Pure-food laws of European countries affecting American exports

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Pure-food laws of European countries affecting American exports
Series Title:
U.S. Dept. of agriculture. Division of Chemistry. Bulletin
Physical Description:
39 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Bigelow, Willard Dell, 1866-1939
Publisher:
Government Printing Office
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Food law and legislation   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Statement of Responsibility:
By W.D. Bigelow.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029684595
oclc - 27288533
lccn - agr09001095
Classification:
lcc - S584 .A3 no.61
System ID:
AA00026001:00001

Full Text










TREF0D LAW






PE OT NTRIES





'" "AN EXPORTS.



UXDpa TH IrBEMOrN OF
i.Ww WILEY,
BY1:










W.D. BIGE ,
SZOODASBIBITANT 0 RXIll'."

BT M s. DEPOSITORtY
r-i

ir 46" ni
















WASHINGTON.
4 40*JINUT P RINT'IN G OFFICC,
401
;s21 :,,






















. . . i i i . . . . .
ii i i i~ii ii


iiii
-N




i ii4iiiiii
4%1 11 i i i i iii ii;ili i ii ii iii ii ii = i ii i i i ii i i i i i i i i i i i i i = i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i ii = i i
4 `= '4 C, 4
@i i i i ili : i :::~ _i i -iii .ii _ii:
i i i i l ii i i i l i i l i i ii i i i i i i i i i i iil iAi i' 4ii
illiiiiiiiiliiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiii !!! @ii ll~ i Iiliiiil iiiiii

i:iiA...II,,,,, @ iiiiiAii i i 4 ii ii iii i i i ii i i iii i i i li ii ii i i! i ii i ii ii i i i iii
iiiii~..~ii i~i i ii i i il i i i i i i l i i i i i i i i ii i i i i i i i i i i ii i i i i i i i i i i l i i i l i i i i i i i i i i i
.....
i4a i i i i i ii i ii;iil 'i i i i i i i i
iiii ii il ~iiii iiii iiiiiiiiii l ii l i '' iX i i~i i i ii Ai ii i
i !!i4ii i l ii i i ii i ii ii iiiiiil4i iiiii
iiiiiiNilii iiiNi l i4ii i i ii ii ii i
!i~iiliiii~i~i i i~i i i i i !~i i i~i i i~i i i i i i i i i i i i 4
'1 i4iii 'ii
4 i iii 4 iiii> ii i I;,4i i i 4i i i i iii
iii 44 iiii ii
iiii- ii 4iili i i i i i i i i i i'ii i i i i i 4 4,4 4 iiliiiili1ii 4 i i i
-; ; ": ~ i i i : ......... . ................................ ...ni. ~.......... .. ...... i i




A 4'
44 '4 4 4 1 4
44 'N @ d" ,
4, 4 '4n~
iii iii 44iiiiii .il

~i;'~ ~44 ~ ~~l;~ r ,4 4,i~~; 1, ;
i =',2 a === = i === ==;
i~ iiii~ ii lii iiiiiliiiiiiiii iiiii iiiil iiiiil iiii iiiii"iii iiiiiiili illliiil iii iiiiil iliiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiliiiii iiiiiiiiiiil 5iliiiiiiii iiii i : u"-
i ii i ii iii i~ iiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiii ii iiiiiiii ii iiiii i i iiii~ ~ iiiiii ii iiiii ~ I
i i~ii~ ii iiiiii i !!iiiiiil i iil iiE E l i ii i iiiiiiiiii~iiiiii
ri illi iii il i i lli.ill~ iii~ iiiliii ii i i i i i iiiiiiiiliiiiiiii iiliiiii i i ii1"iiiliiiiiiiiliili l i11!1"."11 111".. iiliiiiiiiiiii!ii
ii ii i ii iii iii ~ i == = = == p= = i ii ii i i 2li i,-ii ili l ii i i i ii ii i iliiii'i:lili i iiiiili iii liili iiliiiiiiiilii illi:ii ii i iiiiiiiiiii iiiiiili'iiiiilliiiliiiiiiiiii!liiliiii iiiiii
ii l i ii ii iioili iii iii illii ii i iii*iiIi iiii l ii i.ii i ii ii i ii! i i !i i llii i i i ii !l i i i ii ii i i i iii ii ii < i i iii i !!i i i i i:iih i i i i ii i ii i i !! i
::ii i ii ii i iiiiii iii ==. ...................... .................... I iiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiii iii iii iif i
..... .... .... .... .... ............ .................... ........... .
iii ii; ..iiiiii iiiliiiiiliil iiiiiiii ii =.=iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i:iiiiiiiiiiiii i i i ~ iiiiii-iiiiiiiiiiiiil'i!iii iiiiiiiiliii-iiiiii iiiiiiiiiii iiiiiii
iiiii~ i ii iiiiiliiliiiiiiii ili i i~ i iiliiii~i iiiliii~iili~i~iiii iiiii~iii liii ii il~iii li iiiii illi ii ii~iiii iii~ii ili ii~ii~ii! iilii iiiiii iii ii I l i iiiiililiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiii iiniri

rb k ri l rl l lrs .... iii iiiii .. .iii=i= iliii = = i I.. I 111 ====i= iiiiiii ii i ==i i i iiiii iii iiii ii ii-iiiiiiii== i=
=i. .'.== =="i in .. .. =; "" ====== i= ii =iii"=" ] = =i = L i ii
== iij ~~c








U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.




PURE-FOOD LAWS


OF



EUROPEAN COUNTRIES


AFFEC1TING



AMERICAN EXPORTS.



PLEPAIIED UN )ER THIE DIRECTION OF
IH. W. WILEY,
E CHEIST OF THE U. . DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BY
W. I. BIGELOWI
SECOND ASSISTANT CHEMIST.














WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1901.


















LETER OF TRANSMITTAL


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
DIVISION OF CHEISTRY,
lWashington, D. C., anay 3, 1901.
SIR: I transmit herewith, for your inspection and approbation, the
manuscript of Bulletin No. 61, of the Division of Chemistry, containing
abstracts of the laws regulating the sale of food products in foreign
countries.
This bulletin has been prepared, by your direction, in accordance
with the provisions made by the act of Congress providing for an
inspection, by the Secretary of Agriculture, of food products intended
for export to foreign countries.
H. W. WILEY,

Hon. JAMES WILSON,
SeetaIr of Agriculture.















INTRODUCTION.


