Foods and food adulterants

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Foods and food adulterants
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Dept. of agriculture. Bureau of chemistry ;
Physical Description:
10 v. : ill., (some col.) tables ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Food   ( lcsh )
Food adulteration and inspection   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Statement of Responsibility:
by direction of the Commissioner of Agriculture.
General Note:
At head of title: U.S. Department of agriculture. Division of Chemistry.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029691477
oclc - 20101365
lccn - agr09001050
Classification:
lcc - TX563 .U5
System ID:
AA00026006:00004

Full Text














AND

SAULTE RANTS.




I TIGATION$ MADE UNDER DIREUTION OF
I. W. ILE Y,
fTION K. P. McELOY, W. H. KRUG,




TW, W. BIUELOW; AND OTHERS.


PART NI THE
DEAL PRODUCTS.












GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.





;si, ' ;
ill ,n ~;;
x:s,,,
r*

rrs
;l,~i~
;; ;siirrr;;;; nr,,,
;I1xiOs~tsiiiiiiiiri"0lliilil



r ';:I:;;;~;;;~;;;;;s;ii;;;;i;::; ';; I;;;;; II; ;;a;:;;ic

.;;li~~ll::,,';;;;;;j~j"a"ii";~;"' ', ';' ':ii; ;i;,,,, ; ;; slU,i


;siiiii;;riii~iiiai;ri;; ,;,
s;;;iiiiiri~r ii

"";;"






II"'















.2
.,:,,




;,











.,:i




,, ,;,















~,















91.























r


































































































.~..















iiiii;;,;ii;

;;iiiiis; ii~;~ll;,,,, ;;I ii
i~" s ;i;;;;;;,,:;; rii
ii;i;;;:l~~l;;iiiiii;'ll ;iil ;I:,IIE.,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,:::,,,,:::


.,,,,.,,,,
...
iii
rl;
























LETTER OF TRANSMIT AL.



U. S. IEPAlRTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY,
ashington, D. C., Janu ary 11, 198.
SIR: I transmit herewith, for your inspection and approval, the
manuscript of part 9 of Bulletin No. 13 of this Division. It discusses
he composition of cereals and cereal products and the adulteration
hereof.
Respectfuly H. W. WILEY,
Chie of /iision.
Hlo1. JAMES WILsoN,
Secretary.

























ILLUSTRATIONS.



PLATES.

Pl. XLVI.L-Typical wheat starch.............--------------------------------.............................--. 1193
XLVIII.-Typical maize starch.......... ............................... 1193
XLIX.-Typical oat starch .-----.............---------------.................----------.......--------.... 1194
L.-Typical barley starch ....-----------.....................................------------ 1194
LI.-Typical rye starch ............................................. 1194
LII.-Typical rice starch.............................................1194
LIII.-Typical buckwheat starch....------------..........-........................ ------------------1194

FIGURES.

Fig. 1.-Farinometer in parts................................................. 1270
2.-Farinometer ready for use ........................................... ------------------------------------1271
3.-Gluten tester in parts...............................................------------------------------------1273
4.-Gluten tester ready for use ..........................................1273
IV







.


















SCONTENTS.


Page.
realpr. .. ........................ ..................... ... 1171
SComposi of cereal grains ............................................ 1171
....... ..... .......................................... 1172
Coposition of proteids of barley ....................... ....... 1173
Composition of unhulled arley ............... ....... 1173
Buckwheat ...................................... ................. 1174
Maize ....................... ................................ 117
Maize proteids.................................................. 1177
Variation of maize under diferent climatic conditions ........... 1177
Oats-----.................................................... 1178
Noteson analyses of oats........................................ --- 1179
Variation in composition of oats................................. 1180
Proteids of the oat krnel....................................... 1181
ice................................................................ 1181
Proteids of rice................................................. 1183
Rye ................................................................ 1183
P eids of rye...-........... .................................. 1184
..... .........-------....................-......--........-.... 1185
Comparison of American and foreign wheat .... ............. 1187
Variation of wheat with climate and soil........................ 1188
Protids of the wheat kernel ............................. 1190
Separation of the constituents of gluten ......................... 1191
Thecarbohydrates of the ceres....................................... 119
Insoluble carbohydrates ...... .................................... 1192
Starch ......................................................... 1192
The cellulose group .............................................11
Insoluble carbohydrates of wheat -.............................. 1198
ouble carbohydrate ...........................................1
Sucrose ....................................--.. ................. -120
Invert or redwing sugars, dextrin, galactin .....................
R lnose........................................................ 127
Mi sellaneous cotiftuent of erel grains..... .................... 1207
Nitrognous bases.................................................. 1207
Ferments ........................................................... 1208
Diastase- ....................... ............- .......-.. 1209
Composition of the ash of ereals................................ 120
Prncipl dictiultes in pronring sh ............................ 1210
Description of saples of ash.................................... 1211
Minral substances in the ash and their relations................. 121
rparation of cereals r food ...-......... ........... .. .................... 1219
irinding of wereals ...................................................................1219
The milling of wheat ........................................... 1219
The roll er oce ............................................... 1219
V






VI CONTENTS.

Preparation of cereals for food-Continued. Page.
Grades of flour ...... ...............................
Composition of wheat flours ......................... ... ..
Heat of combusti of cer ................... ........... .
Analyses of wheat flours........................... .........
Typical American flours ........................................ 126
Composition of typical French flours ............. ............. 1266
Viscosity of dough ........................................ ............. 1
The useof farinometers ............................. .......... .. 1269
Gluten tester ................ .................................. .... 2
An examination of flours by a new method of dete ning their
quality .........-..........-........................-.........-.. 124
Particles of debris in the flour .................. ...,............ 12
Preparation for the microscope ..................... ..... .... 275
Resilts under the lens .........--................................. 1276
Microscopic examination of cellulose particle in flours........... 1276
Milling of Indian corn (maize) .......------------ ---.... .... ... ...... 1277
Microscopic character of Indian corn meal .............. .......... 1278
Composition of fine Indian corn flour ................................ 1279
Production of rye meal ...... ............- ....-.... .... ... ..-..... .. 2
Ergot in'rye flour............--..................................... 1281
Composition of rye flour .,,,............................,........... 1281
Barley flour ........... ............................................. 1282
Buckwheat flour ...................................................... 1282
Discussion of buckwheat products ............. ..............284
Flour and meal substitutes................... ........ ............ ... 128
Substitutes other than cereals.- .................................... 1285
Use of maize meal for wheat and rye flour ...........................1286
Detection of corn meal in flour ............... ................ 1287
Use of potatoes for cereals ..........................................1288
Reports as to minerals and wood as substitutes ...................... 1
Relative nutritive properties of wheat and Indian corn ............... 1290
Experiments in feeding corn and wheat............................. 1291
Comparative production of pork from wheat and m ..........1292
Comparative nutritive value of the carbohydrates ......... ........... 1293
The action of sulphurous acid on flour -----...................................
Effect on fermentation. .................................... ....... 1294
Experientcs in bread making with sulphured flour..................12
Method of testing flours practiced by the Vienna boar of health ........ 1295
Making and baking of bread.............................................1. 296
Varieties of bread ......................................... .. .... 1 97
rocesses of leavening ................................................. 298
Character of the yeast fermentation................................ 1299
Experiments with yeast .......... ........................... 1299
Spontaneous fermentation ........................................ 1
Method for making salt-rising bread .......................... 1301
Aeration by means of aleady formed carbon dioxid ................ 130
Chemical rating agents ..........................................
Clssification of baking powders............................... 13
Resides of aking powders .................................... 1310
Composition of bread .................................................. 1312
Temperature of baking ........................................................ 1315
The percentage of moisture in the loaf ........................ ....... 1315
Relation of ilour to moisture in bread ........................ ...... 1316
Relation of moisture to size aml shape of laf ....................... 13*1
Smanary of observationsrard mosture..................... 1317





SCS VII

akig and baking of bread-Continued.' Page.



Description of saples analyzed.......................... 1319
Analytical data -----.......-----------------------------.............. 131
Ether extract. e ---- --.........-.......... ............-...... 1321

Comparison of bread with flour ..........----------...--...---.. ---------------- 1326
A typial Amerca high-grade bread-.......--...--------------.................... 1328
.... ...... ........ .1321
------..--------.........--------....----..........---......---......---------------..328
Determination offat in bread .......................................... 132
eection of method for extracting fat ................-.......... 1329
t u in greasing pans ........................................... 1330
U of a in bread ................. ............................ 1330
The acidityof bread ....----------------...................................-------------------........... 1331
.Adulterations ------- ... ......-....... .......... ...... .......... ...... 1332
Analyss of Rssian Hunger bread"................................. 1332
Chacter of substitutes for flour in bread ................... ... 1333
tive c ical examination of biscuit made from rye, and from rye
d wheat....................................- ..... .--............ 1334
The detection of egg yolk in breadstffs ................................. 1335
The influ ce of mold on the composition of bread ...................... 1335
Bread de from the whole grain ....................................... 1336
redded wheat biscuit ............................................. 133
rea fro whole-wheat flour....................................... 1337
ationof bread.... ................................-........... 133
Soap as anadulterant...---... ......--.--....-..........--......-..... 1338
Sa an adulterant -..................... .......... ......... 1339
nous lorid as n aulterant ....-- .................. ..... 1339
y prepare, or breakfast, foods.................................. 1340
riptio of partially prepared cereals and breakfast foods. 3.... 41
y of thenalytical data ....................................
Indian corn products ............................................ 150
Wheat products ...............................................1350
Oat produc t........................................... ...... 1351
Tapioca ............-.. ...... ................... ......... ...... 1351
Macaroni, ete ............................. ...... ................ 135
Barley products. ...... .... .... ............................ 1352
scellaneous products ......................................... 152
Bisc it ........................... .. ........ .......................... 13 3
Preparation........... ............................................ 1353
Dscussion of theanalytical data................................... 13.

Discussion of' the data ...... ..... .....- ...... ...... ...... ...... .... 132
C esand like gods................................................... 12
Discusion of the analytical data................ .. ...... ...... 1
Stanuous chlorid in giger cake- .. .................................... 13
















illjl
























us ^r "M" ill ii" ^'lil

Digitied by.the Inernet
in OQ^Q, 1
II I ^ I I ^ SBi m s
11 I L. U I U :_ I



















http://rchiveorg/deails/foadultr00com
















PREFATORY NOTE.



Mor tan two years have elapsed since the publication of part eight
of Bulletin 13. The delay in completing this bulletin has been due to
several causes. Chief among these must first be mentioned the great
amount of analytical work which has attended the preparation of the
t part. A mere glance through the following pages will show
anyone familiar with chemical processes the great amount of time which
must necessarily have been consumed in securing the analytical data
which follow. In addition to this, the appropriations which Congress has
made for the prosecution of this work have been greatly diminished.
From an annual appropriation of $1,01)0 a year the whole amount has
been cut down until less than $5,000 a year have been available for our
work. This has made it necessary to confine the chemical work to a
few analysts, and thus increase the delay in the lpblinction. The
neral conduct of all the ork connected it this bulletin has been
under the immediate supervision of the Chief of the l)ivision of Clhem-
istry, who hs prepared the manuscript and arranged the analytical
data connected with the work. Among the analysts who have been
chiefly active in conducting the chemical investigations may be men-
ioned Mr. K. P. McElroy, who had charge of the ash analyses: Mr.
W. 1. Krng, who deter-mined the fiber, ether extract, sugar, salt, and
digstibility in the samples; Mr. T. C. Trescot. who made the determi-
nations of the nitrogen; and Mr. W. 1). Bigelow, who made 1i part of
the determinations of the ash and moisture and all of the combustions
in oxygen. Other members of the laboratory staff have assisted Ifom
time to time in the incidental work cmnected with the pieplra tion of
this bulletin.
It willbe noticed by the reader that very little sp.ae has been given
t analytical processes. The methods which have been employed are,
ill all cSes save where exception is noted, those which are prescribed
by the Assciation of Official Agricltural Chemists. It has not, there-
f been deemed wise to burden the pages of this bulletin by erip
tion tof methods which can be fund oflicially set forth in other plmces.
n tses where depIartues have been ma~de from the association
methods the fact is stated, amil new methods which have been employed
nd which are deemed of essential importrae tr described.
11W





1170 PREFATORY NOTE.

The chief object in view in the preparation of
to establish as carefully as possible a standard of t r typ-
ical cereal foods, not only as a contribution to our cmil knowledg
of these bodies, but especially with a view to securing proper start
ing point for the study of the nutritive properties of e bodies in
question and as a basis for detecting adulteration. For this
number of samples purchased has been made as large possible, and
especial care has been observed in every detail of the eaination.
It is believed that the data which the followig pages contain,
although subject to the errors of analysis and observatio which occur
in spite of ordinary care, can be relied upou by physicians, physiolo-
gists, and physiological chemists as a safe basis r deductions i
respect of the character of cereal foods.
The analyses whose results are recorded in the following pages have
extended over a period of more than four years. The examinations of
flours bad for their primary purpose the establishment of a standard
of composition. These analyses were made chiefly in the years 1894
and 1895. At that time there was little occasion for supposing that
wheat flours were adulterated to any great extent with the products of
Indian corn, and for this reason those brands which were made by
millers of national reputation were not examined for this adulterant.
It is hoped that the remaiining parts of Bulletin 13, two in number,
viz., a part devoted to infants' and invalids' foods and one to preserved
meats, may follow without great delay. When, however, the reer
considers the magnitude of the problem which was ndertaken at the
outset in the preparation of Bulletin 13, he will hardly expect an
apology for the length of time the work has consumed.
H. W. WILEY.


A-" "

















FOOD AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.


PART IX.-CEREALS AND CEREAL PRODUCTS.


CEREAL PRODUCTS.
COMPOSITION OF CEREAL GRAINS.
The cereal gras and the preparations made therefrom form the most
importan t of human foods. This preeminence is evident both
from an economic and dietary point of view. Among all civilized
natns bad, in its broad sense, is the basis of human nutrition. All
dietary standards cluster about it as the center and support of the
system of nutrition. Not only is it the most important, but at the
same time it is the cheapest of nutrients. Measured by actual nutritive
power, there is no other complete ration which in economy can compare
with bread.
Bread is here spoken of as a complete ration. By this is meant a
ration which in itself contains ll the essential elements of nutrition.
In t are found the proteids in various forms, carb4oydrates of different
composition of which starch is the chief, fi~ts and oils, phosphoric acid,
lime, potash, and other mineral matters. There is no tissue of the body
which can not be completely nourished with bread, especially if it be
made of the whole whe.t. In speaking of bread a a complete ration,
it is not meant to imply that no other food is necessary. The demands
of digestion in sentient animals are wider than mere nutrition. The
element of taste and flavor is always a most implortant oie. In man
notonly are the tissues to be nourished and replenished, but the taste
must be ministered to and the palate flattered, in the interests of
hygien and gstatory demands. It is therefore necessary in the human
dietary to regrd bread as the foundation on which is to be erected a
stucture of diet which abundantly cares for the needs of the system,
and at the same time, by its constat variation, conforms t t the
demands, maybe whims, of the gustatory nerve. Hlappily, in the cas of
bre, we have may sources from which it may be supplied. The
1171





1172 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

principal cereals are wheat, maize, rye, barley, rice, oats, and buck-
wheat. The different kinds of potatoes have also sr for b
making, and the banana and cassava root are likewise employed for this
purpose. In fact, nearly every plant furnishing a frui or product r
Sin starch has been utilized for bread making, and h is therefore to
be considered as the chief constituent of bread of all kinds.
Nearly related to bread in composition and in dietetic qualities are
various conmpounds made with the flour of cereals and of other starchy
materials. These products have many different names, most of them
being included under the name biscuits, or raers, and cakes of
various descriptions. In addition to these, however,mst be mentioned
puddings, different preparations of oatmeal, etc., known as breakfast
foods, and similar materials prepared in different ways and used under
a great variety of names. The scope of the present investigation,
therefore, is seen to be the determination of the copositio and nutri-
tive value of cereal products in geeral, of which bread is the chief
and typical one; all the others, known by different names, being related
thereto in the predominance of their chief constituents and in their
general dietetic value. It is evident, as a preliminary study in the
investigation of these products, that an accurate knowledge of the con-
stitution of the cereals themselves is necessary. F y yes
division has been engaged in investigations of the compositiou of
cereals, and these investigations have been published as Bulletins 1,
3, 9, and 45, of the Chemical Division. In Bulletin o. 45, which on
tains the study of the cereals collected at the World's Columbian
Exposition, a summary of the composition of the principal cereals has
been published, and this summary is so important in the present inves-
tigation that it is advisable to insert it here.

BARLEY.

The mean composition of the saples of barley exhibited at the
World's Columbian Exposition aid analyzed by this division is as
follows :

Weight of 1(00 kernels ....gras.. 4. 533 Crude fiber..... .. .per cent.. 4.07
Moisture .............. r cent.. 11.31 A hi-............ ........... do.... 2.44
Protid ................... do... 10.61 arbohydrates, other than rd
Ether extract --- ..-. .... do.... 2. 0! liber -..........per cent..

The composition of 14 samples of barley analyzed in this division is
insown in the following table:
Per cot. rI Per
Moisture ......................... 6.47 Ether extract .................... 2.7
Prote ds solau le in 1 pTer cent alc Sugar ............ ............... 7.02
hol.............................. 3.68 Ile trin and soluble star ....... 3.5
roteids insoluble in O per cent al- Starch ........................... 09
cohol .. .. .. ............ .. 7.8 C e l i ....... .........f. ... .. 8
As ...... .............. .......... 2.87






BARLEY. 1173

SCOMPOSITION OF THE PROTEIDS OF BARLEY.
A ording to Osborne (18th An. Rep. Con E. Sta.), the follow-
g proteids are found in barley:
T'otatl weight
Soluble proteids:
orf s.d.
i ... .....-. .... ..- ... ..... .. ... ......... ... per cent. 0. .30
---......-- ....---... -...........-.--.----.............- ..... .do.... 4.00
Edetin. 1.95
P roteose) ----------------- -------------- ----- -------------
ubleprotei ....................................................do.... 4.50
The composition of the proteids which can be obtained il a pure
state is shown i the following table:
ompositio of barley prot ids in pure state.

Constituent elements. Leucosiun. Edctstin. I lordicin.

Per cent. P er cent. 1' r cunt.
Carbon ............................................................... 52. 1 501. 1 29
Hydrogen............................................................. 6.78 6. 5 G.
.... ......................................................... 16. 62 1 10 17. 21
lphur-...........................-.........................- .... ......1.47 ) 0.83
Oxygen............................................................... 22.32 0.87

In c the comtposition of the insoluble proteids is approximately
that of the soluble, the total nitrogen content of the proteids of the
ley is about 17.6 per cent. The factor fir calculating the nitrogen
to pr idin barley based on this figure is 5.68 instead of the com ion
r 6.2, employed in computing the proteids in the analyses made
Sthis division and mentioned above. Since it has been the general
usto to calculate the proteids by N x 6.25 the data given will not be
changed, but the recalculation can be easily made by anyone who
desires to make use of the new factor.
As an illustration of the changes in composition which the new
r would require, the instance of a typical American barley cited
below may be mentioned. The percentage of nitrogen corresponding
to the proteids given is 1.76. This ligure multiplied by 5.68 gives the
product 10 for total protids instead of 11. Since in this analysis the
carbohydrates other thanr crude ibe- arte calculated by difference, the
percentage given would be increased from 69.45 to 70.45 per cent.
Nu rically considered, the difference in the two sets of data is
important.
SIM141IlTIzoN 1 F I 'NIfll' 114 1BAUIE).
From a comlparative study of the recorded analyses of A.lerica'
bleys it is evident that a typical unhulled American barley has
aproximately the following composition:
Per ,ent. Per ent.
MOit.. re .. ............. ..... 10 5 Ash ................... ... -.h 50
Pr ida ........................ 11. ( Carbhyr.IIs other thatl crude
Eth ex tra t .................... 2. 25 liber ...........................
Cruide fiber ....................... K.






1174 FOODS AND FOO ADULTERANTS.

In this country barley is scarcely used at a ll as a
making, but more commonly for soup; therefore it is not
any of the samples whose composition is given farther on contains any
barley flour whatever. The barley rain in this counr used l
exclusively for brewing and cattle feeding. When used fr brewing
purposes the refuse, known as brewers' grains, when pr rly dried and
preserved, becomes a valuable cattle food, in which, however, there is
a deficiency of carbohydrates as compared with the other constituents.

BUCKWHEAT.

Only a few samples of buckwheat have been subjected to analysis in
this laboritory, and of these the mean composition of 10 of American
origin follows:
Weight of 10) kernels -.gras.. 3.069 Crude fiber.._.... -. r cent. 10. 57
Moisture .----- ......----- per cent.. 12.31 Ash..--..---......-- ...--..--.... 1,8
Proteids .................. do.... 10.86 Carbohydrates, other ta cue
Ether extract.............do.... 2.06 fiber .............. pr cent. .34
Judged by the limited number of samples examined, a typical
American buckwheat has approximately the following composition:
Weight of 100 kernels ....grams.. 3.00 Crude fiber-.............-nt.. 10.75
Moisture ...............per cent.. 12.00 Ash---...................... ...... 1.75
Proteid ..................do.... 1o- 0.75 Carbohydrates, other than crude
Ether extract ..............do .. 2.00 fiber .--- ...- ....-.. r cent. 62. 75
In the buckwheat it will be noticed that there is a large percentage
of fiber; that is, of carbohydrates insoluble in the ordiry processes of
analysis. This large percentage is due chiefly to the thick inner
envelope which surrounds the kernel. In the process of grinding this
hull is mostly removed, so that the buckwheat flour contins a smaller
percentage of fiber than the grain itself. It is probable that of all the
cereals and flours which are on our markets the buckwheat is the
most extensively adulterated. It is only by a caref microscopic
examination that the adulteration of buckwheat flour can be detec .
Inasmuch as the flour of other cereals is very much cheaper, it becomes
a matter of financial advantage to dealers to mix the buckwheat flour
with that of chealer materials. In this country buckwheat flour is
used to a large extent in the baking of pancakes, whi e eaten hot
with sirup or honey. It therefore is a matter of cons iderble impor-
tance in the present investigation. The buckwheat flour gives a cake
of somewhat dark color, owing to a mixture of a part of the hulls there
with, and this is a common index in the judgment of its in
rye flours, however, also give dark-colored cakes and breas, and there-
fore the appearance of this dark color is not always a certain indicat
of the purity of the sample. Even buckwheat flour wen bolted through
fine cloth gives an alhost white cake. When, however, the buckwhea
is mixed with flour imade of wheat or maize the light color is, as a rule,






MAIZE, OR INDIAN CORN. 1175

the ngu ing feature, but such a light color is no positive proof of
adulteration.
The separation of the proteids in buckwheat has not been recently
made, n it is not possible, therefore, to give a statement of their dif-
ferencents, as in the case of barley and the other cereals.
They u ess consist of soluble and insoluble portions resembling in
oo the typical proteids of those two classes.

MAIZE, OR INDIAN CORN.
Te most important cereal, from an economical point of view and
Sf it dietary importance, which is grown in the United States
i aiz. In all parts of the country it forms a considerable perentage
Sthe food of our people, and especially is this true in the Southern
Stat, where corn bread, among parts of the population, is the chief
food used. In various other forms, as hasty pudding (mush) and
in o r methos of preparation, it enters largely into our dietaries.
Altugh important as a human food, the principal uses of naize are in
ca feeding, and in the manufacture of starch, of whisky, and of
hol. On account of its great importance, a somewhat careful study
fits composition in this place is justitiable. For the typical samples
grwn in the United States and collected at the World's Columbian
iti at Cthicago, the following represents the constitution:

Weitof 1... kr s. 38.979 Crude fiber............. per cent.. 1.71
Mois e .............. per cent 10.93 Asih -..-.....-..-.. .... do ... 1.36
Prote ................ do.... 9.88 Carbohydrates, other than crude
E ..... ... do.... 4.17 fiber ..................per cent.. 71.95
The following table represents the maxima, minima, and means of
the cnstituents of maize collected in all parts of the world:

Table of maxima, inima, and means of constituents of maize

Kis ad number of ig Ethler Crtdh h a i tI,
sof 100 N o rIle Prots extract lr. Ah. x

m: Gra a. Per rcent. er Per it. P cent. Pr, crut. Per ret. rr cnt.
Ma ia .......... ........... a4. 312 b, 2. 2 a11. d a. b 5 7', 7
Minima................. cl0t) bg.M 5 0 25 dLS t a .19 a68.97
M eans.................... 38. 9 10.93 .88 4 1 1.71 i. l
Forei-n corn:
Maxima......... . . fl...6 0r, 1 0 1 1 -5,_1 4, <) I tso I K
Sil imal .................. If 1- 10.43 .8 /4.02 I .7 S 0
M ean .................. 2.. l 11 71 1.1 A 7
(Means of ample from the
Iuited Statem exhibited at
the Columnbian Exposition
dt the Colwbia

ExI tolt .. (2. .. .lys. ) .... (21551 11.71 lo.72 4 1.Wi 1.i W.1
aKeutucky. r Wisconsin. 4ew South Walts. A trgntiW -pubIlIc.,
b India dNew ia ire. f lgaria.1
Jla|.M






117 6 FOODS AND FOOD ADU LTERATS.

Tabl of ma.rinma, minima, and nmeans of costiUKnt of ai---Continued.

W -hrCarbo-
0f 100 Moisture. ... exa Asthi.
b krnr.e.

Means of former analyses of
the Department of Agricul- I ranms. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Percent. Percent.
ture: (a) (b) (c) (b) (b) (c) (6)
Unit States ........... 36.474 10.04 10.39 5.20 2.09 1.55 7
Northern States ......... 37.320 9.98 10.64 5.11 1.41 1.54 71.32
Southern Stat ........ 40.659 8.96 10.95 4.4 72 1.37 72.06
M ildle West ............. 32. 457 12.33 10.89 4.97 2.22 1.43 8 16
Far West ................ 37.528 9.50 10. 43 5.30 2.47 1.55 70.75
Pacifi Slope ............. 27.900 9. 78 8.14 6.40 2.07 1.48 72.13
Jenkins and Winton (2018
al ............................ 10.0 10.5010 1.50 6.
Kiinig-Mean composition of
samples fron various lo
calities: I
Miscellaneou origin (137) .......... 13.35 9.45 4.29 2.!9 1.29 69.33
Italian samples (24)...... .......... 13.13 10.26 3.84 2.88 1.95 .
American samples (80) ... .......... 10.02 10.17 4.78 1.67 1.40 08.63
Dent corn (149)........-....-...... 10.14 9.36 4.96 2.21 1.47 68.65
Sugar orn (27)........... .......... .70 11.43 7.79 2.86 1.81 62.76
SoutheasternEurope (19).......... 14.53 9.42 4.13 2.34 1.39 69.37
Southwestern Europe (8). .......... 12.47 8.84 5.80 4.16 2.06 65.79

al211 analyses. b 114 analses. c202 analyes
Comparing the eans of the analyses of A erican saples with
those of foreign origin, we are struck with the excess of oisture in the
foreign samples. In those from southwestern Europe are found 4 per
cent more moisture than in samples of domestic origin. Among the
samples grown in the United States, those in the Middle West, viz,
Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, etc., contain the largest amount of moisture,
while those grown in the arid regions have the smallest a, ount. Of the
domestic samples exhibited at the World's Fair it was found that the
mean content of water was 10.93 per cent, nerly 1 per cet higher tha
the mean of former analyses of the Department. The weight of 100
kernels was a little more than that before fiund, and this is not a sur-
prising fiat, inasimuch as it would be natural for exhibito s to send not
only the largest ears but also the largest grains to the Exposition.
The peorentage ot proteids in the domestic World's Fair samples was
surprliingly low, being about 0.75 per cent less than was found in the
saml)les examined a few years ago. On the other hand, the percentage
of carbohydrates was about one point higher tha that obtained in the
former work. In the above table is found a convenient cmparison of

The typical American maize should have approximately the following


Weight of 100kernels .... grams.. 38.00 Crude fiber.............pr o .. 1.75
Moisture ..i..........pe. r ent.. 10.75 Ash.................... d.... b. .. 1.50
Proteis ............do. 10.00 ('Crbohydrates, other than crde
Ether extrwat ....... d..... 41.25 fiber ................ pr on. 71 75






MAIZE, OR INDIAN CORN. 1177

MAIIZE PRaTEIDS.
The maie proteids have been studied by Chittenden and Osborne,
who divide them as follows:
Globulins: Unnamed, myosin, vitelline.
:Al (1) Existing in small quantities, (2) existiln in small

ens: (1) Soluble in alcohol, (2) insoluble in alcohol.
Of these bodies the albuinis have not been obtained sufficiently
pure to give the final data of composition. The other proteids have
the following composition:
ComporStion of maize prot1edl.
Cntituent elements. Myosin. Vitelline. innam ed Soluble Insoluble
globulin. zcins, zcilns.

