Record of experiments at Fort Scott, Kansas, in the manufacture of sugar from sorghum and sugar-canes, in 1886

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Material Information

Title:
Record of experiments at Fort Scott, Kansas, in the manufacture of sugar from sorghum and sugar-canes, in 1886
Series Title:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Division of chemistry. Bulletin
Physical Description:
64 p. : incl. tables. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Wiley, Harvey Washington, 1844-1930
Publisher:
Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sorghum sugar   ( lcsh )
Sugar -- Manufacture and refining   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Statement of Responsibility:
by H. W. Wiley.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029705480
oclc - 28814444
lccn - agr09001061
Classification:
lcc - S584 .A3 no.14
System ID:
AA00026007:00001

Full Text


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.-DEPARTM E-NT OF AGRICULTURE.

ULLETIN No. 14.



RECORD OF EXPERIMENTS

AT



IN
FOR SCOTT, K NSA ,



IE MANUFACTURE OF SUGAR

FROM

SORGHUM AND SUGAR-CANES,

IN

1888.

BY

H. W. WILEY,
CdEMIST.








WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1887.
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UNITED STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,


: I leave to submit herewith a report of the work done at
ott durig the present year under authority of Congress in" Ex-
ients in the manufacture of sugar from sorghum and sugar-cane
Sof carbonatation and saturation."
t of this work you placed in my hands, ad throughout
hole of it I have had your earnest support.
ts of the work are now preseted for yor inspection ap-

.al.
Very respectfully,
H. W. WILEY,


Commisionert of Agriculture.




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FROM SORGHUM.




e re ts of tne experiments made at Ottawa last year gave en-
t to the friends of the sorghum sugar industry, and led to
undera g of a new series of experiments at Fort Scott.
ihetment of Agriculture entered into the following agreement
Skinson Sugar Company at Fort Scott:

WASHaINGTON, D. C., August 7, 186.
EEMENT BETWEN THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE AND THE PARKINSON
SUGAR COMPANY OF FORT SCOTT, KANS.

e Coner of Agriculture agrees to erect at the works of the Parkinson
y of Fort Scott, Kans., one diffusion battery with all its appliances;
tters, one of which shall hav horizontal cutting disk, with appliance
eed cane to the same, and elevators for delivering the chips to the cells.
Sfurthr a s to erect one carbonatation apparatus, to consist of a lime-kiln,
pup, four carbonatation tanks, and four filter-presses, with all their
ections; also one sulphur apparatus, consisting of two sulphur furnaces, three
i-tanks, three filter-presses, one air-pump, and all necessary connections.
Sto prepare the whole of the above-mentioned machinery for prac-
Swor ~ad to provide all neceesary labor and material for a thorough experi-
of the same, and when this trial is finished to allow the Parkinson Sugar
pan efree use of the apparatus for the rest of the manufacturing season of
wit t a charge for rental to the Parkinson Company aforesaid.
agreed and understood that all machinery furnihed by the Depart-
ofAgriculture, and all fixtures and appliances therewith connected, shall remain
propey of the Department, and the Commissioner reserves the right to make
osoof all of it after the end of the present manufacturing season as may
s to him best suited to prmote the public interest.
T k n Sugar Company agree to furnish suitable buildings in which to
Stis m iery, to supply steam for diving it and for use in the calorisators of
bae, and to allow the Commissioner of Agriculture as much time as he may
e, not exceedingten days from the commencement of the manufacturing season,
he purpose of making the experimental trials before mentioned ; provided that
ng theeexpermental tr the Commissioner of Agriculture shall pay for all coal
fsupplying the steam mentioned above, and for all limestone, coke, sul-
S e clts, and other materials used in the experiments.
y also agree to furnish a suitable roo for the chemical laborat
Serected by the Department and used by the Department chemists during the
inance of the manufacturing season.
i further agreed o the part of the said arkinson Company that during the
d of the experiments mentioned the accredited representative of the Department
ort Sott, namely, the chemist of the Department, or uch other person a the








Comm.issioner may designate, shall have sole
far as the extraction and purficatio of the j
Further, on the part of the Commissioner of Agriture, it is ag
the entire manufacturing season be will snpply the services of one supertirnt
namely, Prof. M. Swenson, and one sugar-engineer, namely, Mr. G. L. Spencer, or e
other persons of equal experience and ability, and also a competent corpsof che
provided the company aforesaid give to said agents of the
for studying the processes employed, and supply them with full and ure
the amount of cane entering into manufacture, the quantities of sugar and
and all other information which will help the Commissioner ull and
curate report of the whole work; provided further, that after the
above mentioned has been finished and durig the time the said compay operate
machinery for the purpose of manufacturing sugar and sp fr prot t p
nent of Agriculture shall not be responsible for any other exp t t
relate to the employment of the agents of the Department above
NORMAN J. COLMAN,
Coanissioner of Agricultre
PARKINSON SUGAR COMPANY,
By C. F.. DRAKE, Pre.ident.

The Congress having made an appropriation of $9,000 for the
tinuance of the experiments, the following contract
the Commissioner of Agriculture and The Pusey & JO s a
ing Company of Wilmington, Del., for the constructin an n
the necessary machinery.

WASHINGTON, D. C., April 21, 188
DEAR SIR: I desire to secure, for the experiental sgar sta whh the
ment will establish in connection with the Parkinson Sugar Com at Ft
Kans., a diffusion battery. Will you kindly send me estimates of the ct
battery, in conformity with the following general requirements
(1) The battery to be of a capacity to work 200 tons of cane in tw tyur
at a mean rate.
(2) The battery to consist of fourteen cells, arranged in a straght li
calorisators, and connections complete.
(3) The cells to be cylindrical, and have a discharge-gate at the bott of t
of the cross section of the cell.
(4) The valves to be so arranged that the water can be in a
of each cell at the pleasure of the operator.
(5) The joint of the aischargctgate to be made by hydraulic cl
(6) The last charge of water in each cell to be removed by compressd ai
(7) Apparat s for the automatic charging of the cells with fr c .
(8) Apparatus for removing the exhausted chips.
(9) Calorisators to be furnished with thermometers, with f ea
(10) Measuring tanks for withdrawing jice, with accurate fge
(11) Two cane-cutters, with verticva disks, and forced feed,
chip-elevators comnplete; these to e simply those already at Ottawa, with a mod
cation of the forced feed, to prvent choking.
(12) Air compressor and reservoir for discharging water fro cell next to be empt
In the above apparatusall the valves, piping, shafting
. weere used at Ottawa are to be incorporated in the new achinery whr itispos
withot disadvantage, and to b valued at their al
In your oposal, whichhrebask for, please give all the details of the appara
whih must he aranted to work and giveatisfaction to the Deren.








the proper eretion of this achinery is ntialto its success, I wiask
submit a proposal to erect said machinery at Fort Scott and deliver it to the
rtment in proper working order on or before the 10th of August, 1886
Respectfally,
NORMAN J. COLMAN,
Commi88ioner.





SWILmUKGToNr, DEL., May 8, 188.
Splying to your favor of 21st ltimo, received three days ago, we offer
themachinery therein specified, to say-
battery, consisting of 14 cells, cylindrical in form, 44 inches in diameter,
long, with door at bottom of full diametr of cell, and having counter-
-joint packing; valves arranged so that the water can be in-
ed into cells at either top or bottom at pleasure.
and reservoir so arranged that the water in each cell can be
redy presed air; apparatus for automatic charging of the cells with fresh
ing the exhausted chips to a comfortable distance from the battery.
oritors to be furnished with thermometers. Unfortunately those made in this
like steam-gauges are so slow of operation, that they would be use-
then, to pply mercurial thermometers; will select the plainest

g-tanks for withdrawing juice with floating auge.
ter the two cane-cutters now at Ottawa, Kans., so that the forced feed shall not
ce, and supply cane carriers and chip-elevators. Price, $14,125.
to use such portions of the valves, pipes, and other things
a o ppratus at Ottawa built by us as may be adaptable to the above.
to tranport all of the above to Fort Scott, Kan., and erect at the
S kison Sugr Company and have in operation on or before the 10th
of August, 1886, for the further sum of $2,500.
order, which shall have prompt dispatch, we are,
Yours, truly,
THE PUSEY & JONES COMPANY,
By WILLIAM G. GIBBONS,
Prefident.
Hon. NORMAN J. COLAN,
Commissioner of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.



WASHINGTON, D. C., July 26, 1886.
: have received your communication of 25th instant in respect of the
Syou offer u n exchange for the machinery specified in my lettr of
instant, and your offer is satisfactory to me. I therefore accept your proposition



terlance and hydraulic joint packing; valves arranged so that the water can
tr the clls at either top or bottom at pleasure.
"An air-compresor and reservoir, so arranged that the water in each cell can be re-
S for hargi of th cells with fsh
ch to a comfortable dfrom the
4 Calorsastoreto be furnished with thermometers. Unfortunately those made in this








country, with face like steam ages, are so lo of operation tttheyw ld
eless. We are forced, then, to supply mercurial thermometers. Will select te
plainest dial to be had.
"Proper measuring tanks for withdrawing Juice, with floating gage.
"Alter the two cane-catters now at Ottawa, Kans., so that the forced feed wiU
choke, and supply cane-carriers and chips elevators. Price, $14,15.
"In this it is proposed to use such portions of the valves, pipes, and other thi
pertaining to the apparatus at Ottawa built by us as may be adaptable to the abov


day of August, 1886, for the further sum of $2,500.
Replying further to your letter of 25th instant, I willay tat
battery now at the "Hermitage" plantation of Mr. D. F.
be delivered alongside the Cromwell Wharf, in New Orleans,
ber next, in accordance with your desires.
In further preparation of the work at Fort Scott, I desire you to mit to me y
estimates of the cost of four filter presses and a sufficiet number of carbonatati
tanks, to be used in the experiments in the manufacture of
ing the coming campaign.
I desire this proposition to include the freight to Fort Scott; in other words,
you to deliver the apparatus just mentioned to the Department at
at the earliest possible moment.
Very respectfully,


THE PUSEY & JONES COMPANY,
Wilmington, Del.

A contract was also made for a part of the apparas
diffusion juice with lime and carbonic acid in the following terms:

WILMING~TO, DEL., August 3, 1886.
DEAR SIR: We owe you an apology for so much time having been allowed toelap
since the receipt of your favor of 26th ultio, and its reply. Illn n the
the writer has prevented his attention, and hence the delay, whi
The diffusion machinery referred to in your letter is now at
Scott, Kans., at the works of the Parkinson Sugar Company. Of thof it
ing we shall advise you later.
The four filter pressesyou inquire for will cost, delivered at Fort
allready for service, $1,100 each. Four carbontation tanks, each 6 feet 6 inches lon
4 feet 6 inches wide, and 6 feet 6inches high at front, and 6 feet ig atbi
receiving and dischargepipe and valves, gas-pipe, and distribution, copper coil heat
and vapor pipe, all complete, delivered at Fort Scott, Kans., $350 each.
Soliciting your order, we are yours, truly,
THE PUSEYsY & JONE OMAY

By WM. G. GIBBONS, President.
Hon. NORMAN J. CO MAN,,
CommiRi## er of AgricllItre, Waehingtopn, D. C.

The battery erected by the Pusey & Jones Co n n
cells arranged in single line, with caIorisator and apparat
of conmpresed air in discharging the water from each cell before dro
ping the exhausted chips. The working of the battery was entirely sa
isfactory.






Each cell had a capacity of 75 cubic feet, and would hold 1,900
pods of sorghum chips, moderately packed. Each celwas constructed
w o ined froim the Fives-Iile Company, and the de-
taey be fonnd in Bulletin o. 8.
The ters used were those employed at Ottawa last year. Thecon-
tractors made no attempt whatever to rebuild the forced feed attach-
ment, and this failure was the cause of the chief delay we experienced
after the apparatus was in regular use. With very sharp knives, and
with cane fresh and green, they did reasonably good work, but after a
frot had killed the leaves of the cane it was found almost impossible to
tters work. I often required half an hour to fill a single
cell. When it is remembered that the rest of the apparatus could easily
have worked a ton of chips each eight minutes, the disastrous effects
of this delay can be appreciated.
From this cause great trouble was experienced in working the bat-
tery. When all the cells were in use each one was often under pressure
t e or fr hours. The cane was unusually acid, and from this there
a large inversion of sucrose in the battery. If, to avoid this,
the t eture of diffusion was lowered, fermentation would set in.
There was nothing left for us to do but to work a smaller number of
cells. O n only six or seven cells were under pressure, and conse-
quently the degree of extraction was far less perfect than it would have

ter used furnished a chip well suited to dision, but

power for operation than is necessary.
With a viewof correcting these defects I purchased a beet-root cutter,
formerly used by the Portland Beet Suar Company, and had it rebuilt
y te lwell Iron Company of New York, for an experimental cane

This app tus had a horizontal disk, and was so modified as ot tke
l, the cane being delivered to it through six hoppers in-
clined40 degrees to the vertical. With perfectly clean canes this cutter
Se of success, but with the sorghum-cane as it came from the
field it proved a total failure.
s les me to believe that the cutters used at Java and other
places so successfully with sugar-cane would not serve the purpose of
g sghum for the battery. Any question of cleaning the canes
before delivering them to the cutter must be negatived on the score of

r th fth study of the problem I tried thesystem of cane-s!iing
The pricile of this system consists in first cutting the canes into
i f Mij iB l J

le hs of t e or fr inhes by ea of an ensilage-cutter, an at
passing them through a cleaning apparatus deliver them to itshaving-
machine constructed on the principle of a board-planer.






This latter part of the apparatus was kindly loaned to the Depart-
ment by Mr. Hughes.
The canes wer. first cut by a Belle Ciy enilgetter into pieces
about 2.25 inches in length. These pieces were run through a fanning-
mill and nearly all the blades and sheaths were thus removed. The
clean pieces of cane were next delivered to a slicer built on the princi-
ple of an ordinary board-planer. The cylinder was 6 inches in diameter
and 30 inches in length, and carred two knives proting o eig
one-ixteenth inch beyond the surface This was n
of speed, over 3,000 revolutions per minte. The
rather than slced by this process, so that the ext
was rather a maceration than a diffusion.
Even with this small machine it was found possible to prepare nearly
as much cane for the battery as with the three pondero utters de-
scribed. It was found, however, that the ensilage-cutter was not strong
enough to do the work, and hence this most promising system of cane-
cutting, practiced successfully at Rio Grande, was discontinued. The
experiment, however, led me to believ that the princi
one; especially is this so because it permits of the easy cl g of
canes by first cutting them into smal pieces. This s t
practical way of accomplishing what is of prime necessty
viz, the removal of all deleterious substances from the
Having demonstrated the practicability of cleanig t n
manner already described, my attention was next directed to the
sideration of the best method of cutting the short pis of i
chips suitable for diffusion. For this purpose I had co
Fort Scott Foundry a centrifugal slicer. The theory of
was that the knives, being carried in a revolving frustum o con
the short pieces of cane being fed from the inside of this
as soon as cut, would fly off by centrifugal force. A il
ratus showed that the fiber of the cane would clog the
stop the work. The close of the season prevented ay i
the apparatus. I think the principle of the apparatus is promising
enough to warrant further trial.
As a result of the experiments with cutters the followig ci
caln e drawn:
(1) Whatever the form of the cutting-machine employed may be, it
is necessary that the cane be cleaned. This cleaning should notconsist
of the removal of the blades alone, but also the sheaths.
(2) The slicing of the canes obliquely by means of a-
machine with a forced feed is not an econoial et
(3) The use of a cutting-miachine with a horizontal disk and multiple
feed is impracticable for sorghnm canes unless they are perfectly cleau.
(4) The preliminary cutting of the canes into short lengths promises
the easiest solution of the problem of cleaning the cane.
(5) The subsequent slicing of these sections by some form of appara
tus is a mechanical problem which can be solved







SAPPARATUS FOR DELIVERING THE CHIPS TO THE BATTERY AND
REMOVING THEM THEREFROM.

The working of the chip elevators and the apparatus .or removing
the exhausted chips was exceedingly unsatisfactory.
The chips falling into the pit below the cutters were carried by a
srew conveyor to a bucket elevator. Thence they were dropped onto
a belt conveyor, which delivered them to the apparatus for blowing out
the leaves, The screw, the elevator, and the belt frequently became
choked and occasioned a great deal of trouble and delay.
The apparatus for removing the exhausted chips gave still greater

In discharging a cell the whole contents, weighing a ton, were thrown
at once on the conveyor. This load was too great, and many days' delay
were experienced in making the alterations necessary even to moder-

Selevator for taking the exhausted chips from this conveyor was
a very complicated and inefficient piece of apparatus, and many tedious
had to be e before it would do the necessary work. Fi-
all its use was abandoned altogether. The lessons taught by these
nate delays show that the proper method for removing the ex-
haust chips from the battery is by ineans of a tramway and dump.

