Foods and food adulterants


Material Information

Foods and food adulterants
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Dept. of agriculture. Bureau of chemistry ;
Physical Description:
10 v. : ill., (some col.) tables ; 23 cm.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Food   ( lcsh )
Food adulteration and inspection   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )


Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
General Note:
At head of title: U.S. Department of agriculture. Division of Chemistry.
Statement of Responsibility:
by direction of the Commissioner of Agriculture.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029691477
oclc - 20101365
lccn - agr09001050
lcc - TX563 .U5
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 261
        Page 262
    List of principal publication consulted
        Page 263
        Page 264
    Part I. Malt liquors
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
    Part II. Wines
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
    Part III. Ciders
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
    Back Cover
        Page 401
        Page 402
Full Text

.1 LfA
A -'VM ENT OF AG, --c ..


No. 13.







W d* ffiv



..... .. ...... ........ ... ..........


Pormap Colm -an

BULTIN No. 13.








[BULLETIN No. 13.]



Washington, D. C., August 15, 1887. B: I have the honor to submit herewith that portion of the work Sfood adulteration which has been under my charge. take this opportunity for acknowledging my indebtedness to the lowing gentlemen, Messrs. Trescot, Fake, Lengfeld, and Dugan-my low assistants in the division-by whom a large part of the analytical rk was performed.
Assistant Chemist.
Dr. H. W. WILEY,
Chief Chemist.
4450-No. 13, PT. 3-1


Following is a list of the principal publications (with the exceptio periodicals) that have been consulted in the course of this invesigtion :
Kom. Die JflensflBhichef Nalirungs- und Geuussmittel. Berlin, 1880. DIETSCH Die wiehtigrsten Nahrungrsmittel und Getriinke, dereu Veraureinigungen
Ynderfalsehungeu. Mrich, 1884.
ELSNER Die Praxis des Nahrungsmittel-Chemikers. Hlambuirg und Leipzig, 188 2. HILGR.Yareinbarungren betreffs der Untersuchung und Beurteihnug vNon .NabLruingsOndenussxnitteln. Herauisgegeben imAuftrage der Freien Vereinigrug BayriscbrVertreter der angewandten Chemiie. Berlin, 1885.
BARTH.Die Weinanalyse. Koinninentar der imn kaiserlichen Gesudheiteanite 188_44
zusamengesteilten Beschifisse der KolMmission zur Beratung- eiuheitlicher Meuhde fdr die Analyse des Weines. Hamburg mid Leipzig, 1884.
MEYERund FINKEa.BURG. Das Gesetz betreffend den. Verkelir mit Nahnnngsmnitteln,
Gnsmittein uuid Gebrauchsgegenstiinden, youn 12. Mai 1879, Berlin, 1885.
Hmo.ERUUd KAYSER. Bericlit liber (lie vierte VersanrnIung der Frejen Voreinigrungr
Barseber Vertreter der angewaudten Chemie zu Niirnberg aml 7. ud 8. Auigust
18.Berlin, 1886.
HILERKAYSER udAnd. Bericlit ilber die flilfte Versainualung der Freien VereiniUg Bayrisoher Vertreter der-angewandteni Chernie zu Wiirzburg ami 6. und 7.
Auut 1886. Berlin, 1887.
Documns sur los falsifications des atii res alimientaires et sur les tra-vauix dui Labora*or Municipal, denxiirme rapport. Paris, 1885. G. Masson, 6diteur. BLYH.Foods: their composition and analysis. London,182 HASSLL.Food: its adulterations and the methods for their detection. London, 1S76. ALEN Commercial organic analysis. 1 vol. 2d edi tion. London, 188116, PRsor. Chemical analysis of alcoholic liquors. New York,
GARDNE. The brewer, distiller, and wine mianufacturer. Philadelphia, 188,3, Wger's chemical. technology. By Win. Crookes. New York, 14.7!2. BUELL.The ciderinakor's manual. Butffalo, 1,674. of the State Board of Health of New York, 1S-8,inclusive. Albany,

Innialreport of the Department of Health of the City of Brooklyn for 188-5 and 1886.

Uniersty of California, College of Agric-iltutre. Report of professor in charge, 1879,
180 1882, andl 1884.-Report of viticultural work during the seasons 18 3.-'84 and
188V8, same 1885 and 18d6. Sacramnto,




The production of malt liquors in this country as an industry is secnd only in importance to the production of breadstuffs. Their conumption is steadily on the increase, as is also the amount consumed in
proportion to other kinds of alcoholic beverages. The following tables
re taken from recent statistics, compiled by the Bureau of Statistics,
Treasury Department, from figures obtained from official sources:'

Anual consmption of distilled and malt liquors and wines in the United States and the average annual consumption per capita of population during the years 1840, 1850, 1860, andfro 1870 to 1886, inclusive.

Distilled spirits consumed. Wines consumed.

ear g Ju Spirits of domestic Imported Imported
0 product. spirits WVines wines
entered Total. of domestic entered Total.
lfor con- product for conFrom All other. gumption, sumption.

Pr. galls. Pr. galls. Pr. galls. Pr. galls. Gallons. Gallons. (Jallons.
S................ () 40. 378, 090 2. 082,794 43, 060, 884 124, 734 4, 748, 362 4, 873, 096
S................ () 46, 768, 083 5, 065, 390 51,833,473 221,249 6,094, 622 6,315, 871
6................ (3) 83, 904, 258 6, 064, 393 89, 968, 651 1. SIM, 008 9, 199, 133 11, 0-9, 141
70 ................ 1, 223, 0 77, 266. 368 1, 405, 510 79, 895, 708 3, 059. 518 9, 165, 54M9 1, 225, 067
71................ 2,472,011 69. 842. 617 1,745,033 64. 059. 661 4, 980, 783 10, 853, 280 15, 834, 063
72 ................ 1, 089,698 65, 14580 2,186,702 68, 422, 280 6, 908, 737 9, 713, 300 16, 682, 037
S................ 2, 965, 987 62, 945,154 2, 125, 998 C68. 037, 1:9 8,953,285 9, 893, 746 1?, 847,0 (131
74 ................ 706, 687 61. 814,875 1, 958, 528 64, 0o, 0110 0lo, 951, 8~9 9, 516, 855 20, 468, 714
75 ................ 1,757,202 62, 68, 709 1, 694, 647 66, 120, 558 12. 954. 96 1t 7, 036, 369 19, 991, 330
76 ................ 672, 221 57, 340, 472 1,471, 197 59, 48. I0 14, 908, 0 5, 193. 723 20, 16 1, 808
77 .............. 1, 527,141 57, 010,248 1,376, 729 59, 920, 118 16, 942, 592 4, 93, 738 21,876,330
S................ 1, 103,2351 49, 600, 838 1, 227, 732 51, 931, 94 1 17, 953, 386 4, 310,563 2"2, 9
S................ 1,021,708 52, 003, 407 1, 253, 300 54, 278, 475 19, 845. 113 4, 532, 017 24, 377, 130
S................ 61,120,34 1,394,279 63,526,(94 23, 298, 940 5, 030, 601 28. 329, 51
81................ 1,701,200 67,426,000 1,479,875 70, 607, 081 18, 931,819 5, 2 t, 106 24, 162, 925
82 ................ 1, 216, 850 70, 75, 548 1, 580, 578 73, 5.16, 970 19, 934, 856 5, 2s, 071 25, 5.2, 927
83 ................ 1, 253, 278 75, 508, 785 1, 60, 624 78, 452, 687 17, 406. 028 8,372, 1.2 25,778,180
i% ................ 1,137,056 78, 479, 845 1, 511, 680 81,128,581 17, 402, 938 3, 105, 407 20, 508, 345
8o ................ 1. 468, 775 07, 689, 250 1, 442, 067 70, o0, 0o2 17, 404, 69 4, 49,759 21, 9O. 457
................ 1,555, 94 69, 29 5, 361 1,410, 259 72,201, 614 17,360,6393 4,700,827 22,067,220

Statement o. 3I to 50, inclusive, of the Quarterly Report No. 2 sericK 188-'87, of the Chief of
t Breau of Statitics, Goverumont 1Printing uOle 1887. s Product less exports.
alaolated with "All .other."


Annual consumption of distilled and malt liquors and ine, .-Coninued.

Maltliqors onsmed Total consumption per capita of
Malt liquors consumed.population.

Imported Total
Year ending June Malt malt consumption All
30- liquors of liquors ofTow es Di-.
domostic entered Total. and liquors. ti Wine
product.' for con. hquors.

Gallons. Gallons. Gallons. Gallons. Pr.gals Galons. Galonallons.
1840 ............. 23,162,571 148,272 23, 310,813 7L 244,817 2 52 29 1. 36 4.17
1850 .............. 36,361,708 201,301 36, 5Q, 009 94,712,353 2.23 0.27 1.58 4.08
18 6 .............. 100,225,879 1,120,790 101,346,09 202, 374, 461 2.86 0.35 3.22 6.4
1870 ............. 203,743,401 1,012,755 204,756,15 296, 876,931 2.07 0.32 5.30 76
171 .............. 239, 838,137 1,299,990 241,138,127 321,031,851 1.6 2 0.40 0.09 8.11
1872 .............. 268,357,983 1,940,933 270,298,916 355,403,233 1.68 0.41 0.65 8.74
1873 ............. 298,519,675 2,177,587 300,697,262 387,581,432 1.63 0.45 7. 27 9.29
1874 ........2...... 97,519,981 2,001,084 299, 521,065 384,529,869 1. L 0.48 6.99 8. 98
1875 ............ 292,961,047 1,992,110 294,953,157 881,065,045 1.50 0.45 6.71 K86
1876 ............306,852,467 1,483,.920 308,336,387 387,982,085 1.32 0.45 6.831 8. 0
1877 ............. 303,854,988 1,072,679 304,926,667 386,723,115 1.29 0.47 0. 8 8.34
1878 .............. 317,136,597 832,755 317,969,352 392,165,242 1. 0.47 6.68 8.24
1879 .............. 343,724,971 880,514 344,605,485 423,261,090 1.11 0.50 7.05 8.06
I80 .............. 413,208,885 1,011,280 414,220,165 506,076,400 1.26 0.50 8. 10. 8
181 .............. 442,947,664 1,164,505 444,112,169 538, 882,175 1.37 0.47 8.&3 10.47
188........... 524,843,379 1,536,601 526,379,980 625, 499, 883 1.39 0.48 9.97 11.86
1883 .. ....... 549,616,338 1,881,002 551,497,340 655,728,207 1.45 0.48 10.18 12.11
1881 .............. 588,005,609 2,010,908 590,016,517 691,653,443 1.40 0.37 10.2 12.45
1885 .............. 594,063,095 2,068,771 596,131,866 688,632,415 1.24 0.38 10.4 12.0
1886 ...,........ 640,746,288 2,221,432 642, 967,720 737,296,551 1.24 0.38 11.18 12.

Product less exports.

NoTEs.-(1) The data as to product of domestic liquors and wines for 1840, 1850, and 1860 were drived from the Census. (2) The consumption of imported liquors and i for 1840, 1850, and 18 is rpiesented by the net imports. (3) The production of domestic wines, fro 1870 to 1885, has been easimated by the Department of Agriculture; by Mir. Charles McK. e oserpresidentofWi and
Spirit Traders' Society, New York, and other well-informed persons, and theamount stated as cosue1 d represents the production minus the exports. (4) The consumption of domestic pi ous
and amalt liquors, from 1870 to 1886, was obtained from the reports of the Commissioner of eternal tj-ven ue. (5) In computing the quantity of sparmkling and still wines and vermth in bottles, 5 mcalled quart bottles are reckoned as equivalent to the gallon. (6) The conuption of distilled pirit as a beverage is estimated to be about 90 per cent. ofthb product consumed for all purposes.

This table shows admirably the rapid increase, especially in the last
ten years, of the consumption of mnalt liquors, and the relative de.
crease in the consumption of the strongeralcoholic beverages. Thus it
will be seen that in 1840 the amount of minalt liquor consumed per capital
was a little over one-half the amiiount of distilled liquor consumed;
while in 1886 it was nine times as much. The amount of distilled liqnor consumed per capita has diminished during the twenty-six years to
one-half, while the amount of malt liquor consumed has increased very
nearly seven times; or, in other words, the malt liquors have been driving out the distilled at the rate of about .05 gallon per capital each
year, and supplanting it at the rate of about .38 gallons per capital.
The average quantity consumed annually for the last three years was 60,705,307 gallons, of which 2,100,370 gallons were imported. Taking

this as a basis, Mr. F. N. Barrett, in the publication above mentioned,
estimates the amount expended for beer per anum at $304,852,683,
placing the cost to the consumer at 50 cents per gallon. The cost to
the consumer of the total quantity of liquors per annum h places at
That there is still opportunity for increase in the cona ption of malt
liquors in the United States will bes n fro the low com ara


tables, from which it appears that while the United States quite
her own in the quantity of distilled liquors consumed, she is still
ehind the other great nations in the consumption of the milder aohol* liquors.
mrative summary of the consumption per capita of population in the United States, the ted ingdo, France, and Germany, of distilled spirits, icines, and malt liquors durSeach yearfrom 1881 to 1885, inclusire.
[From original official data. ]

Dstilled spirits. Wines. Malt liquors.
d 0 C. )

i Ew

Galls. Galls. Galls. Galls., Galls. Galls. Galls. Galls. Galls. Galls. Galls. Galls.
...... 1.39 1.00 .94 1. 32 .48 .43 18.52 (') 9. 97 33. 9 (') 22.35
1.07 1. 08 1.14 .48 .41 27.10 ( 10) 10.18 33.65 (') 22.45
. 1.46 1.03 1.24 1.19 .37 .40 30.75 (') 10.62 33. 13 (') 22.45
...... 1.24 1.05 1.25 1.11 .38 .39 30.67 () 10.44 32.72 (1) 23.19
...... 1.24 1. 01 1. 32 1.14 .38 .37 36.88 () 11.18 32.79 (1) 23.78
SNo data.
s.-Te years referred to are, for France and Great Britain, calendar years; for the United i, the eyear ending June 30, 1886, for Germany in the case of beer, the five years ending I 31, 1885, and in the case of spirits the five years ending March 31, 1881, these being the latest
for whh dat were obtainable.
nis hardly necessary, after the above showing, to dwell upon the imance of this article of daily consumption, or the necessity cf a ough acquaintance with its manufacture, composition, and the naSand extent of its adulterations. There is no beverage that con.
as with it in the amount consumed by the people except water, and sibly milk. But little supervision has been exercised over its mannare and sale, except the rigorous enforcement by the Government of
demands for a share in the profits of its manufacture.

rowing, or the art of preparing an alcoholic drink from starchy
y fietation, is of very ancient origin. It was practiced by
Egyptians, and the Greeks and Romnans learned the art from them.
odotus speaks of the Efyptians making wine from corn, and it w-s oubedly practiced by the Greeks in the fifth century before Christ, he use of malt beverages is mentioned in the writings of A!schylus SSopholes, poets of that period. It is also mentioned by Xenophon,
TIe Romas are also supposed to have derived a knowledge
he art fro the Egyptians, and Pliny and Tacitus both speak of its
amo g tb Gaulsand Germans of Spain and France.
t is supposed that the art was introduced into Britain by the Roa and acquired from the natives by the Saons. According to Veran "this excellent d healthsome liquor, beere, anciently called ale,


as of the Danes it yet is, was of the Germans in use." Ale-houses are mentioned in the laws of Ia ....
A. D. 680. Ale-booths were regulated by law A. The art of producing an alcoholic drink from a 6
have been nearly as extensively known and prac among the va s nations of the earth as the less complex ope mented liquor from the juice of fruits and plants containing sugar. Thus the Kaffre races of South Africa are said to have prepared f r many years a malt liquor from the seeds of the milt (S A lr going through all the processes of germinating e extracting e malt, and fermenting the wort. In the north of Arc another is used. The Chinese prepared the drink called sam ali from rice.
The process of brewing consists of two distinct o nations: the mting and the brewing proper. In fact the two operate are frequently separated, many small breweries buying their malt ready prepared. When kept dry it retains its qualities for an id is
handled as an article of commerce.

The object of this operation is the germination of the grain, and the consequent formation of the ferment diastase, which all sub uently, under the proper conditions, perform its specific f of converting the starchy portions of the grain into saccharine or enable matter. Barley is the grain used almost exclusively for this purp its advantages having been recognized even by the Egyptia; they seem to be principally of a physical character, consisting of the r o the kernel, and the hard husk, which freely allows the trance of water, but prevents the passage of starch or insoluble mt
The operations through which the grain is suc vely passed are called, technically, steeping, crushing, flooring, and k .drying. In the first it is spread out in large vats, covered with and allowed to steel) several days. When it has become soften, water is run off and the swollen grain is subjected to a slight d hi
causes it to germinate. This is the second ope i on
of flooring has for its end the regulation of e the, and the time when it has progressed sufficiently id length
which has been attained by the acrospire or p1 T isly
given as from two-thirds to seven-eighhs the he
sprouted grain is now spread out in the alt kd, while a current of air circulates about it. Af en
off, which is done at a low tem eratre, a t d
and finished at from 1250 to 1800 F., dg to
quired, the difference between pale, amber, l bi e
simply to the temperature at which they are last
operation serves not only to drive off te i lr


--b y trying the vitality of the germ, and fits it for keepSalso probably develops the flavor by the formation of a minute
qof empyreumatic oil in the husk.
Tts and germs are removed in this process by the turning a g of the grain. The water which is used in the process of grain is an important factor in the production of good the preference of brewers for hard lime waters for this purn shown by recent experiment to be rational, for it is found
w barley is steeped with distilled water, a very putrescible
Obtained charged with albuminous matter, while if a hard used these matters remain in an insoluble condition in the grain.
Cly considered a good, malt should not contain more than 5 t. of water, and the soluble extract should constitute about 70 ef the weight of the malt and should have a good diastatic starch mucilage. The determination of the acidity is importtermining the keeping qualities of the beer which is to be bee it, and should not be over .3 per cent. (calculated as lacTwing analyses by O'Sullivan show the composition of pale

(1) (2)

Starc-....................................... 44.15 45.13
Ohrbyd rates (of which 60-70 per cent. f.nsist
of e e sugars). Inulin (!) and a small quantity o other bodies soluble in cold water ............. 21.23 19.39
C luoe jatr........................................ 11.57 10. 09
Fa ................................................. : 1.65 1. 96
A bu nois............................................ 13.09 13.80
A h .................................................... 2.60 1. 92
r.................................................. 583 7.47
100. 12 99.76


wing proper includes a number of distinct operations, such as gand mashing the malt, boiling and cooling the wort or infnirmenting it, and clearing and rackiug the beer. In the process gn i takes place the conversion of the starch into fernmentable
ar ly maltose, by the action of the diastase. Two methods are extracting the soluble matter from tile malt, called infuiion a, respectively; the former is the method most in use in Englatter in Germany and France. The wort prepared by in.
fns less dextrin and more albuminoid matter than that preon ; the beers from the former are stronger in alcohol,
bin keeping qualities.
Should give no blue color with iodine, showing the corm.
nof all the starch, and should contain a large percentage
should constitute about 70 per cent. of the extract.


After the mashing process comes the boiling of the wort, which isbegun as soon as it is drawn off from the exhausted malt and continued for one to two hours. This prevents the formation of acid, and serves to extract the hops, which are added at this stage of the process: The boiling of the wort with hops serves not only to impart to it the desired hop flavor, but also to partially clarify it by precipitating some albuminous matter by means of the tannin in the hops, and to enhance its keeping qualities. To this end larger quantities ofhops are used for beers intended for exportation or long keeping. The wort is now ready to be submitted to the most important operation of all-fermentation-which calls for very careful supervision the part of the brewer.

After the wort has been boiled with hops it is cooled as rapidly as possible, to prevent the formation of acid, usually effected by means of artificial refrigerating apparatus 5 it is then ready for the addition of the yeast.
There are two distinct methods of fermnientation in use, called by the Germans Ober- und Untergiilhrung, and by the French ftrentati haute (top fermentation) and basse (bottom fermentationn. The former is carried on at a comparatively high temperature, theaction is rapid, and the yeast with the impurities is carried to the surface of the liquid; in the latter method the temperature is kept low, the fernientation goes on slowly, and the yeast and impurities sink to the bottom. The second method is often called the Bavarian method, as it seems to have originated there, and is used exclusively in that country. It is generally preferred in Germany and France, while in England and this country the upward clearing method appears to be more in vogue.
The nature of the fermentation depends greatly upon the character of the yeast used, for Pasteur's experiments have shown that yeast from upward-fermented beer tends to produce the upwa fermentation, while yeast from bottoni-fermented beer produces the bottom fermentation. The purity of the yeast used is of the very first importance in the production of good beer. Many experiments have been made with the end in view of Irodueing a perfectly pure yeast, which should contain only the yeast ferment proper, and thus produce a beer of good flavor and keeping properties, free from diseased or id fernients.


The production of pure yeast for brewing puroe has been put on a practical basis of late years through the scientific searches of Dr. I. C. Hansen, of the Carlsberg Institute, in Copenhagen. He seeded in producing a pure yeast cultivated from a sigle cell. He was able to differentiate in this way six different species or varieties ofccharoycetes, several of which may usually be found il an ordiay brewery


ast. These different varieties have been shown to produce beers difin not only in coloring, flavoring, facility of separation of the yeast, but also in chemical composition. In a ent address before the Society of Chemical Industry by G. H. rris, a r6sum is given of the work done in this direction by Hansen adothers.
forris states that the employment of the pure yeasts is coming ry largely into use in the beer-drinking countries of the Continent, has met with favor from some of the most noted brewing technollte, such as Jacobson, Aubry, Miirz, and Lintner, the latter of whom ss up the question in the following statements: By contamination with so-called wild yeast an otherwise normal brewery yeast can be rendered incapable of producing a beer of good flavor and with good
keeping qualities.
A contamination with wild yeasts may be produced by the dust of the air during summ and autumn, by the malt, or other sources.
By employing Hansen's method of pure cultivation and analysis it is possible to
obtai from a contaminated yeast a good brewery yeast in a state of purity.
Yeast etivated in a state of purity possesses in a marked degree the properties
of the original yeast before contamination as far as concerns the degree of
alteration of the flavor and keeping qualities of tjhe beer.
There eist different varieties of normal bottom yeast (8. cereris.), each with
specilproperties which, like the peculiarities of species, are maintained constant.
The use of this yeast has not yet extended to England, although exriments on an industrial scale are now being carried on at Burton-Trent with'different species of pure yeast. The chemical characteristics of beer made from the different species pure yeast have been investigated by Borgmann,2 who analyzed sains of ber produced from two species of pure yeast, each cultivated m a sigle cell and the beer fermented under comparable conditions.
ysis gave the following results:

Beer prepared withYeast No. 1 Yeast No. 2
i llg in10 give8s in 100

.................................... 4.13 4.23
Extract ..................................... 5. 35 5.84
A sh ......................................... .20 .25
Fro. acid (as lactic) ........................ .086 .144
Glycerol.................................... 10 137
Phosphoric acid ............................ .0710 .0s28
Nitrogen.................................... .071 .0719

From these numbers, which are the means of many determinations, the lyst concludes that the different yeasts produce beers which differ emical composition. He also finds that the proportion of alcohol Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind., 147, p. 113.
~ Zeit. Anal. Chem. 2530,


to glycerol is different from that formed with ohrbes'Fmanlses of other beers he finds that the proportion isM imiium ............................ .105.9

while with the Carlsberg putre yeast the proportion isNo.1--------------------------------........ 100 26

The method of brewing pursued in Belgium wol 4 rn the ms unscientific known, still the Belgium beers are largey consumed in Europe. No yeast whatever is used, tut the wort is lef to fret of itself, as it were, standing in the vats at a low teinperaur, until fermentation is provoked by germis that have accienalfleniti, or which may have found their way in during the poesofmauct ure. The action is naturally very slow, requiring smtimes sevral years for it8 completion, and a considerable formato of acid take's place, which is a predominant constituent in this casof beers.
The treatment of inalt liquors after the prcs ofemnaiis complete is very diverse, according to the kind of liqurs it is intended to produce, the length of time it is to be kept, &.The problem of clarifying and preserving the beer is very simple of soution if it has been properly and carefully brewed, for then it is esl lae n keeps Well; but where the reverse is the case it is ncsayto make use of various clarifying and preserving agents, andhr omsi4h delicate question of the proper agents to use, which wilprom this duity and still introduce no objectionable constituentinohednk
The discussion of this question comes properly tinerth head of adulterations, and will be considered later onl. As clrfig agents mnay be mentioned gelatine, tannin, Iceland moss, and fasea( as mineral coagulating agents phosphate of ime,analm
Formerly beer was stored iii casks or vats inlC celas o aln period, to allow it to age or ripen, especially in Gray hnecm the name of I" lagrer"1 beer, but the aim of the breweattepsnt(y is to produce tan article fit for the market in as shr aieb psil and thus turn his capital often and keep step wthkh aidpc t modern business industry, so that th nae of lgrbe~srte misnomner,


The opposition of malt liquors varies greatly according to the materi the method of brewing, the season, and the use for which it is itened.
Matliquors, properly so called, should be made only of malted barley hosyeast, and water, but the use of other materials. as substi-. tuts orthe first three ingredients has extended so greatly in countries wheretheir use is not prohibited that it is difficult to define what a beerrealy is,
Modrnbeer has been defined as a "fermented saccharine infusion to hih some wholesome bitter has been added."
tscemical composition is very complex, the principal constituents beig lchol, various sugars and carbohydrates, nitrogenous matter, carbnicacetic, succinic, lactic, malic, and tanmic acids, bitter and resinos etractive matter from the hops, glycerine, and various mineral constitt, consisting mainly of phosphates of the alkalies and alkali

The nams given to different kinds of malt liquors relate to various attibuesas the country where they were produced, as Engrlish, Germai, Bvaran beer, &c., or to the peculiarities in the method of brew. ing &c.Thus, porter is simply a beer of high percentage of alcohol, an& adefrom malt dried at a somewhat high temperature, which givs tsdark color; ale isa~ pale beer, likewise of high attenuation and mad ofPale malt, with more hop extract than porter. Stout has less alcholand more extract and still less hops than porter. These terms are sedchiefly with reference to English malt liquors. The terms usedfor erman beers, such as Erlanger, Miiekeir, &c., are for the mos prtnames of places and are applied to beers mnade in imitation of hebers originally brewed in those cities. Export beer is beer that is peialyprepared with a, view to long-keepig qualities. Th ollowinr table gives some recently published and very complete analsesof beers made by C. Graham:' Jour. Soc. Chew,. lud,


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T e following is taken from the report of the Municipal Laboratory

ri for 1885, and gives the composition of the principal beers sold in

Analyses of beers made in Municipal Laboratory of Paris in 1881.

l Grams per liter.

e. aPolariza- Remarks.