IPer cent. Pe r c t. ercen ce t r rIc% t
Carb ................------.. ...... .......... 52.66 51.71 52.38 55. 2 5.15
.................................... 7.02 6.85 6.82 7.27 7.24
N r ......................................... 1 7 18. 12 15. 25 16. 0 16. 22
Su r....................................... 1. 30 0. o8 1.26 i U59 i2
OxI y e .......................................... 22.6 2. 4 6 '2 4. 21.77 2. 77

The relative quantities of the ditferent proteids have been lately
definity determined, but the two zeins comprise by ftr the largest
t. As a result of Osborne's latest determination, it may be stated
that the ean ercetage of nitrogen in maize proteids is 16.057, equiv-
t to the factor .23. This is so near the old factor 6.25 as to make
unnecessry any correction in the percentages of total proteids given
above.
VARIATION OF MA~,i UNDER DIFFERENT CLIMATIC CONI)LTIONS.
Certain special varieties of early maturing maize, or sweet maizei/
intended for table use wen in the partially ripe state, biay be detected
by the large quantity of sugar which they cntain, especially when the
strch is still soft. In the earlier investigations of the 1)epartnmet, it
wa noticed that the percentage of crude fiber was somewhat larger
in te West and South than in the North and East aln further that
in samples grown on the Pacific coast there was a slight deficiency
of proteids. Further investigations, however, would e ccssary to
determine whether or not this apparent increas in fiber he dueto to he
idental constittion of the sample or to the real influence of the soil
and climate. It is reasonable to expect that inl s slowly maturing
varieies, such as would grow in the Southwest and South, the Ier-
centage of fiber in the grain would be greater than in the Imre rapidly
maturing varieties growing in the East and Nort h.
In the case of sugar or sweet corn Richardson fiund the Inan corn
iion of 19 samples to be the fllowing:
Pstr 0tJ. 10r fw dil
M oitu e ......................... 1 4 u flb r ..... ...... ..... .
Proteid ......................... 11. Car d t other than crude
A sh ...................... ....... 1. 7 ib ............ .............
Ether extract .................. 8..57
17498--No. 13- 2





1178 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

This analysis shows that the sweet corn has a consi
percentage of oil than the field varieties, and there is a la
age of sugar in the carbohydrates. A study of all the analy w
have been made in this division reveals the fact that maize is eof
the most invariable of the cereals, maintaining under the most different
climatic conditions a most remarkable uniformity of co sition, and
varying chiefly in the size, color, and general physical c teristics
of its kernels rather than in their composition. For detailed informa-
tion in regard to the variations ad general characteristics of different
varieties of maize grown in different localities, Bulletins and 45 of
this Division may be consulted.

OATS.

In the United States the quantity of oats grown is very great, but
only an inconsiderable portion of the whole is used for human food, and
this chiefly in the form of oatmeal, used for making the so-called break-
fast foods and other puddings. The investigations of this division, as
recorded in Bulletin 9, show that the ratio of kernel to husk of oats
grown in the United States is 73 to 27. In the Western States the
proportion of kernel is relatively higher, and in the Southern States
lower. One hundred samples of the hulls of oats, collected from all
parts of the United States, were found to have the following mean
composition:
Per cent. Per cnt.
Moisture ......................... 5.22 Crude fiber ...........-........ 17.88
Proteids .---..-......-------..-..---......---- 2.48 Carbohydrates, other than crude
Ash .............................. 5.59 fiber ........................... -6883
In the above data any bodies soluble in ether are included with the
carbohydrates, but the hulls contain only a small quantity of such
substances.
A large number of samples of typical oats was collected at the
World's Columbian Exposition, and the mean composition of the
unhulled kernels grown in the United States, as determined by an
examination of these samples, was as follows:
Weight of 100 kernels...grams.. 2.918 Crude fiber............-per cet.. 12.07
Moisture -..............per cent.. 10.06 Ash .......................do.... 3.46
Proteids .................. do.... 12.15 Carbohydrates, other than crude
Ether extr t ............ do.... 4. 33 iber ................ p e t.. 57. 9
The large quantity of crude fiber in the case of the oas is due to the
heavy chaff surrounding the kernel. It will be of interest here to pre-
sent, as in the case of maize, a comparative table showing the compo-
sition of oats, as determined by all recorded analyses. In presenting
such tables it should be noted that the analysis of the World's Colum-
bian Exposition samples should be gven the preference in regard to
deterining the typical character of these cerealst on unt of the






OATS. 1179

cthe samples themselves were presumably typical of the best
and that the methods of analysis employed were the most
t and reliable. At the top of the table the numbers under
Domestic oats" and "Canada" represent the samples on exhibition
at Ch o in 1893. A comparison of the results of these analyses
h t heretofore made by this Department and in other plhces
my be made from the table.


Table of maxima, minima, and means of constitnts of oats.

Carbl.
Kinds and nubers of eight Ether Crude hydrates.
samples. extract. fibe r. e^Cli
kernels, .i
I iler.

etic oats Grams. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per crnt. Per cent.
Maim ........----- ........ a3.891 a 3.02 b 15.05 6.14 al .65 e4.3:7 d6 1.44
Mi a ................- 2.038 e7.87 d 9. 10 a 0.93 b 8.57 f2.47 5.70
Means .................. 2. 918 10.06 12.15 4. 33 12.07 3.40 15. 75

ma............... 4.253 11.63 12.78 5.56 15.65 3.29 ,61.
Minima................. 2.791 8.52 10.6 8 3.79 8.52 2.71 57.61
Means................... 3.364 9.46 11. 83 4. 73 11.39 2. "2 5.
Means of World's Fair sam-
(72 nalyses).......... 2.995 9.96 12.07 4.42 2 1 3.35 58.2
Meas of samples previously
analyzed by Department
of Agrculture, hulled (179
analyses) .................. 7 93 14.31 8. 14 1. 8 2. 15 67. on
Means of Jenkins and Win-
ton 3......... ..0..- 11. ( 11.80 5. 0 9. 50 3. 01 5. 70
Kiinig-Mean composition of
saples from various local-

SMisclaneous... ........ 12.11 10. 4. S6 105. 58 29. 58. 37
Middle and north Ger-
many (31).............. 12. 10. 82 5.4 0 10. 25 3.29 5.2
Southern and southwest-
ern Germany (16) ...... .......... 13. 39 1. 3 5.0 9.93 3. 18 58 1
Austro-Hungary (14) ....... 11.51 5 11.1 35.384 .Ol
a e ............. .......13,5( 9. 52 3. 46 9. 8 1 3.2 62. 17
Unted ta ................. 12.11 0.11 6. 21 9. 3 2.99 61

aWasington. c W uyoni, ehio. Mich
b Kansas. d Illinois. f Pesyluvania. hh Uhull'ld.

NOTlES ON ANALYSES OF OATS.

In discussing the comparative resuts contained in th above table,
it will be noticed at once that the samples examinld at the World's
Fair contained nmuch less moisture than those reported by KGnig.
These samples were almost wholly of domestic origin, and thus show
that the oats follow the other cereals which have b n mentioned in
having a less quantity of moisture when grown in the United Stas.
percentage of crude ber ao ap ars to be smwhat lager than






1180 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERAN

in other sets of samples. This may be due to the fact the
lar t and finest looking kernels would be selected for bition and
the ulls of these kernels would be correspondingly ev ped. In the
samples formerly examined by the Department of Agiulture we find
the same striking deficit in moisture that has been no in the other
cereals, and the consequent increase in the percentage of other constit-
uents, notably proteids and ether extract. It must not be forgotten,
however, that these samples can not be compared with the other sets
in the series, because the hulls of the kernels were removed before the
analyses were made. Taking into consideration all the data at and,
it may be said that the typical oats of the United States may be shown
as follows:
Coposition of typical uhulled oats.
Weight of 100 kernels ...................--.....--.................... gras 3.0
Kernels ....-....-..........................---.................-.. do.... 2.1
ul1s ......................-.......-..........--...................-do.... 0.9
MAoisture .... -... ............... --... ... ...- -. ... ---...per cent.. 10.0
Proteids......-----------........................--...................... do... 12.0
Ether extract-.......................... ............ ... .. .... ......... do.... 4.5
Crude fiber ................. ...................... .................do.... 12.0
Carbohydrates, other than crude fiber ............................... do.... 58.0

VARIATION OF COMPOSITION OF OATS.

In regard to the influence of soil and climatic conditions on the com-
position of oats, Richardson, in Bulletin No. 9, makes the following
observations:
The chemical composition of the specimens appears from the precedg data to be
rather surprising. It was reasonable to suppose that as oats deteriorate so readily
and are apparently so easily influenced by their environment, great variations would
be found in their composition under different climatic conditions, a is the case with
wheats. Brewer remarks in his census report that a hundred or more analyses
would be requisite to set at rest all questions in regard to this grain, and that they
would be an extremely valuable contribution to our knowledge of the comparative
nutritive values of the oats grown in different portions of the United States and
their relative economic values. One hundred and seventy-nine analyses have been
made, and we learn that there is not that variation in the oat kernel tself which was
expected to be due to climatic condition. The proportion of husk to kernel and the
compactness of the grain prove to be the all-important factor, and the weight per
bushel the best means of judging of the value of the grain.
The only peculiarities noticed are that the 18 specimens fro the Pific lope ar
poorer in proteids and richer in crude fiber than the averages or other parts of the
ountry. The average for the hulls from the West show the presence of more ash
than in thoe from the East, and more crud iber, and, like the kernels, they are
slightly deficient in proteids. "
An immense number of conditions seems, therefore, to affet the charteristic of
this grain, and while in many ways, at first glance, it seems to be less changeable
than one would expect, on examination it appears to be quite largely influenced by
all the circumstances of its environment, and in a more irreular way tha wheat.
Throughout all the average it will be seen that oats re much drier than other
grains, owing largely to their small size. In ash and fiber they are nt expt






RICE. 1181

THE PROTEIDS OF THE OAT KERNEL.
Osborne has studied the composition of the proteids of the oat kernel,
Sfund that there are three primary proteids, which are charater-
by being soluble in alcohol, common salt solution, and alkali soln-
tio, respetively. The composition of the three proteids is shown in
the following table:
Primary oat proteids.

Alcohol- Salt-soluble Akali.solt -
soluble pro- protid or Able proteid
Constituent elements. teid; aver- globlin pe
age of 5 average of verage of
analy8se. 9 annal yses.2s s
Per cent. Per ent. Per t.
Ca ........................................................... 53.01 52. 19 53. 56
Hy rogen....................................................... 6.91 7.00 7.09
itrogen ........................................................ 1. 43 17. 8 1620
ur ......................................................... 2.2 0.65 0.90
O ygen ....................................... .......... 21.39 22.30 2.25
Tota .................. ......................... ......... 100.00 100.00 100.00

The average content of proteid matter in the oat kernel is about 14
per cent. Of this the proteids soluble in alcohol form about 14 per
cent. The proteids soluble in salt solution brmn 1 per cent, and the
proteids soluble in alkali the remainder. From these data the proper
tor for calculating the proteid matter in the oat kernel from the per-
centage of nitrogen is easily obtained, the mean percentage of nitrogen
in the proteid being 1 per cent, and the factor being 6.10.

RICE.
This cereal y reach the analyst in three different states, viz,
unhulled, bulled, and polished. He may also have occasion to exam-
ine the broken fragments used in polishing and hulling, the waste in
manfacturuing rice bran and other products. The ]most important of
the products in the preent connection is the polished rice as it is
found in commerce, ready for prelaration as food. In this country rice
is not frequently used in the form of bread, but almost exclusively in
the freshly boiled state, in puddings and other similar preparations.
Rice is acereal in which the starchy matters I)redominiate, and in
which there is a marked deliciency of proteids and oils as acopared
with other standard cereals. The composition of rice, as determined by
the analysis of samples exhibited at the World's Columbia Exposition,
and by standard authorities, is est show.n in the table of maxima.
minia, and mens, as in the case of the other ceeals which have
n mentioned. In the follwig tale the items marked I, II, and III
represet ata obtained at the World's Columbian Exposition, while
the means of all the samples there analyzd are given in another part
of the table.







1182 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERAT.
11 82

Table of maxima, minima, and means Of conituents of ice.

a um Weight Cb .
Kinds and numbers of of 100 Moisture. Proteids. Ether Crude Ash hy te
samples. kernels. extrat. fiber


I. Rice in the hull (foreign): (Grams. Per cent. Per cent Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Maxima.................. a3.250 b 11.52 b8.40 2.04 b11.47 a4.66 a65.70
Minima .................. b2.842 a9.03 a8.23 a 1.44 94 b 3.26 a 65.01
Means ................... 2.979 9.88 8.32 1.71 10.62 4.12 65.35
II. Unpolished rice (foreign) :
Maxima ................. c2.826 c 12.57 c 10.50 c2.26 I.00 c1. 2 c 77. 4
Minima ............... c2.260 el0.92 c7.27 cl. 62 <.87 c.04 c73. 35
Means ... ............. 2.466 11.88 8.02 1.96 0.93 1.15 76.05
III. Polished rice (foreign):
Maxima..................b 2.633 b13.15 b10.33 0.54 0.56 a0.65 c81.66
Minima .................. 1.560 e11.82 c5.42 c0.04 a0.27 e.28 75.62
Means ................... 2.132 12.34 7.18 0.26 0.40 0.46 79.
Mean composition of pol-
ished rice, etc., as given by
Jenkins and Winton:
Polished rice( 10analyses). .......... 12.40 7.40 0.40 0.20 0.40 79.20
Rice bran (5 analyses).............. 9.70 12.10 10.90 9.50 10.00 49.90
Rice hulls (3 analyses)............. 8.20 3.60 0.70 35.70 13.20 38.60
Rice polish (4 analyses) ............ 10.00 11.70 7.30 6.30 6.70 58.
Mean composition of rice,
etc., as given by Kiinig:
IUnhulledrice(3analyses). .......... 11.99 6.48 1.65 6.4 3.33 70.07
Hulled rice (41 analyses). ......... 12.58 6.73 1.88 1.53 0.82 76.46
Polished rice (9 nalyses) ........ 12.52 7.52 0.84 0.48 0. 78.00
Means of World's Fair saim-
pies :
Un hulled rice(4analyes). 2. 929 10.28 7.95 1.65 10.42 4.09 65.60
tUnpolishld rice (6 analy-
ses................... 2.466 11.88 8.02 1.96 0.93 1.15 7 05
Polished rieet4analyses). 2. 132 P2. 34 7.18 0.26 0.40 0.46 79.36

a (;uaternala, b Johore. eJa]pn.


The mean composition of the different classes of rice as hown by the
analyses of the World's Fair samples i almost the same as that shown
by the work of other analysts collated as indicated above. A typical
unhulled rice has about the following composition:

Weight of 10) kernels ....grams.. 3.00 Crude filer ......... pe cent.. 9.00
oisture ............... per cent.. 10.50 Ash........................do ... 4.00
Proteids .................. do.... 7. 50 Carbohydrates, other tan crude
Ether oxtract ............. do... 1.60 fiber .............. per cent.. 67.40

A typical bulled rice, but. unpolished, has about the following compo-
sitlon :

Weight of 00lkernels ....gramns.. 2.50 Crude fiber.............pr ent.. 1.00
Moisture .......-....... per cent.. 12.00 Ash .. -.....................do.... 1.00
r i ............ .... .00 Carohydrt, other than crude
Ethro fierr .. .. .. ....... per cent.. 76.00






RYE. 1183

A ypical polished rice has a composition represented by the follow-
ing nuimbers:
Weight of 100 kernes ...grams. 2.20 Crude fiber.............per cent.. 0.40
Moisture ....... .... per cent.. 12.40 Ash.................. ......do.... 0.50
.Pro -.......-.....do..--- 7.50 Carbohydrates, other than crude
thr trt ...-----....--..-..do.... 0. 40 fiber ................per cent.. 78.80

PROTEIDS OF RICE.

No modern stdies of the proteids of rice have been made, and, in the
ak of detailed description of the different proteids which the rice
contains, the whole proteid matter may be calculated, as is usual, by
multiplying the percentage of nitrogen by 6.25.

RYE.

Rye is not used to any great extent by the native citizens of the
United States as a source of bread making. In Europe it is one of the
most important constituents of bread, and is used to some extent by
our naturalized citizens.
Typical samples of rye were obtained at the World's Columbian
Exposition, and the figures obtained by their analysis are compared
with other reliable data in the subjoined table. The data under the
ca ins "domestic" and "foreign" represent the Columbian samples,
as given in Bu etin 45 of this division.

Table of axia, minima, and means of constituents of rye.
C('arlo-
Kinds and numbers of Weight Ether hydrate
samps. of 100 Moisture. Proteids. e sh.
Skernels extract, ftier. exCIud
in-g filer.

tic: Graw. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Maxima.................. a 4.201 a 11.45 a 18.9 b 2 30 2. a 2. 41 d 75. 3l
Minima .................. al.932 a 9.54 d 8.40 a 1.11 a 1. 65 a 1.71 a 6(:1.
Mea ................... 2.493 10. 2 12. 43 1.85 2. 09 1. 21 71.::7
Foreign:
S...... ............ e 3.417 f 14.10 12. 25 e 1. ; 2. 2 f 1.95 74 74
Minim ................. f 2.031 e 10.74 9.2 f0 .37 e 1.t7 7 e 1.1 08
eans .............- .. 2.724 12.42 10.77 0. 9 2. 00 1. 2 71.91
Mean of World' Fair am

Doetcmple (18).... 2.493 10. 2 12 43 1.65 2.0 71.37
All pes (20)......... 2.518 10. 77 12.26 1 58 2.08 1. 92 71 12
Meaus of previous anal)seA
by the Departmet (57 sa
ple|) .. ............. 2. 070 8.67 11.2 1. 1.1 2.0 4.2
Means given by Jenkina and

Mea sliven by Kinig:
M ieella out s(173).............. .. 11.15 10.81 1.77 1.7I 2. 70.21




All r an 3) ........ ....13.7 1152 1.84 4 19
aIUinuls. Now York. e New ami hir. d ir Sain. f Brazl.






1184 FOODS AND FOO ADULTER

We see again, in the comparison of the means, the
the United States ryes. This is, as has been the case re in the
cereals already mentioned, especially marked in the a a
few years ago by the Department. In the World's Fair samples the
difference is less marked, the percentage of moisture being almost as
high as in the foreign samples.
The United State ryes are also distinguished by their smaller ker-
nels. Even the samples on exhibition in hicago, wich werepresu
ably those of the finest and plumpest kernels, were not nearly so large
as the kernels of the foreign samples. They were, however, distitly
larger and heavier than the kernels analyzed here a few years ago.
In the percentage of proteids the United States samples are fully
equivalent to those of foreign origin, and in their men composition
their other constituents do not differ greatly from those of standard
varieties abroad. The cultivation of rye is not very extensively prac-
ticed in the United States, and that which is grown is used chiely for
the mianufacture of whisky and for cattle food, and not for bread mak-
ing, as is the case in Europe.
A typical American rye has approximately the following composi-
tioni:
Weight of 100 kernels ....grams.. 2.50 Crude fiber ............per ent.. 2.10
Moisture .............. per cent.. 10.50 Carbohydrates, otLer than crude
Proteid ................... do.... 12.25 fiber .................per cent.. 71.75
Ether extract ..............do.... 1.50 Ash ........... .... ...... do.... 190
PROTEIDS OF RYE.
The proteids of the rye kernel have been recently investigated by
Osborne (18th Annual Report, Conn. Experiment Station, pages 147
and following), and as a result of these studies it has been established
that the commonly employed factor, namely, 6.25, which has been used
for calculating proteids for rye from the percentage of nitrogen, is too
large. Owing to the presence of a gum which interferes with the pro-
cesses of filtration, it has not been found practicable so far to secure
the separation of the proteid matter with such detail as has been
accomplished in some other cereals; in other words it has not bee
found possible, so far, to separate the globulin, albumins, and proteose.
In general, the proteids of rye may be classified as follows: Proteids
insoluble in diliate salt solution; proteids soluble in dilute salt solution.
The latter class may be subdivided as fbllows: proteid gliadin,
soluble in alcohol; a proteid leucosin, solble in water; a proteid edes-
tin, soluble in salt solution; proteids representing globulin, albumins,
and proteose, soluble in dilute salt solution. Of the total proteid mat-
ter in rye, it is Ioind that 71.07 per cent are soluble in a per cent
common salt solution, followed by alcohol. An attempt was made to
extract the proteids remaining in the lour, after exhaustion, with dilute
salt solution and wit dilute alcoholic potash. The gum present
the 4lour, however, dissolved in the alkaline solution and rendered it






COMPOSITION OF WHEAT. 1185

b to purify the preparations. Since the other proteids found
ye however, are similar to thos found in wheat, with the exception
gluten, Osborne concludes that the nonidentified proteid is not
identc ith the glutenin of the wheat.
Ttids of rye, in so far as they have been separated in a pure
state, have the following composition:

Composition of proteids of rye.

Constituents. Carbon. Nitrogen. Hydrogen. Sulphur. xygen.

Le oi................................. 52.97 16.66 6.79 1.3 22.23
S..... ............................... ... .. 52. 75 17.72 6. 84 1. 21 21. 4
Edest ............................... ........ .. 51. 19 18.19 6.74 23. 88


The sample of rye flour on which Osborne worked contained only
1.52 per cent of nitrogen, while the average of the World's Fair samples
contained 1.99 per cent. It is fair to presume that in a normal rye
flour the distribution of the various proteids is proportional to that
found in the sample examined by Osborne. The relative proportion
of proteids in the sample examined by Osborne and in the typical
sample coaining 1.96 per cent of nitrogen is given below:

S Proportion of proteids in rye.

Constituents. Osborne's Typical
samplre. samnite.
Per cent. Per ent.
in salt solution ........................................................ 2.44 3. 14
Gliadin, soluble i alorot l .......... ..... ............ ............... ............ 4.00 5. 16
eucogin, soluble in water .................................. ... 0.43 55
San protese, -o ble in salt sioution .. ................................. 1.76 2. 2
otal ............................................................ .......... 8.63 1 12


Itappears from the above investigations that the protein of the rye
kernel contains an average of 17.6 per cent of nitrogen, and the fator
for converting the nitrogen of rye into protein is 5,(8 instead of (.25.
Judged by this standard, a typical American rye, instead of having
1225 per cent of protein, would have only about 11,15 per cent, and
the percentage of carboydrates wol he raised from 71.75 to

WH EAT.

Wheat is the typical brend-making cereal. It diders essentially rom
the other cereals in the character of its proteid content. The proteids
of wheat are composed chiefly of two aodies, gliadin and glutenin,
hic toetherI form the body, gluteln which gi its charaeteristic
properties to wheat flour. More detailed information concerning thes
bodies is found under the section devoted to wheat proteids.







1186 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

The products of wheat are used as human foods in y form
There are nearly a hundred diferent rades of food
from wheat by the patent-roller process of milling.
Nextto maize, wheat is the most important of the products of
this country. It is grown in every part of the Union, but only to per-
fection in the more northern states. When swn i t atumn, it is
called winter wheat; sown in the spring, it is spring eat The ker-
nels of winter wheat are, as a rule, larger and softer than those of the
spring variety. Spring wheat, as a rule, contains more gluten than
the winter varieties.
The mean composition of wheat, domestic and foreign, is shown i
the following table. Under domestic, Canada and foreign ae given the
composition of the samples collected at the World's Columbian E posi-
tion in 1893:

Table of maxima, minima, and means o con8itur ts of wheat.

Car-

tkernls, trI. eids. a t.A exu luten. gluten.
etrrt,

Domestic: Grams. Per ct. Per ct. Per et. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per et. Per c.
Maxima.....-- ....--....... a6.190 144.53 cl7.15 d2.50 d3.72 a2.35 C76.05 c39.05 r14.65
Minima ................... e2.125 7,.11 f8.58 fO.28 b1.70 l.40 667 f 33 /4.70
Means.................... 3.866 10.62 12.23 1.77 2.36 1. 71.18 26.6 10.31
Canada:
Maxima............... 5.335 13.98 16.10 2.32 3.12 2.00 7536 38.94 15.24
Minima .................... .3.242 9.38 8.23 0.41 1.75 1.38 65.9 .38 2.29
Means...................... 4.054 11.69 12.25 1.80 2.26 1.69 70.31 25.13 9.76
Foreign :
Maxima.................... h5.723 12.97 i14.52 i2.26 i2.89 i2.04 h46.14 j32.57 j12.33
Minima .................... 2. 250 52 A8.58 h0.73 hl.87 kl.67 i67.01 h18.72 h7.00
Means...................... 4.076 11.47 12 08 1.78 2.28 1.73 70.66 25.36 9.82
Means of World's Fair sam-
ples:
Domestic samples (165)..... 3.866 10.62 12.23 1.77 2.36 1.82 71.24 26.46 10.31
Canadian nmples (62)........ 4.054 11. 69 12.25 1.80 2.26 1.9 70.31 25.13 9.76
All forign samiples (62)... 4.076 11.47 12.08 1.78 2.28 1.73 70.06 25.36 9.82
All samples (227)........... 3.940 10.85 12.20 1.74 2.35 1.81 71.09 2628 10.22
Means of previous analyses by
tihe Department:
Domestic (147) ............. 3., 53 9.97 10.53 ....... ....... 2.0 ........................
Unied States ad Britishl
Ameriea (407) ........... 3. 4 10.18 12.15 ...... ....... 1.92 ........ ........ ......
Colorado 15............ 4235 7.54 12.54 2.29 1. 12 74.17 3380 11.07
Means given by Jeankins andas
Winton:
Spring (13) .... .................. 10.40 12. 2.20 1.80 1.0 71.2 ........ ........
W inter (2 2) .............. ........ 10.50 11.80 2.10 1.0 1.80 72 ....... ........
Means given by KiSig:
Samples of miscAllaneous
origin (428) .............. ....... 13.37 12.51 1.70 2. 6 .7 01 ................
a Wyoming. d Pennsylvania. Iowan. j Spain.
b KansK,. r Illinois. 4 Australia. k
e Nehbraska. f Oregon. i Argentine Rlepublic.






COMPARISON OF AMERICAN AND FOREIGN WHEAT. 1187

Table of maxia, minima, and means of constituents of wheat-Continued.

Carbo-
Kinds and numbers of samples. uMo t eid. ex- ther. Ash. re.
rtract. xl
filler.

ean given by Kinig-Contin uedP. Per t. t. Per ct. Per et. Per et. Per et.
Samp from northeast and middle Germany (90).... 14.01 10.93 1. 65 2. 12 1.92 70. 01
Sspringw at (81) ...........................1 14.75 11. 23 2.03 2. 26 2. 52 68. 61
SS s fr.ou t and westGermany(52) ......... 13.18 12.29 1.71 2.82 1.85 67.96
a sspring wheat (30) ........................... 13.80 14.95 1. 56 ...... 2.19 67.93
pl fromAustria-H gary (18) ................. 11.72 12. 66 1.99 3 39 1.75 6. 84
es from Russia-spring whet (39) ............ 12.5 17.65 1.58 ....... 1.66 65.74
n (22) ........ ..... ... ...... ............ 13.41 10.99 1.86 2.90 1.67 69.21
Sco n (16) ............... ............ .......... 11.37 10.58 1.73 ....... 1.55 72.77
e (70) ................... ............ 1.20 12.64 1.41 2.00 1.6 f 92
S(4)..................................... 13.95 9.36 2.34 2.19 1.34 71.40
in )........................ ................... 13.37 12.45 1.92 ....... 1.80 ........
S(3)........ ................................ 11.80 11.18 1.83 1.82 1.76 70 04
Asia (8............................................ 12.57 11. 09 2.10 1.94 1.46 70.84
An trala (4)......... ............ ................... 13.37 10. 16 1.:39 ...... .......
North Amerca (504)................................. 9. 2 11.60 2.07 1.70 1.79 69.47
ort Americaspring (40) ....................... ..... 9, 36 12.92 2. 15 1.72 1.86 07.98


n the means taken from Kiinig, as given above, the amount of
oiture as found is given. The means of the other constituents,
however, i order to secure a proper comparison, are calculated on
the spp ition that the mean content of moisture is the same as that
in the chief or misellaeous table, namely, 13.37 per cent.
In the discussion of the comparative results, it will be noticed first,
as with other cerels, that the content of moisture in the domestic
samples is low, being about 1 per cent less than in the Canaian sam-
pies, aud eight-tenths of 1 per cent less than in all the foreign samples.
This remarkable dryness of cereal products appears, therefore, to be a
charateristic of those grown in the IUnited States, although the differ-
ence is not so arked in the case of wheat as it is in some other cereals.
In general, the sizeof of th r f the domestic samples is less than
t t of the Canadian and fireign wheats, but in the Worl's Fair sam-
es, as might e expected, the kernels were a little larger than those
examined in previous work of the Department.