Food products exported from the United States to foreign countries
are sold in accordance with the local regulations of the several coun-
tries into which they are imported. In order that our food products
may successfully meet the requirements of foreign legislation, it is
important that they be inspected before shipment and a certificate of
their composition be furnished for the use of the officials of foreign
countries.
The Secretary of Agriculture is empowered by the Congress of the
United States to conduct an inspection of this kind in an enactment
which authorizes
the Secretary of Agriculture to investigate the character of the chemical and phys-
ical tests which are applied to American food products in foreign countries, and to
insct before shipment, when desired by the shippers or owners of these food prod-
uts, American food products intended for countries where chemical and physical
tests are required before said food products are allowed to be sold in the countries
mentioned.
In harmony with the first part of this authority, this bulletin has been
prepared especially for the benefit of our exporters of foods, in order
that they may know the exact conditions in which their foods must be
to comply with the legal restrictions of foreign countries.
This bulletin does not assume to give the full text of all the pure-
food laws of foreign countries, nor does it enter into the decisions of
the courts, in the several countries mentioned, relating to the execu-
tion of these laws. It simply gives a brief sumnmary of the points
which are most important and with which our exporters of foods should
be thoroughly acquainted. If the foods which are sent abroad are in
condition to meet the requiremen tts contained in this bulletin, it is not
probable that they will be subjected to any hurtful restraint.
Furthermore, when the inspection of such exported foods has been
thoroughly established the exporter will be furnished with an official
certificate which can be presented to the officers of foreign countries
charged with the enforcement of pure-food laws. Our food products
on reaching foreign countries sould thereby be protected from erro-
neous or incomplete analysis or unjust discrimination, either froml the
analytical or legal point of view.
3




4

The suspicion has been at times justly entertained that American
food products in forein countries have been ondemned and refused
sale on insufficient grounds. The inspection of our food products
before shipment to foreign countries should allay this suspicion and
should also result in securing greater freedom from adulteration, and
this is one of the great points of advantage which should accrue from
the rigid execution of the law authorizing inspection. The manufac-
ture and sale of adulterated food products under the guise of pure
foods should be prohibited whether intended for home consumption
or for exportation. We can not afford to follow the example of some
countries which exercise a rigid control of food products intended for
home consumption, but are lenient in the control of similar food prod-
ucts intended for export to foreign countries. It is quite certain that
we are receiving in this country many food products so adulerated as
to exclude them from sale in the countries where they are manufac-
tured. The honesty of commerce and the good character of our foods
can be best conserved by requiring for our products exported to
foreign countries the same freedom from adulteration, the same purity,
and the same excellent condition which we expect of similar products
consumed at home.
One great source of the wealth of our country is the exportation of
food products. The continued prosperity of our agricltural interests
depends largely on extending our foreign markets. It is evident that
one of the best ways of doing this is to send to foreign countries only
food products of the highest grade and above suspicion of adulteration.
This bulletin, placed in the hands of our exporters of foods, will guide
them in their efforts to secure this high standard of exports, and the
cordial cooperation of all exporters is invited to secure to the fullest
possible extent a proper execution of the provisions of the act of Con-
gress relating to this matter.
Regulations for securing samples for inspection and for isuing
certificates thereof are now in prepaation and will be ready for dis-
tribution in a short time to exporters of food products (other than meat
products, which are already provided for under the inspection regula-
tions of the Bureau of Animal Industry), and to others interested in the
extelsion of (our Iarkets for agricultural products in foreign coun-
tries. Appliantions for these regulations are invited. Such applica-
tions will be placed on file, and the requests will be complied with at
the earliest possible moment.
1i. W. WILEY,
rx* ~,~~~P'






K~~~a


















CONTENTS.

Page
General summary ..-................ ............-- ......---------------- 7
Meat products ----.. --....---.. ---.........--------------..-.... ----- 7
Dairy products..---....--..........------ ......-...---------... -------- 7
Wine and beer .......................----...---... ------.---.. --.... 7
Cereal products .......---............-- -----.-----.......----------- 7
Sugar, glucose, and confections---.......... ---... --..-......---------. 8
Artificial sweetening materials .- -----............ ...----.....--.--.... 8
Coloring matter---................---....---..... --... --.... ----..... 8
Chemical preservatives ....-...---- ..........---...----.......-------- 8
Contamination with metals----------- ...................---------... 8
stria -----................-----.................................................. 9
Coloring materials.................................................... 9
Receptacles .......................................................... 10-----------------------------
Municipal regulations of Vienna..--..--...-....--.....--- ..--...-- ...-- 11
Belgium ---------------................................................................. 11
ible fa -------......................................................... 11
Butter---- --------............................................................... 12
Cocoa and chocolate------............--............-......... ...---.. 12
Chicory .................................---........ ................... 13
M u tard ............................................................. 13
Fish................................................................. ----------------------------------------------14
Sugar................................................................ 14
Saccharin ........................................... ................ 14
Flour and bread ........... ....................-... ................. 15
W ine-................................................................ 15
Demn ark ........................................................... ..... 16
W ine ...-........ .................. ................................. 16
Oleomar"grine- ...........---....---.......----....---..---......... ... 18
England............................----------------------------------..........----------------........................... 18
France ............................ ..... ................................ 18
Butter and butter substitutes.......................................... 18
Wine--------------------- --------------------------------- 19
W ine ........................... ................................... 19
Gerlma n g a rials ................................................... 190
M eat- ................................................................. 20


off ...--...........----------..-- .......... 22
a harin ............... ............................................... 22
W ine................................................................ 22
Utnsils, toys,e .................................................... -23
Coloing materials ................................................... 23
H ungary ................................................................ 24
Alcoholic ve es ................................................. 24








