Foods and food adulterants

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Foods and food adulterants
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Dept. of agriculture. Bureau of chemistry ;
Physical Description:
10 v. : ill., (some col.) tables ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Food   ( lcsh )
Food adulteration and inspection   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Statement of Responsibility:
by direction of the Commissioner of Agriculture.
General Note:
At head of title: U.S. Department of agriculture. Division of Chemistry.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029691477
oclc - 20101365
lccn - agr09001050
Classification:
lcc - TX563 .U5
System ID:
AA00026006:00005

Full Text





........... ......i i i ii i i;i . . .. .









iii'i
A;;I;; ;






















NAN
FOOD AD LTERANTS.

























GOENM N @ "ITN FIE
193W- No 1i3
@";;"""" i8liiii;i a; i; iii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii;iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
iii !iiii ii~i'iiii iiii



l; iiii; i i ii,, i i; iii~;;~


























iiisi,,i;isls;l;iiisii: ,,ii~:liiiiii~i :l~';;i~.;is '"""""
;;i r;;;;ll;u;;i~i~i;idi ;iiiiii
Iiii: iii(i;xii~iil
isrii,~ig~l "r~rsrrrr,,rrr iiliii
;i;;lal ;~;;lii:;' R: ;;;;"':,' ;;';;i~i;;l i,, ::,rrrrr,,rrrrr
ss; ;;...;i; ;;ir, Iiiiii;.';;:;~~i~;"IBI~ iis~;;;~~;I ii;... ii:' ;;
;;
i"~m;i :.I:8:~'"'5' n.n~;-;;lrr ::::. ~:."":9:P1181ig, ". ::""" ;iiiii i;,~i, ~ :;iiilp:i~lll~~ll~iiil
;;r ..1;1'1'~1.1. """. "' ija;;""l
a~bi ..R liiili"ri I;; ""';"iii
i~i hxxb ;;;,,,iiiiiis,,iii~liii
mrc~~, ~I
"' "' ,;ii,~""i~;l ';"""s"';' ;siiilXiiliEi"""
li;;,;l;;;;;;li;u~~;iij~~j~; Ei;~H~;i~i~ ~;:~jB~ .. ".;;;;;; sii;;;;;;, .. rr iiiiiiii-i;,,,iii
jlI~E ;isoo .ii ~i :1;8~1~~11~,i;881008Bg;~~~~,, ;i;iUiiiis~i~i~i~i;~~
;,,siii Ils liilii;s;;~ii riiiilii~i~"'; st
"~'" 'i' IIIHIIIYI~~Yla!a 1;n Hmn;, u;u:a~ I~i~ iiiIIXI,,IIIIIIIl~ I
ss i:r~ ;;;;s ;;;""' ; :;,uii~ ;iii;~
Ixlx~ r ~ _,,,~, ..rrrsirrr;rrsrrsrrrrrrrrrr
'r""""".;; ;~ i;~,lE;iU; ; :I~ slii~ "'"i
"" '~ rlEPIElllll~t"~
;liZ'"i100xi"""" ::lii: ,i;i::,~rr
.": _,,,,,
',;,,;iiiiiill2i""j;j~iix;ti~O~iiii"'
i~iiili~il~si'll~~~ili~i siiiiii'; ;R~;~iiln; .;;,i,,,,,,; siiiiii,;;iii
i;rl;; ii~n;i4i;r ;iixa~ x ;; ~i;l;ssn;;i;"iii;
"";- "I ; iii inw :iaie *ii*i ii, ~~:"lsm!! !I!! i~nl I:BIUili ,,;;ii~s;,:;l~,ii;;;;;;; ;i~i~ctt~;;~;
nr EE I ~~...~ ~~
,.
u:n
~;~~" ,iln ai,,,,,
i;ii~ iii;, ., .;,,,.,, i;;:i;;ilsl
r, n ri~
iiiiiiiiiO'i0'0xti" ii' ;iis;; ;liiil;
~ii~ r Ir r ii E 1 Ip~
Isi ;.E E nr.ii ,.. i'l;;;"~;".."iir;;;;;
r-----~~ I ""~
f~E~~ ~ EZ ~ ~EE Ciil
iii;,iii ;;; .iiiii. ~i II + ::ic
.:i;R '"'"";;' ii Iii '""; ;;' s;iiiiii;o;l i i, ii;i;ii ii ;i~;i~iiiiii;iiiiiiiiisi
ii ;,~ ;;r;::;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
iii ~ a.ii"rbbii~li i"iiiii0"iiiiiiii;,,lii;iii;iii
;;,u,;;sl; slx, ";:;' ;li;;ii;;;" ;;;;;.;;;. ,,;;,,it,,,l;;sao.o;iiiiioiii, :: ,-
ii;- ., ,u ,,,,,oooo, ;I;;; ;,;;;;;,;;;;;I;;
.,ii;,rbii;;riiiso0l""""iiiii
;""" iii ,;iis; s;;;;""";I" '""""""'
'""""""";;r; ~ i. 1;;11
,;ii~,iiiii; I;;l; ii;;;il ~ ;i::
_rs .;ii;~;;,;;iiiii I;i;
~; liiii;~;::i s ;i~ '";"""' r E ...; " il;;;,
;;;;;:;;;;~~iiilliig;;;il ; r;l s;"liii;; iliiiili;l;,:iiiii iiii
iiLPsiliiE:; iiii;ii;;iiiiii~i;; iiiiiiiiiici~'iiiii;,iii;ii ii;i;
i"" "";;""'""; .li..
;;siii,~,,,,, ;i;l;~; .,,,;il;''l;lL ~" ;"; " " ;liirr:' iiiiiiiiilii ;"' ';; '"""""IU s"ii~
;,;ilr :, ;;;~sl;ic ;i;,,in, s'"l;";";"l:li;iP 'II"""" I;; s;r srsi;;i
;;;;;,iiE;;;;li;lii;;i;:::l "'."."li"; .I .i011; 1 ."i""" lii,,;ii;ii ""; "i;;;;l;
.oi; ,,
ii;s :,;..
ssr l iiiiiriiiiil,, siiil r L- r ,iiil;i;iiiissi
roosii;isiiiiiiiisii HB~ ;;;; iiii
soai/..l;liiiiioi I r
;s;;i;i _s
isi;;;;; ;;'Uii; ;;ii; ;iiiiiiii;iii~
iil.;iiii ;n~;;:iilllllllslIIPlliRllRl~i~sl
i,~;iiiiiii
ii
s;, .;;;; ;ii;~;;;;,i;,,iiii;:~iiiiiii;nli
;il """ ~iiiii
I1FlirJ II, riiirr II ~I iiiiiiiii
'""";"'"...~;l"i"~; ;;""""I"" '' ;ii,;;iiiiiiiRliiiii ;;;;;i~~i:,;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;";;;; ;;;;""; .. ""
iibi.;iiiii.n;;; iiiiiiii;; r ;:;;;;I l:,;li~;ii;I
i;uiiii;;...;- E;, ii;. iii l"iiiiiiiilllliii..o.iilllliij~~i;~~
;il;; i), '""""'""i;;;;s;;;;;;;i;bsi;;;;l ;;;;;;;;
;";; ;;:il;; s;;;;,;i;l;;l """";;"""";"~~""""""""""""
:iiiii;;;;;iili;i"
ii;;;
ii
::x. '"""" ;' r;l;;liiiii"""l
iill li~iil8~iii iiiii~
r .;; .;..
'";;"" ;""""
~~"""' I .iii~
;,;i;; p r- .ii;;%i~lliiii
;s;;;;;iiis
st ;lii,,"""iilxiil;iiii;li~iiii
,iirii i~~~Pll~o '""""";; ;;; li ;;.
ii; ii
li;ul:::,;;i~~llsiipi~j~g"iz,~H;;E;I s. ,.., :;,,,;si;;;;;,r
........." :""""""'"II"*""""""lii: '""""'""";""'" ;""';;;I i~~i~u,"" ii iii; ..:ili,, .""""""""""""
/~l~~~~~.i;l,::.; .;"; ;;... ;;;l;;;;;li, ;i;
~"'";;;" iii;;;;;;;;;;ll """ i; ;";";i;~11::'11;;;Rsll
iiiiirEiii~
;"ii~l;l~ ii'';iiiiiii'ii' 'ii" i oo;; .iiiiiiii;lriiii
-,rr
rs:i
" iiii'
.,,,,,,,,,,,
.ix
,,,,,,i,,,,,,, ,- :.i














SI have the honor to submit herewith for your inspection and ap-





the subject has been treated with greater detail than any othiler.
I i j^^Ti inifil Ff sal" iii-x/"i fTi^ fy,: ... ..tt ,.....






hih has been done.hi



tto k of di n ues oer we tated.



benet has been derived from this meethoed of fixing phaoto-




ents, &., the report of which will soon follow, was made al-
tirely with the microscope, and the illustrations will show ow
tory this kind of work proves to be. In the matter of photo-
illustration no attempt has been made to confine the exhibition
omenally ne specimens, but the ordinary appearance of the
visin has b reproduced. This, think, is of greater advan-
the general investigAtion than would be the publication only of
kingly good egties. It is believed that by following the





Qh iili i o
ih of aalyiM sis recommendedt in the report it will blie possible to



V iz, condiments, sugar, sirap and honey, drinks and canned goods,


gh examination in the laboratory.



CommiioneofAgriclture.















An act def.i ing batter, & ..... .. .... ................. ...... .
Artificial butter .... .... ...... ............................................... 9

Wholesomeness of artificial butter ........................................... 17


Coloring matters in butter-. 26.
Examination of butters ------ ----........... .......... 2D

Description of plates...... .... ............................................ 37

Specific gravity of fats; method employed in Division of Chemistry........... 43
Temperature at which specific gravity is stated... 4
The melting point.of fats ............... .................................. 4
Effect of time on melting point of fat disks .----.. .-- 50

Effect of edden rise of te e...............
Viscosity ...of ..i......l ......l... ... .........................................
Refractive index of oils..................................................... 53
Estimation of soluble acids in butter fats-........ ....... ....-- 53
Estimation of insoluble ids in btter fats...... 9
Other methods .............................. ................................
Results of asen's investigation...........................................
Absorption of bromine and iodie by butter fat ........................... 6
Determination of soluble and insoluble fats in 6eid6...
Behavior of cocoanut oil with some of the methods used in analysis of bute
fats................ .. ........ .. .. .............. .................... 71
Use of cotton-seed oil as a butter adulterant .... ....... 71
Estimation of salt........................................................... 73
Estimation of curd.......................................................... 74
Qualitative tests ...... ...... *...... .................. ...................... 4
Results of analyses of genuine and suspected butters and butter adulterants.. 7
Analytical results.- .. ... ...... ..... .. .. .. .. 78
Examination of milk........................................................ 8
Speciflc gravity ..... .............................................. ......... 8
Quantity of water or dry solids in milk...................................... 8
Estimation of fat. 85-...- ...-...... ..... ,,. ...
Adams's method ................. .. .. a. a a a.. 8a5
Soxhlet's aroinoetric method...... 8

Fleiscbmaun and Morgen's method........... .... 100
by volume of cream...... ..................... ........................ 100
bythelactocrit-... .1.0.1..... ..... .
lactobutyronietric inethod.l ..1.0 .... a... . .
Optical methods of estimating fat in m104
Estimation of lactos ...... ..........a.. ...... .105a
Specillc rotatory power of milk sugar........................................ 105
Specific rotatory power of albmnen remaining in filtrate from Ph. Aeek and
IIGI sol.. .c. I II, n.a.c
Estimation of the albuinoids. 1
Analyses of milk ......... ac apa (1c aca t :: aa
Konmiss a.c...a... ... ac.........a. ..... ......... 117
Koumiisp method of analysis .................. 11c

0*heelie ...................................................................... 122
Tyrotoxicon ......a....... ................. ..... cae .e ...126
Estiwation of fatu in mik, Morse and Pigot'H method ........................ 127
Estimation of water in I ik. ..................................... 127
Subatances sometimes added to ila k to m k the romoval of tha cream and ad-'

M ilk adulterant.......... ........... ... ...... .. .......... ............ .1- IN
Occurrence of ultramarine as a adulterant in milk.......................... 128

4
















BUTTER AND ITS ADULTERATIONS.



adulteration of butter with other fats has of late years attracted
ention not only of the analyst but also of the political economist

matter has been deemed of sficient importance to demand reg-
by law of Congress. fThis law provides for the inspection and
i of commercial butters and their substitutes.
wing is the tet of the act:f




i 8 asembled, That for the purposes of this act the word butter" shall be
odtomeanthefood product usually known as butter, and which is made
ly from milk or cream, or both, with or without common salt,and with or

That for the purposes of this act certain maufactured substances, certain
sad ertain mixtures and compounds, including such mixtures and com-
with butter, all be known and designated as "oleomargarine, namely: All
s heretofore known as oeomrgarine oleo oleomargarine-oil, tterine,
ne, and neutral; all mixtures and compounds of olcomargarine, olo, oleo-
btterine, lardine, sine, and neutral; all lard extracts and tallow
; and all mitres and compounds of tallow, beef-fat, suet, lard, lard-oil,
annotto, and other coloring matter, intestinal fat, and offal fat made in
nor semblance of butter, or when so made, calculated, or intended to be sold


facturers of oleomargarine shall pay six hundred dollars. Every person who
ctureh oleomargarine for sale sall be deemed a manufacturer of oleomarga-

sale dealers in oleomargarine shall pay four hundred and eighty dollars
ron who ell or offer for ale olari in th original manfa rers







asa ldealer in oleomargarine; and ections thirty-two hundrd and thirty-two,
thir wo handred and tirty-thme, thirty-two Iun(red id t.irty-ftr, thirIy-I wo
inb
I'iS















in that year, and shall be ve hundred dollars.
SEC. 4. That every person who carries on the business of a mafac

beside being able to the payment of the ta, be ned not less than





spealor as required by law, shall, beside being liable to

every offense.

internal revenue of the d istrict in which his manufactory i lated s

products,.shall put up such signs and affi such number to his factory
his business under such surveillance of offcers and agents as the Comm
ternal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, ay
tion, require. But the bond required of ch manufacturer shal be
satisfactory to the collector of internal revenue, and in a penal am of
five thousand dollars; and the sum of said bond may be increas from
and additional sureties required at the discretion of the collector, or u
tions of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue.
Stc. 6. That all oleomargarine shall be packed by the manufacturer
kins, tubs, or other wooden packages not before used for that purpose,
ing not less than ten pounds, and marked, stamped, and branded as the
of Internal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasu
scribe; and all sales made by the manufacturers of oleomargarine,a
dealers in oleomargarine, shall be in original stamped packages. Re
oleomargarine must sell only from original stamped packages, ia noax
ceeding ten pounds, and shall pack the oleomargarine sold by-them iate
or paper packages, which shall be marked and branded as the Commi
ternal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, a
Every person who knowingly sells or offers for sale, or deliver or of
any oleomargarine in any other form than in new wooden or paper pack
described, or who packs in any package any oleomargarine in any me
to law, or who falsely brands any package or affixes a stamp on any p
ing a less amount of tax than that required by law, shall be fined for ea
more than one thousand dollars, and be imprisoned not more than two
Se. 7. That every manufacturer of oleomargarine shall securely aff


which it is situated, these words: "Notice-The manufacturer of the



vided by law in such caseq." Every manufacturer of oleomargarine w
affix Ruch label to any package containing oleomargarine made by him








s" mwh palapg, shall be fined fify dollars for each package in respect to
ofeu is committed.
8. :upon oleomargarte which shall be manufactured and sold, or re-
fooo~utption or use, there shall be assessed and collected a tax of two cents
Spalit bythe manufacturer thereof ; and any fractional part of a pound
Sbe taxed as a pound. The tax levied by this section shall be repre-
nstamps; andthe provisionsof existing laws governing the ingrav
ccountability, effacement, and destrution of stamps relating to to-
as far as applicable, are hereby made to apply to stamps provided for

whenever any mamnfacturer of oleomargarine sells, or removes for
ion, any oleomargarine upon which the tax is required to be paid by
the use ofthe proper stamps, it shall be t duty of the Commissioner
ofenue, within a period of-not more than two year after such sale or
satisfactory proof, to estimate the amout of tax which has been
id, and to make an assessment therefor and certify the same to the



y imposed on the same, pay an internal-r veue tax of fifteen cents
tax to be represented by coupon stamps as in the a of oleomarga-
u n the United States. The stamps shall be afxed and canceled by
the wneror iporter of the oleomargarine while it is in the custody of the proper
custom-hou e ofcrs; and the oleomargarine shall not pass out of the custody ofsaild
or,

officersI uni tesamps have been so afi~xed and canceled, but shall be put up ins
s, each containing not less than ten pounds, as prescribed in this act
fee oeomar arn manufactured in the United States, before the stamps are affixed;
and te ower o importer of such oleomargarine shall be liable to all the penal
.pre~on ofthi act prescribed for manufacturers of 'oleomiargarine manufactured
in th Unied Sates. Whenever it is necessary to take any oleomargarine so im-
ce other than the public stores of the United States for the pwrpose
canceling such stamps, the collector of customs of the port where
sueb olomagarne ia entered shall -esignate a bonded warehouse to which it shall
be tken unbr he control of such customs officer as such collector may direct; and
evey oficr o cutoms who permita any such oleomargarine to pass out of his cus-
todyor ontol ithout compliance by the owner or importer thereof with the provis-
ion ofthi setio relating thereto, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be
fine no lestan one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, and imi-
prione nt lssthan six months nor more than three years. Every person who sells
oroffes for aley imported oleomargarine, or oleomargarine purporting or claimed
to hve eenimprted, not put up in packages and stamiped as provided by this act,
shal b fied otless than five hundred dollars nor more than five thousand dollars,
and e iprione not less than six months nor more than two years.
8zC 11 Tht eery person who knowingly purchases or receives for sale any oleo-
margrin whch as not been branded or stamped according to law shall be liable to
a pualy o fitydollars for each such offense.
Szo.It T at very person w ho know ingl y pu rch aces or rece ives for sale any oleo-
mararie fom n y man ufacturer w ho h as not paid the spec ial t ax 8bha]l be Ii able fo r
sub otneeto apenalty of one hundred dollars, and to a forfeiture of all articlea
so purhasedoreceived, or of the full value thereof.
Sac. MThatrhenever any stamped package containaing oleomargari ne is emnptied,
It san e te dty of the pereon in whose hands the same is to destroy utterly the
stampsthenouan d any pe rson w ho w iIIfu lly neglects or re fuses so t o do sh allI for eachI
suchffee b fied not excoeding Mlfy dollars, and imprisoned not lows than ten days
am mre hai si mouths. And any person who fraudulently givets away or accepts










package, shall for each such offense be ftaed not excedng one hnded
be imprisoned not more than one year. Any revenue offier may destroy
oleomargarine package upon which the tax-paid stamp is found.
Sd. 14. That there shall be i the offie of the Commissioner of Inteo
an analytical chemist and a microscopist, who shall each be appointed by
of the Treasury, and shall each receive a salary of two thousand five he
per annum; and the Commissioner of Internal Revenue may, wheneve
ment the necessities of the service so require, employ nemists and min
be paid such compensation as he may deem proper, not exceeding in th grgt
any appropriation made for that purpose. And sch Commissioner isa
decide what substances, extracts, mixtures, or compounds which may
for his inspection in contested iases are to be taxed under this act; nd
in matters of taxation under this n t shall be fnal. The Commission
ofde whether any substance made in imitation or semblance of botterf
for human consumption, contains ingredients deleteridus to the public t
case of doubt or contest his decisions in this suase of cases may be pea
board hereby constituted for the purpose, and composed of the Snge
the Army, the Surgeon-General of the Navy, and the Commissioner of Arclue
and the decisions of this board shall be final in the promises.
Sf 15. That all packages of oleomargarine shbject to tax under thiso
be found without stamps or marks as herein provided, and all oleomarga
for human cosumption which contains ingredients adjudged, as heranibeu
to be deleterious to the public health, shall be forfeited to the UnitedStesAn
person who thall willfully remove or deface the stamps, marks, or bran
containing oleomargarine taxed as provided herein shall be guilty of a mseenr
and shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars -
two thousand dollars, and by imprisonment for not less than thirty d
than six months.
SEC. 16. That oleomargarine may be removed from the place of ma
export to a foreign country without payment of tax or afrxing stamps
such regulations and the filing of such bonds and other security as the
of Internal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasnry, maypocie.
Every person who shall export oleomargarine shall brand upon every
other package containing auch article the word "oleomargarine, inpliRoa
letters not less thai one half inch sqare.
SEC. 17. That whenever any phrson iRaged in carrying on the bisfa
facturing oleomargarin defrauds, or attempts to defraud, the UnitUat
tax on the oleomargarine produced by him, or any part thereof, e sall
factory and mian ufactu ring apparatus nseed by hiim,and all oleomargartinadalrw
material for the production of oleomiargarine found in the factory and o h atr
premises, and shiall be fined not less than five hundred dollars nor moetanfv
thousand dollars, and be imprisoned uot less than six months nor moe ta he
yearti.
SFc. 18. That if any mtanufacturer of oleomargarine, any dealer therenoayim
porter or exporter thereof shall knowingly or willfully omit, neglect, or euet o
or cause to be done, any of the thiugs required by law in the carrying ono onut
i ng of hit3 business, or 8hall do anything by this act prohibited, if there b oseii
penalty or punishmenti imposed by any other section of this act for h eget
i ng, emitting, or refusi.ing to do, or for the doing or causing to be done,thtinre
quired or prohibited, lie shall pay a penalty of one thousand dollars;adi h
person so offending be the manufacturer of or a wholesale dealer in oleomraieal
the oleomnargarine owoed by him, or in which he has any interest as owesalb
forfeited to the United States.
site. 19. That all iiinets plenaltiet4, and forfeit~ures imposed by this actmyb e
covered in any court of conipelent jurisdiction.








e Treasry ay iiiiak a eedful regulations for the carrying into effectii


SThat this actshall go into effect on the ninetieth day after its passage;

-*hs of any dealer on or after the ninetieth day scceeding the date of thr
h this not shall be deemed to be taxable under section eidht of this actb and
ed, and shalhave afed thereto the stamps, marks, and brands require
t or by regulations made pdrriant to this act; and for the purpos of secur-
e ing of the stamps, marks, and brands required by this act, the oleomar-
ell be regarded as having been manufactured and sold, or removed from
actory for consumption or use, on or after the day this act takes efnect;
tock ol hand at the time of the taking efeint of this aet may be stamped,













S timeiwithout miugi ra nicii
ad branded under special regwuations of the Commissioper of Internal Rev-
proved by the Secretary of the Treasury; and the Commissioner of Internal
ay athorize the holder of such packages to mark and brand the same






ng artiicial butter on a large scale.





H neavored to imitate the physioloical process which lie sup-













ure of rtlioiald butters:
. . i i i i ii i i i ii i i i ii i i i iii = iii i i ii i = =ii~ i iiii i i ii ii == = iiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ili iiiiiiiiii iiiiiii i iii iiiiii iliiiiiiiiilliiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiil ii ii ii i iii iiilii!iii iii iiillii iiii i ii i iiii i iiii i i i iii i i
.. ... : iiiliii .. .. ii::iiii .. .=. .. i:iiii . :::iilliiiiil ::.. .. :: : := ...... .:: iiiiii :i:I ::::::: :: :iiiiii~ :: : I iiiiii ~ : u :: :::ii iiiiiiil~ii ~ h : : : : :Iiiiiiiii
= i i iii iiiiiiii i iiii ii i i i i ii i i i i iii iiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiililiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiilliiii iiiiliiiiilii iiiiiiiiiii~ iii ii!iiiiiiiii iiiiliiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiii iiilliiiiiii ,~~i



:;;; iiiiii iiii! ii; ~ii i i i l




















Jis found in Sel Knstbutter.
The patents taken out in this country for the manu re a



BU'TER SUBSTITUTES.
Hippolyte M .ge, No. 146012, dated December 30,1873.