Sapparatus and pwer will be saved by this method of disposing
f te chips. The conveyor for filling the cells worked in marked con-
trt with the rest of the chiphandling machinery, and gave perfect
hstistion. This conveyor extended the entire length of the battery
i wa placed directly above it. Over each cell was a door in the
f the conveyor. When a cell was to be filled the door above it
was opened and the ehips fell through onto a funnel which directed
m io the cell. The bottom of the conveyor at Fort Scott was too
htop of the cells. It should be not les than 6 feet above the
p f cells, so as to allow ample room for tamping the chips as
they fall into the cell, thereby greatly increasing the capacity of the
battery. I do not think a better contrivance could be devised for fill.
ing the cells of a line battery. I am still of the opinion, however, that
the chargig of a circular battery, as described in Bulletin No. 8, would
be a me simple method. The disposition of the battery, however,
Sa mtter of vital importance.
I am urther of the opinion that it will not be difticult for an ingeni-
ous mechanical engieer familiar with elevating apparatus to build the
mainery which will elevate the cuttings to the battery without any
dif lty. By the employment of the centrifgal cutter already de-
can pled directly over the battery, the elevatrs will
only have to carry the short pieces of cane, a very easy task.
~..~ ,~_f~~l~~i~~er ~ ~ ~ ~ iar-~;-l~tc ~










the utters was designed by Mr. L. P
ing the cane from the fields are provided with a rack of peculiar construe-
tio. On this rack are placed ropes in sch a manner t w
cart arrives at the unloading station the ropes can be b
inclosing the whole load of cane. Byeans of a power drum the entire
load is drawn from the cart onto a weighing-truck runi
way.
As soon as the weighing is completed the truck is mo.ved aong
way until it comes opposite the cane-carrier. It is drawn from the trck
by means of a power drum and is dragged down an inclined plane in
large armfuls to the carrier. The carrier runs at right a to
length of the cane and to the elevators which delier the canes to the
cutters. As the cane is carried along this feed-table the h s ae
off by a circular saw running at a high rate of speed. T
escape the saw are afterwards cut off by hand. The cane to
a point midway over the three elevatorsleading to the cutts. The
by means of an in genious contrivance it can be dropped intoeither r
rier at will. The apparatus worked well, but aside from the va
the tops I doubt whether so comdicated a piece of machiney s nec
sary.
CARBONATATION APPARATUS.

This apparatus consists of a lime-kiln, washer for the gs,
acid pump, and carbonatation tanks.

LE-KILN.

The lime-kiln was built by Mr. G. Spencer, with castings and plan
from the Hallesche Mahinenfabrik. The pup was built by
firm, but was purchased, as well as the castings just mentioned,
the Portland Beet Sugar Company. After the workoien leared how
to conduct the-operations at the kil we had no trouble wit its mani
ulation. It furnished an abundant supply of gas, and an amount of
lime in large excess of the quantity required.
The limestone at first furnished contained a large quantity of ce
and was unfit for use. In all, several days' delay was used b thi
imperfection.
After reasonably good limestone was obtained all worked well. The
analyses of the limestones employed will be found a analti
cal data. The drawings and detailed description of the lie-kn
found in Bul .letin No. 8.
THE PU MP.
The pump was delivered to us in that state of imperfection which
three months of very hard usage and six years of disuse produce.








ertheless, after a IIproper adjustmnt it worked with perfect satisf c-
S Inall not more than half a day's delay was caused by the ad-
nutent of this apparatus.
O:Io"ft y ,8 "'
THE CARBONATATION TANKS.


he drawings and specifications in Bulletin No. 8, and gave perfect
faction. I can suggest no improvement in them unless it be the
etion of revolving paddles to keep down the foam.

THE FILTER-PRESSES.

four in number, and of thirty chambers each, were cnstructed
the Psey and Jones Company, on the general plan of the Kroog
but with certain modifications uggested and patented by
nwork gave perfect satisfaction. The only fault
d vered in them was the weakness of the plates, a great number of
Sbreaking under the ordinary pressure.

THE SULPHUR APPARATUS.

is apparatus consists of an air-copressor, two sulphur furnaces,
Sulphuring-tanks, and three Kroog's twin filter-presses. The
le apparatus was built by the Sangerhauser Maschinenf brik, and
ork gave entire satisfaction. The apparatus is described in detail
in Bulletin No. 8.l J I J ,


e whole of the machinery, with the unimportant changes noted,
according to the drawings and specifcatons printed in
etin No. Their reproduction is not considered necessary here.

ANALYTICAL DATA.

e analyses of canes, chips, waste-waters, purified Bjuices, &c., were
e at the factory chiefly by Dr. A. Crampton, assisted by Mr. N.
ake. The limestones, masse-cuites, press-cakes, &, were exam-
in the laboratory at Washington.
S.cer.
af m tbnoGI ,














Carbon- Insolu-




P.ct. P.ct. P. t P. ct. P. cet. P. ct. P. ct.! P. ct. P. t.
4581 1 ------- 43810 1.55 .97 54.70 .04 .03 .01 100.40 Seeted*froml50 codso


4582 2 .20 30.90 23.03 3.8542.05 .07 .03 .03 100.16 Do.
4583 3 .05 41.84 3.10 1.40 53.55 .04 .02 .03 100.03 Do.
4584 4 ...... 37.82 3.00 1.48 51.3C ...... ..... ...... 96.60 Core of limestone burne
4585 5 ....... 40.07 5.92 .99 51.53 ...... ..... ...... 98.51 Limestone brght i

4586 6 ....... 37.56 10.01 1.07 49.26 97.90 plicatesample.
4598 7 -.....- 26.06 2.50 1.56 63.84 .54 .37 ...... 94.87 Selectedfro 50 s


4599 8 ....... 41.70 2.81 1.82 54.08 .27 ..... ...... 100.68 Do.
4638 9 ....... 41.70 1.68 1.42 55.40 .25 .... ...... ..... upliate sample.
4651 10 ....... 42.70 3.80 .93 52.02 ..... ...... 99.6 esteinuse ob





..rn. 1ae Slag.
17, surface rock from a


17 deeper in quarry.
4663 13 .04 41.20 3.47 2.02 53.72 .44 .10 100.99 Do.





Serial number................................. 4,587 4,588 4,6
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Water ......................................... 9.60 0.00 1.1
Carbonic acid C0.............................. .---------------------- 00 races ..... 1.1
Insol. and silica (SiO-) .......................... 4.36 39.30
Fe2 Os, Als .----------------------------------.................................. 3.70 3150 .................
Ca .......................................------------------------------------------.81.40 38.60 ................,
g ------------------------------------------- der e .09 Traces ........ ................
P206s ... ...---------------------------------- Undetermined .. ......... .*-3.
Organic matter ................................. Undetermined ................... ..M
Bases .......................................... .................. ............. .... 43. 84
Su ... --- --- --. 99.15
Sum ...................................... 99.15 99.40 99.

Euivalent to Ca (P 79.46. t cont s .












NO. trac- Sp. gr. Soid o co. Date. Index to mill juices.


5.26 1.0773 18.7 13.25 Ayng. 30 Ea amber cane from west field.
1.069 16.3 11.46 .88 Aug. 31 E y amber cane from east field.
141.29 11 7.20 Aug. 1 Link'shybid.
....... ...... 1.0710 17.2 14.7S E amber icane, juice extracted by hand.
.... 0.0 10770 18.6 9.47 4.95 Sept. 15 Eary amber cane from east field, out two days
.... 0. .0788 19.0 7. 04 7.80 Sept.10 ary amber cane, cut three days.
37.... 51.0 J. 0794 19.2 4.92 8.42 Sept. 17 Orange cane from wagons.
44.... ....... 1. 0688 16. 7 10.83 2.49 Sept. 18 Cane from carrier.
3.--. 45.1 1.082 20.0 13.54 2. 97 Sept. 19 Do.
1_.. 47. 15 1.0734 17, 8 11.48 3.58 Sept. 20 Amber cane from carrier.
... 88 1.0770 18.6 12.11 2.44 Sept. 21 Amber cane from carrier, cut yesterday.
S5610 1.0750 18.2 11.82 2.73 Sept. 21 Orange cane from carrier.
4.... 5. 1.0818 19.5 11.02 4.20 Sept. 22 Amber cane from carrier, cut two day s.
... 1 0888 2L 2 14. r0 2.77 Sept. 22 Amber cane frontm carrier, cut one day.
.... .12 1.0848 20.3 3.60 11.36 Sept. 23 Amber cane from carrier, cut three days.
.... 1.77 1.0718 17.4 9.49 5.33 Sept. 23 Cane froin carrier.
58.44 1.0638 15.0 9.74 2.16 Sept. 23 Link's hybrid from field.
... 4.4 1.0776 18.7 13.53 2.41 Sept.24 Cane from carrier.
.... 5. 1.0675 16.4 11.50 2.80 Sept. 24 Cane like preceding, e)cept badly lodged.
... 5.7 1.0578 14.2 8.20 2.86 Sept. 25 Cane from carrier. (from lodged lot).
S5.18 1.0678 18 5 10.17 3.47 Sept. 25 Orange cane, cut to-day.
S500 1.0726 17.6 12.40 1.90 Sept. 28 Cane from carrier.
51 1 084 16.6 10.41 4.08 Sept. 29 Do.
119_ 56.10 1.0704 17.8 12.39 3.76 Sept. 30 Do.

Coefident pu rity.----59.73

Mill juices after September 30.


. SSp. gr. Solids. Sn- Glu- Date. Index to milE juices.


2 61 1.064 15.5 8. 7 14.95 Oct. 1 Cane from carrier, stripped.
1 ...... 1.0842 20.2 14.50 1.77 Oct. 2 Cane from carrier.
18 54.54 1. 0M 20.7 14.37 2.16 Oct. 3 Cane brought in cars from Hammond.
7 51.72 1.0680 16.6 10.50 2.60 Oct. 4 Amber cane from carrier.
0 5L 35 1.0740 17.9 12.39 1.92 Oct. 4 Orange cane from carrier.
9 51.5 1.0710 17.2 10. 65 3. 27 Oct. 5 Cane from carrier.
9 56. 1.0818 19.7 13.20 2.37 Oct. 5 Cane, arnber, on car from Hammond.
0 57.70 1.0778 18.8 9.95 4.88 Oct. 5 Same, orange.
76 52.94 L0801 19.3 2.11 ---.... Oct. 7 Amber cane from Hammond.
77 53.85 1.0748 18.1- 6.67 ....... Oct. 7 Same, orange.
S55.55 1.0698 17. 0 10.69 3.11 Oct. 7 Cane fronmcar, saume as two preceding, butbetter
averaged samples taken from center of car, while
the first samples were taken from the outside,
amber.
1 53.12 1.0828 19.9 12.46 3.03 Oct. 7 Same, orange.
99 0.10 1. 0678 16.5 9.10 4.36 Oct. 8 Orange cane from carrier (juice very red).
7 59. 63 1 064 15.6 9.07 3.84C. 8 Cane from carrier,p.im.
13 58.08 1.0758 18.3 4.55 9.62 Oct. 9 Cane from carrier, a. m. (old cane).
22 58.82 1. 0596 14.6 8.57 2.20 Oct. 9 Link's hybrid from field.
24 60.00 1.0506 12.5 7.22 4.09 Oct. 9 Amber from field.
1 5 7 1.076 1.5 7.02 7.74 Oct. 10 Cane from carrier, cut severl days.
2 62.07 1.0764 18.5 8.66 3.04 Oct.10 First fresh wagon-load lot in to-day.
241 57.90 1.0676 10 5 10.29 2.13 Oct.-11 Link's hybrid cane from Professor Swenson's, still
green and not hurt by frost.
42 ....... 1.0618 15.1 8.60 3.25 Oct. 11 Cane from carrier, freshly cut, a. m.
S61.90 1.0632 15.5 8.86 2.98 Oct. 11 Cane from carrier, p. m.
258 62.16 1.0588 14.4 6.65 4.72 Oct.12 Cane from carrier.
59 57.14 0718 17.1 8.54 5.04 Oct. 12 Cane on car from ammond, orange.
20 68. 83 1.0736 17.8 10.51 3.27 Oct.12 Cane on car from Hammond, amber.
7 59.09 1.092 14.5 8.83 3.10 Oct. 12 Cane, amer, lot from a od by Dr. Wiley and


S 863 1.095 21.5 5.71 11.41 Oct.13 Cane for exporimen tarun, orange, taken fromsame
7 57.25 .0846 20.3 1205 4.19 Oct. 13 Same a er.
0 62.07 1.064 15.8 7.27 5.52 Oct.13 Same, am er.
281 60-71 1. 0654 16. 10.09 2. 23 Oct. 13 o cane fron Profussor SweuAn's.
T.











Ne. trac- Spp"'; erose. cose.iia



P. ct. P. ct. P. ct. P. ct.
285 62.50 1.0608 149 4.4 7.25 Oct.13 ame, amber, taken asametimea a
287 ...... .062 .2 5.8 .07 Oct.13 S d s o g


5 62.86 1.0629 15.4 788 4.8 Oct.14om rrier
310 ..... 14.3 7.45 4.50 Oct.15 to
311 ..... 40 10. 0 3.6 1 Oct.1 c from
442 61.58 1.0560 13.8 5.87 4.98 Oct. 23 Can

Av. 58.01 1.068 16.6 8.70 4.15
Coefcient purity.. 52. 41

Chips from firt of season to October 1, 1886.

Uncorrected. Corrected.
No. Date.
Sucrose. Glucose. Suc G

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cnt.
10 Sept. 8 5.63 8.34 5.91 8
11 Sept. 9 10.21 3.90 10.2 7 .39
12 Sept. 9 9.08 2.15 9.53 1.70
14 Sept. 10o 5.86 5.94 6.15 5.65
15 Sept.11 9.57 2.17 10.05 1.9
17 Sept. 11 9.90 1.91 10.40 L 41
19 Sept. 13 9.30 1.24 9.76 .77
24 Sept. 14 8.53 1.94 8.96 1.51
36 Sept. 16 10.32 3.13 10.84 2.61
43 Sept. 17 9.50 3.34 9.97 2.86
49 Sept.18 10.81 2.73 11.35 2.1
65 Sept. 20 8.28 4.98 8.69 4. 57
74 Sept. 21 7.94 3.11 8.32 2.73
90 Sept. 23 7.39 4.31 7.75 3 9
105 Sept25 5.74 3.89 6.03 3.60
107 Sept. 28 8.51 2.45 8.93 2. 03
115 Sept.2 11.18 1.97 11.74 1.41
121 Sept. 30 7.2 6. 4 762 6. 08
Mean 8.43 3.72 8.85 &32

Chps from Otob 1 to close.


i I tt Ti g" fltl I 4l I l ^ II I.i : rs
129 Oct. 1 7.88 4.03 1 8.28 3. 6I
135 Oct. 2 8.75 3.57 9. 19 3. 13
151 Oct 4 6.89 3.96 7.23 3.62
1 5 Oct. 7 8.25 4.22 8.66 3.81

227 Oct. 9 1073 3. 79 11.27 3.
238 Oct. 10 7.21 4 7.57 4,
24 Oct. 11 9.08 3.93 8.48 3. 5
270 Oct. 12 9.85 3.26 10.34 2.77
286 Oct. 13 3.91 7.50 4.11 7.0
289 Oct.13 5.89 3.83 6.18 3.54
297 Oct. 14 6.65 4.71 6.98 4.38
30 Oct. 15 7.81 2.87 8.20 2. 48
315 Oct. 15 731 3. 22 7.68 2.

354 Oct. 18 5.56 4.14 5.84 8.86
375 ct. 19 6.1 4.20 47 8.89

413 Oct. 21 5.77 4.10 6.06 8.80

401 Oct. 26 4.51 5.47 4.74 5.24
474 Oct. 27 2.48 5.47 2.69 5.2
ean 68 4.48 701 4.15










ANALYSES OF JICE OF CHIPS FROM OUTTER8.