0 z'1 9

102 6.1 64. 20 12.50 34.10 3. 04 2. 28 ...... 1t. 76 Good.
.020 6.2 63.00 15.00 40.60 3. 86 2. 2 ...... 16. .25
.... 1.019 6.2 6310 13. 17 28.20 ...... ...... 5o 88
..... 1.021 5.5 65. 70 12.35 31.)80 .-... 2.33 ...... 70.38
1.017 .2 56.20 13.00 ....... --- 2.39 ...... 140.50
6.. 1. 022 5.0 75.90 11.62 47.16 ...... 2.32 ...... 70.50
.. 1. 024 5.6 79.25 17.32 32. 91 ...... 2.32 1.47 -+170. 48 Contained salicylic acid.
1 27 6.1 62.25 11. 16 51.09 ...... 2 09 .68 +150.34 Good.
.. .030 5.8 98.36 23 92 36.43 ....2.93 1.47 230.52
0..-.. 1.019 5.2 65.53 12.56 ..... 2.04 1.12 +140.20
S 1.020 5.7 65.50 15.83 ..............1.58 1.96 -+180.05
... 1.017 6.5 58.72 11.58 .. ..... 1.64 2.45 +150.17
S1.02 4.0 58.42 10.01 ..... 1.94 2.45 --120.21
S 1. 20 5.7 63.40 81 3............. ... 6.27
.... 5.8 53.48 14. 29 .............. 2.70 14D. 50 Contained slicylic acid.
.. 1.01 59.50 9.81 .............. 2.90 1.21 +120.41 Good.
... 1.014 5.9 60.05 9.79 ............. 2. 95 1. 12 110. 54
S1.019 5.3 48.90 8. 28 .......... 2.85 2.03 70.74
... ........ 7.3 78.45 1 6.54 ..... 430 ..... +200.00
... ........ 4.7 58.71 12.23 .... ...... 2.90 1.04 +200.68
S... .......27.45 ..................... 95 1.36 + 5. 60 Pssable.
... ........ 8.8 64.49 11 91 -....... 235 13. 12 GI .

ena aver gesof 135 samples of beer, analyzed in 1882: Alcohol, 4.25 per cent. by volume; extract, V.6 grams per liter.

h following, taken from the same source, is interesting as showing
a erag of the composition of beers manufactured in various counes It is taken from a very large number of collated analyses.

rae of the content of alcohol, efXtract, and ash in various beeris for crport and preserration.

Per cent. alcohol by Per cent extract. er nt. ash
volume.Per et extract. Per cent. a

Min. Max. Meun Max. Mean. Min. Max. Mean.

French ecers.
sbrg....... ........ 4.0 5.8 4.7 4.0 5.6 4.65 0. 30 0.33 0.32
e .......... .......... 4.0 4. 4. 1 4.0 5.3 4. ...... 0. 35 ........
is ............. ...... 3.5 3.5 3.5 4.0 8.0 6.00 ...... ..............
Nay, Tourts l, TartonleittelVe oliseToul. 5.0 6.0 5. 8 4. 0 7.6 5. 70 0.19 0 35 0.29
........ ....... ........ ....... ........ ....... ..... ...

German beers.
S n ................... 2.08 6.90 3.70 4.40 7.4 5.8 018 0. 45 0. 25
S................... 3.00 8.30 4.50 3.90 11.3 7.2 0. 13 0.47 0.29
Mmover, Holstein, Pomra ........... ....... 3.93 4.81 4.20 5.07 6.7 5.9 0.25 0.26 0. 25

I omen stir les falsificat ions des matires aimiontaire is et sutir les trtvaux d4
10 atoire tr quicipal, 4euxibmo rapport, J'aris, 1887.

44M -No. 13. Vt. 3----.-,-


Average of the contents of alcohol, extract, and ash in various ber, afe.-Continued.

Per cent. alcohol by c e.ra.
volume. Per cent. extract. Per cent. ash.

Min. Max. Mean. Min. Max. Mean. Min. Max. Mean.

Austrian beers.
Vienna, Moravia .......... 3.00 4.50 3.5 5.00 8.0 6.1 0.18 0.28 0.20
Bohemia .................. 3.29 4.59 3.8 4.10 5.9 4.7 0.17 0.28 0.20
English beers.
Ale....................... 5.0 8.5 6.2 4.8 14.0 6. ... ... ........ ........
Porter..................... 4.0 6.9 6.4 5.9 7.4 6.5 ........ ................
Belgian beers.
Lambick ................. 4.5 7.7 0.02 2.07 5.6 3.7 0.30 0.35 0.32
Faro .................... 2.5 4.9 4.15 2.90 5.1 4.2 0.29 ................
Bibre d'orge ............. 3.0 4.9 4.35 2.70 4.5 3.4 0.29 ....... ........
Uytzet ......... ..... 2.7 3.2 3.00 4.00 5.0 4.4 ....... ........ ........
Bibres blanches........... 2.2 4.4 .. 3.00 5. 0 4. ........ ........ ........
Bilres diverses ........... 3.5 8.4 5.80 3.10 8.0 5.5 ....... ........ ........


But very little work has been done on American beers; they seem to have shared with other dietary articles the general indifference of the American public to the composition of their food and drink.
A very extensive series of analyses was made in the State of New York in 1885, under the authority of the State Board of Health, by Dr. F. E. Englehardt, and outside of this I have been able t find very few published analyses of American beers.
Dr. Englehardt's analyses were made upon a very large number of samples, 476 in all, which were collected from all over the State, and were intended to furnish a good average representation of the ber retailed in the State. The samples included various kinds of malt liquor, porters, ales, and a weak beer sold under the name of weiss beer. Unfortunately no arrangement of the analyses was made with a view to showing the composition of various kinds, as the exa nation was made principally with reference to the adulteration, so all varieties are tabulated together. The following averages I have had compiled from bis table by the Statistical Division of this Department, only excepting a few samples which he has indicated as being imported:

Arerage composition of American malt liquors, as shown by analyse madefor York
State Board of Health by F. E. Englehardt, Ph. D

Kind. Specific Alcohol Extract. Ash. Pheephoric
gravity. by weight. aid.

Per cent. Per cent. err cent
Lager, 172 samples .... 1. 016 3. 754 5. 864 .20 64
Ahle, 19 amples ...... 1. 013 4. 22 6.423 .o7 .0832
Porter, 70 auImples.... 1.015 4.462 0.003 .35 .092
Weisn.28 samples... 1.0008' 1.732 2.356 .180 .0491


The maimum and minimum content of alcohol, extra-ct, and ash in the sme saples is as follows:

Alcohol Extat. Ash. Alcohol by Extat. Ash.
by weight. weight.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. PeT cent. Percent.
Lgr7.061 9.647 .412 .677 3.655 .172
Ae.... 8.994 9. 501 .552 2. 410 2.703 .9
Pre 1615 11. 711 .55 1671 2,843 .170
3.179 4.143 .468 .755 1.277 .069

Teeanalyses show great lack of uniformity of composition in, the different vaities of malt liquor, but it should be remembered that the sampes erecollected with a view to ascertaining the extent of adulteratio, an many samples were found to be sophisticated in one way or anoter.Especially in the case of the content of ash the average of thes saples does not give the average composition of American beers, 'formanyof these ashes were found to consist principally of salt.
Folowig is the average of nineteen analyses made by the same cheis fr the New York Board of Health in 1882:

Specific gravity ................ 1.0162
Alcohol by weight------------..2.78
Extractive mnattter------------...6.047
Sugar----------------------....1. M/ 1
Free acid calculated as lactic .... .189 Ash --------------------------.305
Phosphic acid............... .105

The ollwing analyses of four samples of beer sold in Indianapolis, Ind, wremade by Mr. J. N. Harty:'

1633 4.00 .06 oU 18 39 5-S

Sc mdt's ... 1.0172 16.816 1!3.440 2. 283 .014 .0,174 .080 4.610
Average... 1.0189 6.3611 3. 130 2.1 08 .4811 2016.4

The nalyt dloes not state whether the percentage of alcohol is by weiht r olumie, biit on account of its being so high, presumably it is

'Analyst, Vol. 7, p). 22.


Analysee made in 1873 of New York beers for the "Moderatin society" by Profeor

1 2.00 90 .100, MPhosphoric
.4 .. -..Pr. ct. Pr. ct. Peret. Per c. Pr ct. Perct. Per ct. Per cent. Per cent.
1.0280 4.00 8.5215 187.40 7.1605 0. 8750 0. 2970 0.1890 0. 1300 2.2105 None.
1.0315 2.00 8.4580 89.50 7.0695 0.8750 0. 3425 0. 1710 0. 1610 2.2034 None.
1.0175 4.60 6.5570 88.80 5. 4080 0. 7000 0. 3680 0.0810 0. 1775 2285 None.
1. 0275 2. 80 8. 3110 88. 80 7. 3530 0. 125 0. 2675 0. 1080 0.0575 2. 7826 None.
1. 0330 3.40 ...... 86. 60 8.90 35 0. 6300 0.3740 0. 0900 0. 1200 3.0250 None.
1.Oo10 4.60 6.8280 88.50 5. 717010. 375 0. 3385 0.1350 0.1875 2.6472 None.
1.0250 2.50 6.9740 90.40 5.856.5 0. 650 0.2905 0.1620 0,0875 0.9726 None.
1.0180 2.80 6. 8600 00. 30 5. 6705 0. 6375 0. 4620 0. 1625 0.06251.0338 None.

Phos. Malt. Dex-i xacid. oe. troe tie.

1.0150 3.10 5.1840 91.60 4.0060 1.6120 0,2500 0. 225 0. 1000 0.5470 0.500 2.626 None.
1. 01*25 5.20 5. 4660 89.20 4. 1940 0. 7870 0. 2590 10. 2250 0. 1000 0.3120 1. 1220 2.3010 None.
1.0155 4.30 6. C400 89.60 4.6870 0.8400 0.2410 :0. 2700 0. 1120 0.2040 1.080 2.6980 None.
1.0120 5.20 5.0A740 89. 60 3.7620 0.7700 0. 2720 '0 2700 0.1170 0.7540 0.3010 1.9670 None.
1. 0150 4. 60 6.4360 88. 80 5. 6680 0.4550 0.2100 0.1620 0.0850 0.6890 0.8450 3.5760 None.
1.0150 4.60 6. 680 89.20 4.7000 0.8570 0. 2930 0. 3150 0. 1200 0.0950 0.2060 2.3750 None.

Analyse8 made by Professor Englehardt for sane society

a I * !I

C1 C6 i +
. .....E

Per cent. Per cent.
1. 0145 4.25 5.750 90.00 1.420 2.745 0.599 0.153 0.302 0.093 None.
1. 0150 3.70 5. 670 90. 60 1. 426 2.680 0. 677 0. 174 0.279 0.107 None.
1.0156 3. 70 5.770 90.50 1.590 2.510 0.706 0.150 0. 39 0.107 None.
1. 0134 4.25 5.350 90. 30 1.285 2. 563 0. 3!9 0, 212 0.319 0.318 None. 1. 0197 3. 50 6.470 89.90 1.434 3.159 0.869 0.150 0.321 0.076 None.
1.0187 3. 70 6. 462 89. 70 1. 563 3. 303 0. 760 0.202 0.311 0.078 None.
1.0120 4.10 4.297 90. G0 0. 913 2.037 0. 624 0.150 0.321 0 076 None.
1.0175 4. 30 6. 586 89. 00 1. 435 3.141 0. 657 0.123 0. 33 7 0.097 None.
0174 4.20 6. 380 89.40 1.448 3. 004 0. 810 0.212 0.339 0.098 None.
1.0162 4.25 6.209 89.50 1.48 5 3.033 0.700 0 212 0.352 0.008 None.

The tables furnished above constitute about all the analyses of
American beer I have been able to find in the literature I have access to. Probably more have been published in the trade journals.


The analyses made by this Department comprise3 sam ples, this being about all the different brands and varieties of beers of domestic
manufacture obtainable in Washington. The investigation wa made principally with a view to ascertain the extent an nature o their
adulteration, if any, and especially the use of antiseptic nd prservative agents. As a basis for determining adulteration, however, it is
necessary to know the normal or average composite, so a fairly com.
I Am. Analyst, April 1, 1887.


a is of all samples examined has been made. The intention of teiv i(ation was not so much to make a very extensive series oas to establish definite methods of analysis for the guidance oof state boards of health or similar bodies, whose promore especially to investigate the extent of adulteration prevtheir States by the examination of large numbers of samples.


Tt liquors used as samples were all purchased in Washington, Included the varioui piular brand m.t:lo in Milwaukee, C n ,Philadelphia, New York, &c., which are sold all over the t as well as the product of the few local brewers. Some were ofrom wholesale dealers, but the majority were purchased in
ns and groceries, without statement of the purpose for which e intn All the draft beers were obtained in this way.
SEnglish and German beers and ales were analyzed for corn-



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In the w on malt liquors an endeavor has been made to simplify Analyses as much as possible, and various methods have been tried th this nd in view. The various processes given are believed to be bestpossible for combining rapidity of execution with sufficient acracy of results.
he necessary determinations may be conveniently divided into two claes :
1. The analysis of the sample proper, comprising determination of Density, alcohol, extract or total solids, original gravity, saccharine atter, albuminoids, free acid (fixed), free acid (volatile), ash, glycerine, ophoric acid, and carbonic acid.
The processes for the detection of adulteration, comprising a search Substitutes for malt, substitutes for hops, preserving agents (salilic acid, borax, sulphites), and mineral additions.


'he estimation of alcohol in beers and wines is generally made in Sof two ways, either by direct distillation and determining the ohol in the distillate, or, indirectly, by evaporating the alcohol from ample and obtaining the per cent. from the difference in specific vity of the sample before and after the alcohol has been driven off. authorities differ as to the accuracy of the indirect method, some even ding it to give better results than the direct estimation. It is genally recommended to use both method, as the one gives a check r the other, and it is very easy to carry bath on together, as the e sample which is used for the distillation can be used for the de. mination of the density of the de-alcoholized solution, provided no inis used. I much prefer the distillation method, and have adopted Sresults by it in the tables.
Shave almost invariably found that during the distillation a preciptaion of flocculent albuminous matter takes place in the flask, evietlybodies which are rendered insoluble, either by the evaporation of Alcohol or acetic acid, or by the heating of the solution, and it would sm obvious that this separation of solids from the solution would ate more or less the results by the indirect method. For the distillation method 100cc. of the sample, freed from carbonic Sby shaking, are measured out, rinsed into a flask with about 50cc. ter, the latter connected with a Liebig's condenser, and 100cc. disied off. The sample and distillate should be measured at the same perature. The specific gravity of the distillate is then obtained means of an accurately tared picnometer, preferably one carrying a rmometer, so that the weight may be taken at exactly 15.50 C. The e cent. of alcohol in the distillate is then obtained by reference to a e givin the per cent. of alcohol in solutions of different specific


gravities, of which tables Hehner's are the best in use. This per cent. multiplied by the specific gravity of the distillate, and the result divided by the specific gravity of the original sample, gives the per cent. of alcohol by weight contained in the latter. Theacracyoftheoperation is increased by weighing the sample taken, and also the distillate. Then the weight of th a distillate multiplied by the ecent. of alcohol corresponding to its specific gravity as found in the table, and the resutilt divided by the weight of the sample taken, gives the per cent. of alcohol by weight contained in the ltter.
For the indirect method it is necessary to estimate accurately the specific gravity of the original beer, thoroughly freed of carbonic acid by shaking and standing; then 100ce, or any convenient quantity is measured out, evaporated to half its bulk, cooled, and made up to its original volume with water, taking care to have the solution at the same temperature as the sample when first measure. The specific gravity of the de-alcoholized liquor is taken. Then the specific gravity of the original sample divided by the specific gravity of the de-alcoholized solution gives the specific gravity of the alcohol evaporated,from which figure the per cent. of alcohol is ascertained by reference to the table. The same sample which is used for distilling can be very conveniently used for this determination as well.


Khoner'u alcohol table.

t;- P- >1 >1>
0 W .0 0
Co .fi .

Prc.Per cf
00 0.I Per t. Per t. Per t. Per ct. Perot. Per ct.
.0.07 0.9029 4.06 5.08 0.9859 8.71 10.82 0.9789 14.00 17.26
813 8 4.12 5.16 8 8.79 10.91 8 14.09 17.37
7 7 4.19 5.24 7 8 86 11.00 7 14.18 17.48
0.26 6 4.25 5.32 6 8.93 11.08 6 14.27 17. 59
0.33 5 4.31 5.39 5 9.00 11.17 5 14.36 17 70
4 0.40 4 4.37 5.47 4 9.07 11.26 4 14.45 17.81
23 0.46 3 4.44 5.55 3 9.14 11.35 3 14.55 17.92
42 0.53 2 4.50 5.03 2 9.21 11.41 2 14.61 18. 03
0.0 1 4.56 5.71 1 9.29 11.52 1 14.7:3 18. 14
0 0.86 0 4.62 5.78 0 9.36 11.61 0 14.82 18.25

S58 0.73 0.9919 4.9 5.83 0.9819 9.43 11.70 0.9779 14.91 19 83
8 06 0.79 8 4.75 5. 1 8 9.50 11.79 8 15.00 18.48
7 8 0.86 7 4. 8t C. 02 7 9.57 11.87 7 15.04 18.58
0 0 4 87 6. 10 6 9.61 11.98 8 15.17 18.68
5 0. 0. 5 4.94 6.17 5 9.71 12.05 5 15. 25 18.78
4 0 1.06 4 5.00 .241 4 9.79 12. 13 4 15.33 18.88
08 1.13 3 5.00 6.32 3 9.86 12.22 3 15.42 1K.98
2 9 1.19* 2 5 12 6.401 2 9. 93 12.31 2 15.50 19.08
1 1.0 1.26 1 5.19 6.48 1 10.00 12.40 1 15.58 191
10 1.34 0 5.25 6.55 0 10.08 12.49 0 15.67 19. 23

0.99 1.12 1.42 0.9909 5.3 863 0.9839 10.15 12.58 0.9769 115.75 19.39
S 10.r2 63 12.08 8 15.83 19.49
-7 125 15 4 8 7 10.31 12.77 7 15.92 19.59
6~ 1.16 5.0 686 1 6 10.38 12. 87 8 16.00 19.6C8
5 .7 1.73 5 5. 56' () 5 10.46 12. 96 5 16.08 19.78
4 144 1.81 4 5.82' 7,01 4 10.5 t1 13.05 4 16.15 19.87
2 .5 1.88 i 3 5. 69 7. 09 3 10.62 13.15 3 16.23 19. 96
2 1-6 1.96 2 5.75 7.17 2 10.69 13.24 2 16.31 20.06
1 2.01 1 5. 81 7.25 1 10.77 1: 31 1 16.38 20. 15
0 1.8 2.12 0 5.87 7.32 0 1085 13.43 0 16.46 20.24
1.75 2.20 0.9899 5.94 7.40 0.9829 10.92 13.52 0.9755 16.85 20.71
) .1 2.27 8 6.00 7.48 8 11.00 13.62 0.9750 17.25 21.19
1.87 2.35 7 6.07 7.57 7 11.08 13.71 0.9745 17.67 21.09
1.N 2.43 6 6. 14 7.86 6 11.15 13. 81 0.9740 18.08 22. 18
5 00 2.51 5 6.21 7.74 5 11.23 13M90 0.9735 18.46 22.61
2.00 2.58 4 6.28 7. 83 4 11.31 13.99 0.9730 18.85 23. 10
2.11 2.62 3 6.36 7.92 3 11.38 14.09 0.9725 19.25 23.58
2.17 2.72 2 6. 43 8.01 2 11.46 14.18 0.9720 19.67 24. 08
2.2 2.79 1 6.50 8.10 1 11.54 14.27 0.9715 20.08 24.58
S2.28 2.86 0 6. 57 8.18 0 11.62 14.37 0.9710 20.50 25.07

2.33 2.93 0.9889 6.64 8.27 0. 9819 11.69 14.46
8 2.39 3.00 8 6.71 8.36 8 11.77 14.56
2.44 3.07 7 6. 78 8.4.5 7 11.85 14. 65
2.50 3.14 6 6.86 8.54 6 11.92 14.74
5 2.5 3.21 5 6. 93 8.83 5 12.00 14. 81
2.61 3.28 4 7.00 8.72 4 12.08 14. 93
S2.67 3.35 3 7.07 8.80 3 12. 15 15.02
2 2.72 3.42 2 7. 13 8.88 2 12.23 15. 12
2.78 3. 49 I 7.20 8.96 1 12. 31 15.21
0 2.83 3.55 0 7.27 9.04 0 12.38 15.30
0 2.89 3.62 0.9879 7.33 9.13 0. 9809 12. 46 15.40 2.94 3.69 8 7.40 9.21 8 12. 5 15.49
3.00 3.76 7 7.47 9.29 7 12. 62 15.58
3.06 3.83 6 7.53 9.37 6 12.69 15.6S
.12 3.90 5 7.60 9.45 5 12.77 15.77
3.18 3.2 4 7. 67 9.54 4 12.85 15.88
3.24 4.05 3 7. 73 9.62 3 12. 92 15.96
2 3.2w 4 12 1 2 7.80u 9.70 12 131.00 16.0U)3
1 .35 4.20 1 7. 7 9. 78 1 13. 08 16. 15
03.41 4.27 0 7)-. 93 9.80 0 13.15 16.24

1.M .47 4. 31 0. 889 .00 9.91) 0.9799 13.23 16. 33
3.53 4.42 8 8.07 10. 03 8 13 31 16. 43
7 3.5 4.4 7 8 14 0.127 131.38 16f. 52
S3.5 1 4.5.21 1.21 13 46 16 61
.7 4.6.9 1):o5 1 1.3. 54 16.70
4 376 7 1 4 S.36 10.3:8 4 1T 6-2 16.80o
3 .8 47 3 8. 43 10.47 31 UI.69 10. 89
2 .8 4.85 2 8, W 10).56 2 13.77 16f. 98
LO.9S4 9 1 8.57 10.6 1 Ei1:3. Sr 17.08
4 05.001 0 8.01 110.730 1.9 -117.17



This can also be obtained either directly, by weigh orm a sample into an open dish, driving off the moisture 1000C. until a constant weight is obtained, or indirectly, by cau a from the cific gravity of the de-alcoholized solution. For te direct estimation a small quantity should b weighed out; 10 grams is quite sufficient, and 5 grams gives still better results. This is allowed to run out into a thin film on the bottom of a shallow dish having an area of several square inches. In this shape it is very readily dried toa, constant weight at 1000 C., while if a larger quantity is taken this mes quite difficult, and it is necessary to use a higher temperature.'
In case the indirect method is used the per cent. of extract may be obtained from one of the various tables in use or by dividing the difference between the specific gravity and 1.030 by th3 factor 3.8G. The result obtained is the number of grams of solid matter in 100n. of the beer, and must be divided by the specific gravity of the original beer to get the exact per cent.


The "original gravity" of beer is the specific gravity of the w rt from which it was made, before fermentation. This is ascertained by computation from data given by the alcoholic content and the malt extract contained in the de-alcoholized liquid. The specific gravity of the alcoholic distillate (or the specifl gravity of the alcohol evaporated, if the indirect method is used) when subtracted from 1.000 gives a number called the "spirit indication." The degrees of gravity lost are then ascertained by reference to the table given below. The degrees found are added to the specific gravity of the de-alcoholized beer, an( the number thus obtained is the original gravity.
The following table was calculated by Graham, Hofmann, and Redwood from actual experiments on malt worts fermented under normal conditions:
The following duplicate determinations shw very satisfactory agreemeut in the results obtained by using a snall quantity for drying: .o..484. .. 4.81..
No. 4800. No. 4801. N 48 No. 487

1- ---------- 4.25 5.40 4.52 4.67
2 ........................... 4. 16 5.40 4.58 4.


0 1 .3 4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9

0 .3 56 A1 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7
1 3.0 3.3 3.7 4.1 4.4 4.8 5.1 5.5 5.9 6.2 2 6.6 7.0 7.4 7.8 8.2 8.6 9.0 9.4 9.8 10.2 3 10.7 11.1 11.5 12.0 12.4 12.9 13.3 13.8 14.2 14.7 4 15.1 15.5 16.0 16.4 16.8 17.3 17.7 18.2 18.6 19.1 5 19.5 19.9 20.4 20.9 21.3 21.8 22.2 22.7 23.1 23.6 6 24.1 246 253.0 25.5 28.0 26.4 26.9 27.4 27.8 28.3 7 28.8 29.2 29.7 30.2 30.7 31.2 31.7 32.2 32.7 33.2 8 33.7 34.3 34.8 35.4 35.9 36.5 37.0 .7.5 38.0 38.6
9 39.1 39.7 40.2 40.7 41.2 41.7 42.2 42.7 43.2 43.7 10 44.2 44.7 45.1 45.6 46.0 46.5 47.0 47.5 48.0 48.5 11 49.0 49.6 50.1 50.6 51.2 51.7 52.2 52.7 53.3 53.8 12 54.3 54.9 55.4 55.9 56.4 56.9 57.4 57.9 58.4 58.9 13 59.4 00.0 61.5 61.1 61.6 62.2 62.7 63.3 6:.8 64.3 14 64.8 65.4 65.9 66.5 67.1 67.6 8.2 68 7 693 61).9 15 70.5 71.1 71.7 72.3 72.9 73.5 74.1 74.4 75.3 75.9

At of aetic acid above 0.1 per cent. somewhat vitiates the rebythe table, and a correction is necessary. The mannerof

m i this correction may be ascertained by consulting Allen,' or
S the standard works, which give also tables for the calculation of
t weight of malt used in the wort.

