glucose.

Per cent. Per cent.


rh sample...................... ..... .................. .... ........ ..........
th am ple ......................................................... ........ .40 ..........
erage .................................................. ...... 89 ..........

a ; o96. 1.0 i the
,30 .. .t.
S r p ............................................................... 47.. 70 38.. 90 2. 96
M ohm e from firsts ------------------------------------------------------ 72. 20 42. 40 10. 50
Sec dsugar ............................................................. ........ 87.. 30 ......

Pounds
f t sugar per ton .............................................................. 128
f second sugar per ton.................................................................. 43
oal sugar in the cane at go per cent. jice was..................................per ton.. 226.98
le there was obtained 128pounds at 96.6 ................................................ 123.6
pounds at87.3 .................................................................... .... 37.5




Spoor yield was due to use of thick chips during the first part of
n, causing a loss of 1.6 per cent. sucrose in the chips.
owin ar the analytical data of the run :

THIRD TRIAL.

this run the use of carbonatation and lignite was discontinued.
iffusion juices were treated with sulph r fumes until well sat
They were then treated with lime and clarified in the usual

h clari ion took place readily. The quantity of scums was very
Sand the sediment subsided rapily, forming a thin layer on the
Sof the tank, permitting the clear liquor to be easily and corn-
ly drawn off. The juice passed at once from the clarifiers to the
le effect an and subsequently received no further purification.









Following are the analytical data obtained:
Third diff ion run Decem r 10 and 11,




Fresh chips: Per cent. Per ceW.
First sample ......................................................... 14.9 11.89 .7
Second sample ....................................................... 12.77 10.- .
Third sampe......................................................... 14.40
Average............................................................ 1.88 11.5 .
Diffusion juice:
Firt sample.......................................................
Second smple......... ............................... ........... 9.41 7. 7
Third sample........................................................ .55 7.8 .
Average............................................................ 9.4 7.85
Sulphuredjuice:
First sample....................................................9 8.17
Second sample ....................................................... i.12 .5 .5
Average ..... ...... ..................................... 9.40 7.85 .
Clarified juice:
First sample ........................................................ 8.21
Second sample....................................................... 9.89 8.0 .
Third sample......................................................... 10. 8.9 .
Average...... .............................................. 10.0 8.22
Exhausted chips:
First sample.......................................................... ........ .80 .........
Second sarple ........................ ..... ..... ........ .........
Third sample......................................................... ........ .........
ourth sample ........................................................ ... ....... .93 -----
Averag.......................................................... .5
Semi-sirup ............................................................... 44-.70 3.60
First sugar............................................................... ........ 96-30 ..........
Molases from first sugar .............................................. 72.90 3.70

First sugar, per ton ....................................................................pounds.. 14
Number tons cane used.......................................................................... 11
The molasses from the first sugar was boiled to string
in wagons. A good crystallization of second sugar was secured but
the molasses having been left too acid, a good separation was not s e
cured. Mr. Barthelemy therefore decided to reboil the mo
some of the product of the mill process, and theref s
the quantity ofsecond su r can be given. It was estimated at30 pound
per ton.
The cane from which this run was made was grow new back lan
and was the poorest of the whole season.
The percentage of sugar extracted of total sugar in cane was

FOURTH TRIAL.
In this run the diffusion juice was treated with lime until almost ne
tral. It was then boiled, skimmed, and allowed to
and sediments were of small volume and were all returned to the bat
tery.'
The juice received no other treatment whatever for clarification. I
was converted to sirup in a double effect vacuum pan. The capacity o
this pan was not quite great enough to evaporate the juice as fast
furnished by the battery. For this reason the run which miht have









been fshed in two days occupied a part of a third day. The quantity


ollowing is a record of the analytical data obtained:




solids Surose. Glucose.