These hips were taken from the cells of the battery as they were fill-.
Ag. A handful was taken from each cell until ten had been sampled.
The determinations were made by passing these chips through the
Sand then subjecting the juice to examination in the usual way.

Mill jices from chips taken from ofrcudt of cells.
N amber. D Solids. Sucrose.f Gluose.



Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
08.................. Oct. 15 1. 0824 15.3 .02 2. 1
12.................. Oct. 15 1.010 14.9 7.84 3.4Q
32 .................. Oct. 16 1.0670 16.* 3 9.29 3.35
40................. Oct. 17 1.48 5.8 8.17 3.68
355.................. Oct. 18 1. 05 4 14. A 7.21 3. 31
7 .................. Oct. 19 1.0596 14.86 7.69 3.31
.................. Oct. 20 08 15.8 8.8 3.48
............ ... Oct. 21 1.050 14.5 748 3.31




SMeans 10* .... 1 0iL I c 5 1. 0
Means in cano.. ......... .......... 13. 17 .448 3.31



Chip exhausted in bottl with and without neIutralizing.

of aneutralizing SMe Gives-
Number. Date. substane.ame. Neutralied by-

rose. Glucse. Scrose. Gluose. Sucrose. Glucose.

Per wet. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
.......... Oct. 18 5.58 4.14 .00 393 c.~ 1k.... 6 3.41
S.......... Oct1 4.20 .60 4.10 1 c. alk..... 7.31 3
3 .......... Oct. 20 0.05 3.93 0.65 3. 87 20 cc. alk.... 6.71 3.65
41......- Oct. 21 5.77 4.19 0.10 4.48 ExcessCaO. 6.55 .76
.......... Oct 4.9 4.55 5. 81 4.44 1 c. bi pit. 4.84 4. 89
47 ------- Oct.23 4.02 4.65 4.t5 4.72 ExcessCaCO3. 5.17 4.00
61-2C........ Oct. 26 4.48 5.42 ce. CaCO3..... 5.11 5.31
1-2........ Oct. 26 4.8 5.4**. Excess CaCOs.. 4.68 5.03
-22........ Oct, 26 4.48 5.42 ... .......... 20 cc.j, alk... 5.06 5.11
47-5.. Oct. 2.73 5.63 .......... .......... 2 grams CaCOs. 3. M 4.95
Means. ......... 5.11 4.59 5.98 4.26 .................. 5.--- L 03


Eiireed ju
Juo Mill Jjie from samie chips..





Per cent. Per cent. Per nt Per cenit. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
7.21 3 31 14.3 .197 Trace.
**** *'. a by -

















5 ................... 7.. 59 4. 9. 31 14.2 164 Trace.
20 .......................... 6. 65 Lost. 8. 82 3. 4 15. 8 .1 67 None.
41 ........................... 6. 60 Lost. 7.48 3.31 14.5 .197 "one.



.. .. .......... 14.2 1 N


S......... ....... 41 4. 27 6. & 3.94 14.4 .180 ..........
In hi ............... .......... .......... 5.90 3.51 12. ... ..........
i^,,, A^^fc I lrllSI+rLr IW 1 C
KB7*B lB s
.. j nai i AC j



UKfl ll if1 : MN l~l1 i~^^ 1 A iiWftiBBM iiiwl -- *ia ~










Sf *ies to October W 1.1"


Number. Date. Solids. Suaroe. Glnome.


Per et. Per e Per e
13 ........ Spt. 9.-. 6.8 3. 29 1.3
18........ 11.. 18.5 .4 1.9


22........ .18.. 9.8 .50 1. 6
25 ........ 14... 11.7 7.47 1.5
27....... 14... 11.2 . 1
9........ 15... 12.0 6.36 81
S9........ 18... 10.8 5.71 1. 8
S 17... 104 5.2
48........ 18.. 11.9 0.9 31
11 ........ 18... 11.7 6.94 1.
57 ........ 19... 11.8 5.66 2.



164........ 20, 10.8 4.7 3. 3
O9........ 20.- 12.3 5.59 3.
771........ 21... 11.8 5.76 2. 9
O14........ 23... 11.8 6.78 2.1
94 ........ 24... 9.2 4.81 1.4
98........ 24... 10.7 4.3 2. 3
101........ 25... 9.6 6.06 1.2
104........ 25O... 8.9 4.13 1.8
108........ 28... 9.7 5.68 1.67
114........ 99... 12.6 6.6 2. 2
118........ 29... 12.0 6.37 165
122........ 30. .. 14. 8 7. 2 4. 1
Avera ........ 1177 5.75 2.

Purity, 48.93.

Di.io juies October 1 to cls e.

Nfumber. Date. Solids. Sucrose. Gluose.


Per cent. Per cent. er cent.
128....... Oct. 1 14.8 8.60 .25
132........ Oct. 2 13.7 7.01 3.32
133........ Oct. 2 13.9 7.68 3.10
134-------....... Oct. 2 13.2 7.18 2.75
139 ........ Oct. 3 12.9 5.89 3.06
140........ Oct. 3 12.7 651 .65
141........-- Oct. 3 12.9 6.47 .52
149........ Oct. 4 9.8 4.80 2.3
152 ........ Oct. 4 9.6 4.71 2.47
155 ....... Oct. 4 11.5 5.42 3.28
160 I ..l.. Oct. 5 12.3 6.21 8.34
163 Oct. 5 13.0 6.44 3.58
166-- ... Oct. 5 12.2 5.78 8.40
171 ........ Oct. 5 12.2 6.03 84.23
179 ....... Oct. 7 13.3 6.13 4.41
182....... Oct. 7 12.7 5.46 4.23
183....... Oct. 7 12.2 5.19 4.23
184 .....- Oct. 7 12.2 4.50 4.41
201 ........ Oct. 8 12.5 5.40 12
205....... Oct. 8 11.8 5.29 8.98
216 ........ Oct. 9 12.2 4.04 4.6
g217........ Oct. 9 11.3 4.08 4.07
229 ........ Oct. 10 10.8 4.06 3.45
237 ....... Oct, 10 11*. 4.86 30
244........ Oct. 11 10.3 4.10 3-.4
247........ Oct. 11 10.3 4.32 .15
254 ........ Oct. 11 10.9 4.58 8.0
261........ Oct. 12 13.1 5.76 8.96
271 ........ Oct. 12 13.9 5. 44 .41
296 ........ Oct. 14 12.7 5 80 2.14
300........ Oct. 14 11.6 4.92 8.54
313 ........ Oct. 15 0.1 3.24 I 82
327........ Oct. 16 11.6 5.14 2.
828........ Oct, 16 11.2 4.96 2.94
880....... Oct. 17 11.7 5.51 &.08
356...-... Oct. 18 10.8 4.8 2.9
857....... )ct. 18 .8 8.64 2.9
71........ Oct 19 0.9 4.I
373........ Oct. 19 10.4 4.38 2.9(
380.... (ct. 20 10.9 3.72 8.91
395 .. O)ct. 20 7.2 .88 z 08
406........ Oct, 20 D.5 .58 2.71
















Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
10........ Oct. 21 11.2 3.97 3. 9
417......... Oct. 21 11.8 4.44
428....... Oct. 22 10.6 4.41 3.31
430........ Oct. 22 10.1 3.95 3.37
435........ Oct. 22 10.3 3.91 3.43
44 ...... Oct. 22 10.3 3.82 3.76
444......... Oct. 23 10. 1 3.67 3.77
453....... Oct. 23 10. 1 3.41 3.63
468........ Oct.26 .8 2.93 2.97
478........ Oct. 27 7.8 2.94 2.55

Average.......... 11.34 490 3.39


Filtered carbonatated juices before October 1.


Number. Date. Sucrose. Glucose. Solids.


1Per cent. Per ent Per cent.
18 ........ Sept. 11 4.66 1.28 8.8
..22... Sept 13 6.94 1.04 10.5
3 ........ Sept.16 5. 6 1.50 11.1
41 ........ Sept.17 5. 48 .94 11.4
47........ Sept. .53 2.39 10.
67....... Sept.20 4.78 1.82 10.7
78 ...... Sept. 21 4.55 1.24 9.9
Average.. ........ 5. 5 1. 46 10.47


iltered carbonatated juices after Sptember 30.



194........ Oct. 7 5.73 3.11 13.0
210...... Oct. 8 5.99 3.07 12.4
226........ Oct. 9 5.07 3.23 12.0
235..... Oct. 10 4.75 2. 50 10.6
243........ Oct. 11 5.07 3.83 11.9
252.. .... Oct. 11 4.72 2. 42 10. 8
63........ Oct. 12 6.20 2.88 12.6
301....-.. Oct 14 5.95 3.22 12.7
335.-...... Oct. 16 5. ,82 2.48 11.8
47... ... Oct. 17 5.82 2. 17 11.6
361 ....... Oct. 18 4.79 2.31 1 0 2
382....... Oct. 19 4.49 2.00 9.5
400........ Oct. 20 4.09 3.48 11.1
420........ Oct. 21 4.49 3.44 11.4
439........ Oct. 22 4.93 2.94 11.2
451........ Oct. 23 3. 83 3.43 9.9
469....... Ot. 26 3.19 2 2. 20 'K I




Sulphurd juicex before October 1.


Number. Dat1. Sucrose. Glucose. SolidU.


Pe r cenit. Per cent. Per eit.
34........ Sept16 5.96 1.70 11





5.34 1.65 11.15













19......... Oct. 9 6.78 3.1 13 2
211 ....... Oct. 8 5.89 3.17 12.
225--.-.... Oct. 9 5.09 3.12 12.2
236........ Oct 10 4.78 26 10.6
253 ........ Oct. 11 4.78 2.54 11.
2 64........ Oct 12 020 2.97 12.7
302....... Oct. 14 5 7 3.50 13.2
336....-- -. Oct. 16 5.89 2.57 12.5
348 ....... Oct. 17 6.18 2.44 12.4
3620........ Oct. 18 5.12 2.35 10.8
383....... ct. 19 4.58 2.14 9.7
401........ Oct 20 4.12 3.54 11.2
440... Oct. 22 4.89 3.04 11.4










Number. Date. Sucrose. Glucose.


Per cent. Per cent.
20.............. Sept.13 0.00 0.00
76.............. Sept.211 .16 .10
99 .............. Sept ....... ... .25
111 .............. Sept 28 .6 7 ..........
117 .............. I Sept. 29 .31 .26
124.............. Sept.30 .......... .14
Average...... .......... .27 .15


Waste waters, after September 30.


136.............. Oct. 2 ......... .17
142.............. Oct. 3 ..... .. .43
145 .............. Oct. 3 .......... .15
153 .............. Oct. 4 .......... .1
156. ............. Oct. 4 --------.........-- .4
161.............. Oct. ....... ... .
164 .............. Oct. 5 .......... .35
167. ............ Oct. 5 --------.........-- .4
172 .............. Oct. 5 ..........T .2
186 .............. Oct 6 ......... 1
187 .............. Oct. 6 .......... .-
188 ........... .. Oct. 6 ....... ... .0
189 ............. Oct. 6 ......... .11
202.............. Oct. 8 .......... .21
208.............. Oct. 8 ......... .19
218 .............. Oct. 9 ......... Trace.
219 .............. Oct. 9 .......... .15
230 .............. Oct. 10 .......... .11
248.............. Oct. 11 .......... Tace.
250 .............. )ct. 11 .......... .10
26O.............. (-ct. 12 .......... .20
266 .............. Oct. 12 .......... .10
273 .............. Oct. 12 .......... .10



331 .............. (ct. 16 .......... Trace.

358.............. Oct. 18 .......... None.
381 .............. Oct. 19 .......... Trace.
405.............. Oct. 20 ......... Trace.
4-06.............. Oct. 20 .......... .20
438.............. Oct. 22 .......... Trace.
457 .............. Ot;. 23 .......... Trace.

Average(35) .......... .......... .17











Wate chips, before October 1.


Number. Date. Glucose.


Per cent.
28................ Sept. 14 .15
5................ Sept. 16 .20
40 ................ Sept. 17 .10
52................ Sept. 18 .10
56................ Sept. 19 .10
81 ................ Sept. 21 .23
92 ..............--. -- Sept. 2 .20
106 ............ ... Sept. 25 .38
110................ Sept. 28 .29
1 ................ Sept. 29 .68

Average1 ........... .24


Waste chips, after September 30.


137 ................ Oct. 2 .40
13............... Oct. 3 1.20
144. Oct. 3 .71
154 .. ............ Oct. 4 .79
157 ............... Oct. 4 1.11
16 ............... Oct. 5 1.52
165 ................O Oct. 5 .70
168 ................ Oct 5 .85
173................ Oct. 5 .65
190................ Oct. 7 .65
191 ............... Oct. 7 .40
192............... Oct. 7 .34
193................ -Oct. 7 .30
203................ -Oct. 8 .35
209................ Oct. 8 22
22 ................ Oct. 9 .55
221.. ............ ct. 9 .41
S239..............- Oct. 10 .42
251 .--------------- Oct. 11 .62
272- .............. O t. 12 .62
274 .............. Oct. 12 .34
275 .............. Oct. 12 .30

304 ............... Oct. 14 .39
314O................ ct. 15 .56
329............... Oct. 16 .18
345.............. Oct. 17 .24
359............. Oct. 18 Trace.
379............... Oct. 19 .69
396................ Oct. 20 .30
418................ Oct. 21 .42
436........... .... Oct. 22 .36
454...,........... Oct. 23 .41

Average (33). .......... .52



Semi-irtp.


umber. 1)ate. Solids. Sucrose. Glucose. Speci
gravity.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
62................ Sept.20 37.5 23.02 5.13 1.1660
204................ Oct. 7 01.I2 32. 10 17. 24 1. 2910
228 ......... Oct. 10 51.1 27.50 15. 22 1.2388
55O............... 0ct. 11 30.0 15.80 9.90 1.1246

307............ ... Oct 3;1 55. 9 27. 90 17. 8S 1. 2663
319............... Oct. 15 55.9 31.70 1 t 1. 660
337 ................ Oct. 17 65.7 :4.C0 18.21 1 32431
3 3 ............. Oct. 18 37. 5 1.9 5 1. 1 4
S............... t. 18 57.5 30.40 13.0 1.2750
425 ................ Oct. 22 t8.4 2400 18.M87 1. 28o0
456............... Oct. 28 50. 1 22.10 Ili. 31 9 2135

Avege (12). .......... 50.5 206.23 11.94
......_______.___..____.__.....____














Number. Water. Soli.ds. Ash. 1ug5
Direct. Inversion.






92 ........................ 17. 82.0 0.0 4 0 4
U6 ----------.. -- ------------- 16.69 83.31 04.94 42.60 44.98 21.93
132 ...- --.--- ---------------- 35.14 64.86 05.46 1 47.10 48.73 19.53
3- .. ...----.. --- ...7.77 8283 04,45 4570 4.97 20.8
350 ........................... 22.21 77.79 05.03 38.80 40.2 20-2
:370 ................-- .... 14.58 85 42 43 4 0 4 0 21.
.............. ......... 1.94 8.0 03.16 48.80 50.42 16.
Mean ............. 9.75 80.35 5.07 2





4683 .......................... 2.42 73.58 .0539 2.80 4.48 21.
----. 258 O .. ---- I ....... .... 2. 0 ............ 4 3 7
4681 .......................... 18.07 81.93 T .0540 510 394 20.8 :
4684 ....................... 36.72 63. 28 .0506 .50 7.17 25.25
468 ........................... 23.12 7 0. .41 28.10

Sample of sugar: Sucrose, 98.16; glucose, .07.

Acidity in juic8s.

[Calnculated as malic acid.]


Mill juices. Diffusion juices. .


No. Date Per cent. o. Date. Percent.


179 Oct. 8 .280 184 Oct. 7 .321
180 Oct. 8 .255 201 Oct 8 .174
213 Oct. 9 .2o01 216 Oct. 9 .263
232 Oct. 10 .280 229 Oct. 10 .273
242 Oct. 11 .188 244 Oct. 11 .
258 Oct. 12 .147 327 Oct. 16 335
326 Oct. 16 .188 356 Oct. 18 .
355 Oct. 18 .188 371 Oct. 19 .147
372 Oct. 19 .126 417 Oct. 21 .161
412 Oct. 21 134 430 Oct. 22: A 62
429 Oct. 22 .134 453 Oct. 23 .348
442 Oct. 23 .147
Means. 189


Acidity in 'hipe.


No. Date. Per cent. No. Date. Per cent.