1w is given a table showing the results obtained from the samples
a, by the direct and indirect methods:

Ci direct and indirect method8 of estimating alcohol and extract in malt liquors.


Per c. Per c. Pere t. Per ct..
4800 ............ 1 4.28 4.33 4.18 4. 56 1. 0505 1.0506
4801 ............ 2 4.42 .........5.40 6.03 1.0573 ........
2 ............ 4.55 1 4.51 5.71 6.44 1.0607 1. 0596
4803 ..... 4 4.18 3.96 5.05 5.52 1.0533 1.0516
5 5.53 5.39 4.55 5.03 1.0 28 1.0616
4805 ...... 8 4.40 4.08 6.15 6.44 1.0590 1.0562
7 ............ 4.29 4.08 5.22 5.67 1. 0549 1.0631
4807 .......... 4.35 3.84 5.09 5.54 1.0549 1.0507
............ 4.52 4.39 5.94 6.64 10609 1.05941
4810 ........... 3.84 3.67 7.0,5 7.82 1.0601 1.0584
4811 ........... 11 4.36 4.08 4. 63 5.29 1.0539 1.0516
4812 ....... 12 4.29 3.90 5. 18 5.57 1.0545 1.0513
4813 ... ... 13 4.63 4.33 5.86 6. 32 1.0607 1. 0576
4814............ 14 4.71 4.57 4.91 5. 62 1.0585 1.0569
S............ 15 4.30 3.90 4.83 5.39 1.0538 1. 0506
4816 ............ 16 3.86 .... 5.62
4817 ............ 17 4.28 3.90 4.64 6.36 1.0577 1,0545
4818 ............ 4.68 4.33 6.82 7.24 1.0650 1. 0613
4 19 ............ 19 6.24 5.83 3.46 4.17 1. 847 1.0616
20 5.66 5.39 4.42 4.90 1. 0633 1. 611I
422 ............ 6.13 5. 77 5 90 6.33 1.0728 1.097
........... 5.30 5.51 3.94 4.54 1.05S7 1.0605
2 ............ 5.38 5.07 3.05 3.25 1.0543 1.0520
............ 3.86 3. 43 6.24 6.83 1. 0553 1.0517
4825 ........... 25 4.59 4.20 5.38 5.8 0 1.058I 1.545
............ 5.25 4. 76 .02 6.55 1 0669 1.0623
7 ........... 6.92 6.42 553 6.09 10. 081 1. 0741

............ 4.22 3.49 5.88 6.31 1.0570 1.0500
48 ........ 80 ,4.22 3.87 5.84 6. 23 1. 0561 1.0493
484 ........ 81 4.10 13.837 5. 88 6.28 05103 1.0494
445........ 32 5.08 4.14 .26 6.69 1.0660 1.0576

Averg .. ..4.41 5.40 5.94 1.n0s00 1. 0569

Comjme iei al 0 rgan ic Analysis, 2d edit., Vol. 1I.


The saccharine matter in beer consists principally of maltose and dextrin, with probably a small proportion of dextrose. The greater part of the entire extract is composed of these different carbohydrates. The proportion of maltose to dextrin is of considerable importance in judging of the quality of a beer. The dextrin contributes to the" fullness" (vollmiindigkeit) of th taste, and a larger proportion of dextrin to extract makes a beer of good "body." The method of brewing is said to have an important influence upon the relative proportions of maltose and dextrin. The determination of the percentages of these suars is, therefore, quite an important one as showing the nature and quality of the sample, though not of much utility in detecting adulterations. The usual method is to estimate the maltose by Fehling's solution, and the dextrin, if it is reported at all, is obtained by difference from the total solids. So little is known of the saccharine bodies already existing in the grain and of the products of the conversion of starch into sugars that their separate estimation is rather unsatisfactory.' Thedextriunmay be determined directly by precipitating with alcohol, washing and weighing. The results are sufficiently accurate for .commercial purposes, according to J. West Knights, 2 who employed it upon worts.
Graham estimates the maltose and dextrin in bee worts by th use of Filing's solution before and afterinversion.3 The cupric oxide reducing power is determined gravimetrically, 10cc. are measured out and diluted to 100cc.; 20ce. of this solution are used to 30c. Feeling's solution. The weight of CuO obtained, multiplied by 0.7314 gives the amount of m'altese in the quantity of diluted liquid employed. The maltose having been determined, 10cc. of the wort are mixed with 3cc. of sulphuric acid, diluted to 100cc. and inverted by heating to 1000 C., for 3 to 4 hours inii a flask furnished with a long tube. The volume of the solution is again made up to 100ce., 10cc. carefully measured or weighed, neutralized with sodium carbonate, and the reducing power determined by heating with Fehling's solution, in the iame way as before. The percentage of dextrin is then calculated as fillows: Multiply half the weight of CuO, obtained by the action of Febling's solution on; 2cc. of the original wort by 1.72, and subtract the product from the CuO obtained from the inverted solution (= lec. of the original). The difference multiplied by 40.8 gives the grams of dextrin in 100ce of the original wort.
This method was applied to the samples analyzed with very unsatisfactory results. In some cases the sum of the inaltose and dextrin determined in this way exceeded the amount of total extract, while in other cases the per cent. of dextrin was a minus quantity. This method was therefore abandoned. The results given were obtained by
1 Recent work on this problem has been published by O'Sullivan, Jour. Che. Soc., Jan., 1880, l p. 58.
Allen's Organic Analyis 1, 274.
Analyst 7, 211.


tngmethod taken from Allen.' The maltose was estimated by g tion, volumetrically, by the method in Use in this laboratory fination of cupric oxide reducing power.2 The polarizaib ved in the original beer, the clarification being accomm of lead acetate. The reading is taken on the circular
institutes the total circular rotation. The number of grams S100cc. of the beer having been ascertained from the results o n th Fehling's solution, it is multiplied by 2.78, which gives tdue to maltose; this result is deducted from the total rotat w gives the rotation due to dextrin. The angle found, divided Multiplied by .259, gives the grams of dextrin in 100cc of the o T figures are based on the assumption that the polariu is one in which monochromatic light is employetl, and that
rved in a tube 200 millimeters in length. By dividing tper 100cc. by the density of the beer, the actual percentage oand dxrin will be ascertained. Able interest is attached to the nature of the polarizing bl mt liquors, I append the polarization given by the samples eIt is a very easy and satisfactory determination to make, t be ng readily clarified by acetate of lead, giving bright, clear sThe figures given are in divisions of the cane-sugar scale,
normal beer, the dilution of one-tenth incident upon the ado e lead being corrected by reading in a 220-millimeter tube; Sum t employed was a Laurent polariscope, in which monoa is employed.

Serial Normal Serial Normal
number. poarization. number. polarization.
0 0
4800 42.3 4817 77.6
4801 61.3 4818 79.4
4802 66.6 4819 18.7
4803 33.9 4820 45.8
4804 52.5 4821 57.2
4805 74.4 4822 42.8
4806 60.4 4823 33.1
4807 50.4 4S24 82.5
4808 74L 8 4825 68.6 4810 93. 0 1 482 69.7
4811 47.5 4827 478.
4812 55.8 4828 87.6
4813 72.2 4842 75.4
4814 57.5 4843 78.2
4815 45.5 4844 7? 8
4816 05. 8 4845 74.8

Station was in all cases right-handed.
Twere determined by Neighing 10 grams of the beer a evapag to dryness, and burning with soda lime
way, nitrogen und 6.25 is ven the per cnt.
Page 27d 5. TFully did In Bulleti No., vage


age of albuminoids. Graham determines the nit lynizing" the beer as in water analysis. The de nitrogenous matters in beer is important in enabi an
form an opinion on the question whether substitutes fmaltw in its manufacture, as saccharine matter derived than grain have little nitrogenous content. Too albuminous matter is injurious to the keeping quali* of the beer.
The Kieldahl' method, which was originally de by its inven for application to the determination of nitrogen in b ad w also be used.

The ideas of chemists in regard to the nature of acidity of nor mal beer have undergone considerable change in the last two ort years. It was formerly considered to be l)prncipally due to the preence of lactic acid, with a small quantity of succinic and other acids, but is now considered to be due, for the greater part, to acid phosphates. Acetic acid is present only to a very limited extent in beer, its presence in any considerable quantities being proof of the "souring" of the beer. Ott has shown the difficulty of the exact point of neutralization in beer, as by the addition of to the acid phosphates the reaction becomes amphoteric" from simultaneous formation of both primary and seco phosphates,
and the establishment of the point of neutralization by the on with litnius paper is very difficult. To better means of determining acidity in beer has been proposed, however, and I have used the ornary method of adding standard alkali until a drop placed on neut litmus paper produces no alteration of color. 50cc are conveniently taken for this determination, freed from carbonic acid and titrated with decinormal alkali. The acidity can be given directly as cubic centimeters of normal alkali required for 100ce, ot beer, or rckoned as lai acid. The volatile acids, when it is necessary to determine them arately, as in the case of soured beer, may be best acted by d1s tillation in a current of steam, as described under wine, all methods for their estimation by difference by evaporating the beer to dry and titrating the residue having been shown to be fauly.
The Bavarian chemists,' at their last meeting in 1886, adopted the figure of 3ce. normal alkali for 100c beer as a m l fo
normal beer.

The ash may best be determined by burning the cc. of beer at a very low red heat in a muffle, Zeit. Anal. Chem. 1883,366, for reference to the modificati Bulletin No. 12, U. S. Depart. Agriculture, Division of Chomtstryp '2Zeit. Anal. Chem. 24,132.
3Ber. it. d. funfte Ver. der Freieu Vereln Bay. Ver. d. a Wilzburg, Berlin, 1887.


-should be subjected to a qualitative examination, with a view to ascertaining if any mineral substances have been added to the beer.

The estiation of glycerine is a troublesome and unsatisfactory determination to make, and as the information obtained in the case of beer is not sufficient to repay the labor of the analysis, except in special cases I have omitted it.
The following method is used by the Bavarian chemists : 50cc. of beer are treated with about 3 grams of quicklime, evaporated to a sirup, then mixed with about 10 grams coarsely powdered marble or sand, and brought to dryness. The entire dried mass is transferred to an extraction apparatus,and extracted for six or eight hours with not over 50cc. strong alcohol. To the slightly colored extract is added an equal volume of water-free ether, and the solution after standing a short time is poured into a weighed flask, or filtered through a small filter, which is after. wards washed with a little ether-alcohol. After the evaporation of the ether and alcohol the residue is dried in the air bath at 1000 to 1050 C. in a loosely-closed flask, until the losses in weight are constant. With beers that are very rich in extract, the ash-content of the glycerine may be determined and deducted from the total weight.
Methods recently published for the estimation of glycerine by its conversion into carbonic acid by sulphuric acid and bichromate of potash have been utilized for its determination in fermented liquors by Legler~ and promise to prove more expeditious and exact than the old Miethods.

The phosphoric acid was determined by means of a standard solution of uranium acetate, except in the case of a few very dark-colored samples, when the analysis was made gravimetrically from the ash by precipitation with ammonium molybdate, in the usual way.

Most investigators havegiven very little attention to the determination of the carbonic acid in beer, regarding it as of little importance in formingun estimate of the quality of the sample examined. The practical consumer, however, is of quite a different opinion and condemns inmmediately a beer which is "flat" or insufficiently carbonated, however worthy it may be in other respects. The reason for its unimportance as a determination is found in the difficulty of the accurate estimation in the beer as supplied to the customer. The usual method of determining it is to measure or weigh out a convenient quantity of the beer connect the latter either with an absorbing apparatus for
Rep. Anal. Chem. 47 Analyst, 1S87, 14. See further under wine.


the estimation of the CO, direct ; or with a suitable retention of water, thus estimating itby loss or ini from the beer being accomplished by the aid of heat. of manipulation gives simply the amount of car acid hpb of being held in solution by a liquid of the density and temperature of the beer when it was measured out, supposing it to have fully charged previously. The excess of gas above the saturate point, however, which is held by the beer so long as it is kept under pressure, or at a low temperature, escapes as soon as the pressure is removed and gives the beer its "head," which is so desirable a qualification. This excess of gas soon passes off, but during this short intetval the beer is drank. The problein is to estimate the carbonic acid just as it exists in the beer as it is consumed. This is a difficult matter with beer contained in casks or kegs, though it might be done by drawing the smple off by gas-tight connections as in gas analysis. But where the beer is furnished in stoppered bottles it is an easy matter and furnishes a most valuable index as to the freshness and proper pre ion of the beer. Where secondary fermentation or souring has set in, there will be an excess of carbonic acid and the beer will have become cloudy.
Where there is a good content of carbonic acid but the acidity of the beer is very low, the indications are that bicarbonate of soda has been added.
Hassall speaks of the estimation of C02 in bottled aerated waters, the gas being drawn off by means of a champagne tap, and Dr. Wiley' has estimated the CO2 in koumiss in that way, using a calcium chloride tube for retention of the water carried off by the gas and estimating it by difference, the whole bottle being Weighed. In applying this form of apparatus to beer considerable difficulty was experienced on account of the viscosity of the liquid; the'bubbles formed were so tenacious that when the bottle was connected directly with a calcium chloride or suiphuric acid tube, the latter would become filled with the beer in a very short time. This difficulty was obviated by the use of the form of ap shown in the accompanying figure, devised by Mr. T. 0. T t an Imyself.
The cork of the bottle is pierced with a champagne tap, and thisIs connected with an Erlenmeyer flask, in the broad bottom of which the bubbles are broken and not allowed to pass beyond it; next comes a U tube filled with sulphuric acid, then a calcium hl 1
soda lime tube to absorb the dried C0O. The bottle of beer is in a convenient vessel-an empty ether can with the tap cut a answers admirably, as shown in the cut-which is ailed cold water. After the apparatus is connected the tap is and the gas allowed to flow through the apparatus; it flow spontaneously a burner is placed under the can an the
I Am. VCaoui. Jotir 188H3. Au.Rm, t U. S. Dept, AgrI.,18, p. 118



4450-No. 13, pt. 3-3


ture gradually raised until it reaches 800o C., beyond which it ould not be carried. By holding it at this temperature for about half an hour and taking the bottle out of the can and shaking it occasionally all the CO2 may be driven off. Then the tube from a stion pump is connected with a calcium chloride tube and this in turn with the soda lime tube. The valve of the tap is then closed, the latter removed from the bottle, connected with a soda lime tube, and by gradully opening the valve, a stream of air, from which the CO, has been removed, is drawn through the apparatus by the pump, so that all the 0 contained in it is drawn into the soda lime tube and absorbed; the increase in the weight of the latter, of course, gives the weight of CUO in the beer. The quantity of the beer is measured or weighed, that which has been carried into the Erlenmeyer flask being added, and the per cent. ascertained.
In the case of large bottles it may be found necessary to add a second soda lime tube, and it is best to use fresh soda lime for each determination. It was found necessary to moditf the cha-mpagne taps, as the thread with which they are provided cuts the cork too much and allows the escape of the gas. Accordingly this thread was turned off entirely, leaving a smooth tube, as shown in the figure.

Fia. 15.
This can be forced through the cork with little difficulty, and allows no leakage of gas. It was also found necessary to have the cocks reground to make them fit accurately.
The patent rubber-stopper beer bottles presented a difficulty to this method of anaysis, as it was impossible to make a gs-tight connection with them without the escape of the confined gas. In these the gas was estimated by loss of weight, calcium chloride and sulphuric acid tubes and connections being weighed with the bottle on a large balance, the bottle opened and connection made as quickly as possible, the gas driven off as before, and the loss ascertained by weighing the on tire apparatus again. It is necessary to raise the heat very gradually to prevent the filling up of the tubes with the beer carried over by th bubbles. There is a slight error from the watery vapor which escapes with the pressure of gas when the bottle is opened, and altogether the determination is not so satisfactory as with the cork-stoered bottles.


p stage of (02 in the keg beers was not determined. For convinspection the results of the determinations made are given

Number. Percent. C02. Number. Percent. CO.

4800 .411 4817 .629
4001 .300 4818 .344
4802 .489 4820 .503
4803 .415 4821 .397
4804 .328 4827 .441
4F05 .471 4828 .592
4806 .717 4843 .242
4807 .219 4e45 .265
4808 .324

N1-4803 and 4806 had rubber stoppers, the rest cork. No. 4068 intly in a state of after-fermentation, cloudy, and acid; exct analysis, the 16 others gave an average of .398 per cent. gorities ive an average of .1 to .2 per cent. in beer. In Kos. 8 a 01 duplicate analysis were with different bottles of the
with the following results:

___ 1. 2.

No.4801 ...................294 .307
No.4804 ...................... ..329 327

Probbly there is no one article of daily consumption that has been f sub ect to suspicion of adulteration or sophistication as beer.
Its composition and peculiar nature have deceived people into m ing'a sorts of charges against its purity, but experience has
f to establish the truth of by far the greater majority of these c es, and the facts of many published analyses show that it is as f m adulteration as most other articles of consumption, and more so than some. Here comes in the question, so difficult to answer in this cutry, of what constitutes adulteration or sophistication of anl article offd The definition of what shall constitute a pure malt liquor is h to settle. Even in Europe, where a much stricter supervision is
ever foodstuffs than here, the definition varies widely. In Bawhia re more beer per capital is consumed than in any other coun, aW8 limit the materials from which it is made to barley, malt, ht, and water, while in England the comprehensive definition b given to beer as being "a fermented sacclharine infusion to
a wholesome bitter has been added."

A t deal has been said, pro and con, on the sulject of the proothe use of other matter than malted barley as a source of
.. yth.


saccharine material for brewing purposes. There may be said to be three ways of substituting saccharine material. First, other grain may be used for malting; second, unmalted starchy matter that is whole grain, may be added to the malt before it is mased, the latter being diluted as it were, for the diastase in the malt has converting power sufficient for considerably more starch than is contained in itself; third, the saccharine matter may be supplied already coverted, as in commercial starch-sugar, or glucose, cane sugar inverted cane sugar &c. Of these different substitutes the third class is probably the more objectionable, as beer brewed from such saccharine matter is lacking in various constituents derived from the grain, which are important additions to its nutritive power, namely, the phosphatic salts and the nitrogenous bodies.
In much the same way would bread made from starch alone be lacking in nutritive value.
There is no way of determining directly or absolutely that a beer has been brewed partially from glucose, but it may be inferred from its small content of those constituents which are contained in malt, but not in glucose, such as phosphoric acid and albuminoids, and the existence in the ash of large proportions of such salts as are known to form a large part of the ash of commercial starch-sugar, as sulphates. Kiinig gives .03 per cent. of phosphoric acid as the lowest limit for a beer containing 5 per cent. of extract or over. The association of Bavarian chemists depends on the estimation of the nitrogen for the detection of the use of malt substitutes and establishes the minimum of .65 per cent. of nitrogen (4 per cent. of albuminoids) in tae extract. It is very evident that these figures are too high for American beers; only two of the samples examined, Nos. 4821 and 4823, contain less than .05 per cent. of phosphoric acid, and these are both imported beers; while the average content of the samples of American beer is .077. Not a single one of the samples contains as low as .65 per cent. of nitrogen in the extract, most of them containing about 1 per cent., while some give over 2 per cent. Dr. Englehardt's samples show a still higher average per cent. of phosphoric acid. Unfortunately there was no determination of the albuminoids in his samples. Yet it is a well-known fact that very few beers are made in this country without more or less malt substitution. Nothing can settle this point and enable the analyst to decide positively whether maltsubstitutes have been used until a standard is established by the analysis of a large numberof samples known to be brewed from pure malt alone.

The nature of the bitters used in beer has long been the target towards which public suspicion is directed, and nearly every substa known possessing a bitter taste has boen enumerated aong the aulterations of beer, from poisonous alkaloids, such as st ni and ic.


--toxin to harmless or quasi-harmless bitter roots and woods, such as
quassia gentian, &c. Complete and exhaustive schemes of analysis have been compiled, such as Dragendorff's, Ender's, &c., for the detection and isolation of such foreign bitters. Either these methods of investig~n are faulty or difficult of manipulation, or the use of foreign bitters is very much less prevalent than is generally supposed, for the cases where such bitters have been detected and isolated are very sarc in chemical literature. In fact, Eisner, a German authority on food adulterations, goes so far as to say that there has never been a case where the existence of a foreign bitter in a malt liquor has been proven with certainty. This is going too far, of course, for picrotoxin and picnic acid have undoubtedly been found in beers, and probably more cases of such adulteration would occasionally have been discovered were it not for the difficulty of the analysis and the. small quantity of matter required for imparting a bitter taste. But there is probably much less of this hop substitution than the space given it in works on the subject would indicate. Hops not only give the bitterness to beer but also impart to it its peculiar aroma, and enhance its keeping qualities, and less it were at a time when they were very dear it would hardly pay the brewer to sacrifice the good flavor and keeping qualities of his beer in order to save a few cents a pound in his bitters.
It is stated by authorities on the subject that the bitter matter of hops is precipitated by acetate of lead, while with all hop substitutes the filtrate from the lead precipitate retains its bitter taste. The excess of lead should be precipitated by sulph ureted hydrogen before the filtrate is tasted for bitterness. I examined qualitatively by this test all the samples analyzed and found them all free from foreign bitters accordig to it, with one exception, No. 4811, which contained a bitter other than hops, though not in sufficient quantity to admit of its separation and identification. All the samples except -Nos. 4801, 4811, and 4815 gave a plainly perceptible odor of hops in the distillate.'
We come now to what I consider the most important sophistication of beer at the present day and the most reprehensible and most deservji ofrepressive legislation. The useof artificial preserving agents not only introduces foreign matters into the beer which are more or less injurios, according to the nature of the material used, but also serves to cover up and hide the results of unskillful brewing or unfit materials; giving to the public for consumption a liquor, that, if left to itself under naturalconditions, would have become offensive to the senses and putrid
with corruption long before it was offered for sale.
The only means of preservation allowed by the authorities in Germany and France is the process called, from the name of its author,
Pasteurization." This process is entirely rational and commendable,


as it conduces to the preservation of the beer by destroying the germs of unhealthy ferments, not by simply paralyzing their activity as antiseptics do, and moreover it introduces no foreign constituents into the beer. Liquid carbonic acid is also coming into use in some of the larger Continental breweries.
Other preservative agents extensively employed at the present day are salicylic acid, bisulphite of lime, and boracic acid.