To all whom it may-concern:


lowing is a fall, clear, and exact description:
The butter which is obtained from milk is produced by the cow elab
own fat through her cellular mammary tissues at the low rate
ture of the body.
The animal fat from which the butter-cells in milk are produced
ehiefly of oleine, margarine, and stearine, and small quantites
stances.
The natural process performed by the cow cont, mainly, rt,
the oleomargarine from the stearine without developing disaga
or flavors in the oleomargarine; and, secondly, in producing a s c

My invention, hereinafter described, is based upon a discovery ma
when the fat is rendered at a low temperature, conderably o
tofore employed in the ordinary rendering of fat, it has the teo
butter, and does not acquire that peculiarly disagreeable fave
supposed to be necessarily attached to melted fat or tallow, nd w s
nated as "1tallowy flavor
I have ,ucceete in eobtaining excellent results by rendering the
temperature of 1030 Fahrenheit, whiis below the temperate
tallowy flavor is created. The temperature may be raised abet
in order to facilitate the operation, provided care betaeta
the temperature at which the tallowy flavor created.
Thepreelse limit to which it is safe to increasltherondering-temper
ascertained by trial under various circumstances with the differ

used in rendering fats when no such object as I propose-to wit,

to vary many degrees above that specifically indicated.

foro or during its troatment, tho raw fat should, m soon as possil
death of the animal, be plunged iu a solution of ifteen (15) per ct









rate the fatwii n










able machinery, h as rolle ormilltones, in order to break up the ile
Stises in whh the fat is contained in the animal, and thun cat e ilt to
M easily elted or enered by the application of low temperatures.
Ths fat thus dintegrated is to be slowly raised to a temperature of 103o



Sshould be taken not to heat it so as to induce the change which pro-

of ten butter, which temperature is considerably below that heretofore











inarily used in rendering fat, and will be found to vary not many degreens
e te point already stated.
ad to the fat while being reqdered, for the purpose of aiding in this proe-
two liters of gastric juice to a hundred (100) kilograms of fat. This












Sjice is.made by macerating, for tiree hours, half obf the Mstoi ach ofieI
ig or sheep, well washed, andthree Iies of water Containi Dg thirty grams

throwgh a sthve, and then added toefr the proportion
wo litres to one hundred (100) kilograms.


in thUkttle I add about one per cent. of common *salt. I stir it for some
time. The rendered fat is then allowed to stand until it attains perfect lim-
ty, when it can be drawn off. By this meansthe separation is well made,


90until the steari is crystallized. The mixture of stearine and oleomar-
n may then be put in a centrifugal machine; and by the operation of







omargarine, as it comes froht the press or centrifugal mebine, with ilk












(4) As a new product of manufacture, fat rendered t the low tmpe
,stantially as above described, devoid of disagreeae taste.

then separating the oleomargarine for the purposare of prodcing



at a low temperature and separated from the stearine, substantia
described.


(6) The bAtter-lie prodt proded by the agitation of leoman






Water or milk, substantially as above described.
(7) The treatment with artificial gantrie juice for facilitating the pro
dering the fat at a low temperature, substantially as above descb


















W, d4, I,
(8) The treatment of the m leomargarine with the mammary tibsse of
mammary peptin, substantially as above described.
( o) The addition of ordinary butter to oleomargarine, substantially a


Witn esses:



William E. Andre, No. 153,999, dated Augu 11, 18174.
The process, herein described, for rendering fatb consisting in the


of dry heat or dry hot air to liquefy, and pressure to separate,
tion from the membrane, and removing the liqrid portions fromc

William E. Andreiv, No. 166,955, dated August 24, 1875.




mation takes place.





The process of making artificial butter by mixing together oleine an
from animal fats, and from fruit and vegetable nuts, and looaid a
pred crea or milk.
Willia E. Andrew, No. 179,883, dated Jul 18, 1876.38
(Mechanical.)
Alfred Springer, No. 187,327, dated February 13, 1877.


borax, and borne and salicylic acidm, withdrawing the separt

with the addition of benzoic acid.












0xig first heated the mass to a higher point, for the purpose of removing
tamembrane from the stearine and oleine.
W.Bamd, No. 198,334, dated December 18, 1877.
Iletho of eclaiming sour 11tubby," or rancid butter, which consists in treatin.,
te ssne with a solution of brine containingr an alkaline carbonate mixed
wiha solution of tartaric acid, or its equivalent.
Ti~og P. Wlkins, No. 226,467, dated April 13, 1880.
Buttr cotaining metaphosphoric acid intimately incorporated there with, where-
bthe butter is preserved.
Otto BosIs, N. 236,483, dated January 11, 1881.
Procss f mnaking a substitute for butter, consisting in adding to oleomargarine
anakaline solution, and agitating the mixture until partial saponification
enus, and then adding a minute quantity of butyric acid.
Thoma F. ilkin, 1No. 9,892, reiassued, dated October 11, 1881.
The mehod herein described of preserving fats and other organic. matter by
chanically mingling phosphoric acid therewith.
Samue B. Cctrar, No. 258,992, dated June 6, 1882.
The cobination of beef-suet oil, cotton-seed oil and its equivalents, purified and
favred as described, with beef-stearine and slippery-elmn bark.
Rs-polye Mge, No. 10,137, rei88ucd, dated June 13, 1882.
Treainganimal fats so as to remove the tissues and other portions named, with
owithout the addition of substances to chiange the flavor.
SamuelH.Cchran, No. 10,171, rei d, dated August 1, 1882.
A combnation of beef-suet oil, cotton-seed oil and its equivalents, with beef-
stearine.
&nxe H.Cocran, No. 262,207, dated August 8, 1882.
Compoun composed of the oil obtained from swine fat, cotton-seed oil and its
euvalents, deodorized and purified by alippery-elmi bark and beef-stearinle.
No. 263,042, dated Auguat 22, 1882.
The vegtable stearine to be used can be obtained from any pure vegetable, seed,
ornt oils by pressing them at a temperature as above set forth, or it may be
otaied in the market at times as vegetable stearine.
Mixig 11vegetable sterine 11or 11margarine "obtained substantially as described,
wit what is called 11animal oleomargarine" and emiulsionizing the -said mixt-
uewith milk, cream or other watery fluid.
Nathan L atha, No. 263,199, dated August 22, 1882.
proessof manufacturing artificial butter by uniting oleomargarine with leaf
lr, the latter having been previoumly cleaned, fused, strained, and sub.
jete to a washing action in a solution of water, borax, and nitric acid, then
reashed and the united mass heated and subjected to the ordinary churning
oeation.
Gearg S. arshall, No. 264,545, dated September 19, 1 W.
proessof deodorizing, purifying and flavoring 6'earine obtained from animal
ft, or vegetable oils, by boiling the same with water and mnixing therewith
,odered orris-root.
Wiljai Coley, No. 264, 516, dated September 19, 1882.
An atifcial cream cmDDosd of an oleaginous substance mechanically blendedp
ootherwise incorporated with milk, buttermilk, or cream, the oleaginous
matrial being in a state of minute and even division, and each particle en-
owd in a coating of caseinc.










const in treating in the manr de bed both the milk
treated milk with the prepared leomargarine oil, and colori,,



Hgo Berthold, Wio. 266,417, dated Octoiber 24, 188.
A coloring compound for admixture with oleomagarine oil after t
ing operation, consisting of leacharine matter, glycerine, ana
beni mixed togther.
eorge H. Webster, No. 266,568, dated October 24, 1882.

ntowihf us ur first ...... W !
Process of making artificial butter, which consists in minutely div




rendering and straiing it, mixing a btter-coloring matter w
termilk, a small quantity of clariied tallow, and a minute qu
sin) and allowing the mixture to settle; then tranaferring

of the lard, thoroughly mixing the contents of the vessel by



iA g the mixture into cold water, and thoroughly working
manner.
William H. Burnett, No. 266,580, dated October 24, 1883.




with cooked farinaceous four.





Ocar H. Combe, No. 266,777, dated October 31, 1882.

An improved article of commere known as buttrod, and consis
enry B. Wright, No. 267,37, dated November 14, 182.
Process of making artiial butter or creaminewhichconsistin




Joseph H. McDonald, No. 270,454, dated January 9, 1883.

John Hobbs, No. 271,239, dated January 30, 1883.

John -Hobbs, No. 271,240, dated January 30, 1883.










f refning te, which cons in tly grinding the fat of the l
f the hog, xing it thoroughly with salt, placing it in tanks of cold water







Stwo or three days, when it worked over, as described, then rendering







fom animal oi80 it at a low temperature, and as qctekly as possible, with or without adding
the solution mentioned, then drawing it of from the tissue, clarifying it and

















oroxylinctheusooromploy tof the.u
again drawing it off and coling it.


:onsists in mixing therewith in the manner above described a quantity of
dairy or creamery butter in its normal or hard condition.
H. Cochran, No. 2&5,973, dated October 2, 1883.



SChase, No. 2r6,778, dated October 16, 1883.f
Themethodherein described of anfacturino butter from animal oils, said
method consisting in sobjecting the oils to a low temperature, and at the
same time agitating them, both during the process of solidifying and after-
wards.

emanufacture of deodorized fats or oline, the use or employment of the

other ingreents named--oleomargarinetearie and leomargarine-stock.i



ami ting the particles.ortio t and




bonate potassin alum, and butter.i

C sting in mingling two bodies of cream of diferent age, then churning the











(Mechanical.)








ents by injecting a steam jet into the mixture.












allowed com n sn m h cd in ahis c4 ris u



A lthough numerous patents have been taken out for the maanndature of imitation
bster, a ten et o e in the specitions, th





o th woletiow out into t1 k I w
hprocess as now conducted is comparatively simple. The aw materials are beef-





tallow, leaf-lard n th, best quality of butter, toeher wi allamounts of milk
or crea and of butter-color.
From the beef-tallow is prepared th oleoargar oil of M6ge. The caul fat of




freshly killed beeve s is, after thorough washing r in topid and then in iced water





allowed to stand in a o ld room until thorougly old. It is then rendered em
perature between 1300 and 1750 F. The resulting oil is allowed to cool slowly until

paty mass is then subjected to hydraulic pressure. The still (about twothirds









of the whole) flows out into a tank of cold water, where it s a gr lar
romass which is known in the a as oleo oil or simply oleo. The name ol"
is somewhat misleading, as the product is a granular solid of a slightly yellow Color.









Set rl lr neut the ra a a r anular soli of a white color.
oThe objects of this treatment are twofold: fikrst, to produce fat as free as possible





batfr taso ba co rmo propond, ioto r te s aesible steare a
the oleo"and neflaoutral", the proaortions varin according tothe destinationo





iproduct; a war cadil at caih for mor "oleo," a cold one for more neutral, a
to flavor the mixture with butter. This flavoring is condted in large, steam







jacketd two rdvesse ofv whichh eit coonl y in solad, can be



ag i thus de Aby Mr. Ph ilip A .
thoroughlt t si ated. Here cattle n oleo, and neutral"ar melted and thoroughly


agitated with a certain proportion of ilk, or sometimes of cream, and a proper
istated to be a common nproportion. After suffcient agitation, the melted mass s run
saino cold wat, and as iSt cools is broken u by padles so as to granulat a e te
After thorouh washing, it is msalted and worked exactly lik butter. The product
is known as oleomargarine. Although it contains hardly more than a trace of butter

iwel it ight readily pass with an inexpertfor careless cosumer for a rather flavorles's
butter. Oleomargarine is the cheapest product mase. Byadding to the material in
the agitator or i clurn k more or less pure butter, what isknown as btitterine is pro-





duced, two grades of which are cobaionly sold, vi, dreamery btterine" containg
ing more, and "dairy butteripe" contaiping le.s butter.
The fat is taken from the cattle in the rocess o slaughtering, and after thorough.,











'J 8cnato lMis. Doc. No. 131, F"orty-hintih Congress, first session, p. 224.








In j,,daking lintterine we use neutral lard., which is made from selected lea lard in a
ilar manner to oleo oil, excepting thaiit no sterine is extrcted. This




th cases color matter used, which is the same as that used by dairymen
rthei butter. At certain, seasons of the year, viz, in cold weather, a small
y of salad oil made from cotton seed is used to soften the texture of the prod-
net, but this is not generally used by us.
tavus F.Swift, of the firn of Swift & Co., of the town of Lake (near
), describes as follows the met'iod in use in the manufacture of
a ial butter by his company:
attle in t p of slaughterig, and after thorough
a of n, water ad surrounded with ice, where it is
Sto r in util all been removed. It is then cut into small
ymachinery and cooked a temperature of about 1500 until the fat in liquid
Sseparated from the fbrne or tissue; then settled until it is perfectly clear.
is dr to ing vats and allowed to stand a day, when it is ready for
ses. The pressing extracts the stearine, leaving te remaining product,
Scommercially known as oleo oil, which, when churned with cream or milk,
, and with usually a proportion of creamery butter, the whole being properly
gives the new food product, oleomargarine.
e we e neutral lar, which is made from seected laf-la in
imilar ma r to olo oil, excepting that no stearine is extrcted. This neu-
Sis ured in salt brine for forty-eight to seventy hours at an ice-water tem-
SI en, and with the desired proportion of oleo oil and ine but-
ed with crea and milk, producing an article which, when properly
ad packed, is ready for market.
th cases coloring matter is used which is the same as that used by dairymen
their btter. At certain seasons of the year, viz, in cold weather, a small
y of seame oil, or slad oil made froin cotton seed, is used to soften the texture
oftt th thu u

WHOLESOMENE8 OF ARTIFICIAL BUTTER.

his subject there, is a wide difference of opinion. It is undoubt-
re that a great deal of artificial butter has been thrown upon the
Sthat has been carelessl made, and therefore harmf to the
a butter substitte, mde cefll out of
t of a perfectly healthy bullock or swine, is not prejudicial to

.E Henry Morton, of the Stevens Institute, Iloboken, N. J., made
lowing statements before the Senate Committee on Agriculture,
g the consideration of the Oleoargarin bill
ubject is one which hbeenof great intrt to all scienti n front t
the original discovery by NM 'ge, which was made, as you are aware,durlug
t sie of Paris. Many persons e been itereted in it and have followed it )up.
I >haveeb~mn frequently called upon to (mine prot s and superintend olerationN
where iodificationtB in the manufutur. have been suggesited, and so on, and IP ei-
e been broght to me a i cheist, to examine o time to time microscopic-








iat and c a lly. Whe thwe flsubance wasawf first laoea qei wa s
raised as to whether it dcould be distinga:bId from butter by any test, anc I was



in that way to investigate the subject, and o tto all thproperties w
it ex ibited as wei t as to compar e difeet s s of i, ad I he in m



and see the operation from inning to end, o what was pt in and what
not, and to observe what was done and what was not done.
In the course of these examinations I have reached the conclusio nded on
observations, that the material is of necessity, a pure one, and annot sibly be
wholesome, and is, in fact, in that sense a thoroughly desirable and safe article of f
I will express as briefly as I can my reasons for this opinion, and state the fact
which they are founded.
In the first place I have found, as a mattr of o rvation, that fat which i t
used in the manufacture of oleoma rgrie, f it is in the sii
fore the manufacture begins, if it is not strictly fresh, if it is not taken almost dire
from the slaughtered animal, if it is allowed to stand in a
ordinary weather or in cold weather, if put in a barrel w
a few hours, then an incipient change begins which, in the suceeding process, is
aggerated so that an utterly offensive material is proded, which could not be
for any such purpose.
Prof. C. F. Chandler says:
In all of these reports I have taken the ground that thisi w process for ma
an old article, and that article is butter. This is a new p
is made of materials which are in every respect wholesome and
whether it be made solely from the oleomargarine extracted from beef fat, or
it has added to it more or less leaf lard properly prepared, or more or less se
or cotton-seed oil, and whether it be or not colored with anao or he oher colo
matters used. I take the ground that there is nothing in any one of these mate
in any sense unuwholesome, and nothing in any one of them wich makesitin
as an article of food to dairy butter. I regard the discovery of Mgeouries
process by which beef fat and hog fat can be extracted from a
verted into a wholesome article of food free from any disagreeable tast or odo
one of the rost important discoveries made in this century, a i
is possible to make a perfectly pare and satisf~ctory, as well as
food at a reasonable price. I have visited various factorieswh
ufactured, from the time the industry began down to date. I am perfectly fam
with the materials employed and the difernt processes, an d know there is not
whatever used either in material or process which is unwholosomor in any way
terious to the public health.
Professor Chandler further hs reported as follows to the Boar



response to the resolutions of the Board of I wo l
following report:
The resolutions directing the inquiry are as follows:
Whereas there is existing at the presnt time in the d of th public g
alarm and distrust in relation to the adulteration of food produts; and

Op. oi t. ,p. 67. 2 Op. cit.. n.70,






...i. i... .....A .. . ; ; 5| J B;; .. ...

Whereas the committee on- public health of the assebly of this State has been
for ame time investigating the. adulteration of food products, and especially oleomar-
o bg, anwd
hereas this committee have conducted ch investigation by calling as witnesses
pallyealersin btter and have not examined as witnesses medical or chemical

lved, That the board of health of this city be, and they are hereby iequested
direced o ake immediae measresto ivestiate in the most thorough manner,
by medical and emical aid, the purity, healthfulness, and value of said product as
an article of food, and to report to this body the reits of their investigation, with
ch recommendations, if any be necessary, as may relate to the manufacture and dis-

before the board on forer occasions, a I have little to add

Oleomargarine, invented by the distinished French cheist, Mg-ouries, is
maufactured in New York City in a few large establishments n The material i fresh
beef et, brought directly from the slaughter-houses. Itis thoroughly washed, ren-
dered very careflly, strained to remove a portion of the hard stearine, and then
d wh m to convert it into artificial butter, which contains the same con-
iuen. as dairy btter The process is extremely ingenious and simple and exe-
Sb machin Nothin obectioable exists in the original material, nor is
anything objeionable added during the process, and the operations are conducted
withthe utmost cleanliness. The product is palatable and wholesome, can be made
of form quality the year round, is in every respect superior as an article of food to
Sp of dary butter sold in this city, and can be manuactured at a much
it aa ost valuable article offoodand consider t entirely n-
exceptional in every respect. In this opinion I am supported by the best scientific
athcotry. The following distinguid achmist, afr cafuy study-
ig the manufacture, have made the most decided statements in favor of this new
artilet of food:


Prof Cdwell, Cnell Unive rsit, Ithaa, N. Y.
Prof. W. Johnson, Yale College, New Haven, Conn.
Prof. C. A. Gosma, Massachusetts Aricultural College, Amherst, M .
Prof. Henry Morton, Stevens Institute, Hoboken, N. J.
Prof. C Parles P. Williams, Philadelphia, Pa.
Prof. W. Atwater, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn.
Prof. J. W. Arnold, University of New York.
I would ther say that ths question is one on which there is no difference of
opinion among scientific investiators familiar with the chemistry of dairy poducjts
aI have never seen a statement emanating from any person having any
itandi 11og scientific men in which a contrary opinion is advanced. There has
recently been a very strong confirmation of my opinion published in England. A
bill came before the House of Commons in England, directed aainst this kind of
butter from America, and, after considerable discussion, was defeated by a vote of
75 to 5. In the discussion the strongest opponent to legislation against it was
.Dr. Lyon Playfair, one of the most distinguished chvinimts and sanitary authori-
tiinEgland. A pupil of Gra and Lebig, hle hastilled the chairs of chemistry
in the Royal Institution of Mancester and at e University of Edinrgh W -
pointed chemit to the Musem of Practical Geology by Sir obert Peel, represented
the universities of Edinburgh and Aberdeen in Palament, was postinaster-general in
the first Gladlstone cabinet, has 1been mber of several sanitary comninissions, and is
nowa leading eberof Parliament. In hi reark hie stated that bad butter was
a fraud upon the poor, and oleomargarine would soonr or later drive it out of the






20 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.
said. that "as general rule. the former (ollargarie) did not become sra













i he.In th h
rancid as the latter (butter)."
I utiild furtr state tat, as is n i un
lewislation in rsard to this article is neces to p t te p i







Cof F.I CHANDIno
Prof. G. F. Barker sy:of


To the United States Dairy Co1mpany:
G TLME: In reply to your inquiry, would ay that I have bnacqua
e veral years with the discovery of WgeMouri for prod
margarine fat. Intheor the process ould yield a productrombng b














Tfor oe r ewh
Cossential respects, having identically ae fatty
pared under the inventor's patents is, therefore, in myin io, quite as val
nutritive get as butter itslf. practice the process of ufactr as
witnessed it is conducted with care and great clanlinn
is pure and of excellent quality, is peorfqctly whlesoe, a i i ie
of food. I ca see no reason why butterine shohuld not he an etirely sati
equivalent for ordinary butter, whther cosidered from the physiological
mercial standpoint.

Prof. G. C. Caldwel of Cornell Uiverity, gi








niony : by the
CJ"MICAL LAjBRAT0RY, CORNELL UNLVERSIT
1 thaea, N. Y., ilarch 20, 880.
I have witnessed ia all it stages, the maanfacture of "i
mrartriue butter or butterine."


reasonable precaution necessary to secure a product entirely free from anioi
S ot ener al otr ipuity, and whic h rl coasis u oft j i a Ip of the f
llonuly known as oline and Iargarino. It is, when thus prprd, a tasteless
dorou ssubstaice, possessing no qualities whatever that caln mak it i tho leat
uniwholesomie when used in reasonable quantities as an article of food.
In he mjanufacture ofR butterin, since nothing but milk, aotto, and salt,
with, perhaps, a little water from clea ice, are added. to this comargari ob

alflrmiug that this also, when properly made according to the Mwo patent, a







PdUrof. S. W. John ) o .w Wre ol m~e t
patents held by the United States Dairy Com pany, and who used in re
fquantities, is a perfectly wholesome article of food ; and that, while notequal ofn
butter in respect to flavor, it nevertheless contains all the esson tial ingres
butter, and since it contains a smaller proportion of volatile fats than is f
igenuine butter it is, in my opinion, less liable to become rancid.
It cannot enter into competition with fl e buttor; but i so far s it may
drive poor butter out ofthe market, its tanufacture will be a public benefit.





G T: I am aquainted with the processicoered by M. for
illu thie art 7icle n kl il Ill l0conjerce0 aiL oleomargrllne or baitteril .






ARY RODUCT.21


aid I can aer that when it is codte to the specifications of M.6e
Scannot to yield a product that is entirely attractive and wholesome as food, and
onw that A all ordinary culinary and nutritive purposes the fall equivalent of good
batter made from in the
external q t -olor, flavor, and texture. It has the same appearance under the
composition der not in the ature, but only in the
proportions of its components. It is, therefore, fair to pronounce them essentially


t is, perhaps fr that very reason, comparatively free f the
tendency to change and taint, which speedily renders a large proportion of butter
nfit for human food.of
Su of oleomargarine or butteri as a legitimate and ne-

S. W. JOHNSON,
SProfe r of Theoretical and Agricultural Chemistry,

Director of the Connecticut Agricultural Eperiment Statio).
Dr. A. Goesmann of Amherst, indorses in general the above

ited StatesA Dairy Copany, New York: A%1RST, MASS., March 20, 1880.
: Ihave visitedon the 17th and 1h of the present onth your factory,
on West Forty-eighth street, for the purpose of studying your mode of applying
M es discovery for the manufacture of oleomargarine butter or butterine. A care-
ful examination into the character of the material turned to account, as well as into





it keeping quality, under correspnding circumstances, I believe it
hamfor conais a smaller percentage of those contient
e deal volatile acids) which, itn the main, ca the well-known rancid tste

i very fiarabywtfuhlhly, youvra, o13 of0 tkfhd
tC. A. GOESSMmaANN, Pt. I).,
Prof esor of aqIlie vitr.
I m dd th n of Prof. Charles P. Williams, f o the
i of MisIouri, Dr. Ilery MoAt, jr., Prof W. 0. At wa ter,
and Prof. J. W. S. Arno.
Armsy says in respet of the hiealth ness of oleowm rgarine:
Very exaggerated a absurd stat~ents have been inile re dng the unhealt.
fulneof butterine and oloarari. chage hae in geeral been th the
fat used is practically uncooh-ked, ald that raw animal fat is nnwholesme; that filth
fat ar s an t the prodt ontains, or is liahil
to contain, the grm i; and that In ileansing these di as d mul lilthy faits
dangerouschemicalsare used, which are not suolequen-ly c Inipletely\ removed.
That the fatuunwdhareof themseltehMhere is no proof w hatever. They
contain nothing tihat buttr-ft does not lalso contlaini, and dillr fromt it only by the
abauce of about percevi. of the glyceride of vartainsol-ble fat ty aivsii, V.i caprinic.