105 Sept. 25 .234 286 Oct. 13 181
107 Sept. 28 .222 289 Oct. 13 .164
115 Sept. 29 .220 325 Oct. 10 .1i4
121 Sept. 30 .216 341 Oct. 17 .173
1290 Oct. 21.21 3 .54 Oct. 18 .197
135 Oct. 2 .197 375 Oct. 19 .164
151 Oct. 4 .181. 891 Oct. 20 .197
185 Oct. 7 .164 413 Oct. 21 19
206 Oct. 8 .181 431 4 Oct. 22 .181
214 Oct. 9 .185 447 0ct. 23 .156
238 Oct. 10 .230 474 Oct. 27 214
246 Oct. 11 .148
270 Oct. 12 .246 Means, .12
















N. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.






270 73.7 272 88.87
286 .........7

28 75.33 .......... .........
297 74.60 298 88. 94 ..... .......... .........



75 77. 57 79 84.89 384 2.91 85 66. 57
391 78.15 39 86.41 402 57.27 403 63.74
413 71.77 418 86. 73 422 56.94 423 63.06
461 76.36 ...... ................ .......... ...... .........
431 7615 454 87.71 ...... ......... ...... .........

Means 74 95 88.31 73 65.28

Table shoeing weight of t.elve press-akes.


No. Pounds. No. Pounds.


1 26 7 24
2 24 8 24
3 24 9. 24
4 24 10 23
5 25 11 24
6 25 12 24.5
Mean. 24.3

sMoisture in fiter-press cake.

N. Per nt Per cent
moisture. moisture.


278 45.24 369 45.98
293 45.61 388 44.54
305 47.06 411 48.88
324 45.63 424 44.11
342 45.71 446 45.39
349 52. 84 -
Mean. 46.45



In dry .ubst ance.]

i OrganicCarbonicInolle Iron and Mag- osphoric Sulhuri Man-
matter aid O. and silica. alumina. m nsa. acid Os. acid SO. ganese.


458 Per t P Per ? Per cf. L P Per et Per cf. Per cf. Per CL Per ? f.
4MO 19.14 29. 03 2.18 7.23 37. 17 1.32 1 2.05 65 Traces. 99.47
S........ 26.55 1.01 5.72 43.3 1 .71 .88 ...




671 4 .69 .81 ...... 99.72
658 1527 33.50 1.45 4.07 45.36 .46 .39 A5 ..... 101-25
4659 1790 32. 35 .6 1.5 44.5 69 1.14
475 u.s8 31.95 58 1 1.89 45.09 .56 .60 98 99.95
.......... ;f ra










JPANitrogen: W t iny "M "3
IrSucrose. Giscose. equiva- orio a



Per ct. Per t.
4650 ---.... .00 .83 ... . .. ......
S 4646 ...... 1.90 2.83. 4.65 A5.2
4648 ...... 2. 43 3.08 ........1 47.i 06

4649 ...... 2.41 5.02 5.70 45.
4660. .... .93 .83 1.08 52 .
4687...... .07 Trace. .90 45.98
4657 ...... 3.12 3.00 .1 44.5

4675...... 2.41 4.05 .33 .........


DISCUSSION OP THE DATA.

It is evident from the foregoing analyses of limestones that, with
exceptions, the quality of stone used was exceedingly poor. The im
tance of good stone is at once evident, since bad stone is liable to "h
up" in the furnace, give a poor quality of lime for
weak gas for the carbonatations.
The quality of the gas employed during the s on il
At first, by feeding too much coke with the limetone q
of carbonic oxide were produced. The carbonic dioxide formed at
bottom of the furnace was reduced to CO by the white-t ke a
After the laborers learned the proper manipulation of te k
ther trouble was experienced from this cause. The
always accompanied by a peculiarly unpleasant dor, and made the
borers about the carbonatation pans dizzy and ill. One i
from the effects of the gas on the day it contained the
of carbonic oxide.
The percentage of CO in the gas from time to ime urg
facturing season is shown by the following analyses:





2 Sept 29 13."00

5 Oct. 2 15.80 Noon.
6 Oct. 2 14.0 Night.
7 Oct. 3 21.0
8 Oct. 4 22. 4 Morning.
9 Oct. 4 20. Afternoon." ;';
11 Oct. 6 23.0
12 Oct. 9 22.5
13 Oct. 10 22.5
14 Oct. 11 23.0


It is seen that when the ten had learned the prper use of the furn
the percentage of CO was kept pretty consta y above 20. The







sis N. 15 was made a day after the fires in the furnaces had been
stopped. It showed that when internal combustion alone was practiced
heperentagef rapidly decreased. A gas containing from 20 to
25 pr cs well suited to carbonatation.
VOLUME OF GAS EMPLOYED.
The double-acting pump for supplying gas to the pans had the fol-
Inches.
Diameter of cylinder ...ee...... eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee17.5
Length of ..... .......... ...... .... .................................. 1.5
The mean rate of motion for the pump was 40 per minute; hence the
to atity of gas delivered per minute was 236 cubic feet.
Thei ome of C furnished per minute is obtained by multiplying
Sao umber by the mean percentage of CO0 in the gas, viz, 236
x .20 = 47.2 cbic feet.
In metri terms 47.2 cubic feet are equal to 1,336 liters.
Wit g of a good quality, say 25 per cent. CO2, a pump of the ca-
pacity described would easily furnish gas for working 200 tons of cane
per day.
DOUBLE CARBONATATION.
experiments were made to determine whether or not double
Scould be practiced with orgum juices.
I athat if from twto four tenths grams of lime per liter
S thejuice of the first arbonatation the filtration took place
more readily, and the juice was somewhat purer.
Scrbonatation some additional lime is added to the hot
jui the filter-presses, and the injection of CO continued until
is neutral Pans were put up and this method given a trial.
But w a sugar-juice as rich in glucose as tat afforded by sorghum,
r ris not applicable.
For convenience, and to note the effects of a heavy frost, the analytical
aa ati o the juices, &c., are given in two parts, viz, those obtaine
befe O ber 1 in the first part, and those after September 30 in the
second. It is believed that every analysis made has been recorded, since
umtances arising from the result of the experiments even
Swhih seem to have no value have been considered worthy of
fding a place.
MILL-JUICES.
Thesamples of cane expressed by the small mill were taken without
any purpose of illustrating any theory. The object in selecting them
was fair a dea as possible of the character of the cane enter.
ing the factory.t
A study of the tables reveals the most surprising variations in the
co o ition of the canes, varying from a quality otf high sugabr-produc-
ing value to one worthless for this purpose.
As has already been pointed out, the generally poor character of the








cane is due to much of it being overripe, especially in the case of th
Amber variety. But the chief trouble a e fm d y in
the cane due to defects in the machiery already pointe
cases, however, canes cut for two or three days, when kept, for e
ample, in the middle of a car-load, from changes of temperature, pr
served their sugar contents remarkably well. In
results of the rk emphasized the importance of
of the canes after they have been cut.
With such canes as are indicated by the analy o t millji
would be hopeless to expect to manufacture sy by
process whatever.
The amount of glucose per hundred of sucrose in the first series
analyses is 38.21; after September 30 it is 47.72.
DIRECT EXTRACTION OF THE CHIPS.
The determination of the sugars in the expres j of th
is not a satisfactory method of determining the sugar in the cane itsel
Did all canes contain the same percentage ofjuiceand the j
both that expressed and that remaining in the canes, of the same c
position, no other method of analysis would be nec Si nei
of these conditions obtain, however, in actual e rn, I ws l
try some other process. The one finally adopted is
the Bulletin de Association des Chimistes, and publis in Pa
vember 15, 1884.
Fresh sorghum-canes were cut into fine chips and r fo
in a closed bottle with water at the boiling temperatu
The analyses of the liquid obtained showed that the chips had t
following composition:

PPSucrose ii n o ..
Sucrose in ca;;, calcu u Glucose
direct es- composition din net calcu-
timation. ofthejuice, lated.
89 per cent.


2 t7.98 7.82 1.84 1.86
Mean of six analses.
t Mean of four anaysees.
It is seen by these analyses that the results obtained by the two met
ods agree very closely.
A large number of experiments has ao shown that equally
factory results are obtained with sugar-cane.
When, hover, in the case of sorghu, the canes ha
toeteriorate, and the sucose is ready artly invs
this method of analysis causes a considerable inversio. A similar i
version, although to fa ls extent, taks place the
After the close of the season a comparative study ws mde of
amount of this inversion, and the results of thse studies show clear








Sthetrouble is due to the aid of the canechieflytothoseformed
e partial fermentation which has produced the inversion of the
ar, or else the increased susceptibility of the surose remaining to
verg actin of t organic acids.
of t analyses are given under "analytical data."
DIREOT EsTIMATION OF SUGAR IN CHIPS.
The samples were taken as before described. Since only a small
ntity could be used in each analysis (50 grams, circa), single results
not st y mean indications of the content of the whole in sugar.
m however, will give a fair idea of the composition of the chips.
e extraction of the sugar was made in the following w :
he weighed sample of fresh chips (48.9 grans) is placed in a strong
action-flask and water added until the total volume (marked on neck
k) is 305 cubi centimeters. The five cubic centimeters in excess
00 is the allowance made for the fiber of the cane, which, for the
iy taen, amounts to five grams, and occupies a volume of about
bi centimeters. The bottle is then tightly stoppered and heated
an our, being frequenly shaken. The method is based
e s sitij1on that by this treatment complete diffusion has taken
e, that the free liquor and that in the pores of the pulp have
S mposition. The liquor is then filtered, 100 cubic centime-
e ting 16.3 grams of the original chips, treated with acetate
p to 110 cubic centimeters, and polarized. After adding
tenth he reading gives the percentage of sucrose present.
discussionf the errors attending this method of analysis will be
g further ao og.
ollowing are the numbers obtained by this method of analysis, and
the Provisional correction which has been adopted.
is method rests on the assumption that the liquor within and with-
the chi as the same constitution. This assumption is probably
rrect when he canes have deteriorated.
ubj d to a analytical test the following data were obtained:
S i Glune in

Sucrose in ro Glucosen in ju e
liquor. cJu'Ei liquor. chip

.l r .... ... .i..
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
2 5.77 6.10 4.19 4.48
3 4. s9 5.61 4. 55 4.44
4 7.1 8.19 2.87 2. 57
5 7.48 8.31 61 3.33
6 6. 55 6.55 4.09 4.04
7 5. 50 6.00 4.14 3.93
8 0.60 7.53 83.411 3.07
9 6.16 6.60 4.20 4.10
10 7.31 7.43 83. 28 3.29
11 6.71 8.65 3.65 ............
12 4.84 4.84 4.80 4.81
13 4. 62 4.950 4. 6W 4.72
14 5.17 5.39 4.00 3.93
6Mean 5. 75' 6,06 3.0* 3.387
P. rt of g ose per 10 croe in fre liquor, 994.
Pasrts of glucose per 14 0 sucrose in Jice fromi the chips, 5&6 0.








liquor equals 9.44 per cent. and in the juie expressed from hips from
same equals 9.43 per cent.
This method of extraction with sorghm chips i
the objection of inverting a portion of the surose when the canes are1
not fresh. It is seen that 4 per cent. of sucrose present has been changed
into reducing sugar. As the second of the anal
has taken place entirely without the cell, the composition of the jice
remaining in the cells being sensibly the same as that of the normal
juice of the cane.
These results are of extreme interest. They show most conclusively
that in the process of diffusion at a high temperature there is
inversion of thee surose when the canes are not in p r
Further than this, it is shown that this inversion
sugar in the free liquor and not in the sugar reaini
the cane. In nearly every case the free liquor was poore in os
richer in glucose than that in the pulp.
To correct the acidity in the battery, and thus av i
following methods were tried:
(1) The limed juice used in the carbonatation*tauks wa add to
cell of fresh chips little by little until enough was usd to
the acid. Two serious objections were found to this p (a) T
proper control of the quantity to be added was impossle The
would at times become strongly alkaline and highly c d; (
lime seemed to prevent the extraction of the sugar. The tl
of the diffusion juice under this treatment ran down 11
cent. to 4 per cent. This was due either to the coagulatd buin
matters preventing the osmotic action or to the formation of an insola-
ble lime sucrate, which remained in the chips. The met ther
had to be abandoned.
(2) Lime-water was added to the tank supplying the diffsion att
in such proportions as to furnish alkali enough to neay n lize
free acidi of each cell of chips. This ater entered te cenext
be emptied of exhausted cips. All the lime in swas at
filtered out, and that in solution was not sufficient to neutlize
acidity in the cells in advance.
(3) Addition of lime bisulphite. To test the efficey ofli bi
lphite in preventing inverion during extraction it to
water in the feedtank for the battery in qantities
gallon for each diffusion. It was also used in the
the results to follow.
(4) The addition of freshly precipitated carbonate of lime to the ex
traction bottle. This method was suggested by Prof. M. Swenson.
The analyses show that the acidity was diminished by t
the inversion of the sucrose largely prevented by the tratment. If a
few pounds of such a carbonate could be evenly distributed in the









itappear reasonable to suppose that this inversion would not


Analytical data obtained in above experiment8s.


Exhausted
Sucrose. Glacose. chips, total
sugars.

Per cent. er ceint. Per cent.
Diffion jice with lime in cells of fresh chips. 2.33 2.08 2.58
Sy of sae day of diffusion juice
h hips used s e day:
Ordinary method .................. 6.65 3.93 ..............
Expressed juice from above .................. 6.65 3.87.............
With alkaline extractio NaO ...............-... 6.71 3.65 .............
prsse juice f sa .................. 6. lost ..............
ce from fresh chipssame day............. 8.82 3.48..............

Per cent.
Th d.iffion juice from diffusion before treatment had of total sugars.......................... 7.63
austed chia .-.-------- ---------.----- ---------------------------------------- 51

he sion juice from chips treated with lime:
tal sugars ........................................................................ ............ 4.41

Totalsuga------................................................................................ 6.99------
Sit appears that by the coagulated abumen occluding the
f the cells there was a loss of about 2 per cent. of sugar and in
di a small loss due to the formation of a lime sucrate.
I e exraction bottle, when the alkalinity was produced by lime
sted of da, this loss of sugar did not appear. The lime, however,
s the percentage of glucose in a marked degree. This is show
th i following analyses:

Sucrose. Glucose.

Per cent. Per cent.
Extractd with water................. 5. 77 4.19
Juice from the chips.............. 6. 10 4. 48
Extracted with lime ater ........... 55 .76
Juice from the chips ........... .. G not determined.
Diffusion.juice ilade by adding lime to
ply tank of battry:
............................. 3.95 3.37
Second .. ..... 4.41 3.31
Third. Ditfiisionjuive bith hi-suilphito
aded to supply taink half gallon for
each cell ................ 3.91 3.43
Using bi-sulphitei extractio flask
the follgow o data were obtained:
Mll juice frlom feh chips ...... 6.17 4.18
Ordinary extraction ...... ... 4. 89 4.55

bi-sulphlite toeach otle ....... 4. 4 4.86
Juice pr sd fromchips ofabove. 4. 4.81


First coparison. Second comparson.

Sucrose. luose. Surose. Glucose.

Fer cent. Per cent.
With alklli ........ 6.60 3.41 7.31 4.23









the sucrose. Another trial with better chips gave the following re-
sults:




Streated in wthe usual way .......... 6.65 3.93
eated after addition of 20 cc., one-
tenth alkali.................. -....... 6.
(In this case the inversion was only
1 per cent.)




(Showig an app t of
..Meanse............... 5.11 5.33






* ,. '* w '.----------------;ii
10 per cent.)

3 per cent.)

Taking all the data into consideration, it appears to be r to
that the inversion dring the extraction in the flask w ot more than
5 per cent. of the sucrose present, while during the first of the season
it was doubtless much less. A strong corroboration of the justice of
this allowance is fo d in the fact that the prity of the chipanalyed
up to October 1, with the correction noted, is nearly exactly the same
as that of the mill juices.
In the diffusion battery, where the temperature was kept at about
700 C., the inversion was not so great.
In any case, however, these analyses can only be accepted provis-
imonally. The reliable analyses 'are those of the mill and diffusionjices.
Since the results for the chips, however, agree so closely with those
known to be correct, they can be accepted for all practical purpos
Since the extraction in a flask does not afford a direct method of de-
termining the total soluble solids in the chips, this must be done by a
culation.
For this purpose the same ratio between glucose and other sub-
stances not sugar in solution is taken as that existing in the corre-
sponding mill juices.
Applying this principle, we find that up to October 1 the following
data are accessible.