S om fesh chips: Per cent. Per cent.
A. rtday...................................................... 16.46 15.12 .43
t rt day-........................--.......................... 17. 26 15. 12 .43
A .K .,second day.--- .-------------------- .----- .---- .--------------- 17.13 14.84 .45
second ........................ .....-.................. 16.97 14.93 .54
A. day -..................................................... 16.19 1 3.90 .601
thirday...................................................... 16.26 14.05 .50

Average fresh chip juice for run .......................... 1.7 14.0 .49
,,) tsion 1le, 8s |
rst ................................................ 9.72 8.71 .32
Secondam rstay.............................................. 10.09 9.01 .29
Thirday.............................................. 1138 1016 .30
Fourthesample, tirst&da............................................. 11.60 9.31 .53
irst sample, second day............................................. 11.10 9.87 IV
Second samle, second day........................................... 10.92 9.69 .33
Third second da............................................ 10.94 9.77 .44
Firtam thid day ............................................. 10.45 9.31 .35
Second unample, third day............................................. 10.78 9. 09 .38



Average for rt day................................................. 10.75 9.34 .32
Average for second ay.............................................. 11. 77 10. 3 .32
First sample. third day .............................................. 12.01 0.36 .41
nd sample, tird day....-........................................--------------. I 61 9.78
Third sample, third day------------ --.............................................. 11. 9
Average clared jice for run.................................... 11.48 9.87 .3

First sample first day .............................................. ........ 52 .. .
Secondeam ,firstday ............................................. ........ .6 ..........
Third samp tirstday ...................................................... Q43 ..........




Secondsamlesecond da ........................................ ........ .72 0..........
strike-----1 -*-- 1m----------Co -----~~--L---r-78.22 51.8 7g,76









Thirdam e, second da0.00 ..........
S--I J Iy --------------------I--- I--------------- I Ii i 80-.6 0 iJ
lj~ *,-------------------------------------------------------------C---l---...I 98.90 i
~~- -- -------c--, -------------------t -- ---79)CFLI,-.. .00 66.60 I ~





Average exhausted chip juice for run.............................. ........ .1 ---------








-irup for first strike ............................................... 37. 37g n on n .
ase-ite fit strike ............. his... .... 81.r the ii..........ng
mt sugar from first strike ............................................. ....t 98.40 ..........

atmolasses frot frt Wtrike .......................................... 76
-sip for second strik ............................................ 40.00 35. 10 1.19
ssee cult ............. ................................................. ........ o. 60 ----------
First iigar.--------.. ...... .... 98 90 ..........
----- -- -- ---- --- - ------





















work had been completed. V ie dit sion jnid es we*re tre d t i l

0On February29 I was infornwtd by l0tter from Grovernor 11'armuth that t he third
sugarsfrom the fourth run had been tri-d and weighed, yie! g 3 r 18.6:11%.









the same way as the mill juices had been, and after passing over bon6*
black were concentrated to sirup in a Yaryan quadruple effect, which
had been in use with the mill jices during the
The working of all the machinery during this nal trial was admira-
ble, and the even march of the whole work promoted the efieny of
the machinery and the successful manipulation of the juice.

Anaaltica data of fIfth ru.


No. Brix. Suorose. Glucose. No. Bri S rose. G ose.

Fresh chips: Per cent. Per cent. Diffusion juices-con-
97............... 16.87 1.23 .74 tinued.
400............... 16.39 13.4 .87 450.............. I .8 8.12
403 .....-..-...... 6.39 13.79 .89 453.............. 10.87 .00
405............... 7. 17.09 14.73 .68 40 .............. 9.89 .......... .45
408-.......... .. 16.88 12.11 .75 466.............. 7 8.1 .
411............... 17.1 14.7 .4 469.............. 0.47 8.0 .
414.......... .. 16.93 14.00 .70 473 ............. .17 8. .
417 ............. 17.00 14.50 .61 476--............... -- i
420........ ...... 16.70 13.93 .73 479.............. 1 1
423............... 16.79 14.11 .74 485 ............. 1 .
420............... 17.19 14.17 .61 491-.............. .-90 7.5
42............... 16.73 14.1 .5
437 ............... 17.11 14.55 .61 Max .... 9.28 .
440............... 16.17 13.48 .75 Minim m.... .. 7.5- -
443 ............... 1.17 13843 .76 .Mean......... ....... 8.41 .47
446............... 16.00 13. 99 .63 1 -
44 .------------16.63 14.39 .65 Exhausted chips:
452............... 10.77 14.28 .63 99 ....... ...... -..-...- 5
459............... 6.23 13.29 .77 402 ............ ........ 2 ..........
45............... 16.03 13.79 76 407 ............ .. ..-... .
468 .............. 16.07 13. 5 .85 410 .............. ........ ..........
472......... ..... 16.81 14 34 .64 413 .............. ........ .5 ..
475............... 16.37 13.54 .82 416............. ....... 1
478............... 16.51 14.17 .70 419 .............. ........ ....
481............... 16.94 14.38 .65 422........ ..... ........ .4 ..........
490............... 16.57 14.52 .63 425.............. ....... .... .
-- .... 428...... ....... ....... .55 ..
ini ..... .... .. 12.11 .59 4 9..................... .0 ..........
S 445 .............. ........ 4 ......*
Dial i m.onjuices.: 448.............. ...... .46 ..........
398 ............. 11.37 .28 .60 451.............. ......... .6 .........
401............... 10.7 8.66 .61 454............. ....... .55 ..-..
40 ............... 10.61 8.92 .49 461................... .51 ,......
409.............. 10.38 8.53 .41 467.............. ...... 4 ........
412............... 11.01 9,10 .4 470.............. ........ ......
415............... 10.91 8.60 .48 474.............. ........ .......
418............ 10.71 8.76 .40 477 .................I.... .54 ......
421............... 10.65 8.77 .40 480 .............. ....... .34..
424............... 10.57 8.51 .44 4 .............. ........ ........
427............... 10.52 8.90 .46 492........ ..... ........ .48
430 .............. 10.65 9.05 .32
438............... 10.27 8.46 .35 Maxinm .... ....... .69 ..........
41 ............... 10.73 8.91 .45 ini um..... ....... .21 ..........
444............... 10.88 8.99 .42 ean ......... ........ .44 ..........
447............... 4.5 7.68 .34