COMPARIMON OF AMERIAN AND FOREIGN WIIEAT.

li respect of proteids, the American wheats, as a rule, are quite
equal to those of foreign origin. This is an important characteristic
when it is remembered that both the milling and food valuesof a wheat
deend largely on the nitrogenous matter which is present. It must
not e forgottn, however, that merely a high percentage of proteids is
not always a sure indication of the milling value of a what. The
ratio of g ten to the other roteid constituents of a wheat is not






1188 FOODS AND FOOD ADULT

always constant, and it is the gluten content of a
bread-making qualities chiefly depend. The percen of st glten
gives, in a rough way, the property of the glutinous mattof a
ing and holding water under cnditions as nearly tant as can be
obtined. In general, it may be said that the ratio eween the moist
gluten and the dry gluten in a given sample is an index comparison
with other substances in the same sample. Upon the whole, however,
the percentage of dry gluten must be regarded as the safer index
quality. In respect to the content of glutinous matter, our domestic
wheats are distinctly superior to those of foreign origin. They are
even better than the Canadian wheats in this respet. It may be
fairly inferred that while our domestic wheats give a flour slightly
inferior in nutritive properties to that derived from foreign samples, it
is nevertheless better adapted for baking purposes, and this quality
more than comnpensates for its slight deficiency in respect of nutrition,
a deficiency, indeed, which is so small as to be hardly worth csid
ering.
VARIATION OF aWHEAT WITH CLIMATE AND SOIL.

In this connection, attention should be called to the great influence
of climate upon the quality of wheat. The best wheats grown in the
United States are produced in the central northern partof the country,
while the poorest are grown in the Southern States. he influence of
climate and soil upon the quality of wheat has been fully pointed out
by Richardson in Bulletins Nos. 1, 3, and 9 of the Chemical Division of
the Department of Agriculture. The following quotation from page 25
Bulletin No. 9, will illustrate the above statement:
From observations in this and previous reports, it may be said that of all grain
whet is probably the most susceptible to its environment.
Oats in certain directions are more variable, but in their genel h e r
more permanent, as will appear in subsequent pages. The inherent tendency to
change which is found in all grains is most prominent in wheat. It may be red
by selection and by molifying such of the conditions of environment as it is in the
power of man to affect.
The most powerful element to contend with is the character of the season or
unfavorable climatic conditions. The injury done in this way is well illustrated in
Colorado, and it would secen advisable in such ases to seek ed from a source
where everything has been favorahle, and begin selection again.
It Imust be borne in mnind that selection iiust be kept up continuously, and that
reversion takes place more easily than improvement. It took ut one season to
eriously injiure Professor llount's wheats, but it will be two or more year before
they haNve rec1red from that injury. Hallett, in England,was able to make his
celebrated peligree wheat by selection, carrie on through many years, but thesame
wheat grown by the ordinary ftrmer under unfavorable conditions for a few years
without care has reverted to an ordinary sort of grain.
The effect of climate is well illustrated by our specimens of whet which are to be
seen in the collection of the Chemical Division. Two of these were from Oregonad
)akota some years ago, and present the most extreme contrtst which can b fund
in this variable grain. One is light yellow, plump, and starchy, and shows on analy-
sis a very sma1ll per cent of allbminoids; the other is one of the smaall, hard and






V IATION OF WHEAT WITH CLIMATE AND SOIL. 1189

;dark-colored sig wheats of Dakota, which are rich in albuminoids. Between
e s two specimens from Colorado, which have been raised fron seed similar
o te O n and Dakota wheat. They are scarcely distinguishable except by a
t d ce in color. The Colorado climate is such as to have modified these
Ss til after a few years' growth they are hardly distinguishable in

All lo i having widely different climates, soilo, or other conditions produce
Svarieties and modify those brought tthem.
The result of these tendencies to change and reversion from lack of care in seed
selecoor other cause has led to the practice of change of seed among fUarnrs. A
so e is sought where either through greater care or more favorable conditions the
ry dired has been able to hold its own. Sometimes this change is rendered
nece y by conditions which are beyond the power of man to modify. As an
exa No. 10 of Professor Blount's wheats, known as "()regon Club," a white
y from Oregon, has been deteriorating every year since it h:s been grown in
Colorado, whereas if the seed had been supplied every season directly from Oregon
t qualit would have probably remained the same. In extension of this illustra-
the fact may be mentioned that the annual renewal of the seed from a desiralle
and favorable source often akes it possible to raise cereals where otherwise climatic
ondito would render their cultivation impossible through rapid reversion. This
is ularly the case with extremes in latitude, the effect of which is not founded
muh upon the omposition of the crop as on the yield and size of the grain. In
South, the warmer climate, tgether of course with poorer soil and cultivation
n instanc, reduces the yield.
A tpical American wheat of the best quality should have approxi-
mately the following composition:
Weitof 100 kernels.... .. 3. Ash ................ per cent.. 1.75
Moisture ..............per cent.. 10. 60 Carbohydras other than crude
Proteids.................. do.... 12.25 fiber .................per cent.. 71.25
therextract---...--.--..do.... 1.75 Dry gluten............ do.... 10.25
e fiber ................ do.... 2.40 Moistgluten .............. do.... 26.50
To bring into a cmparative view the means of the data obtained for
erican cereals exhibited at the World's Columbian Egxposition, the
llowing general table is given con ining the data above mentioned,
with the exception of those relating to rice, together with the approxi-
te typical compositon taken fro the preceding pages:

ean dat calculated from the analysee of sample exhibited at the World's Columbia
Erposition.

Constituents. Barley. Buck lai t. a.
%wheat. at R ,

Weight of 100 kern .......... .rawm.. 4.19 3. 12 s. 9 2. 92 49 : 87
Moisture...................... per cnt..i 10.o ) 12. 15 10. 93 o, .0 10.12


Ash ...... ......................... do.... 2.44 1. 89 1. 6 3i 41 1. 82
Ari.f........................... do .... -10, 1 10.5 aa I .1, 15 12.3a 1




Carbohydrate other than crude fiber
_......................._....... _0.19 _2. 1 4.17 1. 1...





1190 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

Appro.rimate tpical compoeitSon of domes ic samples take from the data g in th
preceding pages.

Constituents. Barley. Buc Maize. Oat Rye. W.t.

Weight of 100 kerel ........... gram .. 4.00 3.00 38.00 300 2.50 3.85
Moisture ......................per cent.. 10.85 12.00 10.75 10.00 10.50 10.0
Proteids ...........................do.... 11.00 10.75 10.00 12.00 12.25 12.25
Ether extract.................. do.... 2.25 2.00 4.25 4.50 1.50 1.75
Crude iber .......................do.... 3.85 10.75 1.75 12.00 2.10 2.40
Ash .......... ................... do.... 2.50 1.75 1.50 3.50 1.90 1.75
Carbohydrates other than crude fiber
per cent............................... 69.45 62.75 71.75 58.00 71.75 71.25

PROTEIDS OF THE WHEAT KERNEL.
Osborne and Voorhees have lately made a study of the proteids of
the wheat kernel, and found it necessary to revise to a certain extent
the data previously existing on this subject. (American Chemical Jour-
nal, volume 15, pages 392 and following.)
It is found that the proteids of the wheat kernel are best classified
as follows:
(1) A globulin, soluble in saline solutions, and not coagulable at te
peratures below 1000 C.
(2) An albumin, which is coagulated at 52 C., and differs from ani-
mal albumin in several important particulars.
(3) A proteose, which is extracted from the wheat kernel by dilute
saline solutions after removing the globulin by dialysis and the albu-
min by coagulation. It is probably derived from other proteid matters
present in the seed by the action of the reagents employed for isolat-
ing it.
(4) A proteid, gliadin, soluble in dilute alcohol, and forming nearly
half of the whole proteid matter of a kernel.
(5) A proteid, glutenin, which is insoluble in water, dilute saline solu-
tions, and dilute alcohol, and forming with gliadin nearly the whole
proteid contenit of the wheat kernel. The gluten of the wheat, which
is one of its most important constituents, is composed of gliadin and
glutenin in almost equal proportions. The gliadin forms the sticky
substance of the gluten, while the glutenin imparts to it its solidity.
Gluten can not well be formed from its constituents by the action of
pure water, as gliadin, one of the chief constituents of gluten, is quite
soluble in pure water, and thus is easily removed. The presenc of t,
mineral salts of the wheat, however, is suflicient to form with distilled
water a medium in which the gluten is scarcely soluble, and in this
medium the two unite to form the gluten, which is so importalt a con-
stituent in the formation of bread. It is probable, according to sborne
and Voorhees, that no ferimentative action occurs i the formatin of
gluten, but it is prouced by the simple, mechanical, and cheical
action mentioned above.






SEPARATION OF THE CONSTITUENTS OF GLUTEN. 1191

-Ia whole-wheat flour containing 10 per cent of protein, the relative
quantities of the chief kinds of proteids mentioned above are about as
follows:
Pler cent.
Globulin---....--..........---......-----....--------------.....................----...........--------------. 0.70
Albumin --- --...- --- ----............--------------........ --...---------... 0.40
Pte -.........--------------....-----.----....--..------...-----.......---- 0.30
Gi a in... ...... ..... .. ... .... .... .................. .... .... .. ... ...... .. 4.25
-------------------------------------------------------.1.25
"Glutenin ........ ............................ .............................. -. 4 35
10. 00

The composition of the wheat proteids is given in the following table:

Composition of wheat proteids.

Constituents. Carbom. IHydrogen. Nitrogen. tulphur. ( Oy \gn.

JPer cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. 1'PerC C t.
Globulin ......................................... 51.03 6. 85 18. 3 0. 6.9 2: (o
Albumin......................................... 53.02 6.84 16.80 1.28 22.06
oto ......................................... 51.86 1 6. 82 17.32 21. 01
| lidn........................................... 52.72 6. 86 17.66 1.14 21.62
Glutenin ......................................... 52.34 1 6. 83 17.49 1. 08 22.2

The average content of nitrogen in the proteid matter of wheat is
about 17,6 per cent, and the proper factor, therefore, for computing the
total proteid matter from the percentage of nitrogen found is 5.68S
instead of 6.25, the one usually employed. To convert data obtained
by the factor 6.25 to the corresponding data for the factor 5.68 it is
sufficient to multiply by 0.9.
In the data for wheat flours, which are given further on, the conlpu-
tation is made for the factor 5.70, and in this case the data for the
factor 6.25 are multiplied by 0.912 for the proper conversion.

SEPARATION OF TIlE CONSTITUENrTS OF ([LITEN.

Fleurent makes use of the following process for separatiing the con-
stituents of gluten after it has been formed by kneading the hour with
cold water, which also washes out the starch and fragments of debris:
According to the theory of Osborne and Voorhees, the gluten is
formed during this process from its elements. glutenin and liadin, r-
existng in the flour. The gluten obtained by the usual method of
kneading with water is divided into fragments of< th size of a pea and
placed in flasks having ground glass stoppers, where it is mixed with
potash lye entaining 3 grams of potash per liter, a liter of the solution
being used for each 200 grains of the moist gluten. Some glass beads
are also added to fiailitate the disaggregation of the mass. The flask
thus charged is placed upon a shaking table and shaken continuously
o some time, or it may be shaken by hand until the hfagments of
gluten re completely disaggregated. When the fgments of gluten
are reduced to a honogeiyeous condition alcohol is added to the flask





1192 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

in sit fcient quantity to make a total of 70 per cnt of in
solution. The alcool is left in contact with the onof the
for a few hours, and, with occasional shaking, at the ~d of this time
the mixture is exactly saturated with dilute sulph acid. A pre-
cipitate of glutenin is produced, which subsides rapidly, carrying with
it any suspended matter which the liquid may have ntained. The
precipitate is washed several times by decantation with per cent
alcohol. The supernatant liquors and the ashigs are mixed ad
preserved. The precipitate is taken up with a solution of potash in 70
per ent alcohol, containing 3 grams of potash per liter. The potash is
then saturated with an excess of carbon dioxid, and there remains an
insoluble product which consists of gluten-casein or glutenin. After
this has been separated by filtration the alcoholic iltrate is neutralized
with dilute sulphuric acid, by which there is obtained precipite
which resembles the conglutin of the lupines. The conglutin of wheat
forms irom 2 to 8 per cent of the total amount of gluten present. The
first alcoholic liquor obtained by washing the first precipitate is evapo-
rated at a low temperature to drive off the alcohol and rendered slightly
acid by dilute sulphuric acid, by which an abutdant precipitate of
gluten-librin-that is, gliadin-is obtained. The respctive proportions
of the two bodies in gluten are about as follows: Glutenin, from 18 to 25
per cent of the total gluten; gliadin, from 60 to 80 per cent of the total
gluten. The gliadin, according to Fleurent, is the true agglutinating
matter, and not the glutenin, and the reason the proteids of the other
cereals do not form a sticky dough is because the quantity of gliadin is
comparatively small, ranging fromt 8.17 per cent of the total amount
of proteids in barley to 47.50 per cent in maize.'

THE CARBOHYDRATES OF THE CEREALS.
By reason of the fact that the principal carbohydrate of cereals is
starch, and that the remaininig carbohydrates, small in quantity, are
practically the same in all, it has been thought advisable to give a
rIsumnu of our present knowledge of these carbohydrates in a separate
section rather than to describe those belonging to each one under its
own caption. By following the plan just indicated a reat deal of
repetition can be avoided.
INSOLUBLE CARBOUYDRATFES.
There are several constituents of cereals which may be classified as
insoluble carbohydrates. These are starch, cellulose, pejtosaus, and
galactans.
STAJICll.
Cereal grains are composed largely of starch, the quantity ranging
from 60 to more than S0 per cent of the entire weight of the dry hulled
kerels. TeF starch is collected in almst a pure state in the inner
SCou po ren du, l. 123, p. 327.







BUL No. 18, DIV. OF OEMISTRY. PLATE XLV.

















F AI. WHEAT BTAR X .
FROM BULLETIN 3 PART PLATE 26.








FROM GRIFFITHS PRINCIPAL
STAHES USED As FOD.














FIG. 3. WHEAT STARCH, ~ RIZED LIGHT X 145.
FROM BULLETIN 13, PART 2, PLATE f17



k o
I





FIG. 4. WHEAT SARCH X 3W0.
~ U

















rw)o TsoHc AN OISTEWL' AmATOMICSR ATLA DR PHAMPAKO@I UND NA tUNMITTL

TYPICAL WHEAT STAR HE

~V"Oil~d ~NI~A"" l~"A~H281







BUL. o. 318, DIV. OF HEMISTRY. PLATE XLVII.








9*







FIG. 1. MAIZE STARCH X 350.
FROM BULLETIN 13, PART 2, PLATE 26.







F l. 2. MAZE STARCH X 160.
FRom QGRFFITH'S PRINCIPAL
STARCHES USED AS FOOD.














FIG. 8. MAIZE STARCH, POLARIZED LIGHT X 145.
FROM BULLETIN 13, PART 2, PLATE 17.




7"1''



I
Y -j1













FIG. 4. MAZE STARCH X 800.
FROM TSCHIRCH AND OESTERLE.


TYPICAL MAIZE STARCH.





STARCH. 1193

p iof the grain, smaller portions being found in the coats, and
a or none at all, in the germs.
The ches of the cereals have many common properties. They are,
Sbe determined, chemically identical, and are polymers of
the si emolecule OEHi1oO5. On account of the great insolubility
f te s h grains it has been found almost impracticable to determine
te actualmolecular size of the starch particle. Determinations of the
r weight have given numbers greater than 30,000, and it is
ic t say, with any degree of exactitude, to what extent the con-
des of the simple carbohydrate molecule mentioned is carried.
fthe molecular weight of starch be 32,000, the starch molecule is pro-
duced b the condensation of about 200 of the simple carbohydrate
indicated above. In the absence, however, of any exact
infortion on thesubject, it is preferable to write the symbol of starch
(OCH6O1)0)a.
Th starch of all the cereals is detected by the same qualitative
che l action, and yields, upon hydrolysis, either by means of a
rent or by an acid, the same products. The starch kernels of dif-
ferent cereals, however, differ greatly in size and shape, in their deport-
ment toward enzymes, d to a certain extent in their deportment
toward polarized light. A brief description, with illustrations of the
kernels of the different cereals, will be useful here.

DESCRIPTION OF THE CEREAL STARCIIES.
Sstarches of the cereals have bee carefully studied in this divi-
sion by Rhardson and others, and fully escribed in Bulletin No. 13,
part 2. The following descriptions, as well as the illustrations accom-
panying them, are taken chiefly from that source. As an article of
human food, wheat starch should come first on the list.
Wheat starch.-The granules of wheat starch differ greatly in size,
varying from 0.05 to 0.01 mm. in diametr. There seem to be, in fact,
two kinds of granules in wheat starch, both of them shaped like cir-
cular disks, but one class much larger than the other, with very few
of an interediate size. The hilum of the starch is ahnost invisible,
and the rings which characterize it are not prominent. The typical
frms of wheat granules, showing the two sizes, are seen in I'l. XLV II.
Mai starch.-The granules of maize starch are of more uniform size
than those of wheat, varying from 0.02 to 0.03 im. in diameter. Now
Iad the a few are seen whicch are u smaller. In general they
dier in shae fro the wheat granles, and some are found to be poly-
hd wit roundle angles They resemble the ranules of rice starch,
Sare larger. Under polarized light they appear as brilliant objects,
but under the microscope, with ordinary illumination, they give only
theatest sign of rings, but show a well-developed hilum, which is at
star-shaped, or like an irreglar cros, and at others resembles a
epression. The maize starch granle is a type f the anular
17498-No. 13-3





1194 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

as the wheat is of the spherical or spheroidal form
istic appearance of maize starch kernelsis shown in Pl. XLVIII.
Oats starch-The grnules of oat starch tend to
large masses, the rfaces of which resemble some t the
honeycmb. These masses are -of very different ranging from
0.12 to 0.2 mm. in length. They are easily broken up by grinding or
pressure, and therefore are not found in great ce in commer-
cial meals. The single starch granule of oats vary 0.02 to 0.015
mm. in diameter. The granules do not polarize well, and w neither
rings nor hilum. Typical granules and aggregates
in P1. XLIX.
Barley starch.-The granules of this starch are very similar to
of wheat, but do not vary so much in size. The small granules, how-
ever, are even smaller than in wheat. Their avr is 0
mm. The rings of the granules are more distinct than in wheat,
often very small particles are found adhering to the larger ones in
a characteristic manner. The appearance of typical barley starc
granules is shown in P1. L.
Rye starch.-The granules of rye starch are quite variable in size,
some of them not exceeding 0.02 mm. in diameter, while th lar
may reach from 0.06 to 0.07 mm. in diameter. The have no distin-
guishing characteristics, save the extremes in size, and in the fact that
in some cases an irregular cross occupies the position of the hilum.
They may be taken easily for wheat starch on the one han, and on the
other some of them very closely resemble rice starch. (Se P. LI.)
Rice starch.-The granules of rice starch resemble those of maize
more than any other of the starches mentioned, but in general are
smaller. They are also more irregular in shape, and the hlumis often
star-shaped or elongated, while in the granules of maize starch it is
more of the nature of a circular depression. In general, the granules
of rice starch may be distinguished from those of maize because of
their smaller size and of their more polygonal form and well-defined
angles. Often several granules of rice starch are found united Typical
rice granules are shown in Pl. LII.
Buckwheat starch.-The granules of buckwheat starch are very car-
acteristic. They consist of chains or groups of angular granules, with
a well-define nucleus, and without rings. The contour of buckwheat
starch granules is more angular than that of any common cereal, and it
is this angular construction which enables the observer to distinguish
them from other starches. The size of the grales is qite uniform,
varying from 0.01 to .015 mm in diameter The appearance of ypial
buckwheat starch granules is shown in PI. LIII.
APPEARANCE OF STARCH GRANUILES WITH POLARIZED LIGHT.
Under polarized light starch ganules usually appear with a
which is very distinct and often characteristic.
The starch granules for this purpose are mounted in ba and show







B.. No1. I8, DIV. OF OHEMISTRY. PLATE XLIX.
















0Ch
-. r- .





4





Sci


Fi. I. OAT STARCH X 850. 9
FROM BULLETIN 13, PART 2, PLATE 26. 5


FP. 2. OAT STARCH X 160.
FROM GRIFFITH'S PRINCIPAL
STARCHES USED AS FOOD.




















X
















FiH. 3. OAT STARoH X 3W.
FROM TSOMIR H AND OfSTkRLE.





TYPICAL OAT STARCH.
IA
V I~BA ~~~~~ ~I c

~ ~~I I~i PA~2, ~E 2x







UL No. 18, DIV. OF EMISTRY. PLATE L.






C 9


0o
















F BULLN 13, PART 2, PLATE 26,


FIG. 2. BARLEY STARCH X 160.
FROM GRIFFITH'S PRINCIPAL
STARCHES USED AS FOOD.






9I I














1/1 ] *, t iA
















TIAL BARL Y TARC.
F*G, SAR X 30












"" *
F"o" B E 1, P 2 P 2






FGF 2.BAL AR X 1.




FFROM GRsIFF TH'S PRINCPLA




TYPICAL BARLEYWSTARCH.







UL No. 18, DIV. OF OHEMISTRY. PLATE LI.







1 O







0 6 --


I 0






F. 1. RYE STARCH X 860. e o

FROM BuLLETIN 13, PART 2, PLATE 26. o

I Fla. 2. RYE STAROH X 160.
FROM GRIFFITH'S PRINCIPAL
S TARCHE USED AS FOOD.
| 1 I a




































FIG. 3 RYE STARCH X 300.












FROM TSCHIROT AND OPSTERLE2




TYPIFAL RYE STARhHES.
-STAOE USE" D AS FooD.
























IS I ,









IFee. 8 Rv STAR X ~.
IMO



TI RYE TAO







UL. No. 18, DIV. OF ONEMISTFRY. PLATE LII.







F toa







e a 4 4
c1o I a I=I i *









S 0 4









Fo. 2. RiCE STARM X 300.
FROM GRImTIWS PRINcIPAL
STARcHES USED AS FOOD.
g









Vs


























FFa I. RRii STAcX X 300.
FFROM TBUHLT A1D PR2TO6a .




TYP.OAL CRICE ATARO.X 1






BUL. No. 18, DIV. OF OHEMISTRY. PLATE LIII.












111, *f













FIG. I. BUCKWHEAT STAROH X 360
FROM BULLETIN 13, PART 2, PLATE 26.








IIx
N




























TYPIAL BUCKWHEAT STARCH,
* ~ O4ftHAi O(TIL S- As~ub./ Av- 01 PtnMi. UR ,4N~T~~



V -^ jU
TYiA BUCKWHEAT STARCH.




ts .



.,:::
i., Illliiiiiliilliiiiillilil''l"llllll ~;~;;;;;; ii;;ii;;

,;R
.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
z









































































1 5






~

























































































































































i" ,~a
liiR
;;;;;risiil;ssj;iiiiriiiilll,






THE CELLULOSE GROUP. 1195

characteristics with ordinary illumination. The nucleus of the
ule when viewed with polarized light is indicated by the intersec-
f the cross. By intersing a selenite plate a beautiful ply of
lors is secured on rotating the analyzer. This fact may be useful in

e haracteristic appearances are shown in the accompanying
illustrations.
DEPORTMENT WITH SACCHARIFACIENT ENZYMES.
In a paper read before the Russian Academy of Science in 1875 Leu-
berg and Georgiewsky showed that potato starch is much more readily
attked by the enzyme of the saliva than are the common cereal
starches. This observation has been confirmed by other observers.2
With diastase this difference is less marked but still important. The
blue coloration which a paste of potato starch gives with iodine disap-
pears in a few minutes when treated with saliva, while it may persist
for several hours in the case of wheat starch. This difference in deport-
ment shows a great difference in the resistance of the several starches
to the action of the ferments. This difference may be due to the struc-
ure of the srch granule or to the fact that the coloration produced
by iodine varies with the origin of the starch.

THE CELLULOSE GROUP.

Interesting both from a chemical and dietetic point of view is that
class of oranic matter which constitutes the woody part of plants, viz,
the cellulose group. It is included in the ordinary expression of ana-
lytical data with that miscellaneous collection of carbohydrate bodies
designated nitrogen-free extract.
Various names have been given to the different bodies composing this
mixture but these names have but little definite chemical signification,
because of the great difficulty which has been experienced in securing
a definite separation of the severl components. The terms cellulose,
hemicellulose, lignin, and fiber have been aplied to these component
par of the woody substance of plants, and while authorities do not in
all caes agree on the use of these terms, yet in general it may be said
that it is possible to define, by means of them, the principal parts of
woody matter with a fair degree of satisfaction. The term "cellulose
group" is used to designate all that part of plant substance free of
nitrogen which is composed of the carbohydrate bodies exclusive of
pentosans, soluble carbohydrates, and starch.
The ter cellulose is applied to that part of the celllose group which
its the action of dilute boiling acids and is insluble in ammonia
ad soluble in euprammonium. In other words, it is pure cellulose,
orresponding to the formula CIIB). Those portions of the cellulose
gop which p)ass int solution when boiled with dilute mineral acids
Berichte, vol. 9., p. 7. Stone, Hul. 34 U. E. S., Dept. of A r., p. :v.






1196 FOODS AND FOO ADULTERA

with the formation of reducing sugars are charac
hemicellulose.
This class of bodies evidently comprises a large number of individual
substances, inasmuch as the sugars which are formed by hydrolysis
with dilute boiling mineral acids include mannose, galactose, arabinose,
xylose, and dextrose. The term hemicellulose therefore embraces at
least the substances mannan, galactan, araban, xyla and dextrosan, if
this term may be allowed to designate that class of hemicelluloses
which furnishes dextrose by hydrolysis. The term "wood gum" has
been applied by Hoffmeister to those carbohydrate bodies which are
extracted by 5 per cent sodium hydroxid solution from a fiber not pre
viously freed of incrusting bodies. As will be seen further on, if the
fiber be first extracted with ammonia to free it from these incrusting
bodies and then the residue extracted with 5 per cent sodium hydroxid
solution, the matters which arebstracted are regarded by Hoffmeister
as belonging to the hemicelluloses. The term cellulose is reserved by
Hoffmeister for the carbohydrates which are insoluble in dilute acids,
and which are found in the cell walls. He designates as cellulose gum
the product which goes into solution when the residue, after treating
the fiber with chlorin or other similar reagents, is submitted to the action
of cold dilute sodium hydroxid.2 For a more detailed explanation of
these carbohydrate bodies the article by E. Schulze in the Landwirth-
schaftliche Jahrbiicher for 1894, page 13, may be consulted. It is seen
at once that a great number of terms have been applied in the designa-
tion of these materials, and while later investigations have shown a
certain restriction in the use of these terms to more definite groups of
bodies, it is not yet possible, on account of the difficulty of complete
separation, to reach a system of nomenclature which is definite and
satisfactory. For the present, therefore, we may regard the cellulose
group as being composed essentially of the following components:
(1) Carbohydrate bodies yielding sugars on hydrolysis with dilute
acids (preferable term, hemicellulose); chief members of the group,
araban and xylan; less important members, mannan, galactan, dextran.
(2) Carbohydrate bodies insoluble in boiling dilute mineral acids and
dilute alkalies and ammonia, and soluble in cupra onium (preferable
term, cellulose); varieties of cellulose not well known.
(3) Carbohydrate bodies insoluble in boiling dilute mineral acids and
dilute alkalies and in uprammonium, but soluble with more or less
difficulty in ammonia (preferable name, lignin), composed of humus-
like bodies, soluble in dilute ammonia and cellulose-like bodies, the
whole capable of being almost completely decomposed by successive
treatments with ammonia and cuprammonium, the residue after such
repeated treatment containing chiefly mineral matters with some
organic matter, the nature of which is not well known.
SLandwirthschaftlichen Versuchssttionn, vol. 39, p.462.
Landwirthschaftliche Jahrbcher, 1894, p.15.






THE CELLULOSE GROUP. 1197

The above is a condensed synopsis of our present knowledge concern-
ing the chief classes of the carbohydrate matters composing the cellu-
lose group or the woody fiber of plant substances.

QUANTITATIVE SEPARATION OF CELLULOSES.
Hoffmeister1 agrees with Tollens in applying the term hemicelluloses
to that class of insoluble carbohydrate bodies, other than the starches,
dissolved by boiling dilute acids, and also includes bodies soluble in
sodium hydroxid. The term, therefore, includes not only the peinto-
sans, which are the more soluble in soda lye, but also to a certain extent
some of the true celluloses-hexosans. He reviews the common meth-
ods of separation, and especially the chlorination method of Cross and
Bevan, and finds that all the known methods fail to separate definitely
the cellulose bodies into groups of like kind; as, for instance, the pen-
tosans separated by any of the methods are always found to contain
some hexosans, and the residual celluloses are never obtained quite free
from pentosans and lignin. The conventional method of determining
crude fiber in food analysis can not be practically replaced by any of
the methods for quantitative separation of the celluloses, except at a
loss of time in analysis, which is scarcely worth while. lHoftmeister
proposes a method of separation which evidently is open to the same
objections a those urged against the other methods, but whicih at least,
with the exception of extraction with ammonia, can he carried out
without any great loss of time. The material which is to be freed from
starch, if any be contained therein, by the action of malt extract, is
ground, after drying and extraction with ether, to the very fintest possille
powder. Weighed quantities of this powder are treated as follows:
The material is extracted by repeated treatment with hydrochloric acid
or with amonia. After thoroughly mixing and shaking, the material is
allowed to stand until the solid matters have subsided and the super-
natant liquoris removed by pouring or siphoning. After this treatment
has been continued for several hours the residue is at once. without
drying, treated at room temperature with a 5 or 6; er cent sodium
hydroxid solution. This is allowed to stand for two days, with fre-
quent shaking. At the end of this time, after all the solid matter is
deposited, the supernatant solvent is removed as above. The residue
is brought upon the filter and washed with hot water. The extrnct ill
sodium hydroxid is neutralized with hydrochloric acid, treat'd with
a sufficient quantity of alcohol, and the precipitate collected upon a
filter.
Great diiculties of filtration may be encountered, which may be
ned to some extent by increaing the quantity of alcohol The
matial extracted by sodium hydroxid and precipitati 1by alcohol
after thorough washing with alcohol is dried and weighed, and esti-
Sas hemicellulose The residue left after extraction w ith sodium
SLa dw. Veruchas-Sta.. Vol. XLrVIII, p 401. Abstract.