Salicylic acid (C711603) was first prepared by Piria and Ettling by oxidizing salicyl aldehyd, which had previously been obtained from various vegetable sources. It was afterwards obtained from oil of wintcrgreen, which is nearly pure methyl salicylate, a, constituent also of many other essential oils. Its artificial production from phenol (carbolic acid) was discovered by Kolbe and Lautermann in 1860 but was inot put into practical use until 1874, when Professor Kolbe succeeded in producing it at a moderate cost. It is now prepared almost exclusively in this way, the cheapness of the method having driven out of the market that which is prepared from oil of wintergreen.
By this process sodium carbolate is treated with dry carbonic acid gas and distilled at a rather high temperature, when one-half of the phenol combines with the sodium, forming sodium salicylate, while
the other half is distilled over. The residue is decomposed with hydrochloric acid, the salicylic acid filtered off and washed, and purified by recrystallization or sublimation. The purest salicylic acid is obtained )by dialysis, by which all the tarry matters can be separated. It is composed of long acicular crystals, having a peculiar, pungent, sweetish taste. It is irritating to the mucous membrance of the nasal passages and produces sneezing when handled.
The extended use of salicylic acid it owes to its property of arresting the action of ferments. This property has been extensively investigated and it is unnecessary to go into the subject further here.'
In medicine, besides its use externally as an antiseptic, it is administered very extensively internally, its chief application being as a remedy for acute rheumatic fever. Its physiological action is given as follows in the United States Dispensatory, fifteenth edition, page 101: When salicylic acid is given to man in doses just sufficient to anifest its presence, symptoms closely resembling those of cinchonisn result. These are fullness of the head, with roaring and buzzing in the ears. After larger doses, to these symptoms are added distress in the head or positive hoadacho, disturbances of hearing and vision (deafness, amblyopia, partial blindnesss, and excessive sweating. According to Reiss (Bierlinger Klin. WlVoclihenschrift, 1875, p. 674) decided fall of temperature, without alteration of the pulse, also occurs; but thins is denied by other observers. The actions upon the system of the acid and of its sodium salts (also amoni salt, Martenson, Peltersb. Med. Zeitsickrift, 18H75, p. 343) appear to be identical, and, aH evFor recent information on this m bject reference may e mad to a paper by A.1. Grifiths, Chemical News .53. 28.


rates of poisoning with one or other of the3o agents have occurred, we are able to trace the toxic muanifestation.3. Along with an intensification of the symptoms already mentioned there ara ptosis, deafness, strabismas, mydri asis, disturbance of respiration, excessive restles3ness passing into delirium, slow laboring pulse, olivegreen rine, and involuntary evacuations. In some cases the temperature has remaineabot ormal, but in others has approached that of collapse. The respiration es to be characteristic, it being both quickeno-:1 and deepened, often sighing. Sweating is ually very free, and the urine early becomes albuminous. Various local evidences of vaso-motor weakness may supervene, such as rapidly-appearing bed-ores at points subjected to pressure, and transitory dark colored macne on varo parts of the body. In several cases death was probably produced by the acid, although there is scarcely one instance which is beyond doubt.' In certain ae the mental disturbance has been strangely prolonged, lasting for eight days. In some instances it is cheerful, in others melancholic in type. It is stated that upon the acid acts very unfavorably, violent delirium being an early symptom of its influence.
By the same authority the dose of salicylic acid to be employed in cases of acute rheumatism is given as one dram (3.9 grams) in twentyfour hours. It is excreted chiefly by the kidneys and may be detected in the urine very soon after its ingestion. Authorities in therapeutics warn practitioners of medicine against its administration to patients whose kidneys are known to be diseased, and of late years the opinion has been growing among physicians that it has a very irritating action upon these organs, many preferring the alkaline treatment of rheumatic fever on this account.
The salicylic-acid question," as it is called, has received a great deal of attention for several years in Europe, and much has been written, pro and con, on the question of the propriety of its us e as a preserving agent in articles of food and drink. In France its use as a preservative in any form of food or drink was forbidden by ministerial decree on the 7th of February, 1881. This decree was based upon a decision of the consulting committee of hygiene that its constant use was dangerous to health.
In Germany its use is prohibited, except in beers intended for export to other countries where its use is allowed.
Its prohibition in France called forth a great deal of opposition, and experiments were made and published, which were intended to show that its constant use in small doses exerted no injurious influence upon the system. Kolbe himself made experiments upon himself and his assistants by taking doses of .5 to 1.0 gramin daily for several days, and fond no appreciable ill effects to follow its use.' Whether such exSIn the case recorded in the Virginia Medical Monthly, Junie, 177, forty-eight
grains of e acid were taken in four hours. The symptoms were violent vomiting, headache, total unconsciousness, with stertorous breathing. Death occurred forty hours after the first dose.
Jor. prak. Chem. 1:1, 100. RoLf-rence may be made to similar experiments, as follows: J. A. Barral,. Jour. de I'Agriculture, 1S, 69. M. BIlas, Bull. de l'Acad. Royalo
d Md. d Belgique. Bd. 121, No. 9.


periments suffice to prove its harmlessness w and without regard to age, sex, or personal idios i
question. A most interesting and exhaustive d for and against its use can be found in the report of of the "Independent Union of the Bavarian Rep ofi
Chemistry, at Niirnberg, 7th and 8th August, 18 we refused, with but one dissenting voice, to grant its S t posed use of salicylic acid in beer in the quantity of .05 grans to the liter. Certainly no one would deny the advisability of at least tricting the amount to be used of so powerful an agent. In an daily consumption, and in consideration of the pra ce of disease2 at the present day,it is a matter worthyof grave whether it would not be more prudent to forbid its use altogether. At all events, beer in which it is used should be so01 under its pro designation as "salicylated beer." It would certainly be of int t to the physician, who prescribes beer as a tonic to a weak convnt invalid, to know if he were giving at the same time not inconsiderable doses of a strong therapeutic agent, expressly contra-indicated perhaps, in the case he has on hand.
The following amounts of salicylic acid were found in various articles of diet by Ch. Girard, director of the Municipal Laboratory, in 1881: Wine contained in the liter, 1.95,1.60,1.48, 1.41,1.), 0.81, and in one case even
3.50 grams salicylic acid.
Sirup contained in the liter, 0.5 to 1.50 grams. Beer contained in the liter, 0.25 to 1.25 grams. Milk contained in the liter, 0.'25 to 1.85 grams. It will be noticed that in one case of wine mentioned it contained in one liter the full therapeutic dose for twenty-four hours.
In this country but little attention seems to have been given to the use of salicylic acid as a preservative. In the iveigation made by the New York State Board mentioned above, no search was made for it, or, in fact, for any other preservative. In the last year the municipal boards of New York and Brooklyn seem to have n taking cogni
zance of its extensive use, as is shown by the following extract from a paper read by Dr. Cyrus Edson, of the New York Board of Health, before the New York Society of Medical Jurisprudence and Stat M cine, November 12, 1886:'
Within the past few months I have been confronted with a subt the i of which to the community is very great. I have already totced it. It is use of salicylic acid, a food preservative. Many, it' not aIl, preserved foods are adding sinl aiounts of this substance to to loss by decomposition. The amount used is probably between o rd ofa and a grain to the pound, and in the case of wines and beer, to wbich it 'Published by Drs. A. Hilger and R. Kayser, Berlin, 18. The most common form is popularly kuown as "Bright's di Pharm. Cent. ', 296.
4Auierican Analyst 1887, p. 7.


Prevent over-ferentation, from a grain to 3 grains to the pint in quantity. The French authorities, as I have said, believe that the use of salicylic and boric acids tends to irritate delicate digestive organs, and to also irritate the kidneys, through hich they are eiinated under their own forms. Though I have talked with a mbereof oentitl gentlemen in this country, few are willing. to go into court and saIr that t is also their opinion. It must not be lost sight of, however, that a eon might at a meal take several articles of diet, each containing that which if taken alone would be a harmless dose, but taken together, and possibly for a consideable time, would prove highly injurious. The only safe way is to di6card all additions to food which may possibly become a source of damage.

The following is of interest as establishing a precedent for the condemnatio of articles containing salicylic acid:' Dr.yrs Edson, of the Board of Health, condemned and seized on November 11, 5,80 gallons of artificial wine in the possession of a Front street merchant. Dr. Edon reported the following as the process of manufacturing the stuff: "Dried fruits, such as raisins, currants, and peaches, are macerated with water, to which a certain amount of sugar is added. The mixture is then fermented, and when fermentation is considered sufficiently advanced it is checked by the addition of salicylic acid, sufficient being added to act as a preservative and prevent further fermnentatio. The so-called wine is then clarified, flavored, and colored to cause it to resemble port, claret, or any desired kind of wine. The object of the sophistication is to imitate and undersell natural native wines. The use of salicylic acid as a preservative is forbidden in France, as the French authorities consider it detrimental to health. I have nsulted a number of noted chemists in this city as to their opinion concerning its use and nearly all unhesitatingly condemn it, holding that depressing effects in the nervous system would follow the daily u se of the acid in small doses. It is my opinion and the opinion of Drs. J. B. Isham and J. B. Linehan, whom I have called on to assist in condemning and seizing the so-called wine, that the adulteration is a dangerousu one and likely to cause sickness. The amount of acid used is about four and a half grains to the pint."
Recent information in regard to the status of the question in France, together with a very strong argument in favor of prohibiting entirely the use of this preserving agent, may be found in the following recolnmendation by Dr. Bartley :2
Dr. Bartley, the chief chemist of the Brooklyn Board of Health, has sent a communication to Health Commissioner Otterson, of that city, on the subject of poisonobeer adulterations, and strongly recommending that the Board take action against it. Dr. Bartley says: "During the year 18-5 I haid the honor to call the attention of the Department to certain abuses in the manufacture of laIger beer, so called, in the course of which I said that 'the most important aduilterationis discovered, from a sanitary point of view, were yeast and sodium bicarbonate.' Since that time I have from time to time inspected the breweries of the city. As this beverage has becomesolargely used by families, it is now kept in bottles by many grocers. All
brewers are compelled to manufacture an article for the use of bottlers. This is pre.
pared with more care, in most cases, on account of the longer time it is to be kept before uing. Unless it be thoroughly cured and well cleared the beer will often spoil before it is consumed, by a process of fermentation or putrefaction. To avoid the necessary carein the manufacture and the keeping of the beer for a longer time, it.has become a practice among brewers to add salicylic acid to prevent this ferien1Amerian Analyt 18, p. 41W. Anmerican Analyst 1-7, April 1.


.tation after the beer is sent out. I have for some time been aware of this use of salicylic acid, as well as its addition to wines, canned fruits, der, milk, and other goods, for the purpose of preserving them fromfermentation. In fact the use of this acid is coming into such general use in foods that it is becoming an important san tary question as to its effects upon health when used in small quantities for a long time. There can be no doubt that in large quantities it acts very injuriously both upon the digestive processes and the kidneys. In its elimination the kidneys not rarely become acutely congested or even inflamed, giving rise to acute Brigh's disease. Although a potent remedy in the treatment of acute rheumatism, it is not suitable for long adminstration, owing to the above injurious action. It requires the addition of from eight to ten grains of free salicylic acid to one gallon of beer in order to prevent the growth of ferments. If bicarbonate of soda has also been added, t quantity of acid necessary to be added is much more. Three grains have recently been found in each pint of wine. Assuming that the smallest effective proportion of the acid is used, viz, ten grains to the gallon, there are many persons in this city who take no inconsiderable amount of this drug every day of their adult lives. The salicylic acid of the market is prepared from carbolic acid, and is frequently containated with a small proportion of this very poisonous agent. This is a well known fact to all pharmacists. The sanitary question, then, rests upon the question of the action of small and long continued doses of salicylic acid, possiblycontainatet with carbolic acid."
Upon this point I think it necessary to quote here but one of many authorities. In 1881, and again in 1883, upon the recommendation of the Central committee of Hygiene, the French Government prohibited the sale of articles of food containing salicylic acid. As protests were made against this legislation, and as these protests had led to contradictory judicial decisions, the above committee requested the opinion of the French Academy of Medicine. A commission created by that body of savants has recently made a report (Bulletin de 1'Acad. de Med., Paris, 1886, T. XVI., pp. 583 et seq.), from which the following is an extract: While in persons of good health the prolonged use of such small quantities of salicylic acid as would he contained in articles of food or drink treated with this substance is probably not injurious to health, it may nevertheless produce very decided disorders of health in certain persons, and especially in the aged and in those who have a tendency to diseased kidneys or dyspepsia. Salicylic acid and its salts are eliminated by the kidneys. They tend somewhat to check the action of the digestive ferments contained in the saliva, enteric juice, and pancreatic fluid, and hence to delay digestion; hence it is easy to understand that they may aggravate digestive or renal troubles."
"The report closes with the recommendation that the addition of salicylic acid or its compounds, even in small amounts, to articles of food or drink shall be absolutely prohibited by law. This commission found by their investigation that the quantities added to wine were about six grains to the gallon, and to beer from twelve to fifteen grains."
"From the facts here stated I am of the opinion that it is time that the addition of salicylic acid to articles of food received a check at the hands of sanitary authorities. I have made examinations of several different kinds of bottled beers manufactured and sold in this city, and have found a number of themni to contain salicylicacid. Te list examined contaed d some of the Western beers, which were also found to contain it. I would respectfully reconmmnend that some action be taken by this Department towards the prohibition of this injurious adulteration.
IL HART LEY, M. D.. ChidChemi

Out of thirty two samples analyzed by this Division I found seven to contain salicylic acid in sufficient quantities to admit of qualitative proof, or nearly one fourth of the entire number analyzed. The serial numbersof these beers corresponding to those in the large table on page 28 are as follows: 4801-3-5-6-17-23-25. These were all bottled beers, one began imported (Kaiser) beer. None was found in any of the draft beers. Of the nineteen samples of American bottled beers, six contained salicylic acid, or nearly one third. These included the product of some of the larest breweries in the country, beers that are used to a very large extent all over the United States. Whether the acid is added in the breweries where the beer is made', or whether it is used by the local bottlers, I am unable to decide. In one case I found it in the beer sold here under the brand of a large Western brewery, and sent direct to the sme brewery for another sample, which gave no test for the acid; unfortunately I cannot be sure in this case that the firm in question did not know the purpose for which the sample was intended.
Fortunately we have a particularly delicate and characteristic test for this substance, by means of which its presence can be detected in the inute quantity of 1 part to 100,000. This is the well-known characteristic violet color it gives with ferric salts. The test can sometimes be applied directly in the case of very clear beers, but in most samples
red, either by the original color of the solution, or by the color produced by the com bination of the iron with other constituents of the liquid. There are various procedures given for the separation of the salicylic acid from these constituents, so as to apply the test to it when ina pure state. Blas I has investigated various methods, including the previous precipitation of the beer with lead acetate, and the removal ot the excess of lead with sulphuric acid;2 shaking out the acidified soliution with ether, evaporation of the ether and testing of the residue; treatment with bone-black, washing out the latter with alcohol and applying the test to the alcoholic solution ;-none of which methods, he thinks, gives so cood results as the application of the test to the urine of a person who has drank some of the beer in question. By this pecliar method of making the human body a medium of separation, he clais to make the test five times as delicate as where it is applied directly to the beer. Borntriiger arrived at similar conclusions, alnd I can testify myself to its superior delicacy to the direct application to the beer. Muter4 was probably the first to use dialysis for the separation, also recommended by Aubry.5 Portele precipitates the tannin, &c., by asolutionof gelatineand shakes up the fitrate with ether. Weigert7 uses
Jour. prak. Che ., 191, 43. Zeit. Anal. ChenI. 1 10. .
E. Robinet, Compt., rend. 84, 13~-21. Weinlanho 18P79, 39.
Zeit. Anal. Chen. 181, 87. Zeit. Anal. Chem. 1, 45.
Te Analyst 1, 193.


amyl alcohol as a solvent, a follows: 50e. wine (or r)are shaken up with 5cc. amyl alcohol in asmall flask for a few inutes and allowed to separate. The clear amyl alcohol is then drawn off and an equal quantity of alcohol added, with which it makes a colorless solution. To this solution is added a few drops of dilute solution of chloride of ron, which produces the violet color."
The use of chloroform as a solvent is recommended by the German Imperial Commission for the establishment of methods for wine analysis.2
The Paris Municipal Laboratory allows the choice of four different methods for applying the test in case the ether extract does not afford satisfactory results:
(1) By adding a small quantity of a dilute solution of chloride of iron to precipitate
.the tannin, and subsequent extraction with ether.
(2) By precipitation of the tannin with gelatine or albumen.
(:3) By treatment with ether in the ordinary way and after the ether is evaporate
the residue is again treated with a few cubic centimeters of perfectly pur benzine, the solution evaporated, and the residue from this evaporation subjected to the test.
(4) By treatment with pure chloroform.
The union of Bavarian chemists has3 adopted the method of R 4
who uses a mixture of equal parts of ethylic and petroleum ether for extracting the beer or wine, as follows: 50c. of the ber are shaken up in a separatory funnel with equal parts of ether and petroleum ether, after acidulating with 5c. of dilute sulphuric acid. The separation follows very quickly, when the watery part is allowed to flow through the stop cock and the ethereal is poured out through the neck into a small dish. After the ether has been evaporated, and also the ge part of the petroleum ether except a few cubic centimeters, 3-4 cc. of water are brought into the still warm dish. This is well stirred d, a few drops of a very dilute solution of chloride of iron added, and the whole filtered through a moistened filter, which allows of th passage only of the watery part of the solution. On the addition of the chloiide of iron the petroleum ether solution assumes a deep yellow color, due to certain compounds of the iron with the resin of the hops. In the abseie of salicylic acid the filtrate is nearly water-clear with a slight tinlge of yellow; if present, even in traces, the solution takes on the well kown violet color.5
To test the efficiency of these various methods two sales of a very dark 'beer known to be free from salicylic acid were taken, and to ne waS added salicylic acid in the proportion of .05 grai to the liter, ,d Some of the processes given are intended for wine, but are equally applicable to beer, milk, fruit juices, &c.
SDie Weinanalyse, Koimnentar, u.S. w.
()p. cit.
SArch. f. Ilygion. Analyst, 18.6, 131.
The same test is giv en by II. Tall, uill. He la o do Paris, 4, No. 12.


he other AN5 gramins. These two' samples were then subjected to treatment by eight different methods, as follows:
(1) Extracted with chloroform.
(2) Extracted with ether simply.
(3) Extracted with amyl alcohol.
(4) Extracted with ether after previous precipitation with lead subacetate.
(5) Extracted with ether after previous precipitation with gelatine.
(6) Extracted with ether after previous precipitation with ferric chloride.
(7) Extracted with equal parts of ethylic and petroleum ether.
(8) Extracted with ether, the solution allowed to evaporate spontaneously, and the residue extracted with benzine.
These tests, tried on the beer containing .05 grams to the liter, gave results which ranged them in the following order of succession, accordig to the strength and brilliancy of the test: 8, 5, 7, 6, 2, 1, 4, 3. In methods 5 and 0 the length of time required to filter the solutions constitutes an objection to their use. The same tests applied to the beer containing .005 grams to the liter gave the test only in the case of Nos. 8 and 7, the former being the better of the two. The same series of tests were applied to a red wine, with very similar results, so I have adopted method No. 8 in all the work done on beers and wines, and would recommend either that or No. 7, both of which give a perfectly bright, water-clear solution, in which the slightest tinge of violet color is plainly -visible.

While the qualitative determination of salicylic acid is so delicate and easy of execution, the quantitative estimation is unfortunately a tedious and unsatisfactory operation, in the small quantities in which it is found. This is an argument in favor of the entire prohibition of its use in foods in preference to the restriction of the quantity to be used.
The determination may be made by the same method as described above for the qualitative test, simply making the extraction complete. One hundred cubic centimeters of the beer or wine are taken, acidified with a few drops of hydrochloric acid, and extracted with three successive portions of ether of 50ce. each; these are mixed and the whole allowed to evaporate spontaneously. The residue from this evaporation is heated for an hour on the water bath to drive off volatile acids,
ted with 150cc. of pure benzine, which is allowed to stand in contact with the residue for twenty-four hours, when it is drawn off carefully and the residue again treated with 50cc. of benzine, which is added to the first portion. This 200cc. of ltnzine is then made up to 500cc.
lute alcohol, and titrated directly with a decinormal solution of soda previously standardized by operating upon a similar mixture.


The acid may also be extracted by treatment with sacessive portions of chloroform, which is carefully decanted, the solution evaporated, an the crystallized salicylic acid weighed.1
A. Remont? published in 1881 a method for the colorimetric estima tion of salicylic acid, which was modified by Pellet and De Grobert in the following manner:
A series of uniform test-tubes are prepared about 20m. in height and 15mm. in caliber, to which are added, successively, le., 0.75e., 0.5e. 0.4cc., 0.3cc., 0.2ce., 0.1cc. of a solution of 1 gram of salicylic acid in liter of distilled water, and the volume in each tube brought to e. with distilled water. To the first tube is added three drop of a dilute solution of ferric chloride (1005 to 1010 special gravity), in the second and third two drops, in the others one drop. The last tube may be simply stirred with a glass rod which has been dipped into the iron solution. One hundred cubic centimeters of the beer or wine to be tested are now taken and shaken up with 100cc. of ether, and five drops ,O, of 300 B., allowed to stand, carefully separated, and this operation repeated twice. The ether is quickly evaporated off in the water baththe residue brought into a porcelain evaporating dish of about 6-8 cm. diameter, the flask washed out with a few cc. of ether and the dish placed in an air bath heated to about 500 C. to drive off the ether completely; 1.5cc. of a solution of soda is then added, of such strength that 10cc. contain 0.4 grams NacO, which is sufficient to saturate about 0.2 gram of salicylic acid, equal to a content in the sample of 2 gran per liter. If the residue is still acid after this addition, it is due to acetic. acid. BY evaporating to dryness this excess can be driven off while the salicylic acid is retained, as it is able to displace acetic acid from its salts. The residue is now treated with five drops of H2SO4 of 300 B., and then with 20cc. of benzine, and the whole filtered; 10cc. of the filtered benzine solution is brought into a test-tube of similar dimensions to those mentioned above; 10co. distilled water and one or two drops of the dilute ferric chloride solution added, and the contents well shaken. If salicylic acid is present it is all taken up by the lower-atery portion and the color may be compared with that of the standard tubes. If itagrees in intensity with one of these, the calculation is very simple. Suppose, for example, it agrees with the fourth tube, which contains in the 10c. of liquid 0.0004 grams salicylic acid, then the 10cc. of benzine solution also contained 0.0004 grams, and the 20ce. from which it was taken contained 0 0008 grams in 100cc. of the wine, or .008 gras to the liter. The authors of this method found on applying it to wine to which a known quantity of salicylic acid had been added, that only 93 per cent. of the amount added was found, so their results were divided by 93 on that basis. With this modification they obtained from two Samples of
TIwe two methods ar employed in the Municipal Laboratory of Par
-Jour. Pharm. Chim. [5], 4, 34.1, Chen. Cent., 1881, 773.
Compt. Iend. 93, 278, Chein. Cont., 18~I1, 711.

had beenadded, resptively, 0.084 and 0.126 grams per liter 0.084 and 0.123 grams.
f:RmonltI also devised, in 1882, what might be called aun empirical
method for the estimation of the quantity of salicylic acid added to wine r beer, wich would doubtless prove very convenient in case its use
were limited by law to a certain definite quantity, as follows:
n a liquid, similar to that which is to be tested, is dissolved a known quantity of pure salicylic acid; of this standard liquid 50cc. are taken and well aken with 50ec. of ether, and allowed to separate; 25cc. of the ether are taken in a flat dish and subjected to evaporation at a temperature below boiling, in the presence of 10cc. of water; when the ether has disappeared, the water is poured into a graduated cylinder and its volume made up to 25ce. with the washings of the dish. This solution contains the same proportion of salicylic acid as the standard; 10e. of the liquid to be analyzed are then taken and shaken with 10ce. of ether; 5cc. of the clear ether are taken, evaporated with 2cc. of
and the residual liquid made up to 5cc. with the washings of the dish, as above.
Twotubes, each graduated to 30cec., are taken, and into one is introduced 5c. of the standard aqueous solution as obtained above, and into the other the Soc. obtained from the sample for analysis. To each tube is added the same quantity of a 1 per cent. solution of ferric chloride, avoiding an excess. The comparison of the two tubes may then be made, and the process can be made quantitative by diluting with water, or other colorimetric methods.
The authorinsists upon the necessity of taking, as a means of comparison a liquid of the same nature as the sample for analysis, as the foreign matters which ether dissolves from wine, beer, or cider alter the delicacy of the color test.
The use of sulphurous acid as a preservative agent in beer and wine, either in the form of soluble sulphites, liquid sulphite of lime, or sullphur fue8 is not at all recent. It is one of the oldest preservatives kncwn. Together with other chemical preservatives its use is forbidden in France, and the German authorities include it with borax as an agent whose physiological effect is still too little known to allow of its indiscriminate use. It is also sometimes introduced into beers by the hops, which are very generally preserved by means of sulphur fumes. The Bavarian authorities allow its use in sulphuring barrels and hops, as will be seen when their method of analysis is described later. Of course the quantities brought into the beer in this way are very small.
The qualitative test, which is given by many of the books on the subject Vi, the reduction of the sulphur to hydric sulphide gas by means of nascent hydrogren, is entirely erroneous, as I have proved by experiC m R ~ K-nig, for intanc. .. 410; Dietzh
Co p.Ra. 5 in1stane, p, 410; Dietzsh, 1). 13.


ments made upon the various albuminous con stitti same test. Hops (known to be free from O)d barley, treated with hydrochloric acid and zinc gave a ening of lead acetate paper in the course of fi ia
test applied to the beers examined gave a distinct e.
I concluded from the above-described experimens that the B% S from the sulphur contained in the albuminous b of the in, whc was reduced by the nascent hydrogen. Blank riments wi reagents used gave no test for sulphur. Si I mae the ments similar conclusions were reached by M. von Klobulow,' who found that sulphur was reduced from any of its c o b i hydrogen, and so complete is this action that he ha it the for a new method of estimating sulphur. It was bly by this t that sulphurous acid was found in veryold win, as has been reported. The method of detecting the presence of S02 by oxidation to H, SO, is probably the best, and can be employed v s fully for quantitative estimation also. There are various m affecting the oxidation, as well as for the subsequent determination of the sulphuric acid formed. In the method employed by the Paris Municipal Laboratory the beer is acidulated with sulpric acid, and a current of pure carbonic acid gas is drawn through the liquid a tnhen. into a solution of chloride of barium mixed with iodine water. If 80, is present, a precipitate of sulphate of barium forms in the latter mixture. Other oxidizing agents may be used instead of t. used nitrate of silver solution for a qualitative test; romate of pash furnishes a very convenient agent, and the ouon of it be made standard and titrated afterwards to determine the extt of oxidation. I have used permanganate of potash with vy a qualitative test. But probably the best method for both qualitative and quantitative determination is that used by the union of Bavarian chemists, which I have employed in testing the samples examined. It is as follows: 100cc. of the liquid to be examined are acidulated with phosphoric acid, and distilled in a stream of carbonic acid gas, and the distillate received in a flask containing 5cc. of normal iodine solution. After the first third is distilled off, the distillate, which should sti contain excess of free iodine, is acidified with hydrochloric acid, heated, and barium chloride solution added. If a precipitate of more than 10 milligrams is obtained in the barium solution, the wine or beer conlinp sulphurous acid in excess of the legalized limit. (The allowance of 19 milligrams of barium sulphate is made to admit of te hops being phured.) In using this method I have found it nec ry not onl to have the delivery tube from the condenser dip into the iodine &an but also to attach a mercury valve to the flask in which it is reciv
Zeit. Anal. Chem. 25, 155; Chem. Ne wm, 1
Bvrichte d. Deutsch. Che Geoll. 13, 657.


A few of the samples examined by this test gave a slight turbidity ith barium chloride, viz: Serial Nos. 4804-6-10-13 and 14, while only e, No. 815, gave sufficient precipitate to justify the assertion that a upite had been added to it. I have not been able to find aiy reorded instance of sulphurous acid being found in American beers.


This agent, although used very extensively in preserving meats, vegtables, and canned goods, does not seem to have been applied to malt iquors to any great extent, although it has been found in wines. Its se is prohibited in France and Germany. The test for boracic acid is et applied to the ash. If this is rubbed up with water acidulated with little hydrochloric acid and a piece of turmeric paper dipped into the olution and then dried, it will show a peculiar reddish tint if borax be resent. For a very delicate test a large quantity of the liquid to be ested may be evaporated to a sirup, with a slight addition of sulphuric cid, the residue extracted with alcohol, and the latter ignited. The dges of the flame will be colored green if borax is present. None of he samples examined gave any test for borax. In conclusion of the work on preservatives, it may be noted that it as done during the cold weather of January, February, and March. It Suite probable that during warm weather the use of preservative gents is still more general than shown by the analyses.