1 *citpI 7 74i7r llp, 73, o,





* JS "MM S .. ... **liS". JS I Ji'SSI "B^-W iiiA -: nUJ;' IB ;; llULjii. i WW.Jk JL i i ,; "jimiL. iiai "
22 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

ScapryliE, caproni, and bi aci. The only experiments n thi ii:iigesti

difference of only about 2 perceut. in favor of butter. Tha higher a
batter acting upon the nervous system would give it a greater nutritive value t
,.the flavorless neutral or oleo 1 my be conc ,eded; but that an a le,, w h
experts fail to distinguish from -genuine butter is at any se s disadvantagth
respect may well be doubted.
The manufacturers claim that imitation butter can only be made from the
quality of fat from freshly-killed animals, and Iknow of noevidee which
their assertions, The sensational arile recently published in a prominent agil
ural paper in the Northwest, accompanied by cuts of the um rs organisms f
in butterine, is of no sinificance in this connection,
scribed ar all harmless, and because no comparative examinations of genuine
were made. It is ighly probable t many samples of
miscellaneous an assortment of formidable looking,
butterine.
On the other hand, however, there is at present no g
of the maniufacturers, that diseased is not or cannot be
iug conducted entirely without any ofil inpection, and
all) cases exluded. I believe that the chances of d being
are small, but they are not yet prod to be non-existent.
As regards filth processes of manufacture, it may sa
could not successfully imitate butter were it not as clean as most things are w
pass for clean in this dirty world.
The chre that dangeros chemicals are used in the man
of in a few words. If a dangerous amount of any chemical w
used were left in the finished product the latter would be inedible. Should tra
these chemicals be found their significance would not lie in t e, but
dication they would furnish that the original fats were impure an require che
treatment.
Sell' has made an examination of the evidence for ind aainst th
wholesomeness of artificial butter and has reached
clusions :
The artificial butter prepared from the fat of healthy ani
a mewhat less ditiility, in comparison with milk-butter
reason for the supposition that it can affect inju riously hu
There is ground for the suspicion that a part of the rtificial butter occurri
o r ' , ..^ ,, '" :; i, :; ,,, ii"
commerce is manufactured out of such material or by such processes as do not
certainty excude the danger of co veying to man disease wh
table spores or animal parasites.
There is ground for suspicion that a part of h artificial b
eating substances.
The possibility of injury to health from a carelessly-prepared artif
butter must not be neglected.
Dr. Thomas Taylor presented this aspect of the ce to the Sena
Committee.
It has already been mentioned that in the earlier processes emple
in the manufacture of artificial butter te tomacs of sheep and
were digested with the fats empIloyed.
Arbeien a. d. Kaisrlichen eitsate, pp. 494, 500.
'20. ci. pp. 42-46 and 273-4.











By disting a pure animal fat with the chopped-up tissues of the
ers of cows he athor found a marked chemical change produced.
omargarille.or tallow when treated in this, way .give rise to both
ble and volatile fatty acids. in both milk and butter contain a
tain amount of mammary tisse, in the formof fcats from the mam
y glands, it is believed that they also would exert an influence on
al fat. Butter appears to act more vigorously than milk in this
y, probably beause it contains a larger percentage of mammary


NUTRITIVE VALUES OF BUTTER AND OLEOMARGARINES.

Sthis bject Atwater has collected valuable information he says:
he vale of butter as of any other food material for nourishment, depends upon
amounts of its ntritive ingredients, their digestibility, and their uses in the nu-

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION.
he food values of real and imitation butter, as compared with eac other and
Sother food materials ca be best shown by first comparing their composition.
appearsthat the nutrients of the leaner kinds of meat and fish consist mostly
protein, that the fatter meats and fish contain considerable fat with the pro-
,thatthevegetable foods have for the most part very little fat, and abound
eially in arbohydrates, while the nutriments of butter and oleomargarine con-
almost exc vely of fat. Indeed, the protein and carbohydrates in both must
garded as impurities. The quantities of fat are shown by analysis to be very
Sthe same in both.
DIGESTIBILITY.
garding the relative digestibility of butter and oleomargarine the experimental
athandaremeager.They imply, as would be expected from the composition, that
e i very little difference between the two. The study of the question is rendered
cult by the fact that what is ordinarily called the digestibility of a food includes
ral different things, the case with which it is digested, the time required for di-
ing it, and the proportion of its several constituents that are digested.
tothecomparative ease and time of digestion of butter and oleomargarine
ing is definitely known, though there is little ground for assuming that, i the
entary canal of a healthy person, at any rate, one would be digested and taken
the circulation much more readily than the other. The actual amounts digested
capable of more nearly accurate experimental estimate. During the past few
s very many experiments have been made, in Germany especially, to test the
utities of the more important constituents of different foods digested by domestic
nals, and a considerable number have been carried out with men and children.
Th only comparative experiments on the digestibility of butter and oleomargarine
at have bn reported ro two series conducted by 'rofssor Mayer, a Gea
nist. One series was with a full-grown man and the other with a boy of nino
rs of age, both strong, healthy persons. The outcome was that both the man and
boy digested from 97.7 to 9.4 per cent. of the fat of the butter, and from 9 to
per cent. of te fat of the oleomaarine. The average difference was about 1.6
Oent. in favor of the butter. There are, however, certain unavoidable sourees of

1Analyst, 1883et ,. radstreet's, Saturday, June 19, 18".






24 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

error in ch experiments, and it is very probable that the proportions tally i

persons may have digested practically all of the fat of the batter, and all bt I or
per cent. or even less of that of the oleomargarine. In these experiments the butt
and oleomargarin were eate with bread, cheese, white of eggs, potatoes, pesa
sugar.
The digestibility of butter has in t r t t
ments. Thus Dr. Rubner, in Munich found ta
ter, brea, and meat digested 97.3 per cent. t toa a
bulk ame froim the butter. In sot. me exprim ts b
a diet of fish (haddock) and butter, 91 per cent. of the total fat, nearly all ofw
came from the butter, was found to e ig ested.
The experiments of Ruber and myself were condted in the same manner
those of Mayer, and exposed to the same slight sour~es of error. The resut of l
of them are just what would iaturally be expected,
the fat of butter and of oleomarmarine is digested in a
It might seem that the relative digestibility of the two materials could be test
by experiments in artificial digestion; that is to say, by treating both tan
with digest ive flunid, or with materials similar to them and observing the re
Such experiiiints are not accurate tests of the actual digestibility of the subst
in the body, since the conditions which obtain in the aientary na
actly imitated by any artificial means which physiologiical chemistry has yet s
gested. Professor Mayer, taking into account that the fat are more or less split
in the process of natural digestion, has made some experins to tt he co
tivo readiness with which butter and oleomargarin are split up, an f a
slight diffeence in favor of butter. As the result of all his he
that, while the butter appears to be a little more digestible than ole,
difference is too small to be of practical conseq ce for he y p A
same time there may be cases, especially those of invalids and children
nursing period, when butter would be preferable; but, considering simply the n
tive values for ordinary use, Professo r considers the c e b
to be essentially one of comparative cost, an opinin from whih t i s f
am aware, scarcely any dissent among those who have devotedost study tot
class of subjects.
It is a common and perhaps correct theory, though it lacks
tion, that the flavor of the fats peculiar to butter may in some
for nutriment. But granting this to be true, it would be hard re t
sume that a difference in flavor which even experts may fail to detect could mak ny
considerable difference in the nutritive efect of two substance otrwi so si
as real and imitation butter.
To recapitulate briefly, butter and oleomargarine have very nearly the same chen
cal composition; in digestibility there may be a slight bla0ce in
though for the nourishment of eialthy persons this diferenea b
considerable consequence; for supplyinig the body wi th h
which i their chief use in nutrition, they are of pratically equal value, exlli
in this respect all other comon food materials. at a
unanimous testimony of the latest and best experimental re
While it is true that chemical analysis and certain digestive expier






demonstrate.


















Washington, March 4, i187.
your r of lst in~s a I havo the honor to setat that there are
hn d in the fwoture of artificial butter now in opera-



faotories.
..... Ceve nd i .... ............. 3













mK ................... Pittsburgh,IPa ........................ !
mb d s . .. . .I Alleghcny, P .1......................
S....................... 2 'rovid nce, I ... I 3
3 Pawtuck R ........................ 2

The two hundrf and fifty-nine who lesale dealers in the United States, lo-
.Uet in 1he Unised S e o f


No.of No. of




D nr C l ....................... 2 Salt af ke, UN. ....................... 1
S................. 1 o, ...... ............ I
K k m Ind ..---------------------1 Jer ey C it ........................ :
Armt A s .,..................... I Pi ttebrg, PN. e ............... ....... 1








C mi dge M s --. ---..........------- .- I airbank, Ari .................... .
D, N 2 : - -........................ 4 Sa-.- O gv pnc N. Y ....... .. *
.................... 1 t O i ........ .... .... ..... 2
...........it P ................... I
S......................... 2 Woosocke, .I .......... ..... 1
....-.................... 1 Memphis, Tcnn.................. .. 8

N w or ............ ennison, T x........................ .
ee arn...0.....................n. e Milwake, is...... .......t.......... 3

o1 o t hMa ........... ......... 3
FortSmi, A k... ........................ N J ........................ I
to ....................... N h 1


......................in i h ..................... 1
e v Col ....... ................... 4 Sa t l in ................ 2
c o ill .......................1 iel e r, M o t......... ......... .
Atlna ............................. 1 Y son .o .... .............. 1
n le I I ....... .................. 1 2 t








n i .. .... ................ I o e N .................... 1
Caro ,1 N wlkl N. J 2s,. ....................
Elwioodrea1 M. t P s, Al To ex N. 1 v.......... I
l 3 p Texp ....... NY --....................








New Oleans, La p ..................... 5 nnison, pTex .........................p I

Lowi lell, Mass .. .. 3 littsharhWis ........................ 1I
S C ...................... I w t i ...................... 1








B uenca on c . .. .. .I Vast A nt n io ...................
H*art*ord CondA naich ................. .,,, I
Nowa vnit, L p. .. p 1 1: bVa Mic ................. .i
L tpo, Co l ....... ......... ..S in 2 Paukh in ...... ......... I
O manvill, NI ll................ ...... .. .Pl .1S 1,01 UM I ...







~sp~l;*i~i II11 L1~+111111~lile a ~ ~l c.......... ..... .Iil









pound during mthe months of November and December, 1886, and January, 1887i
follows:

Novem ber ..-- - .-- - .... .- .- - .....6
December..............................................................
January ----------------------------------------- .... ... ............ 2. 1
T otal. -------- ----------------------------------------------------... 10, 2 6