1198 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.
is t t || o
hydroxid is treated with cuprammonium (Schweitzer's reagent)until no
more of it passes into olution. The material dissolved is precipitated
with alcohol, washed, dried, and weighed, andas
The residue is washed, dried, and weighed as lignin. The several
precipitates in this process are not tested for protein, and it is probable
that a considerable quantity of protein will be found in them. The
final residue, called lignin, is still a compound body. If it be ted
in a continuous extraction aparatus for several ays with ammonia
all superficial lignin (incrusting substance) goes into solution, coloring
the ammonia brown. The residue, treated with cuprammonium, yields
a pure cellulose. In the remainder lignin or incrusting substance can
again be detected, showing the intimate manner in which the lignin
and cellulose are associated.
The exhaustion of the incrusting substance with ammonia requires
days, sometimes weeks and months, and therefore the process has little
practical value. A special form of apparatus is used, which, with the
aid of folded strips of filter paper, admits the dilute ammonia to all
parts of the finely ground mass.
The material dissolved in ammonia is recovered by evaporating the
solvent.
Cuprammonium dissolves not only the cellulose, but also the pento-
sans. This is shown in a very striking manner by treating the residue
after extraction with ammonia with cuprammonium. The soluble mat-
ter thus obtained contains varying quantities of pentosans, according
to the nature of the substance. The material extracted by ammonia
from woody substances, as has already been remarked imparts to the
ammonia a dark color. On evaporation on the water bth a vailla-
like odor is also distinguished. The dry residue, after evaporation of
the ammonia, is insoluble in water, but is soluble in ammonia, and is
thrown out of solution by acids. This substance exhibits in a marked
degree the character of humic acids, and doubtless belongs t this
category.
Another body has been separated from the lignin or vegetable fiber;
it is easily soluble in alcohol, but has only been obtained so far in an
amorphous condition. In the dry state it is in the form of a yelow
powder. Its melting point lies between 2000 and 2100, and on elemen-
tary analysis it appears to have the empirical formula CH6117. In
cereal grains the bodies descibed above are found chiefly in the fibrous
envelopes of the kernels, and on milling are secured chiefly in the bra.
INSOLUBLE CARBOHYDRATES OF WHEAT.

Sherman' has made an investigation of the insoluble carbohydrates
other than starch contained in wheat. Inasmuch as insoluble
carbohydrates are practically all in the bran, the investigations were
made upon this substance. The bran was successively extracted with
I J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol., 19p. Abstract.






INSOLUBLE CARBOHYDRATES OF WHEAT. 1199

saline solution, malt extract, 2 per cent ammonia, cold, and boil-
1 per cent sodium hydroxid. By this treatment, it is stated,
d resinous matter, all the soluble carbohydrates, and nearly
teid matter were removed. The extract treated with sodium
tion yielded the principal part of the pentosans, giving
istic red coloration with phoroglucin in hydrochloric acid
a af ng furfuraldehdeye when distilled with an acid.
Teterm hemicellulose is used by Sherman to designate the carbo-
hyr matter, obtained by boiling in dilute acids, from vegetable cells
efrom starch. The hydrolysis of the hemicelluloses was efected
by bling for thirty minutes with 1.25 per cent sulphuric acid, and the
ng solution was boiled with 2 per cent sulphuric acid for about
six h s until its copper-reducing power no longer increased. The
reducing power of the sugars obtained was found to be 91.2 per cent of
f that of pure dextrose. The sulphuric acid solution, after complete
hydrolysis, was tested for mannose with phenylhydrazine acetate; for
lactose, by evaporation with nitrous acid, and for levulose, with
rerin in hydrochloric acid. None of these bodies was present.
Petoses were present in large quantities. The dextrose was distin-
ished by the preparatio of its osazone. The osazones of the pen-
and of dextrose are separated by boiling water, the pentose
nes being quite readily soluble, and the dextrose osazones being
quite insoluble in this reagent. The result of the experiment with the
zones showed that no dextrose, or at least not more than a trace,
was present. It is concluded from this that wheat bran, after treatment
above, yields only pentoses on hydrolysis with sulphuric acid.
CHARACTER OF THE RESIDUE.
The residue left on hydrolysis with sulphuric acid was washed with
water and alcohol and dried. In the dry state it contained nearly 0.7
per cent of ash, nearly 0.3 per cent of nitrogen, and yielded, on distilla-
tionwith hydrochloric acid, nearly 12 per cent of furfuraldehyde. When
treated with chlorin and then boiled with sodium sulphite it gave a
deep magenta color, characteristic of lignin. It also gave the red color
when treated with phloroglucin, which is the qualitative test for pen-
tosans. No coloration was obtained on boiling with aniline sulphate,
sowing the absence of oxycellulose.
DEPORTMENT WITH FERtRIC CH(ILRID) AND POTASSIUM FERRICYANID).
Fresh aqueous solutions containing in 100 c. c. 1.6 grams of ferric
chrd and 3.3 grams of potassium ferricyanid, respctively, were
d in eal volumes. The fiber was imersed in this solution for
smtime; washed and dried at 1050. The immersion before washing
d be continued for an hour at least, and btter for sixteen hours.
every case a large increa in weight was obtained, showing that
e fiber of wheat bran, like the typical ligiocelulose of jute, has the
ower of fixing a considerable amount of cyanid.






1200 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

COMPOUNDS WITH CHLORIN.
This compound was prepared according t. the method of ross and
Bevan by boiling 75 grams of the bran with 1 per cent sodium hydroxid
solution, washing, pressing to remove the greater part of the water,
and exposing the moist fiber for one hour to chorin gas free of bydro-
chloric acid. The fiber, during the passage of the chlorin, is suspended
in alcohol. The alcoholic solution is removed by pressure and found
to be of a deep golden yellow color. On concentrating and pouring
into water, a part of the substance dissolved by the chlorin alcohol is
separated. In all, about 1 gram of this precipitate was obtained, which
contained 26.7 per cent of chlorin. Wheat bran, therefore, contains to
some extent that character of lignin compound peculiar to jute which
gives the above reaction.

SEPARATION OF THE CELLULOSE.

Three methods of separating cellulose were tried:
(1) Schulze's method.-In this method 30 grams of the wheat fiber are
treated at ordinary temperature with a solution of 25 grams of potas-
sium chlorate in 350 c. c. of nitric acid of 1.10 specific gravity for seven
days, with occasional stirring. Enough nitric acid is added to increase
the strength to 1.13 specific gravity, and the digestion is continued for
another seven days. At the end of this time the mixture is kept at
40 for two hours, filtered, washed free of acid, and treated on the filter
with cold 2 per cent ammonia as long as the filtrate is colored. Finally,
the residue is washed with water and alcohol. Thirty-four per cent of
the fiber was dissolved by this treatment. The residue still contained
7 per cent of furfiraldehyde.
(2) Method of Cross and Bevan.-Thirty grams of fiber are boiled for
thirty minutes with 800 c. c. of 1 per cent sodium hydroxid, the mixture
poured on a filter, washed with water until free from alkali, pressed as
free of water as possible, placed loosely in a covered beaker, and exposed
to the action of chlorin gas for an hour, with occasioal stirring. At
the end of this time it is thrown on a filter and washed with water
until all free acid is removed, heated to boiling with 600 c. c. of 2 per
cent sodium sulphite, and sufficient sodium hydroxid solution added
to make 0.2 per cent of the whole. The boiling is continued for five
minutes longer, the solution filtered while heated, and the residue
washed until the washings are neutral and colorless. The final wash-
ing is made with alcohol and the residue dried and weighed. This
treatment dissolves 33.5 per cent of the total fiber.
(3) Solution in alkalies.-Lange's method of dissolving the cellulose
in alkalies was employed, as described in Principles and ractice of
Agricultural Analysis (vol. III, p. 104).
It is probable that the insoluble carbohydrates of the other cereals






INSOLUBLE CARBOHYDRATES OF WHEAT. 1201

posed essentially of the same bies. The general composition
the wheat bran as ascertained by Sherman is as follows:
Per oent.
soluble carboydrates calculated as dextrin ............................. 7.2
S arch............ ...... ............................ .... .......... ........... 17.7
-------------- ----------------- ---......... ---...---.. ..---.-...-..-.. 17.5

T ue lled sb--a--------------------------------------------------- 11.6
i i ad a ied substa es ..---.........--- -...... ........----......--. 11.6
Cellulose (as defined above).................................................. 8.5
Et ract, protein, and ash -......-....-....-..........-.......... ........ 33.4
Undetermine..............--------------......................................... 4.1

SUMMARY OF RESULTS.

The chief results of this investigation may be briefly stated as
follows:
As determined by the analysis of the osazones, only the pentoses,
lose, and arabinose result from the hydrolysis of the hemicellulose.
This is, therefore, practially identical with the free or normal pentosans
which the wheat contains.
SThe preparation of cellulose from the fiber insoluble in dilute
id was found to be best effected by means of alkali and chlorin as
escribed by Cross and Bevan.
The dilte boiling alkali removes matter which appears to contain a
condensed form of pentosan, since it yields firfurol on distillation and
ves a red color with phloroglucin reagent, but does not yield any
notable amount of reducing sugar on boiling with dilute sulphuric aid.
The lignin not removed by dilute alkali forms with chlorin an alcohol-
soluble compound containing 26.7 per cnt of chlorin corresponding
to the "lignone chlorid," C,,19H18C19, of Cross aid Bevan.
3. The cellulos obtained as just mentioned, or by fusion of the fiber
with strong alkali (Lange's method), contains furfuraldehyde-yield in g
bodies whose deportment toward reagents indicates the presence of
penta-anhydrid, probably in combination with a part of the hexa-
anhydrid or normal cellulose.
When dissolved in sulphuric aid, diluted, and hydrolyzed, a small
quantity of dextrose only was obtained as osazo le.
4. The property of dyeing in a solution of ferric chloride and potas
sium ferricyanid is possessed in a marked degree by the wheat fiber,
and the reaction has been found useful in testing the purity of "cell-
lose" residues. I this respect, as in the formation of the lignone
chiorid, the lignified tissue of wheat resembles that of jute, the typical
lignocellulose.
5. o notable amount of oxyicellhuos h1 been found in an of the
rtions from the wheat fler.






1202 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

6. The relations of the constituents co
reseted as follows:
A. Starch granules. parate ut .
B. Outer seed-coat.
a. Free pentosans. )
ba. Lignied tispe. Associated in position but not hemil combined.
b. Lignified tiasue. )
Cellulose.. -----...........-----------................
baa. Hexa-anhydrids. App arently
bab. Penta-anhydrids. combination.
bb. Lignin .................................
Undefined substances, apparently of a condensed nature, associated with and
doubtless allied to the lignin.
7. The determination of starch has been carefully studied and the
methods now available are quite -satisfactory. An approximate sepa-
ration of free pentosans, lignin and its allies, and cellulose may be
effected by means of the method proposed in this paper.
8. Thus determined, the digestibility of the components in a ca
where wheat bran had been fed alone was found to be: Star, 100
per cent; free pentosans, 66.2 per cent; lignin and allied substances,
36.7 per cent; cellulose, 24.8 per cent.
9. From the analyses given in this paper and the best available results
of other experimenters, the proportions present in normal mature wheat,
air-dried, are calculated as follows:

'Arerage percentages of insoluble carbohydrates in air-died hat.
Per cent.
Starch ............................................................... 5 0to 59.0
Free pentosans ................... ......................... ........ 3-. .5 to 4. 5
Lignin and its allies.................................................. 2.0 to 2. 5
Cellulose ........................................... ............ ... 1. 6 to 2. 1
Insoluble carbohydrates ....................................... 61.1 to 68. 1

These data have been confirmed by investigations made in this
division, with the exception that the mean percentage of starch as
determined by the latest methods is somewhat higher than given by
Sherman.
Pentosans.-The occurrence of a body in wheat bran capable of
yielding a peculiar oily body caused ID)bereiner in 1831 to adopt the
name furfurol (furfuraldehyde) for this oil.' Traces ofthis body are also
obtained, according to the earlier writers, from sugars and stares
Emmnet got furfurol by distilling sugar, starch, gum, and wood with
aulphuric acid when the temperature was not carried to the carboiz
ing point.
Fownes states as the result of his investigations that furfarol is
derived chiefly from the cell walls of vegetable substances.
Fownes obtained furfuraldehyde freely by distilling bran and flour
with an acid.

Ann. Pharm., vol.3, p. 141.
Silliman's Journal, vol. 32, p. 140.
3 mue in's Handluh, English translation, vo. 10, 370.








ouse suggested the use of hydrochlo acid for obtaining fur-
ofrom bran by a process entirely analogous to that now employed
Semical analysis. He objected to the use of this acid, however,
seit was found in the distillate with the oil. For obtaiing large
tities of urol he used 16 kilograms of bran, ad 5 of sulphuric
d diluted with 10 of water.
Babo used zinc chlorid as the distilling reant, and thereby obtained
rfrol from bran.
Thee earlier investigations of furfuraldehyde, however, did not lead
the isolation and characterization of the true source of the supply.
presence. of a gum-like body in wheat germs, yielding furfuralde-
e, was established by Richardson in this division in 185-86, and a
raation of several grams of this material made at tt th time is still
our possession. Shortly after this the researches of Tollens and his
s and others showed the quantitative relation existing between
Sproduction of furfraldehyde and the pentosan bodies, and laid the
ndation of the approximately exact estimation of the latter. It then
ame possible to determine, for the first time, the quantity of pen-
forming bodies (araban, xylan) in the bran and other parts of the
ereal grains.
In this laboratory the percentage of pentosans in the following ce-
as has been found to be: Wheat, 5.80 per cent; rye, 8.10 per cent;
S(unbhulled) 13.65 per cent; barley (hulled) 6.50 per cent. These
tages are calculated on the samples as ground, containing 11.33,
1.71, 9.26 and 12.20 per cent of water, respectively.
Stone found 4.54 per cent of pentosans in winter wheat, 3.94 per cent
Sspring wheat, and 4.99 per cent in maize,3

SOLUBLE CARltOIHYDRATES.

In 187 Proust4 found 5 per cent of sugar and 4 per cent of dextrin
barley, and Thomson so on thereafter reprted 4 per (ent of sugar in
e same substance. Peligot a reported 7.2 per cent of dextrin in barley,
UdBossingault the same quantity in wheat. Sace ~ in 1857 reprted
r cent sugar in wheat. De Saussure stated that wheat coitained
4 r cent of sugar and 3.46 per cent of dextrin. Mitscherlich in
stated that the unsprouted grains of cereals contained neither
gar nor dextrin. Soon thereafter Mulder" stad t hat t hese eds i
tained dextrin but no sugar. llerimbstadlt, Ifinhof, and Stein
Gmelin, op. cit., p. 371.
Ann. Pharin, \ol. 8~, p. 100.
SBulletin 3, (. E. S., pp. 14, fl.
Ann. do chemu. et de phys., vol., p. 37.
SOp. cit. supr, vol. 6. 216.
Op. cit. supra, 3" Serie, vol. 29, p. 1.
Trit de chlm., vol. 4, p. 0.
*Lehrb. de. Chen., elition of 1 4, p. St
Chim. des 1iere 26.






1204 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

gave, respectively, the following data for sugar and n in brley:
Sugar, 4.7 and 5.2 per cent; dextrin, 4.5, 4.6, and 6.5 per cent.
Lermer found no sugar in barley, but 6.63 per cent of dextrin, while
Pillitz and others report 2.71 per cent of sugar and 1. per cent of
dextrin in barley, and 1.60 per cent of sugar and 1.76 per cent of dex-
trin in wheat.
Ki eman, who tabulated the literature of the subject prior to
Lerer's time, examined malt and obtained two crystallizable sugars,
one of which reduced copper salts-probably maltose. He concluded,
however, that the other substance he secured, which resembled dextrin
in being precipitated by alcohol, was not a true dextrin. With the
isolation of pure sucrose from cereals by the last-named investigator
the period of exact investigation of the soluble arbohydrates of these
bodies may be regarded to have begun.

SUCROSE.
The presence of this sugar in cereal kernels has long been known
The first recorded determination of soluble sugars in cereals is found
in an account of some researches by Banister2 in 1880. Banister states
that the saccharine matters extracted from the grains of cereals behave
like cane sugar, being inverted with the same facili and not until
then reducing a solution of copper salt. Banister found the following
quantities of sugar, which he supposed from its deportment to be cane
sugar, in the cereals named. :

Percentage of sucrose in cereals.
Per cent. Per cent.
W inter wheat..................... 2.57 Maize............................. 1.94
Spring wheat ..................... 2.24 Rye............................... 4.30
Barley ............................ 1.34 Rice ............................. 38
The occurrence of sugars in cereals is mentioned in earlier articles,
and indeed Kiihnemann4 in 1875 stated that he had isolated from 0.6
1 per cent of sucrose in germinated barley.
In 1883 Richardson,5 in this division, called attention to the large
quantity of sugar in wheat germs. Richardson found that this sugar
did not reduce copper salts until after inversion; that it was trongly
dextrorotatory, and less so after inversion. These properties show
that it was a mixture of sucrose and raffinose, with perhaps a small
quantity of dextrin or maltose.
SMulder, Chim. des hiers, p. 30; Berzelius, Lehrb. d. Chei, 1838, vol. 7, p. 551
Polytech. Centralbl., 1t~0, p. 49A4.
These data were published in the second part of the oth Kensington Art
Handbook on the adulteration of foods, and are repeated in the Chemical News of
December 11, 1885
DChem. News, ec. 11, 1885, p. 293.
SBerichte, vol.8, p. 202.
Bul. 1, pi. 47.






SOLUBLE CARBOHYDRATES. 1205

it was found in this laboratory by Richardson and Crampton'
this sugar tained about 85 per cent of sucrose, and a fine prep-
on of a very pure sucrose was secured. The rest of the sugar was
d to s the properties of raflinose, but this sugar as not sepa-
in a pue state at that time.
0 'ullva found from 0.8 to 1.6 per cent ot sucrose in barley and
ls t 0.5 per cent in wheat.
In malt he found 4.7 per cent of sucrose. He infers that during
mination there is a considerable increase in the quantity of the
sugar.
Tollens and Washburn 3 detected and determined sucrose in maize
nd Schulze and Frankfurter4 in wheat, rye, oats, and buckwheat.
nkfurter5 has found 17 per cent of sucrose in wheat germs.
Stone found from 0.48 to 0.51 per cent of sucrose in wheat, 3.51 per
ent in sweet maize, and from 0.24 to 0.27 per cent in common maize.
In this laboratory Krug has lately determined the percentage of
ose in a few of the cereals, with the following results: Wheat, 0.33;
,0.42; oats, 0.17; barley, 0.18 per cent.
The data obtained by Stone and Krug are doubtless more nearly
r than those given by earlier investigators.

INVERT OR REDUCING SUGARS, DEXTRIm, AND GALACTIN.
It is doubtf whether reducing sugars are present in fresh unsprouted
Ia grains. Most observers have found that fresh ground cereal
grains give an aqueous extract which does not reduce alkaline copper
lutions, or at most reduces them in a very slight degree. In old
cereals or in flours kept for some time at room temperatures the reduc-
ing sugars found in the aqueous extract may arise from the activity of
an unorganized ferment (invertase, diastase, etc.). O'Sullivan" found a
reducing sugar in barley extract which he was unable to identify by its
optical and reducing qualities. The quantity of this sugar obtained
from 200 grams of barley meal was only 0.73 gram. A similar body
in respect of reducing power was observed in wheat. Wheat yielded
to O'Sullivan a trace of a fermentable, nonreducing sugar of a moder-
ately high levo-rotatory power, but there is doubt of the actual exist-
nce of such a body in the fresh grain. Frankfurter was able to detect
a trace of reducing sugar, however, in the germs of wheat
Stoe" found small quanttities of invert sugar in winter wheat, but
none in spring wheat. None was found iu maize. He also detected
eighable quantities of dextrin in both cereals, in amount equal to
ut 0.25 per cent. With the possible exception of barley, it is
blved that maltose is not found in fresh ereals. Ater germina-
Ber hte, vol. 19, p. 118. Versuchi t, vol. 47, p. 4i.
I J. Chem. So. Trans., vol. 49, p. 6. J. Chem. o. Tr., vol. 49, p. 6.
SBericht, vol. 22, p.10 7. Versuchs tat. vol. 47, p. 457.
Beri t. vol. 2, p. 62. 0. E. S. B 31. pp. 14-16.






1206 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

tion, however, it is probable that other cereals barley may have
a part of their starch converted into maltose.
In most samples of cereal grains and flours made from them
of invert or reducing sugar may be found. Whether these preex i
the fresh grain or are the result of the action of the enzymes it is dii
cult to say. In addition to this there are found also weighable traces
of dextrin, or, as claimed by Girard galactin.
In the common method of separating the carbohydrates soluble in
water from the freshly ground grain or flour it must ot be forgotten
that precautions are not usually taken to prevent the tion of the
natural enzymes, which all cereal flours contain, during the time o
extraction. Under the conditions in which ordinary aqueous extrac-
tion is practiced these enzymes may become active and consequently
a portion of the soluble materials secured may be due to this source.
In order to avoid the action of the enzymes Girard proposes to n-
duct the extraction at a very low temperature, viz, at about 0 C. This
low temperature is secured by conducting the extraction in a vessel
which is surrounded by pounded ice. In these conditions the water in
contact with the finely ground flour is reduced almost to the tempera-
ture of zero. At this temperature, with the help of a mechanical stirrer
all the matter which will pass into solution can be practically extracted
in about four hours, and the action of the enzymes being arrested,
only the actual soluble matter in the flour of ground grain at the tme
the extraction is begun is secured. It is probable, therefore, that the
values given by analysts in general to represent the quantity of matters
in a flour soluble in water are too high. According to Girard, the pre-
cipitate which is produced in the aqueous extrat from a flour secured
as above described on the addition of alcohol is not dextrin, but gala-
tin. In some instances he has detected nearly 1 per cent of this sub-
stance, a matter not only of importance scientifically, but also in baking
Girard also has found a considerably larger quantity of sucrose than
Krug found in the aqueous extract of finely ground wheat. The quan
tities of invert or reducing sugars found by him reach as much as 0.2
per cent in some instances. The following table gives the names and
quantity of substances soluble in water in four samples of wheat:

Substances in wheat soluble in water.

Sani pie Sample Sample Sample
o tu t soNo.1. o.2. N 3. No.4.

Per .rni. Per enit. Per cent. Per cent.
Gluinue or rtducing sugar .................................. 0.21 0.16 0.20 0.
Surr ......... ................................... ... ..86 1.20 1.70 0.9
Nitrogenous matter and diastase ............................ 1.10 1. 0 1.02 1.8
Galaliin ... ....... ........... .......................... 0.52 0.9 0.78 0.99
Mineral maters ............... ....... .. .............. ..3. 0.32 0. 30 0.22
N ot de er i ...... .................................... .. 0. .......... ............

C Contete rendu, vol. 104, April 26 and May 3,






NITROGENOUS BASES. 1207

S herthe quantiies of invert or reducing sgar, sucrose,
or galactin obtained by rug in this laboratory on the
samples named in the table.

Tabl percentage of inrert sugar, sucrose, and de.trin or Uglactin in cereals
and cereal products.

Name. Invwert Surose. ietrin.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
................................................................. 0.027 0 60
ye.................................................................. 68 .416 .22
t ................................................................... .031 .173 .20
arley ............................................. ............... 017 .177 .140
at our........................................................... .014 .101 .190
Ir flou ...............- ...... -. -.. ..... .......................... . 038 .382 .210
uckwheat flour ....................................................... 0 .00
elf aii w flor ..-...... ........... ...... ..... ................. (. .06 .080
iscel aneo s wheatflour .......................................... .. .003 .09 .130
ommo market wheat flours .......... .... ... ........... ....... .021 .2 .210
akers' and family flou ........................................ .027 .19 .22
Patent wheatflour .................................................... .002 5 .200


RAFFINOSE.
Richardson and Crampton,' as already stated, found from 15 to 18 per
t of sugar in the germs of wheat, of which the chief part from 80 to
per cent, consisted of cane sugar. The rest behaved in a manner
Sto raffinose, but they did not succeed in getting this sugar
Sa ioated state, and were of the opinion that a new kind of sugar
was present.
O'8llivan2 obtained raffinose from barley by evaporating an alcoholic
t of the meal, dissolving the sirup obtained in the least possible
utty of alcohol, and adding a little ether. After some time quite
crystals of raffinose were separated.
Later, in 189, S3chulze and Frankfurteri: secured a nearly pure prepa-
of raffino fro the germs of wheat, but the perc-ntage amount
Sit is not stated.
The ugars were separated from the germs by hot alcohol and were
bsequently precipitated by strontium hydroxid. Frankfurter has
und .89 per cent ratfinose in wheat germs.

MISCELLANEOUS CONSTITUENTS OP CEREAL GRAINS.

NITROGENOUS BEASES.

nTh itrogen contained in cereal grains is not all in the form of
tA part of it exists in the form which is commonly known
asmio nitrogen, forming comlpounds which are not nutritious nor


Berichte, vol. 19, p. 11 lhericitt, v 7, p. I.
J. Chemn. So Trans. vol. 49, p. 70. V'eruca sta t vol 17 P. 16. 4.






1208 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

In 185 the first of these amido compounds fo in cereal grain
allantoin, was isolated from wheat germs in this laboratory b Rich
ardson and Crampton.1
Associated with allantoin Frankfurter2 s has fnd also asparagin.
Two other nitrogenous bases, cholin and betain have also bee
isolated from the wheat germ by Frankfurter and chulze. Spro
barley germs also contain these bases. In addition to these, a sm
quantity of xanthin-like bodies was detected by the same investigtors

FERMENTS.

The cereal grains contain either ferments which are capable of
acting upon proteid matters and starches, or else the elements from
which these ferments can be produced under the inflence of warmth
and the vital activity of the plant. A body from which the ferments
are evolved is known as zymogen, and the unorganized ferments
themselves are called enzymes. The most important of these is a
substance which has already been mentioned, namely, diastas
Kjeldahl4 has isolated a ferment from germinated barley identical in
its action with -invertase, and therefore capable of convertng sucrose
into invert sugar.
It is quite probable, therefore, that the grains of all the cereals
contain these ferments of a proteid nature, less active in the nonger-
minated grain and developed to the highest activity during the proc-
ess of germination. It is also probable, as indicated by Brown and
Morris, that there may be slight differences in the character of these
ferments.
In the separation of enzymes or zymogen from vegetable material it
is customary to extract the fine-ground aterial with glycerol or
glycerol-water, and subsequently precipitate te extracted matter with
alcohol.. The ferment is then purified by repeated precipitations with
alcohol of its aqueous solution, and the salts which it contains are
thoroughly removed by dialysis. With the exception of diastase, the
unorganized ferments of the cereal grains have not been thoroughly
studied. Frankfurter5 isolated a ferment from wheat germs capableof
dissolving fibrin. This ferment, however, could not be obtained with-
out previous heating of the germ for two days to 400. This ferment,
therefore, does not exist in the free state in fres wheat germs which
have not been exposed to this temperature. Since, however, in this
country wheat is often exposed to a temperature approaching in
the fields, it is not improbable that it might be found in such wheats
without previous heating. The wheat evidently contains a zyiogen
which, under the action of heat, develops the ferment.
Berichte, vol. 19, p. 1180. *Bourquelot, Ls fere solubles, p.
VersucEhstat, vol. 47, p. 453. Versuchstat, vol. 47, p. 45.
Berichte, vol. 26, p. 2151.







DIASTASE.