The presence of lead, copper, or zinc, sometimes observed in malt quors, is due usually to the use of brass faucets or lead pipes by the reailer in drawing off the liquor or in filling bottles. The amount of these metals taken up by acid liquors in this way is quite small usually, but ay be considerable if they are long left in contact with the metallic surface. Thus the first glass drawn from a faucet in the morning is apt o contain considerable copper and zinc in solution. In Paris the appaatus used for drawing beer is subject to supervision, and a frequent pleasing and proper kind of material is insisted on. The Brooklyn Deartment of Health issued an order in 1886 prohibiting the use of uniproected brass facets in drawing beer, but its enforcement has not been sister on.1 Analyses made for the board by Otto Grothe of ales drawn rough. pumps showed small quantities of copper, zinc, and lead in every case.'
Alum is sometimes used as a clarifying agent in the brewing of beer. he ethod of detecting the presence of the metals in liquors need not be dwelt on here. It is best performed in the ash from a large quan. ;ity of the suspected sample.
'Annual Report Det. Health, City of Brooklyn, 1,-N;, p. S7; and 187, p. 63.

4450-No. 13, pt. 3-4



This salt is added to beer for the purpose either of acidity of the beer, resulting from improper brewing, of imparting to
it an increased "head," or content of carbonic-acid or for both purposes. The salt is decomposed by the free acid of beer and the
liberated, lactate and acetate of soda being left dissolved in the beer. This seems to be purely an American practice; at least I have failed to find any mention of it in European authorities. Some of them mention use of marble dust or magnesia for the correction of acidity, but very little consideration is given to the subject. In this ntry, however, it seems to be very widespread. The following extracts are taken from a paper read by Otto Grothe, Ph. D.; before the Amer n Society of Pub.
lic Analysts:'
The Health Department of the city of Brooklyn has for some time carried on iuvestigations with reference to the brewing of lager beer as priced in that city. Te peculiar cathartic effect of some of the Brooklyn beers seemed to indicate the presence of some substitutes, principally for hops. The analysis of such suspicious beer failed, however, to reveal anything of importance, either on account of the absence, of such substitutes or because the quantities of beer used were toosmall. Before going tothe expense of purchasing a keg or two from each brewery for the chemical laboratory, Dr. Bartley thought it to be the best to have the breweries, in the frst place, inspected. These inspections resulted principally in the discovery of a variety of substances used by beer brewers as clearing and improving agents, the latter eng considered the most objectionable. They were sodium bicarbonate, tartaric acid, cream of tartar, inglass, or gelatine, glucoIe, grape sugar, juniper berries, and salicylic acid.
Sodium bicarbonate is a substance more regularly usei1 by brewers. The opinion of the brewers about the necessity of this addition is very much divided; while some believe it to be utterly necessary, others say they would rather do without it, as it causes them a heavy expense. They all say, however, they cannot avoid it, because the public wants a perfectly neutral beverage. There is beer in the market which has no addition of bicarbonate. The quantity of soda added varies very much, and we may say in proportion to the quantity of acid contained in the beer. This quantity of acid in the beer depends upon the knowledge and the attentiou of the brewer. Thus we find that breweries which have clean, weib tilated, and flushed cellars, in which refrigerating machines are in use, and which are conducted in a scientific way by an expert foreman, cal afrd to sell theirproduct with less than one-third of the qi'antity of sodic bicarbonate used by smaller concerns which are not so well conducted and which have not the facilities of their larger competitors.
The largest quantity of bicarbonate used is about 2j ounces to the keg, or q a barrel. The size of a barrel varies from 31j to 33 gallons, according to the age, t older kegs becoming smaller by the contraction of the wood. A keg. therefore, tails H gallons of beer, or 64 pints, which is considered equal to abt hundred as sold in the beer saloons over the counter. A glass of beer, therefore, con i some cases three-fourths of a gram of bicarbonate of soda; d a a te drinker will, under certain circumstances, for instance In hot ther, k twenty glasses of beer a day, he takes about 15 grams, or 25s g of icarb soda with it. A heavy beer drinker-say, a laborer who works outdoorsan whob the beer by the pint-may consume as many as forty glasses a le ounce of bicarbonate of soda with it. Time smallest quantity of

Ann. Itep. Dept. of Health, City of Brooklyn, 1K p


in our breweries is 1 ounce to a half barrel, and the difference in the effect
ois a very remarkable one, the beer tasting slightly acid.
Tbe any doubt that large quantities of bicarbonate of soda regularly ithe stomach are detrimental to the health. Inasmuch as the lager ba food by many people, it would be greatly appreciated by intelligent bd beer-drinkers if the use of bicarbonate of soda could be regulated ttes, or, if possible, entirely abolished. By such regulations the unc r would be compelled to either keep his brewery clean, or go out of the ber. Such regulations should also be extended to the quality of the
mtused in the different brewing processes, so that to the Amercthe same name can be given as to the German beer, which Justus von
"liquid brerd."
Several rather misleading statements in the above. Dr.
Gao in the first place that "the public wants a perfectly neutral b a which is open to considerable doubt; and again, "the smallq y of bicarbonate of soda used is one ounce to a half of a barrdifference in the effects of that addition is a very remarkable tasting slightly acid." If this latter statement is taken in
amical sense, itis rather paradoxical, fora bicarbonate added t i of course tends to make it alkaline. What is meant bv its tasthtly acid doubtless is that it acquired a pungency to the
ts a nt of the liberation of carbonic acid gas from the bicarbonafree acid existing in the beer. One of the beers I examined (o w81 actually alkaline in reaction from excess of added bicarb a the taste was far from being agreeable.
Hardly take so decided a stand as Dr. Grothe in regard to the ilo the health of the beer-drinker by bicarbonate of soda pe I ay benecessary to explain to a non-scientific reader that the bdoes not remain in the beer as bicarboaate, unless there is aut added in excess of the quantity of free acid present in the b is free acid (mostly acetic in soured beers, but due chiefly to
aates in normal beers) combines with the bicarbonate, settic acid, and forming acetate of soda and basic phosphate, w remain in solution. The reaction is very similar to that which tin using baking powders for cooking purposes, except that the latter case tartrate of soda and potash (Rochelle salts) is left ins of acetate and phosphate of soda. Where bitartrate of potash is a to the beer along with the soda (as sometimes occurs according
S Brooklyn report) the reaction is precisely the same. In these s the almost universal consumption of baking powders there is enough alkaline salts thrown into a man's stomach with his f t pumping them in with his drinks as well. At all events
c be but little question of the propriety of prohibiting the use oof soda in beer. It is entirely unnecessary and fore i to tn or preservation of pure beer. Moreover, its use serves v p and hide tie effects of poor brewing and improper storing or r e g, and should be prohibited from this cause alone if there



The detection of the addition of very small quan of of soda to beer is by no means an easy matter when the constant ence of soda salts in beer ash is considered, and the very variable content of alkali in the waters used for brewing pu The ash of beer
is of very variable composition, being obtained in from each of the principal constituents which enter into the pre ion of the drink,
viz, the malt, the hops, and the water used in the brewing. The content of soda (Na20) in the ash varies in different published analy from less than 4 per cent. up to 35 per cent. of the ah,l and this without a sufficient proportion of chlorine to account for the large per cent.of soda as salt. The presence of any considerable quantities of carbonate in beer ash, however, is abnormal, and indicates the addition of bicarbon. ate of soda to the beer, the acetates, lactates, &c., formed from it being converted into carbonates by the process of incineration. So far as I have been able to ascertain, no carbonic acid has ever been found in the ash of normal beer, its alkalinity being due to the presence of alka line phosphates. I have found no statement as to whether the as of normal beer reacts acid or alkaline in any of the books on the subject except Eisner,' who says it reacts acid. This must certainly be a mi&. take, for the ash of every sample I examined gave a strong alkaline reaction, requiring from 5 to 3.5cc. of decinormal acid for the neutralization of the ash from 100cc. of beer. Hassall says, on the other hand, "the alkalinity of the ash must be estimated" in determining whether sone alkaline earth or alkali has been added.
In order to investigate this question I procured a sample of beer made in Lafityette, Ind., which was guaranteed to contain no bicarbonate of soda, and which. from my knowledge of the parties through whom it was obtained, I have every reason to believe to be a sample of perfectly pure beer.4
The complete analysis of this sample was as follows:

Specific i-frvity ............................ 1.20
Per cent. alcohol by weight .......... . 372
Do. alcohol by volume ......... 4.64
D~o. extra t ........................... 6.3
Do. reducing sugar as maltose ........ 1.4
D o. ash ..... ........................ ..28 ,
Do. fixed acid as ]actic 201
Do. volatile acid as acetic .............. .049
D(o. phosphfloric acid .............. ,.... .059
Do. carbonic acid .................. .. .238
Normin l polarization ........................ +69 7

Several portions of 100cc. each were taken, various quanLiti carbonate of soda added, and after solution each portion ev 'Sce Wolff, Aschen-Analysen, p. 23.
Page b9.
3 Page 706.
4A small quantity of rice grit wax admitted to have been used


tand burned to ash. The alkalinity of the ash was then ascwith the following results:
No. 1. N o. 2. N'o. 3. No. 4.

grams, of bicarbonate added... None ... 1 .5 1.0
Nubr fcbic centimeters decinormal:
a requiredfor neutralization ........ 1.5 5. 17.5 .0.

F these results it will be seen that the alkalinity of the ash shows p nly the addition of considerable quantities of bicarbonate, but
s additions would not be detected in this way. Again, the books that the addition of bicarbonate of soda can be recognized by the so effervescence of the ash with an acid. This statement is based i re upon theoretical grounds, which have been shown by later inv tons to be fallacious. When the acidity of normal beer was supp to be due chiefly to lactic acid, the formation of lactate of soda, w would be converted into a carbonate on ignition, would, theorety,make an ash which would effervesce strongly with acid. But now at is known that the acidity is due to acid phosphates, it is easily s that the addition of bicarbonate would only tend to the producOf neutral or alkaline phosphates, which would give no effervescence w ad. This is shown by experiments I made with the sample of nbeer. Several portions of 100cc. each were taken, and different qof bicarbonate of soda added, and when solution had been the beer evaporated, and the residue carefully incinerated. T test for the presence of carbonate was made very carefully, by pouria few drops of water on the ash, and turning the whole into a testt e ntaiing dilute acid.

Amount bicar.
No. bonate of Soda Remarks.

1......... None ........ No effervescence.
2 ................ Do.
: ..................2 Do.
4 ............... 5 'Slight effervecence.
5 .... .... 1.0 Strong effervescence.

It will be seen from the above that there was no carbonate in the ash lutl sufficient bicarbonate was added to the beer to neutralize all its a ty, leaving an excess of bicarbonate in the beer. In Nos. 4 and reacted alkaline before evaporation.


The same beer was allowed to stand 'tl it had om and spoiled, when the above set of experiments w followi ng results:
Amount bicarNo0. bonate ad- ears

1 .................None......... Noe
2................. .1 S1ighteffe
4 ................. Do.
5 . .......... 1.50Do
5 .1.o ])o

From the above results it would seem that the i
preference with the acetic and lactic acids formed rather than witk the acid phosphates of the beer, though it would require more exp en on the subject to thoroughly establish this point. I however, it will be possible to detect the addition of bicarbonate to a beer that has soured, though not to a normal beer. The smallest quan tity used in practice, according to the Brooklyn report, is one oun to a half a barrel, which would be about 1 to 2,000, while the addit of .1 gram to 100cc. would be 1 to 1,000. Girard I gives a t for the addition of bicarbonate of soda to ciders the following prcde: Decolorize with bone-black, evaporate to dryness, t the residue with alcohol, which dissolves the acetates, which can be dotted in the holic solution. I have tried this test with very indiffe t results, as I find the alcohol dissolves so much other matter from the dried that it is difficult to detect the presence of acetic acid in small quan ties. The distillation of the beer in a current of a after the 4di. tion of phosphoric acid offers a better method for the sepation of acetic acid, which imay be searched for in the distillate, and if found to be present in any quantity, while the acidity of the beer i If is normal or below normal, the addition of bicarbonate of soda will be pretty well established. In this way I established the fact of the addition of bicarbonate in Nos. 4814 and 4816, which were the only samples of which I could be positive; and although I strongly suspect several of the other samples, owing to the difficulties of the test I would not pronounce positively upon them.
A variable quantity of chloride of sodium is a norm constituent of all beers, being derived principally from the water u in the brew Even a slight further addition of salt might be deed properly "season" the beer to the taste, justas b are Many brewers, however, are in the habit of adding a large quantity, either for the purpose of covering up some objectionable taste, or of increasing the thirst of the consumer. The English Governen pla
IReport Paris Municipal Laboratory.
"See under Free volatile acids in wis,"' pae32


the limit of chloride of soda which might come from the normal constituents at 50 grains to the gallon, or about .086 per cent., and treats any excess of that amount as evidence of an improper addition. This standard is undoubtedly a very generous one. Dr. Englehart found quite a number of the samples examined by him to overstep the
limit of 50 grains to the gallon, one sample containing as high as .338 percent. Of the samples examined here none were beyond it.


The estimation is very readily carried out on the ash, either gravimetrically or by a standard solution of silver nitrate with potassic chromate as indicator. For careful work the ash should be simply charred, so as to avoid loss of the chloride by volatilization, and the charred ass extracted by repeated additions of small quantities of hot water.

Cloudinessin beer is sometimes due to the separatingout of albuminous atter from changes in temperature, but usually to the presence of east, the fermentation not having been complete. This condition of ings is best detected by means of the microscope, which shows the presence of quantities of yeast cells, and, in case other fermentations ae set in, of their characteristic bacteria. "Yeast-cloudy" (hefe ribe) beer is considered unhealthy in Germany, and it is considered one f the qualifications of a good beer that it shall be absolutely bright and lear. An extensive investigation of the unhealthfulness of yeast-cloudy er lately made by Dr. N. P. Simonowsky in Pettenkofer's laboratory, wh~o found that such beer had a disturbing effect in both natural and artificial digestion, producing in persons using it obstinate catarrh of the stomae, which persisted for some time. Both Simoniowsky and Petenkofer conclude that the sale of yeast-cloudy beer should be prohibited. The Bavarian chemists at their last meeting at Wiirzburg, in August, 886, adopted the following resolution in relation to yeast-cloudy beer: Beers which are incompletely fermented for use must be entirely free from yeast; hat is, must not contain yeast in a cloudy suspension. 'Zeit. fir das gesammte Brauwesen ?, 9 Jahrg. 1886, No. 7, 8. 9; abstract Bied. Cent., 1887. p. 70




Ttics in regard to the consumption and production of wines S rved by referring to the table given under malt liquors
2), where it will be seen that in= the year 1886, 22,067,220 gallons wmed, of which 17,366,393 gallons were produced in this cThe consumption per capita has not increased very greatly dforty-six years since 1840, but the total amount consumed i very greatly, it being less than 5,000,000 gallons in 1840.
Iticed also that the amount produced in this country in pto the amount imported has increased to a remarkable deg In 1810 there was about ttirty-eight times as much wine fiupwas produced in this country; in 1886 the amount of dom wine consumed was nearly four times as great as the amount of n id. This does not fully represent the production, however, onot include the exports, which have increased very greatly f lI am reliably informed, although I have no accurate
dthis point. The largely increased domestic production is ply duo to the development of the industry in California. Th e wing table shows the relative rank of this country among te producing countries of the world ; it is taken from the same
s as the preceding statistics:

Avrg production of winie in the principal wome-growing coun tried's of the world.
jbyM. Tisserand in 188t, taken from "Journal of tbe Statisticat Society," London, 1M6.]

Production. Countries. Production.

........................... o..f.... ....... ....
Imnperifalglo Imperial gaidins
Algeia .................... 22,0000 I~o nited Stats ................ is 000,O0041
Itay ..................0W 000, 000 Turkey .... I .........2,00,.000
Span .................... 1844, 000, 000 Capw of Grood 11p0 ........ 15 400), 00
Autra- un ar .......... 187,000,000 Roin ua........... 15, 400,010
Poruga ..................s, 000, 04)4 Servia ........ ........ . 11,4)4)4, 0001
.............. 81, 290, (0 Austral ia ................... 1, 933,0
Russi .......................... 77, ON, 0110.
35,20091,K) Total ..... ....... 2,45,65)9,77
Switerla d .................28, 600, 00o



The growing of grapes for wine and the proper treatment of the jie for its conversion into wine have formed the subject of numerous treatises, that branch of technology having received a great deal of attention and study in countries where it is carried on. Only a short sketch of the leading features of the process can be given here, necessary to a proper understanding of the product itself.
Wine is properly the pure fermented juice of grapes; its composition is very variable, and the differences in the varieties of grapes used admit of almost endless modifications of the product obtained from them. Moreover, many other conditions affect more or less the composition of wine, as the nature of the soil, the climate, the method of cultivation pursued, the weather during the particular season when the grapes were ripened, &c. Thus the same variety of grapes when grown under different conditions of soil, climate, &c., produces different wines, and even in the same country the same variety of grape produces wines varying considerably in different seasons.
The most important constituent in the grape is its sugar, from which the alcohol is formed, so as a general rule the grapes are allowed to become fully ripened before they are removed from the vine. The first step is the production of the must. To this end the grapes are flrst bruised and crushed, either by the aid of machinery or by the more primitive but very effective method of trampling them by the feet of men. In some cases, and for very fine wine, the woody stems are removed from the crushed grapes (ddrdpage). In other cises, especially in white wines, they are left, their contents of tannin making them a desirable addition to the grapes. To obtain thejuice the grapes are subjected to pressure. The amount obtained varies with the means employed, the kind of grape, &c., but may be stated at about 60 to 70 per cent. of the weight of the grapes. For red wines thejuice is allowed to stand in contact with the skins a variable length of time until it has acquired from them the desired depth of color, and in this case the fermentation commences before the juice is expressed. All musts contain pretty much the same proximate principles, their differences being due solely to the relative proportions of the different constituents. Briefly stated, these constituents are as follows:
1. Saccharine matter (chiefly dextrose), which may constitute as high as 25 to 30 per cent. of the must.
2. Albuminoid matter.
3. Gummy matter, pectin, &c.
4. Extractive matter, illy-defined substances, comprising the coloring matters, if any, the flavoring matters, &e.
5 Organic acids and their lts, comprising malic acid (especially in
5. Orgn',11ic acids and their salts, ""M
bad seasons), a slight trace of tannic acid derived either from the stes or skins, and tartrates of potassium and calcium.
0. Mineral matters: Phosphoric, sulphuric, hydrochloric, and silici acids combined with potassium, sodium, iron, and magnesium.

WINES. 321

7.Water, 70 to 90 per cent.
The t is fermented in suitable vats of wood or stone, according to e age of the country; the fermentation is prod nced spontaneously, at is by germs accidentally introduced into it from the air or on the rI of the grapes themselves. If the fermentation does not take e promptly it is started up by introducing into it a supply of yeastsfrom some must which is already in a state of fermentation. Somees a small quantity of must is fermented in anticipation of the vinte season a "sponge," its fermentation being first induced by a
sall quantity of well washed beer yeast. The use of albuminous asts, such as bread yeast, &c., is generally avoided as much as possi, however, as tending to produce lactic and acetic or other objectionle fermentations entirely incompatible with the production of a wine th a delicate flavor.
The temperature at which the fermentation is carried on has a very cided influence upon the character of its product, and the practice fers indifferent countries in this respect. In California, Spain, South France, Austria, and Hungary fermentation is conducted at a comratively high temperature, 150 to 200 C., while in Germany a low temrature 50 to 150 C., is employed. As with beer, the yeast of either riety of fermentation, high or low, reproduces the same kind of fermtation in musts to which it is added, but the subject of the different ments, as applied to wine, has not been so carefully studied as with er. T high fermentation is said to give a wine rich in alcohol, but king in bouquet, while the reverse is the case with the low fermentatin.
The duration of the fermentation varies with the temperature, the ount of sugar to be transformed, &c.; the completion of the process y be known by the cessation of the disengagement of carbonic acid a and by the diminution of the specific gravity of the liquid, so that Sareometer marks zero or less.
After fermentation is complete, the wine is drawn off from any sedimet it ~ay contain into casks or barrels, where a second slow fermenton takes place, continuing sometimes several months. When it is er, the wine is "racked off" into fresh casks, which are closely bunged The operation of racking off may have to be repeated several mes, and it is sometimes necessary to add isinglass, or other gelatinous trial which serves to clarify the liquid, acting on the tannin which contains. This operation is called "fining."
The principal change in the chemical constitution of the must proced by ferentation is the conversion of the sugar into alcohol 4nd rbonic acid. One hundred parts of sugar produce 50 parts of alcohol, round numbers. All the sugar, however, is not converted in to alcohol Scarbonic acid; a small part is converted into glycerine and succinic Aid.


The bitartrate of potash, being insoluble in alcohol is gradually deposited as the content of alcohol in the wine increases, and forms the substance known as "argol" or crude tartar. This distinctive constitnent, tartarie acid, constitutes the superiority of grapesover otherfrits for wine-making purposes, the comparative insolubility of its acid salts furnishing a means of removing the excess without the addition of other chemical agents.
Other changes take place, especially during the slow second fermentation, not so well defined or so well understood as those mentioned, but of great importance in their relation to the quality of the final product. These changes, which continue after the fermentation has ended, constitute what is called the ageing" of the wine and produce its "bouquet" or flavor, generally attributed to the etherification produced by a slow action of the acids upon the alcohols, Wine improves with age, but there is a limit after which it degenerates again and loses its flavor.
In France and Germany several methods are in use for increasing the yield of wine or improving its quality. These are especially resorted to in unfavorable seasons, when the want of sufficient sun prevents the formation of enough sugar in the grape and the proportion of acid is high.
Chaptalization consists in neutralizing the excess of acidity in the must by the addition of marble dust, and increasing the saccharine conten by the addition of a certain quantity of cane sugar, which the vintners sometimes replace by starch sugar. In this process the quantity of the wine is not increased, but it becomes richer in alcohol, poorer in acid, and the bouquet is not injured. It is much used in Burgundy.
Gallizatioa, which was invented by a German, Dr. Ludwig Gall, has for its object the production of a standard must, which shall contain a definite proportion of acid and sugar. This is brought about by the analysis of the must and the addition to it of water and sugar, the quantity to be added being ascertained by reference to tables.
Petiotization.-This process, which takes its name from Petiot, a proprietor in Burgundy, is carried out as follows: The mare from which the juice has been separated as usual by pressure is mixed with solution of sugar and water, and the mixture again ferented-te second steering containing, like the first, notable quantities of bitar trate of potash, tannic acid, &c., which are far from being exhausted by one extraction. The process may be repeated everal times, the different infusions being mixed. This process is very largely used in France, and is said to produce wines rich in alcohol, of as good bouquet as the original wine, and of good keeping qualities. It is not allowed to be sold there, however, as natural wine.
To what extent these methods obtain in this country I a unable to state. It is probable, however, that they are but little ed, as the principal fault found with American wines is their deficient in bouquet

WINES. 323

in their content of sugar. The detection of wines made in any of t above-mentioned ways is rather a difficult matter chemically, and reires a knowledge of the composition of the pure product only obtained o large numbers of analyses, extending over many years; which ta, although existing in abundance in European countries, are, as yet, cking here, owing to the comparatively recent development of the instr and the small amount of work done on the subject.

The method par excellence for the preservation of wines is Pasteurizan, already alluded to in this report on malt liquors. Thetemperature played is from 500 to 650 C., and serves to completely destroy all getablei in the wine. When a process so unobjectionable in every
y answers.its purpose so admirably, it furnishes an additional arguent in favor of the legal suppression of all chemical means of arrestg fermetation by the use of antiseptics, &c. In regard to the use of antiseptics for the preservation of wines, I not do better than to give the opinion of Prof. E. W. Hilgard, of the university of California, who has probably done more than any other e man towards placing the wine industry of California upon a scienic bais, and whose work, published in the Bulletins of the State AgExperiment Station, I shall have frequent occasion to refer to i the course of this investigation?.'

Addition of antieptic.-As before stated, any of the fermentations above referred to my be stopped by the action of the substances known as disinfectants, antiseptics, poisons. It should be unnecessary to argue regarding the admissibility of addiScoming properly under the latter designation; yet it is true that in Europe such editions have not unfrequently been discovered in wines that, if left to themselves, old soon have become unsalable. It is not easy to draw the exact line between sons proper and those substances of which the use to a certain degree, and in a rtain way, may be considered admissible for the purpose of stopping undesirable rmentation inwines. There is, however, one point of view which covers the whole ound in connection with 'the use of wines for hygienic purposes, namely, that whatever impedes fermentations also impedes digestion, which is ftselfin a great deee a process of fermentation. The habitual use of wines containing antiseptics ill, therefore, inevitably result in functional derangements; and this is so well unrstood that in Europe the extreme amounts of those allowed at all is strictly lianited by law. Thus in the case of sulphuric acid, one of the germicides most commonly played, partly in the form of the acid it-self, but more commonly in that of plaster ulphate of lime) added to the grapes, or to the wine itself. The tartaric acid of the ine is thus partially or wholly replaced by the sulphuric, tartrate of lime being rown down; and thus badly made wines may be prevented from passing onward to the improper fermentations, and becoming undrinkable. Salicyic acid is effectal in much aller quantities, and at one time it was thought that it would be adsible to employ it freely. But while its effects upon the human system are not parent at first in most cases, yet the decided and unpleasant results often prodpeed Sthe case of persons of weak digestion have but served to emphasize the general iom, that we cannot, with lmpunity,contiuue t introduce into the human body bstances foreign to the vegetable and animal products that have from time immerial onstitated the nutriment of mankind. If some persons are able to bear for a Report of Viticultural Work, 1883-'84, and l$1-'8W. page 3*2.


time doses of salicyle acid that will completely stop di f case of others, it is altogether unlikely that even the stro its use indefinitely without injury. After some years of hibition of its use in articles of food or drink seems, in Eu to be ony ai of time; the more as in the case of wines, the process of u legitimate reason for the longer continuation of a doubtful twice, al to abuse.
In view of this fact, it is curious that its use for the ction of must it unfermented condition has not only been extensively introduced in this country, but the resulting beverage is especially recommended, as a bealtbful and harmlesssubstitute for wine, by those who consider alcohol as necessarily harmful in any form and quantity. A few years' experience will doubtless show bow u nrtunate ha b the choice of a substitute in this case.
And again as follows:'
Finally, when wines are not entirely sound-and with the methods of fer ta now in vogue this is a very prevalent condition-the remedy to be applied should not lie in the use of antiseptics, sulphuring, salicylic or boracic acids, and the like, but in the simple and rational heating process devised by Pasteur, and named for him. The "Pasteurizer" should be an indispensable appliance in every wine-house; a dits use, if properly understood and practiced, will at once do away with nine-tenths of al doctoring for unsoundness. The universal adoption of this simple and in expedient will save all losses now sustained in the shipment of our young wines, and will soon do away with the reproach that "California wines will not keep." If in the face of all these facts and legitimate substitutes for medication there r those who desire to adhere to the old doctoring system, it isat least the right of t who do without them and furnish the consumers the pure product of the grape to have a legalized mode of expressing the fact on the packages.