The quantity exported from the United States durineriod above, all
tions being from the port of New York, is as follows:
~~~Novem ber --- ..- .- :- .- .- . .-- .-- -- -- -- -- -- --- --.. 3 2.47

January .................................................................
T otal. . ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------- ------- ---- ---.114.69
Respectfully,
i 'JOS S. MILL;ER,

lon. N. J. OLMAN,
Commissioner of Agricdlture, Waehington, D. C.

COLORING MATTERS IN BUTTE.

The pure animal fats, prepared in the manner described, are
colorless. The tint of genuine butter i iimparte to
various coloring matters. The principal artificial colors whi
been employed are:
Annotto (Bii.a orellana).
Turmeric (Curcuma longa and viridiflora).
Saffron (dried stigmas Crocus sativus).
Marigold leaves (Calendula officinalis).
Yellow wood ,Morus tinctoria).
Carrotjuice (Dauc s carota).
Chrome yellow (PbCrO4)
Dinitrocressol-kalium.

ANNOTTO.

This substance is used more than any other in imparting to a
butter a yellow tint. Indeed it is used to color genuine butte
often in winter is almost white in its natural state.
The coloring substance called annotto, aruatta, or roucou is th reddish
rounding the seeds in the frit of Bixa orellana, a middling-sized tree gr
Guiatp and other parts of South America. The pulp is separated by br
fruit, mixing it withli water, then straining through a sieve, and allowing
to stand till the undissolved portion subsides. The water is then poed of
mass which remains, having been sufficiently dried, is formed into flat cakes
drical rolls and sent into the market. Anotherode is to bruise the ,
with watr, and allow the mixture to ferment. The coloring matter i
during the fermentation, after which it is removed and. In comme
are two kinds of annotto the Spanish or Brazilian and Frenc, the former






DAIRY PRODUCTS.

b ets Brail, the latter in casks from French Guiana. The French, which is
alme called flag annotto, has a disagreeable smell, probably from having been prepared
bythefermentingprocessbut is superior as a dye-stuff to the Spanish, which is with-
t any agreeable odor Anntto is of a brownish red color, usually rather soft
but hard and brittle when dry, of a dull fracture, of a sweetish peculiar odor, and a
sh tte. It is in able, but does not melt with eat. It
s in water, to which it imparts a yellow color, but does not dissolve. Alcohol,
er the oils, and alkaline solutions dissolve the greater part of it. It contains a
perystallizabl coloring principle, to which M. Preisser, its discoverer, gave
It is frequently adulteted with red ocher, powdered bricks, col-
th fainaceous substances, chalk, sulphate of calcium, turmeric, &c. The min-
eral tnces if present, will be left behind when the annotto is burned.'

SAFFRON.

affron has a peculiar, sweetish, aromatic odor, a warm, pugent, bitter taste, and
a rich deep orae color, which it imparts to the saliva when chewed. The stigmas
t co are an inch or more in lenth expanded and notched at the up-

yellowish portion, forming a part of the style. When hewed it tinges the
v dp orange-yelow. Saffron sould not be mixed with the yellow styles.
When pressed between filtering paper it should not leave an oily stain. When soaked
in water it colors the liquid orange-yellow, and should not deposit any pulverulent
r nor show the presence of oganic substances differing in shape from
that described.2
Adulteration Of afron.-Saffron is often adulterated with cheaper yellow vegeta-
ble colorin matter, turmeric, annotto, the flowers of the marigold (Calendula offici-
alls), artamus flowers, the flowersof Arnica montana, OolymiWn hispanica, Pith-
aria dynterica, Ptnica granatm, Pwonia, Crocue rue)u, &c.3
the ariold flowers ae perhaps the mt commoly used. They have a
natural yellow color, and when they are saturated with carmine or aniline red, and
dried, tey po a striking similarity t the genuine saffron. If they are put for
Sew miutes in water, however, they assume their original form, and are then easily
distinguised from the stigas of the saffron flower.
If a mixture of saffron stigmas and the substitutes just mentioned be
t into a vessel of water where the individual pieces are widely sepa-
ted the sa n stigmas soon become surrounded with a yellow ex-
while the othe sffer no chane or impart only a weak carmine
tint to the water.
Th use of mineral coloring matters like the chromate of lead is highly
ible from a sanitary point of view.
A tto and saffron in butter may be detected by the following
pro by Cornwal:
Sgras of the ar filtered fat are dissolved in about 50c of ordinary ether
tube, and the solution is vigorously shaken for ten to fifteen seconds wit
12 to 15c. of a very dilute solution of caustic potadh or soda in water, only alkaline
enough to give a distinct reaction with turmeric paper, and to remain alkaline after
ratig ro the r fat solution. The corked tube is set aside and in a few

.. Dispensatory, 572..
S. S. Dispensatory, 501.
38chimpfer, Anleit. L. Mikroakopischen Untersnchung d. Nahrungs- und Genums.

Chem. News, vol. 55, 1). 41).






28 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.


yellow by the annotto, can be drawn from beneath the other with a pipette or b
> ..... .ii : .M^ .^ "^ ;iL ; Jk" YiJ -';;; .___l;;;; i ii. A ^ ___" MH^^^^S y" K tK S




stopcock below, in a ficiently clear state to be evaporated to dryness an se
the usual way with a drop of concentrated sulphuric acid.
Sometimes it is well to further purify the aqueous solution by shaking it withsoi
fresh ether before evaporating it, and any fat globules that yoat on its s
durig evaporation should be ve touching
but thesolution should not be fie the
the coloring matter.
The dry-yllow or slightly orange e t
acid, then quickly green, and finally brownish or somewhat violet (this nal chan
being variable, according to the purity of the extract).
Saffron can be extracted in the same way; it differs from an very decided
the most important difference being in the absene of
Genuine butter, free from foreign coloring matter imparts at most a very pale y
low color to the alkaline solution; but it is impor tt tonotorer
oration of the dry residue on adition of sulphuric acid inot a certain indication
annotto (as some books state) because the writer has thus obtained from geni
butter, free from foign coloring matter, a dirty green coloration, bt not preced
by any blue or violet blue tint.
Blank tests should be made with the ether; it is easy to obtain et l
nothing to be desired as to purity.
Turmeri is easily identified by the brownish to reddish s
the ethereal fat solution and the alkaline solution before they intimately mixe
It may be even better recognized by carefully bringing a febly alkaline iolation
ammonia in aloohol beneath the ethereal fat solution with a p1
ing the two, so as to mix the partially.
Martin gives a method of separating and determining artifial co
ing matters in butter. To 5 grams of fat, dry, are added 25.
the mixture well shaken with water made slightly a
or KOHI and the mixture gently shaken. The alkaliewil
solve all the coloring matter. This is now determined qalit ely
the spectros ope or quantitatively by making up a compara e mix
with th coloring matter found. Butters act better
above than oleomargarine.
The relative amount of color in butters is thus estimad by
The relative amount of color in butters mayb determined witha y a
One gram of the fresh butter is digested with 15cc. of refined kroso tl
are completely dissolved and the sotions fitered. The fil
proportion to the coloring matter of the butter, and y be cd to
from another butter or prefeorably to a standard solution by means of a Dabsq
colorimeter. A standard color for comparison may be prepared by adding sm
quantity of any of the commercial butter color to kro e oil. T
keep for a long time without changing, if kept m the light.
The scale of the colorimeter on the side which thbutter soltio occupies is alw
set at the same degree, while the scalo for the other standard is ma variable.
reading of this side will, therefore, vary with the amount of color in the sample.
If some of the kerosen oil in which the buters are dissolved be btit d
the solution of butter, a small reading will be obtaid which d e

Analyst, 1885, p. 163.
2 Fiff An. tepn't B'd (Control, N. Y. Enx. Sta., pn. 33-33.





DAIRY PRODUCTS.29

from that for each of the butters. Thnumbers remnalining are directly proportional
to the colors of -the butters. In the btters thus far examined d fair colored Jersey
better was taken for a standard and called 100. The others were calculated to this
at*ndard from the scale reading.
The ue of a small amount of eetable colorig matters mentioned
above does not seem to be prejudicial to health.

EXAMINATION OF BUTTERS.

The examiation of butters to etect adulterations may be divided
into two parts: (1) Deterination of physical properties; (2) deter-
mination of chemical properties.
Physical properties.-The physi properties of fats which are useful
in butter analysis are their crystalline state, specific gravity, and melt-

Pure fresh btter prepared in the ordinary manner is not crystalline.
The microscope shows the bsence of all forms of crystalline structure,
ad thi films of the butter fat have no influence whatever on polarized

On the contrar, old butters, or butters which have been melted and
allowed to crystallize and oils and fats which have been once in a fluid
state showas solids, quite a distinct crystalline structure readily re-
aled by the microscope and affecting, in a marked manner, the po-

Recently much attention has beun excited by a discussion of the ap-
plication of polarized light to the qualit.ative examination of suspected
butters n since any aalysts have not the time to fully investigate
this matter I have thought it useful to enter upoa the discussion of it
in considerable detail.
Polarization is a term applied to a phenomenon of light, in which the
vibratis Of the ether ire supposed to be restricted to a particular
o fan ellipse-whose axes remain fixed in direction. If the ellipse
becomes a straight line it is called "plane polarization." This well-
known phenomenon is most easily produced by a Nicol prism, consist-
Sf a rystal of carboate of calcium (celand spar). This rhaobo-
hedral crstal,the natural ends of which form angles of 7 and 1 00,
espectively, with the opposite edges of its principal section, is prepared

The ends of the crystal are ground until the angles just mentioned
become 6 and 1120. The crystal is then divided diagonally at right
gle With the planes of the enIds a-id wih the principal section, and
after the new suraces are polished they are joined again by Canada
balsam. The principal section of this prism passes through the shorter
diagonal of the two rhonbic ends. If now a ray of light fiall on one
of the eds of this prism, parallel with the (dge of its longer side, it
suffers double refraction, each ray is plane polarize, th oe at
right angles with the other. That part of the entering ray of light





-30 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.
which is most refracted is called the ordinary and the othr the extrar

mediate between those of the rays, permits the total relection of
ordinary ray, which, passing to the blackened sides of the prism is
sorbed. The extraordinary ray passes the film of balm with
viation and emerges from the prism in a direction parallel with

Two such prisms, properly m ted, furn
polarizing apparatus. They are called the"polarie and the
lyzer, respectively.
If now the plane of vibration in em as c
with its principal section, the folowing phenomenarve
the prisms are so placed that the principal ti lie itheprol
tion of the same plane, then the extraordiary polaried ray from
polarizer passes into the analyzer, which practically may be rega
in this position as a continuation of the same prism. It happens, t
fore, that the extraordinary polarized ray passes through the anal
exactly as it did through the polarizer, and is not reflectebyt by ilm
of balsam, but emerges from the analyzer in seemingly the same
dition as from the polarizer. If now the analyzer be rotated 8
bringing the principal section again in the same plane, the same
iomenon is observed. But if the rotation be in eithr dirtion
then the polarized ray from the first prism, incident on the second
ports itself exactly as the ordinary ray, and on mtin t i
sam is totally reflected. The field of vision, therefore, is pe y
In all other inclinations of the planes of the prin l
two prisms the ray incident in the analyzer is separa
nary and extraordinary, varying in luminous intensity in proportit
the square of the cosine of the angle of the two plan
Thus by gradally turning the analyzer, the field on p
slowly from maximum luminosity to complete obscurity.
The expression "crossed Nicols" refers to the
field of vision.
eleniteplate.-In the practical application of polaiz i
amination of facts, an important use is made of a s e pe (y l
lized sulphate of calcium). A disk of selenite, interposed between
polarizer and analyzer imparts a coloration to the fd of v n
varies with the relative position of the principal sections of the
prisms.

like selenite o mica, into two rys, polarized at t a s

This fact is illustrated by passing polarized ray (f
through a very thin crystallized plate of mica or gypel
obtained by cleavage. By the double refraction of
j|||t ~~ ~ ~ s *' t~Ii "IE .''lfl.s M1" 'ss.Il FslM~l .ss





DAIRY PRODUCTS. 31
;iii , i .i. '" ! Ai- "vr i ** *

larize y is separated into two, ordinary and extraordinary. The ex-
vi to oier a greater distance, joints the ordinary
ray, after emergence, with a phase slightly different, the degree of dit-
rencedig on the nature of the lamina, the inclination of the in-
ident rt in every case t diffrence of phase can be easily
alltedndthe resultant beaof light is said to be elliptically po-
Eh of the componentsof this rayenters the analyzer and is
n e One of its elements is suppressed in the Nicol and the
c iing of vibrations in the principal plane, passes through.
t is two sets of ibrations in the same plane slightly diflerent
n p which are, therefore, in a condition to interfere and produce
SIf the sorce of light b monochromatic, when the analyzer is
rotated, only certain variations in luminous intensity widl be observed;
onthe other han, white light be employed these variations in
will gi rise to a display of colors. In order that the field of
be of a uniformi tint it is necessary that the lamina of crystal be
of uniform thickness. For ordinary use the selenite plate ik ground to
a thickness which will give green and red tints.
For rod Nicols the colors of the selenite plate appear brightest
w i is so placed that the plane of vibration in the crystal forms an
eof 450 with the plane of vibrations of the polarized incident ray.
If t seite plate is rotate in its own plane, the color appears in the
four quadrants at its maximum and disappears at intervals of 900.
If eplanes of the two Nicols are parallel, the same order of lhe-
appear as before, except that the positions of maxitumn and
minimum are reversed.
Ithe analyzer be rotated and the selenite plate and polarizer re-
ain stationary there is no effect produced, when the princil)al section
o the snite is parallel or perpendicular to the polarizing plane of
Nicol. But if this plane is inclined less than 450 to that of
the polarizer, then the selenite plate in a comlplete revolution of the
analyzer will appear four times brightly colored and four times color-
less. I adjoining quadrants the colors will he complementary. When
the Nicols are so placed as to produce the maxinum intensity of color,
f smal bi-refracting crystals be introduced at random into the field of
vision, they ill, il general, have the same effect on the plane polar-
ized ray as the selenite plate. Since the axes of these crystals may
ave ny accidental position with referencet t the planes of the Nicols,
it llos that the field of vision, which before appeared of a uniform
tint, will now become variegated, the color disappearing in some cases
nd becoming ore intense in othrs.
When a birefracting crystal is cut into lamin>,e normal to its axis,
Sappropriate tickness, it gives some peculiar phenomena when ex-
amined with polarized light. When the analyzer is perpendicular to
the polarizer, there is seen in the ordinary image a black cross, the ex.-
tence of which can be explained by the mathematical theory of polar-





32 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

ization. The arms of this cross are parallel aud perpendicular to the
primitivNe plane of polarization. Between the ars are genery to
unnd rings which present the. sucessive tints of the fringes of inte
'ri , + +



ference In the extraordinary age the order of the pheno on is
entirely reversed.
Having now briefly describ the
non which forms- the basis of the examination of butt with polar
light, I will next say something of the atre of the bstances to be
examined.
The expressions "fats" and 1oils" designate those natural products
of animals and vegetables known as glycerides. he ll onsd
ered they are the normal propenyl ethers of the fatty id, or, in other
words, compounds of the tiad alcohol, glycerine, with the fatty acids.
The term "fat" is applied to such bodies when they are solid at ordi-
nary temperatures, and "oil" when they are semisolid or liquid. Those
which are most important are:
Tri-stearin, C3H5(Clo hO2), occ rs in natural fats. It ma
tamined in a considlerable degree of purity by repeated crystallizations
from ether. It crystallizes in plates of a pearly luste. Its elti
point is 550 c.
Tri-palmitin, C3ll( (CGIH3O2)3, is found in animal fat and palm oil.
It crystallizes with a pearly luster from ether. The crysts he
melting point of fromin 500 to 660 C.

temperature it is liquid, and has a distinct and peculiarodor and taste.
Tri-olein, C (C1UOi occurs in animal fats and in al nond and
olive oil. At ordinary temperatures it is liuid, is neutral to test pa
pers, and has neither taste nor smell.
Minute uantities of trimyristin, crin, caplin, cap
also found in butter.

Pure butter fat is supposed to contain-



Other glycerides, about .....------- ------ -


Olive oil is composed chiefly of tri-palliitin and olei.
Tri-stearin is the chief constituent of mutton fat, it
quantities of olin an( l)almitin.

Beef fat has somnewlhat more palhnii itnd stearin than utton tallow.
Lard has more olein.
It is thus seep that in dealing with butter fats and their substitutes we
have to consider chiefly triolein and stearin, an,
tri-palnitin, butyri &. It follos, therefore, t t -
ences in the seeral substaces will be due to the d








ae various sources of the substances under examination would
hese differences, however, prove greater when subjected to
Ad chemical analysis than the foregoing r6sum6 of their
cal nstitution would indicate. Advantge has been taken of
erences of physical structure to discriminate between fats and
ferent origins. The specific gravity and the melting point
h two valuable points of disrimination, but both of these are
ps inferior in value to the evidence afforded by the crystalline

i obtained in various ways furnishes valuable data for discrium-
on, and if the light employed be plane polarized or elliptically
polarized by a seleite plate, these data become still more valuable.
The frst account of the use of the selenite plate in such examinations
was given by Dr. J. Campbell Brown in the Chemical News, vol. 28,
gs eteq. givesthefollowing directions for the polaro-micro-

Exaine several portion of th original sample by means of a good microscope,
sing a oefourth or onefifthinobjectglass. In butter made from ilk or cream
othing seenexceptte characteristic globules, and the granular asses of crd
ad t cubical crystals of salt. The ard fats of butter are present in the globules
a tat Of solutio, and are not recognizable in a separate form .
If tearic acid, strin or palmitin be present in separate form, they will be recog-


Other substances, such as starch flour, palm oil, corpuscles, Irish moss, coloring
matter,&c., may also be distinguibshe by the microscope as distinct from butter or

Examine the same portious with the same object-glass, together with a polariscope,
consisting of two Nicolspriss and a selenito plate. The crystals referred to polarize
ight, and when viewed by tie polariscope are distinctly defined. Particles of suet
a other fat which ave not been melted may also be distinguished by their action
n polarized light, by their amorphous form, and by their membranes.
The value of this deportmet of freshbutter fat with elliptically po-
arized light did not meet with the appreciation its merits deserved un-
il attention was again called to it by Prof. Thomas Taylor, of the De-
partment of Agriculture.
Any fat or oil which is homogeneous and non crystalline will present
te same phenomena when viewed with polarized light and sele nite
ate; in other words will have no effect on the appearance of the fleld
v ision. It is only, therefore, fats which are in crystalline or s i

rystalline state that can thus be distinguished from fresh, anorphous
'batter. aturally it follows that a butter which has been melted and
oled, or butter whicht hfa. stood a long time, would impart a mottled
St t f. For a simple ii test, how
Ciampel BUrown, iaccore to it.
19330-No.. 13-.3
-4 rilb8~~~~~~~i~~i~ rltuf;l r







Fft TORMIS OF PAT CRYTALS.


P rportions inwih. they r r mixed. tould bo to,,44F
rpt ftions.





characteristic of steari The e sullrou l




lor see n p yh al g fro tof c ng ttten
fatk globles, In-impure l are alsotseen twp remy neo






agarw, with poaunitzed inigt, a isfgrped in y
thebtnter is Meltedthese needlesidi minishpin lengthlad 0



Tro d a cenal point. I eabve datio ht






in the folicroscope is o t reprodeds

The oly reliable representation is fon in the p
Sgraph or it exact graphic reproduc tion.







Whter; t e c dtals ocerns ainr fets are preired na spialt
explained by the laws of elliptical polarizationalready ment
This- cross was first described by Messrs. Iehner andA'ng
in the following Words:






il be applieda reed befrut withea thin glas cover, th olaat
muh n aced; a revolvi black cross, no ulike that on oa
They ad.d further:bat+ I .
Thus far ald ,o fartber, as it h eenw to pe, can the microscope. asaist us





provesthe pl to b aulterated article. The osop e

pap1 he r ao I i ys:
Sinc t pblicaio or that paper I have experimented largely with I a



SAnn. (1. Chemn. et (I. Phiarin. vol. 5, pp. 12,'46:






















4-
10441 wC a- wll4ekinothey ein witxisints the prss of
44 aht t I lItI














*h, 1mi o ft thi itiux
jai"t laiutfl -May,1al. "or t pupose.of determining the real forrm of


Ifai bodies, Whe I subjected~them t6-polarized light a cre monsist-
j6 qulethia observed ow each irysta On rotatii the polarizer
ta3ted. 0 rotating the glas whichthe speci en of butter













een iresting objects.

im itb not taken lon to show that there is little

of ierowpe ideteting adlterationaof butter. In severalcases








~of M sessrs., j w, Helumer and Angell, and Taylor. s wvas




7, 8, 9, an79 8t 9




.40betieen butter and the rendered aimiial fats w4atallow itnd hard. fit order to








salt and, eight or ten drops of water. After the water was thoroughly ineer % ,at U 1,

ter. It was then poured into a wooden pill-box and allowed to ol as befo
coolid iass presented quitea marked difference in appearance from that obtaine
the saine substance in Experiment 3. It retained to a great extent the yell
of the leo oil, was of a more granular nature, and in fact resembled boiled
every respect. When a smalI particle was stirred up with olive oil on a gla e
separated readily. hen covered and viewed with a pokeens it reveale
of globules resemblin g inner the mirscope these globles e
essentially the same characteristics as those obtained from butter in Exper
The crystalline mass of the oleo globul~e eed somewhat coarer, and to thi
tion wa cri ed-thefact tt the as s t
itoe late, were less sharply defined than in the globules obtained fr b
slides prepared from this material were remarkably free from the smaldete
tali of fat observed in Experiment 3.
Experiment 8.-Having thus discovered thatthese globalar massway b ti
from pure tallow fat by simply ob
ing, the followite was m e: Nin grams of oleo 1 gramof lad w
in a small beaker glass and eight or n drops of a saturated soltion of salt
adlded. The mixture was then gently heated to melthe fat. After shaking
fora few moments to mix the salt solution with the fats, the mixture wa
gently for 1 minute and then allowed to cool as bfore in a wooden pill- Th
microscopic examination of this preparation reveale globlar m s
no wise be distinguished fro those obtained from pure batter. The crystall
ture was dense, the cross of St. Andrew's plainly marked, and the colors prod
the selenite sharply defined.
erient 9.-A mixture of one part of lard to five
the last experiment with like results.
Experiment 10.-In this test a mixture consisting of20 per
cent. ot oleo oil was employed. Whether the consistency of
arly adapted to the formation of the globules, or whether possible variation
tions in manipulation were more favorable, the writer is unable to
gle experiment, but the fact is that in this case the in
were exceedingly e and characteristic
The use of polarized light in photo-microg hy is a
enabling the photographer to print the light-colored crystals ona(
backglround. To illustrate sone of the for ofc o
its substitutes as they appear under pol
microscopic samples were prepared and photographed by Msrs
arIs and Richardson. Results of some of the more iin
photographs ar herewith t rasmitted. In al a h
ma ied 40 diameters, unless otherwise stated.






431













.TFres butter boiled.A
resh butter made in the laboratory witht the use of alt, melted, filtered,
and boiled. A small sample of the butter was taken and boiled for one





PLATE I.
asd d allo to







h V nia batter boiled. Specimen prepared by Dr. T. Taylor tarc

PAith iv oil, anIII.

-Fresh Kentnky butter boiled. Specimen prepared by Dr. T. Taylor March

rsh buttr boild. Spcimn prpard by Dr. T. Taylor March 15, 1886.



Filtered btter fat dissolved in boiling alcohol and allowed to cool slowly.
Filtered butter fat disso in boiling other and allowed to cool lowl y.
The fresh butter was melted and filtered through a jacketed filter, thus
getting rid of the water, curd, and silt; allowed to cool and prepared as

PLATE V.

Beef st ^fat. Not boiled. The snet fat was cut up into fine pieces and
melted in the water bath at a low heat and filtered; allowed to cool slowly.
Specimen was takenseveral days after the sample was prepared.
r 0-Bef snet fat boiled Iwith the addition of salt anlld cooled slowly.

PLATE VI.

FIG .-Beef n fat "oleo oil," dissolved in boiling other aand allowed to cool

uoil," d oed in boiling alcohol and allowed to cool



-Leaf lard. Not oled. Specin taken direct from can as purchased in

.-Lard ditisolved in boiling ether ad allowed to cool slowly.

PLAEi V111.

-Beef fat oleo oil," and lard, neutral," boiled with sMit and water and
allowed to coolQtlowly.
FIG 16-Butterine, from Armour & Co., Chicago. 13olled and allowed to cool slowly.






ri OODS AIM 000b XbMTERAWTS.







PL.ATE JX.

FIG. 17.-13ntterince from Armour & Co., Chicago. Not bolved. Spcne Iakoidi
_rr











allowed tolcoot slowly







23..
FIG. 20.-Oledo oi, from Armour & CO., Cbhicago. Melfe41 AltMe"rid, bole. t
lowed to stand four dayiq under covei l i
rr~ii~rrrr~sr-rP LATE irrrr.










P 1--Oleomiargafl fromn Ar '& o.,Obki le





and allowed to cool slowy.



FrIG 23.-Sam asi Fig. 22.
FIG. 24.-Same as Fig. 22.























*11
I EP~, ~aft


"" I~~m ~ ~ 0
~~,,,ff 9 ;f~ r;~l;,l~i~0

;~~~B AU



0I











040,, 0, 0




LU4Jo to






BULL N~3 DIV.OF CHEMISTRY. PA FTE I

























BUTTER x40











I













BUTTER" x40


PI hotar clarforr Rtschaion. A on lt.







BU LLN913 DIV.OF CHEMISTRY. PLAT




Fif 3































BUTTER 340



FPig+






























SIyTTTJ Ii xU1w,



Phuto by r latit'urst Rathelinta a* A In Ib sm r fthm







ILL .N'?13 DIY.OF CHEMISTRY. iP L I El
































13 1, TTEI x 4()





It ... It IK he L-
Fis























BUTTER x40


















:J *













IJUTTER x4O