Kirchoi in 1814, was the first to observe that germinated barley
taed a substance which was capable of hydrolyzing starch, but
Smistook it for gluten. The ferment itself was first isolated by Payen
and Persoz n 1833, and named diastase by them.
The word "enzyme" as a general characterization of soluble ferments
as proposed by Kiihne 3 in 1878.
Kjelda has found diastase in the nongerminated barley.
Brown and Morris recognize two kinds of diastase, viz, of secretion
ad displacement. The diastase which is produced by the vital activity
fgerminating grains is analogous to that of the secreted digestive
erm s, and hence belongs to the first-named class. The second class
Sdiastati ferments is much more largely distributed in the vegetable
kingdom, and it is found in nongerminated grains. The first kind of
diastase, when in contact with starch particles, corrodes them as if
echanically, and the starch granules which have beei subjected tir
Sshort time to their action have the appearance of having been
gnwed. The second kind of diastatic ferments acts more generally
Sthe starch granule without producing any mark of disaggregation
Scorrosion the starch ganule diminishing in volume little by little
ithout changing its form suddenly until complete solution takes
plae. This variety of diastase acts very slowly on the solid starch or
nthe starch paste, but rapidly converts soluble starch into sugar.
Osborne, who has made the most extensive study of the chemical
properties of diastase which has yet been published, thinks it prob-
able that this substance is a true proteid, or closely resembles it.
According to his view, it is either an albumin, a combination of an
albumin with a proteose, or a proteose. It is probable that it is most
closely related to the albumin which is known as leucosin.
COMPOSITION OF THE ASI, OF CE EALS.
Themineral matters of cereal grains are left after incineration in com-
bination with carbon dioxid and with phosphoric, sulphuric, hydro-
bcloric, and silicic acids. In the unburned grains the mineral matters
doubtless exist partly in combination with somc of the acids ,1named
aove, and also to a great extent as salts of the organic acids. On
ignition the compounds of the organic aids Irnd bases are reduced to
arbonates. All of the phosphorus, sulphur, and chloril which are
found in the inorganic state in the ash may not have existed as such

Memoirs read at the Academie of Sciences at St. 3etersturg, IlCe)ntZr 30, 114.
ourquelot, op. cit. supra, 12.
Ann.do chim et do phys. (2), vol. 13, p. 73.
Untersuchungen dr Phys. Inst. Heidelberg, 1878, p. 2f1l.
C. r.s dtrav diu lab.de ( Carlsberg, 187, p. 138.
1 J. Chem. Soc., Trans, 180, p. 505.
18th Report Conn. Agr. Exp. Station, p. 206.
1749 No. 13- 4





1210 FOODS AD OOD ADULTERA S.

in the original grains, but a portion of each of these is found in organic
combination; for instance a part of the phosphorusas
lecithin and neuclein, and a large part of the sulphur is found in om
bination with the proteid matter. The chorin exists mostly in the inor-
ganic state in combination with sodium, but nearly the whole of the
sulphric acid which is found in the ash is erived from the sulphur of
the proteids. A study of the composition of the a of the cereals
from the purely chemical side is not altogether satisfactory. The di-
culties attending the determination of the ash ingredients are very
considerable, and the fact that the final form in which they are obtained
is quite different from that in which they exist in he cereal grains,
diminishes to a great extent the value of the information which the
analytical data afford. In the data which follow the ash was burned
without the addition of any substance to help secure complete combus-
tion. The method recommended by the Association of Official Agricl-
tural Chemists was strictly followed; viz, the charring f the material
at a low temperature, the extraction of the ch with hot water to
remove the soluble ash therein, and the final combustion of the carbo-
naceous residue at as low a temperature as possible until a ash fairly
free of carbon was secured. While this method can be applied with a
fair degree of success to small quantities of cereal flours, and for the
purpose of determining simply the percentage of ash therein, the
attempt to apply it to considerable quantities for the purpose of secr-
ing an amount of ash necessary for the complete analysis is attened
with difficulties.
PRINCIPAL DIFFICULTIES IN PROCURING As,
The chief of these difficulties are the following:
In the first place, in the absence of any oxidizing material a part of
the sulphur may escape oxidation to sulphuric acid. The amount of
sulphates, therefore, contained in the ash is often much less than would
be expected from the total sulphur in the grains.
In the second place, the ash of cereals is apt to be excessively acid
on account of the large quantity of phosphoric acid which it contains.
As a result the acid phosphates rather than the neutral phosphates
predominate among the mineral salts. It is diffiult to burn finely
divided carbon in contact with acid phosphates without a reduction of
a portion of the phophous and a consequent loss thereof. For the
same reason the organic phosphorus is apt to escape oxidation, and a
portion of it may be lost as volatile compounds. If the teperature be
allowed to rise the least degree above the lowest redness a certain
amount of the reduced phosphorus combines with the platinum of th
dish in which the combustion takes place, and the result is the loss of
the dish.
In t theird place, the acid phosphates or free phosphoric acid, even
at very low temperatures, decompose any alkaline chlorids which may
be present, with the consequence that the chlorin of the ash may
escape. In several instances no chlorin was found, and yet it is not





THE ASH OF CEREALS. 1211

that any cereal grain exst without at least a trace of chlorin.
Sthe amount of chorin in any case is very small, and the error
wh wuld be introduced into the analysis by its loss is propor-
ligible, yet the existence of such a state of uncertainty is
ateng to the analyst.
In the fo h place, there is the great difficulty of burning a consid-
e q tity of cereal grins to secure an ash reasonably free of
At best the ashes are of a light-gray color, and in some
cases, wig to the excess of carbon, inclined to black. The applica-
t f sufficiently high temperature o secure complete oxidation
prduces serious changes in the composition of the ash, rendering
complete oxidation difficult, and the resulting ash unsatisfactory for
analytical purposes. It is only necessary for one to look at the data
in tables of ash analysis to show how wide are the variations for
almost every constituent found therein. It is believed that these vari-
ations are due chiefly to differences in composition, but to some extent
they may be attributed to faults of analysis and changes produced in
the mineral atters of the ash during incineration rather than to any
such wide variations in the natural constituents of the substance. In
arge numbers of analyses the mean data may represent very nearly
the average constitution of the ash, but in individual analyses the
variations may be quite pronounced.

DESCRiPTION OF SAMPLES OF ASH.
The samples of ash, the analyses of which are given in the following
tables, were obtained by the incineration of composite samlles of the
exhibited at the World's Columbian Exposition.
SWet.-Sample No. 16000 is the ash derived from 7 typical samples
ofCanadian wheat.
N. 1001 is the ash from 4 samples of wheat from the Argentine
Republic.
No. 1602, 1 sample of rye from Minnesota.
N. 16003, 16 samples of rye from different parts of the United

16004, 1 sample of rye from Brazil.
o. 15996, 28 samples of barley from the United State.
15995, 19 samples of barley from Canad.
No. 15998, 4 samples of oats from the United States.
No. 15997, 12 samples of oats fom Canada.
No. 15999, 1 sample of oats from Great Britain.
No. 16010, 18 samples of maize from the Uited tates.
o. 16011, samples of maize from the Argntine Rpublic.
o. 16012, 1 sample of maize from Bulgaia.
o. 16013, sample of maize from ew South Waes.
o. 16006, 1 sample of rice from Johore.
o. 1008, 2 saples of rice from Guatala.
No. 16009 1 sample of rice from Bulgara.







1212 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERNTS.

No. 16007, 6 samples of rice from Japan.
No. 16005, 8 samples of buckwheat fom the United
In each group, for the purpose of comparison, are givn the means of
the analyses of the ashes of that group as given i work on
ash analysis. In regard to the comparison between the data given an
those copied from Wolff's book attention should be called to the fact
that Wolff's analyses, from which the data were copied, were made
more than twenty-five years ago. Although the methods of examina-
tion have not been greatly changed in that time, yet t~ere has been a
sufficient modification of them to render of slightly le value the com-
parisons of late with old analyses.

Cereals: Composition of pure ash.

Serial Kind of grain. KI O. NaO. CaO. MgO. FeOa. PrOs SO,. Cl. SO,.
:No.


1nWEAT. Per ct. Percadt. Per.ct ..Per ct.. Pr .. Pe4t. P t9 Per3. P0 1 t.
16000 Canada .................... 24. 03 9.55 3.50 13.24 0.52 46.87 0.01 0.00 2.28
16001 Argentina ................ 14.06 2.04 5.73 16.88 0.57 58.38 0.02 0.00 2.32
Mean of Wolffs analyses-
Winter wheat ......... 31.16 2.25 3.34 11.97 1.31 46.98 0.37 0.22 2.11
Spring wheat.......... 29.99 1.93 2.93 12.09 0.51 48.63 1.52 0.48 1.64
RYE.
1602 Minnesota................. 27.60 4.64 5.56 11.73 5.23 41.81 0.52 0.58 2.45
16003 Other parts of United
States .................. 43.20 2.83 5.29 16.54 0.42 27.63 0.87 0.00 3 22
104 Brazil ..................... 25.18 4.67 6.04 10.05 2.19 34.20 1.84 0.00 17.30
Mean of Wolff' analyses.. 31.47 1.70 2.63 11.54 1.63 46.93 1.10 0.61 1.88
BARLEY.
15996 United States.............. 24.15 6.42 2.44 8.23 0.83 35.47 0.22 0.56 22.30
15995 Canada................... 26.76 9.36 4.27 7.87 0.35 24.63 0.71 0.47 20.69
Mean of Wolff's analyses.. 20.15 2.53 2.60 8.62 0.97 34.68 1.69 0.93 27.54
OATS.
15998 United States.............. 15.91 4.38 4.09 7.18 0.20 24.34 0.48 1.02 42.64
15997 Canada.................... 20.74 2.16 5.93 9.41 0.30 22.36 0.56 0.62 38.06
1599 G;reat Britain.............. 19.22 5.95 5.00 7.05 0.63 29.61 0.81 0.86 31.03
Mean of Wol~'s analyses.. 10. 38 2.24 3. 73 7.06 0.67 23.02 1.36 0.58 44.33
MAIZE.
16010 Unitd States .............. 33.92 7.72 3.18 17.99 0.50 35.2 0.44 0.00 1.00
16011 Argentina ................. 30.75 10.55 2.69 17.15 0.31 3.60 0.33 0.00 1. 5
1012 Bulgaria................... 27.61 3.34 3.90 17.10 0.37 45. 6 0.06 0.00 1.76
16013 New South Wales .............. 30.47 4.93 3.27 14.21 0.54 44.54 0.08 0.00 1.34
Mean of Wolff's analyses. 27.93 1.83 2.28 14. 8 1.26 4500 1.30 1.42 1.88
RICE.
16000 Unhtlld .................... 20.84 13.98 4.48 9. 60 0.89 43.21 0.24 0.0 6.14
16008 Polished Guatemala ...... 22.45 8.89 5.64 9.80 0.49 45.13 0.50 0.95 6.66
1600 Polished BIulgaria ........ 14.5 7.70 3.31 10.42 0.70 46.44 0.60 1.00 16.14
16007 enpollshd iJapiann ........ 25. 82 6.38 4.22 19.69 0.9 36.95 0.3 0.00 6.1
iMea of WolftX analyses,
shelled................... 21.73 5.50 3.29 11.20 1.23 53.68 0.2 0.10 2.74
BUCK WHEAT.
1005 Unitd Sat ............ .. 35.15 2.20 6.62 20. 5 1.68 24.09 3. 0.7 5 54
Mean of Wolffs analysp .. 23.07 6.12 4.42 12.42 1.74 48. 7 2.11 1.80 0.28






THE ASH OF CEREALS. 1213

MINERAL SUBSTANCES IN THE As AND THEIR RELATIONS.
The most important constituents of the ash of cereals from an agri-
cultural point of view are the potash and phosphoric acid. The most
i tnt onstituents from the nutrient or physiological point of
viware the lime, soda, and phosphoric acid. In regard to the other
tuents of the ash, namely, the magnesia, iron, sulphuric acid.
orin, and silica, it may be said that they play a less important
e in nutrition. Soda is more important from a physiological point
of ,nce it is well known that herbivorous animals consuming
large quantities of potash require more soda than is found in their
food. Common salt thus becomes a necessity in the nutrition of those
nimals, affording, according to some authorities, a means whereby the
excess of potash may be removed as chlorid. It is also seen that the
phosphoric acid is in far larger proportion than would be necessary to
unite with the lime present to form the tricalcium phosphate, of which
the mineral matter of bone is chiefly composed.
Mineral matters have quite a different rcle in the building of plant
tissues from that which they play in the building of animal tissues.
I general, it may be said that the plant assimilates the mineral mat
ters in the inorganic state and elaborates them in the form of organ-
ized bodies in which condition the mineral matters are chiefly valuable
in animal nutrition. From the standpoint of vegetable physiology,
therefore, the rle which mineral matters play is different from that
which they assume in the animal system.

THE PART OF MINERAL SUBSTANCES IN N'TRITION.

A few words in detail in regard to the rAles of some of the principal
mineral matters in plant and animal nutrition are necessary to a crrect
conception of the value of the mineral ingredients of foods.
Iron.-It has long been supposed by physiologists that the iron plays
an important part in vegetable growth in being an indispensable
component of the chlorophyl cells. Investigations in the last few
years, especially tse made by Molish,' show that iron is not a con-
stituent of the coloring matter of the chlorophyl cells. At present,
therefore, iron can not be regarded as an esential constituent of the
vegetable organism. The r6le which it plays as a mineral matter in
general will be mentioned further on.
Lime.-Lime is undoubtedly an important element of plant growth.
Water cultures of plants show that in the absence of lime tlh full
development of the plant cn not be secured. Its universal presence
in plants in large quantities can not he regarded as merely accidental.
Is chief rle in vegetable growth is doubtless to wot as a neutralizing
agent for the organic acids which are prod d, especially as deriva
tives of the carohydrates. Oxalic acid is extremely oisonous to the
Die Pflanz in ihre ziehungLuen aum Eisen, Jena, 12.






1214 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

plant, and as thiis one of the acids which is de op i the
dation of carbohydrates, its presence would greatly hinder or even
prevent the growth of the plant unless some substance were present
to neutralize it. Calcium is one of the best of these substances, since
it forms with the oxalic id a practilly insoluble compound render
ing the acid harmless. Lime doubtless has other functions, but this
may be regarded as one of its chief.
Magneia.-The constant association of lime and agnesia in plants
is an evidence of the fact that magnesia is also an important con-
stitnent of plant substances. Manesia is doubtless associated with
phosphorus and lime in favoring the formation of protein in the plant
tissues. It is found especially in large quantities in the grains of
plants where the proteid is largely accumulated.
Potash.-This, among the mineral substances, is the most important
constituent of plant tissue, with the possible exception of phosphorus.
As phosphorus seems to be associated especially with the formation of
protein, so potash is found to be associated with the production of car-
bohydrates. It is especially active in the production of the soluble
carbohydrates like sucrose. In those plants which produce sucrose in
large quantities, such as the sugar beet, potash plays a most important
function. It is probable that its activity in the formation of carbo-
hydrates is not the sole function of potassium in plant growth, but its
less important functions have not been carefully made out.
Sulphur.-Sulphur is indispensable in the formation of protein, and
it is therefore essential to the metabolic processes of the plant cells
whereby inorganic carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, and sulpur
are built up into the complex forms assumed by the vegetable proteids.
Silica.-It is frequently stated that silica has an important function
in serving to give solidity and strength to plant tissues. This is cer-
tainly a mistake. It is impossible to say, with our present knowledge,
whether or not silica has an important function in plant growth, or
whether its occurrence in plants is an accident due to the fact that the
plants grow in a medium containing very abundant quantiies of this
substance. The metabolic processes which render the silica of the soil
soluble and secure its transportation through the plant are not well
understood.
Soda.-Soda and potash are so intimately related hemically that it
is not strange to find them associated in the mineral constituents of
plants. Some high authorities are of the opinion that sod may to
some extent take the place of potash in the growthof plants, ut this
idea has not received suficient corroboration experimentayto warrant
its adoption. Soda doubtless has some use in satisfying the hunger of
plants for mineral substances in general but that it plays any specific
rhle in vegetable physiology, or that it can replace potash as an en-
tial element of plant food has not been demonstrated
Nitron.-Nitrogen forms, with otash nd phosors the trio of






THE ASH OF CEREALS. 1215

gnic substances which are regarded as those most essential to
plnt go It is now the generally accepted opinion that nitrogen
ente the plant only in the inorganic state, and from this condition is
elad into the complex organic forms in which it is found in the
maturel There is, however, some experimental evidence, quite
wehty in its character, going to show that nitrogen may be used by
t in a partially organic state as amid nitrogen, or at least in a
ily oxidized state, as ammonia or ammonia salts. It is undoubt-
edly true, however, that almost the whole of the nitrogen which is
lby plants in their tissues is fed to them in the form of nitric
dThe nitrogen of plants is found almost exclusively as protein,
onstituting the plant proteids. Only small quantities of nitrogen are
found in the amid or ammoniacal or nitric forms in mature plants.
Posphoru.-Phosphoric acid is perhaps the most valuable of all the
mneral foods of plants. Phosphorus is absorbed almost exclusively
in the form of phosphoric acid or phosphates, mostly calcium phos-
phate. In the processes of.plant activity the phosphorus is separated
largely from the calcium phosphate, and is found in the perfected
ornism of the plant, chiefly in combination with potassium, as far as
its mineral form is concerned. A large quantity of the phosphorus,
however, ses into the organic form, chiefly lecithin, in which state
it is a highly important and essential constituent of many parts of the
plant, d especially of the seeds. It is believed that this organic
phosorus plays an important role in animal nutrition.
It certain that phosphorus plays a highly important r6le in the
vital organism aside from its usefulness in the building of bones.
With nitrogen it shares the distinction of being an essential of funda-
mental cell activity. This is true not only of the vegetable, but of the
animal organism. Phosphorus is quite as indispensable as water or
air to vegetable or animal life. The primordial cell in which the ehem-
ical changes which condition animal and vegetable metabolism take
p lves and exercises its function only in the presence of phosphorus,
whether that phosphorus be esented to it in the organic or inorganic
form. With most of the vegetable cells inorganic phosphorus seeis to
be entirely sufficient for forming organic compounds, of which lecithin
is the most important, while with the animal cells it is probable that
the phosphorus is best utilized in the organic state. In vegetable cells
phosphorus is the indispensable element upon whose activity the trans-
formation of inorganic into organic nitrogen depends. Whenever the
p dial cells are placed in an environment entirely free of phos-
us, although all the other conditions of their growth are supplie,
ty r e to multiply, and soon die of inanition. The nerve tissues
of the animal body, including the brain, contain also large quantities
of psphorus, and, as in the case of the bones, it is an esential con-
t thereof. The brain contains albut 05 per cent of phosphorus
t tissues of the body contain less than this, as, for instance, the






1216 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

skin, which contains only 0.15 per cent, while, sa to
tissues whose functions are so nearly allied to th f the bone
namely, the tendons, contain the least phosphorus of any of the
tissues. There are some plants, notably those of a leguminous na
which have the property of oxidizing amospheric nitrogen and thu
furnishing the nitrogenous vital principle which is necessary to thei
growth, even if it be absent in the soil. Phosphorus, not existing
the gaseous form, must be supplied to plant growth in he soil itself
It therefore may be said to be the essential vital element on which
vegetable growth is conditioned. In nutrition the re of phospho
is intimately associated with that of the proteids. By oxidation of the
proteid matter in the system it is changed into other forms of nitrog
enous matter. Its destruction, as evidenced by the formation of ure
and its incorporation in other tissues, as, for instance, the muscular
tissues of the body, take place in intimate union with the phosphorus
in the vital cells.
Physiological chemistry shows that the growing and active cells are
those which use the larger quantities of phosphorus. It is known that
the blood which leaves the more energetic organs of the body, such,
for instance, as the liver, is more completely exhausted of its phosphorus
than the blood which leaves the capillaries, where the cell activity is
less vigorous. This fact shows that the maximum cell activity of the
vital organs is associated with the largest consumption of phosphorus.
It is quite certain, therefore, that every rational system of nutrition
will pay special attention to the proper supply of phosphorus. For-
tunately, as has before been intimated, nature has placed a more than
abundant supply of phosphorus in the cereal grains; o that it is pos-
sible in the process of milling to remove a certain portion, perhaps the
greater portion, of the phosphorus and still leave a sufficient quantity
to supply abundantly the ordinary needs of the mature body. In the
case of children, however, where the demand for phosphorus is re
atively greater than with grown persons, great care should be exercised
not to supply them with a food in which the content of posphorus has
been reduced to too low a degree. For this reason bread ade of the
whole cereal grain is doubtless to be preferred for the nutrition of chil-
dren to the fine flour breads of commerce. In the proportion that
bread is the chief constituent of food, just in that proportion should
attention be paid to the content of phosphorus in the ash for the pur-
pose of avoiding a depreciation of its nutritive qualities to an extent
which would render it insuflicient to the proper nourishment not only
of the bones and the tissues of the body requiring phosphorus, but of
the primordial cells whose functional activity would be diminished or
destroyed by withholding a sufficient amount of phosphatic food.
EXCESS OF MINERAL MATTERS.
It is evident, however, that a large part of the minera constituents
of cereals is not required for the nourishment of the body. Feedin






THE ASH OF CEREALS. 1217

ts have confirmed this theoretical view, and the ash of food
has the lowest coefficient of digestion of any constituent
with the possible exception of cellulose. It must not be
this, however, that the presence of these bodies in cereals
Sp titious. The fact that the bodies mentioned in the
Sare constantly found in cereal products is sufficient indication
t ty naturaly belong there. Although they may not directly
uh the body and are, after ingestion with the food, voided largely
waste products, yet they evidently have a function which is of great
im r ce. Their presence gives to the food a relish and flavor which
twould not otherwise have, and hence makes it more appetizing and
ble. In other words, they doubtless serve to a limited extent-
e purpose as ordinary condiments. If it were possible to
at from cereal foods all their mineral constituents without alter-
g the nature of the other ingredients, it would doubtless be found
Sthe pleasant flavor of the food would be greatly diminished. In
g and reducing to merchantable flour a considerable portion, as
more than half, of the mineral ingredients is removed in the
products of the meal. Enough is left, however, not only to sup-
the need of the body for mineral constituents, but also for the con-
mentary purposes mentioned above.
MINERAL HINGER.

A ther important function of the mineral ingredients of plants
m the point of vew of vegetable physiology is manifested in the
Sthat a certain bulk quantity of mineral matter is essential to the
roduction organic matter. In general this quantity is not less than
2 per cent of the entire weight of the plant. All kinds of mineral
matt found in plants help to satisfy this mineral hunger.
Relation of soda and potash.-It has been claimed by some that soda
and potash are complementary in the composition of vegetable mate-
als. A study of the dat of the analyses of the ash of cereals affords
o reason for believing such atheory to be true. The content of potash
in the ash of the cereals is reasonably constant, but the content of
odaapparently depends on local conditions, arising doubtless from
the different quantities of common salt and other sodium comnpounds
pr t in the soil. There is no observed regularity in the relations
isting between the soda and the potash in the ash of cereals. some-
s a high content of soda is associated with a high content of
and vice versa. The geat variation in the contet of soda
revealed by an inspection of the table on page 1212. As has been
previously stated, herbivorous animals require more soda than is nor-
contained i their ood.
The ash of wheats.-In all cases in the preeding tale the data given
are calated for the pure ash. By the term pure ash is eant in each
ase the crude ash as obtained on combustion free of carbon dioxid,






1218 FOODS AND FOOD ADUL

carbon, and sand. In the ash of wheats we have
tent of phosphoric acid. In the samples of the of
the content of phosphoric acid is nearly 47 per t, while
of the analyses given by Wolff for spring wheat is n 7
and for winter wheat a little over 48 per cent. A
tion in tile composition of the ash of wheats is shown in the sample from
Argentina, where the potash was remarkably low and the phosphoric
acid remarkably high. An ash of such a compos n as this would be
remarkably acid in its properties. In respect to potash the data are
also quite uniform, with the exception of the sample from Argentina,
which apparently is abnormal in its ash constituents
In lime are found considerable variations. a a isp t in
the ash of wheat in about four times as great an amount as lime.
Magnesia is not regarded as an essential fertiizing material, but it is
in one sense a nutrient. Its presence in such constantly large quanti-
ties can not be regarded as a mere incident of environment. It is
probable, therefore, that its value as a plant constituent has been under-
estimated, and that it acts in plant growth in much the same manner
as lime itself.
The low content of sulphuric acid in the samples from Canada and
Argentina doubtless arose from a loss of the sulphur during ignition.
The ash of rye.-The content of phosphoric acid in the ash of rye is
somewhat less than in that of wheat. In no case does the content of
phosphoric acid in the rye ashes analyzed in this division reach the
mean given by Koenig. In respect of phosphoric acid it is seen that
the ash in the samples from Minnesota and from Brazil is belo Wols
mean, while the ash from other parts of the United States shows a
content of potash considerably greater than that mean. Lime in our
analyses is higher than in wheat, and magnesia about the same.
The ash of barley.-On account of the barley being ground with the
hulls a marked contrast in the constitution of the ash with that of wheat
and rye is observed, namely, in the increase in the percentage of silica.
This increase naturally would diminish the percentage of the other con-
stituents, and both the phosphoric acid and the potash suffer a severe
decline as compared with the two preceding classes. The lime and the
magnesia are also less in quantity.
The ash o oa ts.-The oats examined were also ground with the hulls,
and thus show a heavy percentage of silica in the ash, and a corre.
sponding depression in the content of phosphori acid, potash, and
other mineral constituents, although in the case of lime the quantity is
almost the samie as that in the ashes of wheat and rye.
The ash of maize.-There are several important points to be onidered
in a study of the data pertaiing to the maize ash. In the first lace
it is seen that this ash is almost entirely fr of silica. Ofall thecereals
maize ash has the lest poportion of silica. The content of p ph
acid and of potash is ractically the same a that in t. on






PREPARATION OF CEREALS FOR FOOD. 1219

is less than that of wheat, and the content of magnesia
r r is a greater disproportion between the content of lime
Sea in the ash of maize than in that of any other of the
e .The dficiency of silica in the ash of maize appears to be sup-
pl by te magnesia and not by the lime.
Sof rice.-The ash of rice is in sharp contrast with that of
aize nt of its content of silica. Even the polished rices have
ehigh content of silica, which gives rise to the suspicion that the
hing may be done with a quartz powder or some similar material
h remains to some extent adherent to the rice grains. The content
fphosphoric acid and potash ini the ash of rice is not greatly different
t of other standard cereals.
The ash of bukwheat.-There is a marked discrepancy between the
lytical data obtained in this division and those given by Wolff,
ially in the content of silica and phosphoric acid. The two sets
data are not comparable. This may have arisen from differences in
the analytical methods, or from actual difference in the constitution of
he samples examined.


PREPARATION OF CEREALS FOR FOOD.

GRINDING OF CEREAIS.

Beousing the cereals for food they are, as a rule, reducel to a tine
der called flour or meal. In co on language the ter mel is
ly applied to the coarser ground or unholted mill products of
lwhile the term flour is reserved for the fine-ground, bolted prod-
he operation of grinding may vary from the simple prcess of
hing the material to a fine powder, forming a single prlouct, to the
borate processes of modern milling, in which a cereal, for example
is separated into a large number of prducts of different phys-
cal properties and varying chemical composition. The simplest form
milling is that process by which the cereal as a whole is reduced to a
ine powder.
THE MILLING OF WHIIEAT.

Until within 25 years wheat was ground chiefly between stones and
he resulting product was passed through bolting cloths of difterent
egr of fineness, by which the ground matrial was separated into
or three grades, the outer cvering of the cer forming the bra
and the interior portions being separated into flour, shorts, and
gI.
TUE HRoLLEr Puto'rufc4.

e ntrodction of the roller pro ss of milling has prmitted a more
separation of the differet par of the wheat and the practi-
alentire separation of the bran an(d germ from the starchy products






1220 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

ofthe grain. The starchy portions, moreover are into
of different degrees of nutritive vue and diffe t properties for
baking purposes. Of all the cereals wheat is the one which is
jected to the most elaborate processes of milling. In the case of Idia
corn, rye, oats, buckwheat, and other cereals, the milling p
are not so elaborate and the kinds of materials produced much less
numerous than in the case of wheat. In the igh-grade modern milling
of wheat the whole number of products which are formed from the
time the wheat enters the mill until the finished products are offered
for sale is from 80 to 100. Of course it is understood that these prod-
ucts are not all placed upon the market for sale, but they are prod-
ucts from which succeeding products are made. An interesting study
of the modern milling process was made some years ago in this Divi-
sion, under the supervision of Mr. Clifford Richardson, and the various
products of roller milling of wheat were subjected to separate chemical
examinations. Inasmuch as the bulletin containing this information
is entirely out of print it is advisable to reproduce the data relating to
the milling products. Preliminary to a description of the several prod-
ucts a general description of the process of roller milling is desirable.
STRUCTURE OF WHEAT GRAIN.
An examination of the structure of the grain will enable us to
understand the difficulties to be met in the chemical examination and
milling, and the way in which the different products which have been
analyzed are obtained.
If a blade of wheat were much thickened and the two halves folded
back upon themselves a transverse section of it would represent a
similar section of the grain-that is to say, the two lobes would meet,
forming what is known in the grain as the crease, within which would
be inclosed and hidden a portion of the outer covering. This exllains
how difficult it is in preparing the wheat for milling to remove all the
foreign matter which this crease contains. On the exterior of the grain
there is found toward one end a collection of hairs, and at the other
enl appears the embryo, or germ. A longitudinal section shows both
of these undesirable additions to the floury matter of the grain. Aside
from its exterior appearance the wheat grain is essentially an embryo,
composed of the germ, together with a supply of food, and the endo-
sperm, or floury matter, surrounded by several membranes or coats of
greaterr o less importance. On the exterior is the first membrane or
cuticle, a very thin coating, easily removed by rubbing. ext Tollows
a more important, because thicker, poron of the oter covering, con-
sisting of two layers of cellular tissue, the epicarp and endocarp.
These three membranes together form the outer covering of the grain,
and from one of them,h te epiarp, spring the hairs which are found
on one end. These envelopes are colorless and very light, constitut-
ing only from 3 to 3- per cent of the whole and are more or less eily





REARATION OF CEREALS FOR FOOD. 1221

by friction. From an examination of a section of the grain
i ie that within the crease this removal is of course impossible;
Swile the preparation of the wheat for milling may remove the
and much of the cuticle and dirt it can not completely free it
rom them. It is this inherent difficulty that the roller mills attempt
overcome by splitting the grain along the crease and afterwards
a g it with brushes.
Under these outer coverings are three membranes, known as the
ta or episperm, the tegmen, and the embryous envelope. The testa
a compat structure, and carries the coloring matter of the bran.
Stegmen is an extremely thin membrane not easily seei except
here it becomes thickened just under the testa in the heart of the
re It is not of importance from a milling point of view. The
ta and tegmen form about 2 per cent of the grain.
The embryous membrane is a continuation of the embryo around the
dosperm or floury portion of the grain. It is composed of cells
ich are often erroneously termed gluten cells, but the true gluten
s are scattered through the endosperm. The cells of the embryous
mbrane contain little or no gluten, and as they are a continuation
Sthe embryo it must be nearly as undesirable to allow them in the
shed flour as to allow the germ itself.
The endosperm is by far the largest portion of the grain, and it is
t part which it is the object of all milling processes to separat from
rest of the wheat and grind to flour.
It consists of large cells containing the granules of starch and the
ten. At the exterior, nearer the embryous membrane, it is much
rer than in the center and contains much more gluten. In all
hods of gradual reduction, therefore, the center is of course reduced
i and, being very starchy, is only fit for a low-grade flour, while
richest part of the endosperm, being harder and closely attached
the tough bran coats, is to a certain extent lost, or so mixed with
l pieces of the bran as to injure the color of the flour, filrnishing
hat is known as bakers' grades.