The different kinds of wines sold can be numbered by the hun They refer usually either to the country where it is produced, or of whose product it is an imitation, as Port, Sherry, Hochheimer, Madeira, &c., or to the variety of grape from which it is made, a catawbs, ri ling, zinfandel, &c.
No generally recognized classification is made except into white or wines according to their color ; and into dry or sweet wines according their content of sugar. The general name of c/anm is given to of
fervescing wines.
In countries where the production of wine is one of the i ng i
dustries, like France and parts of Germany, the composition of the made is very well established. Scarcely any artice of onsumptio been the subject of so much chemical investigation as wine. Tho of analyses have been published, so that one is at a I to co them for representative figures.
In a general way the normal constituents of a na i
divided into two classes, volatile and fixed.
The volatile matters are as follows: Water, constitutig 0
90 per cent. of the weight; alcohol, 5 to 15 per
Bulletin No. 65, Univ. of Cal. Agl. Ex. Satio

WINES. 325

v le acetic, cnathic, &c., constituting one-fourth
tof the total acidity; aldehyde, compound ethers, together
wrant, indefinite constituents, which give the wine its
"uet; carbonic acid gas in 8mllI quantiti in young wines.
Ttter8 are: Glucose or grape sugar in small quantities in
w Iitartrate of potash, tartaric, malic, and phosphoric acid,
ppartly combined with potash, lime, soda, aluminum,
i ron, and manganese, of which salts phosphate of lime is
hudant, constituting from 20 to 60 per cent. of the weight
ot remainder being chiefly carbonate of potash resulting
nation of the bitartrate, with a little sulphate and traces
o Coloring matters: Pectin and analogous gummy matters;
t i1 2 per cent. in red wines, mere traces only existing in white.
Tgf table of the composition of French wines is taken from
Wonnaire de chimie:
Average composition cf French wine.

In grams per liter.
by vol Remarks.
e Extract Glyer- Bitar- Total
E Glycr- trate of Ash. acidity as
at 1000 C. ifle. potash. H1S04.

Per cent.
Wen o nh 10.0 18.9 5.6-7.6 1.2-5.0 1.2-3.8 2. 5 Extract (max. 40.5,
wines.min. 15. 0).
B ru d - ---------- 16.9 5.8 1.8 .......... 2.5
S....... 10.3 .......................... .............. .......... Alcolol (max. 13.0,
inu. 9. 4).
Poma d ......... 11.5 ......... .......... ..................- Alcohol (max. 13.3,
rin. 10.2).
S.. 10.5 ----------------------------Alcohol (max. 12.6,
min. 7.3).
i11.2 236............................ Wines six months
P B 7.8 15.6 .......... ................... W ines one year
B0 ........ 10.4 20.7 .................. 2.17 Wines th1re years
9.,4 ....... 7.1 2.3 1.6-3.0 ...... Alcohol (max 10.9
W min. 7.9).
Bord ,. 9.1 16.4 ................. ........... 2.15 Alcohol (max. 9.7,
min. 7.3). dl 10.1 19.0 6.5-7.6 2.2 1.7-3.5 2. 5-5. 6 Extract (max 23.0,
(o rin. 16.0).
Id e l10.3 20. 0-25. 0 .................... 3.2-4.6 4.9-5.1
Ar 10.0 24.0 ... .......... 2.95 4.2
o s 12.4 .......... .......... .................... ........
Waa (ot 10.8 18.8 .............................. 2. 0-3. 0 Alcohol (max. 14.0,
plasteed). in. 8.4).
.R u iln deta l 1. .......... .......... .......... 2.4 12.66

.dIM r11.4 24.1 .................... .. ... 1.8-.3 Alcohol (max. 14.0,
min. 6.7).
V1 de 10.7 .................... .... ........... Alcohol (wax. 14.3,
m1i S 9).
Alohol(max. 12.4,
V d Haute- 9.8 23.8 ..... 1.4 1.4-2.0 7.5
E x rac t Ona. 28.8,
muiu. 18.9).

Cha li (6 m nh )7 .40 .......... .................... .........
B r e u .. .. .......... ......... .......... ..................... 51
11. 1g.2 .......... 3 .......... 4.5
S_ _ _I3, _ _ _


The following table or the average composition of wines of various

U. a. w.:
Average composition of the eine of al

Specific gravity. Alcohol by volume. Acids, as tartaric.

Country. NC r3

P. et. P. ct., P. et P. et. P. et. P. Ct.
America (Virginia).... 12 12 1. 0117 0. 9875 0. 9936 12 12.69' 8 5t' 10.62" 12 1. 02 0.52 0. 671
Australia.............. 5.... . ...... 5 18.0 14.1 15. 5 5'0. 510 0.450 0.49
Africa.. 4 1 -..-.... 0. 9938 2 20. 3 18.0 1 3:0. 370 0. 224 0. 275
inorAsia............ -8 7 1. 0892 1. 0031 1. 0325 8 18.0 13.0 14.3 ..... ...... ..... .....
Crime ................ 31 31 1. 0011 0. 9s75 0. 9912 31 16.93 9.08 12.80 3110.854 0. 350 0. 59
Greece ................ 9 7 1. 0251 0. 909 1. 0109 9 18.0 12.4 15.4 .... ... .....
Spain .......... 9 71. 0700 1. 0370 1. 0593 8 1.1 12.5 14.6 1 .... 0. 339
Italy .................. 40 407 1.08790.8934 1.0019 407 21. 93 8.40 13.86 407-1. 0425 0.27(0 0. 674
Sicily .................. 86 86 1. 0976 0. 9893 1. 0225 86 27.15 13.70 18. 08 86'0. 8352 0.38( 0.591
Fraiice ............ 60 27 1. 0019 0. 9910 0. 9932 47 14.0 6.5 9.9 40 G. 970 0. 19 0. 506
Switzerland ........... 68 14 0. 9930 0. 9980 0. 990 4 68 13. 1 6.0 9.0 680.750 0. 37 0.52
Austria............... 523 488 1. 0797 0. 9896 0. 9941 503 18.8 7.5 11.0 4990.995 0.11( 0.58
1. Lower Austria. 122 113 1. 0084 0. 9898 0. 9857 122 15. 7 8.6 13. 0 130. 910 0.434 0. 63
2. Styria i..... 93 80 1. 0797 0. 9908 0. 987 86 15.3 8.1 12 0 92 0. 995 0. 11 0. 06
3. Tyrol .......... 4 4!0. 9966 0. 9952 0. 9959 4 8.3 7.5 7.9 30.612 0.461 0. 52
4. MIihren ........ 4 4 o. 9942 0. 932'0. 9937 4 11.7 9.8 10.6 40.727 0. 496 0. 577
5. Bohemia ....... 19 19 0. 9994 0. 9921 0. 9950 19 14. 1 9.5 11. 6 19,0.806 0. 42W 0.61
0. Carniola ....... 1 110. 9963 0. 99390. 9932 11 10.5 8.5 9.2 11 0. 811 0. 46.5 0.60
7. Hungary....... 154 145 1. 0201 0. 99Wt 0 996t 148 18. 8 8 4 12.2 144 0. 958 0. 349 0. 63
8. Transylvania 4 4 0. 9928 0. 9876 0.9914 4 12.8 10. 5 11.7 4 0. 498 0. 433 0. 46
9. Sclavonia ...... 38 38 1. 00120.9921 0. 9944 38 15. 1 9.3 11.3 3A 0. 928 0.573 0. 69
10. Croatia ........ 72 70 1. 0086 0.9910 0. 9943 66 13. 6 7.5 10.5 700.944 0. 449 0. 68
11. Dalmatia 1...... ..-..0. 9950 1 ..... ....- 10.7 1 ......... 0.48
Germany ..........616 221 1. 0833 0. 9960 0. 9954 615 16. 0 5. 7 10. 1 544 1. 354 0.050 0.59
1. Saxony ........ 2 1 ...... ..... 0.9975 2 ...... ...... 9.0 ... .....
2. Silesia...........I 1 ....... ... 0.9976 1 ........... 6.5
3. Mosel-Saar.... 11 4 0. 9977 0. 9930 0. 9946 11 14.2 6.7 10.,6 7 0. 660 0. 56 0. G1
4. Aliregend ... 11 11 0. 99G010. 9915 0. 9944 11 11.2 7.9 9.8 11 0.559 0. 310 0. 45
5. Rheinga u ...... 57 42 1. 0323 0. 9960 0. 9956 56 16. 0 8.2 11. 3 48 0.750 0. 3.12 0. 54
0. Iheingau-Berg
a. ..... .... 30 26 0.9996 0. 9910 0. 9950 1J 11.7 7.9 10 0 25 0.810 0. 359 0. 51
7. Palatinate ..... 62 41 1. 0034,0. 968 0. 09955 62 13. 3 6.8 10.7 24 0. 779 0.350 0. 54
8. Franconia...... 78 69 1. 0833'0.9762 0. 9940 78 13.3 6.5 10.(" 73 1. 334 0.453 0.850
0. Wirtenbarg .. 27 13 0. 998210. 9937 0. 9956 27 15.5 7.0 11.4 23 0. 830 0.350 0. 61
10. Baden.......... 33f 16 0. 9986,0. 9935 0. 9945 336 15.6 5.7 11.2 333 1. 087 0.050 0. 54
11. Alsace.... 12 37 0. 99500. 9860 0. 9907 37 12.06 6.20 10. 28 37 0. 705 0.332 0.543

German kinds.

Riesling ............... 85 17 1. 0025 0. 9911 0.9948 83 14.7 8. 8 11. 3 78 0,960 0.080 0. 65
Trainer ............. 40 6 0. 9997 0.9762 0. 9921 40 14.3 8. 7 11.8 39 0.907 0. 330 0. 58Rulbinder.............. 20 --- ..-.-.. .... .0 14.6 9.4 11.0 19 0.780 0.420 0.56
Gutedel ............. 33 50.993 0.99270.9934 33 12 1 8.9 10.3 32 0.705 0.274 0.53
Weissherbst ........... 15 2 .. ...... ). 9966 15 13. 5 8. 3 112 15 0.40 0.286 0.5
Burgunder............. 26 2 .......... 0. 9950 26 13 4 9.0 11.2 26 0.756 0.429 0.57
Clevuerblau ........... 30 60.9982 0. 9934 0.9955 30 15.2 8.2 11. 5 30 0. 907 0.416 0.595

1 Per cent. by weight.

WINES. 327

og consumed in Germany is taken from Kinig's Nahrungsmittel,

f (Wagenmaun and K nig).

Extract. Tannin and coloring Ash.

P. et. P. Ct. P P. et. P. ct. P. cf Pct P.l. P. O. cf.
3.0 0.031 0.724, 12 6.41 1.41 2.5811 12 0.012 002 0.009W 12 0. 30 0. 12 0. 17-5
5&.0 0.840, 1. 48& 5' 4.800 2,600 3.,240 ...--------. 5.5 10 4190 4.50........................ 1.----.---- 0.428
816.230 2.400 6.292. ----..................................
3. 0.040, 1.583 33 4.515 1.353 2.516 9 0. 503 0.143 0.207 33 0. 382 0. 153 0. 227
.9 4.800 1.0400 3.418
8 18. 780 14. 401650~..
82 0. 760.1791 3. 6301 40721.886 0. 746 3.259~ 82 0. 339 0. 001 0. 073 407 0.743~ 0.057 0.214
. 940 0.746 8.442 ...... .................. 86 857 0. 185 0. 363
0.1i0 0.109 0.159 40 12.6001 1 080, 3.036 14 0. 229 0. 186 0. 207 17 0. 252 0. 174 0. 216
0.1 0.0250.063 141 2.689 1.293 1.87............ 14 0.502 0.134 0.249
96.100 1.20W 2.647 49523.1401 0.870 2.422 15 0.19410109 0.139 186 0.323 0.077 o. 188
.... ... 122 6.320 1.790 2.650 10 0.194 0. 109 O. 139 17 0.311 0. 162 0. 214t
3 2310 1.090 3. 7301............... 47 0. 30 07 0.16,
-----~~0 -26960 77 .1 0. M201 0 165
....4 1.850 1.670 1.750.................... 4 0.228 0.154, 0. 14
...... ......2.010...... .. ... ..... .... .......
.19 3. 910 1.850 2.620 7 0.297 0.128 0.197
1.620 11 2.510 1.480 2.000 ......... ii1 0. 269 0.120 0.182
6.1 1.200 2.960 149 10.700, 0.80 3.050 50.175 0.111 0.141 36 0.28 0 077 0.192
.4 2.170 1.450 1.750 ............ .......... ......
.3. 890 1510 2. 360 ........................ 14 0.1 0.191
2.. .66;5. 1.210 2.140 ...... 49 0.323 0.111 0.1G7
1 4. .. .. ... 2.600 ..................... I ....... ..... 0.170
408 28 0.010 0.470 386 10.5551 0.520 2.502 4 0. 272 0. 076 0. 145~ 94 0.314 0.108 0. 194

S2 ...... ...... 2.00......................................

80.3. I12 -- -- -- -- -- I - --I-- 2. 20o . .
0. 0.120 0.241 9 2. 500 1.500 1.892 .......... 1 ......... .203
110.674 0.056, 0,159, 11 2.885 2.137 2.6711 10~ 0.272, 0.09 0.214 l11 3.261 0. WO90 0213 308.62 0.080 0.964, 56 10.555 1.640 3.087, 16 0. 261: 0.091 0. 141, 29~ 0.314 0. 120o 0.215

15 .50 0.100 0.410 31 4.100 1.040 2,588 13 0. 235' 0.0911 0. 148 17 0.275~ 0. 125~ 0.213
431 3500 0.010 0.560 49 7.300 1.710 2.236 2............0.076 22. 0.205 0 .18 0.1:37
6.0.154 0. 081' 0.138 76 9.445 1.112 3. 165 .. .. .... .. .. ... ......
11400. 0.08 0.t5 17 2.920 2.750 2.255 -7- 0. i. .
4.540 0.046 0.442 134 3.545 0.520 1.730........................14 0.255 0.163 0.183
2'0.188 0.013 0.087 36 2.389' 1.2281 1,784 ...... ...... ...... .......25 0.387 0. 10 5 0.225

754.540 0. 091' 0. 45,8 36 9.940, 0. 790 2. 42........ .... ... 5 0. 190 0.146 0. 170
334160 0.0468 0.480 16 3.612 0. 520, 2. 200 ...... ...... ...... ........2... ------- 0. 163
201.500 0.059) 0. 229 14 2.700 1. 320 1. 8481...... ...... ...... ............-I------260.610 0.077 0.124 24 2. 73.5 1.420 1.7811............ ... ..5 0. 183 0. 160 0. 17"
12 2.100 0.070 0.586 4 2.290 1. 770 2. 012'.............2 _.......... 00
23 0.275 0. 087 0. 119 14 2.706 1. 360 2.1701 1 ,............ 0. 272 2 ....,.. ...... 0.229.
21 3.3301 0.078 0.871, 12 4.167 1.3901 2.3i4 3 0. 272 0. 190 0. 230 3 0. 2531 0.181 0.212,

2 Given as tanuic acid.



The earliest analyses of Americau wines on recordy.were made by Merrick, in 1875, comprising six varieties of California wines.
In October of the same year Mallet and Coojer' published analyses of twelve samples of Virginia wines. The mean of these analyses is gi ven in the table from Kinig.
The work of Professor Hilgard on California wines began in 1880 and has continued down to the present day, the results being published in the Bulletins of the Station. These publications include extensive series
of analyses, which afford a most valuable index of the composition of California wines, especially as many of th*e analyses were made on wines manufactured in the laboratory and hence known to be absolutely pure. A standard of composition could very properly be established from them, and a limit for the amount of each constituent present in pure wines,by which the addition of alcohol, water, sugar, &c., in sophisticated wines could be detected. The number of different determinations made on each sample is not very large, unfortunately, including only the more important constituents. I give below tables of the entire work done on wines known to be pure:

Composition of wines made at the viticultural Laboratory, 188I4.

Variety. Body. Tau- as Ash.
Ev By inl. tarwNei-~ht. volumet. trc

Bordeaux type.
P. ct. 1c t. P. ct. P. et.
Malbeck .........................--........................ 2.68 8.34 10.42 .100 .450 .393
Cabernet Franci .......................................... 2.84 9.63 12.00 .035 .480 .432
Do .................................................. 2.13 8.48 10.58 .070 .607 .293
Cabernt Sauvignon....................................... 3.19 9.92 12.36 .079 .540 .447
Mrot..........................---.......-............. 2.44 9.20 11.42 .065 .4i7 .391
Verdot ..................................................... 2.77 9.78 11.82 .071 .438 .409
Tannat .................................................... 2.69 7.46 8.92 .171 .63 .353
c an ..................................................... 2.64 8.84 11.00 .053 381 6
(arignane ................................................. 2.18 7.92 9.90 .(03 .527 .285
Grossbhlauo ................................. 2.10 9. 20 11.42 .065 .572 .252

Burgundy type.

Black Burgundy ....................................2.77 .34 11.64 .188I .765 .277
Blawk Pinot ............................................... 2.11 .42 8.0 .133 .750 .310
Mtnir ................................................... 2.55 10.07 12.55 .025 .525 .419
oi e ........................................2.44 6.95 8. 4 .05 5 .622 '6
Zi el--------------------- ------ ..
Do ... ........ .................................... -2.3 7.835 9.7 .03 .450 .43
Do ................................................... 1.93 7.43 9.25 .080 633 .200
Do .............................. ........................... .........- ...
D o ................................. ............... . ... .. ........ .. ..... - ...

A'kuthern French and Italian types.

Troun eau..........- -....-.......................... 2.60 11.23 13.73 .075 .485 .379
Do ..................................................28 .92 ..0 0 .474 .349
P etit ira ................... ........... .............. 2 65 10.07 12. 5 4 .0 2 .401 .406
Do................................................... 2.79 10.81 13.27 .108 .293 .339
in ................................--. ----- -....... 2.4 C SA48 10.58 063 510 400

Amer. Chemist 6. M.he. News :32, 16(.

WINES. 329

Composition of wines made at the Viticultural Laboratory, 1884.

Alcohol. Acid

Variety. Body. Tan. ta Ash.
By By
P, v Bvtaric.
weight. volume

Southern French and Italian type--Continued.
P. et. P. et. P. rt. P. ct. P. ct.
tMondeuse..-- 2.64 I 9.56 11.89 .173 .498 .242
Do .........------------------------------------------ 2.84 9.92 12.27 .141 .405 .362
Linsant. 2.60 10.44 12.90 .070 .4100 .375
2.32 9.05 10.73 .065 .496 .356
ourastel................--------------..---- -------------- 2.60 7.92 9.88 .054 .553 .291
renache .......................-.....-- ................ 1.67 8.48 10.58 .105 .480 .281
Do....---...--. -.-.. .------------------------------- 1.93 7.43 9.27 .065 .532 .277
Petit Bouschet 2.44 8.84 11. 00 .089 .583 .234
Do---------.......-------------------------------- 2.87 9.27 11.55 .117 .493 .369
-lairetteRouge......--- ........-- ---------- 2.72 9.92 12.36 .063 .510 .293
Barbera.....---------------------- ........ ------ --- ------enoir.. 3.00 8.13 10.16 .060 .630 .376
D o .... .... .... ... .... .... -.. -.. .... .... .. 3.71 8.98 11. 17 .075 582 .511
Blau-Elbling 1.93 8.27 10.25 .040 .585 .340
M-ission ..................---------------------------- .. --- .---... --------...
Black Prince .. . . . . . . - . . - . . . . . . . .

Drywhite wine varieties.

Sem illon .. . .. -......--- -.-- - -- - .. ...--..-- -- - --.---
Do 1.93 9.92 12.36 ...... .450 .175
Sanvignon'Blanc. .. .. ..-.. .. ..-.. -- ----
Do 2.10 9.92 12. 36 ...... .453 .157
D o .. . - - - . . - - . . . 2.18 10. 26 12.75 ...... .0..,2 .192
duscadello du Bordelais (loose bunches). .............. 2. 13 11. 46 14.00 ...... 43 2o8
uscadelle du Bordelai4 compactt bunches) ............... 2.44 10.81 13. 27 ...... 498 .342
ole Blanche ("Tannat") ................................. 1. 66 9. 92 12. 3 ..... 593 .214
ole Blanche ................ 1.80 7.43 8. 75 ...... 570 .235
Burger 2.05 8.41 10. 50--. 600 20
Do ....... .-..-. ...--.. ... -.. ....... -.... -..... 1.65 8.55 10. 63 ...... 528 181
onesanne ..1.36 19. 54 13.00 ...... .4.8 .260
Maranne .1.88 9.20 11.46 ...... .563 .176
C1airette Blanche----..................... 1.85 10.54 13. 0 ...... .428 .212
PeconiTouar" 1.66 9.27 11.58 .... .573 .234

8herry and Afadeira varieties.

PedroJimenes.. 1.]8 9.63 12.00 ...... .55 .390
Palomino... ... .... .... 1.85 11. 08 13. 30 --.... .528 .250
Peru1no L.95j 9.92 12.50 ...... .519 .3m6
Intuo do Pilas .... ... ... .. ......... .. .. 1.32 7.85 9.82 -- .525 1 265
unrisco B-ranco . . . . . .. . . .. ..... .
Beba--..--..--..--...-..-.--.-..-................. 2.10 11. 69 14.27 ...... 503 .372
erdelho ................................................... 2.82 12.39 15.20 ...... .417 .331)
-oal M -adeir.. ...... .................. 2.00 9.27 11.8 ...... .660 .264
g l l ........... 2.00 8.91 11.10 ------ 510 .29
almsey .. 1. 60 7. 92 9. 91 ......543 10
M alaga........................... 1. 69 8.13 9. 82 17 .240

Port wine raricties.

T inta C o . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . .. ...... . . .
Tinta M adeira .... . . . . . . . . ....... ........ . . . . . . . .
fourisco P reto . . .. . . .. .. . . . . ........ -....... -....... ..-... ...-- .'ints Amarella (not fully ripe) ......................... 36 9. 15 11.27 58 ..01 .446
inta marella (fully ri )-.................2.31 56 11.I Slight .525 .470

astardo ........... .................... ..................12.3 2 07 564


Analyses of wines made at th. Viticultural Laboratory.

Alcohol. Acid.
Variety. Body. Tanii. !Ah.
By By
weiht.volme Tartaric. Vol1atile.

Bordeaux type.
j '~Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. P. cL
Malbeck I .......................... .
Pfeffer's Cabernet ................ 8.84 11.00 .123 .84
Do- ......................... 2.69 10.64 13.00 .101 .516 ........290
Do ......... ........... 2.69 8.13 10.17 .486 ...... 366
Merlot ----------------------- 2.09 9.20 11.45 '21 .0 ...........10

Burgundy type.
Burgundy ...................... 3.07 9. 3 12.00 .071 .555 ........ 226
BI. Jinot or Tree Burgundy ....... 2.84 8.91 11.09 .110 .600 ...........315
Black Pinot ........................ 2.20 7.37 9.18 .040 .525 .......... 24
Fraue Pinot I ................................----.---- ..................
Meunier' .............................................................................
Zinfai -del I ...........................................- -
Do ......... ........ 2.69 8.84 11.00 .086 .576
Do-------------------------.. 2.69 1146 14.00 .133 .417...... 28
Charbono ............................................................ ......
Do .......................... 2.69 7.09 8.85 .112 .495 .......... 270
)o ...................... ...2.26 7.78 9.73 .160 .420 .......... 20
Do ...................... 2.18 7.23 9.00 .209 .547 ...........
Do ...................... 1.80 6.42 8.08 .130 .502 ...........330
Southern Freneh and Italian

rousseau ................. .................. .................. ..........................
Mataro ........................ 1.98 7.23 9.00 .080 .487 ...........
Teinturier ....................... 3.07 8.06 10 08 .184 .555 ........ 310
Kadarka ........................... 1.80 6.82 8.54 .070 .450 ...........
Blend: 90 per cent. Zinfandel, 10
per cent. Charbono ...............2. 84 8. 84 11.00 .108 .576 .......... 213
Dry white varieties.
Chauch6 Gris ....................180 10.54 13.00 ----------- ...........
Verdal ............................ 1.80 6.42 8.07 .......... .517 ......... .188
One-third Golden Chasselas, twothirds Burger .................... 1.80 9.63 12.00 .......... .615 ........... 217
Burger ........... w .................2.69 9.63 12.00 .675-----....450
Do .......................... 1.93 8.13 10.16 .......... .645 .......... 192
Do ........................... 1.68 8.84 11.00 .......... .540 .......... 183
Do. ..................... 1.52 4.76 6.00 .......... .480 .......... .225
Frankeu iesling ............... 3.82 8.48 10.58 ----------.600 .366 ,0
Riesling .................... 1.80 9.05 11.27 .......... .352 ...........160
Coiombar .........................2.26 8.84 11.00 .......... .91 ..........
Zinfandel, first crop ...............2.30 11. 23 13.73 ......... .481 ...........244
Zinfandel, second crop .... 2.15 10. 54 13.00 .......... 525 .......... .140
Zinfaidel, second crop, -filtered". 2.60 10.54 13.00 .......... .576 ...........1f7
ZinfAndel, 97j percent. ; Verial, 2A
P ercent..2.15 10.51 13.00 ....... 503 .......... 191
Burger, 50 per cent.- Zinfandel 50
per cent ........................ 2. 10 11.08 13.54 ......... .713 .......... .184

Nut enough for wine-making. 2 Su gar =65 p rce t.