Glucose in inill juices....... ...... ...... .... ..... ........... ...... .. 4.01
Solids not sugar in mill juices ....................................... ...... 3.06

Ratio, I glucose to .76.
Glucose in chips ............................................................ 3.32
Not sugars calculated ........................ ............................... 2.52
Sucrose........................ ........................................... 8.85,

Total solids in chipse n *s wveve***g 1469








After September 30 the numbersare as follows:
Per cent
Glcose in mi juices ...........-----....................-.--......- -... .......- 4.15
t sugars in mill juices ..................................................... 3.75

Ratiol glucose to .90 not sugars.
lose chips .... 4. 15
Ssugars in chips (calated) .......... ...... ...... ...... ...... .... ...... 3.74
Sucrose--- ---- ---- -...-.. .a s.. ---- ......---- ----- ---- ----- ---- ----- ----. 7.01

Total solids --------------------------------------------..----- a ....- 14.90

ity of chips before October 1............................................. 60.
SSepteber 30 ..... ........ ....... .. 47. 1
BAMPLES OF CHIPS--CORRECTED NTMBERS.

Afll discussion of the data obtained by the analyses of the chips
ering the battery has already been given.
Per hundred parts of sucrose the glucose was as follows:
Per cent.
Before October 1...................................................... ...... 37.52
r September 30 ......................................................... 59. 18
Scomparison of these ratios with those of the mill juices affords a con-



he ana e, therefore, of the mill juices after September 30 give the
Sfi i of the character of the cane worked up to October 15.
ter that date the analyses of the juice of the chips pressed out by the
i tal mill gives the best results possible. Sapled as the chips
re, by taking an equal portion from each cell and mixing these sub-
ples from ten cells together, the juice expressed therefrom is a fair
resentation ofthe character of the chips entering the battery.

JUIC FROM CH1PS PASSED THROUG( EXPERIMENTAL MILL.

lyses of the jices it is seen tht the chips entering the
tery from October 15 to the close of the season contained:
Per cvut.
Sucrose ases,, ---ea----- e- aa-- -- - -- - -- - ., ----- ----.. a .. ...-- -a- - 6. 4H
ucose --......------............. -.......... -......................... 3.31
cose per hun re o su ro .... .......... .... ............... ............ 51.
eaving out of the computation the analyses of the chips in closed
tles, the following mean character of the cane for the entire season


Total solids. Sucrose. Ghucose.

,,,,Per cent. Per a t. Perceat.:
I Before October ........ 15. 9.34 3. 57
Afteir Se ptekmber 30 '...... 14.L77 7. 74 i. 79
After October 1 .......... 13.1.7 .48 3.31
M ean .............. 14.56. 7.85 3.52

Mean purity, 53.9; mean glucose per bnlred werwon, 43.84.
Mt.i 38 pou pU too,
';+++)+ '""'+ + ++ J + + +++L + + .. .
)++ +))( +++++++++++ + + ++++ . .. . . + .. .
)) ))) ))++) ))))++))+ )+)+ )+ + + +/ ++ +))+ /+ +++++ ij++))L ++++++ + +j+ + ++) ++++ ++ ++







It will be interesting to compare these numbers wit those obti
at agnolia Station, La., in 1885 and recorded in B in 11
11,12.

Total solids in cane ............ .... ...,. ........... ............... 14.
Total sucrose in cane ........ ..... ................... o
otal g ose in ca ......-......................... .......... .
ean purity ..................................................... .......... 76.
Mean glucose per 100 sucrose ................................................ 8.
Available ugar alculated as before, viz, 7.58 per cent.151. ponds per ton.
It thus clearly appears from a careful study of the analytical da
that the sorghum canes entering the battery at Fort
unfit for sugar-making. Those who are disposend fault with t
experiments because more sugar was not made would well t
sider these facts.
No known process, save an act of creation, couldde
successfully out of such material.
If nothing better than this can be obtained, then it is time o la
the belief in an indigenous sorghum-sugar industry a delsion. Thi
subject will be mentioned again in the summary.
A general review of the data connected with this interesting pro
shows that with fresh chips of fine quality, the natural acidity is a
ble of producing no appreciable inversion during t in an e
traction flask or while under ressure in the battery. Wi the
rioration of the cane, however, and consequent increasing acidity
inversion becomes very great. In other words, the natural acids o
cane, such as malic and aconitic, are incapable of producig
ciable inversion; but the accidental acid (acetic) which
terioration may cuse an inversion of the sucrose n a
degree. The most practical method of avoiding this danger appea
to me to be a mechanical.contrivance which will sprinkle e ly ove
the entering chips 2 or 3 pounds of fine slaked lime or doubl
quantity of fine calcium carbonate to each cell of chips.
As has already been noted, every other attempt to neutralize th
dangerous acids of the cane in a practical way has f .

DIFFUSION JUICES.

The ratio of glucose to sucrose (per hundred) in the
was as follows:

Before October 1 ............................................................ 39.
After Septe ibeir -30 ......................................................... 68.1
These results show that before frost the inversion of the sucrose i

This fact is also empasized othe, viz, that
bttery of 14 used, but that aftrward, al
1 eec nInid~~vr 4 ~~ I~~~ili







et employed. Thus iibefore frost the chips in the battery were longer
der pressure than afterwards, and I may add that the temperature
as also higher. These facts corroborate the state ment already made
Se the process of inversion has commenced it goes easily
d r y forward under the combined influence of time and an ele-
ated temperature. Before such deterioration begins a temperature of
000, can be maintained for an hour without notable injury.
A f fact which is illustrated by the analyses of the diffusion
es f uninjured canes is that the diminished purity is produced
l the extraction of gum and chlorophyll, chiefly from the blades
ea ,and that this iinjur can be avoided by a proper cleaning of
tne canes.
ith clean canes and those in which the sucrose is still uninjured no
lkline substance will have to be used in the battery. When, how-
deteriorated canesare used,some such application will be neces-
r to sve the sucrose from further inversion. As has already been
ointd o, finely powdered lime or calcium carbonate evenly distrib-
er the chips offers the simplest solution of the difficulty.

CARBONATATED JUICES.

Sofglucose to sucrose (per hundred) was as follows:
Per cent.

fter Septe...... ............... ..... ....... ......... 57.40
In bot s we find a marked decrease in the quantity of glucose.
his produces a corresponding increase, usually reckoned at twice the
tity of glucose destroyed, in the rendement of crstallized sugar.
If hes ulting molasses could be preserved--ad this can be done, as
ie ted out later-this increase in yield could be used without
ous effect whatever. The analytial dataconfirm the opinio
r expressed, and agree with the experience of sugar-makers
hever the process has been tried, that the process of carbonatation
ves a larger yield of crystallizable sugar than can be obtained by any
ther known method of defecation.
SULPHURED JUICES.
paring again the glucose per hundred of sucrose, the following
ata are obtained:
Per cnt.
fore October .......................... ... ................ ...... ........
fterSepte ber 30...................... ........................ ........... 36.
In the rst art of the seson the treatment with sulphurous acid
sa very sligt iersion of the sucros. This wa mplished by
ent of the ice with e id, in the hope thata lihter-
olored irup might be produced.
In the second half of the season no inversion took place from tbis
e. As I will point out further ong,thetreatment of tl Juie t
11330- No. 14 .









acid.



WASTE WATERS AND EXHAUSTED CHIP.

The amount of waste water was very small, compressed air having
been unifomily used to drive te water from th eto
charged.
In the estimation of the sugar the sucrose was t inverted
whole sugar estimated as glucose. Te mean r t f t r
in the waste waters after September 30 was.. per Since
mean glucose per hundred of sucrose for the season wanearly
respective quantities of sucrose and glucose were as fo

sucrose----------------------------------------------.................. .... 1S
Glucose................................ ......... .............. .. ............ .. .4 0
In the exhausted chips before October 1, by the same method of a
culation, there was of-
Per cent,
lg18ucro~---------------------------,4*,,,1,,. -~--l,- *l,q~. g~~~ ,,,,4,.,i S~:iii;
Glucose--O-. ----- --.......- .-... ----. -...- ..-.. .-.-...... .. s ....,,,, .16
Glucose........ ............................................................. 08!
After September 30 the numbers are as follows:
Per cent.
Sucrose....... ........... ... ......... .... .i3
lucose ...... ................ ......
This increase in the sugar left in the chips was due to cutting
large portion of the battery, especially during the first wek n Octobe
At this time often only six cells were under pressure, but the resul
seen in the large quantities of total sugar left in the chips, aoun
in one instance to 1.52 per cent.
After the 6th of October nine or ten cells were kept nd pr
and the content of sugar left in the chips was corrpningly d
ished.
Sorghum, however, lends itself to diffusion more readily than any
other sugar-producing plant, and a battery of ten properly ma
aged would give good results as far as extraction is concerned.

PRESS CAKES.

The mean weight of the press cakes was 24.3 pound. The
content of moisture was 46.45 per cent.
Since considerable time elapsed from the time of sending the cakes
from Fort Scott until they were analyzed at Washington, a consider
le inversion of the surose took place.
The mean total sugar in t twelve prescak
er cen t.











se ............ ...... ...... ...... ...... .......... ........................ 2.97
G lu cose .---- ------------------------------ ---------------------- ------------- 1. 45


Suisia eperients, to be later desribed, only a trace of sugar
was left in them.
e at the composition of the cake will show its value as a fer-

Squantity of lime used was nearly per cent. of the weight of


*RESULTS OF WORK.

weight of chips in the cells was 1,00 pounds.
From the beginning of the first attempts to run the machinery (Sp-
ber 13) until it was found possible to save the product (September
499 iffsionsawere made, amounting to 948,100 pounds. After be-
e the product (September 29) until suspension of work
S1,45 diffsions were made, amounting to 3,5,500 pounds.
e total weight of cane, seed, and blades received from. the field after
ptember 19 was 3,120 tons.
t of chips diffsed was 2,322 tons. The weight of seed,
blades, and cleanings (by difference) was 798 tons.
Followi is the number of cells of chips used each day after Sep-
1 Before that date no separate daily account as kept:


cells cut. cells cut. c s C Iut.

Sept. 20 30 Oct. 2 69 Oct. 14 80
21 59 3 56 15 75
22 44 4 79 I16 100
23 67 5 55 17 85
24 89 6 53 18 55
25 63 7 66 19 53
26 66 8 59 20 91
27 41 9 70 21 102
20 33 10 79 22 106
29 75 11 92 23 99
30 f 12 85 26 412
Oct. 1 67 13 66
Total. ............................................ 2,419



appears fro the above figures that the seed tops, blades, andsheaths
the cane will amount to early 30 per cent. of the entire weight. It
st also be remembered that much of the blades, sheaths, ., was not
oved by the very imperct cleaning apparatus employed, and this
eioht is included in that of' the iaclean chips."











Weight of see top ...................................... ...... do 21,875
Weight of leanings ...... ........................do.... 7,580
Weight clean cane chips ........................ ................. do. 89,0
Weight of each cell full of clean chips ............................ ... -- 1,8
Seedheads to total weight of cane ...........................per cent 18.47

Clean chips on total weight of cane................................ do.... 75.13
Cleanigs ot weight of cane -....

The cane used in the above experiment was tripped in the
The cleanings comprised the blades not removed and s ths,
blown out by the fanning-machine. Much of these impurities was
removed. The sugar obtained was of a fair marketable kind and found
a ready sale. The molasses was of a dark color and a poor quality
The weight of masse-caite was determined on aportio of the product
by Mr. Swenson. He placed it at a mean of 12 per cent. of the weiglit
of the chips entering the battery. The weight of ielada obtained from
the 2,322 tons was, therefore, 557,280 pounds, or 4,440 g ons.
At the present writing (November 15) all of the sugar has not been
swung out, but the product will be about fifty thousand pounds. This
is indeed a discouraging yield and qiite in contrast with the phenomenal
quantity obtained from sugar-cane from Louisiana, to be mentioned
further along. If a proper crystallizing room had been provided by the
company the yield of sugar would have been much larger. On Novem-
ber 2 the different parts of the crystallizing room were found to be of
the following temperatures:

Northeast corner -...... ..........-....... .... .............. ............. 4
North center ............ .................................................. 4
Three feet above floor, under north steam-drum .............................. 72
Nortlh west corner .......... ........................ ....................... 75
In upper layer of sirup in wagon, under south steam drum ................... 105.8
Bottom of same wagon .... .................. ................ ........... 77
South center ........................ .. ................... ............... 79
Southwest corner, over office ....................................... ..... .... 79
Between steam-drums ................................................... .... 80.1
Temperature of air outside in shade ..............................--- ....--......4
At su1c a low temperatre a masse-cuite poorin s e and boile to
string proof cannot crystallize to advant.ge.
Before beginning the experiments with sugar-cane~ about to be de~-
cribed I obtained permission of the company to provide a s a
room. With such material and with sch unfavorable conditis
crystallization the yield of over 20 pounds of sugar per ton is a convine-
ing proof of the efficiency ofthe process employed.
DISPOSITION OF T1HE EHAUSTED CH1PS.
The problem of the diosio of t x usted chips
1mporta$cv, By thei filre of th jry wi w designed to








e the chips to a considerable distace from the building, the chips
ad tbetaken away by scrapers When it is remembered that these
hips have slightly increased in weight in passing through the battery
e great xpense of this proceeding is at once apparent.
The erentage of water in the discharged chips was found to be as
follows:

INumber. Per Number. Per




5............................ 88. 62 10 .......................... 88.8,
Mean ................ .097

ince the mean of former experiments shows that sorghum contains
bout11per cent fiber and matters insoluble in water, the composition
f the waste chips as indicated by the above determination is:
iPer cent.

er substances ....................------------------------- ..................-------..............

Total------............-......................---------------......................--------------------------.... 100.00

After passing the waste chips through the mill they had the follow-
ig per cent. of water:


t eiiii3 63.06
Number. Per cent.






S7 per cent. extraction the bagasse therefore contains one part
S to two of water. By a shor preliminary drying this bagae
ould readily burn. At any rate it presses so readily, requiring so lit-
tle power, that in my opinion, it would be a matter of econominy to pass
rough a tree-roll mill.
The percentage of extraction obtained with the spent chips in small
ipe'imental mill will be seen by the following niumbers:
The first colun represents the per cents. calculated from weighing
Sbagasse and the second from weighing the expressed water:

Number. Froi hagawse. From water.

er rent, Per cent.
2......... 108.31
141 4.10 04.35


:1.t 71,0.o v 17









Sinceyl ait 'i s difficul to ac rely collect (*and weigh tea fine sbagea
-which the spent chips afford, the mean of the second column will b
found to represent more accurately the real extraction. It is certain
that with a good three-roll mill each 100 pounds of the spent chips a
be reduced to 30 pounds, one-third of which is combustible materia
Even if no attempt is made to use the bag as a
to be recommended on the score of econo y. There appear to
difficulty whatever in passing the chi through a
their soft and pulpy state renders the pressure exceedingly easy.
Further reference to this point will be made in that part of the rep
devoted to sugar-cane.


THE CHARACTER OF THE CANE USED SEPTEMBER 27 TO OCTOBER 6
INCLUSIVE.


made of the cane worked during the time above
used subsequently.

MILL JUICES.

The mill juices analyzed during this time had the fo
tion:


tion. gra ity..
t ion r Solid. Sucr lu co s


Per cent. Per cent. Per cent Per cent
10% Sept. 28 53.00 1.0726 17.6 12.40 1.90 Cane from carrier.
112 Sept.29 51.51 1. 0684 16.6 10.41 4.08 Do.
119 ept.30 56 10 1.0764 17.8 12.39 3.76 Do.
126 Oct. 1 61.76 1.06:14 15.5 8.37 4.95 Do. (stripped).
131 Oct 2 ... 1.0842 20.2 14.50 1.77 Cane from arrier.
138 Oct. 3 54. 54 1.866 0.7 1437 2.16 Cane
mond.
147 Oct. 4 51.72 1. 0680 16.6 10.50 2.60 Cane, amber, from carrier.
150 Oct. 4 51.35 1.0740 17.9 12.39 1.92 Cane, orange, from carier.
159 Oct. 5 51.35 1. 0710 17.2 10.65 3.27 C
169 Oct. 5 56.00 1.0818 19.7 13.20 2.37 Cae amber, n cars from Ha
170 Oct. 5 57.70 1.0778 18.8 9.95 4.88 Cane, orange on carrom Ha
Mean... 54.50 .......... 18.l 11.74 3. 06

No analyses were made on September 27 nor October 6.
Mean purity of juice during time mentioned.............................. .... ............ .... 64.8
"Mean purity of juice after Octob r ......................................................... .. 49.
Mean gcose per ndr cro during time mentioned ..................
Mean glcose per hundred sucrose after October 6 .................... ...................... 54.