CHANGE IN MILLING I'OJCES$~.

By the old-fashioned low-milling process, or grinding between stones
laced very close together and afterwards bolting the p)rodluct, it was
ible to obtain a flour entirely free from detrioration. The ad-
Stoigh milling with stones far apart, allowing the iddlings
were produced to be purified before grinding to flour, was a step
hmade it possible to make from winter wheat an excellent and
flour. When, however, spring wheat withts hard I md brittle
coats becam important comercially, it was necessary to r rt
Sthe roller methods of milling, which, in conjunction with peculiar puri-
inmachinery, furnishes a fl a aour free from all undesirable impurities.





1222 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT MILL PRODUCTS OF WH
1. heat as it eters the mill.-The whole wheat
cockle, oats, and other foreign seed, as it comes from the
2. Wheat prepared fr the rolls.-The foreign seeds have reved,
with the exception of a few grains of cockle and The is
therefore to be found in subsequent parts of the prThe hairs
have heen largely rubbed off, together with portions of the cuticle.
Some hairs are, however, still left, and portionsf thecuticle remain
attached and semidetached, especially towardthe The
as a whole presents a changed and much cleaner appearance.
3. Cockle and screeings.-Among the impurities there are found
principally cockle, a species of polygonum, and oats, together with
broken pieces of wheat, dirt, chaff, etc.
4. Scourings removed by cleaners.-These consist almost entirely of
cuticle and hairs, but portions of epicarp with the hairs still adherent
and of endocarp are present. Treatment with iodine reveals a sma
amount of endosperm or starch, and shows that the inner part of the
outer coats of the grain are the most highly nitrogenous. The contrast
between the embryous membrane and endocarp and the epicarp and
cuticle is prominent. The embryous membrane is recognized by its
roundish cells; the endocarp by its transverse cells, twice as long as
broad and packed closely and regularly, like cigars, which has given it
the name of cigar coat; and the epicarp by its very long and
cells arranged longitudinally, the cuticle being of a similar sort.
8. First break.-The grain is split along the crease normally into two
halves, but also frequently into fours, or even more irregularly. The
glistening, hard, floury endosperm makes its appearance for the first
time. Comparatively little flour or dust is made.
6. Chop from first break.-This consists principally of endosperm, but
small portions of bran and germ are present, the former including the
various outer coats.
7. Necond break.-In this break the greater part of the endosperm is
separated from the bran and is seen as large, well-shaped middlings,
together, of course, with some small stuff and dust.
8. Chopfrom second break.--.Thi is chiely endosperm, with somewhat
less bran than the previous chop. Whole chops and rt are numer
ous. The endosperm is of all sizes, but the reater portion is of large
angular framents. The bran includes portions of all the outer cover-
ings, while dusty matter and starch grains are quite abundant.
9. Thid break.- The endosperm is so copletely separated in this
break that it only remains in scattered patches upon the bran, and the
ebryous membrane is quite visible.
10. Chopfrom third break.-The middlings or particles of endosperm
are much finer, and there is ore dust Small portions of germ are
plentiful. The branny particles are similar in nature to those in the

enous kind.
's l^313





THE MILL PRODUCTS OF WHEAT. 1223

-1 urt break-Only to be distinguishe from No. 9 by th3 slightly
cleaner bran.
12. Cpfromfourth break.-Not very different in appearance from
ept that it is composed of more finely divided particles.
13. Fih bak.-Still cleaner bran than 11. It still holds a very
ble portion of endosperm.
14. Chopfrom ifth break.-This chop contains a great deal of branny
t, including pieces of epicarp, endocarp, and embryous membrane.
Sendsperm is very fine and much mixed with germ. Of course in
these products portions of the testa and tegmen are present, but
y are not easily seen except in careful preparations.
15 ixth break.-Barely distinguishable from bran.
16. opfrom sixth break.-Very largely made up of small pieces of
nny material and germs. The endosperm which is present is very

17. Bran.-This is composed practically of epicarp, endocarp, and
mbryous membrane, the cells of the latter having been very little
irbed. There is still a little cuticle and endosperm left, but they
ae mostly disappeared in previous operations.
18. Short-These are made up of all the different parts of the grain
nrather a finely ground condition, some of the branny particles having
edosperm still adherent to them.
19. Middlng, uncleaned, No. 1.-These are the largest sized middlings,
d consist of themselves in clean, angular fragments of endosperm,
t they are mixed with considerable shorts and many whole and
oken germs. They are the most impure of the five, and an analysis
will show this fact.
20. Middlings, ucleaned, No. 2.-All the particles are finer than in
heprevious middlings and less germ and bran is ) resent, which will
uce a corresponding cange in their chemical composition.
21. iddling, uleaned, No. 3.-Still finer than No. 2 and less bran
and germ.
22. Middling, ucleaned, No. 4.-Finer than No. : alid less bran and

2. iiddlings, uncleaned, No. 5.-The tiiest of all the middlings, with
t no bran and ger. The effect of cleaning will be small.
4. Middlings, cleaned, No. ,-Many of the lighter particles of bran
ved, but there is much remaining, as well as of the germ.
25. idling, clened, No. 2,-The bran is to a large degree removed
cleaning these middlings, but the germ, of course, remains.
Siddligs, cleaed, No. -The bran is alost all gone.
Siddling, clened, No. 4.-These iddlingsare prwtially quite
and pure endosperim-i nly here and there a particle of bran or

iddlings, cleacd, No, 5.-Quite clean and very small in size.
29. First middl ing, reduction on smooth rlls.-The germ is flattened
S endoser reduced in size.






1224 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

30. hopfrofirst reductin of midlings.-This sample to
be misplaced, as it contains much bran and germ.
31. econd idlings, reduction on sooth ro.-A ample of this
reduction was not furnished.
32. Chop from second reduction of middlings.-Tis chop contains a
few particles of bran and germ.
33. Third middlings, reduction on smooth rolls.-The germ is proi-
nent in its flattened condition.
34. Chop from third reduction of middlings.-The bran and germ have
been almost entirely removed.
35. Fourth middlings, reduction on smooth rolls.-Like the middlings
themselves, merely reduced in size.
36. Chop from fourth reduction ofmiddlings.-Hre and there a small
particle of bran is seen.
37. Fifth middlings, reduction on smooth rolls.-Resembles, of course,
the middlings cleaned, No. 5.
38. Chop from fifth reduction of middlings.-This is nt as white as
the chop from the fourth reduction, as it contains bran and erm in
small quantities
39. Flour from the first reduction.-The grains of endosperm are clean
and sharp.
40. Flour from the second reduction.-The grains are not as sharp as
those from the first reduction.
41. Flour from the third reduction.-Very much like the flour from
the second reduction, but perhaps a little lumpier.
42. Flour from the fourth reduction.-More coherent and yellower
than previous flours.
43. Flour from the fifth reduction.-There is no specimen of this flour.
44. Tailings fromn middlings, purifier No. 1.-These tailings are coarse.
They contain much bran, mixed with germ, and a considerable amount
of large middlings.
45. Tailings from middlings, purifier Nos. 2,3, and 4.-Much finer than
the previous tailings and freer from germ and endosper.
46. Tailings from middlings, purifier No. 6.-Largely composed of fine
endosperm, mixed with bran and germ.
47. Tailings from the first reduction.-These are made up of about
equal parts of line endosperm, and of bran and germ.
48. Tailingsfroin the seond reduction.-These are finer than the first
tailings, and contain more germ. There are also present pieces of
endospern, flattened like the germ.
49. Tailings from third reduction.--Still finer, with much flattened
edlosperm, and less grain and bran.
50. Tilingfrom fourth reduction.-Very finely divided and flattened
endosperm, with only about 10 per cent of bran and ger. This should
be very evident in the analysis.
51. Tailings from fifth reduction.-Coarser than the fourth tailings,
and like the third in qualty.






THE MILL PRODUCTS OF WHEAT. 1225

SRepuriied iddlin as.-Corse pieces of endosperm, with mluclh
ran and germ.
Ba 'flour.-Slightly yellow in color. The grains lack distinct-
e making the flour lumpy.
57. 'atentour.-A clear white grain.
8. Low-grade flour.-The grain is soft and the flour dark and lumpy.
rticles of bran and germ are prominent.
59. Breakflour.-Physically like the bakers' grade in appearance, but
rtl of bran and germ are present, making it of less value.
0. one flour.-This flour is white, of a Ihir grain, with a very little

62. Flour from first tailings.-A very good, flee grain, but a little
ranny.
63. Flour from third tailinUs.-A free grain, but quite branny and
ellow.
64. Flour jrom second tailinys.--This Iour resembles that from the
rt tailings, but contains more bran andL is yellower.
70. First germ.-This is made up of the finest plar-ticles (f germ and
ta.ins the largest proportion of mIiddlilgs and bran.
S71. econd yerm.-The largest particles of germ, with little bran aln
dosperm.
72. Third gcrm.-A inedium between the two former.
i74. Bran-duster flour.-This is black in color, and llumpy. It has
tle grain and a small portion of bran.
77. Stoe atock No. 2.-A good middling, with a it tle bran and erm.
78. Stone stock No. 3,.-This is not as good as No. 2, a nd holds more
an and germ.
83. Tailins frot sixth breakl.-This is made up of about half barley-
haed and flattened pieces of endosperm, tlh rest eing bran. witl a
ttle germ.
84. Taiings from first entrifuqgal ree.-Largely flattened endospermn ;
e rest germ, with a little bran.
85. Tdtili from secound centrifulgl rel.-TIhese are largely lra- and
attened eidosperm with a little germ.
8. Til end of the tailings.-As would be expected, almost entirely
rn, with a little adherent endosperim andi a small amnunt of Icrm.
heembryous miembrane isstll in place; in act during the whol pr'e-
Sthere is very little of it remnoved frolm the braIn, and were it t he
rehief eofr glusten there wouhld be very little in any of tlhe tproim ts.
his however, is not the case. It coutaus little (r no gluten, being
rea continuation of the germ and having a simillar c'IpitWion.
87. Dstfrom No. 1 milddlings.-This is mostly cuticle, elicarp, and
ir, With smaller amounits of the more interior parts of the grain.
88. Dust from the dust-atchcr.-This s all light, luf0 y mattier. ad is
Sup of small particles from all parts of the g ait.
17498--No. 13--5







1226 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

Analyse. of the products of roller mif.in; .

P.atio Gluten.
of
SEther Carbo- Pro- Phos- nitro-
Mois- 8Nit
me. Mo s- Ah. ex- hy- Fibr. teids. n phor gen to
tur1t. tract. drates. NX6.25. g acid. phos- Moist Dry.
phoric
acid.

1 Whet t L te P. ct. P. ct. P.ct. P. ct. P. ct. P P. .... &. P. Ct. P. t t. et. ct.
the mill......... 9.66 1.91 2.61 69.94 1.70 14.18 2.27 0.82 2.77 -otdeter.
2 Wheat preWpared
for the rolls.... 9.07 1.79 2.74 70.37 1.68 14.35 2.30 0.82 2.80 32.31 11.88
3 Cockle and screein-
ing-s ............ 9.03 2.65 4.32 66.12 4.23 13.65 2.18 0.78 2.8 Not dter.
4 Scourings removed I 2 I I
by cleaners ..... 9. 27 3.68 | 3.73 70.19 1.58 11.55 1.85 0.76 2.43 Not deter.
5 First break ....... 8.23 1.73 2.68 71.56 1.62 14.18 2.27 0.91 2.49 3192 11.
6 Chop from firs t
break .......... 12.52 0.88 2.08 70.44 1.13 12.95 2.07 0.46 4. 34.10 12.27
7 vond break ..... 8.37 2.04 2.47 71.47 1.65 14.00 2.24 0.98 2.29 3278 11.80
8 Chop from secondi
break........... 12.78 0.57 1.68 71.82 0.55 12.60 2.04 0.34 5.94 36.88 12.56
9 Third break ...... 9.92 2.55 5. 25 65.10 2. 13 15.05 2.41 1.33 1.81 32. 104
10 Clhop fIrom third 1.
Irwak............ 12.70 0.78 1.86 71.10 0.78 12.78 2.04 0.42 4.86 37.19 13.00
11 Fourth reak ..... 8.18 3.30 4.09 66.20 3.00 15.23 2. .4444 1.07 27.88 10.54
12 (Clhol from fourth i
break........... 12.35 1.47 2.87 67.90 1.23 14.18 2.27 0.75 5.05 30.52 11 64
13 Filth break.... .. 7.62 5.16 4.91 61.76 4.80 15.75 2.52 2.58 0.98 Not deter.
14 ('hop from fifth
break.......... 11.91 1.99 4.1C 64.46 1.73 15.75 2.52 1.01 2.49 27.97 11.82
15 Sixth break ....... 7.66 5.68 5.34 59.42 5.60 16.28 2.60 2.95 0.81 Not deter.
16 Chop froml sixth
break........... 11.84 3.29 4.92 59.09 3.18 17.68 2.83 1.66 1.70 24.04 10.69
17 Il .............. 10. 1 5.59 5.03 56.21 5.98 16.28 2.60 2.78 0.94 Not deter.
18 Shorts............. 10.94 3.41 4.67 60.28 3.9 0 16.J0 2.69 1.62 1.66 ( Notdeter.
M iddlings un-
cleaund:
S No.1......... 12.71 1.27 2.73 68.78 1.03 13.48 2.16 0.64 3.39 2.68 1057
21) No.......... 12.18 1.01 2.16 70.49 0.83 13.30 ,.13[ 0.54 3.94 32.99 11.49
21 N.3 ........ 12.27 0.70 1. 80 71.52 0.58 13.13 2.10 0.36 5.83 .552 12.21
22 No. 4.......... 12.47 0.68 1.75 70.69 0.58 13.83 2.21 0.40 5.52
; No.5........... 12.34 0. 1 1.75 70.24 0.53 14.53 2.32 0.33 703 43.82 14.
M1id dligs clieanied; :
S No. 1.......... 12. 67 1.07 2.12 70. 16 0.85 1 13 2. 10 0. 5 3. 56 4.03 11.
K No.2......... 9.93 0.63 1.900 74.09 0.65 12.78 2.01 0.33 6.18 Not deter.
.*' No. ......... 12.36 0.59 1.70 71.67 0.55 13.13 2.10 0.24 8.75 44.43 14.9
27 No.4......... 12.51 0.52 1.77 7157 0.33 13.30 2.13 0.29 7.31 51.93 17.K8
S No. 5....... 12.:15 o. 51 1.62 70.74 0.43 11.35 2.30 0.23 10.00 46.15 14.87
M liddlliug, ridlu I tlion ti lnioolh I
roull:
23 First iiddlaing 12.04 0.82 2.56 70.80 0.58 12.0 2.02 0. 4 4.30 31.0 11.57
30 Ihp f ro lin
I r Im in id1
ling ..... 12.74 0.73 1.0 71.72 08 12.25 1.96 0.40 4.0 32.16 10.91
32 I i'hop fromani'
omtlunliddling 12. 4 0.57 1.68 71.24 0.38 13.65 2.18 0.34 .41 41..36 1
icontld middiling not sant.







THE MILL PRODUCTS OF WHEAT. 1227

Analgyse of theproducts of roller milling-Continued.

SRatio Glten.
of
Ether Carbo- Pro- Phoa- nitro-
Nae oi Ash. ex- by- Fiber. teids. Nitro.ploric gen to
tre. tract. drates. N 6.25. gen. acid. pl1pho Moist. Dry.
) 1 r 1c|
pholric


Middlings, reduc-
tion on smooth
iroll-Cont'd.
33 Third mid- 'P.c. IP.C. PP.ct. P. et. P. .t. P. t. P.c. '.P.et. PP.ct. P.ct. P. ct.
dling ....... 12.29 0. 1 1.86 71.91 0.55 12.78 2.04 0.34 6. 00 36.70 11.81
34 Chop from
third mid-
dling ....... 12.73 0. 79 2.01 71.29 0.58 12.60 2.02 0.43 4.70 34.58 11.68
35 Fourth mi d-
dlig ....... 11.43 0.56 1.86 73.12 0.43 12.60 2.02 34 5.94 37. 00 12.23
36 Chop from
fourth mid-
dlig ....... 11.72 0.50 1.76 72.56 0.33 13.13 2.10 0.27 ., 7 42.6i 12.;2
37 Fifth middling 12.21 0.65 2.08 71.85 0.43 12.78 2.04 0.40 5.10 36.25 11.97
38 Chop from
fifth mid-
dling ....... 11.47 0.56 2.03 72.66 0.50 12.78 2.04 0 37 5.57 40.84 13.11
Flour from rnuc-
tiou of miid-
dlings:
30 No. 1 ........ 12.03 0.39 1.58 73.70 0.25 12.05 1.93 0.24 8.04 31.51 0. 17
40 NNo. 2 ..... 12.42 0.44 1.66 72.55 0.:33 12.60 2.02 0.24 8 42 37.04 12 07
41 3No.3....... 11.54 0.38 1.36 75.24 0.28 11.20 1.79 0. 19 .42 32.54 10.99
42 o.4 ......... 11.58 0. 0 1.42 72.92 0.38 13. 30 2.13 0. 20 10.65 37.I 12.52
STaiilings from mid
dlings purifiers:
44 No. 1.......... 12.33 3.30 4.96 i 0. 6 3. 25 16. 10 2.55 1.61 1.60 Not th tr.r
45 Nos.2,3 andl4 11.59 3.09 3. 92 Not deter. 14.53 2.:12 1.39 1.67 12.28 7.62
4 No. 6 .......... 12.00 0.90 2.37 69. 10 1.10 14.53 2.32 0. 4 4.73 39. 14.37
Tailings from re.
duction:
47 No.l.......... 11.78 3.26 5.03 60. f 2.63w 16.98 2.72 1. 2 1.47 131.0 5.47
No. 2......... 10.35 3.38 4.37 59.87 2.08 19. 1 3. 19 1. 68 1.90 Not ditr.
49 No.3.......... 11.72 2.35 4.37 6:3.27 1.66 16.:3 2. 66 1.34 1.98 Nt tdetr.
0 No. 4 .......... 12.0 0.8 4.1 68.47 0.40 14.00 2.24 ,0.48 4.67 35.17: 1t:. 4
1 No. 5........ 12.12 2 3.85 63. 93 1. 18 1. 3 2, 5 1.: 1. 7 1.89 t. 67
52 tepurifled i d-
lings ......... 11.72 2.11 3.67 5;i99 1.63 1.M 2.38 1.21 1.08 28. 17 10.74
50 - -
Finihvd hulr:
akere' ....._. 12.18 0.622 .100 69.29 0,33 14. 8 2.:$ 0.31 7.68 51 21 1.7
5 Patent........ 11.48 0 1.45 73.55 0.18 12.95 2 7 .8 1.50 314 10
5 Low gra~l... 12, 1 1.0 9 3. 63.26 0.93 .17.95 2.74 1.16 2. 369 0.01 4.
SBreak lour ...... 12.48 0.58 1.87 69.44 0.23 15.0 2 46 0.31 7.94 1 t8 1 7
0 Stoa otur ....... 12.4 0.49 1.61 7286 0.23 12.78 2.01 0.27 7.55 3i 21 11.71
Flour from tail.
ings:
61 NNoA1.......... 12.55 0.62 2.93 70.25 0.35 131:' 2.I13 0. 30 7. It .1:: 12
S No.3 ......... 12.0 0.85 2.79 70 ,2 0. 13.11 2.10 0.45 147 37 78 12.6C
4 No.2.......... 11.20 0.7 2.63 72. 2 0.48 13.65 2.18 .39 5 .59 432 1,87
Socklo chop ...... 12.45 2.79 4.34 i 1 3. 63 172.7 204 0. 2.:;7 Not (.er.
SFlour I~ro fifth Imiddling nlot sent.






1228 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

Analyses of the products of roller miling-Cotined.

I-Ratio Gluten.
of
|.. . . . Ether Carbo- Pro- Pho nitro
N~ ame ,' Ash. ex- y- Fibhr. teids. 1o phoric n
.tur.. tract. lrates. N x.25. id. pho Moist. Dry.
phorice
acid.

t. P. t. P.t. 1e P. ct. P. et P. ct. P. ct. P ct. c. Pct. c Pct.
69 Cukle bran ...... 7.71 :;. 46 3.84 65.46 9.03 10.50 1.68 0.8 2.02 Not deter.
70 First germ........ 8.69 3.42 9.35 53.28 1.23 21.13 3.86 1.83 2.11 Notdeter.
i7 Second gt-rm ...... 75 5.45 15. 61 35. 19 1.75 33.25 5.32 2. 57 1.98 Not deter.
I7 ThirdI grmi....... 7.68 4.04 13.75 39.25 1.50 32.88 52 2. 2.05 otdter.
74 Brlrn luster flour 11.78 1.17 2. 70 70.20 0.50 13.,65 2.18 0. 3.30 58.59 13.72
Stone tstock: |
77 No. 2.......... 12.15 0.410 1.64 72.91 0.25 13.5 2.18 0.19 11.58 47.55 15.32
78 N -.3.......... 12.01 0.55 2.12 71.76 0.43 13.13 2.10 057.0 46.3 15.15
Tailings :
83 From wixtli
briak....... 11.64 2.29 4.06 64.31 1.95 15.75 2.52 1.23 2.05 1.45 6.17
81 Froul irstl ctn-
trifugalreel. 11.4 2 2.15 3.44 66.56 1.20 15.23 2.44 0.98 2.49 6.58 2.39
$5 From s'cionlt
n rntrilfug a 1
reqel ....... 11.07 2.85 4.73 61.82 2,20 17.33 2.79 1,47 1.88 Not deter
86 Tail r1nd ofl the
tailiing~........ 11. 36 3.87 5.23 Not deter. 15.75 2.52 1.75 1.44 10.74 4.41
87 Dlust frozmi No. 1
nmiddliigs...... 11.03 1.83 2.73 64.86 5.20 14.35 2.30 0.55 4.18 25.78 10.31
88 Dust fromi dust
tatcher ......... 11.53 1.17 2.64 69.01 1.65 14.00 2.24 0.55 4.07 35.05 13.09


NOTES ON THE ANALYSES.

The foregoing analyses of the various products of roller milling afford
data finr a careful study of the changes which take place at different
stages of n1aimnuacture. These changes have been discussed by Mr.
Richardson in Bulletin No. 4 of this division, and his notes thereon
fbllow :
Ti h wheat as it enters the mill is subjected to a series of operations
which reII Wvem dirt, foreign seed, the fuzz at the end of the berry, and
a certaini polrtion of the outer coats, through the agency of a run of
stones and br1 shes. The result of this operation is to lower the amount
of inorganic lmatterl o1 ash and to increase or decrease the other con-
stitiients ult slightly, the proteids being a few tenths of a per cent
greater in amounlt. The point frlom which a convenient start may be
maideI is at the first break.
The chop firoml the first rolls is very marked in its difference n1 compo-
sition Iromi the original wheat. It of course has less fiber, and also, it
is seen, lss ashl, oil, and albuinioids; in fict, it is starchy. It contains
o111re I isture, k owing Ito the fact that its comminution has allowed it
to al sorlI the moisture from the air, and in general it will be observe
tha t lhe coarser or more fibrous a specimen is the less wter it contains,






THE MILL PRODUCTS OF WHEAT. 1229

wl the finer material holds more. For example, the percentages of
moisture in several portions of the grain are as follows:
iPer cent.
ig al gri n ................. ........................ ......---- ......----- 9 .66
y forth break ............-----------.................------ --.....--...... 23
Chop from firt break ......--- ....----- ..---- .... .. -- ----. .. -------..-. .-- 15.:2
Fifth break--- ----.... ---- --- -- ..--........----------- ----..---......- ... --- 7.62
n --......-----.........---...... ...---- .. ...- -- .---...--..--------.... ... 1.91
The heat caused by the friction of the process, of course, isi an active
aent, as may be seen on comparing the original grain and that relay
for the break. The question of the relation of the various products to
humidity is, however, considered inl greater detail in another portion of
this bulletin.
The starchy chop from the first break is carried off to the various
purifying and grading machines, but for the present it will be left. as
it is desirable to follow the breaks to the end.
The tailings from the first scalper, consisting of the wheat grain
split open along the crease, which serve to feed the second break after
the cleaning which they undergo, vary but little from tlhe wheat which
goes to the first break. There are slight ldiferences which must be
attributed to the difficulty of selecting and preparing for analyses sum-
ples of the product of the different breaks, the finer chop having a
Itedency to sift out from the lighter bran, but they are not great enough
to vitiate the conclusions. In the first break so little is tdone except
to crack open the wheat and clean it for the following rolls, that only a
small change should be expected.
The chop from the second break is more from tie center of the
wheat grain. It contains less ash, tit, and proteids than any of the
break products, and includes, as was shown by our preliminary inves-
tigation, tle greater portion of the endosperm.
The tailings supplying the third break already show, owing to the
greater amount of chop p)rodlled on the second break, a marked
increase in those constituents which arc peculiar to h Ie outel portions
f tle grain; that is to say, there has been a m larked ic-t icr lSi aslh,
fiber, and Iroteids. rhisi crease becomes still more alppar ent ftrom
break to break until the bran alone is left, whichl contains more ash
and fiber than any other product of the wheat. The several chops
increase i a like manner, the last or sixth break chol holding lnre
roteids than the branl and even ainy other of the resulting material.
his is probably due to tile comninution of the bran in the last break;
1d cansequently, as will be seen, the miiddlings frtom this chop are
fci er inl nitrogen than any other, although not the richest in gluten
Owg to the proportion of bran andl germ which they contain.
aving fillowje te grain tihrough tle breaks to the bran, the prod
Sof tlhe purification of the chop remain to be studied.
Te sorts, or branny particles 1imoved from the lhop or rlm the
li vby aspirators, contains much less iber and ash than tihe bra.,






1230 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS

although it is of similar origin; that is to say derived from the outer
coats of the grain. The analyses point to an origin from those portions
of the coat which contain less ash and fiber.
The middlings are graded into five classes, and in their original
uncleaned state they differ chemically in the fact that from No. I to
No. 5 there is a regular decrease in ash, fiber, and fat, while No. 5 is
richer in proteids than the other. This would be expected from our
preliminary examination, which showed a decrease in bran from begin.
ing to end, and from the fact that No. 5 was the purest endosperm.
After cleaning the same relations hold good, but owing to the
removal of the branny particles there is in all cases a loss of ash con-
stituents and fiber. The effect of cleaning is more apparent in Nos. 1
and 2, where more bran is removed.
The reduction of the middlings on smooth rolls changes the composi-
tion but slightly, and tle flours which originate from this process are
very similar to the middlings from which they are prodced. That from
the "fourth reduction is richer in nitrogen, as would, doubtless, also
be the case wilh the fifth, although no analysis was made.
The tailings from the middlings purifiers present the usual charac
teristics of by-products, which owe their existence to the outer part of
the grain with its high percentages of ash and fiber, and in this case
also of nitrogen. It is remarkable, however, that the tailings marked
No. G contain only one-third as much ash as the others, but this is
explainted by the fact that they are largely composed of endosperm.
The tailings from the different reductions are nearly alike in compo-
sition, with two exceptions: Those from the fourth contain little as,
fiber, and nitrogen. Like No. 6 of the purifier tailings, they consist
largely of endosperm. Those from the second reduction contain much
germ, and are therefore richer in nitrogen than the rest.
The rceprified middlings, as might be expected, contain uch more
ash, oil, and fiber than the original, and there is also an increase in
nitrogen, but not in gluten, owing to the large amount of bran the
co utain i.
An:lyses of the three grades of flour as furnished to the market
follow. From a cursory glance it might be said that the low-grade
flour was the best, as it contains the most proteids, but its weakness is
discovered in te he ct that it has only 4 per cent of gluten. Th bakers
lour contains oe ash, oil, fiber, proteids, and gluten than the patent,
but owing to the increased amount of the first three constituents men-
tioned, it is proportionately lacking in whiteness and lightness. The
two llours have each their advantageous points.
Several other grades of flour-break flour, stne lour, and flours from
the first, second, and third tailings-are all very similar, and, as far as
chemical analysis is concerned, good. The preliminary examination
has, however, shovn certain defects in each. The break flour is richer
in proteids and gluten than any other, and if it were pure and its phy
ical condition were good it would be of value.