WINES. 331

Composition of wiies made at Viticultural Laboratory, 1886.


Variety. ,

Bordeaux type.
Per cent. Per cent. P. ct P. ct.
adb 8.27 10.36 .132 .62
Cabernet Franc.......................... ..........9.78 12.18 .264 .45
Cabaret anvignon................................. --------------------------------------------. 8.48 10.58 .226 .52
Pfeffer's Cabernet..................................... 9.05 11.27 .190 .42
Do- ...................-............ 8.34 10.42 .208 .73
Gros.................................................. 7.92 9.90 .166 .79
ant...............................--....---.......------. 9.70 12.09 .316 .77
Bla ....................................................... 8.34 10.42 .090 .60
Char ....................................................... 7.23 9.00 .251 .53
Do ....................................................... 7.64 9.54 .186 .60
Carignane ...................................................... 9.27 11.55 .172 .69
D ....................................................... .. . .. .... .... 0 "..... 8... ..

(-rosebla .. .... ... .... .... -.... ..... .... ..... .... 0.95 8.70 .169 .81
Do ........................................................ 7.09 8.85 .193 .72
-lackE u ................. .......................... 7.23 9.00 .108 .52
Wet' St.Peter's(?).---..........---..................---........ 8.84 11.00 .270 .57

Burgundy type.
rgundy...................................................... 9.99 12.46 .226 .43
Crabb's lack Burgundy ........................................ 7.64 54 .220 .47
Do.. -- - - .. .. .. . .- _......... . . . . .8. 0 0. 9
u (Chauch6 Noir )-................................. 9.92 12.36 .074 .41
.....Cb....uch6 ..oir.......... 8.48 10.58 .106 .38
P9it i.92 12.36 .076 .53
Pinot (1). -....-... ..... ..-....-.-... ..... .... .... 10.81 13.27 .153 .35
Piot St.George................................................ 9.02 12.36 .112 .53
e ier ....................................................... 9.49 11.82 .133 .55
........................................................ 9.92 12.36 .193 .40
Zi........................................................ 9.92 12.36 .104 .54
Do-... ........................................ 11 62 14.20 .140 .54
Io ....................................... 9.20 11.45 .091 .59
Do....................................................... 8.48 10.58 .169 .94
Do ........................................................ 7.23 9.00 .148 .55
Zinfandel, econd crop.......................................... 7.78 9.73 .103 .71
Zinfadal () (ow 31).......................................... 7.09 8.85 .151 .64

Southern French and Italian types.

Tro sa...................................................... 10.63 13.09 .090 .45
9............... ...................................... .56 11.91 .051 .51
Sirh---.......-...................--.. 8.84 11.00 .107 .65
Mondene....................................................... 7.64 9.51 .127 .78
Do........................................................ 7.99 10.10 .317 .64

D .. . . .......................................... ......... 9 ........4 ... .. ... .
Do .-
Cinsant......................................................... 7.78 91.73 .,153 .90
Do ........................................................ 7.99 10.00 .110 .52
Barbera......................................................... 9.20 11.45 .153 85
T t rier .......................... ............................ 9,85 12.27 .278 .73
Do ........................................................ 8.34 10.42 .114 .64
amay .Teinturier.............................................. 8.48 10.58 .169 .90
Nebbiolo ourg................................................ 8.13 10.17 .172 .82
Nebbiolo no.................................................... 8.91 11.0 .215 .86
F esa ........................................................... 6.49 8.15 .160 1.12
Blend: Barbera; Herbemnont, one-thlird ; Fresa ................. 7.37 9.18 .2_50 .63

American type.
i erbe o t ..................................................... 6. 8.61 .095 .74
Do........................................................ 7.43 9.27 .140 .50
Caifornica .................................................... 7.09 8.85 .170 .01
Isabella regia........ .......................................... ......... ......... .....--------

Dry white wine varieties
Semillon ................................... ......... ........... 7.23 9.00 ....55
Sauvignon Vert.. ....................................... 7.23 U.00 .53
F'olle Blan e ................................................... 7.78 9.73 . .59
Burger ........ ................................................. 8.48 10.6 ........ .47


Contpoeition of wincq made at Yitioiltural Laboratory, 18

A. 4

ry white wincttetrwee-Coutinued.PecntPr n.P.t .c.
Burger-------------------------------------------......... 4.14 5.23 ...... .81
Do .................................................. 7.99 10.00 ........ .1*
Kleinberger................................................ 6.95 8.70) .... .43
Marsamie---------------------------------------------...... 8.48 10.58 ..... .56
Clairette Blanche---------------------------------------..... 7.09 8.85 ---- .41
Do----------------------------------------------..... 1 7.57 9.45 ...... .35
Do------------------------8.48 10.68-----------.47
WPecoui Tonar ............................... ...... 7.09 8.85------. .4
Franken RiCRies ..i.g...... ....... ...... ...... ...... .....-........-.... ....-. ..-..-......
Do-----------------------------....................... 7.23 9.00 .... .50
Riesling ---------- *----------------------------..... 7.37 9.18---- .36
Riesling(?C)--------------------------------------------....... 0.20 11.45 .-... 5
Johannisberger lRiesling----------------------------------..... 8.13 10.17 ----- .60
Chasselas deo Fontainebleau ................................... 8.80 8.61------... .41
Chauch6 Gris-----------------------------............ 8.27 10.36 ------1 .45
"Gray d 8chia," Chauch6 Gri ..-----....-------------------.. 8.98 11.18 ------ ..3
Seedless Sultana----------------------------------------..... 8.27 10.38 ... .61
White Muscateller--------------------------------------..... 8.70 10.83 ........ .44
Blau-EMblim ..g ............................................ 8.13 10.17 .... .5-4
White Zinfandel----------------------------------------..... 9.05 11.27 ..... .41
Cin~,aut------------------------------------------........ 9.27 11.655---- .48
Verdal------------------------------------------------...... 8.48 10.58 .25
I)o---------------------------------------------------------Sherryj ad Madeira varieties.
Pedro inee.--------------------7.92 9.90 ..... .42
Palomino-------------------------------------------Palomino (" Golden Chas. elas ")----------------------------------6.35 8.00 ..-...... .54
Maztuode 7.i8 9.73-------------------------.8 07 .45
Do------------------------------8.48 10.58 ..... .35'
Mourisco BranCO-----------------------------------------------.. 10.07 12.64 ...-. 1 -3
Verdeiho.-----------------------------------Muscatof Alexandria------------------------------------..... 11.62 14.20 ..... .42
Do 95 IL---------------------------96 1.9.3
West'8 White Prolific, with some smaller grapes---------------.7.78 0.73 ..7... .2
West's -White Proli fie... -----------------7.78 9.73 ....... .71
"W hite St. Peter's ....... -............................ ------8.48 10.58 ..... .45

As this work s eeins to be very important as establishing the average
composition of pure wines made in California,, I have prepared from
Professor Hilgard's reports a table Showing the maximum, minimum,
and mean composition of the pure wines analysed, as well as of the
wines which were made outside, and Sent in to the laboratory for analySim:

Maxiummmum, mid mcan cospositioa of California rax as shoici boy Ikeaiale

made at the California Slate V-iticultural Laboratoy

Altool y weght Bod orextict.Tot Al ac:ids as tar- sh larkc.

Pur wies adea

laoatr in -&

Burund t pe6 u (7 642 l T 1- 9 2.;6 7-O 4-, 04 2"

Iaintype ---- 1'k 11.2 T.43 t 216 3.719 L 2 .0 2,5 .6-5 31 ,S .5', .52 .3~

t y --------- 13 1123 7. 43 9 .71.4 1. 3(3 ~ 1 5 .393 611) .31_;1 2 41 .4

Shryand Madeira
varetes------ 10o 123 7.8 94.68i 2.8:-2 L !18 1 3 .26 .17 ,4': ao 2 1'
Potw ine 3aitcs its.3 4.t c.5 31-2 2,:;0 :.62 .3 25.54 1 .51 .7,- .446 4!1:


Bodaxtype ... 4 10,154 A.13 9t18 2.99 2 9 2.76. 84 .42 7 .36 1.73 .%1)
B runytype .... 9 11. 4" 6. 42 6.3 3o07 1.k 2.4 C~ .47 .1 3J 24 .
Souher Frnehand
Iaintype ------ 4 -.1 C.82 7.74 3',07 1.0 2. 42 .7 .470 1 .40 23 2t

ritis -------- I1 1. fl2 4.7T6 9 22 3- 2 1.3 2.1 D 713 .73 .34 A45 .1401 .224

Bug n type 16 91.78;_ .193 & 8 ..... 11 ----- ----Souhen F~echand
Iaintype.... 15 10. 3 6494 8.48 ,.... 1-120 .43 .73,
Dywhit, wine vara ie i -- -- o3 62. ....... ... ...... .... .... ... 1 .620:i
Americantylpe 3 7,1,; 6-s 7. 14 ......T Wi* eir et to la bnra.

r.,- A............ 201. 1.0 7.4 9 .6 32 .C,2 2.9( C 7 7 0 .33 .'1 .3 .29 3
W hite ..... --- --- v08 I it 9-~ 3.-, 2. o5 2. e-7 .27 T37 .7 37 .3 ~

bwvira ama-"

frzei,167-'t5... 45 12_39 7.4 3 10-V) G 1 1.464 2.:-9. .s73 317 33 .4 .l 31

In the year 1880 a large number of 8amlnpes of wine wvere lmrdilase.I in the market of Washingrton cand anlalyzed byv tile Deparltiment of, Ag."
ricltue.The work w~a under thec charge or thle late lHenry- B. Par.% 8s,1, one of the most competent analysts ever Inl the service of thle Il)vpartmet. The results atre published( inl thle Annmal I'eoport for1SO
formig part of thle (Jhemist8' report foir thiat year. I have thiought it

detrmiiaionis on eachi sample, and gIVV VerY im1portanlt inform,11ationl inl regrdto the composition of AlInerwanm wille' as they,\ are suipplied4 to


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C l 00 lf to m -t- -"r C11 t- L'i C X X --p I I X I oc rM C14 M. T'l I If: C M C, -4 C. M I- r- !p if: o C, tz X :Ij I- X -1
m -4 = P z :1 V 7,T 71

.......... - ----- .. . ....... .




7, 79 r
IS : 3) 1
la L1 ;: q 4 M


IV cc 0 z cis 1 5 ca Id C4 P"

............. ..... .
.M 00 m (D 1-1 m m m 00 p -r 's 60 c t= CL I I.') tf o :: ul N .14 L;": tc 1. 0 4 1 -




4 n 4;-t-P4


cl- cl tc Q0 tD X cl -ld l r l :9 In -r CC M C c) -q Lo
C- :c Cj C CD t t ,Rp L- -4 M to C4,.04 .14 m tC4 C-- C>
C11 .l r -4 -4 M M r--l
. . . . . . .

C tD to io If' LD X C'l M 0
4- = 11 (= 1-t lx to ul A
m C4 4 C4 m m C l m m %* C j m m cq m C4 cli
. . . . . . . . .
s u o u p')

lr 0c M = t- C> = 00 M C M M to X M m
C- Z:, to CZ In tz m -)T X C, tc t.,l t- 0 C tx, 'CD,:,j Cl to =
ir tZ, I, C- If, t- t- -.,: M Ll --r m 't 11cr co = t- rz cc L- = 00 CC> to
. . . I . . .


r- C -1" It 0c lf,. C) t- 4:13 00 44: -4 -4 (m to C> 0c t-l m in m r 4v 1.11 au :IJ m ^.4 .4 t- In m M kll M
e a6 c tz 16 -4 t6 --,-z c ; --s 4 C--; 1.6 ci C; rz r4 -4 4 r4 06 C6
A: C\4 -I r-4

cl -1 t= C m -00 CDC" :.c m CZ>t- 1-4-400" -4clim= m
Cj -V,:,i -.4 t- t- C> r C4 Cj co

qs-u, jupj . . . . . . . . . . .

C- QC 71 M -f- -f- N 14 r- -.4
-.11. e:,l t J r m L- to .I- 0 L:D m C14
4 c, tr- o6 e,6 L6 ci o6 id --i; c6 cl" -4 t--; H -jnp! -;aj jr;(),T,

cr O CC 'JO m CZ) .z w 1= cc t- I-%- Lr. -4 r- m C 00 00
C4 L- M,-? Z t- L- X t- M Z W 00 t- 00 M Lro
z t c C Ci t,-: 06 ci 6 4 Vs vi tz C
Sq 'joijoajv r" C l Ck4 rl-I w4 r-4 r-4 ul &M to

cc cc 1= .-q CO M r- L- 4 M Cc 0 W CM t- cq
co = to M 0 X M CZ t- r- t- L-V ll, 0 t- Cl L- t- CD 00
J,)!,) AiL
V4 ci cl it- C; C-* t-: I-: G6 6 vi -- m 06 06 6 ci 6 ci v- t-Z 6
S(I 101LOolv -4 4

CC 1:11 ("1 k l I W C:J Lo Ce. Ir. "'3 C) W CD CPO C13 M -4 4 m
C ;7) : I --d, 0, :; -r x 0 C:r. Tq CM = => to M -4 t- Nt" Q
C17 :,I -t, -It C"D -,-r r1l " m ,:,1 1.4
C = C-, :D (= C a) = = = M 0 0
-Atj l 14 1414 -4 r-; 4 r4 r-4 r4 4 r4 4 4 . .

. I I I I I I .
. . I I . . I
I . . . I I I .


el. -ILI

ao In
v bX bi bi
Zvi ce
W 0 c


... ... ....... . ... ..........

V Z) m lo 9"JO
(7) r-

WINES. 339

Averages and extremes of American dry wines.

Dry red wines. Dry white wines.

Constituents, &c.

Specify gravity ..................................... 9933 1.0011 9894 .9926 1. 0105 .!1 %5
Alcohol, byweight .......................per cent.. 8.92 12.21 5. 71 9. 35 13. 94 7. 0I
Alcohol, by volume .......................... do.... 11. 04 15. 21 7. 17 11. 70 17.:17 8. so
Total residue................................. do.... 2. 28 3. 16 1. 65 1.75 2.64 1. 1
Total ash................... ............. do .... 0.231 0. 532 0. 130 0. 181 0. 3:35 0. 101
G ose Traces. 0. 451) None. Traces. 0. 300 None.
Total acid, as tartaric 0. 723 0. 907 0.511 0. ;-o 0.855 0. 422
Fixed acid. as tartaric 0. 360 o. 646 0. 2-26 0. 313 0. 5l 0. 121
Volatile acid, as acetic ....................... do.... 0.290 0. 517 0.18 0. 294 0. 5u o 06

A very excellent monograph on California wines has been very re. cently published by Dr. George Baumert,' of the University at Halle. Although the analyses were made on only eight samples, the examination was very complete, including a search for adulterations; then follows a very exhaustive discussion of the composition, together with a comparison of the samples analyzed, and similar wines made in Germany, so that the paper is a very interesting and instructive contribu. tion to the literature of American wines. I shall have occasion to allude to it again in discussing the subject of adulterations. Other analyses of American wines published in German period icals and alluded to by Baumert are: "Investigation of a California Wine" by A. Kayser; "Two Analyses of California Wines, Riesling and Zinfandel," by A. Stutzer; "Analysis of Two California Wines, Zinufandel and Gutedel Cabinet," by J. L. de Fremery.
The methods of analysis used in the present investigation of wines can bcoiveniently arranged under two heads: First, those designed for the establishment of the composition of the sample examined; and, second, those employed in the search for adulterants.
Thedeterminationsembraced under the first head are: Specific gravity, alcoholic content, total solids, acidity, content of sugars,of glycerine, of tannic acid, and of ash. These are the principal and most important determinations in a wine analysis, though there are several others which are sometimes made, such as the nitrogenous content, phosphoric acid, chlorine, malic, succinic, and citric acids, &c.
In my investigation of methods for wine analysis I have drawn especially upon three sources: First, the methods in use in the Municipal Laboratory in Paris, and set forth in the report already quoted under malt liquors; second, the methods officially authorized in the health
Lanidw. Verauchs-Stationen, 1i, 33, 39..
Mitth. d. Bayr. Gewerhuo-Muiseuim zu Niruberg, 17, Nr. 19.
Rep. der anal. Chem. 1+2, Nr. 14.
BDer. der Deutschen Cheum. Gell., I 426.


offices in Germany, decided upon by the "Berlin Commission; third the methods adopted by the Bavarian chemists.
It would seem that in France and Germany, where wine analysis has been carried on for so many years, and to so large an extent the methods in use would be as well defined and exact as is possible in such work; nevertheless, none of the methods have been accepted without a thorough trial of their accuracy, unless otherwise indicated.
The estimation of several of the constituents of wine is so similar to. the same determination in beer, that it will be necessary simply to refer to the part on beer analysis, thus avoiding unnecessary repetition.
This is taken with the picnometer, in the same manner as with beer.
The estimation of the alcohol can be made in the same manner as in beer, with a few precautions. Thus, in the distillation method it is better to neutralize the sample taken with carbonate of soda, or standard alkali, and a slight addition of tannin will generally be found necessary to prevent frothing. If the indirect method is used, more accurate results will be obtained by neutralization of the sample taken by shaking up with magnesia before the specific gravity is taken. In the present work I have made use of the distillation method exclusively, weighing out the sample taken, about 50 grams, making up to about 100ce., and distilling off 50cc., which is also weighed. Tables for the calculation of alcohol content from the specific gravity have already been given page 285).
The determination of the extract in wine presents the same difficult. ties as with beer on account of the content of glycerine, which is greater in the former than the latter. For this reason the indirect method would seem especially applicable, but the difficulty here is that there is a larger amount of volatile acid present, which is only partially driven off with the alcohol, and the solution density of the solids of wine have not been so well established as that of malt extract, so that different tables and factors vary widely.,
For the direct estimation the French method is to evaporate.25cc. in a flat-bottomed dish, with vertical sides, and dry the residue to a constant weight in a water bath. The Berlin method is as follows:
Fifty cubic centimeters of wine are measured (at 150 C.) into a plain ish(8m. in diameter, ~imm. in height, and of 75cc. capacity, weight about 20 grams), evaporated on the water bath, and the residue heated .) hours at 1000 C. Of wines rich in sugar, i. e., containing over 5 grams sugar in 100cc., a smaller amount aould be taken, so that the weight of extract shall not exceed 1, or at most 1.5 grams. BIlaunert found in his work on California wines that the tables of Schule (Zeit Anal. Chem., 18S0, 104) intended for beer extracts gave results in the direct timation which approximated much more closely to the results by direct estimation than figures obtained from Hager's tables (Chem. Cent., 41 ), which were Jutended especially for wine extract.

WINES. 341

he Bavarian Chemists' Union depart from this method by drying
he residue to a constant weight.
It i of great importance that chemists should adopt a uniform method f analysis, as results differ considerably by different methods. This is hown by t following results obtained from the samples analysed by e, most of which were sutjected to analysis by both methods, that is, rying to~~a constant weight and drying a certain length of time. In e ver sweet wines, of course, such as the Angelica, Muscat, &c., coniningso lare a percentage of sugar, it can only be satisfactorily deermined by using a small quantity, allowing it to flow well over the ttom of the dish, and drying to a constant weight as nearly as possible.
Comparison of methods for the estimation of extract in wine.

Drying Drying Drying Drying for 2j toa con- ., for 2j toacon- hours at stant b 8 hours at stant
1000 C. weight. a 100" C. weight.

4995 2.69 2.00 5089 2.01 1.22 4996 2.82 2.26 5094 2. 30 1.52 4997 2.08 1.44 5095 2. 96 2.18 4998 1.57 1.16 5096 2. 92 1.71 4999 2.18 1.75 5097 1.82 1.18 5000 2.24 1.74 5098 1.90 1.34 5001 4. 13 3. 82 5099 2.20 1.43 5002 9.78 9.30 5100 2.47 1.96 5004 9.62 9.53 5101 2.40 1.82 5005 2. 51 2.09 5103 2.19 1.71 5081 1.77 1.16 5104 2.42 1. 82 5083 1.80 1. 16
5084 2.12 1.39 average 2. 98 2.38 5088 3.64 2.83

have adopted the results obtained from the estimation by drying to Constant weight, and would recommend the following procedure for he determination of extract in wine. Weigh out 10 to 50 grams of the ine (according to its content of sugar) into a flat-bottomed platinum ish, evaporate on the water bath and dry the residue at 1000 C. in an air at, until a constant weight is obtained. This may be known to be he case when by weighing the dish and contents at frequent intervals 15 minutes) the losses in weight are found to be slight and equal for he same length of time of drying.
The total acidity of wines may be determined by titration withor alkali. The end reaction may be observed by means of a drop

brought into contact with delicate litmus paper, which, while not enirely satisfactory, still is probably the best method we have at hand, ny meaus for decolorizing the wine so as to admit of the use of other dictators being likely to change the content of acid. I have found hat by the use of turmeric paper in connection with the litmus, the tablishient of the point of neutralization is greatly facilitate.
4450-No. 13, pt. 3-6


Very white wines, if entirely free from carboni acid, may be titrated with phenol-phthaline as an indicator. From 10 to 25. of wine may conveniently be taken for titration. It is very desirable to estimate both the fixed and volatile free acids in wine, and to this end the latter should be determined directly; all methods for this estimation by difference by evaporating the wine to dryness, and titrating the residue, having been shown to be faulty. The German method is to distill off the acetic and other volatile acids in a current of steam; and I have found it a most satisfactory one, giving very coincident results when carefully carried out, the only objection being that it is a little tedious. The theory of the method is that acetic acid, which forms the greater part of the pure volatile acids, while it does not distill off at a temperature lower than 1200 C., can still be distilled off at a lower temperature than its boiling point by passing through the liquid in which it is contained a current of steam, providing that the quantity of water passed through in the shape of steam is about four times as great as the quantity of the liquid in which the acid is contained. The manner of applying it is as follows:
Fifty cc. of the wine are measured into a flask of about 300cc. capacity, which is connected with a condenser by one tube which passes just below the rubber stopper, which is also perforated by another tube which reaches to the bottom of the flask and terminates there in a finely drawn out point; this tube is bent at right angles where it passes out of the flask, and connects it with a larger flask placed alongside which contains about 300cc. of water, being also provided with a safety tube. When the operation is begun, lamps are placed under the two flasks and the contents of both brought to a boil, when the flame under the flask containing the wine is lowered somewhat and the distillation so conducted that after 200cc. have distilled off the wine shall not be d.ecreased to less than one-third or one-fourth of its original volume. The 200cc. of distillate is received in a properly graduated flask, and titrated with standard alkali, using phenol-phthaline as an indicator.
The number of cubic centimeters of normal alkali required for the titration of the volatile acids, subtracted from the number of cubic centimeters required for the neutralization of Qc. of the original wine, gives the amount of alkali neutralized by the freeixed acids; the tota free acids and free fixed acids are generally calculated as tartaric, the volatile as acetic acid.'
The German Commission gives two methods, as follows:
In two stoppered flasks two samples of 20ce. of wine each are treatedwith 200ce. ether-alcohol (equal volumess, after adding to one flask 2-3 drops of a 20 per cent solution of acetate of potash. The mixtures are well shaken and allowed to stand 16 to 18 hours at a low temperature (0-100.), the precipitate filtered off, washed with
One cubic centimeter of normal alkali neutralizes .05 gra of tartaric, .06 gra of acetic acid.

WINES. 343

ther-alcohol, and titrated. (The solution of acetate of potash must be neutral or aid. The addition of too much acetate of potash may cause the retention of some bitartrate in solution.) It i3 best on the score of safety to add to the filtrate from the estimation of the total tartaric acid a further portion of 2 drops of acetate of potash to see if a further precipitation takes place.
In special cases the following method is recommended for a control over the other:
Fifty cc. of wine are evaporated to the consistency of a thin sirup (best with the addition of sand), the residue brought into a flask by means of small washings of 96 per cent. alcohol, and with continual shaking more alcohol is gradually added, until the entire quantity of alcohol is about 100c. The flask and contents are corked and allowed to stand 4 hours in a cool place, then filtered, and the precipitate washed with 96 per cent. alcohol; the filter paper, together with the partly flocculent, partly crystalline precipitate, is returned to the flask, treated with 30cc. warm
water, titrated after cooling, and the acidity reckoned as bitartrate. The result is sometimestoohigh, if pectinous bodies separate out in small lumps, inclosing a small portn of free acids (this error may, however, be avoided by the addition of sand and thorough shaking). In the alcoholic filtrate the alcohol is evaporated, 0.5cc. of a 20 per cent. potassic acetate solution added, which has been acidified by a slight excess of acetic acid, and thus the formation of bitartrate from the free tartaric acid in the wine facilitated. The whole is now, like the first residue of evaporation, treated with (sand and) 96 per cent. alcohol, and carefully brought into a flask, the volume of alcohol increased to 100ce., well shaken, corked, allowed to stand in a cold place 4 hours, filtered, the precipitate washed, dissolved in warm water, and titrated, and for I equivalent of alkali 2 equivalents of tartaric acid are reckoned. This method for the estimation of the free tartaric acid has the advantage over the former of being free from all errors of estimation by difference.
I have preferred making the qualitative test for free tartaric acid separately from the bitartrate estimation, and for the latter I have used essentially the first method given, omitting, of course, the parallel precipitation with the addition of acetate of potash, modifying it by using only 80cc. of the alcohol- ether solution for the precipitation and allowing it to stand over night. The titration is nicely performed with phenolpkthaline and decinormal soda with white wines; lcc. decinormal soda corresponding to .0188 grams of potassic bitartrate. In the case of dark colored wines I passed them first through a stall aminount of boneblack, afterwards washing the bone-black thoroughly, so as to avoid the presence of coloring matter in the tartar precipitate.
For the estimation of the saccharine matter use was made of the Department method of employing Fehling's solution, already referred to under malt liquors. The Germans usually eiiiploy the gravimetric estimation, with Soxhlet'as modifications, but I believe the other to be fully as accurate, and much more convenient. The wine should be evaporated about one.third to remove the alcohol, and carbonate of sodat added to neutralize the acid. In the case of dark colored wines it is necessary to decolorize and clarify them by the use of subacetate of lead or bone-black. If much excess of lead is used it should be removed with ulphate of soda, and if bone-black is used the first portions filtered bould be rejected. The amount of redct ion is calculated as dextrose.