iiiiiiiiA ii1ien L L......







BULL.N'3 DIV.OF CHEMISTRY. PA




Fig 7





























I TTER x40


































BIITTEIR x40



thtrtu, d1. &. byVsfr Rhbadin A1 usn~ mati it






ULL.N13 DIV.OF CHEMISTRY. PLATE



























BEEF FAT x40




























BEEF FAT x40







BULL. N 3 DIIYV CHEMI PSTRY. PE VI

































BEEF FAT x40



Fi 12





























HEEF FAT x 40




Phloto.by ChffoMt Ricitarnd Aanin Ibn wtw hft sn







ULL.N?13 DIV.OF CHEMeISTRY. PL--ATE r vn



Fig 3


























































w* .t
LARD x160

































I h4Ay~it, t~~ri~~AH. ~







iiBULL.N3 DIOV.F CHEMISTRY. PLATE TYI



Fi> 15





























B EEF FAT LARD x 40



Fi^ 16





























BL TERINE x 4o




Plutu hi 'y (al :. Alt 'in An-It







BULL.iN93 D IV.OF CHEMISTRY. PLATE IX




IFi 17






























BUTTERINE x160




18






























BU TTERINE x 4



rA H toi I ecs ti h-re







BULL.N 13 DIV. OF CHEM ISTRY.




Fig 19




























BUTTERINE x40



Fia 20




























IEEF FAT x40



SPhootu.by r itrto'r RiHhrardstIn A nar It g a m







LL.N3 DIV.OF CHEMISTRY. PLATE ST



Fig 21

























OLEOMARGARINE Al60



Fq 22

























O LE OMARGARINE x 40



JT &*1* f i ha mnin A Nova L Ca itseelim imm







BULLiN913 DIV OF CHEMISTRY. PLAT 1E Il




Fig 23



























OLEOMARGARINE x 40




iFi4 24
F 4



























L.OLEO AGXAII NX x 40



iR M~' &V













eenetio with some of its

ve bove thereal e po heretofore estab-
Itsa~bed ix respect of the use of polarized light in butter anad fat analyses.'


S" i ii investigations have sbow that the dir ev es i n structutre under t le mi-
S, aiciently rtert to determne sharp ditine-
on n differet fat, yet it stbeaditted th te miroscopic exai-
natio is able to prove the 1presence of forin| fats at the 1 moment it succeeds in es-
the of melarsses in anal o vege able parsi tes
nerand Hilger say
Th' fthe microscope in the examination of fats requires a still further devel-
t tan become generally applicable.
ien to the editor of the Atalyst for some intbr'iation on

I The whole sibject has been studied over and there is nothing

Dr. S. Al. Babcock, Smheist of the New York Experimental Station,


Sthe effency of Dr. Taylor's method for the detection of adulterations in butter
b Intam of the microscope. An excellent opportunity was offered in thoes amipes
for desteng~thghis jknothod ii tu impartial manner, and a mnicroscopicai examination
Pf thopvs-aa made before the nature of the butters was revealed by other tests.
Tbe butters were examined directly with polarized light and a, selenite plate, and
r ter ds the crystals from the mnelted butters were examined in the same way for

Tht diretebtanination with polarized (ight and a solenito plate showed prtirnatie
ltrate butters, and a uni tint in a of the g I but-
,eot No. which appeared very much like the adulterated samples The
crystals from all of the butors, adlterated as well as genuine, -ave a well~efined
gainftndrew's'eross with polarized light. This was also the case with neutral lard
l tbe r w rly defined, though quite smal. No.l15 consiste
if thil factories, and we w exmie by tlf,
but when combined with a small quantity o butter fat th crystal forn had the
qame appearance as those from Lupurbutter.

ttrs wos aracer was known. Whthr these results weredu t a ack of
' fil or to imperfect knowledgre in tho dotails of tho work I do not know. The
Notices of minor importance on th 8 ubject NO 1 fond in Chew. News,
1'l. 4 ,-p1. 230, 2831,309.1321; Zoit. Anal. Chen., 1872, p. 3:34; Journ. Royal Mlicroscop-
A Ociety, t8749 p.z .378; Amorican Qunrterly Microscopical Journal, 187,, p.1t.94

18W, p. 345; 1882, p. 09; Amor. Chmnist, vol. .2 p. .128.
SOp. cit.. 503.
stYVer. Bay.pVertreter d. Angowanc. Chem., p. 222.
AM Ann. Rept. Bd. Con trol V. Y. H x p. 8 ta., 1)p. 13010 33 1.







ur result of sorne skilled uni.....cr -scpists howeer, oul indcat tha th


Caldwell,' after references to the notices of the use o the i oe
in the examination of butter published tp to that tme (1882, as
p. 519: a
Vt is plain, therefore, that little dependence can be placed on any microsco
Sthe genuineness of buter, a st sofaras the observation the crystalli f
f foreign fats is concerned, for neither does the absence of such f prove th
buter does not contain oleomararine or does theirpresence prove the adl
tUn the other hand, Mylius has shown that the pol tion mi
scoe may be used for the detection of minute quantities of foreign
in b ttter. Pure butter gives with crossed Nicols a dark fie wher
cryst1ls of foreign fat will appear bright. kalweit recommends
methlt highly, and affirms that even the kind of foreign fat present
be determined.
In spite of the generally unfavorable pinions I feel sure thth
chemist wtho neglects to make a simple microscopi examination
suspect 1 butter with polarized light and a selenite plate loses a
ble quali ative indication of the character of the samples with-whie
has to wcork. The melting of the sample of butter and its slow cool
to -secure good bi-refracting crystals I consider a much less val
indication than the simple observations above described.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY.

The deternm.ation of the specific gravity of a butter fat gives a
valuable indication of its purity. The density of pure btter glyceri
is distinctly greater than that of the common adtilterants, with the
ception of cottonseed oi. While this difference is not great, i
nevertheless large enough to be easily detected by careful manipulat
Alanipulation.-The relative weight of the filtered and dried i
be determined in a picnometer. This flask should be carefully
brated by weighing the pure distilled water it will contain at the t
perature at which the subsequent determinations are to 'be made.
flask should be provided with a delicate thermometer, but this is
essential, since the temperature can be determined by a external t
imometer.
The temperature at which the determinations should be made is
4Iently that at which all the common butter adulterants will be i
perfectly fluid state. Generally the temperatur of 1000 F. has b
employed. Since however,however, "neutral lard" may have amelting p
as high as 400 0. or even a little above that I have
specific gravity at that degree. In case the t should have a el
point a little above this the temperature can be
Second Ann. Rept. N. Y. 8. IN. of Health.
Corrempondonablatt des Vereins Anal. Chem., 1878, No. 3.
Ibid., 1879, Nos. 5 and 13.







dand cn then be reduced to 400 C., without danger of solidifica-
The difference between the specific gravities expressed at 370 C,

yth recommends tile use of a picnometer of 50 to 100 grams ca-



h t whose densi to be determ ied is treated in the same
eand weighed at the same temperature.
"i" f thiiei ^t n ^l^^ui ^Q ^ni t f^ l~iflfi mii Ljf
igner pl the butter-fat in a ide tube where a bubble of th
i g ity o is kept below the surface by the bulb of the
At a certain temperature the babbles will slowly sink to
butters o .911 density, above which a sample may be
d as pu, ebeads will sink as follows:
Sgravity of .... ... ..a. 7 289
Temperature.------------_ ----------- .................... 620.7 C. 550. 5 C.
the beads sink at any temperature lower than these the butter




t-tube being immersed in parafin, in a water bath.
cuof the weights takes place at a temifegrature of 20.2 C.


~ oa tube for carrying off the steam. In the cover
r ni for e ption of four test-tu
ter and 8 to 9 inhes long. These are fastened air-tight
Smentioned. Each tube stands one-hal inh above
e at the water bath. Each piece of apparatus when in use
T ieijosmefthe tubes a sample of pure butter and in the others the
S r mination.
specificgravity is determined by small areometers 0 inches long
with a scale marked from .845 to .870. The numbers obtained at
0. were as follows: Pure butter, .867 artificial butter, .859; beef
60; utton fat.860; lard, .81; horse fat,.81. Mixture of pure
t with other fts gave numbers between .859 and .865.
eprocessof Knig has been tested by the Board of Health at Berlin
ound relatively usefl.' The method has also been approved by
ar;a by Ambuhl and Dietzsch;7 and Meyer."


nFoods, p. 29p.



Zeit. Anal. Chem., 1881, p. 376.
























SIn othe samples thee w a te i

a les out of nine there was
acids had also increased.
$ice bpty9re in genral are i lobtai" fd a
been long kept the observation of Jones does
The specific gravity less tof s r al samlt



1ho9edYe varic t8 from .8 to$ 8685.
eraviy ou mieou xphe em~ertie of boit 3


o i nI, ithto houl Sa bm cipletely iewith .t oi


orifices in the lhiid and gently sucking, the, ar ron
Thei tuibe is then placed in the mouth of a conical fltsk
rapid burllition, and the cover of a pcelai ieru bie p
hot it exands ad is expelled in drops fro
tubes. Whou the ipangien ceae oay foilr adherig toA t ri







baeti ong kept tf obsev ation of June resovepd fomt.p4t, i
lowed to cool, apd weighed. Th weight of toh out i
'ofthe oil thef a temp rature ofi th a bi tg wa ter; watb*i'ftd*ser 1o
unity.
T~he wit prfers t po prenge tube to all
stiow t specific gravity ofb oils. ble afolso rcnh h '

alance as used by ie and Walkenhaa r. l iI


SAnalyst 1879 u p. 3.



SVreinb larungen ietreffsii d. IUntersuchi. burte ilv r
t1t. S 221-W2. tl o I
'-Con. Organic Analysis, Vol. 2, 2d ed..p. 1t.
4Analyse er te,&c., p. 3.
as ~ 14.
JKr~ gilij ;:jl) j








-fa ri ti1el of the specific gravity of varions





i.. ..... ...... ii S .ipecic.......................... .

p i.. .f oil Kind of oil... ..... 90.0
.. .......................... 907r. 6 .ea d oil (boiled) ---------------- 938.0
9~~ 0,0,1 Castor oil -- -- ---.............. ... 9557.8

i .............. .... . 9 5r oil -------------. ---------.. --- 8 07,




MTOD EMPLOYED IN CHEMICAL DIVISION.
CnoVeVniOt the determination of specfic gravity is not made
'ahtil imaer f &-emples.is on hand Each determination ig mado in
ilnpl .T-her pienometers, holding about 2' grams, are filled with the
AIered iat, at as alea temperature as possible, and placed in a flat dish
filled lawater as nearly to the topseof the flasks as possible. The

ofrtheescape of the oil a the temperature rises.
ti ometers are not funished with themometers of the irown, a
deicate tberinometer is suspended in the water surrounding them. The
erbth is. lowly warmedand gently but constantly stirred until the
pratereache-00C. It is kept at this temperature for fifteen or
tw yiga esa unatil thefat has ltaken on theasame temperature as the
p omt arethen efully cleaned and dried, and, after
gto e temperature of te balance-room, are weighed. This
soewhat tedioswhen oiilyoni determnation is to be miade,

~In respect of u tac y it loaves nothiing to be desired.

TEMPERALTUE AT WiCi SPECIFIC GRAVITY IS STATED.
a ysts eet differ nt temperatures for determiniig spe-
difiA g'avity. It6ifod be well to have some agreement on this point

8ineethe specific gravity determined at any temperatutre caii be easily
loalenisad for any other given temperatare, I uggest that it mnight he
elIto eprs ,ll sci c lgravities iln teris of wat er at 40 "




- mua-ll conditiuon at ordinary temperatures, to complete fluidity. It is,

which they ]Belt.
l op. it 5 foot-note.
++ + + + ++ ++++++ ++ ++++ ++++to+++ +++ +++++
+++ + +!





44 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.
B ~ JBB '"l": lB i:K'1 : i:i':: l":i E^:i lP r .i:i Kiii h i:ai:"ig a "


apparent, provided it is possible to be assured that it represents a
definite
At a temperatureof4 C.re butter fat haa a specifi gravity
while the substitutes therefor, viz, lard;allow, oleo-oil, neuta
&., have specific gravities varing from .900 to .0. Yet eve
small differences are extremely valuable in distingu ing the f
each other.
The differences in melting points, when they can be aeratel
mined, will also prove helpful to the yst.e
ployed to determine melting points have en b on
that a fat becomes transparent at the mom i
state. Usually the fat is melted and placed in glass capillary tu
Safter cooling, put into water near the bulb ofa t mo T
is slowly warmed, and the moment the fat in the tube becomes t
ent the reading of the thermo meteris taken.

but the readings of different persons are apt to vary greatly. M
it is not the melting but the transparent point that is determined
In 1883, at the Mineapolis meeting o th Assoation for
vancement of Science, I described a method of determining the
point of a fat. The melted fat having e put inall
tallic tube ws,as after cooling, placed in a bath of merry.
of this U-tube was slightly longer than the othr. Te b
immersed in the mercury until the longer arm wa
face. The fat in the tube was, therefore, subj
pressure from the mercury, due to the difference in legth of
arms. When the melted fat first appeared on the su
cury, the thermometric reading was made. It is
add that the bulb of the thermometer was wholly imd
cury. Fairly good results were obtained by this method.
Another method, which gave rather good results, I tried at t
time. A thin film of fat was spread over the surfa
and the temperature noted at which a platinum wire drawn th
left no trace. Th solidifying point was determ
eration by observing where the wire left a mark. Various met
determining the melting point of fats are given by eicher
method lpreferred by him is a modification of Gihard pro
which the fat is forced out of the tube by a wato
magnitude.
Dr. Kriiss describes an apparatus for estimating the
point by the completion of an electric circui t dependent on the
of the fat used as an insulating material. A platinum wire, bent
I Zeit. Anal. Chem., 1885, pp. 11 et eq.
Ibid., 1883, p. 70.
Zeit. f. trumntenkund vol. 4 3 3





DAIRY PRODUCTS. 45

n of a s h i d the mlted fat, a portion of which
eretoi. This process is repeaed until asuficient insulation is pro-
ed. Thvere wire is then dipped into a mercury
Stas b of te hermometer. The cup is place
he electriircuit and the momet of on t is determined by the
S ectrc b gh trial of this method convinced mc
t was less accurate than any of those which have already been

Sthe importance of determining some definite point at which
a od a e a constant condition under the influence of tempera-
Swaslto select another physical aspect of fats, easily and cer-
y blehich could be regard as the melting point. This con-
dened as the point at which the molecular attraction of
at becos geter than the molecular cohesion.
Sthiany fat be suspended in a liquid of equal specific
y wh it and this liquid be slowly warmed, a point will be reached
h te fil will roll up and finally assume the form of a sphere.
to globule a gentle motion of rotation the observer is
bto inguish the moment when it becomes sensibly sy-
al the following method and a paratus for applying this
ple to the dtermination of the melting points of fas. The ap
atus con s of (1) an accurate thermometerfor reading easily tenths
Sa de ; 2) a l accurate thermometer for measuring the tei-
aure of wer in the large beaker glass; (3) a tall beaker glass,
10cm. in diameter; (4) a test tube 30c. highand 3.5cm.
e ; (5) a stand r supportg the apoaatus; () some method
tiing the water in the beaker. I use a blowing bulb of rubber and
t glass tube extending to near the bottom of the beaker; (7) a
Sand water of te same specifc ravity as the fat t

anipulation.-The disks of the fat are prepared as follows: Tihe
ted nd filtered fat is allowed to ll from a dropping tube from a
ght of 15 to 20cm. onto a smooth piece of ice floating in water. The
Sthus for~med are from 1 to 1cm. in diameter and weigh about 200
ligrams. By p ressing the ice under the water the disks are mude
lot on the surace, whence they are easily removed with a steel

he ixt~~ure of alcohol and water is prepared by boiling distilled
er and 95 per cent. alcohol for ten minutes to remove the gases
ch they may hold in solution. While still hot the water is poured
i the test-tube already described until it is nearly half full. The test
e is then filled with the hot alcohol. It should be poured in gently
n the side of the inclined tube to avoid too much mixing. If the
tube is not until the water has cooled the mixture will contain so
m y air bubbles as to be unfit for use. These bubbles will gather on







the dcisk of fat as the tsmperatere r an fina Jit
of the mixture.

containing cold t, andthe whole cooed 6.oel.

it reahes al part of the, tQbe here tl t l
exacly equivalent to itow ere ret
the action of any force save that inherent in its own ole




manler. A tube preparedin this way will be _suitq
eral days, in fact, until the air bles en
disk of fat. In no case did the o liquid coe
as to8lose thoproperty of hplding the, dis at a f J
they were kept for several weeks
In p tice, owinto the absorptio of ar,
to prepare new solutioqs every third4or frt
The disk having beenplaced.iuy0oit o t~h e ben
is ~low 1hea dke1 c talytir
apparatus already described.1
When, the tegmpertureof, rises. tpi; t


Thethermometer i ow lowered .til the t rle A



I have thought it would be convenient to do this with a i
work, although I have not carried thi. idea into pxyction.




tube is removed from the bath and placed agai i the cooler.
oud tube, containing alcohol and water, is at once place( in

ice water as a cqoler) is of low' enouqh teperature tq coqp p



iatiqon.

iW au hour. IAN1,; 1
cxl +~~i~~t ~k~"Ia~iBz
Bk tr)++ o+ ,i-, .+~Ib~
"r 611+ r ++Is rf
in+ .~ ++++++++, + +++++ +++++,B +++ ++
i i+ i +++++ +,+++, + + + ++ .....










O-tube~~~has oee cole the glbl of ati
pajj poo ttached to a wire before another dlisk of flit is put in.

Agreemtent of multiple determina'lioms

FILTERED BUTTER FAT.
.. Derees .
Noj jp~ y o e observer.-------------------------------------------------------- 33.5
N& %-- ay another .. 33.5

S bya-a -thirda --------------------------------------------------------- *3- .
N&A 1bya hird _...._ .... ... ...... ...... ... .. ...-. 32.4
k by -a third ----------------------- -------------------------------------- 34.4

A second set of observations made with the same butter gave--
a,8 a a ~ ~ i: a t ~ ; as esee e a s,, 9i~Ir a ta 3 L 4A F








D1egree C.
. ......................................................................... 33.7
:iii; follwui uuj" bers








*s... .sea et oses...n a.s.,,,.. ... .... .. ... . .. .. .. .. 34.0
........------ ------------------------------------------------... 3 3.5
sasa~"' s-s sate ~ aceii~~ cern. ~ 34.0;~~ i~~ir r~er s-is ,h




N o. 4 ------ --- ------ ------ --- -- ------ ------ --- ------ ------ --- ---- ---- --- 33.5

,a etter gavethe following numberse
,f lDegrem G.
N o - - ...-.-- -e-.- .....- -.... .--- ---- a--- .- -- --- --- -. --.. 34.,



No. 3 ..* *..9.. .. ..a.. ... ..e.. .. .S.... ............................ 33.7

Anoher butterO 't reamery Tub," gave the Junibers below

Degrees C.

No .......................................... ............................... 33.7

-No... .. 4. . .. . . ................................. 33.6


A neutral lard, from Armour & Co., Ohicago, gave the following
reslts:
Dcgrees U.
I ........................ ....................................... .... ... 42.8
S2 ............... ............................................. ..............4i* 4
N o. 3 ---a---- -------- ----- .....--- ---- .----- ----- ..- .----- ----- .......... 42.3
N .4 --------------------- ................................................... 42. G
N .5 ...................................................... e..... e. ........ 42.0
6 ........................................................................ 12.0

An oleo oil, front:Armour & Co., gave-
Degrees C.
No. I~;';"























N o 1 ............... .................................... ... .................. 9.5
No. ........................29.4
................ ~ cess *ase ..4 5, *a~ *T es ---e-- .es. see. sea, eat.
S ............ .. ........................... e..e a e t, e t.

............................. ...... ................................. .



......... ..........












No. ..................................... .............
No.2 ........................................... ........
No. . .. .. ....

No. 1777, a doubtful butte gave-





No.D4 aa C




N o. i . . . . . . . . .. .....................

N o.2 -- -- -- -- - - --...............-. .---- - - - - - 3
No.3 .................................................................




following table is obtained:

TANo. No4 1.--Me-it-y p-R--, do --, of genatt---- 34.0
No.)o 17. al nulme butltbl e rav








1 o acid. 0


o c.
1745................ 3.5 8 l
177 ................ 84. 4 5 !0
1786 ................ 5;1 5
N o. ~ 8r17 2. .. . .. - - O-- -- - 20- .-- -- -- --- -- -- --- -- -- --- -- -- --- -- -- -- .33.1




















17 No i.l0Mi iit pi o., ft. f .0bt

Mean .........






Mf tting Per cent. Spec,
Serial nuinber. soluble g ra ait

















ptao wseacid. at 400 C.
















method.
C.R ;:~, ~ i~;:II:R~






The above were all bought as pure butters. They are condemned on
accout of he lo percntageof slubleacidwhileby thir spcifi
gravity theyal~pear to all near th limit, of urity. The loluble aci
in the bove wa determned by ashing ut and ot by Richerti
m ethod .i;;,~I""";;"""; iiir







DAIRY PRODUCTS. 49

L No. 3.- eng ponl as btter, but proved by analnsis to be


Per cent. Specifi
Serial number. peing sz'thble gravity
o acid. at 400 C.

0 0,
1755 ............ 39.0 1.53 .906
1778 ............... 33.0 0.21 .904
1787 ................ 34.0 0.00 .900
4594 ..........-.... 35.3 0.9 .904
4595 ............... 37.8 0.90 .905


n EAL No. 4.-Melting poin t, f,Sc., of "oleo-oil" and "neutral lard" used as butter adulter-
ants.

Per cent. Specific
Serial number. Melting 8oluble gravity
poilt acid. at 400 C.

"Neutral lard":
1754 ........... 42.4 0.10 .904
45.7 ............. 42.4 .......... ..........
SOleo-oil: "
1750 ............. 29.7 0.08 .903
459 ............. 29.0 0.08 .903


TABI No. 5.--.eltin g point of mixtures made in laboratory as indicated.
obttuseha elting pointo 330.1 C.; the "oleo-oil"f 290b6C.; andthe "neutra lard"
of 42.4 C.]

Theoretical Observed
No. Comnposition of mixture. mmeltirg melting
point. point.

o C. o C.
1.... 2 parts butter, 1 part "neutral"...... 30.2 35.2
2... 1 part butter,2 parts neutral 39.3 39.
3.... 1 rt butter, 1 part "neutrl" and
Spart oleo"...................... 35.0 :5.5
4..... 2 parts butter, I part "oleo" ......... 31.9 32.0
....1 part- butter, 2 parts "oleo ......... 30.5


From the above it appears that the melting point of a mixture of two
r more fats ca be readily and accurately calculated from that of its
onstituents. The agreenent, except in No. 1, is within the error of

Rearks otpreceding data.-The icean melting point of the butters
xamined is 330.8 C., thCle uaxillmum is 340.7 C., and the mininaun 320.6 C.
Sge al terms it may be said that a genuine butter will show a melting
oit flin wthina the limits of 330 and 340 C. Of butter adulterants
the neutr lard" as a comparatively high melting point and "olo-
it" a 0lon e. Unfortunately for analytical purposes it is easy for the
fabricator to minako an artificial butter whose melting point is sensibly
the sa ie as that of the genuine article. On the other hand it is seen
hat if ils butter be made of a genuine one and only one of the
dllutera.tin common use, the variation of the melting point from the
normal will be uiciently great to call attention to the falsification.






50 FOODS AND FOOD ADUTERANTS.


EFFECT OF TIME ON MELTING POINT OF THE F DISKS.

By som e variations in the in ting point of fat disks of dtierent ages
my attention was directed to an investigation of the eiewt-of tim
The following data will serve to measure the in ence of age on the
melting point:
BUTTERS.



Tiumber. 4. 3 +0
Directly disk After 24

o c. o oc
I.......... 83.1
2.......... .3 34.7 -.
8......... 848 34.0 +0.4
4........... 34. 5.2 + .
5........ - '32.9 32.8 -0.1
S.......... 33.1 34.5 +1.4

In every case except No. 5 in the above table it is seen that the melt-
ing point of the disks of butter was raised by t o
dinary temperatures for twenty-four hours. .;
In one instance, a butter whose melting point was 340.5 C. i
form of disks from May 27 until August An
this latter date to determine its melting point. a temperat
750 0. the disk had not assumed a spherical sbape, and the
could be carried no higher on account of approachin the
of the alcohol.
ADULTERATED BUTTERS.


Number. Adirectiy dpisk Incr ease.
was made. ai r- I I
j + 1 .. .. + .. . ..."+ **+ "+ + ....
oC. o C. O + + "* C.. .. ++
1 .. ..... 4.0 d s... 1.4 2 :.
2 ........ 32.0 18 hour .. 37.0 4.1
3 ........ 48.1 24 hounrs.. -5.
4........ ~. 3 46 hours ... 3. V.
6........ 37.8 44 hours...40.3 2.


Again in every case but one a marked rise i the ltig it.
"OLEO OlL.W" ... .. ,





S;lo, at .M e ............. ..... 1+2@.

Increas .. ......... ........... 2..


It would appear from the above results that adultera ed butters and
butter adulterants show a greater rise in melti ng points when the disks





DAIRY PRODUCT1

are a day or more old than pure butter. The analytical data, however,
e to m r to p t a d ite statement of this kind. Should it
pro, it w d ba indication in the discrimation
An examination of the old
d with the microscope did not veal a crystalline structure, and
this change, therefdre, must be attributed to a molecular modification

EFFECT OF THE PRELIMINARY HEATING OF THE FAT TO DIFFERENT
TEMPERATURES.
A b fat was melted at a low temperature and allowed to stand
perature had fallen to 300 0.; it was still perfectly fluid.
The disks were formed by dropping on ice as usual. The melting point
obtained was 330 C. The fat was now heated to 500 C. and treated as
above; melting point, 330.4 0. The temperature was then raised to
800 .; Melting point, 320o.8 C.
o results, falling within the possible error of observation,
temperature to which the fat is subjected before the for-
the dks has no appreciable effect on the point at which the
fat particle becomes a sphere.

EFFECT OF SUDDEN RISE OF TEMPERATURE.

f temperature tds to greatly lower the melting point.
A twed a melting point of 350.3 C. when determine in the
ted at once into a perfect sphere when dropped into thb
mixture havinga temperature of 290 C. At 280.5 C. the
globule was irregular.
A disk of neutral lard, having by the usual method a melting point
of 420.4 became at once a sphere when dropped into the water-alcohol
a .2. Below that temperature the spheroidal shape was not sym-

I l this phenomenon will appear. It may be suggested,
therefore, with strict propriety, whether this may not be regarded as
thtig point. Since the temperature at which the sphe
oi ts med can be determined witin one or two dgrees by a
pre ary ial, it would not be difficult to have a series of mixtures
of wter and alcohol arranged so as to show differeces of temperature
of 00.5 By dropping the disks successively into these mixtures the
instantaneous fusing point could be determined with accuracy.
The metod set forth n the preceding pages has been proved by 165
deters to be capable of giving areeing results. Not only will
es obtai by the same obeer be concordant, but also
those of derent analsts. Ts a s from the fact that the moment
of the assumption of the spheroidal state is easily deterined eve by
n practiced eye. I have also noticed that In this condition pure
btter ad oleo uite parent, while on the other hand neutral






62 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

-d and adulterated ters are still somewhat opalecent. From th
At is seen that the data obtained by the old method of determining the
temperature of transparency would difyer somewhat from those obtaied
by the proposed procedure. Since the age of the disk ba great deal
to do with its melting point, I suggest that all etminationsbe
within fifteen minutes to two hours from th making of the isks
The method can also be extendled to such bodiess parafn and
bees-wax. The melting point of a paraffine was found to be-






point.t of the pane, whch m be ma
No. 4 .............................. 5 3.a


point of the paraffine, which may be made to show, in a lecture experi-
inent, the change of volume which bodies sometimes undergo in passing