Italy ..................................................................25
Dairy products .........-...--.................. .-- ................. 25
Cereal products ............ ....-- ......--....................- 25
Su~rr and confections ....... ......... ........---.......-......... 25
Beer................................................................. 2
Vinegar..............................................................
Coffee, tea, and chocolate ................................... ...... 26
Meat and fish .....................-.............. ....-........6--..
Municipal regulations of Milan ........---................................ 2
Rounaian ............................................................--- ---27
General provisions ...-----......----.--------..----..----------..--.. 27
Alcoholic everages.................................................. 27
Wine................................................................ ----28
Beer................................................................. 29
Vinegar ............................................................. 30
Cheese---............................................................30
Butter............................................................... 31
Lard and tallow--------...............---.-- .............. ---... .... ---31
Vegetable oils....-....---.----................-...--..-- --..--------- 31
Cereals and flour--..................................................... 31
Coffee, tea, cocoa, and chocolate----------..............--...........-- -----. 32
Sugar, honey, confections, etc.......................... .......... -- ---32
Sausage..............------............--..................----- .. 3
Tunis.................................................................... 34
Wine--................................................................ 34
Switzerland.............................................................. --34
General provisions.......... ........--- ...------- ......-- ...-- --.......... 34
Canton of Berne.......................----------------.... --..---.....35
Canton of raubinde ......---- -----------......... ........--..--.....-- -..-- --35
Meat -...........................--- -..........---.............. --..
Butter and butter fats............................................. ---- --35
Flour and meal ............................................... 35
Canned vegetables--...------.......---....................................-------- ---
Honey-....................................................... ---35
Beer................----- -----....................................... 35
Wines ......................-...................-............. -35
Brandy and liqueurs.............................................. 36
Vinegar ................................. ..............-...... -36
Receptacle ....... .................................. ........... 36
Coloring matter ................................................. 36
Canton of ucerne.................................................... 3
Beer .............................-................-.............. 37
Brandy.................-.... ..... ............................. 37
Butter ... ................................... ................. 37
(Coa and C(ca prepalations ..................................... 37
Vinegar-.......................................... ............ .. 37
oney................................. .........................
Coffee-------,,-----------------------------lc-- --- --------38L/I-
Flour............................................................38
Cider...................................................--------------..
W ine ................... .............................. ...... ..
a ......................... ............. --.......... .. ........ 88
Canton of St. alls ................................. ...........--.. 38
WN ine......................................... .................. 39
Beer .--......... ....... ...........- .......-- .............,. 39-
(antomn of Zurich ................... ..........-.......... 39


"I;;8












PURE-FOOD LAWS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES AFFECTING
AMERICAN EXPORTS.


GENERAL SUMMARY.
With the exceptions noted below, almost any food product which is
in a good state of preservation and is labeled plainly and distinctly,
and in such a manner as to give a true idea of its character, may be
sold in any country.
MEAT PRODUCTS.
The new German law prohibits the importation of canned meat,
susage, and macerated meat of all descriptions. Fresh meat may be
imported under restrictions. The addition to meat of preservatives
and coloring matter is usually prohibited.

DAIRY PRODUCTS.
The requirements of various countries regarding dairy products are
very similar to those affecting meat. Butter and cheese substitutes
are required to be branded according to carefully prescribed directions,
and the amount of butter fat which these substitutes may contain is
limited. Belgium requires that oleomargarine shall be sold uncol-
ored, while in Holland and Denmark a maximum depth of color is
prescribed.
WINE AND BEER.
Only the fermented juice of the fresh grape, subjected to the usual
cellar manipulation, whose limits are carefully defined in the various
countries, may be sold as wine. If any other saccharine matter or any
foreign material be employed, the product must be so designated as to
indicate the fact. Prohibition of the use of chemical preservatives
and aniline dyes is almost universal, while the employment of all for-
eign coloring matter is often prohibited.
The use of chemical preservatives and foreign coloring matter with
beer is usually prohibited.
CEREAL PRODUCTS.
Almost all countries require that cerena products shall be prepared
from grain that is free from dirt and fungi, mineral matter, and other
impurities. The mixture of the ground product of various cereals,
I"orf of cereal flour with pea flour .is rmitted only when properly
labeled.
7




8

SUGAR, GLUCOSE, AND CONFECTIONS.
Sugar, glucose, etc., must be commercially pure and must be free
from admixture with any foreign substance. Confections may be
colored by harmless coloring materials (a list is usually specified), but
must be prepared from pure ingredients and must be free from adul-
teration of any description.

ARTIFICIAL .SWEETENING MATERIALS.
The sale of foods containing saccharin, sucrol, and similar prepara-
tions is prohibited in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and Rou-
mania. The importation of saccharin except for medicinal use and
under prescribed conditions is prohibited by Belgium and Greece.

COLORING MATTER.
All countries permit the dyeing of confections and similar articles
which are themselves colorless, but are customarily colored artifcially.
Lists of permissible and of prohibited colors have been adopted by
Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Roumania, and Switzerland
Belgium permits mustard to be colored artificially when properly
labeled. Belgium and Holland require that wine to which coloring
matter has been added shall be so marked as to indicate that fact.
The addition of injurious coloring matter to wine is prohibited in
Denmark, France, and Tunis.

CHEMICAL PRESERVATIVES.
The sale of foods containing these substances is usually prohibited.
Salicylic acid and boric acid have been used so much more commonl
than others that legislation is usually directed against them, though
boards of health and similar bodies which have discretion in the matter
usually extend the prohibitions to benzoic acid and other preserva-
tives as they come into use.
The sale of foods containing preservatives is prohibied in Austria,
France, I ungary, and Ioumania. The sale of beverages containing
preservatives is prohibited in Belgium, Germany, Tunis, and Switer-
land. The addition of salicylic acid to food is prohibited in Buenos
Ayres and France. Holland dos not permit the sale of beer con-
taining salicylic acid, and Spain forbids its addition to wine. Italy
permits the addition of 0.2 )er cent of boric acid to butter, but forbids
the use of other preservatives.

CONTAMINATION WITH METALS.
Strict regulations regarding the content of poisonous metals of food
reeptacles and utensils used in the prepartion of foods have been
adopted by Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, and soe of the
cantons of Switzerland.






AUSTRIA.
COLORING MATERIALS.

The us f colors which contain any metal except iron and the use
of gamboge, picric acid, and all aniline derivatives for the purpose of
coloring food and food products is forbidden.
For coloring toys, preparations containing arsenic, antimony, lead,
cadmium copper, cobalt, nickel, mercury (cinnabar excepted), zinc, or
gamboge are prohibited. The use of other metallic colors for coloring
toys is permitted, provided the color be coated with a waterproof var-
nish. The colors whose use is forbidden with toys may be employed
with earthenware, provided they are covered with a glaze which is
burned in.
The use of poisonous colors, such as arsenic preparations, with arti-
ficial flowers and similar substances, is forbidden unless the article be
covered over with a waterproof varnish. Wall paper and similar
material must not be colored with arsenic preparations.
The sale of food which has been prepared in vessels coated with
poisonous colors, or stored in receptacles so coated, is prohibited. The
importation and sale of wines colored with aniline dyes are prohibited.
Foods and food products which are themselves white or colorless (con-
fections beverages, etc.), but which are ordinarily artificially colored,
may be colored by any of the following substances, provided the
articles so colored shall be sold from the factory only in the original
packages which are distinctly labeled with the name of the material
employed for coloring the contents of the package, and also with the
registered seal or trade-mark of the manufacturer. The label must
also bear a statement from a prescribed official laboratory (Chemischen
Hochschulinstitute) that the contents of the package contain no sub-
stances deleterious to health. This statement must bear a later date
Shan the latest decision of the health office regarding the subject and
must be renewed at least annually. The list of aniline colors which
may be employed under these restrictions is a follows:
Fucsin-rosaniline hydrochlorate.
Acid fuchsin (rubin)-sodium or calcium salt of roaniline disulphonic acid.
Rocelin-iulpho-oxyazonaphthalin.
Bordeaux red-forued by the cobinations f /Wbe-nal)tthhol disulphonic aid
with diazo compounds of Zylol and the higher hoilogues of benzene.
Ponceau red-same as Bordeaux red.
Erin-tetrabron-fluorescei.
Erythr sin-tetrai do-fluoreseIin.
Phloxin-tetrahrom-dichlor-fluorescein.
Alizarin blue-(',_lNO,.
Aniline blue-triphenyl rosaniline.
Water blue-tripnyl raniline sulphonic acid.
Induline-the salphonic acid comIpond of azo-diphenyl blue and its derivatives.
Acid yellow R-the sodium salt of amido-azo henzene sulphonic acid.
Tropeolin lOO-su)pho-azo bnizene-a-uiphthol.
Methyl violet.
Malachite green.
Naphthol yellow.