THE MILL PRODUCTS OF WHEAT. 1231

Sroller process is distinguished for the completeness with which
t es the germ of the grain during the manufacture of flour by
tning and sifting it out. This furnishes the three by-products,
w h are known as first, second, and third germ. They consist of the
mof th wheat mixed with varying proportions of brauny and
sthy matter, the second being the purest. They all contain much
Soil, and nitrogen, and if allowed to be ground with the flour
cken it by the presence of the oil, and render it very liable to fermen-
atio, owing to the peculiar nitrogenous bodies which it carries. A
re complete analysis appears in another place.
The flour from the bran dusters is much like that from t the ilings,
nd like the stone stocks from a chemical point of view. This merely
shows that chemical evidence should not alone be taken into considera.
ion, for the bran-duster flour is a dirty, lumpy by-product, while the
one stocks are valuable miiddlings. Analyses of various tailings are
next in the series, and need no comment. Those of the dust from
middlings and dust-catchers are rather surprising, in that they both
ontain much gluten and the first one much fiber, but this is due to
heir containing both bran and endosperm.
To follow the gluten through the process it is necessary to go back
tthe breaks. The amount in the various chops does not vary grceatly.
here is an apparent anomaly, however, in the fifth and sixth breaks,
here no gluten was found in the feed but much in the chop. This is
wing to the fact that the feed has become at this point in the process
branny that by the usual method of washing to obtain the gluten it
dos not allow of its uniting in a coherent inass and separating from
the bran.
Among the middlings, both uncleane ndn cleaned, the fourth is the
ichest in gluten, and the result of the process of cleaning is to increase
te amount, although slightly diminishing the nitrogen. This is due
to the removal of the branny matter. which, though rich in nitrogen, is
poor in gluten.
In the products of the reduction on smooth rolls, the chops from the
igher middlings are the richest, and if the analyses of the flours were
coplete, No. 4 would probably contain more than the lower numbers.
The tilings are, as has been already said, remarkable, not so miucl
eause No. I has no gluten, but in the fact that Nos. 2, 3, and I have
7.2 per cent, and No. 6 as much as 14.37 per cent thereof. The regti
linr eae ashows that the highest numbers must contain a large mprt ion
of endosperm.
That this is the case te microscopic examination of the different
taiings has shown. No. I is fiand to consist almost entirely of tlhe
rcoatings of the grain; Nos. 2, 3, and I of the same mixed with a
proportion of endosperm, which is attached thereto; while in No.
Si i diftilt to discver any larg amount of anything but flouring
aeal, and the small percentage of ash shows, also, that it can not
ontain much bran.






1232 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

In a like manner No. 4 tailings from the reuction 13.34 per cent
of gluten, which is owing to the large proportion of endosprm which
it contains; and in this case, too, the fact of the presence of so much
of the interior of the berry is presaged by the low percentage of ash.
The remaiing tailings of this class have little or in gluten, with the
exception of No. 1, as they contain very little endosperm.

KINI>S ANID Q)ANTITIES OF FINAL PiRODICTS OiF TlH MIiJ.

In the foregoing table the character and composition of the products
formed during the process of milling have been fully described and
their purposes ascertained. The final products in the milling of wheat
which reach the consumer are found as several grades of flour, and the
refuse is sold chiefly for cattle-feeding purposes under the terms bran,
shorts, or middlings. All of the high grade mills produce several
varieties of flour from the same sample of wheat. These varieties of
flour are sold under a great many different names, as will be seen in
the table of analyses given further on. The highest grade of flour pro-
duced is very commonly known as Patent flour, while the lower grades
are very often known as Family, Bakers', or Red Dog flours. In gen-
eral it may be said that 270 pounds of wheat are required to make 200
pounds of flour. In other words about 4. bushels per barrel. Unfor-
tuinately for our methods of computation, flour is usually sold by the
barrel instead of by the 100 pounds. The barrel of flour in this coun-
try weighs 196 pounds. With a good quality of spring wheat a large
milling firm in the Northwest obtains the yield given below, showing
that a barrel of flour can be made from 258.35 pounds of wheat:

Materials in barrel of flour.

ProduCn. Pore. cnt
P tet flour 1 7 57.8
PaI e.rt flo ur ......... ......... ... .... ......... .... ................ .... ... 19.37 5 2
L wke rs 1Ilour. ........ ...... ...... ...... ... ... ......... ... .... .... ........ 2 13 11.28
Low-grado flour ............................ .... ...... .. ...... .. ..... ... 17. 50 7.77
Totr al lour .... .......... ........ ...... .... ...... ................. .. 1 6. 00 75 87
hr lit .... ... ......... .. ......... .................. ......... ..... .......... ..... 15..... 0 37.
S rrt ngs ....... ..... ...................................... ...... ... .............. 99 1
t ecvlin .. ........ ........ ...... ...... ... ......... ........ ...... ................. ... 10 90
W ash. ...................... ............ . ... ....... ... ... ..................... 2. i 7
Totial weiglht of i At .................................................. 10000

FromI one of the largest mills in Minnesota I have receive the fl-
lowing statement in regard to the quantitties of product formnd: When
an exceptionally high grade of flour is formed, the quantity produced
is usually from 12 to 20 per cent of the total weight of the wheat. Of
the medium or straight lours, which form the greatest part of the
prod(hct the anantity is about 50 per cent. Very low grade flours form






THE MILL PRODUCTS OF WHEAT. 1233
F 1 I233" *'

10 per cnt n general about 75 per cent of the weight of
theis obtained as merchantable flour of some kind, of which
fro 6 70 per cent is high grade or straight flour. About 24 per
weight of the wheat is obtained as feeding staffs, and about
1 pe c t of the weight disappears as waste during the process of
r. The miller above referred to states that in: producing a
in grade of straight flour le has obtained as high as 72.2 per cent
oftraight flour and 8 per cent of low grade.
Thee figures, obtained from a Minnesota miller, are very similar to
those hich have been obtained in Arkansas, as reported by Teller in
Sbulletin of the Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. Two
checked runs were made in a high-grade roller mill; in the one case
with 7,000, and the other 3,000 pounds of uncleaned wheat, and the
reults obtained are shown in the following tables:

Wieat milling trial No. 1, made Janulary 2, 1S94.

[Weight uncleanoed wlieat, 700!' pIunidM.

Produc t. Po unds. Brcnt-

..... .i .......................... ... ............ ........................ ... 84 12. 11
P d t.PO4 12. 11

t r .......................... ...... .... . ..... ......... ............... 3...9 .
W gra e flour .......................................................... ...... 250 3.57
ragn ..... ..................................... ................................ .. 1.636 23.37
iw o g ira (ship stn ).. .......................... .......... .. .... .......... ... ... 174 2.149
B ra ............. ...................................................... .. 1 72 9 17
...................................................................... 78 1 11
Loa (d u t,etc ................................... ...... ......... ........ 2
Final total .................................................. ................... 7,000 1 .


:Whelt milling trial No. 2, madr .March 1;, I14.

| Weight uncleaned wheat, :l,0t0 poundsl.

SIPrTlict. mI s. P lti IS

SPat lolr..I ................................................ ......... .. ....... ...5, 17. 65
Straight flo r ........ ................................... ................ ........ l, 10... .
Low-r lour....... .................... ............ ... ..... ......... ..... .. U. 5 2.
lhort ........................................................................... :3.0 1. 10
i l ..... .. ........... ......... .. ... .. ...... ... ... ...... 2 .

r I l ......... .. ................................................... ...... 1.5
.s.ris ................... ...... ..... .... .............. . ...5... .

Sot.. l ................................. ...... ... ..................... .......... 1 .


COIMPOSITION OIF 11.WIZ Mo 1 w INPi IN II IN:111 1 il NcI 11.,1

I 1894 a commissiml Was appoillted by the mlinister of' commilerce of
F e study theprocesses of milling in thle French elemblic. t rof.





1231 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

Ainmt Girard was the president of this commissio, interesting
data are contained in its report.1
The principal object of the commission w to determine what per
centage of tine flour could be obtained suited to making first-cass
bread. In addition to this a careful chemical study was made of t
different grades of flour which were produced. Several large mills
were placed at the disposal of the committee, where wheat of differein
qualities in large quantities was ground and every pocess of the milling
caretflly watched. Thle different grades of flour produced were sent to
the bakery, where the coimmission supervised the baking of the bread.
Tlhe conclusion of the committee was that the point of limitation i
regard to the quantity of flour made from average wheat which would
produce a white bread, porous, well leavened, and easily digestible, and
suited to the demands of modern cookery, varies from 60 to 65 per cent
of the weight of tlhe wheat used. Beyond that point it is possible to
obtain another 5 per cent of flour, which will make a airly good bread,
lbut showing a change in color and not having the digestible and palat-
able qualities of thle bread as made from the first 60 per cent extraction.
The results obtained by the French commission are practically in
accord with tlie data collected from our own millers. A good average
wheat under the best conditions will yield about 60 per cent of high-
grade flour, about 8 per cent of a good inferior article, and a small
quantity of a very low grade, unsuited to making light-colore and
plrous loaves.
GRADES OF FLOUR.
The different grades of flour are based more upon their color and
general appearance than upon their nutritive properties. It often hap-
pens that low-grade flours-that is, those which make a rather off-
colored bread-are more nutritious than the highest grade and whitest
flours, which make the whitest bread when judged by chemical data
alone. A great many people prefer a delicate cream tint to the flour
and bread rather than a product which is pure white. One of the
largest milling firms in Minnesota writes me that the highest grade
lo ur which it makes is used for the family trade, being what is alled
a patent spring wheat flour, used largely in the Northwest, and corre-
splending to the winter wheat patent flour used in the Southern States.
The next grade produced is called high grade bakers' flour, usedexten-
sicely by bakers in this country, and also exported in large quantities
to G(reat itritain and Ilolland. The lowest grade of flour produced is
known as Red l)og flour, which is used largely for feeding domestic
animals.
Another miller writes as follows:
W\V are tding you 1l poultis ea:h of our Patent, Family, and Bakers' flour.
Iach of thflo lmours ir what is commonly knowin ir ableed flour They are the
reslit of eareful considrsetion and experiments by us, for the purpoe of prodcing
Comptes rendus, vol. 121, p. 922.





THE MILL PRODUCTS OF WHEAT. 1235

Ptntand a Family flour that will combine the strength and the quality of retain-
iture of spring wheat flour and the sweetness and tenderness of the wintei

r is manufactured from choice, selected hard spring wheat and from sev-
erl k s of winter wheat of the finest quality obtainable from various sect ions of
S try, a is combined in such proportions as to produce a flour which\ will
we belive, the requirements that we are seeking after.
patent prodces a bread that raises well, retains moisture, and is at the same
ender and sweet and eminently fitted for a family flour, to be used for tlhe prio-
d oof both bread and pastry of superior quality. The Family lour does not
uce as white a loaf of broad as the Patent, but is in other respects like the
t. The Bakers' or low-grade flour is a dark family flour, which is to-day very
l ly used by the people who desire a sweet, nutritious, and palatable loaf of
breat a low price, without regard to the fact that it is not as white as the bread
o which they have been accustomed in better times.
I am not sure that you desired information as fully as the above, but feel that we
ar sending you a set of samples practically unique in their line, wlich will produce
results, i the hands of a good baker, that are surprising.

FLOURS WITH SPECIAL NAMES.

In looking over the names of the flours which have been analyzed it
will be seen that there are many which have special names. Graham
four is a term which was originally applied to the coarse, unbolted
four which was made by crushing the whole wheat. Strictly speaking
the term Graham flour should convey the idea of a flour made from
well-cleaned and dusted wheat, ground, but not bolted. Flours, how-
ever, are often sold as Graham flour in which the bolting process has
been carried to a greater or less extent. Thie true Graham lour would
contain practically the same substances as the wheat kernel itself, and
il the same proportions.
Entire wheat flour.-This name would naturally carry the idea of a
flour corresponding to the Graham flour above. It is, however, a trade-
mark for the flour produced in a special manner, by grinding the whole
wheat after the removal of the outer coverings. It therefore contains
all of the ingredients of the wheat grain, save those which are fouind
in the outer coverings.
Glun flour.-This is the name of a product which is sold very exten-
ively and which is supposed often by purchasers to contain no starch.
As will be seen by the analyses further on, thi s s a very grave error.
gluten flour is probably a flour made from those portions of the
eidosperm lying nearer the exterior of the grain, and which are known
tocontain a larger quantity of proteid matter than the interir ortions.
It is well that we should not be deceived by the trade names of the
os which are oflfred for sle. As is seen above, the ideas which the
name of the flour conveys are not always realize in thle artcle itselt~
I s quite important, if we wish to know the nature of a flour without
g a chemical examination thereof, that the actual steps which
Sbeen followed in i its preparatioIn be traced and tie character of
he real loe b known. Exerts may be able o tell the





1236 FOODS AND FOOD) ADULTERANTS.

difference between the soft wheat and hard wheat flours, or even
between blended flours, but ordinary purchasers uually rely upon th
grocer or upon the name for the information in regard to the flour whic
they desire.
PROPERTIES AFFECTIN(G TIHE COMMERCIAL VALUE OF FLOUR.
Aside from its nutritive properties wheat flour has a commercial value
depending upon its color and texture, and upon the quantity of gluten
which it contains. The character of the gluten also varies largely in
diflerent varieties of wheat ad i wheat i ht grown in different localities.
The gluten of the hard spring wheats appears to have the best proler-
ties for baking purposes, but it can not be denied that the very best
bread in the world is kmade from the soft winter wheat of France. The
method of manipulating the loaf, of fermentation, and of baking must
therefore be admitted to have quite an important bearing upon the
constitution of the finished loaf. In general, however, a four is sold
almost exclusively with regard to its relative appearance with other
flours and its color, as very few purchasers make a test of the quan-
tity of gluten contained.
PREFERENCE OF BAKERS AS TO FLOUR.
Bakers prefer a flour with a high percentage of tenacious gluten,
which permits of the formation of a loaf containing a maximum percent-
age of water. With a flour rich in gluten it is possible to get a good,
palatable loaf, without any evidence of excess of water, contaning as
high as 40 per cent of moisture.
Tlhe baking of bread is an art which is most successfully practiced by
lprofessionals, alnd the American method of home bread baking is not to
be too highly commended. The ideal flour for bread making is one
which contains a sufficient quantity of gluten to produce a lprous and
spongy loaf, but not one which permits an excessive quantity of mois-
ture to be incorporated in the loaf itself.
Flours differ not only in the quantities of gluten in them, but also in
its qualitaies. Some varieties of wheat furnish a gluten which is more
tenacious thian others, and thus produce, of course, a more desirable
flour. In practice, however, where the best methods of bread making
are fillowed, it can not be said that the hard spring wheats aftlrd a
better variety of bread than the soft winter wheats. The excellent
chriacter of t e French bread above referred to is an evidence of the
`the tihat the soft winter wheats are capable, with proper maniplation,
of furnishing as high a grade of bread as is desiable.

C In the prosecution of the work looking to the preparation of this
bulletin 107 samples of wheat flours have been analyzed, ad the data
obtained arc collected in the following tables. The samples of flour
submitted to analysis were obtained from those exhibited at e World's





FLOUR. 1237

ir, purchases in the open market, and from samples obtained
from manufacturers. A description of the samples examined
rec s the analytical data. This description contains the laboratory
of the sample, the name of the dealer or manufacturer froni
it was btained, and a description embodying the trade name.
CLASSIFICATION OF SAMPLES.
Sis at once evident that the classification of samples which are
in from exhibits or which are purchased in the open market is
x mely difficult. The only guide which can be followed in such an
ance is the description of the sample itself, and this is often mis-
ing ecause the tre or tr na o tade-mark of the sample does iiot
ays accurately describe its composition. In order, however, to com-
the different samples together as accurately as possible, they have
en separated into several groups of related goods, resembling each
her as nearly as possible, as far as could be judged from the descrip-
ins of the samples.
The first group comprises the high grade so-called patent flours. This
p is supposed to embrace the most desirable flours, as far as ap-
arace and baking properties are concerned, that are to be found upon
e market.
The next group embraces those flours in which no particular descrip-
i was given, but which were not called high-grade patent flours. It
iludes the flours which are sold in bulk rather than in small pack-
s, and in general those flours which represent the common market
arieties.
The third group represents the general class of flours which are sold
Sbakers' or family flours, as distinguished from the high-grade patent
urs and the general bulk flours represented by the first and second
lasses.
The fourth group resents the miscellaneous flours which are sold
ndr different names, mostly trade-marks, which have ni, particular
Biificacein respect of the character of the flour. They embrace
ich varieties as the Daisy" (Golden Beam," Model Flour," "-New
outh," etc.
The fifth group, only four in number, contains the sowcalled self-raising

The last class, embracing only one sample, is a gluten flour.
In miaking lthis classification there were miany dilictlt is encoun tered,
adit is doubtless true that many of the samples as classified above
ght have found a more fitting position thain in the classes in which
e placed. The classification does not imply any expression in
pct of the character of the flour, but is simply an attempt to group
he flours together in accordance with their trade names, as they are
old in the market.
Sthe purpose of discussing the analytical data it is highly
otant that the goods representing essentially the same class as






1238 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

sold in the market be thus grouped together, in er tha compar
of their properties may be secured.
It is seen from the above statements that the analy s thus groupe
together represent the character of the fours sold i our arkets
rather than typical varieties made from a uniform quality of wheat by
a carefully controlled process. They represent, therefore, the character
of the flours actually used by our citizens, and hence have a special
value in respect of practical nutrition.
For purely scientific purposes it would be desirable to tudy the
typical flours made from special unmixed grades of wheat. Thi has,
however, been done heretofore in this division and in other quarters.
It has therefore been thought best to confine the present investigation
to the more practical aspects of the problem of nutrition as conditioned
by the composition of the most important cereal articles of human diet.

Description of flours purchased in the open market.

Serial Dealer. Description.
No.

10817 John H. Magruder, 1417 New York avenue Minnesota flour; in b~lk.
NW.
10818 C. C. Bryan, 1413 New York avenue NW...... Bryan's Pride.
10819 Gi.W. Procter & Son, G and Thirteenth streets Made by W. Lea & Sons Co., Wilngton,
N W. Del.; in bulk.
10820 G,. E. Kennedy & Son, 1207 F street NW ...... Minnesota flour; n bulk.
10821 Charles I. Kellogg, 602 Ninth street NW..... Made by J. Brown, Virginia. The Cook's
Favorite Family Flour.
10822 Elphonzo Youngs Co., 426 Ninth strvet N .. Minnesota flour; in bulk.
10823 Estler Bros. & Co., C and Thirteenth streets.. Joy of Home, Best Minnesota Patent Proces.
SW.
10824 S. Tucker, C and Thirteenth streets SW.... Knox's elfraising Flour.
10825 Acni Market, 409 Seventh street SW .......... Cream Blend Extrt of Wheat, artitcilly
and scientifcally blended; concentrated
merits combined.
1082 G.J. Buhh, 420 Seventh treet SW ........... Choice Family Flour.
10827 IK. Dikeman, 505 Seventh street SW........ Fancy Patent Process, "Olive." Made ro
selected wheat.
10828 Carter & Iizen, Enterprise Market, F and Snowflake Family Flour, Minneapolis.
l our-and a-half streets SVW.
10829 F. A. Newman, Four.and-a half and G streets Golden Grain, Patent Fancy Process Minne
SW. sota.
i0s30I Swiss Market, Third and ( t streets SW ...... The Erly Riser, Selected Family Flour.
10831 C. 1L. Callis, Third and 11 streets SW.......... W. I. Tenney's Best Family Flour. Mann
factured by Win. H. Tenney & Sons, eorg-
town, 1). C.
10812I Win. Lanahan, Second and II strets SW ..... Rulo,a fine grade ily flour.
1:33: Francis Leonard, hlaw'are avenue and It Gm of Wshington, ollr Procs Flour.
street SW.
10-.4 South Wshington Grocery Co., 601 First Blue Rose, Choice F ily Flour.
street SW.
10j5 11. E. Fai rall, First and E sreets SW ......... Virginia Lee, Fiiest Minuesota Patent Flour.
10836 J. F. Russell, 730 Ninth street N W............ The Franklin Mills, okport N. Y.
Flour of the Entire Whet. icio
Economical.
108:7 Robert White, Ninth amd I streets NWN ...... (Cerew, Patent Process Flour from Cholo
)UHM-Slcit NVIWA







FLOUR. 1239


iption of flours purchased in the' open market-Continued.


Dealer. Description.


n W. Hardell, Ninth and P streets N Cissels Great French Process. G. W. C(isw
S& Co., Georgetown, D. C.
H1 9 E d Trundell, Tenth and P streets -W. Celestial, Fancy Patent Roller Process.
eer roters, Tenth and 0 streets NW...... E.. Metz's Best Roller Process Flour.
J.G. McQueen & Co., 1007 M street NW ..... Richmond Patent Family Flour.
1 2 RP. White, Twelfth and M streets NW ...... Minnesot Red Rivr Fancy Roller Patent.
Renshaw Brothers. 1301 M street NW ........ Very Fancy Patent, Craig & Varney, Oxford,
Mich.
in. Bannon, Fourteenth and N streeta NW.. Warwick's Best Patent Process from WhVite
Wheat.
1 5 Cora & Byrne, 1317 Fourteenth street N W. "Imperial York," Fancy Patent, Warranted.
Frank E. Altemus, 1410 P street NW ......... Our Pride," Patent Fancy Plroc ss Flour.
1 7 W T. Dvi. P and Fifteenth streets NW... The Daisy." G. W. Cissil & Co., George.
town, D. C.
P. O'Donoghue, 2616 P street NW............. "*Golden Ban' Family Flour.
10849 P.Beattie,3001 steet NW.............. "Model Flour." P. eti.
850 A. Hanlon, 1444 Thirty-second street N W..... "Our New Soit i." Win. if. Tenney & Sons,
The Capitol Mills, Georgetoiwn. .C.
10851 J. W. ogle & Bro., 1355 Thirty-second "Peerless" Roller Proie.s Fauily Flout
street NW.
082 John A. Girvin, 2826 Pennsylvania avenue NW "Cereal" M innEso ta Patent Plrcess Flour.
1083 E. M. P. Harris, Thirtieth and streets NW "Ame," Mount Waslhington Fine Family
Flour.
10854 W E. yolds3272 M street KW.......... Wh ite and Gold." (ur Best Fancy Guaran.
teed Flour.
1085 Maogue & Jones, 3150 M street NW ......... "Satisfaction Family Flour.
1085 PhiipH.War2100 Pennsylvania nue NW Snow White Family Flour.
10857 ..... ........................... ........ Eclipse'' Patent Flour.
i58 AW. R. Brown, Twentieth and Pennsylvania; Bauty" Minnesota Patent PIrocess.
avenue NW.
10859 Matthew Goddard, New York avenue and Ilecker's Sulprlative Self Rnaisin Flour,
Thirteent stret NW. Croton Mills,2ut C'lurry street, ew Y k,
N. Y.
1080 Spignal & Co., Seventh street and Mou venir Pant "t Proiew'." From choice
Vernon sare NW. ambtr heat.
108 1 Wilson & Schultz,934 Sv1entlh street NW.... White Lly Proctes.'" i. W. ('isM, ( or
to wn, l). C.
10802 A. A. Winflehl, 215 Thirteen.and a-half st ret "Suwprlativcr loller PrT e~-. Minnesota
SW. Patent.
3 W. Burthel, 1325 F stret NW........... leciere's lh llouestend Flalpjak Flour.
!lceekir Jones-Jwrell rMilling (Co New York,
N.Y.
143 .... do .............. ...................... A nt JoI imai s Pancake Flour,. l. T av is
M illing Co., St. Joseph. MLo.
173 ..... do ........... ...... .........,........ ; riddle Cake Flour.t ual lirnd. N aka
Citi Ciereal Mills, Nyebi aka Citv N br.
152 John I1. Magruder. 1417 New York alenv Entire Wheat Flour. 'Th Franklin iMillst o,
NW. Lockport. N, Y.
1525.....do .................................. .... Farina liekerons Jewell Mlling Co, 20
Cherry strt, New Yoirk, N. Y.
161 Purcuaa l for the IU.S. Army by Maj. enry Iairl Wlndter iati nt Flour.
G. SharnI St. Louis. Mo.
15 ..... do ............................. ... llanrd WFinter Patent Flour.
.1 ................... .. ...... .................. Wliter itra Filo r
..... ........................................ W inter Pa nt Flo r







1240 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

Flors obtained from manufacturcrs.


ral Manufacturer. Decription.


11102 Benjamin Ames, Lakehorne Mills, Mount "Starf of Life."
Vernon, Ohio.
11103 .....do ......................... ......... ..... "Perfection."
12909 Warder & Bennett, Springfield, Ohlio......... Champion.
12910 ......do ..................... ................ .. Golden Fleece.
12911 ..... d ... .................. ............ Bob White.
12912 .... ............ ...... .................... Bell.
12913 .....do e..d.......... ............. ........ .. Red River, Straigt.
12914 L. C. Porter Milling Co., Winona, Minn ....... No. 000 Bos,.72 per cent.
12915 .... do ............................. ......... "Souvenir," 50 per cent
121 ....do ........................................ Souvenir Bakers," 38 r ent.
12917 ....do ....................................... First Bakers' or Clear Stock, 20 per cent.
12918 ..... do ....................................... Souvenir Low Grade, 12 per cent.
12919 ....do ....................................... Low Grade. 8 per cent.
12922 G. W. Cissel, Georgetown, D. C .............. First Patent.
12923 ....do ....................................... Second Patent.
12924 ....do ........... ....................... ... First Family.
12925 ....do ...................................... Second Family.
12926 .....do ...................................... Extra.
12927 .....do ..................................... Maryland and Virginia Wheat.
12929 American Cereal Co., Akron, Ohio............. Patent.
12930 .....do ..................................... Family.
1231 ... o ........................................ UBakers'.
12937 Pillsbury & Washburn, Minneapolis, Minn... Patent.
12938 .....do .............. ........................ Bakers'.
12992 L. C. Porter Milling Co., Winona, Minn....... The World's Fair Best Flour, Porter's Sou-
venir.
12999 .....do..... .......................... Second and third break flour, or clear.



Flours exhibited at the World's Columbian Erposition.


Serial Manufacturer. Description.
No.

11880 Hungarian Flour Mills, Denver, Colo........ Hunmgarian Patent Flour.
11881 .....do ....................................... Hungarian Spring Wheat Flour.
11882 Thomas Alsopp, MIurrumburral, Australia... Roller Process Flour.
11883 Bruntmo & C(o., Granville. Sydney, Australia. Soft Variety Winter Wheat.
11884 Colhu & Levy, vTamworth, Australia ......... Wheat Flour.
118 5 ('totasilundra Farcers' Cooperative Roller Winter Wiheat Flour.
Milling Co., Cootatnundra, Australia.
11881 Edwi n Gardincr, Tenora, A ustrlia .......... Wheat Flour.
11887 Edwin GIrover, Gln Innis, Anatralia ........ Do.
11888 II. C. Matthews, lIathurst, Australia....... .. Aene Patent Roller Soft Winter Wheat Flour.
11889 McGee & Quinn, Parker, Australia ......... Patent Roller Process Wheat Flour.
11890 Pawlry & Melnty re, Innull, Australia ...... Soft Winter Wheat Flour.
11891 William Treain. IlatIhursit, Aubtralia........ Patent Roller Winter Wheat Flour.
11802 F. ,Ut, (len lnins, Australia .. ............ Soft Winter Wheat Flour.
11893 Young Cooiprative kRller Flour Mill Co., Do.
Young, Australlia.
11891 M. McLaughlin &i Co., Toronto, Canada........ Manitoba Patent Flour.
11895 .....do .......... .................... ....... Bakers Flour
1189 Whitlae, ilal d & Co., Paris, Ontario, Canada.. Meggar Flour.
11897 John ilnll, LakEilold, Ontario, Canad ....... Patent Flour.






FLOUR. 1241

S~Flurs exhibitd at the World's Columbian Expouttion-Continued.

iManufaturer. Description.