The molasses from the first sugars being very rich, thmethi~o
boiling to grain was eployed. To his end the ofi
strike, having been reduced to 55 to 60 per cent. of l ld, wa
on a nucleus of first sugar left in the pan from the seco d stri .
this way all the molasses was boiled to grain with
sults except that from the last strike of the first suga
The atterpt to boil this to grain did not sucee i ii a se
cuite which could be dried with ease. The mol
machines was so thick that it clogged them up. Seve large gar
wagons were filled with this material and set in the hot room.














The thir gar are estimated by Mr. Barthelemy at not less than 16

yield per tn of the fth run will reach theefore 215.5. The
mber of ton of cane used was 417.

Summary of results.

SSugM ar
Mean Mean grained
Number of run. Cane, sucrose glucose in pan per
in juice. in juice. ton. First



S.............................................................. 80 3 12. 26 9 10.
............- ...... ................................... 90.0 12.61 .88 128.0
........................................................ 10.0 11.53 .78 143.0
................ ....................................... 0.0 14.60 .49 165.
................................... ....... .................... 417. 0 13. 98 .70 18.L 5



Ston. I.
Total
sugars
econd Third per ton.
Isugar (es-r
timated).

Pounds. Pounds. Pounds.
40.1 15 201.2
43.0 1s 189.0
*30. 0 12 185.0
45.9 18 229.4
*18. 0 16 t215. 5

lto, and 213.8 punds toal sur per ton. Ih third suars fro
ti run were mixed swith molasses from the ruill products, and o separate retmu of it will be made.

COMPARATIVE YIELDS BY MILLING AND DIFFUSION.

n first or grained sugars affords the best comparison of
e two systems of manufacture. Judged by this standard the di -
on process had given a yield of sugar fully 30 pounds per ton greater
an was afforded by milling. For further data on this point see the
eport of Governor Warmoth farther on.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFUSION JUCi.

The juice of diffusion diffrs from the mill juice chiely in its content
f water. In addition to this, also, must be t a sligt increase in
e ratio of glucose to sucrose. This is due doubtless to a slight inver-
Mon of the sucrose during the process of diffusiou. 1?roni a commercial
*Theactual yield reported to me February 23, by Oovernor W tarmt, wis 6,8wo







point of view the loss is isignicant. Further, it may be saidth
there appeare t be in the diffion jice treated in the ordinary
a slightly increased amount of gmmy matter. This was noticed
in filtering the sirup through bone-black. In the stke-pan and
centrifugal the products of diffusion worked fully as well as those
the mill.
DISPOSITION OF CHIPS.