Total solds 16.2 pe cent.; sucrose 8.05 er cent.; glucose 441 er cent.









.l~li;Riss;;iiiii ;ii i ;I ll ^Ni,, W in f m 1 H i o i" f C '
iiiiBi"M ~ i IO d i :J ,: w j i. B i ;a . ....
4 .iL i isJ w n ice8.




Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
108 Sept. 28 9.79 5. 88 1.67
114 Sept. 29 12.4 6.76 2.09
118 Sent. 29 12.0 6.37 2.65
123 Sept. 30 14. 7.22 4. 18
152 Oct. 2 13.7 7.01 3.32
133 Oct. 2 1l.9 7.i 3.10
13 Oct. 2 13. 2 7. 18 2.75
130 Oct. 3 12.9 5.789 3. 96
140 Oct. 3 12. 7 6.51 3.65
141 Oct. 3 12. 9 6. 47 3.5 2
149 Oct. 4 9. 8 4. So 2. 38
152 Oct. 4 9. 6 4. 71 2. 47
155 Oct. 4 11.5 5.42 3.28



Mean........... 12.4 6.04 3.15

) an Purity of juice dming time mentioned ................................................... 48.7

ean gleeper iundred sucrose during time mentioned ............. 2.13
Mean glnoose per hundred sucrose after October 7 ............................................... 77.77

The meanpurity of the mill juices during the interval named was 64.8
dffsion juices 48.7, a loss of 16.1 points
During the rest of the season the mean purity of the mill juices was
of the dision juices 40.0, a ls of only 9.7 points.
per hundred of suro, during interval noted, in the
was 26.07. In the diffusion juices it was .13, an increase
f 26.06 points. During the rest of the season the glucose per hundred
f rose in the mill juices wa s54.68; in the diffusion juices 77.77; an
eof 23.09 points.
The most Striking point about these comparisons during the interval
amed is the enormous difference between the mill juices and those of
In no other part of the season does the deterioration of the
i n the battery show itself to such anlarming extent.
There is only one explanation of this which appears satisfactory, and
at is the fact that during this time the temperature of all the cells
ure except the two central ones was kept within the limits
The cane during this period,as a glance at the analyses
l w, was by far the bet worked during the entire season. The
nalyses of the chips made during this time shows the following mean



Uncorrectted. Currect d

Per cent. er cent.
............. ....... 1 8.8

"Corr rect X glueoF per h~undred of aise, 'er7. 65.

STotal solide, 10.9 per cent, :uciose, 4. 36 per cut. gl aucose, 3. 44 1wr cent.








was great.
Judged by the same standards, there was at no other time during the
season so great an inversion of sucrose in the battery as during this
period of few cells and low temperatures. Nevertheless the character
of the cane was so good that the yield of sugar was
ever, the cane been worked without the inversion spoken of, the yield
of sugar would have been twice as large. During the same period the
percentage of total sugars left in the exhausted
before this time it had only been .17.
It is therefore seen from the data given that the attempt to work the
battery with few cells and at a low temperature inthe
left in the chips more than one-half, a a gre r in
the sucrose than was experienced at any other time during the entire
season.
I call especial attention to these facts, because during th pi
mentioned I was absent from Fort Scott. On my retun I o d
battery to be worked with nine or ten cells under pressre and
uniform temperature of 70 C. This I believe to be
operating a diffhsion battery fot sorghum, at least until sme m i
invented of distributing over the chips some substance which will neu-
tralize the acids of the cane and thus entirely prevent inversion. T
methods by which I attempted to accomplish this desirale result
already been described.
A further fact, which is illustrated by the analyses of the diffu
juices from uninjured canes, is that the diminished purity is p
solely by the extraction of gum and chlorophyll chiefly fm the blad
and shths, and that this injury can be avoided by a proper cleaning
of the canes.
ith clean canes and those in which the sucrose is still uninjurd
alkaline substance will have to be used in the batte. When, how
ever, deteriorated canes are used some such application be
to save the sucrose from further inversion. As hasarea bee poi nt
out, finely powdered lime or calcium carbonate evenly distributed over
the chips offer the simplest solution of the difficulty.

MODIFICATION OF THE PROCESS OF CARBONATATIO0
In order to avoid the discoloration of the sirup, which s the chief
jection to carbonatation, the following modification of th process was
adopted:
The jlice used was obtained from sugar-cane sent from Fort Scott
Washington, and the experiments were made after my return froK

To the cane-juice was added 1 per cent. of its weight o
lime, and the carbonatation was continued until the juice was almost
neutral. After raising to the oiling point to dec






t the jice was iltered, and then enough posphoric acid added to
precipitate the lime remaining in solution.
S e a slight excess of the acid will redissolve the precipitate and
form acid phosphate, sodium phosphate was substituted for the phos-


this process. After the precipitation was complete the juice was again
boiled and filtered. It was then bleached with sulphurous acid and
evaporated to 400 B.
In every instance the irup made in this way was very light in color,
Stransparent, and of the inesC flavor. So pure was it, indeed,
t it was found unnecessary to use any acetate of lead or any other
ig material to prepare thin sirup for polarization. The quantity
of pho ate of soda required to precipitate the lime in 5 liters of juice
( unds) was 100 cubic centimeters of a 10 per cent. solution. There-
fe grams f the sodium phosphate are sufficient for 5,000 grams of
uic. About 4 pounds of sodium phosphate or 3 pounds of phosphoric
acid wod be sufficient for working a ton of cane.
The whole cost of treating cane juices with phosphoric acid or sodium
phosphateill not be over 15 cents per ton of cane. The phosphoric
Swever, is not lost. It will reappear in the press cakes, having
ny haf its value. Hence the actual cost of using this method of
remo gthe lime not probably over halfof the estimate given above.
I e every effort to get phosphoric acid at Fort Scott, but could
not ceed in time.


GENERAL CONCLUSIONS.
n a geral review of the work, the most important point suggested
is the olute failure of the experiments to demonstrate the commer-
Sp ticability of manufacturing sorghum sugar. The causes of this
Shave been pointed out in the preceding pages, and it will only

(1 Defective machinery for cutting the canes and for elevating and
leang the chips and for removing the exhausted chips.
(2) Te deterioration of the cane due to much of it becoming over.
ripe, but chiefly to the ct that much time would generally elapse after
the can were cut before they reached the diffusion battery. The
heay fot which came the 1st of October also injured the cane some-
at, bt not until ten days or two weeks after it occurred.
She teriorted cane caused a considerable inversion of the su-
rose in the battey, a inversion which was increased by the delay In
ig cps, thus causing the chips in the battery to rmain ex-
posed under pressure fora much longer time than was necessary. The
meantie required for diffusing one cell was twenty-one minutes, tlre.
times as long ls it should hav(e. beeln.

A ) ) ) )) 'j) )))))).) ,j,~







(4) The process of carbonatation, as employed, secured a maxi'm
yield ofsugar, but failedto ake a molasses which was marketa
This trouble arose from the small quantity of lime remaning in thef
tered juices, causing a blackening of the irup on con tration, a
the failure of the cleaning apparaus oer
diffusion.
A modification of the process which will prevent this trouble has
ready been explained; but, although an earnest attempt was made
introduce this method, it was found impossible to accomplish it befo
the end of the season.
I doubt whether any other industry has ever been the object of
much misrepresentation as this one.
In the preceding report I hae endeavored to lay -
facts oted in the recent experiments. If I have not in
correctly, I have, at least, given the data for a co
I should, indeed, be glad to leave this industry in a more promi
condition. All admit that the process of diffu n has bn

that a proper mechanical method for distributing over the chips a s
stance to prevent inversion of the sucrose has not yet been discover
Honest differences of opinion still exist in res t t
of treating the diffusion juices, but it has been s n at R
that the diffausion juice from clean cane can be worked without any
rification whatever.
Whether this purification is to be accomplished by carbonatation,
tering with brown coal, or in some other way, can easily be decid
without menacing the future of the sorghum industry.
The problem of successfully cutting and cleaning t
appear to me to be incapable of solution. I should h been
the first thing, without leaving it for the last.
Last of all, the chief thing to be accomplished is the productio o
surghum plant containing a reasonably constant percentage of cryst
lizable sugar.
I cannot emphasize this point better than by quoting from some
my previous reports. In Bulletin No. 3,pp. 107-108, the following wo
are found:
IMPROVEMENT BY SEED SELECTION.
I am fully convinced that the Government should undertakethe experiments *h
have in view the ncrease of e ratio of sucrose to the other
These experiments, to be valuable, must continue under proper scientific direction
a number of years The cost will be so great that a private citizen will hardly
willing to undertake the expense.
The history of the inmprovement in the sugar-beet should be suffient to encour
all similar efforts with sorghum.
The original forage beet, from which the sugar-beet has been
only 5 or 6 per cent. of sucrose. The sugar-beet will now a








It seems to me that a few years of areful selection may ecie similar in-

a g step toward the solution of the problem to sere a sorghum that
average, field with field, 12pr cen. sucrose and only 2 per cent. of other sugars,
cane the great difficulty would be to make sirup and not sugar. Those
arindividuals of each variety of cane which show the best analytical re-
be carefully selected for seed, and this selection continued until acciden-
Svariations become hereditary qualities in harmony with the well-known principles
descent.
experiments in selection could be made in different parts of the country, and
ly by various agricultural stations and colleges, they would have addi-
Svue and force. In a country whose soil and climate are as diversified as in
ht tined in one locality are not always reliable for another.
unitof action could in this way be established among those engaged in
grl research, much time and labor would be saved and more valuable results

IBuletin No. 5, pp. 185-6-7, are found the following conclusions:
A ic f study of the foregoing data will not fil to convince every candid investi-
ar tt te manufacture of sugar from sorghum has not yet proved financially suc-

The men who have put their money in these enterprises seem likely to lose it, and
nvestors will carefully consider the facts herein set forth before making
inal n nts. The expectations of the earlier advocates of the industry have
m and the predictions of enthsiastic prophets have not been verified. It
ou wise and unjust to conceal the facts that the future of the sorghum-sugar
ndustry is somewhat doubtful. The unsatisfactory condition is due to many causes.
place, the diiculties inherent in the plant itself have been constantly
The success of the industry has been based on the belief of the pro-
uction of sorghum with high percentages of sucrose and small amount of reducing
gar and other impurities.
But the universal experience of practical manufacturers shows that the average
ontitutio of the sorgum-cane is far inferior to that just indicated. Taking the
nean of severs ns as a sure basis of computation, it can now be said that the
icsfsgum as they come from the mill do not contain over 10 per cent. of su-
while the percentage of other solids in solution is at least 4.
It is needless to say to a practical sugar-maker that the working of such a juice is
e oftreme difficulty, and the output of sugar necessarily small.
/The woking of sorghum juices will be found as difficult as those of beets, and trne
cessaot be hoped for until the pr s used for the one are as complete and
ietifi as for the other. It is not meant by this that the processes and machinery
are to be identical.

e differ in many respects. And this leads to the consideration of the third difi-
ly, viz, the ch icl treatment of sorghum juice. It has taken nearly three-quar-
of a century to develop the hemistry of the beet-sugar process, and even now
in this direction is great. The chemistry of the sorhu-sugar procve
yyet a science. It is only an imitation of what has been done in other
elds of work. Sorglhum will have to develop a chemistry of its own. This will not

study of climate and soil, joined with experience, will gradually locat
hose areas most favorable to the growth of thi plant and its manufactre.
This is an all-important point in the problem, and i now occupying seriouly the
ttention of the thoughtfl advocates of the sorghum-sugar industry. One thing is
rey clear, i. e., that the area of succ ful sorghum culture is not nearly so ex.
teaive as it was thought to be a few year ago. I would urge a fui ther investign-







tion n this direction as work peculary within the province of Department,
and one which would prove of immense benefit to the country. Fve million acres of
and, suitable to the purpose, will produce all the sugar required for this country for
several years to come. It is therefore certain that the sugar indtry will be con-
fined to the most favorable localities. If a thorough, scientifi udy of all the soil
and climatic conditions does not point out this region, bitter experience and th loss
of hiundreds of millions of dollars will graduallyx its bodres Lst of all, the
sorghum industry has suffered from the general depression which has been felt by
the sugar industry of the entire world. Low prices have caused loswhere every
other condition has been favorable. It is hardly probable that the price of sugar will
rise again to its maximum of the years passed. Only war, pestilence, or disaster
would produce this effect. It is best, therefore, for the sugar-grower to accept the
present price as final and make his arrangements accordingly. But low prices will
produce increased consumption, and thus, even with a smaller prot, the gar-grower,
by increased production, may find his business reasonably remunerative, if not a en-
riching as before. The sorghum-sugar grower will be injred or beneed with the
growers of other kinds of sugar by these economic forces. Hence there
enmity between the grower of the sorghum, the sugar-beet, and the gr-ce, but
all should work in harmony for the general good.
It is true the present outlook is discouraging. But discouragement is not defeat.
The time has now come for solid, energetic work. Science and practice must join
improved agriculture, and all together can accomplish wat neither alone would ever
be able to achieve. It is not wise to promise too much, but this Bureau would fall
short of its duty were it either to suppress the discouraging reports of this industry
or fail to recognize the possibility of its success. The future depends on the persist-
ence and wisdom of the advocates of sorghum. The problem they have to solve is a
most difficult one, but its solution is not impossible.
It must be confessed finally that the chief object of this last series of
experiments, viz, to place the industry where private capital would see
its way clear to its extension over a large area has not been attained.
It is now seen that much of what has been done is useless, and were
the work to be gone over again these necessary mistakes of a t at-
tempt would be avoided. Time, labor, and money could be saved.
What encouragement is just is offered to those who are willig to
take up this work here and extend it.
The great difficulties in the way of extracting the sugar from the ca
have been removed. The fact that sorghum, in certain circumstaces,
becomes a fine-sugar producing plant has been incontestably eslab
lished. A suitable soil and climate have been found for growing the
crop and manufacturing the sugar. Remaiuing difficulties in the way
of success have been fairly and candidly pointed out.
Since the present appropriation was made for continuing ad& con-
cluding these experiments, I consider that my connection with the de-
velopment of the industry has ended. I leave the w with only o
regret, and that is that the future of the sorghum-sugar industry is still
in doubt.












EXPERIMENTS WITH SUGAR-CANE.



Sof October I received instructions fom you to purchase a
Stons of sugar-cane in Louisiana and make some experiments with

agers of the Daily City Item' newspaper of New Orleans,
S ed of your intention, made arrangements with the Texas
oad to transport this cane from Louisiana to Fort Scott for
per ton T general freight aget of the Mississippi Valley Rail-
d offered to deliver the cane on the same terms.
requested Hon. Edward J. Gay to purchase the cane, which he
dly consented to do.
S was ct early in the season, viz October 25 to 30, and was
Skly as possible the factory.

PRELIMINARY TRIAL.

vember 2, three car-loads of cane having arrived, a preliminary

he weight of cane used in this trial was 63.75 tons.

CUTTING-MACHINE.

he tters which worked so poorly with sorghum did well with sugar
no trouble whatever was experienced in producing chips suita-
on and at the rate of six tons per hour.

CHIP ELEVATOR.

h trouble was experienced with the elevator that we hd had
ontend with so long with sorghum, and to an increased extent. The
heavier than sorghum, easily overweighted the elevator and
sed. it to clog. Considerable delay was caused by these annoyances.

THE DIFFUSION.
t was found at once that the temperature used for the diffusion of

gar from sugar-cane.
was grto o centigrade before a st
tory extraction was obtained. The chips ling closer together in
ell caused the circulatio of the liquid te battery to take plac
*-I









more slowly. It was clearly evident that the pressure affoded
feed-tank of the ibatte vi, two-thiirds of an atmosp e, is "'

enough to work a battery rapidly when twelve cells are under p
~<* iii



ANALYSES OF THE CANES WORKED.

Samples of chips were taken from each cell until twelve we
These samples were then passed through a small mill and the j
tained subjected to analysis.
The juices thus obtained had the following co

oa prose. Gloe.. .