from a solid to a liquid state. The same mixture of r a
used in the examination of fats, allowed the disk of parafe to sink to
about the same point as the disk of at. When the temperature rose,
however, to within one or two degrees of the melting point, there was a
sudden increase in volume. The pellet of'prne
top of the tube. To avoid this and keep the globul win te ~ iquid 1
made a mixture of water-alcohol and absolute alco With thi
arrangement the rise of the paraffine was arrested in the upper third
of the tube occupied by the absolute alcohol, where its asumption of
the spheroidal state could be readily observed. On placin te in
a cooling bath the globule of paraffine rapidly sinks as it solidif
The disks of paraffino and bees-wax are quite irregular, ut nevert
suitable for the process. The melting point of the one sampe e
wax examined was found to be 640.2 C.

VISCOSITY a

The speed with which at identical temperatures and pressures dif;
ferent oils flow through an orifice may. be used to d
from each other. For a description of the ethos used in viscosie
try I refer to Allon's Coin. Organic Analysis.' An ingeniousand eful
apparatus for viscosimetry s been invente by B
Babcock as applied his apparatus to the inn
ity of butter soaps with promisig r sult.

Vol. 2, 2d ed., pp. 194 et scq.
2Fifth Ann. Rept. Ed Control N. Y. Exp. Sta., pi. 316
Ibid., pp. 338 et seq.
ftn:;U111;i1ll il~l s






DAIRY PRODUC)T$S. ti8

R FRACTIVE INDEX OF OILS.

he use of the refrto:neter of Ab6 in the examination of butters
s b py ler The principle of the use of this instra.
h t fts of pure buttr possess a less fractive p)owr
tha glycerides of a higher molecular weight.
Thizsajet has also been treated by Skalweit.2

ESTIMATION OF SOLUBLE ACII)S IN BUTTER FATS.
eth~erad Angell-Hehner and Angell, in June, 1874, pub-
iheds pmphlet on butter analysis in which the details of their method

e flwing is an abstract of this method :4
A weied quantity, usually 3 grams, of the fat was saponified in a
porlain dish with caustic potash, with frequent stirrings with a glass
rod. Th clear butter soap was transferred to a flask or retort and
decomposd by means of dilute sulphuric acid. This mixture, which
tai ulphate of potash, glycerine, and the volatile acids in solu-
Sthinsoluble fatty acids floating on the top, was distilled, and
t aidity e ditillat estimated by means of a soda solution of
known strength. The practical difficulties of this method, such as the
violet bumping of the boiling liquid and the impossibility of obtain-
Sl perfectly free from acid, led the authors to adopt a
somewhat different method.
his mdification is based upon the different percentages of the
in e tty acids in butter and other animal fats. TIhe insoluble
acids, after saponification, were collected on a moistened filter paper,
washed with hot water, and when the soluble acid was washed out,
dried and weighed.
Th fond the percentage of insol ble fats in butter to vary from
0 to 8.20, while in other animal fats the percentage of insoluble
acids was about 93.5. As will be shown further along, a small
Is i trodnued into this method by washing the insoluble fhtty
acs the filter. When this error is avoidedr it is fIund that the per-
cea of the insoluble fatty acids in butter fat is considerably higher
fi r which has just been given. A detailed description of
this ~tf proces will be given farther on. Turner suggested
the eployint of alcohol, with the view to hasten the saponific~tion
of, ia modification of the process which as been almost uni-
Vrl8y badopted by analysts.
A or 40(ce,. of pirits of wine are added to the butter in the por
ati d and heIted over the water 1bath to near the bilinl-point.
hArdiv I 1. IPhain., 1 p. i10.
*I.p. d1. Vvr. Anal Ch1., p 181.
Ilatsall, Food :n41 it S8 utlll erationI, Is. 41 ..
sIb.. p. 447.






54 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANT.

About 5 grams of solid caustic potash are then culded? and from time to
time a few drops of water, to fci the liquid being
stirred all the time. In this manner the butter becomes rapidly p
ified. The clear yellowish solution is then freedtn all alcohol r
the water bath and the soap decoposed as already desbed Car
should be taken to remove all the alchol, as a small quantity of t
fatty acids might be held dissolved should any alhol reainand
lead to an erroneous result.
Hekner s method modified by Beickert.'-Weih out 2 grams of dried
and filtered butter fat in an Erlenmeyer flask of 150 pacity; add
gram of solid potassium hydate and 20. of 8-per cent. alcohol. This
mixture is kept upon the water bath with constashtil the so
obtained no longer forms a foamy, greasy inass. Afterwards 50|. o
water are are added to the flask, and th soap, after it Is dissolved in water
is decomposed with 20cc. of dilute sulphuric acid (Ice. of pure s urr i
acid to 100c. of water). The contents of the flask are now subjected t
distillation, with the precaution of conducting through it a slow strea
of air, in order to avoid bumping. It is also recommended to use a bul
tube with a wide opening, in order to avoid carrying over the sulphuri
acid. The distillate, which, especially with fat poor in butter and b
rapid distillation, always deposits a little of the solid fatneidis lter
through a moistened filter paper and collected in a flask. After
to 20c. are passed over it is poured back into the flask and the distilla
tion is noiw continued until the distillate amounts to exactly 50 The
distillate, which, when the distillation has gone on evenly, forms a wate
clear liquid, is immediately titrated with decinorma soda e after the
addition of 4 drops of litmus tincture. The titration ed if th
blue color of the litmus remains constant forsome time. Six alyses
of an artificial butter fat required 10.5c. of decinoral soda lytonu
tralize the acid in the distillate.
The genuine butter gave on three trials 14 50, 14.4, and 140e.,
spectively, of the decinormal soda.
Two samples of cocoanut fat required 5,70 and 3.7 of soda ly.
Thirteen samples of pure butter required a mean of J13,97c. of the
decinormal soda.
All the other fats which are used in the adulteration of butter re
quired a much smaller amount of the decinormal sol for the saturation
of the distilled acid.
In artificial butters the proportion of pure butter and added fat a
be calculated from the following formula:


in which represents the most. probable value of the number rpresent
ing the quantity of decinormal soda solution requi d either for pure
butter or for the fat with which it may be adulterated. :When B eq: l
rZeit. Anal. Chem ., 1879, pp. 08,t deq.
Si~uaUi~lU ~ IIIIIIUI





DAIRY PRODUCTS. 55

that.s wn the sstane contains no pure btter, the value of n
Sbe te at .30. We have, therefore,
SO= a (0.30 -) froi which b=.30.
hen B i equal to 100, that is, hen the butter is pure, as has already
S probable va of n, according to the thirteen anal-
se given, 13.97, or in round numbers 14145, then we have the

100= a (14.001 .0.45-0.30)
and om this the value of
a= 7.30+.24.
The above equations may therefore be condensed in to B = (7.30+
24) (-30), that is, in order to find the probable butter content of a
Stct tfrom the number of the cubic centimeter of deci-
r so used for titration.30 and multiply the remainder by 7.30.
he probable error which will be met with by this estimation amounts

Sand cherer' examined the method of Reichert and found it
bequit. For pure butter they found the quantity ofdecinormal
ae required shoud be 13c.; a mixture of equal parts of butter fat
d tallow required 7cc.
Two p s of butter fat and one of tallow required 9.1ce; three parts
and one of tallow required 10.1ce.
The authors call attntion to the fact that melted butter fat slowly
led may separate into portions requiring different quantities of the
ormal soda for the saturation of the (distilled acid which they
Sand one-halfto 3 pounds of pure butter fat were used.
ted and allowed to cool with continued stirrig in order
a ly homogeneous mas. 2 grams of this mixture, by
Smethod, required 14cc. of decinormal soda. The fat ws now
ainelted, poured into a large beaker glass, and uncovered allowed
cool Oithout stirring. The solidification took place slowly. After
2latin grams from the upper layer required 13.3cc. of soda.
Allealso highly recommends Reichert's method. He uses it a fol.
S h out 2 grams of the clarified butter fat and saponify in a
losed flask (a closed lask has een used in the work of the Chemical
N
ivisinwith butter since 1883) with 2.c. of approximately KOIL
n the product to a porcelain basin and evaporate the alcohol at a
team hat. ol Dthl e residue in water, add some fragments of
Si round with platinum wire, and distil gently until 50ec.
e pased over. Titrate the distillate with castic alkali using
11)
thleian indicator.
I Chem. 1880, p 1 t Analyst, 1 p. 10, et x .







Allen found that a genuine butter fat required not thn 12.5e.
fO
alkali for neutralization of the acid in distillate and that this correspond
to 3.9 per cent. butyric acid distilled over, so that somewha oer 4 per
cent. of volatile acids in terms of butyric may be considered to be
yielded by the process. (Instead of 3.9 per cent. ould be 4.4 per
cent. since ce,. caustic alkali neutralizes .0088 grams butyr acid.)
Alln gives some comparative results with eichrts method ob-
tained by different chemists. In the conclusion of
method is said to be more enlightening than Koe thr's for stin
butters.
Aod ification of Reichert's method by Dr. B. F. Deport (comni-
cated in MS )- Use only 10ce. of alcohol in the sapo ca ; te
vantage being that with this small quantity the saponication is almost
immediate. In fact I begin to draw out the alcoholic vapor from the
flask as soon as it comes to the boil using a water pump; thus it takes
only about fifteen minutes to complete the saponifation ad m
evaporated down to a, thick mass, free from any aloholi vapor. My
process is to melt the butter at about 800 .; filter off the clean fat, i

work in duplicate) of the solid mass of 5 grams each upon countpoied
double filters of about the size of the scale pan, using d e fils
there may be no chance of anything going through to the s
Roll up the edges of the double filter over the butte upon them, and
slip it all into an Erleumeyer flask. It is easy to get the ex act 5 grams
alt lto the a l i
upon the open filter, and by putting all into the f t
loss in the transfer. Run off upon the butter in t
per cent. alcoholic solution, containing 2 grams of KO. Saponifyand
get dry mass in about fifteen minutes, add to it 100c
aided by heat, add 50co. of dilute H20S4 containin a t tt
part of commercial H2SO4, add several pieces of ru
with enough stout platinum wire to lie upon the b o t
and then distill off 100c. directly into a sugar flask having a small
funnel, and filter in its mouth.
Iused at first after distilling off about 20cc. to i i
flask and then distill off 100c., but I soon learned that that made no
difference, as also using It 50ce. sugar flask full of dilated 204, in-
stead of the directed 40ce., which was not quite so
to measure off I leave the end of the bulb tub connecting the flask
with the condenser long enough to enter the cond f

caping at the upper end of the condenser of any vpor or of scarcely
any odor at all. The operation requires no transferring of the material
from the beginning to end. Samples of known pure
method required an averae of 28.8. of alkali to neutralize the 100







of distlate. I use phenol-phtalein as an indicator instead of litmus.
When eOH solution has been made for some time I make
blan iaonication and dis ti ion with that and discount the cubic
entimete of sodas solution required by that for that required by the

Reich method has also been tried and approved by Caldwell.'

For foreign fats Rehert' method was followd with much satisfaction. When all
the neeary soltions are once prepared the analysis is madeo with comparatively
little trble; with less, in fact, tha is alloed ve by th who praise it most.
Its thr says that a currt of air must b3 paied through the liquid in the flask
e lation is going in, to prevent bumping, ad Amhnhl says that all at-
sse with this precaution by the u1s of pumice-stone, platinum scraps,
ie ed. Nevertheless, fludinug it very inconvenient to use the current
and th like failed.Nevertheless, Inth
to try a combination of shrt spirals of platinum wire and pieces
of p e on together, and with complete succeSe; the ebullition continued from
beginning to end as quietly as could desired.
Sa d rid a modification of Reicherts process as follows:
e gams of the melted and filtered butter fat are treated in a
00e. ask with 2 grams of stick alkali antd0ce. 70 per cent. alcohol.
Ssponification the alcohol is evaporated. The soap is
d isso d in 100 waer and decmposed with 40ce. one-tenth IIH.2,.
he k is supplied with some pieces of pumice-stone and connected
byme of a bulb with a condenser.
The distillation is continued until 110cc. are drawn over. After fil-.
ration 100. are titrated in presence of litmus with one-tenth N potash
oan the mber of cubic centimeters required increased by one-tenth.
Iflessthan2 of the alkali solution are required in the titration
the batter may be suspected of alsification.
de of procedure in Reihert's etod (used by Dr. C. A. Craupton,
Department of Agriclture).About 2.5 grams of the melted butter
Sout by means of a small pipette and beaker, which are
i after the sample has been taken out, and run into a bot
tle poviled with a patent india rubber stopper; 2he. of a solution of
(approxitely) seminoral cholic potash is added, the bottle closed
and placed in the steam bath until the contents are entirely saponified,
facilitating the opertion by occasional agitation. The bottle is the
removed from the bath, allowed to stand a few moments until partially
oled off, when its contents are transfrred to a porcelain evaporating
so being ried wth a little acohol. The alhol is then
apil a sible, and when the mass of p and
is nearly dry, it is dissolved up in 25ec. of wlater, and transferred to a
suitable flask of about 200c. capacity, which is fitted with a delivery
tube and condenser; the delivery tube iA carried up about 8 inches be-
fore it is bent to enter the conidenser and a bulb is blown in it just below
econd An. pt. N. Y. 8. Bd. of Halth, p.
Ding. Poly. J., vol. 233, p. 22g.
, p o






8FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

the elbow and filled with broken glass or glass wool. After the

out with 25. more water, which is added to the contents ofhes
and the fatty acids are then set free by the addition 20. of a soli
of phosphoric acid,' making the liquideasu
is applied gently at first, and gradually ii
comes over regularly. When 50. have distilled off the ope
finished and the distillate is titrated with one-ten
pthalein as an ind icator.
I have adopted phosphoric acid in preference to
free the atty acids, beuse it is not so liable to
ter; much greater care is necessary when sulphui ad is
fore the modification of the delivery tube was adopted, Ifreque
found BH S04 in the distillate. Thus, before usin,
experiments required 1. to 2.0cc., one-tenth alkali, tralizio
gave a perceptible precipitate of BaS04. After addin the bulb I fo
blanks occasionally to require as much as.8cc. when the distillation
not been carefully watched. The following c arative r
that there is practically ho difference which acid is used, when
operation is carried- on with care. The processes used were identi
except that in the second, 20cc. of 10 per cent. sulphuric acid was s
tuted for the phosphoric acid. The results are for 2.5 gams of fat.

No. 1 With huri acid ............. 12.7 12.7 112.
No. 2 With phosphoric aid......... 15. 8
W ith sulpih ric acid I....... ..... 15.3
o Wi.t W th sphoshoric acid.......... 13 .1
N. 3 With sulphuric acid 3......... 13.2
N ith a d..... ..... 14. 1 14 -.5
o. W ith sulp uric acid............. 14.8 14.6 14.9 14 5 i 15. i

Blanks should always be run, and will be generall f to eq
.1 to .3cc. of the dleci-ortwal soda before t ill w te
the pbenol indicator.
Koettstorfer's process (as used in this labrtory)or..- ou t 2.5 gra
butter filt (filtered and free from water) are weighed in oapatentlrtlb
Sstoppered bottle and ec. (approximately) semiuo
added. The exact amount taken is determined
pipette with the beaker of fat, running the fat int the b
pipette and weighing beaker and piette again. Te alcoholic pot
is measured always in the same pipette and tuifor
by always allowing it to drain the same length of ti
Th bottle is then placed in the stea bath together with a blank,
raining no fat. After saponification is complete, and the bottle
down, the contents are titrated with au ly

Made by dissolving 200 grams of commercial glacial p
waz r; its specific gravity is 1.140.
Zeit. Anal. Chem. 1879, p. 199;, Analyst, 1879, p. 106.
o ii' ii'iii







lri acid, using phenol-phtalein as an indicator. The number of
i s of te aid ud for the sample deducted from the
ber red for the blank gies the number of cubic centimeters
wbidh cornines with the fate anrd the ation equivalent is calculated
Sthe following formula, in which W equals the weight of fat taken
Slgras and N he number of cubic centimeters which has com-
ned witt the fat.
Sat. Equiv. 2-

tFrebutters the mean value of N is abont when 2.5 grams of
r ft a taken, and the saturation equivalent may vary from 230
25 Othe other hand for lards, tallows, and other fits commonly
d for adultrts the equivalent rise. to 270 aud 2)0. These numn-
Se ree e a fair idea of the purity of a butter, or if an adul-
Sh bee practiced, of its extent.
ESTIMATION OF INSOLUBLE ACIDS IN BUTTER FAT.

Method of eher.-This methoOl consists in saponiy3ling the fat with
cooic cus potash, subsequent evaporation of the alcohol, decom-
sitn of te soap with sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, and the deter-
of the insoluble acid gravimetrically.
,The pr s as originally described by Hehner is cirried ou as fol-

Th lteedbutter fat is weighed in a beaker glass with a glass rod;
or 4 gra are taken out by means of the glass rod and put in an
eporting dish about 5 inches in diameter; the glass rod with the fat
Sr n it is left in the evaporating dish. The beaker glass
agan weig ed and the amount of butter fat determined from the
iferenc weight. To the weighed fat are added 50cc. alohol and 1 to
gras of pure caustic potash. The alcohol is warmed gradually upon
le water bath, by which the butter fat, especially when stirred with
he glassr, r easily dissolves to a clear yellow liquid, giving off a dis-
nt orof butyric ether. The heating is continued ftr about five
inutes and distilled water is then added drop by drop to the nias.
S p uces a clo~iness in the liquid, tdue to the separation of uu-
ecomposed ft.-it, the heating is continued solewhat longer until finally
he further addition of water does not produce the least cloudiness.
hould, however, through the careless addition of water, some fat sepa.
e l the fm of oily drops which do not again easily pass into the
ti the diluted alcohol, the whole mass must be evapolrted to
treated anew ith alcol, or the experiment e done over
i with some fresh fat
The clear soap solution is now evaporated on the water ath the
s of sirup in order to remove the alcohol, and the reside
Zeit. Anal. C 1hn. ppB. 1,. d5.





60 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.


or sulphurio acid is added to a strongly acid reaction, in order to

beesy mass, which for the most part quickly rise e surface
heating is continued fora half hour until the fat
clear oil and the acid aqueous liquid is almostcompletely clear. Mea
while a thick Swedish filter par of4or 5 inches in diameter
dried in a water bath. The filter paper must be of the best quality
so thick that even hot water will only t
small beaker glass now weighed,
the filter tube and the filter; in this way is nd the weight of
filter and the beaker glass.
The weighed filter is now fitted to a fnnel iste an alf
with water. The aqueous liquid and the melted fat are then poured
of the evaporating-dish into the filter, and the dish and glass rod
washed with boiling water. There is no diffi
fat on the filter, so that the evaporating dish ds o a i
least greasy. To make sure, however, the dish n be w d
ether and the liquid obtained added to the fatty acid.
The fatty acids are washed upon the filter with boiling water
filter should be never more than two-thirds fll. If the filtrate te
with sensitive litmus tincture does not appear a te r
water is allowed to ran through, and the fnnel is dipped into a bea
glass filled with cold water, so that the surface of the quids i
and without the funnel are at the same level. Assoon thatt
have solidified the filter istaken out of the funnel, d in te
beaker-glass, and dried in a water-bath to constant weight.
ing is continued for two hours and the filter paper is t we
is again dried for two and a half hours and weighed a second ti
It must be remembered that it is not a mineral substance which is
treatment, but an easily-oxidizable fat, so that an exact constant we
cannot be expected.
Butter fat gives between 86A and 87- per cent. f insolu
though in some cases the number ma rise to t h othe
Shand, the animal fats give about,~5j per cent. of insolue
It iiust be expected that the Iid of fod whi co rcei
fluence considerably these numbers. In r to t t
portant point, Dr. Turner had a cow fed for a longhe xc
cake, with the ect of raising the prceta of i luble
the highest point. It is worthy of remark, howee butte
produced gv the unusually low percentage of 86.3.
Alethod of Muter.'-The total fiatty aeids. About 10 grame (or
grains) of the butter fat at 1000 F.are weighed by diffeence from a
pended tube into a clean, dry 15.oue flask, and 5 s of otss
hydrate with 2 fluid ounces of rectified spirit are
Ana .,st, 17v7, pp. 10,11.







ed ina bin with hot water, and kept boiling for a considerable time,
Son ding water not the faintest turbidit occurs. Ten ounces of
water aI e edl the evaporation continued (just short of boiling) until
~traee ~alehol a~re dissipated. The contents of the flask are then
e up to ounces with nearly boiling water, and a good-fitting cork
ing been introded through which just passesa tube 2 feet long and
n a funnlrms offll gth sulphuric acid arepoured
S by so water. The ole is then agitated
Srular motion until the soap, which rises suddenly, is changed
aerfectly clear and transparent stratum of fatty acids. The flask
coents are then cooled down to 400 F., till a perfectly solid cake
a frms. A few drops of eold water are run in to wash the
,andtheork having been removed, a small piece of fine cambric
th of the flask, held in situ by an ordinary India-
ber ring. The fat ake is caused to detach itself from the sides of
flak by a gentle movement, and then the filtrate is decanted, with-
breaking the cake, nto a litre test mixer with a good stopper.
t u of cold ater is poured into the flask through the cam-
id te whole cake and flask rinsed out by gently turning round,
added to the iltrate. Six ounces of water at 1200 F.
now added through the muslin, which is then quickly detached,
S c and tube inserted; the whole again heated, this time to
Sk tantly agitated with a circular but not a jerky mo-
Sfor ive min .This agitation so divides the fat that it almost
s an emulsion with the water, and is the only means of thoroughly
Srapidly s g fatty acids without loss. In practice no butyric
S s at 2000 F., but any trace that might do so is caught in the
I tu. The cooling and filtering are then again proceeded with as
Sd (the filtrate being added to the contents of the test
er), and t .:e washiugs are repepeted alternately, cold with 1 ounce,
h wih 6 ces of water, until they do not give the slightest
a tlo neutral litmus. After thoroughly draining the residual cake
ig e fks s d upside down for some time, the cambric is re-
ied a t flask is laid on its side in the drying oven, with a sup-
t under the neck, until the acids are thoroughly fused, when they
poured while hot into a tarred platinum capsule, dried and weighed.
filmoffatty acid still remaining on the flask is rinsed out with
r a in a small weighed beaker, and the weight addedo to
whole. If any drops of water be observed under the fatty acids in
c e an drying the addition of a few drops of abso-
Salcohol will quickly cause them to dry off. If any trace of fat is
h cambric it should be also dried and extracted with eher, but
h care not to break the cake at the last pouring of this doe not

he process is absolutely accurate, and the merest tyro cannot make
y loss so long as ie does not deliberately shake the melted acids





62 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

against the cork, which he could not doif he practiced a oircuiarag
tion while washing.
The filtrate in the test ixer is now
and in 200c. the total acidity is taken k i
hydrate. The solution I generally use represents .01 of in eac
ubi ceimter as it seves also for nitrogen combu tions; bt a se
ftl strength would be decinormal soda contai
cubic centimeter. The acidity found is multiplied by 5, calculte
11 S04 and noted as total acidity as S04"; 100e.arenext ta
and precipitated with barium chloride in the presence of a strong a
ulation, with hydrochloric acid, well boiled a washed by
cantations, boiling each time; and lastly on a filter, till every tra
soluble barium is removed. The precipitate is dried, ignited, a
weighed as usual, multiplied by 10, and calculated to H and n
as total sulphuric acid." Lastly, 100c. are evaporated to ess
the water bath in a tarred platinum dish holding 120.
with a cover of platinum foil, also tarred. When
ad a framet
and heated over a Bunsen till all fumes cease, and, fra
amrmonium carbonate having been added, the whole is again ignited a
weighed. The amount of potassium sulphte fo is multiplied
and calculated to HSO4 and noted as "combined ulph id

OTHER METHODS.

Liebschiitz' has described a method for the examinatin of bu
and oleomargarine, being a modification of David's proce
The fatty acids are saponified by baryta in alcohc ti.
alcohol is evaorated and the glycerine washed out.
baryta is removed by exactly neutralizing with sulpuric acid and
tVring. The residue, however, is not merely a mixture g
water. The addition of alcohol in excess throws do
quantify of salts which have remained in solution. The alc l
evaporated and the glycerine obtained drd,dr~d weighed.
ter yields about 13.7 per cent. of glycerne in this way, wil l
garine yelds only 7 per cent. The glycerine fo ignit
left about5 per cent. ash (barium) whil that from oleo left only.t
per cent.
IESIVTS IOF IAN8SEN' INVESTIGATIO.
Dr. Amugust jHllanssen has made a comparative study of the
important methods of analysis mentioned in the
has reached the following conclusions:
(1) The determination of the imelting-points of the dicffrentats is to be trogly
onn) tended.
SAmalyst, 185, p. 111, et seq.
*Compt. Rend., 188, vol. XCIV, p. 1427.
Studiein tider dn chmisen Nachweis froder FUttn Butter~







he elementary analysis of the fats gives no indication whether adulteration has

Sf is n ei by eat. With a rise of temperature th de-
comp n is at firt, fr te gater part, confined to the glycerides of the

of b by hnr method there is no appreciablo
loss of There is alo no loss of volatile acids in direct saponification in

ti o foreign fats in butter, the best method is that of Reichert-
Meisel, and next that of Koettstorfer.
ivet of the various methods the mean for insoluble acid (Heh-
Si tak a 87.5p cent.; for Koetorfer's equivalent 227, and for Reich-

out of the soluble acids must not be carried too far; for 2 to 2.5
rams of fat three litres of water seem best.

ABSORPTION OF BROMINE AND IODINE BY BUTTER FATS.

Sis capable of absorbing for each formula molecule one mole-
or iodine. Stearic acid does not possess this property.
re i to approximately determine the relative quantities of
Si he present in the same fat by the quantity of the

Thus (teari acid) CiHsO6 does not absorb bromine and iodine,


(,jH31 0+ B2 OC n H3I -B ri

The.glycer of the above acids, i. e., the natural fats, have the same
rtiv wr as the acids themselves.
Mill, Sograss & Akitt' have determined the quantities of bromine
absori~ous fixed oils. The method employed is as follows:
The weight of dry oil taken is about .1 gram; this is dissolved in a
top botle of 100cc. volume by 50cc. dry CClI. To this is now