An attempt was made to pass the chips through the fve-roll mill,
it was found impracticable. The first rolls would not take them ea
and the second set of rolls had to be opened somewhat to secure
proper feed. The bagasse iasuing from the mill contained still 65p
cent. water and made a poor fuel.
It would probably not be a difficult problem to so adst the mil
to secure a proer drying of the chips. To return the chips s
however, appears to be the most rational method of disposing of t
It is true that if spread too thickly on the soil the chips may p
highly injurious, but if distributed in a thin layer, covering almo
not quite the original acreage of the cane furnishing them, they w
-certainly prove advanadvantageous. The chips would not only furni
ganic matter to the soil and thus increase its porosity, but they
contain still a considerable part of nitrogenous matter, which w
afford a valuable plant food. Even the richest land should be tre
fairly, and the cane-field should receive as nearly as possible as
as it gives. The additional cost of replacing the chips on theeld
matter which should receive attention here, but the beneft will ap
ently be greater than the expense. During the manufacturing s
the chips can be deposited in large beds, which subsequently ca
transferred to the field. If time for the partial decay of the c
should be desired, the accumulation of one season need not be me
until the following year.

DISPOSITION OF SCUMS AND SEDIMENTS.

The scums and sediments were successfully treated by the proce
carbonatation. The expense of a lime-kiln is not necessary for
work. It was satisfactorily done by drawing the carbonic dioxide
directly from the stack of the boilers. As high as 11 per cent of
was found in the gases from this source.
The scums, etc., treated with 2 to 3 per cent. of lime, are subject
the action of the gas until the lime is precipitated. They then ca
easily and rapidly filtered.
By means of a cheap and convenient monte jus the sums and
ments were also returned to the battery. The method of operating
as follows:
The scums and sediments from the clarifiers were collected in a
furnished with a steam coil to keep them at the boilin temera






tankas ected witha mote jus of 50 literscapacity. This
paratus was connected with the compressed-air service used in oper-
ag the battery. It was so arranged that the master of diffusion, or
d operate it directly from the central umn of the

After e cell wa filled with chips, 50 liters of the sums were run
m ju from the storage tank, by means of compressed
the fll cell. The process of diffusion was then con-
ed in te u l way. The quantity of liquid drawn from each cell
a id by the aount of scums added. For instance if 900
S t amount regulurly drawn, 950 would be taken from a cell
which the s had been added, as above indicated.
oetion of the diffusion juice could be detected in sing this

h o ure was also used during the progress of the work con-
S e b hDepartment at Fort Scott during the season of 1887. I
ve been toldtrta patent has been applied for to cover this process,

the publi benefit.
T1E USE OF LIGNITE.

S get lignite of the best possible variety and in the best
Sfore, a few tons of the ground article were purchased from the
r o t process of filtering with brown coal, Mr. Fritz Kleeman,
honigen, Germany.
alluded to the successful use of lignite in conjunction
wh lime and carbonic acid.
his ex iment, however, did not show that any beneficial efects

Aft ds experiments were made by Mr. Kleeman himself, using
niteaMr. Kleeman said the arrangement of the clarifying tanks
Snot suitable to the process. The filter cloths were soon clogged and
t pt at filtration had to be abandoned.
L r in the season I received a letter from Mr. W. J. Thompson, of
l t Plantation, in which he said that he would make a trial of the
ess under more favorable conditions than obtained at Magnolia and
uesting me to end him enough of the Kleeman lignite for that pur-
se. Ts I gladly did. Mr. Thompson made a run of nineteen clai-
with lignite, but found so many difficulties attending the work that
further proress was abandoned. On the other hand, Professor




Svery great quantity of the lignite es used and the juice
IIIty H1 s L I .......111 t o te b 1 a d
eneutral or slightly alkaline.
A i.t l li x1, p.-.








(2) That with a slight ees of
lignite can be successfully used to increase the ltering
(3) The decoorizing power of lignite varies with the nature of the
sampler. In some cases this property is resent i
others, entirely absent.
(4) The successful working of the p











A i at the Februay meetig viz: '. i
indicate that it might be worked commercially.
(5) In juices as pure as those of sugar-cane ltatio thro
nite, even if easily done, does not seem to be neces
I had expected to have IMr. Thompson's coplee r t on
experiments with lignite before thi time, but it has not yet
ceived.


















pon. :*"'.
COMPARATIVE YIELD FROM MILL AND DIFFUSION BATTER Y.