SJohn HRl, Lakeield, Ontario, Canaa ........ Patent Flour.
9Jacob tlouller, Walkerton, Ontario,Canada
0 H. teveils, Chatham, Ontario, Canada..... Kent Flour.
..... o ..................... ...... ..... ... Red Pine Flour.
S..... ldo ..................-...................... Pastr Flour.
110 .... do ........................................ Elgin Flour.
4 ..-.... do .......... ....... ............ Thomas Flour.
5Austin Mills, Austin. Manitoba, Canada ...... Bakers' Flour.
S ..... .......... ................... ....... Daisy Flour.
0Westr Milling Co., Regina, Northwest Ter- Patent Flour.
ritory, Canada.
9 .... do ........................................ Bakers' Flour.
SD. McLe, Calgary, Northwest Territory, Do.
Canada.
11910 ..... d .......... ... ..................... ....... Patent Flour.
S J. Most t, Ichatanaland. Africa .............
7 Marini & Magnaschi, Sant Fe, Argentinoe WlVat Flour.
Republic.
1 Fernando Albinez. Tepam, Guatrnmala ....... Flour. second-class.
SEnriBque ousCoyrol, Quezaltenango, Guatc Flour, first-class.
mala.
Sn Cel Co., Akron Oio ............ A. M. C. Blended.
1 2 ..... do ...................................... iLake ills Blended Family.
.... do ...................................... Gluten Flour.
...do ................................... . . ...... FF. S. Self- lRiilg W liheat Flour.
.... d ........................... ... ....... Quaker Rising Wheat Flour.
2 Miguel Oneo, Buenos Ayres, Argentine Re- Wheat Flour.
public.


DESCRIPTION OF TABLES )V' ANALYSES.

Il the following tables are given the detailed analyses of all the
tples of wheat flour which have been examlinle in this division ill
oliection with the present work. The I boratory number in the first
olumn refers to the same numblir in the description of the samples.
t ill be observed that the proteids are contained in two columns. In
Sfirst columln of proteids are given the percentages of these bodies
baied by the old fiactr of (6.2. The percentage of nitrogen in ecch
mple multiplied by 6.25 gives the percentage of proteids il eacl case.
eems quite probable, however, tfrol I the data which have been given
eviously as a resflt ofof th rec iv ittios e proteids of
heat, that the factor 6.25 is too high, and that more correct results
Sregard to proteids are obtained by multiplying by the fiator 5.70.
T phercentages of proteids calculated by this fator are given in the
ond column of protids. Since the carbohydrats in each ilntal ce
edetermined by dliflrenee, the calculation of proteids by two liftors
ne sary a ducblse colum for the carbolhydrales. In the first
'the carboydrates by difference when the nitrogen is multilied
S are ound, while in the second case the carbohydrates by
17498-No. 13-6





1242 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

difference when the carbohydrates are multiplied by 5.70 are given.
It is evident, without further illustration, that the d column of
carbohydrates shows a slightly larger per cent tan the first
Included in the carbohydrates are all the carbohydrate bodies of the
wheat flour. As has been seen before, the principal part of these car-
bohydrates is composed of starch, but they also include the sugars of all
kinds, the dextrin, the galactin, the fiber, and the celluloses and heii-
celluloses. Inasmuch as the starch and soluble sugars mae up by far
the greater proportion of the carbohydrates, it has not been thought
necessary to separate the other members of the series.
The proportion of crude fiber in flour is quite insignificant, and for
practical purposes the determination of this material is not necessary.
The moisture, which is given in the second column, was obtained by
the ordinary process of analysis. In the columns headed "Moist glu-
ten" and "Dry gluten" are found the results of the separation of tihe
gluten from the flour by the usual process of washing with cold water,
as described in Bulletin No. 45, page 10.
It is hardly necessary to call the attention of cheical readers to the
fact that the data obtained in these columns are approximate. There is
no method known, by means of which the gluten can be separated in a
state of purity, except by the tedious processes which are employed
in the separation and estimation of the proteid matters of seeds. It
will be noticed that in many instances the percentage of dry gluten is
greater than the total percentage of proteids, which, of course, would
be quite impossible, provided the gluten could be separated in a pure
state. In the methods of separation employed for practical urposes
there remain always in the gluten portions of starch and fiber and
other materials sufficient, in many instances, to make the total per-
centage greater than that of the total proteids.
The data contained in the column headed "Moist gluten" are of con-
siderable importance from the baker's point of view. The greater the
percentage of moist gluten which a flour contains, the greater the
quantity of water which can be incorporated in the loaf of bread.
Whe e bakers sell their loaves by weight the importance of this from a
commercial point of view is at once apparent. The palatability and
lightness of the loaf are also influenced in a marked degree by the
percentage of moist gluten.
In the column headed "Percentage of ash" are give the numbers
obtained by the direct ignition of the sample with the usual precautions
until an ash is secured which is practically free of carbo. e figure
given, therefore, represent what is known as the crude ash-that is, the
ash containing any still unburned particles of carbon-and the crbon
dioxid in combination with bases arising from the combustion of t
organic salts present in the wheat flour. Practically nearly the whol
of the ash is composd of phosphoric acid and potash, and where s
small (qmntities enter into calculation it is not necessary for our p
cut purpose to make a further separation of its iredients.






THE HEAT OF COMBUSTION OF CEREALS. 1243

der 4"Ether extract" are given the data obtained by the direct
r ion of the dry sample with anhydrous ether. The ether extract
schiefly of the vegetable oils, but it may contain also other
matt oluble in anhydrous ether. It is not proper, therefore, to
dthe wole of the ether extract as a pure glyceride, or a mixture
flycerides. Digestion experiments which have been carried on with
r extracts obtained in the way indicated, show that the percentage
hich is digestible is much less than for the pure glycerides. In com-
pUtig the food or calorific values of the samples, therefore, too high
sults are obtained by regarding the ether extract as a mixture of pure
ycerides. Since, in the case of a wheat flour, the germ which contains
he principal part of the oil of the wheat has been removed, the percent-
e of ether extract is uniformly low, rarely rising above one-hlalf of
rcent. It is entirely safe to regard at least two-thirds of this 4iuan-
ty as composed of pure glycerides.
HEAT OF COMUwSTION OF CEREALS.

The heat of combustion of the sample is computed for the number of
alories which would be generated by on generategrain of the substance burned
nder pressure in oxygen. In the calculation of calorimetric equiva-
nts various factors are employed.'
In any given case the value of any food product as a fuel is deter-
ied experimentally by burning the substance and measuring the
ount of heat evolved. By the improvement of modern appliances
his measurement can be very accurately made. The heat equivalents
ae expressed in calories, the calorie representing the amount of heat
sary to raise 1 gram of water at a temperature of about 18s C., 1
ntemperature. The amount of heat developed by the dilferent tfod
ses varies greatly, being least for the carbohydrates anl greatest
f the fats. Among the carbohydrates the pentose, dextrose, and
evulose sugars have the leart calorific vlue; sucrose and maltose coWne
next and starch and cellulose have the highest. One gramn of a starch
arboydrate, when burned under proper conditions, affords a sulicient
aount of heat to raise the the temperature of 4,200 grams of waer
1. In like manner I grain of pure vegetable proteid matter during
obustion affords a quantity of heat sufficient o raise the temperature
f about 5,900 grams of water 1 while the combustion of 1 grain of fat
il will afford a suoticient amount of heat to raise the temperature of
at 9,300 gr as of water 1. Among the proeids, peptones have the
wt calorific value and the cereal proteids the highest. Among the
and oils, butter fat has a )ow, while oleomargarine has a high calo-
fvalue. If all the ts which are ingested were consumed in )po-
cg animal heat the simple determlination of their heat value would
be a sfficient index of their nutritive properties. It is seen without
gumnt, however, that the production of animal Ieat is only one of
See W ley'as P riciples ancd Praticv of Agricultural Analysis, Vol. Ill, p. 6i7.






1244 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS.

the important functions of foods, and among foods of like kinds even,
it is not quite certain that their heats of combustion are reliable
of their heat values in the body. This is ilustrated very strikingly i
the case of butter fat and oleoararine, as indicated above. More-
over, in a great many substances which are largely indigestible, as for
instance, wood fiber in the pure state, the complex representing the
carbohydrates in fodders and cellulose affords on combustion a quan-
tity of heat quite comparable, or in excess of that given by a digestible
sugar or starch. In case it is not convenient to determine by actual
combustion the calorific value of a food, its approximate value can be
calculated from the analytical data showing the relative percentages of
carbohydrates, proteids, and oils contained therein.
The principles on which the calculation of the calories of combustion
is based are stated in the following paragraphs.

CALORIES OF COMBUSTION IN OXYGEN OF CEREALS AND CEREAL PRODUCTS, CALCU-
LATED IF ROM ANALYTICAL DATA.

The calculation of the heat of combustion of food products is now
quite generally practiced in analytical determinations. The develop-
meit of the methods of burning in compressed oxygen, as proposed by
Berthelot and Vieille, has made it possible to use this process for ordi-
nary analytical purposes, and with a fair degree of accuracy. The
data obtained by combustion in oxygen become, therefore, a check upon
ordinary analytical determinations, as well as an additional means of
measuring the dietetic value of foods. When the data obtained on
combustion are to be used in analytical methods it is necessary to com-
pare them directly with the data calculated from chemical analysis.
A large numiber of difficulties arises in connection with this calculation
on account of the number of combustible substances present in the
cereals and their products. We hae three great classes of bodies in
cereals, namely, carbohydrates, proteids, and oils. In addition to these,
however, there are many others which are oxidizable, and which yield
heat in the process, among them amid compounds of nitrogen, organic
acids, lecithins, and coloring matters. These last named, it is true,
exist in minute quantities, but the combustion of the whole of them is
attended with a considerable evolution of heat, which must not be lost
sight of in exact comparisons. In addition t this, the groups of like
matters which form the chief part of cereals and cereal products are
comlposd of several substances. In the carbohydrates are found man
different classes whose heats of combustion vary largely. For instance,
there is a wide difference between the heat of combustion of a gram of
)entosains and a grain of starch, and midway between these lies ti
numtber represeiting the heat of combustion of sucrose The difee
vegetable oils vary greatly in their calorific power, and these differenc
nmst be taken into consideration in the calculations. In respect
the heats of combustion of the vegetable proteids but little is kno






THE HEAT OF COMBUSTION OF CEREALS. 1245

iid we have not yet isolated sufficient quantities of the different pro-
to determine the heat of combustion of each one directly. This
of the subject will be investigated further. The results of the
u determinations, however, show that the average number of
l calors per gramn of vegetable proteids evolved in burning in
yge is not far from 5,900. The details of the processes employed
f cereals and cereal products will be considered by classes, begin-
ing with the carbohydrate group.
CALORIES OF THE CARBOHYDRATES.

The magnitude of the calorimetric equivalents of the carbohydrates
and their derivatives show in general, regular and expected variations,
depending on their constitution and molecular configuration. Isomeric
bodies show similar but not always identical heats of combustion. For
the three groups of carbohydrates, represented by the formulas CJI IO),,
C12H,1011 and (CGH,,Os),,, respectively, the heats of combustion at con-
stant volume for 1 gram-molecule are about 673, 1,351, and W78 calories,
respectively. In derivatives of the carbohydrates the heat value
decreases in general with the increase of the hydrogen and oxygen
atoms with reference to the carbon atoms, but this rule is not rigidly
applicable, and does not permit a sure judgment in respect of heat
value based on a knowledge of chemical composition alone. The heat
value of the pentoses is generally less than that of the hexoses, and of
the hexoses the more condensed forms, as, for instance the disaccharids,
and the polysaccharids like starch, have a higher heat value than the
simpler forms like dextrose. In round numbers the heat value of the
ntoses (arabinose, xylose). and of lactose (crystallized), dextrose, and
frutse is 3,750; of sucrose, maltose, and lactose (anhydrous) 3,950,
and of starch and cellulose 4,200 calories per gram. In comlputing the
eat value of a mixed carbohydrate body from analytical data it is
theretre nec ry to know apl)roximately the relative quantities of
these typical costituents. If, for instance, in a sample of ground wheat
containing 74 per cent of carbohydrates it is desired to calculate the
heat value accurately, it is first necessary to distribute the total carbo-
bydrates into groups. Suppose it to be finmnd on analyses that the
total carbohydrates are composed of the following quantities:
PIer centl.
nt e s ........................ .......................................... 4.5

Starch ...................................................................... 1. 1).0

The heat value of the lpntosans is a ut 50 calories greater than for the
toss, and the fator for pentosans is therefore 3,750 + 50 = 3,.
luloe and starch have practically the same heat value, and the fe-
to r these in roud numbers is 4,200. The sugar is chietly sucrose,
the factor for this is3,50. The above numbers give tie necessary
r the computation given helow. The following gives the con





1246 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERA

puted carbohydrate calories for one gra of a cereal flour containin
74 per cent of carbohydrates:
Total weight of carbohydrates ................................ .........----40
Weight of pentosans, etc .-.....- ........-... ---........................... 015
Weight of starch, cellulose, etc ..................-........-........-....--.......--
W eight of sucrose, etc ....................................................... .-010
Then-
0.045 X 3,800 = 171.0 calories.
0.685 x 4,200= 2, 877. 0 calories.
0.010 x 3,950 = 39.5 calories.
Sum = 3, 087.5 calories.

CALORIES OF COMBUSTION OF VEGETABIE PROTEIN.
In respect of the heat of combustion of the vegetable proteid mat
ters, it may be said that even greater variations are noticed than with
the glycerides and carbohydrates; for instance, the calories obtained
by the combustion of a gran of gluten, as ascertained by Berthelot,
are represented by the number 5990.3. The mean number of calories
per gram of the proteids in general is stated by Stobann to be 5730.8.
The calorimetric numbers for hordein, edestin, leucosin, zein, myosin,
vitelin, gliadili, glutenin, and the other minor proteid bodies occurring
in the cereals have not been determined. Moreover, it must be remem-
bered that the cereals contain a certain proportion of amid nitogenous
bodies, the heat values of which are considerably less tan those of
the pure proteids. It is a question, therefore, of considerable dificulty
to select a factor which represents the proper number for computing
its fuel value from the total nitrogen present in a cereal. In the
Principles and Practice of Agricultural Analysis (Vol. III, page 559),
the factor 5,500 calories per grain is proposed as a suitable one for use
with the proteids. This factor is probably too low for estititing the
heat produced by the combustion of cereal protein in oxygen. Before
the proteids are absorbed into the body and oxidized or distributed as
constituents of the tissues they are converted in the digestive orgas
into soluble forms, to which tlhe general term peptones has been applied.
The heat of combustion of peptones is decidedly less than that of the
ordinary proteids, being represented by a tactor 5,300 calories per gram.
The number given above, therefore, viz, 5,500 calories per gram, is
about a mean to be used in calculating the calories of combustion of
peptones and proteids. For the actual calculation of heats of com-
bustion in oxygen of proteid matter of cereals to be compared with the
heats of combustion obtained in the calorimeter, he or 5,900 is pro-
posed as the one most nearly correet, in so far as our present knowledge
is concerned.
We have made efforts to secure sufficient quanities of the pure pro-
teids l)resent in the ditfrent cereals t determine directly their calorific
ower. ()wing to tle difliiulty of preparin thee roteds in the larc





THE HEAT OF COMBUSTION OF CEREALS. 1247

ua t sufficient for the work we e not yet succeeded in our object.
W a, however, continue this work and either obtain the samples
others, or, if unable to do this, prepare them ourselves, in order
he special factor for each cereal may be determined experimen-
ll In the absence of these special determinations we have only the
rse of aking use of the factor which seems to be nearest the
per one for all, namely, 5,900 calories for each gram of vegetable
tein present in the cereal.
If all the nitrogen in a cereal product be calculated as proteid mat-
r the factor to be used in calculating the calories of combustion must
Sless than 5,900. The reason for this is that a small part of the nitro-
en present is in a nonproteid form, existing as compounds distinctly
ealorifacient than proteid matters. Only an approximate factor
cn be proposed for this calculation. It is best to determine the non-
poteid nitrogen and then use the factor 5,900 for the residual proteids.
he nitrogen as amids in this case, in so far as its fuel value is con-
rned, is to be calculated by a different factor. Asparagin may be
ected as a representative vegetable amid, and the calories corre-
snding to 1 gram of asparagin are represented by the number 3,400.
Asparagin contains 22.7 per cent of nitrogen, and in order to convert
amid nitrogen to asparagin its percentage is multiplied by 4.05. These
data afford the basis of a rational computation of heat values of the
nitrogenous constituents of cereals.
lxaple.-The sample of wheat flour before mentioned contains 2
pr ent of nitrogen, of which 0.12 per cent is of an amid nature. The
proteids in the sample are calculated as follows:
1.88 x 5.70= 10.71 per cent.
The amid bodies, as asparagin, are found from the following equation:
S0.12 x 4.05 z0.48 per cent.
In 1 gram of substance the calories of combustion are calculated as
follows:
0.1071 gran proteids X 5,00- 631.9 calories.
0.0048 grai asparagin X 3,400= 16.3 calories.
STotal calories due to nitrogen compounds, G68.2 caloris.
CALORIES (O COMBU-STIO(N )F CERIEAL OILS.
In order to secure a basis for rational work, the oils of tIhe cereals
were extracted and purified as carefully as possible by the usual nieth-
ds. Three of these oils have already been subjected to combustion,
while the process of the purification of the others is still going on.
Teoils which have been burned gave the following calories per gram:
Whet oil, 9,319; rye oil, 9,322; Indian-corn oil, 9,)32. For the nearest
r d numbers the factor for wheat oil would be 9,350, and for rye and
Inian corn 9,300.
In making calhlations from analytical data, however, the ether





1248 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERAN

extract does not represent a pure oil, but all the oth die i
cereal which are soluble in ether. It is therefore ir
determine the calorifacient power of the ether extract obtained accord-
ing to the methods of the official agriultural chemists. For this pur-
pose a considerable quantity of the ether extracts of wheat, oats, barley,
and rye was prepared, and the combustion of this extract was made
directly. The results per grain of ether extract for the several cereals
mentioned are as follows: Wheat, 9,070; oats, 8,927; barley, 9,070, and
rye, 9,19(. The nearest round numbers for these bodies would therefore
be: Wheat, 9,100; oats, 8,950; barley, 9,100, and rye, 9,200.
In the extraction of cereals with ether it should not be forgotten
that a portion of the fattymnatter is not brought into solution. Espe-
cially is this true of the lecithins. In view of this fact, it is a matter
of question whether it might not be advisable, with the present light
on the subject, to multiply the ether extract by the round number
9,300 rather than by the number corresponding to the calorifacent
power of the ether extract itself as given above. With the exception
of oats and Indian corn, the difference between the two factors would
be very slight, because the ether extract is a small number. With
oats and Indian corn, however, the difference would amount to several
calories. In the case of oils in general the calories of combustion vary
greatly with the character of the glycerides. It has been shown, for
instance, that a gram of oleomargarine when burned in oxygen alfrds
about 200 more calories than a gram of butter fat. The natural oils
which exist in plants vary in respect of their fuel values. Linseed
oil, for instance, has a slightly higher fuel value than olive oil. In
Principles and Practice of Agricultural Analysis (Vol. III, p. 569),
it is recommended to use the factor 9,300 for a gneral case for
the heat value of a gram of glycerides. This is probablynot ar
from the correct number for the average of animal and vegetable
glycerides, being possibly a little too low. Since in natural cereals we
have to do only with vegetable glycerides, and in breads often with a
mixture of vegetable and animal glycerides, it is dfficult to determine
in every case the magnitude of the factor to be employed. For the
pure cereal glycerides, however, it is recommended that the factor men-
tioned above e used, viz, 9,300 calories per gram. In the bakingof
bread the fats, especially those in the crust, are subjected to a high
temperature, under which they possibly undergo a preliminary oxida-
tion. In this case, therefore, the factor given in the Principles and
Practice of Agricultual Analysis, viz, 9,300 calories per gram, may be
too high.
In the other extract of cereals therere other bodies besides fat, and
it would not be proper to regard the whole mass as having the s me
fuel vahli as pure fat. It is difficult to make any accurate allowa) n
for tlese bodies, which are, moreover, of an organic natre, and Cpa
ble of yielding considerable quantities of heat on combustion. Toavo






THE HEAT OF COMBUSTION OF CEREALS. 1249

on, it may be said that the factor 9,300 calories per gram can
also with the ether extract offlours and meals as well as with
eof the baked products. In the sample of ground wheat already
ed the ether extract is 2 per cent. The calories afforded by the
iiburn 1 gram of the flour are therefore-

0.020 grain 9,300= 186 calories.

It is evident that it will be impracticable to make any account in our
lations of the heat of combustion arising from the oxidation of the
mall quantities of coloring matters, organic acids, and other bodies
noincluded in the above data. By using the factor 9,300 for the
ultiplication of the ether extract instead of the factors determilned by
direcinvestigation it is evident that a sufficient allowance will be
ade for the inclusion not only of the bodies mentioned, but also of the
cithins remaining unextracted and for which tle calorifacient value
pproxim s that of the true glycerides. The above data, tlhe, give
e basis for calculating the whole calorific power of a whole wheat
lour having the following conposition:
arbobydrates:

Peutose----------------------------------.,,,., ---.,,,-d ur.... ij~5lr
Pentoses ........................................................d..< ... 1..1
Su rose .......................................................... do .. 1.

teids ................... .... .... ............ ..........-............--do 10.71
A ids ...............................................................do .... O. I
ther extract ........................................................ do .... .




as follows:
C lorie d e to st rch, ellulose, etc ................ ..................... 2. 77
alore due to pentosans ........ ................ ... .. ............. .. 17
alorie due to crose.... .... .................... ...... ...... ...... ......
alrie due to proteids ........................................ ...... .- .. -1 2
alo ies due to amid ............................ ....... .... ...... .
C ori due to ether extr et .......................... .. ....... .... . 1

Total c lories in I grai ......................................... ..... 922

CiOMPAiUISN 1O CALCIA I.ATEI) ANA ASCEl:TAINJE:1 CA I (oltIF.
The principles of calculation which have been developeid bove have
been aplie in the direct comlparison of the calories of combustinl
ascertained by exlpriments and those calculated from analytical data.
Ssamples of cereals examined consisted of two samples of wheat.
e of rye, one of unhulled oats, and one of hulled arley. The ana
lytical data obtained by careful analyses follow.
of of







1250 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERA TS.

Chkeical compositio of sample8 of grai.

Constituents. Wheat Wheat Unhulled Hulled
No. 1. N0o. 2. oats. barley.

Per cet. Per et. ernt. Pe cent. Percent.
Moisture ........................................ 11.33 10.5 11.71 .2 1220
Ash.............................................. 1.69 1.77 2.31 3.78 0.
Ether tract ..................................... 2. 22.24 1. 3 4.72 0.02
Proteids........ ................................. 12.19 14 44 11.6 9.63 0.44
Carbohydrates:
Sucrose ...................................... 0.33 0.48 0.42 0.17 0.18
Invert sugar ................................. 0.027 0.08 0.008 0.031 0.017
Galactin anl dextrin......................... 0.16 0.25 0.22 0.26 0.14
entosan............... ...................---- 5.80 5.17 8.10 13.05 6.50
Fiber...................................... 2.15 2.56 2.36 12.81 0. 80
Starch ...................................... 64.51 62.69 61.78 45.98 8.03


The calculated calories for each of the samples given above are as
follows:


Component parts. No. 1. No. 2. oats. barley.

Calories. Calories. Calories. Calorie. Calorie.
Ether extract............................. ....... ... 186 208 152 439 86
Proteids ........................... ............... 719 852 690 568 616
Pentosan ....................................... 220 196 308 519 247
Slcrosec...................................... 13 19 17 7 7
Starch and fiber............................... 2,800 2,741 2, 64 2,49 2, 91
Total ..................................... 3, 938 4, 01 3,861 4,002 3,847


The calories found by direct combustion in oxygen are as follows:

Wheat No. 1 ........... ..... .............................................. 3,922
Wheat No. 2 .... .......... ................ .......... ...... .... .... .... 4, 011
Ry .................... .................................................... 3,909
Oats........................................................................ 4,181
Barley ...................................................................... 3, 88

The direct comparison of the two numbers is seen in the following
table:


Variety of grain. Calenlated. Found. DiffIrence.

(alories. Calories. .al ries.
WheatNo. 1...................................................... 3,938 3, 22 + 16
W heat No. 2.......... ........ .... ........ .... .................. 4,016 4,011 1 5
Iyo .................... ..... .................................... 3, 80 3, 1 09 4
ats t ............................ ......... ...... ................. 4,002 4,181 17-
Barley .... ......... .... ... ......... ......... ... ... 3, 84 3, 88 --


The agreement between the calculated calories and those actuall
determined ill the (nlorimeter is satis-watory in the above eases, wit
the exception of the sample of oatfs. In this case, as will be seen, te






'THE HEAT OF COMBUSTION OF CEREALS. 1251

rectly ascertained are 179 greater than those calculated from
al data. This fact suggests the possibility of the heat of
n of the unseparated complex representing the unidentified
ates of hulls and fodders being higher than for starch. Where
ai rence exists, the suggestion at once occurs that either the
a dta or the calories obtained by combustion are in error.
Sthe principal values of ascertaining the calories of combustion
cal work is indicated by such a difference. Tlle combustion
Sa check on the analysis and, vice versa, the analysis a check on
combstion. Where the differences are as great as noted in oats,
indications are for a repetition of both the analysis and the corn-
on. The magnitude of the difference between the calculated and
raine calories which can be allowed as fully within the ordinary
rs of analysis and combustion, can only be determined by a long
s of determinations, and perhaps after the factors employed for the
uations have been slightly changed to harmonize more closely with
tained results. At the present time we are inclined to the opinion
h when the difference between the calculated calories and those ascer-
ed on combustion does not exceed 50 or 75 calories the check is
Siciently satisfactory.
Se have examined by the above process the greater part of the
1l products treated in this bulletin. The lata which are given
ow include 28 consecutive determinations on the products men-
t d, with the exception of six, where the difference between the
rtined and calculated calories was so great as to indicate an error
Sone or the other.
he following table contains all the data showing a comparison
een the calculated and ascertained calorific power of the several
stances mentioned:
Comparison of ccreal prodncts.
FLO)U .

C( aldul ated calorites
Ieh'tnl iiN le I trr gt ramin.
Nae of iAlbstae, calri
ilwr 1rt:n. x 5lI N tL5
Safli r .......... . .................... 7... 3..... 77. 3,
fl o r k .................. ...... ..................... ... .. s:. o2 : it: 3, 8!5
tn e flo ur 3..... ............... ..... ................ ........ :.7 7. 3, 719
nflour ................................ ........ ................... 7. ,
t ...........................................................9 :37

i1,UEAI).

.......................................... .................. 4, o4. 1 4| !


...................... .... ........................ .... ...... .. 4449






1252 FOODS AN FOOD ADULTE

Comparison of cereal produ te-Con tin ed.
BREAKFAST AND PARTIALLY PREPARED FOODS (WHEAT PROUCTS).

Determined per gram.
Name of substance. calorie
pergram. x.70 N X6.25

Shredded whole-wheat biscuit ..................................... 4 253 4,298 4,
W heat germ meal ....... ..... .... ........... .... ....... 4,362 4,404 4,
Gluten butter wafers ............................................ 4,610 4,605 4,
W hole wheat gluten .............................................. 4,44 4,542 4,
Cooked gluten...................................................... 4,42 4,406 4,4
Germea....... ... ....................................... .. 4,445 4,403 4,
Break fast gem ......... .......................... ...............4 79 4,405 4
Cracked wheat....... ... .... ............................... 4.453 4, 395 4,4
Mean....................................................... 4,435 4,432 4,

MISCELLANEOUS.

Kaflee-brod.. ............. .. ............... ............. 4,146 4,203 ..........
Grannla......................... ............................ 4385 4,399 .......
Imperial granum ............................. ...................... 4,485 4,462 .........
F. F. V. malt foodt....... .............. ... ......... .... ...... 4,470 4,45 .......
Granulated baley.............. ......... ............................. 4,365 4, 353
H-0 oatmeal ............. .... .......... ....... ...... ............. 4,800 4,790 ..........
Mean....................................................4, 4.... 4,442 4,447 .....


A study of the above data reveals the fact that while the variation
in individual instances are considerable, a comparison of the meas
shows that the fctors which have been adopted must be very nearl
correct, inasmuch as the mean calculated calories differ very little fro
those determined by actual combustion. In calculating the calories f
wheat products both the factors 5.70 and 6.25, for converting nitrog
into proteid matter, have been used. Inasmuch as the calorific powe
of the protein is slightly greater than that of the carbohydrates,
total calories, as calculated by the factor 6.25, are sligtly greater ta
those calculated by the factor 5.70. In the case of breads and othe
baked products the differences are nit so great as we had anticipate
on account of the difficulty of completely extracting the fat and
from a bread. The individual differences, as in the case of a flour,
somewhat marked, but the means agree very closely.
While this paper was writing, in point of fact on August 2, 1897,
received Bulletin No. 33 of the Wyoming Station (June, 1897), in whic
Professor Slosson has called attention to work similar to ours whlc
has done at that station. The ftctors used by Professor Slosson dif
slightly from those which we have adopted, his fctor for ftt and o
being 9,500, for protein 5,700, and for earbohydrates 4200. In 19 sa
ples of wheat products the calculated calories from analytical data by
our factors are 4,472, and by Slosson's fttors 4,447. In six sample
miscellaneous cereal products, calculated by our factors, the number
4,833 and by his 4,810.