10

In addition to the above, only the following colors may be added to
food:
White.-Tragacanth.
Red.-Cochineal, carmine, kermes, infusion of red poppy
Yellow.-Saffron, safflower, turmeric.
Blue.-March violet, blue bottle, indigo, prussian blue, ultramarine, sea blue
(fonr of artificial ultramarine).
Green.-Spinach juice.
Violet.-Cochinel infusion with lime water.
Gold.-Pure gold leaf.
Sihler.-Pure silver leaf.
Wrappers for confections, coffees, and other vrieties of food must
either be white or prepared from material which is naturally colored.
If a wrapper which is artificially colored be employed, a second wrap-
per of the character above described must be placed between it and
the inclosed product, and no artificially colored wrapper may be used
in any case to inclose any but a dry, solid material. The use of wra -
pers containing copper salts is especially prohibited.

RECEPTACLES.
Food receptacles and utensils intended for the preparation of food
must not be either partially or entirely composed of an alloy contain-
ing more than 10 parts of lead per 100 parts of the alloy. The inside
of such receptacles must not be coated with tin which contains lead.
Such receptacles must not be soldered with an alloy containing ore
than 10 per cent of lead. In case of glazed and enameled ware, lead
must not be present in such state that it will be dissolved by boiling
one-half hour with a 4 per cent solution of acetic acid. The glass or
enamel must not be so attched to the essel that it will scale off.
Metallic parts of nursing bottles must not contain more than 1 per
cent of lead. Metal foil, which is used as a wrapper for such prod-
uctasa snuff and tobacco, must not contain more than 1 per cent of
lead. Vessels which have been cleaned with the aid of leade shot
must not be used as receptacles for food products. The sale of food
products which have been ground with millstones filled with lead or
an alloy contining lead is prohibited.
Rubber or caoutchouc which contains lead or zinc must not enter
into the com)osition of such articles as nipples of nursery bottles,
rubber rings, nipple shields, etc., or as receptacles for such articles
as hbeer, wine, vinegar, aid l)reservTes. or of vessels which are to be
used in the prepaurtion of food products or as recepacles for the

If antimony sulphid enters into the com( osition of vessels which
are used in connection with food products, it must be o prered that
no antimony is dissolved by a dilute solution of tartric acid. pper
and bras vesse mst not be used in the preparation of foods unless








Sinner side be coated with lead-free tin. All manipulations are
bited which could by any means bring copper compounds into
Scomposion of food materials.
he addition of fluorids to foods is especially prohibited, as is also
addition of salicylic acid to wine.

MUNICIPAL REGULATIONS OF VIENNA.

Municipal regulations for Vienna prescribe that the term "butter"
1l be used only for the exclusive product of pure milk or cream.
Fat from all other sources must be designated as margarine butter,
lard, or compound lard, according to their character. Margarine
butter must be molded in brick-form prints, and the words Marga-
rinebutter" must be marked on every print in distinct characters of
such size that the words shall extend the entire length of the print.
The wrapper in which each print is sold must also be marked in dis-
tinct indelible characters with the words "Margarinebutter." Every
receptacle containing compound lard must be distinctly printed with
the name Margarineschmalz" or Kunstfett." The terms Echte-
butter" or "Butterschmalz" are applied only to articles containing
fat obtaine from pure milk. "Schweinefett" must be used only to
designate pure lard. "Margarinebutter" is applied to all butter
substitutes which do not consist exclusively of butter fat. "-Kunst-
fett" is used to designate compound lard.

BELGIUM.

EDIBLE FATS.

The word "lard" must be applied only to pure unmixed swine fat.
All other edible fats, excepting butter and margarine, must be so
marked as to indicate exactly their origin, or with the words, mixed
fat" (graisse mlangel).
All receptacles containing other edible fats than lard, butter, and
oleomargarine, must be plainly marked as described above, and also
with the name of the manufacturer or dealer, or wv.th soeni registered
mark.
Lard and other edible fats which contain more than 1 per cent of
water or salt must be labeled, "watered" (aqueux), or "salted" (sai).
The addition of mineral substanes, other than salt, and of chemical
preservatives and glycerin is forbidden.
It is forbidden to sell spoiled or deteriorated edible oils s food. All
receptacles containing oils must he branded with the worl "oil" inmme-
ditely preceded by a word in similar type which wiJl give the true
and exact source of the contents of the receptacle; for istance, live
oil Peanut moil, sesame oil, etc.






12

BUTTER.
The term "butter must be used only with reference to fat obtained
exclusively from milk or cream with or without the addition of color-
ing matter or salt. All butter contining other additions and ll
butter substitutes must be designated as margarine. Margarine must
not contain more than 5 per cent of butter fat and must not be arti-
ficially colored. The maximum color permitted in margarine may be
decided by the minister of agriculture. These regulations regarding
the addition of butter fat to margarine and the height of color ofthe
same are not applied to margarine intended for export from Belium.
The receptacles and packages which contain margarine must be
plainly labeled with the word margarine" in letters at leat 2 cm
high, as well as the name of the manufacturer or dealer. Margarine
which is not in packages must be molded in cubical form with the
word u"mrargarine" impressed, as well as the name of the manufac-
turers or dealers. The sale of rancid butter or butter made from the
milk of diseased or improperly fed cows is forbidden. It is also
required that maarrine shall be fresh and made from the fat of
healthy animals. The addition of glycerin to butter and margarine
is prohibited.
COCOA AND CHOCOLATE.
The term "cocoa mass" must be used exclusively for the product of
the seed of the cocoa tree, whether it be raw or roasted, entire, hulled,
or ground, with. or without the addition of foreign substances.
Finally, such product may be melted or molded in ingots or tablet form
or pulverized. The term cocoa may be applied to the prepared product
of the cocoa tree from which a portion of the fat h been removed,
provided that the fat content of the product is not less than 20 per
cent. The tern alkalized cocoa" may be used to describe the product
to which an addition of alkaline carbonate has been made to render it
more soluble; but the alkaline carbonate so added must not exceed 3 per
cent of the total weight of the product. Cocoa which contains more
than 3 per cent of alkaline carbonate is considered unwholesome and
its sale is forlbidden. 'The characterization "alkalized" is not neces-
sary if the product is intended for export from Belgium.
Cocoa which is prepared otherwise than by the methods described
above imust be marked th the wrapper with thie word "cocoa," followed
in the same type by words which will give an exact description of the
method used in prIeparation. The term chocolate is applied to the
product made exclusively from hullled cocoa, to which at least 35 per
cent of its weight of cane sugar has been added, with or without the
addition of spices.
Products which contain 35 per cent of hulled cocoa, b t the s
timlie other substaLices thanl sugar alnd spics, can be sold only when