added ti of about 8 grams per litre of bromine dissolved in 0014.
of this reagt is continued until apermanent coloration is
produced at the end of fifteen minutes.
If greater accuracy is required an excess of bromine may be added,
a ards tre d with a solution of KI and some starch and titrated
w a sndard solution of sodium thiosulphate.
The excess of bromine ay also be determined by titration with a
standard solution of f(J-naphthol in CClA
Hbl has described the reactions of fats with iodine.
.The reagents eployed are an alcoholic solution of iodine and 1iIg ,

Thi is d lved (25 grams) in absolute alcoho ( c.) The
mercur lodo is also dissolved (30 grams) in nearly absolute lohol

Soc. C I ry, ol. p. 435, and vol. 3, p. 3 .
Ding. Poly. J., vol. 243, p.281.
++i+++ +I T*++






64 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.


ing twelve hours its iodine strenth is determined by titration wide
normal solutios f sodum thi. From .8 to 1 m of the ft
dissolved in 10cc. chloroform. To this,in astoppered bottle isaddedt
solutio of iodo-mercuric chloride (20 to 30e.) After standing for t
hours the solution must still be brown.
Add now 10 to 15ce. 10 per cent. er solu
water to 150cc. The free iodine is then dterminedbystandardt
sulphate of sodium. The compound formed when pe oe
treated as above is chloro-iodo-oleic acid (CJH 10
Moore' hai tried Hbs method and finds it valuable.
The fat of butter containing less oleic-glycerides than the fats or
narily used as adulteran ts for butter shows,y ess bromi





Lard.............L... 3-' ,b 37.8 59. 1 .<
Tallow ............. .............. 40 .
Cotton-seed oil...... A. 10s



If there be a mixture of two fat the metho
good approximation f the percentages of e ach.
Thus, let z be the percentage of one fat andy of t
Then--e o 0. 1 1
z+ y= 100
Let m be therepresentative of the iodine ahsort he a and h i
and let A be the number found for the mixture.
Then-
100 (A- n)


Jones, points out the changes which butter fats undergo when ke
for a long while at a high teperture. notices n a few hours t
the specific gravity of such a fat kept at 1000 F. increased from 1
to 912.. He uses the following metod of estiating the insolublefat
acids:
SI IEAQ G EN TS.
-- -- *;-"-. ***** ^ rll **.''**







(a) Twenty-eight grs roughly weighed of the best potassim drat dissolved
a litre itth lcohol, specific gravity 840.
(b) Twenty-fve grams of strong sulphuric acid mnde up to a litr
(c) of *;: -
(c) Deinormal soda solution of ect strengt.
Saponification is carried on in flasks abot 250. capacity. Abo
grams of butter ft are used for each spoifiatio. The alcoho
I Am. Chem. Jour., vol. G, p. 416.
2 Analyt, 1878, pp. 19 e seq.








Sis ared by 50. pip whh is alloed to drainintoeach
the time. The flasks are closed with
mrb placed upon the water bath and saponified at a temera
e of abo 00 After perfect solution has taken place they are
wed to emain for a hour or two and then diluted with slightly
rmed distilled water. Into each flask and likewise into two beakers
ining 50e. of the alcoholi potash are ow run about rle of the
roximately semi-normal acid more than is necessa ry to neutralize
Sli potash. The excess of the acid over the potash i







no a w r belie to be eog The
erwards determined by the decinormal soda. The flasks after the
ition of the acid are nearly filled with water and gently agitated, then
St water bath until the fatty acids form a clear stratum.
alled to coo and stand over night. On the following
ing the solutions from the cakes of fat are oure into a filter.
thewhole solution is on the filter the lasks are rised with

ed and the flasks briskly shaken for a inte or two.
o gd wsngs with hot water are believed to be enough. The
s ae nw t d with the decinorwal soda, the amount for the
s of u uric acid deducted, the remainder being the index of the
ble acids of the butter, which are calculated as butyric acid.
hes e fatty acids in the flasks and the sall amount that may
e passed on to the filter paper are allowed to remain until the fol-
g d, b whh time the latter become air-dried and in a it state
ie it eer. The fat in the flasks i then melted and poured,
e rinsings of the ether, into counterpoised dishes with
rp sides, about 3 inches across and 1~ inches deep, and the
r papeirs are also thoroughly washed with ether, the funnels being
ered during the process. After the evaporation of the ether a little
olute alcohol is added, the dishes dried in the water-bath for half an
rcooled, add weighed. Afterwards they are again dried for twent
mutes and reweighed.
For a more convenient method of manipulating fatty acids, Blyth '
s recommended the following:
he flask in which the saponification is made should he of 300 to 400c.
cacity, with a rather long and narrow neck, furnished with an accu-
ely fitting stopper, through which two tubes pass, one proiided with
top-cock to let out the liquid, and therefore terminating on a level
th the interior surface of the stopper, the other to let in the air, pro-
ged to nearly the bottom ofl the Iask and extrally bent siphon-
The fat is saponified in the flask and the soap decowmpsed in the
ust way; when this is effected, the stopper is imaerted, and the tlask
down and kept in that position during the entire wash-
process. Directly the whole of the fat has risen to the surfacethe
or liquid is run off, whilst hot or cold water is introduced by opening
'Analyst, (7 pI. 11N











Wft d H ^liiP O .1 l B iMNHl ,l :ii" l i^MCP J i lll ^^,P ^ B M1li i" i i
quatity of water c be bttrap y
and a filter is not required.

DETERMINATION OF SOLUBLE AND INSOLUBLE FAT ACD

1IRTHOD ADOPTIDI) BY ALLEN.'












By tn s of a df-Utl ei n pipette f>0cc. n6uTO o
(a). Dissolve 14 grams of good stick-potash in 500ee. ofrectified spirit, or





spirit which has been rediatilled with nstic alkali,p ad aw t
till clear. This solution will be approximately seminormal.
(b). A standard bydroqu loric or sulphuric acid of appronr
strength.
(c). Accurately prepared decinormal caustic soda. Each 1.0.c. contains
of NaOH and neutralizes, .0088 grams of butyric acid, C40 .
A quantity of the butter fat (separated fro water, crd, and salt, as d
page 15)tt is melted in a small beaker, a small glass rod








is mth weoven a fs& toti
allowed to cool, and then weiohed. It is r d stirrd t,
grams poured into a strong 6-ounce bottle. The exact weight of fat tas


a), is ran into the bottle, and the pipette drained ea
same time ianother quantity of 50cc. is measured off in an exactly similar a
an empty flask.



The bottle is fitted with an india-rubber stopper, which i titl
is placed in the water-oven, and from to time removed and agitate,
between the liquid and the stopper. In about half an hour the liquid
perfectly homogeneous, and when this is the case the sapo ation is

contents of the bottle rinsed with boilitg water into a flask of about 50
which is placed over a steam bath, together with the flask containg
holic potash, until the alcohol has evaporated.


Into each of the occus t is now run about e. more seml
than is required to utralize the potash, and the quantity
The flask containin the decomposed butter fat i nearly
a cork with a long upright tube fitted to ait, and the whole
water-bath ntil th separated fatty acids for a clear stratum on the
liquid. When this occurs the flask and contents are allowed to becomea
cold.
Meanwhile the blank experiment is completed by carefully titrating t
of the flask with the decinornual soda, a few drops of an alcoholic solution
pbthalein being added to indicate the point of neutrality.
The fatty acids having quite solidified, the resultant cake is detached
agitating the flask, o as to allow the liquid to be poured out, but avoidi
of the cake. The liquid is passed through a filter to ca
and is collected in a capacious bask. I'f any genuinc but
ple, the filtrate will have a marked odor of butyric acid, especially on w
Boiling water is next poured into the flask containing the fatty acida
long glass tube attached, and the liquid cautiously eated till it bgin t
the flask is removed and strongly agitated till the molted fatty acids for
emulsion with the water. When th. fatty acids have agaii separated an o
the contents of tho elask should be thorotghly cooled, thecakeof fatty acid

iCommercial Organic Analysis vol. 2, 2d ed 156 etse.









the liqui ltered a before. This process of alternate washings in the flask by
tation with boiling water, followed by cooling, ad filtration of the wash-water,
is repeated three times, the washings being added to thefirst ftrate. It is often
dificult or i sible to obtain he wash-water wholly free from acid reaction, but
when he raton sjudged to be complet the washings may be collected separately
soda. If the measure of this oution required for ne-
ralzatn ds 0.2. further washing of the fatty acids is unnecessary.
The mixed washins and filtrate are next made up to 1,000ce., or some other definite
measure, aan aliquot part carefully titrated with decinormal soda (solution c). The
volume require is calculated to the whole liquid. The number so obtained repre-
of d ormal soda nutralized by the soluble fatty ads of the but-
ter fat taken, plus that corresponding to the excess of standard aid used. This last
will have been previo y ascertained by the blank experiment. The amount of soda
is deducted from the total aount required by the butter fat quan-
Serenc is the number of cubic centetrs of standard soda corre
ndig to thsolble fatty acid. This volume multiplied by the factor 0.0088 gives
Sa in th weight of butter fat employed.
T in the cake of insoluble fatty acids is thoroughly drained and
on water-bath to melt the content, which are poured as completely
to (wet) filter, through which the aqueous liquid was previously
pT fat acids a then washed on the filter with boiling water, to remove
of s ngly soluble acids. The fter is then placed in a small dry
in he manner described on pae 38, the main quantity of fatty
he supemetary portion subsequently dissolved out of the flask and filter

required to determine the insoluble acids of butter fat the foreoing
peratig may be avoided by dilting the soap solution obtained by
5 of the fat till it measures about 300c The lae excess of alkali
is then neutralized by cautios addition of hydrochloric acid, and the hot solution
Sw a s xce of barium chloride or magnesium sulphate. The precip-
i soap is well washed with hot water, and then rinsed off
r i a s, where it is decomposed by dilute hydrochloric acid. The
resultant layerof insoluble fattyacids is washed by agitation several times with warm
treated as directed on page 38.
of butter fat, the sum of the insoluble fatty acids by weight and of
acids, calculated as butyri acid, should always amount to flly 94
Sc o t fat taken. In the athor's o exrience the sum more fre qntl
thr 811r 1 r tl
appro exceeds 95 per cent., especiall if the butter be adulterated.
acid, calculated as butyric acid, hould aount to at let 5 per
cent., any otablysmallr proportion being due to adulteration.' The insoluble fatty
an experiment to have given the following ligures: Weight of butter
at tak 5 gams; deciormal soda required in the blank experiment, 3.0.
decinoal required to neutralize one-fifth of the solution of the solutIe fatty

.008 (31. 2-3.1) X 100
=04.70 per cent.
5.

Instead of weighing the insoluble fatty acids, W. F. Perkins has proposed to dig-
solve them in alcohol, and titrate with standard alkali in the manner described on
pa 76. The objection to this plan is the somewhat variable charactor of the fatty
id themselves. Clculating their neutralizing power on the assumptin that tey
are wholly stearic acid, Perkins fond 92.0 and 91.7 per cent. of insoluble acid in
pare butter fat. Calculated to olic acid these gures would ot materially od
edt teir equivalents in palitic acid are .3 and 3. per ent. rspectiely.
cording to J. Bll, th proportion of solubl aids calculated as butyric acid
t unfrequently falls as low as 4.5, and the percentage of insoluble acid. sometime
grhtly excen&d 89.0.











per cent., bt a sample oght arcely to be regarded as certainly a terat es

of insoluble acids' may be rearded as a fair averae, the soluble acids being,, taken





A farther experience in the employment of Reichert's pro s for examining fat
has led me to abandon the expression of the results in term b riacid, avor
of a statement of the wei of astic poth ne
100 grams of the oil. This is obtainable by multiplying the vol ofeinormal al
kali neutralized by the distillate from 2.5 grams by the ftor 0.44.
The following table contains a number of results expressed in both ways:


C. C. of KOH re
S.alka.li r .....quired byl Ob erver.
quiredby.5 of oil.oil.......................
grams.

Butter or milk fat; .......
CoWwS------------------------ 12.5 to 15. 2 2.80 to 3.41 Reichert, Caldwell, Moore, Allen, &e.
E We'S.-------------------_--- 13.7 3.07 Schmitt.
Goat's r --------- ....---- --0 1.6 3. 05 Do.
Popoise's .....................- 11.3 2.51 Allen.
Cocoannt oil ---------------- -- 8. 5 to 3.7 0.78 to 0.83 Reichert, Moore, Allen.
Palm-nut oil ----------- -- ----- 2.4 0.54 Alen.
alm oil .:................. 0.8 0.18 Moore.
Cacao butter ---.--- .6 0.38 Do.
Butterine and oleomargarine ------- 0. 2 to 1,6 0.04 to 0.36 Caldwell, Moore, Allen.
Whale oil -------------------------- 3.7 0. 83 Allen.
Do ............................. ---12.5 2.80 Do.
Porpoiso oil-....................----- 11.to 12.0 2.47 to 2.69 Do.
Sperm oil.... .................. .. 1.3 0. 20 D .
Bottle-nose oil-...................... 1.4 0.31 Do.
Menbaden oil ...................... -.2 0.27
Cod-liveroil ....................... 1.1 to 2.1 0. 24to 0.47 Do.
Sesame oil ......................... 2.2 0.48 Do.
Cotton-seed oil .................... 0.3 0.07 Moore.
Castor oil.......................... 1.4 0.31 Allen.

From these results it is evident that the fats of difreont ki nds of milk (btter fat) are
sharply distinguished from nearly all other fats by the large
tile fatty acids they yield by Reichert's proces. The
presented by porpoise oil and some samples of whale oil. In
5 per cent. of valeri acid, and Chevreul obtained as much as 9.63 per cent. In a re
t paper I poted out that in porpoise butter the glycerideof
to replace the butyrin characteristic of the bu of
Some of e chemists who have employed Reiches
filter the distillate before titrating it, so as to get rid of
be insolublo or very sparingly soluble in water. This plan may sometimes e adopted
with great advantage. Thus when the solution of the so
cocoannut or palm-nut oil is acidulated and distilled a notable proportion of laurio
acid pses over and solidifies in the condener or on the s

The percentage of adult t i bu fat may
formula, in which F. is the perentage of foreign fat and 1 that of the insoluble fatty
acids: F= (1-88)X13.3. Or cach 0.1 per cent. of solubl acids above 0.5 ay be re-
garded as 8howing the presence of 2 per cent. of butter fat.
2Analyst, 1887, pp. 11 et seq.

1 cc of alkali cotas 0.001 ra of K an .00561 100 .2244









adding water to the contents of the retort, again ditiing, ad repeating this
several times, a very considerable proportion of volatile fatty acid can be
il. assing butter, the appearance of insoluble acids in
a v le indication of t presenc of coanut oil, and
heshouldberemovedby iltration, or the distillate will be found to neutralize so
i as considerably to diminish the practical value of the process
as a means distinguishing -batter from butter substitutes, as has been pointed out
Lattely, I have adopted the plan of ltering the distillate in
all ewashing the fter with cold water, and then immersing the filter, with any
adhering insoabe acids, in alcohol, which is then titrated with decinormal alkali
and phemab-phthalein. In the case of ordinary butters and butter substitutes the in-
oluble volatile idonly neutralize about 0.2cc. of decinormal alkali.
The question having recently been raised, the following experiments were made at
my request by Mr William Barralough on a sample of butter fat, in order to ascer-
in the results of Reichert's process pduced by modifications in the
methods ofonductiung the saponification and distillation:
(1 half bic centimeters of butter fat was sapoified by alcoholic potash
e alcohol evaporated offmpletely at a steam heat, the residual soa
dissolved in water, the solution acidulated with sulphuric acid in slight excess, di-
distilled gently in a globular flask with side tubulure adapted to a
l had over. The flask held 460ce. up to the side tube, and
some fragments of pumice-stone coiled round with platinum wire were added to the
contents to promote evolution of vapor.
(2) An exact repetition of No. 1 experiment.
(3) aponication was effected in a flask furnished with a long tube and heated by
t manipulations were the same as in experiment 1.
Swas effected in a welllosed bottle placed in the water oven
Other manipulations unchanged.
exactly as in experiment 3, except that the distillation w con-
ted in a flask ftted to the condenser by a cork and bent tube.
(u experiment 3, except that the distillation was conducted in a


ments, the manipulation being that in experiment 3. The alcoholic potash was


Experin it .

Decinormal
alkali for
:.5 ,gram.
li ft them ini e






.o .. ....................... --.-... _.-.---. -. . .. ............. ..8 t
S.................................................................................... 11.





These reslte show that a senible loss occurs if the saponifilcation e conducted in
an open baindoubtlesowing to tho formation of butyric et er. On the other hand,
the exact nature of the distilling apparatus appears to be of little importance. This
latter conclusion is not in accordace with the experien of some other chemists.
Zalkowsky and Groger' have studied and modified H1auseman'S
metho of volumetric fat analysis. This method is baned on the tact
SBer. Chm. Geel., vol. 10, p. 1140.
gDin. Poly., J. vol. 244, p. 303, and vol. 246, p. 2.













that an alcoholic solution of a fathe acia is immeately apo



big rectio tae place:
addition of alcoholic potash, while a ntral fat reires tim
to secure complete faponitintion.














(as (C0iziiO3)3+3 K00Hs=(j OHg
When, there an alcohoevery litre of id and neut
which penolphtalein has been added i titrate with ti






the red color only appears when the fat ads are saponied,


half tan hour to saponify all the neutral fat and retitrated, w b
amount of caustic potash required to effect the saponification of all tye'1













fats is ascertained and th e quantity of potash required for e

rine residue, or I2.667 gIras. If 5cc. o i
ploy the weight of thei glycerin i
.tion representA. es the proportion of fat acidand
















the mixtu of reperated on. wihen a neutrolo oil"is sponied
and mtherefore every litreds of Kottstorfnormal potashr splitsd eicrtup one-third
of ft cis coul lo be clculte by the following iul


cial butter.
Mixtures fof pure butter with oleo oil were made and ex
the methods of Koettstorfer and Reichert, and the results c
with theory. The following numbers were obtained:

Koettatorfer. Reichert.

ter.
Calculated. Found. Difference. Calculated. Found.

C. m .
20.............. 200.8 201.4 +0.6 2.98 3.11
40 ............... '206.2 207.a3 +1. 1 5.81 6. + ,
50 ............... 208.5 209.0 +0.5 6.55 7.08
60 ............... 211.5 212.7 +1.2 8.65 0.00
so............... 217.7 215.6 -2.1 10.37 11.56


NOTE.-It is very easy to get exact result by the above thod of mi
ter and an oil are used whose behavior with the reagents employed was a
by preliminary experiment. The case is very dif rent when the analyst
to examine ar unknow sample. The butter in au unknown sample mayaenu
a different per cent. of volatile acid from that used in the samples given. v
of this method, therofore, is serioily impaire for termining the ext I
teratious in cgo wher. the separate xanio of the constituts is o
IZoit. AUAl Chem 184, S, aud Am. Chem Jour vol, 0, It





SDAIRY PRODUCTS. 71

h g s a te of te analyss of 37 samples of butter and
sbsttte giving the percentae of water, the specific gravity
370.7 C., te melting point determined by the metod of Blyth, the
mii~grams A KOJI required in Koettstorfer's method and of cubic centi-

The au concludesthatthe melting point is of no value in discrim-
ating between pre and false butters, bt the specific gravity, the sa-
onification rocess, and the distillation of the volatile acid are sufficient
to distinguish at once between the true and the false.
The oleo oil employed had a mean specific gravity at 370.7 0. of
melting point was 270.6 The "neutral" h a speciic
gravity of 0.9053 and a melting point of 380.1 0.

BEHAVIOR OF COCOANUT OIL WITH SOME OF THE METHODS USED IN
ANALYSIS OF BUTTER FATS.
in a paper read before the American Chemical Society,
er 8, 1885 calls attention to cocoanut oil as asubstiute for
batter. He give its fusing point at 240.2 C. to 40.3 ., and calls at-
tetio to the fact that its specific gravity is higher than that of butter
noticed that the insoluble acids in butter fats may
sometimes amount to as much as 90 per cent."
The athr has found tha cocoanut oil yielded 86.43 per cent. insol-
ble id andthus infers that it could be mixed with other fats and
escap eby this method, calling attenti6n to the fact, however,
thso acids be estimated according t the method of Dupr65
the sophistitions might at once appear.
obtained are ascribed to the volatility of lauri
d which esapes on drying the insoluble fats. By Koetttorfer's pro-
s the number of milligrams potash necessary to saponify one gram
ooanut oil was found to be 257.3 to 258.31' the large quantity required
i o presence of lric, caproic, cpryllic, and capric acids.






er ce Per cnt. ig
49,3+ 50. 7 1required of KOff 220.0 r
i70.2+ 2. 8 required of KOH 234. 9
53,1+ 4, 9 req~iIrd of KOH 223. 6
75,9+ 24. 1 equired of K H L034. 9

I Wp o, pp, 31,6 2t 3.g g :
1u a tlw, 4eit. Aal. Chem., 1878, 1. 2 Kretchmar, ler. Chem.




Vnts, Dingp Poly, Joy Vol, 949, p, 270 1 Moore, Chejua, No w#, loo, oit.








The oleomarga,; rine used required 193.5 miilligrama KOEI per gram.'
The iodine meod i conod ofoielo


and leomargari,, &., and numbers obtained which come,
limits for pure butter.
Thus oleomargarine 55 per cent. + cocoa
35.5 of iodine per 100 grams, and lard 40 per ct. + Coatl
cent. required 32.2 of odiey 3. In samples of butter the iodin
found by Hiibl varied from 26.8 to 35.1.
By eihert's method, however, the presence of coanu
with butter and oleo is at once detected. Thus of 5
cent. butter, 275 per cent. oleomargarine, and 33.5 cooan
by Hehner's method 89.50 per cent. insoluble acids ; y Koe
method, 227.5 mg. KOH; by Hiibl's method, 33.4 per cent. i
tor; by Rpeichert's method, 8.7c. Nsoda solution.

Pure butter requires by Reichert's method about 13oo.,


circumstances requires only 3.7ce. Little eviden c is forth
respect of the use of cocoanut oil as an adulterant of butte
been mentioned as an adulterant of lard4 and DietzhI mentos
a compound of 1" Schmalzbutter?" In attempts to use it as an adu
of butter no great success was secured, since the oil not h g
properly purified mnade the butter unpalatable. The smell a
the oil ca be removed by a patent process of Jeerich and
which consists in treating the oil with superhea steam and
ing any free fatty acids by calcined magnesia. The author
paper by recommending Reichert's process tprs a s thr
examining for the purity of butters.

USE OF COTTON-SEED OIL AS A BUTTER ADULTERA

Cotton-seed oil is used largely as an adulterr lard a
It has saponification equivalent of 285 to 29 and specific gra
C. .872, pure butter fat at Uhe same temperature being .868.
Its further properties are ths described by Allen
The oil as expressed from the seeds contains in solution, oftn to the ex
cent., a peculiar Coloring matter, which is characteristic of this oil and
which gives the oil a ruby-red color, sometimes so intens as to cause the
nearly black, Crude cotton-seed oil gives a very bight red coloration
sulphuric acid (page 59). When boiled with an alkaline solution, alco
being preferable for laboratory experiments, crude cotton-seed oil is sa
the resultant soap rapidly oxidizesv n xpos to air, with production. a
Moore,Am. i mJ., vol. 6, p. 416. 3 Nabri.e p 2.
uDing, Poly. J., vol. 25:1, p. 281. *Wag. Ja4resbericht, 1882, 3.

4Analyst, 1H82, 1. 193.






DAiI isRDUCTS 7 3.


heoloring matter causes crde cotton-seed oil to produce stains, and hence is re-
by a process of refing. This is usually effected by agitAting the crude oil
ate ordin temperature with 10 to 15 per cent. of solution of caustic soda of 1.060
e gravity, whein the alkali combines with the coloring matter and saponifies a
flocks which deposit o
d oi tlightly colred. The loss in refining is usually from
4to7 per cent., but occasionally amou to 12 or 15. Hence it is desirble, before
purchasing crude cotton-seed oil for reining, to ascertain, by a laboratory experiment,
what the percentage of s is likely to be. Frequently the treatment with alkali is
only carried far enough to remove the majki part of the coloring matter, the oil being
then boiled witha solution of bleaching powder and subsequently treated with di-

Refined cotton-seed oil is of a straw or golden-yellow color, or, occasionaly, nearly
colorless. The density kauges from .922 to .926, and the solidifying point from 10 to
100C0. By subjecLion to cold and pressure a certain proportion of stearine is separated,
e l oil being corespondingly lowered. Refined cotton-
free from acid, and when properly prepared is of pleasant
tfor edible and cuinary purposes, for which it is now
exte y e, bh with and without its ualure being acknowledged. It is
now substituted for olive oil in some of the liniments of the United States Pharma-
cop buttsprncial applications are in soap making and the manufacture of fac-

ESTIMATION OF SALT.

The method employed in this laboratory since 1883 has continued to
give can be reco ended as the best in use.
From 10 to 20 grams of the well-mixed butter or butter substitute
are place in a separaory blb provided with a closely fitting glass
stopper. Add 25 to 50 hot distilled water, and after shaking well al-
low to stand for a few minutes The water, which has dissolved most
of the salt7 i& now drawn off through the stoppered tube of the appa-
ratus. Fresh hot water is added and this operation repeated until the

otto eed blue is tated by Kublman to have the composition of

aclgly uble in caron diulphide and chlorofor but more
readily in alcohol and ether, and dissolves with purple color in strong sulphuric acid.
Thee noxidized coloring matter of cotton-seed oil has been recently examined by)J.
Longore, who, in a communication to the author,states that it is a pungent golden-
yellow product, insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and alkaline solutions, and
precipitated from thlatter on dition of acids. It dyes well and perfectly fast on


and partially sponified oil, technically ad uncilag." It i dcomposed with
a anght excesof acid, and the resulting dark-colored grease is heated to a tempera-
ture of 1200 C. (500'F.) with concentrated sulphuric acid, which renders insoluble
the coloring matters, &c., while the impure fatty acids rise to the surface. On distil-
ling theme with superheated steam, aitxture of fatty acids is obtained, which is Sol-




&at taefe and swelli which cannot be removed.










the salt has been tfassolved and separated from the butter.
Chromate of potassium is now added to the salt solution, and the titra-
tion is accommplished by a standard silver nitrate soltion.
The amount of NaC in butter is also determinedby dissolving thefat
witlh ether or light petroleum, and after iircineration of the cu
weih ing the residual asb, which is
This method is not to be recommended since it includes the salt foud
in the other mineral constituents.
Bell' gives the following met : Te grams of butter ae weig
into a porcelain crucible and dried at 1000 for six ho The melted
t &c, is now filtered, and crucible and filter are waedwithther.
The filter with its contents is then incinerated. The sh is extracted
with water, filtered, and the Nacl estimated vric i

ESTIMATION OF CURD.
The methods of estimating curd depend on the
ing a weighed portion of the butter, and afterwards extracting the fat
with ether or petroleum. The residual mass is t
curd determined by loss on ignition. This pr i
laboratory as follows:
Five to ten grams of butter are dried at 1000. o