First sample .... 14.6 10.52 2. 22





Second sam off 13.3 10.10 1.79
hird saele o14.6 10. 89







The number of cells filled with chips was 60; the eight of
of chips was 2,125 pounds; weight of juice drawn off rom each
2,280 pounds, or 163 pounds more thn the weit o

ANALYSES OF DIFFUSION JUICE.
The samples were taken from each charge of juice drw.
twelve were taken the mixture was analyzed

Total
urose. lucose.


Percent. Per cent. Per cent.
First saiple .... 7. 2 01 1. 15
Second samn le ... 10.4 7.51 1.48
Third s pe.... 10.8 7.72 1.56
SForth sam e ... 10.8 7.47 L 09
Fifh ample .... 11.3 7.73 1.77
Means ...... 10.1 7.06 153

EXHAUSTED CHIPS.
Four samples of exhausted chips were taken. The first onew
the first five cells only. No samples were take fromhe
and after that he samples were taken regulay as
are the analyses:

Total


Per cent. Per cen Per cent.

FirMt mniple n..3.5 2.34 .29
Second sa pl I ... 2.1 .55 12 "
Third m .p 1. 6 Lost. Lost.
Fourth m s ple... 1.8 .82 .18 ""
Means ...... 1.24 .0..
ttar~~ti( u a m I : -- " ;' 'r11
^^TOIBB-I~ *** I M* ..
*~~~, ~ e.
*i *i ii,~lii ;;









hesamples of arbonatated and sulphured juices were not taken
hregularity. Nevertheless I give below their analyses:

OABBONATATED JUICES.

Total Sucrose. Glueoe.
solids.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
First sample.... 7.0 4.57 .81
"s - - IL I & 05 1.
Second sample... 11.1 8.05 1.20
Third sample .... 11. 5 7.76 1.30
Fourth sample .. 10. 3 7. 70 1.32
Means ..... 9.98 7.02 1.17


SULPHURED JUICES.


soli~. Sucrose. Glucose.
solids.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
First sample.... 6.7 4.48 .86
Secod sampl ... 11.0 8.12 1.30
Third sample ... 11.3 8. 20 1.35
Fourth sample... 11.0 8. ba 1.36
Means ...-- 10.0 7.21 1.22


OOMPOSITION OF SEMI-SIRUP FROM ABOVE JUICES.

Per cent
sl solids......... ............................ ..................... ...... 55. 4
rose ..................................................................... 43.3
ose ....... ............................................... ...................... 7.86

FIRST SUGARS MADE.

uite was put in cars on November 4 a stood for ay
commencing to dry it.
f fit sugars.............. .... .... .........pond.. 6,888
econd sugars ...... ...... ........................................ do .... 495

T first and econd sugars .......... ..................... do.... 7,383

ar per ton........................................................do.... 115.8
ar on weight of cane ............... ......................... per cent.. 5.79

PE CENT OF TOTAL UCOE OBTAINED
Sexpresed jice contained 10.28 per cent. sucrose. Reckoning the juice at
per cent. of th weight of the cane, gives percentage sucrose incane .... 9.25
cent. sugar obtained ...................... ......................... 5.79
cent. of total sugar obtained .....i. *..* **. . ......... i2. 6

ANALYSIS OF FIRST SUGARS.
SPer cent.
o st re ......-.............................................................. .
h ......................................................................... .39
,ose ........... ....... . ........... ..... .... ........... .... 1.
etermined ............ ........ .... .... ...... .... .......... ...... .71











On November 6, all the cane having arrived, the second trial was made
The experience of the firt attempt had shown how the great loss
suga in the chip, pecially in the beinning, m
second run was, therefore, made with an initial temperature of nearly


by 100 liters.










Total
Weightof e ted. he weight of cae ue in t scn t









solid. Sucrose. Glucose.


Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
First sample.......... 15.06 11.30 1.89
Second sample . 14.68 1086 1.
Third same........ 14. 9 10. 46 1. 66
Fourth sample ....... 13.47 10.43 1.89
Fifth sample.......... 14.59 10.62 1.88
Sixth sample ....... 13.55 10.05 1.75
Means.......... 14.38 10.62 1.78


ANALYSES OF DIFFUSION JUICES.

The samples were taken as before described:


Total
Tol Sucrose. Glucose.
solids.

Per cet. Per cent. Per cent.
First sample ........ 1.11 7. 33 1.
vcond sampl........ 10. 15 7.95 1.20
Third sapl...... I10. 08 7. 15 1. 17
Fourth sample........ 10.05 0.96 1
Fifth sanple.......... 9. 88 7. 03 1.2
Sixth sample ......... 8.6 6.-5 1.
Means ......... 9.8 7.1 1.23


EXHAUSTED CHIPS.

The samples were taken as described in the preliminary tria:


Sucrose. Glucose.


Per cent. Per ent.' Per cent.
First ple.......... 1.56 .50 1 .12
Scond samp le....... 1.21 .38 .07
Third saple 1. 11 .38 10
Fout s-0, a tph . 1. 11 .37 .09
Fifth Sample ....... 1.0 .42 .10
Sixth saipkle......... .77 18 .05
Mean .......... 1.14 .37 .
I








...... ARBONATATED JUICES,

e samples were taken in such a way as to represent the same body
ice corresponding to the same numbered samples of diffusion juice.
e natation tank held three charges of diffusion juice. .Ameas-
sample after carbonatation was taken from each series of four
Tofal



Tl s Sucrose. Glucose.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
rst sample.......... 10.11 7. 27 1.09
Secod sa ple........ 10. 7.91 1.14
Third sample......... 10. 14 7.25 1.11
Fourth sample........ 9.72 7.00 1.21
Sixthsample.... .... 9.55 6.50 1.12
Mea .......... 9.92 7.17 1.15


SULPHURED JUICES.

e p of sulphured juice were taken in a way to represent as
y as psile the same body of juice as indicated by the corre
n nmbers under carbonatated ju ice. Since, however, the juices
ratation hAd to fall into a receiving tank before being sent
Spresses some mixing of the different bodies of juice was
avoidable.
lyes beloware not strictly comparable with the same
Sdiffusion and carbonatated juices:


To t Sucrose. Glucose.


Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Second sample........ 11.12 8.09 1.14
Third sam pl......... 10.35 7.39 1.23
Fourth sample-------- 9. 89 7.02 1.26
sixthsample .......... 9.34 6 44 1.17



SEMI-SIRUtPS.








r n l ..4..... 419 3I.8 t.
tler taken romf eaEthe t :



1133 Ns" .. e ct Pe cen


11330-No. 1










The masse-cuite stood in cars two days.
On drying it yielded4.. - "- -- ---- 0S 11- 1-
The yield of secondswas ............... ....................... do

Total weight produced...................................... 11,







And the cane ................................................... *.- 9.56
Percentage surose obtained ................................................ 75.

COMPOSITION OF THE FIRST SUGARS.

The sample was taken from each barrel as it was filled. The saple
were all mixed well toether and placed in a tight bottl, hih ws
opened until the sample for analysis was taken. It is, therefore, as fai
a sample of the product made as could possibly be obtained. It ga
of-

M oisture ................ ............................ ......... .............. .7
A sh ................ ........-------------------------.... .... ..,. .1



Compare this result with the work on Magnolia ption t year
as found in Bulletin No. 11, p. 26:
W eight first sugars per ton ................................................. 119
Weight second sugars per ton ............................................. 29. 7
Total first and second .............................................. 148. 7
Per c
Percentage obtained.......................................................... 7.4
Sucrose in juice ............................................................ 12.1
Sucrose in cane ........ . ......................... 10.90
Percentage obtained ........ ........................... ............ 68.3
ucrose in cane at Magnolia ............................................
Sucrose in cane at Fort Scott ............ ............... .................... 9.5
D ifference .......... ...................... ................... ....... 1.3
The increase in the yield per ton at Magnolia, ad the cane bee
worked by diffsion, would have been, therefoe, 268 pounds.
The yield of eeonds at Fort tt was surprisingly low. T
lasses as it came from the centrifugals was full of crystals. About one
third its volume of warm water was added to this molasses and the crys
tals all dissolved before boiling. This may have diminished the yield
The thirds" have been placed in cars and set away until next fall







e thirds fill five wagon, each containing 23 cubic feet, or in all 125



ct,therefore,i, sugar ............................. 11,990
Thirds, maw cuite ---------------------------------------------------------- 6,189







t dof reckoning theincreaed production which
not a one, sineit rests.on the assumption thtthe
Total ......-.......................................................... 18, 179





eweigtht ofis not the asused.e
"r ton, or 1.3 enot a ent
t the meho of reckoning the increased production wich has just
en usedi not a fair one, since it rests on the assumption that the
crose in each case is equally available. But a moment's consideration
11 show that this is not the case.
The term." available sugar" is not a precise one. Itmay have many
rpretations. In France, for instance, the rendement is calculated by
ducting from the total sucrose twice the glucose and from three to
e tim the ash. This is a good rule for beet sugar, but in cane-juice
being mostly calcium salts, is far less melassigenic than that of
Sbetjuice, made up chiefly of potassium compounds.
Another method of calculating "available sugar" is to diminish the
re gof sucrose by the difference between it and all the other
lidsin solution. This method is apt, however, to give results too
In this uncertainty the term "available sugar" should always be
luied by an explanation of the manner of making the calculation.
The yield of sugar obtained at Fort Scott, being the highest ever got
sugar-cane, may be taken as the true amount of "available sugar"
til s e better yields are reported.
for a moment, the relation of this yield the respective
u es of sucrose and glucose present:
Per cent.
rose in juice. .. .. ......... 10. ;S
rose in cane ................... ...... ............................. 9.

rence between sucrose in cane and yield .... .... ...... .................. 2.36
in 'lice- ------------------------------------------------1.7
Sin cane............................................................. 1.60
Ratio of per cent. of glucose to per cent. of sucrose lost 1. nearly.
It appears, therefore, that the rational way to calculate available
gar" when the quantities of sucrose and glucose in the canes are
nown is to diminish the percentage of sucrose by one and a half times
e glucose*







Applying this method we have the folowing results:
AT FORT SCOTT.
Sucrose in cane -------------------------------------------------- per cent 9.56
One and a half times gluu ose in cane ---------------------------------do---- 2.40

Pounds per ton ................. ......................................... 143.

AT MAGNOLIA.
Sucrose in cane ..................................................per cent-. 10,0
One and a half times glucose in cane- -do---- 1.38
Theoretical available sugar --------------------- ---------. ----------do- 9.52
Pounds per ton --- - - --.............- -- - -- - -- --............. .....-- -- 194.4
Pounds per ton obtained ........................... ....
Difference ................................................. pounds. 41.6

This shows in the most convincing manner that by the process of
diffusion and carbonatation the yield of sugar from sugarcane can be
increased fully 30 per cent. over the bet milling and subsequent treat-
ment of the juice which has ever bn orr been practiced inany other
country.
If this be true of the best milling, it is easy to estimate the increase
over the average milling of Louisiana. It is not extravagant to sp.
pose that this increase will be fully 40 per cent.
But the problem may also be approached in another way. It has
just been shown what the product would have been had the Fort Scot
process been applied at Magnolia. It may now be asked, "What would
have been the yield had the Magnolia process been applied at Fort
Scott":
The process used at Magnolia produced 148.75 po ds r from
cane in which the available sugar was 190. pounds. The percentage
of available sugar obtained was
148.75 x 100 + 190.4 = 78.1 per cent.
The available sugar in the cane at Fort Scott was 7.1 per ce
Multiply this by .78 and the product, 5.58 will be the yield of gar
which the Magnolia process would have given at Fort Scott, or 111.6
pounds per ton. Deduct this from the quantity obtained and the re-
ninder will represent the ncreased yield, viz, 32.4 pounds. Thus in
whatever way the cal ulation is made it is seen that the processes of
diffusion and carbonatation give a largely increased yield.
Another important question which arilses is this, Does this increased
yield come wholly from the increased extraction, or is it partly due to
the method of purifying the juice? I will try to give a rational answer
to this question based on the data of the analysesandte respective
rendements given by the two processes.
The percentage of extraction at Magnolia was 78. Reckong the
m;ii~,i i;l ":" ":







uice-at 90 per cent., the loss in juice was 12 per cent. The percentage
f juie, and consequently of sugar extracted, wAs 868.6 per cent. The
mean loss of sugar in the chips at Fort Scott was .38 per cent., and the
antity of sugar present was 9.56. The percentage of extraction was
refo 96 per cent. The gain in extraction by diffusion is therefore
per cent. It is thus evident that the large gain in yield, as estab-
hed at Fort Scott, cannot be due wholly to the increased extraction
of the sugar. It must therefore be largely due to the processes of de-

The process of carbonatation tends to increase the yield of sugar in
three ways:
(1) It diminishes the content of glucose. This diminution is small
when the cold carbonatation as practised at Fort Scott is used; yet, to
at leastonce and a half its extent, it increases the yield of crystallized

(2) By the careful use of the process of carbonatation there is scarcely
any loss of sugar. The only place where there can be any loss at all
is in the press akes, and when the desucration of these is properly at-
tended to thetotal loss is trifling. The wasteful process of "skimmoing "
entirely abolished, and the increased yield is due to no mean extent
to this truly economical proceeding.
(3) In addition to the two causes of increase already noted, and which
are not sufcient to produce the large rendement obtained, must be men-
ioned a the action of the excess of lime and its precipitation by
arbonicacid on the substances in the juice, which are truly melassi-
geni. Fully half of the total increase which the experiments have
emonstrated is due to this cause. It is true the coefficient of purity
f the juice does not seem to be much affected by the process, but it is
evident that the treatment to which the juice is subjected increases in
amarkeddegree the ability of the sugar to crystallize. This fact is
most abundantly illustrated by the results obtained.
Not only this but it is also evident that the proportion of first sugars
Sothers is largely increaed by this method. This is a fact which
ay prove of considerable economic importance.
It thus appears that the yield of sugar would be greatly increased
by the application of carbontaton to mill juices. Since a complete
arbonatation outfit ca be erected for about 4,000 it would be well if
some planter or syndicate of planters should give the process a trial.
These facts are worthy of closer consideration, inasmuch as the
Process of carbonatation has been fiercely and maliciously assailed as
one which destroys both sugar and olasses.

WRIGHT OF DIFFUSION JUICE COMPARED WITH! WEIGHT OF 0-CANE
wRKED. 00


Weight chips in each cell 86 1.033 tons =1 p.08 nounds.








Weght juice drawn from each cell of ips 100 ters. iic
gravity 1.04 = 2,516.8 pounds.
The weight of normal juice in 2,06 pounds of cane is 1,859.4 pounds.
The additional weight of water added by diffusion is 657.4 pounds.
The percentage of increase over normal juice 657.4 + 17859.4 = 35.4
per cent. This increase represents what is often called the diltion
of the juice. The quantity of water to be evaporated to prode a
given quantity of sugar is, therefore, 35.4 per cent. greater for such a
diffusion than for a normal mill juice. In practice this amount could
easily be reduced to 25 per cent.

COMPOSITION OF PRESS CAKE.

The defecation and filtration of the juice from 83.25 tons of cane gave
197 press cakes.
The mean weight of these cakes was 24 pounds each, and the total
weight 4,728 pounds. A sample of the cake taken directly from the
press and dried contained of moisture 45.37 per cent. Te total weight
of dry matter obtained in the press cakes was, therefore, 2,582.9 pounds.
Analyses of the dried cake gave the following results:

Albuminoids ...................................................... ....... 91585
Sucrmioise-------------------------------------------------------- Tae
Suero8e .--- ..ee......e....e............ ..... ...... ......T ae
Glucose ............................................................... .... Trace.
Other organic matter .....-------------.........................---...................... 17.45
QUANTITY OF LIME USED.

As is seen under sorghum experiments it required 1.5 per cent. lime
to produce a good filtration.
I felt sure that the juice from the sugar-cane would not require as
great a quantity. At the preliminary trial 1 per cent. of lime was ed
and the cakes formed were perfect, firm, and hard.
In the second run only .75 per cent. of lime was used, and the akes
were equally as good. There is little occasion for using less lime than
this. for with this quantity the carbonatations were easily finished in
fifteen to twenty minutes.