The comparative yield from the cane-mill and the diffion
is given by Governor Warmoth in a paper read before the Planter's
Association at the February meeting, viz:
The first cane worked was from second year stubble, and it gave s 14i6 p s
first sugar to the ton and 40 pounds of seconds.
The molasses was put into the cisterns with the other, and we canot give a
estimate of the thirds, Our mill gave us 145 pounds first and second sugar from this
cane.












rm ill.* 1. '* -" *
The next test was from some green cane, grown on i ld, y
cane per acre-considerably blowni down and sprouted in a small degree. This had
mauch less sugar in it than the first cane. Yet we got 128 po of first
pounds second sugar per ton from it.
Otr mill gave us 140 pounds of first and second sugar per ton from thi e.
The next run rgave us 165.5 pounds firsts, 45.9 of seconds; total, 211.4 pounds, with
thirds in the wagons, which we estimate will give us 15 pounds more, a total of 26.4
pounds.
The next run was oil 450 tons of cane, beginning on the 13th of January, ending on
the 18th. This cane was rich and fine, It had been killed on the 26th of Dece
was not windrowed, but was in fine condition. From this cane dif on gave
pounds of first sugar and grained seconds, with enough left in the wons to
up to 2 3 poundn. From this cane we got 193 pounds of first and s d sga by o
mill.*
All of this shows about the same difference between diffusion and our mill-work of
about 35 pounds of sgtar per ton of cane. I do not mean to be invidious when I say
that I think we got a little better extraction by our mill than any of our neighbors.
My friend, Mr. Dan Thompson, got more suar to the ton of cane in 1886 than we did,
but this result was obtained not so much by his extraction as by the skillful work in
the balance of his house, in which I firmly believe the equal does not exist in Lo-
isiala.
It is safe to say that the average yield per ton of cane in the State 18 not over 110
pounds. I believe diffusion will bring the average up to within the neighborhood of
200 pounds-a gain of certainly 75 pounds, and porhaps 90 ponds, per ton of cane.
Mr. Thompson's report was received March 5. See Appendix B.
NoM.-In respect of the last run, the analytical data show that the cane worked by
the mill during its last run, from which 193 pounds per ton were made, was richor in
sucrose yv nearly 1 per cent. than that worked at the last diffusion run.









griper ton of cane. We are within 3mieofac f other; our land is much the
me; our ltivation is ubstntially the ame. It is fair to assume his cane was as
had about 175 pounds of all sugar per ton, a diference of 39
pounds of gar per to on our mill-work, and about 71 pounds difference on the dif-
ion work. Take his estate for illustration:
His 10,000 to of cane gave him 1,390,000 pounds of sugar. Had he worked his
crop byild c ainly ha d Z5
re would certainly have bad 70 pounds more sugar to the ton of
cane. Thwouldave increased his yield 700,000 pounds of sugar, which, at S5
eents per pound, woud have given him $38,500 more for his crop than he received.
Take my own crop of 13,300 tons of cane. Had worked it by difusion I would have
ad 3 sugar per ton. This would have given me 465,000 pounds more
sugar han obtained, an aggreate of 2,865,000 pounds of sugar from about 600 acres,

perpnd, $25,592.50, a difference to Mr. Johnson of $3.85 per ton of cane, and to me,
o my rop, of $1.82 per ton of cane.
QUANTITY OF JUICE DRAWN FROM EACH CELL.

Thesed for diffusion was wighed and delivered, chiefly on cars,
to the cutter. The trash which becomes detached in handling the cane
was collected in arts and weighed, and its weight deducted from the
total. No accout was taken of the trash which entered the cutter.
o that the average weight of chips in each cell, when filled
in the ordinary manner, was 1,757 pounds. One cell filled with extra
was weighed, and the weiht found to be 1,80 pounds. It was
th seen that by careful packing it was easy to get 100 pounds extra
weight of chips into each cell.
The quatity of juice drawn from each cell varied from 900 to 1,000
litersorfrom2,059 to 2,288 pounds.
The mean quantity of juice drawn for the first four runs was nearly
2,170 pounds. Assuming that in each 100 pounds of chips there is 90
per cent. of juice, we have in 1,757 pounds of chips 1,581.3 pounds of

he q ty of diffusion juice from this was 2,170 pounds. The in-
.r juice is therefore 589 pounds, or 37.2 per cent. In
a much greater dilution was secured. In order to get a
slow current of the juice thro ugh the calorisators the maser of di tsion
to begin filling the cell with uice wen it was abot half
full ithe end of the run it was found that the intr ~oducti
hadcau a floating of the chips, and that the weight of chips
in each cell has been greatly diminished. Thus a higher dilution of the
ifi ice ws secured than was intended. The very perctis ex-
e chips during the lat run ws partially secred by this