13

ked on the wrapper in the same type as the word "chocolate" with
a worwhich will give an exact description of the foreign substances
pst, or when labeled with a name in which the word "chocolate"
not appear. When molded in tablet form, the above description
stbe impressed or printed in raised characters on every tablet.
Any preparation which contains less than 35 per cent of hulled cocoa
must not be sold as cocoa bon bons or under any other name in which
the word"cocoa" or "chocolate" appears. All bills and shipping
receipts must be designated in the same manner as the preparations
described above. All packages of cocoa must be marked with the
name of the manufacturer or dealer or with the registered mark.
These provisions apply to ordinary chocolate in tablet, block, or pow-
dered form, or chocolate croquettes, but not to special preparations
containing chocolate sold by confectioners and bakers.

CHICORY.

The term "chicory" must be applied exclusively to the product of
the chicory root, either in its natural condition or by any appropriate
treatment, such as roasting, powdering, drying, etc. Chicory must
not contain more than 15 per cent of water (dried at 100 C.). The
ash content of the dried material must not exceed 10 per cent when
finely powdered, or 8 per cent when coarsely powdered. Chicory
must not lose more than half its weight when extracted with boiling
water. Chicory which is put up in packages, with the weight of the
contents marked on the package, may have a higher water content
than 1 per cent if the weight of substance in the package is corre-
spondingly greater than that stated on the label. An addition of fat
or saccharine matter not exceeding 2 per cent of the total substance is
permitted. Bag and other recetacles in which chicory is shipped or
sold must bear the name of the packer or dealer, or some registered
mark.
MUSTARiD.

The sale of any substance other than a mixture prered of ground
black ad white mustard seed, 1under the unq(ualifid name of mustard,"
is prohibited. All similar preparations, such as those containing pep-
per, estrgon, rice, and foreign coloring Imatter. can he sold only when
each package bears in the same type as the word mustard" the names
of all foeign substances present, or the designation "prepared 11nus-
tard or soe desilgnation not conta inig the word mustard may be
employed. I te preparation of mustard the use of vinegar which
dos not comply with the law of January 3, 1894, is prohibited. The
uof deteriorated, decayed, or unwholesome substances in manufac-
ting prepared mustard is forbidden. IMustard peparations which
do not comly with these requirements and are not intended for use






14

as a condimen t be plainly labeled with a
for which they are intended. All packages of mutard and mustard
preparations must be marked with the names of the manufacturers or
dealers or with a registered label.

FISH.

Fresh or preserved ish which has been mixed with matters other
than spices, condiments, aromatic jellies the principal ingredient of
which is gelatin or gelose, must not be sold unless a plain label shall
indicate the nature of the foreign subsance used. anned-fish prod-
ucts must have a label showing the kind of fish, and also, if necessary
the kind of oil, etc., used. Fish, shellfish, etc., caught with indian
berry (Cocculus indic) or other poisonous substances and those
mixed with antiseptics are declared injurious. No substances injurious
to health are allowed to be used. Receptacles containing fish must
bear the name and address or the registered mark of the seller. It
is further forbidden to sell or keep in the same premises with food
products fish not intended for alimentary purposes unless these are
clearly marked Not eatable," or the like.

SUGAR.

It is provided that the word "sugar" and similar term shall refer
only to the product obtained from the juice of sugar cane, suiar beet
and similar plants. All other products, such as dextrose, which are
used for sweetening purposes must be properly labeled. Mixtures of
cane sugar with other materials, such as dextrose, can besold onl when
so labeled as to inform the purchaser of the character of the oods.
White sugar must not contain more than 0.2 per cent of mineral sub-
stances, raw sugar not more than 2.5 per cent of mineral substances,
and glucose not more than 0.8 per cent of mineral substances. Glucose
must not contain more trhan U.5granms of free acids (calculated to sul-
phuric acid) per 100 grams of dry matter, nor appreciable quantitie
of oxalates, oxalic acid, arsenic compounds, lead, zinc, or bariu.
Sugar m nust not be deteriorated in any manner-for instance, coat
with mold. The additiol of Inpeservatives and the presence of funi-
cides are folbidden. Bags, barrels, and other receptacles must be
plainly marked with the name of the anufacture or dealer.
SAC(IIARIN.

The importation, manufacture, shipping, and selling of saccharin
and other products, which are formed synthetically and s as weet
taste similar to that of sugar but have no nutritive value, are p
hibited. The use of harin and similr prod in the preparati
of foods and the sale of foods containing them are also prohibited.






15

FLOUR AND BREAD.

The words "flour" and "bread" must be used exclusively to denote
wheat products. For designating the product of any other cereal it is
necessary to employ also the name of that cereal, for instance, "rye
flour," rye bread," etc. Mixtures of rye flour with other cereals must
be designated by the word "m6teil." Flour must be manufactured from
grain which is sound and in good condition and which has been thor-
oughly cleaned. The sale of flour which is adulterated with mineral
matter is prohibited. The word "tapioca" must be used exclusively
to refer to food products derived from the cassava root.

WINE.