The ash may be estimated in the residue from 50 to 100e. of the wine. If 50cc. have been used for the estimation of the extract, the same sample will serve conveniently for incineration. This operation is best performed in a muffle, and must be very carefully carried out, at as low a heat as possible. If the ash does not readily burn white, it should be treated with a little water to dissolve the alkali salts, the dish placed in such, a position as to bring the water away from the undissolved ash, the water evaporated, and the incineration completed. Little difficulty is generally experienced in getting in this way a very satisfactory white ash.

The estimation of glycerine in wines, if it could be made with exactness, would be a very important one, as the glycerine is produced by the fermentation of the sugar, and the quantity formed is presumably fairly constant for the same amount of sugar fermented. This being the case, the quantity of glycerine in a wine should be a good index of the quantity of sugar which had undergone fermentation, and would thus show whether alcohol had been added to the wine. Unfortunately, the amount of glycerine present is so small, and its exact estimation so difficult on account of its volatile nature, that it is rather an unsafe reliance. The Germans attach considerable weight to the determination in establishing the character of a wine, using the following method:
One hundred cc. of wine (sweet wines excepted) are evaporated in aroomy, not too shallow, porcelain dish, to about 10cc., a little sand added, and milk of lime to a strong alkaline reaction, and the whole brought nearly to dryness. The residue is extracted with 50cc. of 96 per cent. alcohol on the water bath with continual stirring. The solution is poured off through a filter and the residue exhausted by treatment with small portions of alcohol. For this 50 to 150cc. are generally sutfficient, so that the entire filtrate measures 100 to 200cc. The alcoholic solution is evaporated on the water bath to a sirupy consistence. (The principal part of the alcohol may be distilled off, if desired.) The residue is taken up by 10cc. of absolute alcohol, mixed in a stoppered flask with 15cc. of ether and allowed to stand until clear, when the clear liquid is poured off into a glass-stoppered weighing glass, filtering the last portions of the solution. The solution is then evaporated in the weighing glass until the residue no longer flows readily, after which it is dried one hour longer in a water jacket. After cooling, it is weighed.
In the case of iweet wines (containing over 5 grains of sugar in 100cc.), 50cc. are taken in a good-sized flask, some sand added and a sufficient quantity of powdered slacklimnie, and heated with frequent shaking in the water bath. After cooling, lANec. of 96 per cent. alcohol are added, the precipitate which forms allowed to separate, the solution filtered, and the residue washed witi alcohol of the same strength. The alcoholic solution is evaporated and the residue treated as above.
In regard to the performance of the omfcial met lod, as give above, Dr. Barth' adds the following commentaries and cautions:
In case the residue from the first evaporation with lime becomes entirely dry it should he moistened with a little alcohol, the residue removed from the sides of the Die Weinanalyse, p. 17.

WINES. 345

ih with a spatula, and the entire mass rubbed up with a pestle to a uniform pasty
the pestle and spatula being rinsed with a little alcohol; in heating up the
alcoholic paste with lime, bumping and spurting may be avoided by careful stirring; the heating and subsequent washing out with hot alcohol is necessary, however, to solve out the glycerine properly. I, evaporating with both the alcoholic and the ther-alcool solution, all violent boiling of the liquid must be avoided, or mechanial losses wi occur. The best way is to place the vessels containing the solutions side ofbeakers filled with water on the bath. The clearing up of the ether-alcohol otion can be hastened by energetic shaking in the stoppered flask containing it.
The vessel in which the ether-purified glycerine is finally weighed should have veral walls at least 40mm. in height. The losses which are caused by the volatility f glycerine cannot be entirely avoided, but may be reduced to a minimum by a careful observance of all the directions, even those which are apparently unimportant.
hat the loss of glycerine is smaller by heating in a drying oven than on the open water bath has been noticed in the estimation of the extract; the choice of weighing bes also with proportionally high, vertical walls has for its object the lessening of he possibility of losses in weight.
For the estimation of the glycerine in sweet wines the following precautions should Sobserved: Sufficient powdered lime nimust be added to the wine to convert the whole of the sugar into its lime comIpound. The formation of the latter takes place gradually during the heating on the water bath. The mass becomes at first dark rown (special care is necessary to prevent its foaming over the neck of the flask), t when the saturation with lime is complete it becomes somewhat clearer, and, together with the characteristic smell of the sugar-lime, a caustic odor becomes mani.feeSt.
If the residue obtained from the concentration of the alcoholic solution remains somewhat thin even after cooling, it is not necessary to repeat the treatment with .ime. The purification with ether-alcohol in the way described will be all that is necesary.
The above described method for glycerine estimation is intended to obtain the glycerine in a state of purity by its separation from all the other constituents of Wi, either by their volatility, by their insolubility in alcohol, or their lime combinations, or finally by their insolubility in a mixture of one volume of alcohol with 1j volumes of ether. If pointed crystals appear on cooling, the presence of mannite is indicated. Since the separation of glycerine in an insoluble condition in a form or ion peculiar to itself has not yet been accomplished, the extraction method must erve for its estimation, but the latter is only useful for the conclusions which are rawn from its results, when it is carried out with a strict observance of the preceding conditions.
Several methods have lately been proposed for the estimation of glycr~i, and it was with the hope of some of them proving more exact and ess tedious than the above that a somewhat hasty examination of these mthods has been made.
Benedikt and Zsigmondy published in 1885 a method for the estimnaion of glycerine by its oxidation to oxalic acid by permanganate of ptas, precipitating the oxalic acid with calcium acetate, and deternining it volumetrically by titration with acid. This method is also claimed by Fox and Wanklyn.2 At the time of the publication of this etho I made several trials of it on pure glycerine with very satisfacry results, and Allen' has confirmed the accuracy attributed to it by
Chem. Zt. 975; Analyst 10, 2. Chem. News 53 15. IAnalyst 11, .


Benedikt and Zsigmondy, and used it on saponified fats. It has never been applied to wine or beer, so far as I know.
Legler I has formulated a method, intended, as the author says in his paper, to supply the place of the method of the Berlin committee, and atone for its deficiencies. It depends on the oxidation of glycerine to carbonic acid by means of sulphuric acid and potassic bichromate." The estimation of organic bodies by the oxidation of their contained carbon has been proposed and carried out by Cross and Bevan3 who operate in a dry, and by Burghardt,4 who operates in a wet, way. The operation was performed by Legler in a Will's carbonic acid apparatus, as follows: The air flask contains the glycerine mixed w ith a saturated solution of potassic dichromate; the other contains, as usual, strong sulphuric acid. After theapparatus has been weighed, a little air is drawn out which causes some of the acid to mix with the chromate. A regular evolution of carbonic acid soon sets in, but must be assisted towards the last by gently boiling. The flask containingthe sulphuric acid must be kept cool. When no more gas bubbles are formed, the apparatus is cooled by partial immersion in cold water, and the remaining carbonic acid is expelled by a current of dry air. The apparatus is now reweighed and the loss represents carbonic acid. The following equation shows the action taking place:

3C3sO + 7K2Cre07+28 HlSO4=i7KSO4+14Cr2(SO4)3+9COO+40H.O.

One part of glycerine therefore requires about 7.5 parts at KCrO7 and 10 parts of H2SO4, but an excess of each is of course used. The mode of procedure in operating on wine is as follows: The crude glycerine obtained from 100cc. of wine, after evaporation with 3cc. milk of lime and 2 grams of quartz, and extracting the mass with alcohol of 96 per cent., is, after weighing. diluted up to a definite bulk, and aliquot parts are taken for the ash and the oxidation process. A white wine, containing 8.54 per cent. alcohol and 2.07 per cent. solid matter, gave in 100cc. 1.4 grams crude glycerine, with.1278 grams ash, 25cc. of the glycerine diluted up to 50cc. yielding .725 gmin. CO = 1.10 per cent. glycerine. A dupli cato experiment gave 1.47 crude glycerine with .136 ash, .710 CO, = .99 per cent. glycerine, the average thus being 1 per cent. 5 and the relation between alcohol and glycerine as 100: 11.7.
Estimation of glycerine in wvine after it has been purposely added. Three lots of 100cc. each of the same wine were mixed respectively with .125, .250, and .500 grams of glycerine, and analyzed as before. The results were as follows:

Crude CO (25cc. Glycerine
glycerine. from 50cc.) in 100cc.

1. 55 .1496 .80 1.115
1.75 .1400 90 1.254
2. 07 .1172 1. 07 1.492

Allowing for the 1. per cent. of natural glycerine in th e sample we obtain .115, .254, and .492 per cent. of glycerine.

Rep. Anal. Chem. 6, 631 ; Analyst 12, 14.
Chem. News 53, 297; also 55, 2.
Chem. News 55, 34 ; see also 55, 46.
The average is really 1.03 per cent., which would make some difference in tbh figures which follow.

WINES. 347

The same wine was also submitted to an analysis by the old process, somewhat higher results being obtained, from which Legler concludes that his method gives lower but more correct figures. He also obtained promising results from beer and sweet wines. This method was tried n someof the samples analyzed in the Chemical Division, the analytical work being done by Mr. Felix Lengfeld.
The apparatus for the estimation of the carbonic acid was a specially designed one used for most carbonic acid estimates in the laboratory, and provided for the absorption of the dried gas by soda lime. A trial was first made with pure glycerine, which gave very satisfactory results, as follows: Weight of pure glycerine taken, .3645; weight glycerine obained, .305; difference, .004.
When it was applied to the wines, however, it was found that the reiults obtained varied widely from those obtained from the same samples y the old method, and instead of the variation being constant, it was found that sometimes the results were higher, sometimes lower, than by he old method, the manner of manipulation making a very marked diference in the quantities obtained. Thus when just about sufficient me was taken to combine with the sugar present and the mass not aporated very closely, higher results were obtained by Legler's proess than by the old method, while if a large excess of lime was added nd the whole evaporated very nearly to dryness the results were lower. Thus Nos. 4998 and 4999, treated with considerable lime and evapoated nearly to dryness, gave the following results:

Numbers. By Legler's By old
u method. method.

4998 ............... .326 .436
499( ................... .542 .797

While Nos. 4995, 5000, and 5002, treated with a smaller amount of lme, and not evaporated so closely, gave:

Numbers. By Legler's I By old
method. method.
4995---------------------. 9721 ,71)
7 .., 2 .7:01
5 2... ... ... ... ...1.549 6507

F rom these and from several other determinations, where the differnces were still more marked, it was concluded that Legler's method as it stands now cannot be relied on to give constant results with wines, for tough undoubtedly an accurate method of estimating pure glycerine, it is open to the same objection that applies to the method by oxidation with permanganate, viz, that other organic bodies are also oxidized, when resent, and give too high results. In the extraction of the glycerine


from wine by alcohol other organic bodies are undoubtedly taken up by it (the most of which are removed in the old method, by the purication with ether-alcohol) which make the results too high. The only w that results could be obtained as low as the old method gave was as indicated above, by long treatment in the bath with a large excess of lime, and in these cases there was undoubtedly a loss of glycerine by evaporation, as the following experiments show:
1. .3645 grams pure glycerine were mixed with a small quantity of lime, alcohol and water added, the whole evaporated nearly to dryes on the water bath, extracted with alcohol, and the glycerine determined by Legler's method in the residue from the alcoholic solution; result, glycerine .303, or a loss of .0615.
2. .3645 grams glycerine were taken and treated rs above, except that a large amount of lime was added; result, .275; loss, .0895.
3. .3645 grams were taken and treated as before, except that the evaporation was carried to dryness, the dish being allowed to stand on the bath about half an hour longer than in the other experiments; result, .251; loss, .1135.
Hehner I has applied Legler's method to the estimation of glycerine in fats, with some modifications based upon the very important fact he claims to have established in his work, that dilute solutionsof glycerine (.6 glycerine to 1,000 of fluid) (do not, as is commouly supposed, volatilize in concentrating the fluid, be it on the water-bath or over the naked flame."
Other methods that have been published by Benseman,2Amthor, 3 and Medicus, are essentially slight modifications of the Berlin method, and can only be referred to here. Sulman and Berry,~ in their article on The Examination of Commercial Glycerine," give a very thorough r6sum6 of various methods in use up to the date of the article for the estimation of glycerine
The most recent method published is by Diez,6 which I have not had time to investigate closely. The method is quite a novel one, and differs from the previously described methods in that it separates out the glycerine as an insoluble compound, viz, as a tribenzoate of glycerine. This is accomplished by shaking t4-he (.5 to 1.0 per cent.) solution of glycerine with benzoyl chloride after an addition of alkali. As applied to dry wines it is described by the author as follows: "20cc. are evaporated to a moderately dry condition after the addition of lime. The residue is exhausted with 20cc. of hot, 96 per cent., alcohol. After cooling 30cc. of water-free ether are added, and filtered after staiiding, the filter being washed with water-free alcohol-ether (2:3). After the evaporation of the solvent the glycerine is dissolved in 10-20e. of water,
Analyst 12, 44. Analyst 11, 12 and (34.
Chen. Zeit. 10, 554. Zeit. f. Physio. Chom. 11, 4%.
I )ep. der, Anal. Chem., 1881), 12. 7 Ibid., 480.
Ibid, 1 1.

WINES. 349

-according to the quantity, and shaken up with 5cc. benzoyl chloride and 35c. of 10 per cent. soda solution for 10-15 minutes without cessation and with frequent cooling. The estergemenge or precipitate obtained, is collected upon a filter, washed and dried for 2 to 3 hours at 1000 0.385 gram of the weighed precipitate corresponds to 0.1 gram
glycerine." The objection to this process seems to be that it is not applicable directly to the wine or beer, but the glycerine must be separated out in a state of comparative purity before it can be converted into the benzoate, and there is still the liability to loss during the process of purification.
The results given in the table are by the old method.

The estimation of tannin in wines where considerable accuracy is required, may be made by the permanganate and indigo method, which has been so much discussed and modified in chemical literature. The following approximate method is given by the Berlin Commission: In 1Occ. of wine the free acids are, if necessary, reduced by the addition of standard alkali solution to .5 grams in 100cc. Then lee. of a 40 per cent. solution of acetate of soda is added, and finally, drop by drop, 10 per cent. solution of chloride of iron, avoiding an excess. One drop of the chloride of iron solution suffices for the precipitation of about .05 per cent. of tannin.
For the estimation of the bulk of the precipitate test-tubes are used, which are much narrowed at the bottom, with the constricted portion graduated into tenths of a centimeter. The following table gives the approximate content of tannin from the bulk of the precipitate after standing twenty-four hours:

CII. Per ce nt cil Pe r cent.
0. I 0. 003 1. 0 0. 033
0 2 0. 007 2. o 0. 066
0. 3 0. 010 3. 0 0. 10
0. 4 0. 013 4. 0 0. 13
0. 5 0. 017 5. 0 o 17
0. 6 0. 020 6. 0 0. 20
0. 7 0. 023 9. 0 0. 30
0.8 0.027 12. 0 0.40
0.9 0.030
em. Percent c P......e....

can see no practical conclusions to be drawn from so indefinite a determination and have omitted it in my work, simply quoting it for the benefit of any one who might desire to make the estimation.



In the work on wines during the present invest ,70 p purchased in the market of Washington, were exa. as the analyses made in 1880 included so many samp and rep n very fairly the composition of the wine sold here, it w thought visable to make a complete analysis of all the sampl especially as many of them were identical in origin with those examined by Mr. PaT. sons. Accordingly only about one-half the samples (36) were submitted to a very careftil and complete analysis, the rest being examined for adulteration only, especially preservatives. Only samples were chosen for complete analysis which did not correspond to any of the samples analyzed in 188. The samples are all wines of American origin, of which by far the greater bulk of the wines cousm ed-here consists. Most of the samples are Californian, a few coming from Virginia and other States. Several of the samples had foreign la in imitation of some imported wine of the same general class, but in each case the dealer admitted that the wines were American.
The time and scope allowed to the work did not admit of the extension of the investigation to imported wines.



WINES. 051

puuo:u p CH. =I7 I +H41 I Hil -- = I. r I C &
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WINES. 353

Maxinum, minimum, and mean composition of te sample examined.

Sixteen samples red Nine samples white Eleven samples sweet wines. wines. wines.
1 41

Specific gravity ............. 9983 .9903, .9946 .9919 .9882 .9912 1.0511 .9929 1.0261
Alcohol by weight....... percent.. 11.93 7.78 9. 60 13. 35 9. 01 10. 44 16.16 10.98 14.-50
Alcohol by volume .....---- ... do.... 14.74 9.68 11.95 16.52 11.17 12.91 19.87 13.60 17. 85
Extract........ do.... 2.83 1. 39 1.94 1.75 1. 36 1.35 17.20 3.38 11.21
Total acid as tartaric....... do....!. 870 .383 .611 .750 .488 .665 .683 .360 .511
ed acids as .724 .113 .397 .595 .385 .498 .490 285 .378
Volatile acids aacetic..... do.... .281 .084 .169 .187 .082 .131 .202 .025 .10o
Bitartrate of potash ........ do..... .133 .029 .068 .255 .039 .152 .132 .039 .067
Reducing gars as .508 none. .164 .980 none. .250 15.05 1.85 8.48
..Glycerine .. ................ do.... .893 .303 .490 .835 .365 528 .657 .052 .260
Ash -..................... do.... 453 .176 .290 .260 181 .220 .686 .118 .351

A comparison of the composition of American wines with those of other countries, as shown in these analyses, and a discussion of the points of difference or agreement would be a most interesting and in. structive task. It would require considerable space, however, for a proper presentation of the subject, and must be omitted in the present inve tigation, as not being of so direct importance to the question of the adulteration of wines.


The adulteration of wine has been practiced from a very early d(late inthose countries where the consumption is large. It has increased in amount and in the skillfulness of its practitioners until at the present day it requires for its detection all the knowledge and resources which chemical science can bring to bear upon it, and even then a large part doubtless escapes detection. It must be remembered, however, that in Europe the definition of adulteration has rather a wiae scope, including the addition of substances which are simply diluents. e Paris Laboratory considers as a fraud the addition of any subT" Parider Laor t rau
tance for the purpose of gain which changes the composition of the natural wine." In Germany, on account of the northern situation of te country, it is permitted to the wine-growers in bad years, when the grapes contain a relatively high percentage of acid and a low percentage of sugar, to make use of pure sugar as an addition to the must, wich addition is not considered as an offense against the adulteration laws~ so long as the product is sold as wine" simply. The amount of water added with the sugar must not be greater than twice the weight of the former, and the product must not be offered for sale ts natural wine."
BY far the greater part of the adulteration carried on in the Europea countries consists of this addition of water (mouillaye) and sugar
(s )rae. Such wines result from the methods of manufacture already


described-petiotization, gallization, and chaptalizatiO. For the 'detection of such wines it is necessary to establish maximum and minimum limits for the principal constituents of wines, and the relation in which these constituents stand to one another. To establish these limits is rather difficult, and requires a large series of analyses extending over many years. The constituents most relied on for the establishment of the character of a wine in judging whether it has been di. luted or not are: the extract, content of free acid, and the relation between the extract and mineral matters.
In Germany the lowest limit of the extract in a natural wine is placed at 1.5 grams in 100cc., and after subtracting the amount of free fixed acids calculated as tartaric from the extract, the amount of the latter left must be not less than 1.1 grams; or after the subtraction of the total free acids as tartaric, not less than 1. gram in 100cc. In the Paris Laboratory no exact limits are set, the decision being left to the judgment of the analyst, after a careful comparison of the sample with analyses of previous similar wines done in the laboratory in past years. The sugar added is often glucose, which introduces into the wine substances more or less injurious, depending upon its character. Ordinary glucose contains usually 10 or 15 per cent. of non-fermentable substances, which serves to increase the weight of the extract, thus masking the addition of water. Its fermentation gives.& rise to the formation of a small quantity of amylic alcohol, which increases the intoxicating effect of such wines, and causes headache and nausea in those partaking of them.
In the detection of this substance advantage is taken of the non-fermentable character of the dextrin it contains, and of the presence of amylin, a non-fermentable, highly dextrorotatory body found in commercial starch sugar. 50cc. of wine, after driving off the alcohol by evaporation, are subjected to fermentation by the addition of a little well-washed yeast. After the fermentation is complete the liquid is clarified by means of lead or bone black, and polarized. If starch sugar has been used a strong rotation to the right will be observed, while if the wine was natural, or if the sugar used was cane sugar, there would be no rotation. The following procedure is also given by the German Commission:
Two hundred and ten cubic centimetersof the wine are evaporated toa thin sirup on the water-bath after the addition of a few drops of a 20 per cent. solution of acetate of potash. To the residue is gradually added with continual stirring 200cc. of 90 per cent. alcohol. The alcoholic solution when perfectly clear is poured off or filtered into a flask and the alcohol driven off' until only about 5cc. remain. The residue is treated with about 15cc. water and a little bone-black, filtered into a graduated cylinderand washed with water until the volume measures 30cc. If, now, this liquid shows a rotat ion of more than 0.5, Wild, the wine contains the un fermene table matters of conmercial potato sugar (aniylin).
I have made no trial of these methods on American wines, and give them simply as a rveireIce. It is well known that Aleical tarch

WINES. 355

gar, made from corn, is quite different in composition from the European article, which is usually made from potato starch, and I do not know that the presence of amylin has been demonstrated in the American article. Whether the latter contains much dextrin or not depends upon the character of the glucose" used; if it is the liquid glucose, I can testify from experience that it contains a considerable percentage of dextrin; but if it is the highly converted "grape sugar" or solid glucose that is used, probably not much dextrin is introduced into the wine from it.
Fraudulent wines are frequently made from raisins or dried grapes in ,France and, according to French authorities, can easily be recognized by their high percentage of reducing sugar, and left-handed polarization after fermentation.
The plastering of wines, which is also very extensively carried on in France, consists in adding to the wine or must a large excess of gypsum, or sulphate of lime.
The sulphuric acid of the lime salt replaces the tartaric acid which is combined with potash, and forms an acid sulphate of potash, while the tartaric acid separates out as tartrate of lime. The operation is said to give the wine a brighter color and to enhance its keeping qualities, probably by a mechanical carrying down of some of the albuminous matters. Some authorities seem to regard the addition as a pardonableone on this account, but most condemn it. It certainly introduces into the wine a salt entirely foreign to the grape and of a more objectionable nature than that which it supplants, viz, the bitartrate of potash. Both Germany and France are in accord as to the limit of sulpburic acid which can be used in a wine, requiring a wine with a content of SO3, corresponding to over 2 grams of potassic sulphate (K2 04) per liter, to be designated as a plastered wine. This figure affords a pretty wide margin, for the average content of wines, according to most observers, is not over one-fourth of the standard, or .5 grams K2 8O4 to the liter.
The determination of the sulphuric acid can be made directly by precipitation of the wine with barium chloride, but is much more conveniently and rapidly carried out as follows: Take 14 grams of pure, dry, crystallized barium chloride, together with 50cc. hydrochloric acid, and make up to a liter. If 10cc. of wine are used, every Icc. of this s0olution required indicates a content of 1 gramu K 2 So, to the liter of wine; accordingly to several portions of wine of 10cc. each are added, respectively, 0.7, 1, 1.5, 2cc. and ore-if ~necessary, the solution heated, and allowed to stand. When cool they al e filtered, and a little more barium chloride added to each test. The appearance or non-appearance of a further precipitate in the different tests will show between what limit the coutemt of 80, lies.
Te use of starch sugar is also likely to introduce sulphates into the

SFortificatior of wine consists in the addition of alcohol derived from m other stirce. The al h1ol may be added either t, the must or the

wine. It allows of better incorporation with the w the must before fermentation. In either case, howe it a part of the constituents originally dissolved, low q o tract, deprives the wine of its original bouquet and more heady and intoxicating. The least objective additn is hol distilled from grapes; but the high price of the it much less likely to be used than corn spirit, which contains considerably more fusel oil. The practice of fortification prevails 1 southern wine-growing countries, as Portugal, Spain, and the South of France. Growers in those countries declare it to be a ntion in their warm climates for the preservation of the wines, as th latter contain a considerable quantity of unfe ted sugar, w would soon produce the souring of the wine if the alcoholic content not greater than can be obtained by fermentation. In France,forordi. nary red wines, the addition of alcohol is decided by the relation of the alcohol to the extract (sugar deducted) exceeding bly the relation of 4 to 4.5. In Germany the relation of alcohol to glycerine is relied upon, the maximum proportion allowed being 100 by weight of al. cohol to 14 of glycerine and the minimum 100 to 7. Wines going abom the maximum are condemned as having suffered an ition of gly ine, those going below the minimum as being fortified with alcohol With "sweet wines" these figures do not apply, as they are based on natural wines made in Germany. Moreover, no definite stand is taken upon the question of the fortification of the sweet wines from other countries sold in Germany. The Bavarian chemists require the content of alcohol and sugar in sweet wines used for medicinal purposes to be shown on the label, a very excellent provision, for no two sample of sweet wine can be depended upon to be of similar composition, and the physician is altogether in doubt as to what sort of a compound he is administering to his patient under the name of "port" or "sherry." Any wine with a higher percentage of alcohol than 15 per cent. by volume (12 per cent. by weight) can be safely decl to be fortified, for it has been shown that fermentation is arrested when the alcoholic content reaches about that point.
The pre8ervative agents added to wine are ently similar to thos used in maltliquors. The subjectof the use of salicylic acid has been so thoroughly investigated in the portion of the bull devoted to beer that a further treatment of the subject is unn ary. The mn for detection and estimation already given for beer applied equally as well to wine. The same may be said of sulphites and borax.
Minpral additions to wine are generally introduced midentally, the strong acidity of the liquid making it very liable to ntamin from metallic vessels, pipes, &c. Lead oxide was times ad wine to counteract excessive acidity in former days, a U iv cases of deaths traced to the use of such wines. Suhi probably to the adulterations of the past, although