The mean weight of chis i eah cll during the last run w 100
ounds; the Weight of normal juice 1,350 pounds, giving an lucre aseof
er cent. This diutio is reiater 0hani is r cessary for diffus ioR








work. With a battery of sixteen cells I think the dilation could b
easily reducedto 30 per cent. and the extraction be satisfactory.


The quantity of coal consumed depends first on the eficiency of t
boilers and evaporators employed, second on the quality of the coal, a

In beet-sugar factories the basis of computation
the dilution arising from drawing 180 pounds of di
100 pounds of beet cuttings. In respect of eva
be true of beet juices will also apply to cane juices of the same desit
From the arrangement of the machinery at Mag a it was
impossible to measure the quantity of coal consumed by the diffi
work. In the last run, when the milling work wasve, the
gals were run drying seconds and the vacuum pan boiling thirds d
the process of the work.
In addition to this, a part of the steam used
bagasse boilers, using wood and coal as a fuel-not an
of making steam.




Making," pages 873 ct seq.
When 180 pounds juice are taken for each 100 pounds beet
sumption of coal to reduce the juice to a sirup of 60 per cent. to
solids is as follows:

W ith double-effect pan..................................................... 13.
W ith triple-effect pan .... ......9.... . S . ... .e. .. ...... ...
W ith quadruple-effet pan ........................... ...... ...... ..... 6.
To reduce the sirup to masse cuite requires 4.44 p
We find, therefore, the following quantities of coal
100 pounds raw material giving 180 pounds of juice:

For a double effect .. .. .......... .. .... ... .a. 17.
For a triple effect ... ............................. ......................... 13.
For a tquadruple ef fect .. ......................................... .. ........ 11.
For a qua le .--- ......s

If now we take the ordinay dilution for sugar- t
numbers are found:
In evaporating 180 pounds of diffusionjuice from 100 pounds cuttin
to 60 per cent. sirup 156 pounds of water are evaporated. In evapo
ing 125 pounds of diffusion juice to same density, only 101 pounds
water are driven off. To evapoate 156 pounds of water 13.26, 9.10, a
6.76 pounds of coal are used for double, tripleI and quadruple effects
respectively. For the same weight of cane chips, iving 125 poundso








difion juice, the quantities of coal consumed would be 8.58, 5.89, and
Sponds, respectively. To reduce this to masse ite would require
e same consumption as before, viz, 4.44 pounds. One hundred pounds
cane chips will yield by diffusion an average of 10 pounds of sugar
r the whole State of Louisiana. The coal consumed in evaporation,
erefore, would be:
Pounds.
ra double effe t .......................................................... 13. 02
-t 10.... 33

The above computation includes the exhaust steam from the pumps,
ntrifugal engine, etc. The quantity of steam required to run the bat-
ry must be added to the above. It certainly would not amount to
Sthan two pounds per hundred of cane used.
With the best apparatus most economically arranged the total con-
mption of coal per 100 pounds of cane would be:
Pound.
ra double ...................................................... 15.
Striple effect ....-------------------------------------- 1........33
Squadrple effet... .. ........... .... .......... ...... 10. 88
edued to 1,000 pounds of sugar from cane yielding an average of
-1,









per cent. of all sugars, the figures become:
For 1,000 pounds igar- Pounds.