porcelain dish. The dried fat, &c., are filtered th
le, the contents of the dish all brought into the crucible and well
washed with ether or light petroleum. The filter is
two hours and weighed. The curd is then determined by loss of
weight on ignition. A number of experiments ha
to convert the curd directly into an ammonium compound byKel
dahls process. This method has not met withient success to
merit a recommendation to general use. This method was irstried i
the laboratory in 1884.
Babcock finds this method more satisfactory Ten grams of the fat
are treated with light petroleum, and after the fat solution has been de
canted the treatment is repeated. The purified curdis then treated by
Kjeldahl's process.
QUALITATIVE TESTS.
The qualitative tests employed in the detection of artificial butter
are the following:
(1) Microscopic examination. This method has already been u
ciently described.
(2) Solubility in a mixture of amyl-alcohoj and etbert

*rFfthn A et ev34, Control X Yp AxV, S io,, Vt3iin











is made containing 40 volumes of rectified amyl-alcohol
Se o One gramof
r fat is dissolved in of this mixture at 260 to 280 Onthe
hhd, 1 gram, lard requires 16wc. of the solvent, 1 gram tallow
th, $an 1 gram stearin 350.o.
Sienttakea test tube of capacity and placein it
of the amyl-alcohol ether ixture. After tihtly
ing the tube pit in a water bath of 1800 .and with frequent shaking
ging ttemperature to 280. If the butteris pure the solution be
Sperfectly clear at this temperature. If not clear more of the
n cn be rn i out of a burette and the additional quantity re-
Swill be some indication of the quatity or quality of the adul
at whih has been used.












Bhoi i weight o sww i f Itbte


t" o er, ,ftre of pre utte ndar the
Butter. LarId. & it ie
required.

Gram. Gram. Co.
.1 --------- 3.0
.9 .1 3.9
.8 .2 4.8
.7 .3 5.7
.6 .4 6.5
.1 .9 14.4

al of this method has shown that it is capable of giving valuable
tative indications in respect of the purity of the sample under
mination. I believe it is the best simple test aside from the micro-
c examination capable of general application which has been pro-

e easiest method to secure a certain weight of fats is to melt them
neasure out from a pipette 1 cubic centimeter of each. The fate
h do not melt easily should be stirred up thoroughly with a wire,
l the temperature is raised from 180 to 280 C.
Odor of the burning grease."
The insolubility of the stearate of potash in alkaline solutions.3

(5) solubility of tallow, lard, &c., in petroleum ether of .69 specific
The relative solubility of butter fats and substitutes therefor in a
ure of 50 per cent. alcohol and 66 per cent. ether.'



itehouse, Chow. Nowls, vol, 3J, p. 297s

#Huson Zalt. AnaL Chem., 180, V, 236; Filslger, Pharm. Centralb., Wkh p, 210,











Tallow and lard appear, however, in distinct layers.
i I ;;; t = l = = : i"; ^ iR I E H i a i a It Us. ** ** -i -

tewhat imil t
The apparatus required consists of a test tube a ther
The reagent is a mixture of 3 volumes ether and ue a

with 20e. of the above mixtre, and this is placed in wate at 2
this temperature pure butter is completely dissolved. Btter,
containing lard, beef, or mutton tallow reu~ains undissolved
(8) HorselyI calls attention to the perfect solubility of pure
ether, and that it is not precipitated 'from this solution by
alcohol, while other common fats are thus separated at
Leuz' confirms the general results of the fo
(9) Belfield allows the fats dissolved in ether to crystal
distinguishes between them by their crystalline form.
(10) Paillat6 has found that pure butter when d
in ammonia gives a turquois blue color, while a r al
uargarine (?) gives a'greenish tinit.
(11) Dubois and Pad 7 point out that the addit
quantity of foreign fats to butter not only changes t
the fatty acids obtained, but also diminishes theiri
(12) Wolkenhaa-r8 distinguishes between the different fat by
nitric acid, which gives to cotton seed oil, palm oil lard, esa
several others a red brown color.
For a fuller discussion of most of these qualitative
either the original articles or Sell.9
(13) Method of Mayer.10 This test is ade as follows:
About 0.6 gram of butter fat is placed in a tt
made, slightly alkaline by a few drops of a solution of 2 per ue
or two drops of 6 per cent. ammonia-water. The
thumb is then well shaken, afterwards carried to a tempe
to 400 U., with freuent slakina. The emuliaoo
into a separatory funnel. The fat is now was
water at 370 C.to400 ., the wash-water being d n
so as to maintain a constant level in the fuunel. *The fatty matt
thus been placed in contact with about 400ce. water, the stop-
Analyst, 1879, p1. 111.
Pharm. Centralb., 1677, p. 166.
ChemI. Nw vol. 30, p. 135 Bnd 1,4.
4Zeit. Aial. Chem., 1880, p. 37"0
Rep. d. Ver. Anal. Chem., vl 3, p. 33.
L'Aune Scientiliue par Loui Fignier, h year, 1885.
7 Bul. Soc. Chhi ., eol. 44, p. 02.
S*ep. d. Ver. Anal. Chon., vol. 3, p. 103.
SOp. CU., pp. 505.0.
IoJour. do Pharm. ot do Chim.U vol. 15, P. 97,
+ +++ nrir: + ;tii
a ~t~ea~ ~t~ltt~~ ~~a~i~~~das +:++U ++ ++i; ++++









djted as to llow the removal of the wash-water as completely as



in dividd m bt t a itio o a s p on of other fat
wil be revealed by gresy drops, which can be seen evei during the

progress of the washing. Natural butters made in summer require a

In most cases the microscopic test with polarized light and selenite
plate combined with the Solubility of the fat in the ether amyl-alcohol
solutions will be found sufficient for the qualitative examination of a



RESULTS OF ANALYES OF GENUINE AND SUSPECTED BUTTERS AN
BUTTER ADULTERANTS.

STAM. No. 6.-Analys of butter.










ll.9 i .812 1.31 ,501 60 13. ,10

1746 ...................... 9109 1G. 2 88.91 3. 00 4.56 3.79 7438 1. 56 252.70 12. W
................... 91244 4. 86.60 5. 5. .41 .5250 8 244.0 15.60
C 1








.................... 115 1 4 87.50 5.49 4. 1 1.48 12 1 14 25 10 1. 10
5.0 1 5.51 3.41 *-~250 .83 t44,30 15 .
S................. 9100 17. 8 88.01 3.70 4.54 0.00 .4375 0 68 238.60 1 2.
S............... . 911 1 5 4.73 4. 80 0.00 .135 0 81 249. 0 13. l
10 ..................... .91063 22.12 87.84 14.98 4.70 0.00 .1750 0.49 248.70 13.40
87.47 5.27 4. 9 0.00 .17 5 0.59 243. 14.
..................... 107 11. 89 87.71 4. 09 4.98 2.01 .22 1.30 244.90 14.10
S .91155 21.90 86.05 5.4 4.74 0.00 1 .4375 1.21 244.00 13.20
S .. 90958 1. 55 88.09 4.45 5.02 0.57 .6125 1. 83 2 5 00 14.I30
176 ...................... .901042 11. 17 ..... 5. 31 4.52 2.56 .4375 1.11 247.00 12. 80
..................... 7. T.24 5.08 5.21 5. 2 2625 0.7 247.00 14, 80
..................... .91188 9.68 87.30 5.14 5.05 4.09 .5230 1.37 244.10 14.30

I ................... .t 910 7.35 88.14 5. 05 4.47 5.28 l4375 91 252 10 12. 70
........ ........... .10 12.28 87. 5.7 4.3 3. .4813 1.08 240.40 14.00
.....................910 8.9 87.21 5.47 5.20 .18 063 03 245. 10 14. 90
17...................... .91064 18.75 86.08 4.75 4.03 0.00 .7000 1.41 260.70 11.40
S.................... .91034 0.87 87.58 .17 4. 5 4. 81 .4375 12 251. 80 12.90
S...................... .91238 10.84 86.01 5.42 4.45 3. 11 .4375 097 250. 90 11270
177 ..................... .91031 12.28 88.48 4.06 3.2 5.79 .7438 1.43 210.50 11.10
81...................... .1010 7.26 ........ 3.97 ..... .42 .4375 1.43 247.10 13.20
.91112 12.82 87. 23 4.14 ..... 6.53 .680 2.01 245.40 13. 60
83 ..................... .91082 6. 93 87. 59 3.92 ...... 3. 92 .5250 1.33 248.40 12. 50
1785 .............. .91181 8. 29 87.10 4.48 ...... 5.11 .4375 1. 10 247. 0 11. 50
'I 1
780...................... 91061 8.44 8773 3.1 ...... 3. 15 .7000 1.4 2.0 11
700...................... 91080 4.41 87.1r5 4..41 ...... 1. 81 .7000 1. 92 251. 50 13. 90
172...................... 91106 13.67 88. 25 3:.47 ..... 7.10 .4375 5 10 240. 12.30
I5......... ............. 9113 8.22 87.75 4.18 ..... 4.87 .5125 1.34 240.79 14.50


T'Ai No. 74.-Analye of d oub fa bter'

1748..................... .90968 7.45 89.45 3. (61 4.60 2. 64 .7443 1.41 252 80 13.10
757...................... 904 11. o 89.44 -. r4 4.25 .2 .5. 1.3 12.10
7 ...................... 900987 12.12 87. 01 4.71 4.151 0. 00 .4375 0. 93 21. 5 12. 90
774 ...................... 098444.27 02 10 12 10
...................... .00947 11.59 8A.01 3.10 ..... 00 8750 1.50 25..00 12;:A
17906...................... 008.4 10.40 80. 42 3.402 ...... 5.40 W 3 .1. 250. 70 11.60
7...................... .9.00 88.50 3.44 ...... 2 .43784 4, 0.8 .090 11.70I I

















1754 NutrIt ....... 7. 0.
a No. the of bhe













SAverae 40 p per ft steer.
1 a4 t ......... 9 925 0.22 n0o 0




ANALYTICAL RESULTS.

The butters in table No. 6 were bought in open




was less than 13. Nos. 1742, 1740, 1752, 1766, 177
175 oarg .- 900hef) 9. 59 0.1 05eh 3.6 30 .6 240.70"







S177, 1783, 178, and 1792 cme under this ateg all
cases, however, except 1725 and 178, the s pecific010 8 0
.910 at 0 C., nd it would not be safe to condemn as
ated which had that specific gravity, unless the mr
veal crystals of foreign fat. In these samples sh w as n







In the twoe cases mentioned, wher the specifma g
.910 tere a on the reasons for thinking the sam es
the percentage of soluble acid, by Reichert's method, h .0
In 1708 it is still higher, viz, 5.21n With such proportees of o

aaid it woeuid not be posible to condemntat e saf p ras of
on the evidence of the specific gravity alone.
On the other hand, when the petrcetage of soluble r as adlt
1777, the specific gravity and saponification iequlv
classification of the sample among the d oubtfl e

less, should such a sample show with polarized lightslilt
hi-refractive crystals, it would be a strong presu
meros difficulties to the analyst, especially if he werev e
in respect to its purity.
In Table No. 7 simlar difficulties encountered Tho pigvi
ties are uniformly low. On the other hand, theof soluble
acids are only suspiciously high in two instancsaes, as 148 adueate 1






In the first of these instances, h oweve, tid is
limit of sspicin. aTe saturation equivalen pent IsIh
tiesare nifrmlylow.On he oli(,,r andthepercntag ofinsoubl








tnot above the range of pure butters. While the butters are classed
venience as btfl, they could not be so proved before a

Table No. 8 we have plain sailing. All analytical data show the
Sthe samples examined are not butter. Since the adulteration of
rs with less than 30 per cent. of a cheaper fat could scarcely prove
able, the chemist should be careful not to condemn a suspicious
e if its purity be attested by any one of the p employed
examinationunless some one test shows it to be undoubtedly

the foregoing study of methods of analysis I have not attempted
ve a complete citation of all the papers which have been written
is subject. A very complete bibliography of the subject up to
is given by Caldwell,' and in the work of Sell.2
e probability of the detection of an adulterated butter by the phys-
icl p es described in the foregoing pages is very
gre! at.ir 1 m
the order of value the quantitative processes employed may be ar-
d as follows: (1) etermination of volatile acids by distillation.
Determination of specific gravity. (3) Determination of the sapon-
ion equivalent. (4) Determination of the insoluble acids. (5) De
ination of the melting point.

Second Ann. Rept. N.Y. S. Bd. of Health, pp. 544-7.
Arbeit a. d. Kaiserlichen Gesundheitsamte.


















removal of cream or the addition of water.
Withot making any attempt whatever to notice the prolilitera-
ture of this subject, which has accumulated (ring the past few years,
nch.portions thereof as seem to be most helpful in the work of analy-
sis will be cited. Those who care to study the subject in greater detail


The constituents of milk which are to be determined by analysis are
(1) water; (2) sugar; (3) nitrogenous constituents; (4) ash, and (5) fat
Wa.tr.-The simplest method for estimating water in milk consit
in evaporating one or two grams in a flat platinum dish. The larger
the diameter of the dish the quicker and more accurate will be the re-
sults.
If larger quantities of milk be used or the dish have not a flat bot-
tom, the film which forms over the surface of the milk during evapora-
tion will prevent complete desiccation. To avoid
been proposed. The milk may be mixed with gy
surface be exposed and more rapid and complete drying sered.
Instead of gypsum, sulphate of barium, pure quartz sandsulphateof
strontium, and powdered glass have been used. All of these methods
are capable of giving fairly accurate results when properly coducted.
The addition of acetic acid or alcohol to coagulate the albuminous
matter before desiccation has been largely practiced, but Gerber and
Radenhausen have shown' this treatment is without influence on the re-
suits. Jenks has also shown that simple evaporation without any trea
ment whatever gives results which agree well with those obtained by
using sand.
In fifty determinations the maxinmm and tnimu
the two methods was only .14 per cent. and the
per cent.
Babcock I has proposed an ingenious and accurate method of determ-
ining the water in milk:
About two grams of rather coarse asestos are placed in a platinu evaporator of
30c. capacity, gnited and weighed. Five cubic centimeter k from the p
ihied. Centralblatt, l7, p. 212.
Chem. Cent ralb iltt, 188-2, 1). 1:1.
Second Ann. Rept. Control N. Y.Exp.Sta.,pp.7-
asurr ~ ~~~B;~)O$~~ ~~- ~Q~~j-m uEEEli~ mN~~









do not vary more than a milligram from each other.
Theashea rves as an absorbent of the milk and presents a large surface which
ilitates the drying. For this purpose abestosis much to be preferred to
or any fe powder which require frequent stirrinor complete desiccation
ein son, a second portion of milk
e dried in the same asbestos with advantage. In the series of analyses made
g theding experiments the morning's and evening's milk were dried together
this way. The dried reside may be ignited for ash.
The figues given for solids in all analyses made during the year have been deter-
ed in the above manner. The solids may, however, be found with equal aceu racy
Sin much less time by the method given below.
n the bottom of a perforated test-tube, such as is used in the estimation of the fat



The tube and cotets are eighed the plug of cotton carefully removed
Sve grams of milk, from the weighed piptte, described before, run into it and
he plg of cotton replaced. The tube, connected at its lower end by a rubber tube
ad a tmp, is placed in a drying oven at 100 C. and a slow cur-
Sof dry air drawn through it till the water is completely expelled, whichil no
ase requires more than two hours.
ce the pbliation of th mt Adams for the estimation of
Sbe further on, I have made some attempt to esti-
ate the water by drying the milk on long trips of asbestos paer,
bich are rolled p while still hot and weighed after cooling in a dessic-
t Iyet ed an asbesto paper sufficiently bibulous to
ake this method completely successful. But it has the advantage of
eing very speedy, since on so large a surface exposed for two or three
intet a temperatureof 1000 to 1050 C. over a sand bath the water is

An indret method of estimating the water from the specific gravity
as been prepared by Behred and Morgen by the formula-
8 (V-A)
V s sx
n which 8 pecific gravity of the milk, 8 specific gravity of the
milk free of fat, 8= specific gravity of the milk f4at= .94, and V = vol-

mero tables are given by the authors to show the agreement
twee the calculated perentage of fat and total olids obtained by
he above formula and the gravimetric determinations.
Another indirect method of determining the quatity of water in
ilk cousists i measuring the quantity of finely-ulverized c mmon


The apparatus consists of a glass vessel 24cm. high. The ul)p1er part
as a diameter of 2.5cm. and the lowerof Sn. the under side is a









fact that at 300 to 350 0. 100 parts of water will iole 36 partso
e.o tio is eand~~i on ash ollows:; Mix 15 a b ,l
20.25 grahs 6f salt anud add 15 grams 'of litm4 snctake, inatr
salt, to lcolor the milk. Raise the tem'peratur to to 3 7
thoroughly, and thln place the apparatus so that all the undis
will fall into the under-graduated stem of the apparatus. Eahdge
of the scale corresponds to 62.5mgr. of the salt. The part
subtracted from the total quantity will give the quatity dise
which the quantity of water is easily calculated.
The lactomieter of Geissler Iis too complicated for ordinar
the method of estimating the water content of milk by mea
volume of whey filtered from the cogulated alb e. p
Zenneck does not afford sucieny exact
description.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY.

The specific gravity of a milk diminishs as its content of fa
and hence within certain limits it may be a valuable inde
acter of the sample under examination.
When the cream has been removed, however, the speci g
be reduced to that of normal milk by the addition of wate


ways be determined.
This determination may be made by any of the methode
noted for fats and oils or by a hydrometer. Sin the use of
instrument (lactometer, lactodensimneter) is easy an speedy
erally emploed instead of the slower but more exact proced
pienometer.
Martin- found the average specific gravity i of the mk f
from E. B. Brady'-s farm, Westchester, N. Y., to be 1.031
another lot of thirty. one cows, farm of Peter Kuox it was 1.0
sixteen cows, farm of George Nelsork, 1.03175.
Jenkins makes the following observatios respecting tl
the specific gravity determination:
A consideration of the observations noticedabove brings us to the f
lusions with regard to the value of total and of specific gravity,
judging of the qu4lity of milk.
We iave meen that pure herd-milk shows very wide variations i it
soidm and fat, anI i lvaraitiont lesstytriking in it: Hp)c-ifiC gravity. No iustanceappes
hIer of healthy cows a specific gravity less than 1.029, and we may conce .i
inty that milk which flls blow that niy hasbeenwatered.
Ber. Chem. Gesel., Vol. 10, p1272.
FVith, Mil cbprifung. Ythoden, p. 87.
Fourth Ann. Reot., N. Y. State Bd. of Health, pp. 420 of sng
4Rept. Con. Exp. Sta.. Vol. 10, pp. 88. :9.










cowmoderately watered milki may eskape detection.
we will eablish a minimum limit for the percentage of solids and fat which


en pe i i ay aity e sll to vrn it absurd


ad thus or a premium on watering milk of good quality.the


he law of hu es the legl mm of water in milk at
an 87 per cent. water.




int the Report of the Massachusetts State Board of Health1 m akes

The statutes presrbe a ed and denite standard for commercial milk. Milk not
ning3perent.of solid is deemed to be adulterated under the law. It is
ten rged that, under ch standard, milk as obtained direct from the animal does
Sto reiremets of the law. il ti is true, it is also
vident that a standard established at the minimum of quality, or that of te poorest
lk obtained under the worst conditions, would admit of the sale of a very large

It possible to prode from inferior animls, under unfavorable conditions, such

equirement. Th ought not to be an argument for the reduction of the standard to
lde occasional ase of the lowest quality.
Mixed milk contains a greater amount of solid. than its minimum constituent&.
nce, the milk producer or dealer will fnd it a afe rule tosellmixed milk only,
specially when his herd contains one or more animls producing milk of a poor
uality. I* the 40-quart cans of the Housatonic Valley, filled for the New York
arket, the milk must necessarily be a mixtur from several animals, but in the case
the usual 2-gallon can, so largely in use throughout the larger part of this State,
contents may be often that of two or three animals only, and it occainally
ryrepresent a sinle animal.
Under the Massachusetts law a rigid inspection of the milk sold in all
a large cities is made, and the character of the milk is described in
following smmary of the report of Dr. Harrington, milk inspector

Dnring the year just ended I have received from the inspectors of the board, and

the cities and many of the towns of Eastern Massachusetts. They have been ar-
gd in clse, according to their respective sources, to wit (a) Samples from





easimoter, together with the Feser lactoscope, will, after a little practice, enable
;F, l?*^*"*' ;*! Wm"'"s' aAl ^"^^ --I -^ B ^ ^Sy ^BH PP~V ^^is^y









rnUe to separate thew goodPfrom theu ian diffrentandp poor sampl e s, m and inthis w



as unusual richness, averages, &.-be pased on inpetion. More t
tamples submitted to me were good samples, and of the whole nA











of h I i l
pamed as above, leavingm 1,190 which were ofbjected to analysis.OtMils
there were 391 which were above, and 7b9 which were below, the stat
Considering as above the standard the ri9 samples which were pa






the milk s upply of a year ago. A large proportion of those below theV
not what would be considered as of very inferior quality; nearly on


below the standard of 13 per cent. of solids were above 1percent
Dr. E. W. Martin I i has made a thorough study of milk






Of which I give the following abstract:



HaDing tmade-from time to time analyses of milk fro cows of al
under all conditions, of various ages, and at different times of the yea I fit







iperceD ta, of the maximum, minimum, andthe avererage constituents to
Constituent. Mawirum. Minien:. Average.









Fat................ 7.59 .78 .
S aar -------- r...-- 5.39 4.60 4.4
caseine ........... 4.34 .. 30 4.1
Salts .............. .71 .65 .7













pS Total solids l. -'17. 9 12.13 12.5
Solids not fatre t -t. .13 9.fi5 t2

Of the minimu amount of fat iven above, only three cows wr
milk so poor in fat, and their food and oudigs were of the pooresknd

shipped to market, and of the average percentage of the constituents
taken were:
Per cent r
F at --------------------- 3.2




ICasein ................. 4.1
Solids not fat............ 9.3







cses of prosecution, if the milk shall be shown upon analysis to con


This standard has been fixed from analyses by harples, *Babcock,


Aijlyat. No. of Total
A ly cowL80s o11.
Jim ~ .lBBhlr abcock ........... 8 14.55 f
fi^fifiiijkr ~^^llHfl^'yilI ~fl fl I'~ I~ JC tt 1:^1 ~i ~ I lft ~lll~f^ff~:l IUMM






DAIRY PRODUCTS. 85







tining the quantity of fat in a milk by weight it is neces-






ntioned used for determining water, may also be employed for

thin g s dishes (s chen), in which the milk ik dried in ia
inf ,or on sand, gypsum, or asbestos. The dish and its contents
ubbed up in a mortar and transferred to a continuous extrac-
atus. The one employed is a modification of the continuous
rmade by Mr. A. E. Knorrf- in which the return siphon is
olly within the extraction tubes, thus making the apparatus
pact and less liable to get broken.
e erent methods of manipulation heretofore employed for the
ec determination are so well known that I will not describe
her, but pass at once to the consideration of a new process,
ave already tried sufficiently to show its merits over all others.

.ADAMS'S MTBOD.

method of estimating fat in milk' differs from the ordinary
to methods solely in the preparation of the fat for extraction.
f drying the fat in the usual way the milk is absorbed by

exhausted by the solvent which is used to dissolve the fat.
nd of paper and the method of using it first proposed by
|i, e as follows :
terial, the only extra article is some stout wh ite blottintpaper, known
as white demy blottin ill 428," weighing m pounds per ream. This



k enough. Echofthesestrips is carefully roiled into a helical coil, for
by mylf, g of a stout doule










ed twice at right angles, and mounted in simplefraie. One en od th

grtfacility. This may be done, for the nonce, on a gl rod, the size of a
Two points have to be carefully attended to the t not be


the coil must be somew loo, th finished diateter being a littl
ch. I am in the habit of rolling up considerable number at time and
Analt. 1885 .46t e
M",." wu~i~ ~ Iii i ~ to kno w


sl~li~u l~lil96 per~"; I

ftl' 8li ~i
i~~~s MII

~i "I^~cA^^""&^"S~~t~d i'f__^ -i~ .S~t e fi i a -a^i ^^-c~l i;^^ o mBB^y _rS tsAaK Sji.~j~lt ^K&B S
IS A CUH,;







j|L. la.fA ifc. ifti^ ^A^^ aBi"i1KH--:& iir^K.'wK::ih^^XKtf SHlli ~lf
I~~~~~~~i~M Ull pHMi i~ i~I ;f















of en e I on tihe ba, s o he

ha single jet not to answer. My bth is placed upon a stout n rface, which i
heated by a large ring of jets; heat is evenly stributed over the





whole of the bottom of the bath, and the papers, which are put in a cage frame of
pletely drifed, if allowed to emain in the bath all night, and wrhed in a weighing

tube next morning, and their weights having been regter accordingtotheir
numbers, stored away readty llfor use, as follows:



The milk to be examined is shaken, and with a pipette 5 a isharged into a
osmall beaky dier 2 inches high by diameter, of a capacity of about weighing about
1 grams. This charg d ed, and then a par cl gently thrust



into the milk very nearly Ina few minutes the r ks up nearly
the whole of the milk. The paper i s t hen arefully withdrawn by the dry extremity




uo and g e n reersed and sd dr end dnards
the beaker an got on the glassper. The beaker is again weighed, and the milk taken
got by difference. It is ofet y ismporction to take up thrace oof the milk from the
beaker, as I am disposed to consider the paper has a selective action, removing
Watery constituents of the milk by preference over the fat.
The itarged paper is next placed in the water oven of the glans plate milktn
upwards, and rotgh-dried. Mifmanagement may possibly cause a drop to pass 2own
through the coil onto the glass. This accident ought never to occur; but if it does,


it is revealed in a moment wby ispection of the surface of the glass, and the experi-
ment is thereby lost.


In about an hour it is rough-dried and in a suitable condition for the extraction of
the fat.
The method of Adams has been thoroughly tried by the English

nchemists and has received the approvall of the English Society of Pub fi

milk than the ordinary gravimetrio methods.


In this laboratory we use the following modification of the process
The blotting paper is replaced by thick ltering paper it into strips
2 feet long and 2.5 in. wide. These are thoroughly extracted by ether or


by an assistant, 5cc. milk is run out by a pipette from a weighing bottle





quantity of milk taken is accurately determined. The strip of paper li1l
now thung up over a sand bath in an inclosed space high enough to re-
ceive it where the air has ateperatureof 1000 0.(circa). Intwoorthre
minutes the paper is thoroughly dry. It is at once, while still hot

glread- described.







fIat is di d by e r or petroleum, collected in a eighed








the se of asbestos paper I hae difficulty which is o estimate
sartb in milk, but so far have not achieved the success which I




Sthe ofethods for the gravimetri determination of fat byin milk
isa that th e Adams method, properly carried ott,



Sin e t.xing bottle,
a centimeter thick, was hardly a millimeter thick."
i s hin harmony with my own that I thought
l ad r all attention to fte dffulty hih is fte ex-



ed in using So xhles areemetric method for the estimation of
|lacobutyrometer: "BLit in this case, while the butyrometer gave tol-
eesults Boxhlet's method failed entirely; even after standing







be over a centimeter thick, was hardly a millimeter thick."gh
eexperience is so much in harmony with my own that I thought
obe of interest to call attention to some of the dificulties en
et original paper was published in Zeitchrift des Land-
Iahaftkiben Vereins an o a i Bayern," ibn 1880.




It upon the assumption that an alkaline milk shaken with ether





vwards te ethe i add and
Sr T b it put b
e all its fat to the ether, and this solution, being lint
the rest of the mixture, will collect at the top, where it can be sepa-
and its specific gravity determined.
eagents used are ether saturated with water and a solution of
cs -potash-cotaining 00 grams to theO t litre.

lk and reagents aving'been brought to a temperature of 17.5










te t
from a table which gives the numbers representing it fo


cent. It is thus seen that the cale includes all percent
nothing to 5.12. If a milk contain more than the larp
fat it must be treated with a certain proportion of wat
be examined by the ioxhlet's method.







































Both Soxhlet in Is origial paper and Lieberman'
ether retained i u the form of ai emulsion in the lower p

I Z
_Is 1'