In the application of these regulations one understands-
(1) By wine, the product of alcoholic fermentation of the juice or must of the fresh
grape.
(2) By sweet wines or liqueurs orcordials ("vin de liqueur" or "vin de dessert"),
the product of alcoholic fermentation, whether it be of the juice or must of the grape,
more or less dried, or concentrated by evaporation, containing usually about 14 to 18
per cent of alcohol and an excess of natural grape sugar.
(3) By sparkling wines (vin niousseux), the product of the fermentation of the
juice or must of the fresh raisin surcharged with pure carbonic acid.
(4) By wine of the second vat, wine made from the residuun of grapes (piquette),
wine from the lees or dregs, wine from the dried grape, sparkling wine from the dried
grape, cider, sparkling cider, hydromel, etc., the vinous beverages which present an
analogy with wines and which are the product of the fermientation of the juice or
must extract of the dregs or lees of the fresh or dried grape, of the juice of the apple,
of honey, etc., with or without the addition of sugar, alcohol, or pure carbonic acid.
It is forbidden to sell or expose for sale, to hold, or transport for
sale or for delivery as wine, any wine to which foreign substances
have been added.
This prohibition does not apply to the following:
(1) The addition of clarifying agents actirrg mechanically ilbumin, gelatin).
(2) The addition of ordinary salt on condition that the content of chlorids, cal-
culated as sodium chlorid, does not exceed 2 grams per liter.
(3) The addition of gylsum on the con(dition that the content of sulphates, cal-
culated as potassium sulphate, does not exceed 2 gram.is per liter.
(4) The presence of sulphurous acid, because of sulphuring the casks, on condition
that the wine shall not contain more than 2 mnilligranis of free sulphurous acid nor
more than 20 milligrams of total sulphurous acid per 100 cc.
(5) The addition of pure sugar or alcohol, provided that the receptacle in which
the wine is placed shall lear in a conspicuous place and in plain characters, a large
and conpicuou asany otherletters used for other inscriptions, the word sugared
or "aloolized" ("sucr(" or "alcooli&"), as the case may be, and that this
stateentbe reproduced on the invoice, the hill of lading, or the booking-ollice ticket.
Wine, as well as the vinous beverages having an analogy to wine, to
which have been added foreign substances, with the exception of
those enumerated above, can not be kept for sale, exposed foI sale,






16

for delivery or retail, except in receptacles bearig in a prominent
place and in legible characters, as large and as conspicuous as those
employed for any other inscription, an indication of the materials
introduced in their preparation, for example, "watered wine,"
"colored wine," "aromatized wine," "dried grape wine," "cerry
wine," or an inscription sufficiently clear to make known their origin,
such as "piquette," "cider," "hydromel." This statement need not
include the names of the vineyards of true and natural wines. These
should be found in the invoices and the bills of lading or bookin-office
tickets.
Wines, liqueurs (vins de liqueurs), sparkling wines, and vinou
beverages to which the following substances have been added are
declared injurious:
Ether, or essential oils (oil of wine);
Bitter almond, cherry, laurel;
Alkaloids;
Conmpounds of arsenic, lead, zinc, aluminum, barium, strontium, calcium, mag-
nesium, alkalies;
Mineral acids, free or combined oxalic acid;
Salicylic acid or other antiseptica (with the exception made i favor of sl-
phurous acid in the amount specified);
Glycerin;
Sugars, ask sugar, or impure alcohol, the sle of which is forbidden for edible
purposes by the rules relative to those commodities; alcohol other than ethyl
alcohol;
Sulphates, in greater quantity than indicated above, or of mo than tice that
quantity in the case of liqueurs (vins de liqueurs).
It is forbidden to add to wine or liqueurs (vin de liqueur), to spark-
ling wines, or vinous beverages, any of the substances mentioned
above, or any other so1stance injurious or dangerous to the health.
All casks in which wine, liqueurs, and vinous beverags will e
exposed for sale or delivered must bear the name of the firm, as well
as the address, or at least the registered mark of the maker or seller.

DENMARK.

WINE.

The following additions to wine are l)rohibited:
Alumn, or other soluble aluminum salts; im compoun; strontium c mpounds;
nagnesium compo1unds; Iboric acid; saliclic acid; spirits conta ning fusel oil; crude
(not technically pure) glu ose; kernes; injurious coloring material; glycerin; sac-
charin; flavoring materials, such as ethereal oils, ssences, etc.; gum, and other
organic and inorganic materials intended to incrase the extract content.
The following add itions are permitted without delaration:
The use of common clarifying agent, such s albumin, gelatin, isinga,
earth, and other cm11n m substances; t he neutralizatiron )f xcessive acid with pre-
cipit)atd Iacium carbonate; the custo ary sulphuring of cks; the urizatio
of wine; the blending of wines (in blending only dry wines may b ixed ith d
wines).






17

D wines must not contain more than 0.2 gram of sulphuric acid
ted to potassium sulphate) per 100 cc. The addition of foreign
ring atter is prohibited unless the same is declared on the label.
The addition to dry wines of saccharine matter either in a solid state
or in solution is permitted if the same is stated on the label. The
same is true of the addition of water. These provisions do not apply
to red wines which are rich in extract and coloring matter and hence
in their natural state not suitable for consumption, provided that after
treatment such wines shall not contain less than 2 grams of sugar-free
extract per 100 cc, and that no sugar other than the ordinary grape
sugar shall be found in the extract. Wines which shall receive an
addition of water and which fulfill the required conditions of percent-
age of extract, etc., may be blended with other wines of normal
composition without regard to the extract content of the blend so pro-
duced. The addition of alcohol to dry wine must be indicated on the
label; this, owever, does not apply to the alcohol necessary for ordi-
nary cellar manipulation. The alcohol so employed must be fully
refined and of not less than 93.25 per cent by volume, and the amount
added must not exceed 2.5 liters for 240 liters of wine. In the case of
wines which are not fully fermented and whose sugar content is such as
to make it doubtful whether they should be classified as dry or as sweet
wines, the addition of alcohol of not less than 93.25 per cent per vol-
ume in such quantity that the alcohol content of the product shall not
exceed 17 per cent per volume is permitted. Port wine, sherry,
iadeira, and liqueurs from foreign lands must conform to the custom-
ary composition of these wines in the country where they are produced.
These wines may be manufactured from dried grapes under the condi-
tion that the alcohol content shall not exceed 25 per cent per volume,
and the sugar-free extract shall not be less than 2 grams per 100 cc.
On the other hand, the addition to these wines of sugar or other material
which is not the product of the grapes, without indicating the same on
the label, is prohibited. Wines of this class which are too low in
alcohol may be fortified with alcohol of not less than 9.25 per cent
by volume. The alcohol content of the product must not exceed 25
per cent by volume. Dessert wines must be the customary Iproduct of
the region of their production with the exception that they may receive
te ordinary cellar manipulation. The te1rm "champagne" may be
applied only to wines fermented under pressure. Carbonated wines
y be sold if properly designated.
ognacs, rum, and arak must not receive the adition of alum or
ther soluble aluminum Salts, bariumi comu011 nds, strontiu1m co(m-
pounds, magnesium compounds, boic acid, salicylic acid, alcohol
containing fusel oil, crude glucose, kermes, or other unwholesome
materials.
13864-No. 61-01-2






18

OLEOMARGARINE.
This product must be branded and put up in prints in a prescribed
manner; it must not contain more than 50 per cent butter fat, and the
shade of color permissible is fixed.