W ith triple effect .... .... ...................... 1.. ...... .....,233

In all these calculations the coal is assumed to be of fair average
uality, and to be alie to convert 6 pounds of water into steam at usual
iler pressure for each 1 pound of coal. In general, then, it may be
id the quantity of coal required to make 1,000 pounds of sugar by
ifusion varies from 1,000 to 1,500 pounds, according to the system of
aporation employed.
Diffusion can only be made an economical success when the best ma-
hinery and the most economcal methods are employed. The great
which has been urged ainst it, viz, the increased consump-
in of fuel required, is entirely removed when the process is carried
n under the economical conditions which have been mentioned.
To attempt to introduce diffusion with old and worn-out apparatus,
fective boiles and open pans, would simply be disastrous. It can
y succeed when the highest mechanical skill, associated with the
t scientific control, directs ll the operations of the sugar house.
In the one experiment where actual weighings have been completed
the whole product, viz, the fourth run, the quantity of sutar made


at .. s..as. ..*st"' t ". s...t '"". a. tt s" ate eeeeeeeee ........e ""eee .t .t..." 10 5"
onds...........................s.............................. ..... . .. 45.9
~. 9.~t:a~~nlla cotl~g~~ h l~l O







I do not think, therefore, that it is extravagant to believe that wit
the best culture and most economical method of manufacture the yiel
per ton of cane in Louisiana may be brought up to 200 pounds. Th
introduction of diffusion means almost a co plet
average sugar house. It would be unreasonable to expect that plan
ers will have the money and the desire to undertake such a radi
change or at least to make it rapidly.
But it seems to me that the gradual introducti
its concomitant machinery, will work a great chae i the
dustry of the South, bringing success and prosperity ere, for
a hard struggle for existence has been going on.
The final result, I sincerely hope, will bring into cultivation the e
tensive areas of rich sugar lands now lying idle and inc e te
duction of the State of Louisiana to 500,000 tons ll
I can not close this report without expressing my he
of the support I have received from the sugar planters. The
majority of them were skeptical in respect of the process but all wer
anxious that a thorough trial should be made.
Particularly I desire to thank Governor Warmoth fhis ns
and enthusiastic support and for generously giving $5, a
continue experiments, when the funds appropriated for the bad b
exhausted by the expensive delays caused by the cyclone and imper
tions in the ch inery. Without this timely aid the whole w w
have been stopped on the very threshold of success.
The advice and encouragement of Messrs. Dymond and McCall,
bers of the advisory committee, helped me greatly during the mot
ing days of the work, when it seemed an almost hopeles ta to wrl
further with difficulties of a purely mechanical nature.
The active co-operation of Mr. J. B. Wilkinson, jr., was a
constant assistance during the whole progress of the work, w
but inadequately recognized by a simple sentence of thans.
Of my own assistants, Messrs. Barthelemy and Spe r ad ca
the erection of the building and of the apparatus, except tat puut 11
the Colwell Company.
Mr. Barthelemy took charge of the sugar making during the var
trials and Mr. Spencer had the general supervision the
process and particularly of the limekiln and carbonation appa
Messrs. Crampton and Fake took charge of the chemical work. M
John Dugan was master of diffusion. Mr. R. Sieg, as consulting
neer, rendered much assistance. His long experience and
knowledge of the literature of diffusion rendered hi services parti
larly valuable.
Finally, I will say that no one recognizes more f
many imperfections noticed during the progress of
the machinery and methods employed. I have endeavored not to con
ceal these, believing that in pointing them out a service is rendered the
public only less valuable tlan that secure by comletes s











APPENDIX A.

ter of the Co isioner i tranmitting report of M. Seon to the
Snate.

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
DivisioN OF CHEMISTRY
Washington, D. C., Februay 2, 1888.
: In r to a resolution of the Senate of the 30th ultimo, I
Sto transmit herewith a copy of the report made t this
t by Professor Senson on the subject of sorghum sugar.
For ther r information of the Senate I beg to say that experi-
maufcture of sugar have been conducted by this De-
:m d g the past season at three stations, namely, Rio Grande,
J.; Fort ScKans.; and Magnolia Plantation, La. The two first-
tio worked with the sorghum cane and the last-named st&
i ugar-cane. I was led to change my original intention to
blispoof t e stations separately by the belief that the com-
three reports in one volume would make a more useful,
t ad valble document for purposes of comparison and
tera dcument which would be especially valuable in the South
sugar-planters, who might thereby beled to greatly prolong their
arworking season by planting both the sorghum and the sugar cane.
portions of the reports of te two first-named stations
ere thereu public through the press and their officia publi-
awaiting the termination, last week, of the experiments
l The manuscript for this report is now ready for the
d t will be published as an official report of this Departmen
wthin a few days.
Very respectfully,
NORMAN J. COLMAN,

J. INGALLS, Commissioner of Agriculture.
ll


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