COEFFICIENT OF PURITY IN SECOND TRIAL.

f the ill juices the coefficient was ............ ............ 73.8
Of the diffusion juices the coefficient was ...... ............................... 72.
Of the carbonataced juices the cofficient was ................................ 72.
Of the sulphured juices the coefficienlt was... 70.9
Of the first sem i-sir p the coefficient was ...... ............................... 74.6
Of the second seini-sirup the coefficient Was... ...... .... ........ ............. 73.5
In both trials it was seen that the coeficient of purity was increased
during the process of evaporation. This was, doubtless, caused by the
precipitation of some of the lime salts held in solution by ejuices.
---r- rrCICI r*ll~~l-*-r*l~ ffrPriiii+lCier-
A 5AliAeiIU MIJI'iI






S55

DEGREE OF EXTRACTION BY EXPERIMENTAL MILL.

Fresh
i Pe6 chips per
Icent. ce ter


First sample...-.. 54. 64 63.73
Second sample .95&88 62.68
Third sampVle... 57.61 63.39
Fourth sample... 5585 62.01
Fifth sample ... 60.00 69.65
S th sample .... 51. 48 60.83
Mean ......... 56.41 63.72

DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED.
erof unfavorable conditions was encountered during the pros-
eun of the experiments. The water supply was from a stgnant
pond. The waer had been greatly improved by the application of lime
ays before the experiment was made, but it was still black and
ptr emitting a nauseating stench.
The ske-pan used was quite unsuitable for boiling to grain. Its
b once the bottom of a much smaller pan, and a shelf several
deep had been aded to support the enlarged top. All the large
ls were arbove this shelf, and it took eight hours to bring the
ten of the pan above this point. We had no sugar-boiler, but my
ass nMr. L. Spener took charge of the pan and did remarkably

T u dried slowly in the centrifugals. These were not well set
dnot be run at a very high speed on account of shaking.
It took early forty-eight hours with three machines to dry the sugar
from the 83.25 tons.
s df ty in drying was due either
() To e process of diffusion; (2) to the process of carbonatation;
othe e grain produced in boiling; (4) or to the poor quality of

Which one of these causes was most potent only future experiments
willdei. I am not wise enough to plae it, as has already been done
y s premature critics, on one of them alone.
It most reasonable to sppos, however, that the poor quality
of the cane and the extreme fineness of the crystals were the chief
causes of the difficulty mentioned. The process of carbonatation has
been practiced for ten years in Java on mill juices and no complaint has
ever been heard of difficulty in purging the sugar. With the fresh,
rie c s of Louisianaworked promptly as they ce fro the feld
St uice n the hands of an experienced sugar-boiler, I do not
believe this difticulty would be encountered.
With the improvemen ts in th( process of carbonatation already poiuted
out in the discussion of the experiments with sorghum even better re-









The disposition of the exhausted chips is a question of great economic'
importance. Three uses appear to be possible: (1) For paper to
(2) for manure; (3) for fuel.
A good article of both wrapping and print pa
fiber of the cane. The economic discussion of this use, however, can
only be properly given by a paper-maker.
The value of the bagasse for a manure is und
problem has already been discussed in Bulletin No. 8, page 46.
By referring to the table of analyses of the chips it will be seen that
with a small hand-mill 63.72 per cent. of water was ext d fm
exhausted chips; on the same ill the percentag extractio of
fresh chips was only 56.3 per cent. Thus in si
percentage of extraction with a given mill will be 7.31 per cent. higher
for exhausted chips than for fresh canes. A mill, therefore, w h wl
give a 78 per cent. extraction with cane Will give 8 p c w
hausted chips.
The exhausted chips contained 90 per cent. water. Of this quantity
63.72 per cent. were extracted, leaving 26.28 per cent. water to 10 ber.
A given quantity of the bagasse, therefore, contained 72.2 per cent
water and 27.8 per cent. fiber. A mill which wo
extraction with the exhaused chips would furnish a ga
of equal parts of water and fiber and this would prove a nt
fuel.
The power required to drive such. a mill would only be
third as great as for the same weight of cane.
The attempts to dry cane chips on the presses used for beet ttings
have proved failures, but the experiments made at Ft ott
th at a properly arranged mill will solve this problem at on.e.
It must be remembered, however, that even if the
be made as dry as ordinary mill bagasse they will not afford so much
fuel. They contain little but the fiber of the cane, while mill
still holds large quantities of sugar, which itself is a most excellent fuel.
The loss of the bagasse as a fuel has bee the principal objection to
the introduction of diffusion into tropical sugar districts.
It now remains to continue these experiments at some favorable ta-
tion in Louisiana. Such a station should be provided with a first-class
double or triple effect and other apparatus for evaorating the juice and
seprating the sugar.
It should also be a station purely experimen tal. Te at t
on experients and manufacture a large crop of e e
would only end in the disastrous mannr, econoically considered, of
the sorghum work just concluded at Fort Scott.
These experiments an only be successful at a station where perfect
freedom of action and plenty of time are at the director's command.
fit asLilCt BilJ~g~f le~~~ t ~~~







vce f t Department to demonstrate in Lou.
ia justhowmuch increase in sugar yield can be produced by the
application of the methods named in the act making the appropriations.
Thisid ad all the processes for doing it accurately pointed out and
a dicued, it will not be difficult for the intelligent planter to
determine the economic value of the new methods.
o t task should be brought a careful study of the chemical prob-
Sinvolved, and the best apparatus which this country or Europe
Sd From this task should be eliminated all prejudices for or
i any particular process, and especially all tendency to misrepre.
sent or misinterpret facts.
At lt the Department will be able in subsequent experiments to
shw te Southern sugar-raiser whether the promises which these pre-
limi y experiments have made shall really be performed, or whether
tice of the process of diffusion for sugar-cane is a mistake and
tte t has offered of aiding the sugar industry a delusion.
is in that with the fierc rivalry between the European beet
an e tropical cane industry, producing an enormous surplus of sugar
andeing the prices down almost below the cost of production, the
n nusugar-ane industry of this country will languish unless the
ent of Agrculture be able to lead it into a life of renewed





























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INDEX.



Page.
A.
in battery, correction of........................................... 2
chips ..................------------------........................................ 22
juices ................. ......................................... 22

alysels of nt lii .................................. ........ 14
carbonated juices before October 1 ....... ...... ............... 19
after September 30 ........................... 19
carbonatated juices ..................... ..................... 49
chips, first season to October I.................................. 16
from October I to close ......................... ....... 16
chips in closed bottles ............................................ 26
chips exhausted in bottles, with and without neutralizing-........ 17
diffusion juice.................................................... 46
dilffuision j ic.nies ...................
to October 1 ................................ ..... 18
October 1 to close...-......-.- .......... 18,19
exhausted chips.................. ..................... 46 48
rst ugar ...................................................... 50
gases, byG. L. Spencer --------- -------13
uice from chips. .. ...............................--............... 31
juice of chip from, cutters-....- 17... -17
S i estone ........ ........ ............ ......................... .. 14
-masse-cuite t .. ...... . .... ......... ....... .... 122
mill juices before October 1 .................... ........... 15
after September30 1.................... ......... 15,16
mo e.......... ......................................

..ripress cakes 23...e ....b....Il- -----...--------i......... 14



i-i ji...................................................... 47,49
sulpur juices before October 1 .. .. .. .... ........... 219

after September 30................................ 2

sulphured juice ....................................... ... .. .. 47,49
waste waters beore October 1 ..............................-. 20
after September 30 .................................. 20
nalysis of first sugars ...... ............................................... 47
sam ple sugar .............. ...................................... -

Availablesugar,nseaningof.s sse................... 51











Sagasse,dipoit of- 56-----......t.ac
moisture in ....~ ........................ ..........................
Battery,acidity in,iorrectionof............................................. 2
inversion in ...................................... ..................
pressure in ........................................................
Beet-root cutter.............................................................
Belle City ensilagecutter, description of. .to
Blades, per cent. of ....................................... ......... 3,
Brown coal, filtration with ..................................................
Bulletin No. 3,quotaton from ...............................................
No.5, quotation from ..............................................
8, reference to ..................................................
No.11, quotation from.............................................. ,
Burnt lime, analyses of....................................


Canes, analyses of .......................................................... 48
character of, September 27 to October 6, inclusive.....................
cleaning of .......................... .
delay in working .......................................
delivery to cutters ............
deteriatn of ..........................
used, weight of.... 48.. .... .f
Cane-cutters, description of ..................9'........... ..
conclusions from experiments with ............
cutter, centrifugal, de iption of.........................
Carbon dioxide,percentageof, inthe gas..................... ...
reduction of ..................................... ...........
Carbonic oxide, formation of ..................-..--.......... .... ...-
odorof o ....--.t ,c.......
toxic effect of.............................t ..2 .. ....... --
Carbonateof lime, use of, in battery....................................
Carbonatation apparatus .-... -..... .-..........-... ... .. .... ......
proposals for ....... .... t. a....a.>.aa


experiments with double.... ..2.9..99.a.a...a
increase of yield by .................................
mnodification of ..................................... 40
yield of crystallizable sugar by......................
tanks t ......................................... ..........e.
Carbonatated juices, analyses of .-at-.-. c ----.-. ----. nncc --- .c --.-------- 47,4
before October 1 ............................
after September 30 .............
ratio sucrose to glucose in 33
C01ll, number of cut t .....t... .... .... ........... .

Chips, analyses of, from first season to October 1 .... ......................
October I to close ...................................
in closed bottles ................c............ ...........

acidity in ...... c. c.. .. ct...... t... CtS..... ... . . - . .
direct estimation of sugar in .... c.7 c... 09 ..
direct extraction of .c. ee... o.. .. ...c.. ....C. ...C









s, exhausted in bottles, with and without neutralizing, analyses of ...... 17
frosanalyseofj .iceof............ 17
glucose,perhundred, sucrose i ...................................... 31
moal .......i......


sampling of .......................................................... 31
total lidsn ........................................................ 3,31

C ate n d soil, study of .------------------------------------------ - -. 43
Sbottles, iversion in-------- 2
in of reslts at Fort Scott and Magnolia ..... .. 52
Sofbeet-gar with can-gar.... ............ ... 57
Colell Iron Company .
am n, Dr.C.A., analysesby .......................................... 13
rystallization, unfavorable condition of .................................. :36





greview of 32......................................
eective machinery ................ ..................................... 41
ips to battery, apparatusfor ........................
ifusion, fermentation (uring .............................................. 9
temperature of 9,45
time of .......................................................... 9,41



juice, analyses I of ............................. 18
jices, analysesof.............................. 48
to October 1,torlanalysesof.. ... 16
October 1 to close, analy)ses of. 1.. ... 1,19
Septeber27 to October6 inclusive .......................
juice, treatment of, at Rio Grande 42
juices,ratiosucrose to glucose in ..................................32
juice, weight of -....................................---... ----.. 46,54
iicultis encountered ........................................ 55
Dilutiopercentage of o.............................................. 5
ryinugar, diffculty of ............................................

E.
xhausted chips, analyses of '.... ...... 46, 48
disposition of ........................ .. .................. 3 ,37
drying of ................ ....................
percentage of ugar in ..................................... 3
water in ..................................... 37
xperi aents, continuance of ............................................ *
in Louisiana,properfunctios of ............................... 57




ake, N.J., analyse by ... ................ .......... ...................... 13
il r es ................... .......................... ............ .... 13








irnt sugas,anaysis of...................................................
analyse of...................................................
de,weight of -.................................... -
Fives-Lil Company, drawings of..............................--- ---
Fort Scott Fuindry .........................................................

G
as, analyse of ..........................................* ...................
supply of ....................................................... ....
volume of, employed ....................................................
Gay, Hon. EdwardJ ........................................................
General c ...................................---------------..... ....... ..
Glucose, percentage of, diminished by 9 ......................................


Halleche Mashinenfabrik .............................................. .
Handling cane, machinery for ............................. ............ .
Horizontal cutter, capacity of...............................................
Hughes, I. A., cane-cutter of ................ ...............................


nversion, avoidance of, in battery .......................................
Item, Daily City .... ........ ....... .....---------------------------------..


Juicesait i a n ...................................... ............ ............

K.
Kroog, filter-press of...................................... .............

L.
Letter of transmission ---- .. ...... *..a.. .c. ---.-..-,-... .... .....
Liue, quantity of, used. *. .--...... ..-.. ..........
bisulphi te,use of, in battery ......................... ...* .. ...........
acetate, formation of------..................................................
water, use of, in battery .. ...- ...... ...... ............ .... .., .
Lime juice, use of, in battery ................................................
Lime-kiln, working of .......................................................
Limestone, importance of good quality......................................
quantity and quality of ............ .. .. ....................
Limnestones, analyses of ..a-- -- --- a.-....- .. -... a.-- - -- - -- --- 14m s
Louisiana Station, apparatus for ................................. .......m. .


Machinery, contract for .........................................-..... .......
Magnolia plantation, domparison with ......................................
station at ................................................ .... .. 3
Masse-cuites, analyses of ................................................ .....
total weightof.... .. ..................... ...........
Melada, weight of, obtained .................................................
Mill juices, variations in .................................................... 2
glucose, per hundred, sucrose in.... .. ...6..
analyses of, before October 1 .....................................
after September 30................... 15?1








Page-
..illji.. indexto -------------- ------- ------ ----- ---- ----- -.ee ...........15,16
ptember27 to inclussive ---.....-........----.........-......- -
M oisture in chipsanad bagasse.----------------------------------------------- 23
Mola ses analyses of -------------------------------------------------------- 22
character of ....................................................... 36

P.
ar n, W.L. apparatus designed by..................................... 12
Sugar Company, agreement with ............................ .... 5
P poric aci, use of ..................................................... 41
tandBeetSugar Company -............................-- - - 9,12
trelianarylta l.-------- .----- -------------. -----. -------- --------------.. 45
Press cak s, analyses of -... ... --- -- --- .- ----...- s ai I-- -- --...i .. -- 23
composition of ................................................. 54
organic matter of ................................. 24
noisture in ..................................................... 23
total sugar in.. 34,35
valas a fertilizer ............................................. 35
w eight of. --------- ------------------------------------------- 23
rposal of Pusey & Jones Company, acceptance of ......................... 7
Pmp ...........................--....................................... 12
Purity,and~ef dent Of..-----.------------------------------------------.------ 54
neseyd&bJones Company .................................................... 13
&ontracp with....................................... 6
contract wvith--------------- 6.
proposalsof ........................................... 7

R.
a Mad, i ippi Valley ................................................... 45


8.
aple analyssof.................................................... 24
ngerhaer schinenfabrik .............................................. 13
gecond tidal.-. . . .. .. . . . . . .. .. . .. .. 48s
emi-srupsanalyes of ....................................... ..........21S 47, 49
Sheaths, pner ent. of ........................ ................................ 3:5. 36
Sag, analyse of............................................................ 14
Sdium phospht e, usof .................................................... 41
orghueaseof dtfusion of................................................ 31
insoluble matter in............................................... :
i prov m ent of ................................................... 42,43
cane, character of, at Fort Scott .................................. :12
juice,chemcaltreatment of........................... ............ 43
pe cer, G. L ............................................................... 12,13
analyes of gase by.................. ........ *................ 13
pent bone-black,analyses of ............................................... 14
Strike-Pau, construction of .. ............................................... 55
Scroseobtained,total per cent. of .......................................... 47
inversion of, in the battery .......................................... 40
inversion of....................... ................................. 30
Sugar, total yiekldof . . . . . . . . . ................ :%
per ton, weight of .................................................... 50
obtained, total per cent. of ........................................... 50
ga made, weight of,,,,...,,,.,,. ,, ,,,.. ., .,4. -,,,. 7
01,,,,0 444*,,**.4444444,,44,,









Sugar-cane, eprmnswith ------------------------- 45-
Sugar, direct estimati nof, in chips -------------------------------------- 27
character of ....................................................... .
available in cane -----------------in i- .----------- 3
Sulphur apparatus.__ 13- .. ... .-
working of-...................................... -
juices before October 1, analyses of.................. - -
after Septeber 30, alya of...............................
Sulphured juices, analyses of-------.....--.....--..... --..--...... --- 474
ratio sucTos to glucose n-..-................. -
Sulphurous acid, replacement of, by phosphoric .............................. 3
Swenson, Prof. M., filter-press of .............................................
suggestio of.............................................

T.
Tops, per cent. of..................................................... ..... 3



aste chips before October 1, analyses of ....................................
after September 30, analyses of .................................
composition of ..................................................
percentage of water in, afterprsure ............
Waste waters before October 1, analyses of.- *..............................
after September 30, analyses of .............................
percentageof sugar in ........................................
WaTter supply, character of -................................................. 5
ork, results of ............................................................


Yield, increaie of5..
Yieldinreaeof...... ......................i
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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA



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