ENGLAND.

All adulterated or impoverished articles of food must be in packges
conspicuously marked with the true description of the contents of the
package. The addition to foods of coloring materials and preservatves
which are harless in the quantity employed is permitted.
It is required that margarine, filled cheese, etc., be conspicuously
marked on the top and sides of each package with the words
" margarine" or "margarine cheese," as the case may require. Mar-
garine must not contain more than 10 per cent of butter fat. Adu
terated or impoverished butter, other than margarine, must be in
packages so marked as to indicate the exact nature of the contents of
the package.
Every can of condensed, skimmed milk must have a label clearly
visible to the purchaser, on which the words" machine-skimmed milk"
or "skimmed milk," as the case may require, are printed in large,
legible type.
FRANCE.

The law of February 2, 1899, regulates the commerce in fertilizers,
butter, and wines especially; it also applies to all articles of merchan-
dise of whatever nature. Misrepresentation concerning the nature,
quality, or quantity of articles covered by this law is prohibited.
Cans and similar receptacles containing food must not be coatd
with an alloy containing more than 0.5 per cent of lead or 0.01 per
cent of arsenic, and must not be soldered with an alloy containing
more than 10 per cent of lead or 0.01 per cent of arsenic.
Only lead-free tin foil may be used as wrappers for food materials.

BUTTER AND BUTTER SUBSTITUTES.
The term butter shall be applied only to products made exclusively
from milk or cream. All other fat aaterials having the appearance of
butter lmust be sold asIt argarine, and must not contain more than 10
per cent of butter fat. The receptacle containing oleomargine mustbe
indelibly branded with the word "margarine" or "oleom"ararine."
The constituents of the connts of the receptacle and the percentage of
each constituent present must be given on all bills rendered for such
goos. In wholesale trade, the name and address of the manufacturer
bmust be given on the receptacle contining ma rine. If ld at
retail, nma-rine must be in cuical prints with the word "margarine"

'"'..; .. ; i i l" ; T~ill;; ; i ;








o oleomargarine" impressed on one side of the print. Each print
Sbeinclosed in a wrapper on which the word "margarine"
oleomargarine" is indelibly printed. Every bill, letter, and pack-
in any way relating to the sale or transportation of margarine must
ditinctly marked with the word "margarine" or "oleomargarine."

WINE.

The addition of sulphuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, sali-
ylic acid, boric acid, and analogous substances, as well as the addi-
tion of coloring matter, is prohibited. Wine must not contain more
than 0.1 gram of sodium chlorid per 100 cc, or more than 0.2 grams
of potassium sulphate.
Wine is defined as the fermented juice of the grape treated in no
way except bythe ordinary cellar manipulation, including the addition
of sufficient water to the must to reduce its sugar content to 29 grams
per 100 cc, or the dilution of sufficient pure alcohol to give a normal
composition to very low wine. The addition of both alcohol and water
to the same must or wine is not permitted under any circumstances.
The product of the fermentation of the lees, with or without the
addition of sugar, and mixtures of the same with wine, can be sold only
as "Vin de marc" or "Vin de sucre," and receptacles in which the
same is sold must be conspicuously labeled with an orange-colored
label containing the appropriate name.
The product of the fermentation of dried raisins, and mixtures of
the same with wine, can be sold only as Vin de raisins see," and must
bear in a conspicuous place a label of green paper marked with its cor-
rect name.
COLORING MATERIALS.

Foods and food products must not be colored with any mineral sub-
stance, except that prussian blue, ultramarine, chalk, and ochre may
be used with confections or similar products. Confections and other
products must not be inclosed in wrappers which are colored with the
phibited substances. All confections inclosed in packages must bear
e name and address of the manufacturer or dealer. The use of
litharge, lead acetate, and similar compounds for clarifying saccharine
products and fermented beverages is forbidden.
The use of the following coloring materials with foods is prohibited:
Mineral colors:
Compounds of copper, lead, arsenic, and mercury, and barium chromate.
Gamboge; aniline derivatives, such as fuchsin, Lyon blue, flavanilin, methylene
blue; phtaleins and their derivatives, such as evsine, erythrosin; nitro com-
pounds, such as naphthol yellow and Victoria yellow; diazo conipunds, such
Stropeolns and lidine red.






20

As exceptions to the above general regulations, however, the follow-
ing compounds may be employed in oloring confecti ptry, and
liqueurs, which are ordinarily white or colorless:
Rse colkrs:
Eosine (tetra brom-fluorescen).
Erythrosin (methyl and ethyl derivatives of eosine.
Bngal rose, phloxin (iodin and broin derivative of fluoreen).
ordeaux red and Ponceau red (resulting from the action of the supho-derivative
of naphthol on the diaz xylens).
Acid fuchsin (without arsenic and prepared by the Coupier method).
Yellow colors:
Acid yellow (dervatives of sulphonates of naphthol).
B cl colors:
Lyon b lightlue, lt ue Coupier blue, etc., (derivatives of triphenil roanin or of
diphenylamin).
Green colrs:
Mixtures of blue and yellow named above.
alachite green.
Violet colors:
Paris violet or methylanilin violet.

GERMANY.
MEAT.
A new law regulating the preparation, importation, and sale of meat
and meat products was passed by the Bundesrath and the ichstag in
June 19, 1900, to take effect in April, 1901. Regulations for its
enforcement have not yet been proulgated. The importation, except
in free ports," of meat in hermetically sealed cans and similar reep-
tacles, and of sausage and macerated meat of all descriptions, is
unequivocally prohibited.
It is provided that fresh meat must be imported in the entire body
or in halves. The meat must be so dressed that the reast, diaphram,
lungs, heart, and kidneys, and, in the case of cows. also the uddr,
retain their natural position in connection with the bod.
Prepared lnd preservred Ilmeat cn be ilmported only when the method
of preparation or preservation to which it has been subjected is such
as to ad( to or prodIuce in the meat no inj urious sullbst s.
The above requirements do not apply to corned beef, ham, haon, or
casings provided that the corned beef is not imported in piecesweigh-
ing less than 4 kilograms (8.8 pounds). Meat which has been pre-
served by l)Ocesses which will enable it to retain ll of the Eharacteristics
of fresh meat (refrigeration) is subjected to the restrictions applied to
fresh meat.
I1he forregoing reiglations are to remai in n force until Dcemllber 31
1903, or until other regulations are provided.
Horse flesh can be imported only when so designated in the erman
language that it true nature will be understood by the purchaser.






21

In Prussia a regulation is in force relating to the amount of flour
ttay be added to the several varieties of sausage. Fleischwurst"
shl receive at the most 4 per cent. "Blutwurst" and "Leberwurst"
lling for not more than 0.70 marks per half kilogram shall not con-
ta more an 5 per cent of flour. "Plockwurst," "Cervelatwurst,"
"Salamiwurst," "Bratwurst," "Mettwurst," "Blutwurst" and
" Leberwurst" which sell for more than 0.70 marks per half kilogram
must not receive the addition of flour. Sausages which are treated
with flour must be so marked as to indicate that fact (" Wurst mit
Mehlzusats").
BUTTER AND .EDIBLE FATS.
All packages of butter substitutes, filled cheese, and compound lards
mustbe branded Margarine," "Margarinekise," and Kunstspeise-
fett," respectively. Each package must also be marked in a conspicu-
ous place with a red stripe at least 2 cm wide for packages 35 cm high
or less and 5 cm wide for higher packages. The same articles, when
sold at retail, must be in wrappers marked Margarine," etc., and
also with the name of the dealer. All prints must be cubical in form
and stamped Margarine," etc., in sunken letters.
To facilitate the examination of samples, the Bundesrath has decided
that all fats used in the preparation of butterine shall receive an addi-
tion of 10 per cent of their weight of sesame oil, and all fats used in
the preparation of filled cheese shall receive an addition of 5 per cent
of their weight of sesame oil. The sesame oil employed must be such
that when a mixture of 0.5 part of sesame oil with 99.5 parts peanut
or cotton-seed oil be shaken with an equal volume of hydrochloric acid
(specifc graity 1.19) and a few drops of a 2 per cent alcoholic solution
of furfurol a marked red color is imparted to the acid layer.
Patterns of labels to be employed with butter substitutes, etc., have
been adopted by the Bundesrath thus: The space within the line inclos-
ing the label must not be more than 7 times as long as high, and must
not be less than 30 nor more than 50 cm high, except that with round
or oval packages whose greatest diameter does not exceed 15 cm the
spe may be decreased to 15 cm. Directly abve this label a red strip
at at 2 cim wide on packages up to 35 cm high, and at least 5 cm
wide on higher ones, must extend around the package, but shall not
interfere with the mark "Margarine," etc. The name of the manu-
facturer and the brand must be near the word Margarine," but must
not be in contact with it nor with the encircling line or red band. The
designation, name of manufcturer, and brand must either be burned
n orpainted on white or bright yellow ground in black letters, and must
be on two opposite sides of package and also on the top, if there be a
top, and on both ends of casks. In print, the pattern described above
must be folowed, but the limitation of size is removed, and the word






22

" argarine"may be divided in two and the word "Ma
in three portions connected by yphens.
In Prussia the terms Smaz," "Bratensmalz,"" nirtes,
etc., can be applied only to pure lard. Mixtures containing other fat
or oils must be called by such name as "Speisefett."

COFFEE.

Coffee substitutes must be inclosed in packages which bear a label
stating the chief ingredients in combination with the word "Kaffee."
The name of the manufacturer must also be stated on the package.
Mixtures of coffee and coffee substitutes can be sold only in packages
which are plainly marked so as to give the purchaser a true idea of
the nature of the contents, for instance, "Coffee and coffee-substitute
mixture" (Kaffee-surrogat-mischung). The name and location of the
manufacturer must also be stated on the package, as well as the mate-
rials from which the product is prepared.
It is forbidden to manufacture, sell, or hold for sale machines for
the preparation of artificial coffee beans.

SACCHARIN.

The manufacture and sale of foods and beverages containing artificial
sweetening material (saccharin, dulcin, etc.), are proibited.

WINE.

The law prohibits the addition to wine, wine-like, or wine-containing
beverages of soluble aluminum salts, barium compounds, boric acid,
glycerin, kermes, magnesium compounds, salicylic acid, impure
alcohol, glucose (not commercially pure), strontim compounds,
and aniline dyes; or the addition of more tn 0.2 gram per 100 c.
of potassun sulphate, except in dessert wines (southern sweet wines)
of foreign origin. The use of "sugar water" and pressed" grapes;
of sugar and wine yeast; of raisins, currants, and other sweetening
materials than cane sugar or dextrose; of acids and flavors; of gum
and other substances which influence the extract, exet a eafter
provided, is prohibited unless the oods are so labeled as to indicate
such additions. Raisins may be added to dessert wines (southern
sweet wies). The addition of sacchain is forbidden for all wines and
similar boverages. More librty is iven in sparkg wines
The following additions are permitted:
Alcohol, not over per cent by volume; sall amount of clarifying
agents (albumen, gelatin, isinglass, etc., sodium chlorid, carbon dioxid,
and sulphur dioxid); the blending of wines; neutralization with pure
precipitated calciui carbonate; addition of such amount of technic-
ally pure sucrose, invert suar, and dextrose as will n bring the






23

f ash to extract below that of unsugared wines of the vicinity.
Te e t content must not be below 1.5 grams per 100 cc; the
extract content less total acids must not be below 1 gram per 100 cc;
.extract content less fixed acids must not be below 1.1 grams per
cc. The ash must not be below 0.14 gram per 100 cc.

UTENSILS, TOYS, ETC.
ooking utensils and receptacles for foods and vessels used for prep-
aration of beverages and fruit juices must not contain over 10 per cent
of lead in any part. The inside must not be coated with an alloy which
contains over 1 per cent lead, and solder exposed to contents must not
contain over 10 per cent of lead (except solder with lead-free Britannia
metal). Enamels and glazes must not yield lead on boiling one-half
hour with a 4 per cent solution of acetic acid. Alloys containing over
1 per cent of lead must not be used in siphons for carbonated bever-
ages or for metal parts of nursing bottles. Rubber containing lead
or zinc must not be used for mouthpieces, nursing bottles, nipple
shields, etc. Rubber containing lead must not be used for drinking
cups or toys (except large balls), or for tubes for beer, wine, or vine-
gar. Containers must not be cleaned with shot. Snuff, chewing
to and cheese must not be wrapped in foil containing over 1 per
cent lead. Cans must not contain over 1 per cent lead on the inside or
have exposed soler containing over 10 per cent of lead.

COLORING MATERIALS.
The following are provisions relating to the addition of coloring
matter to foods, beverages, toys, cosmetics, and vessels, wrappers,
and covers for foods:
The addition of the following to articles of food and drink are pro-
hibited: Colors which contain antimony, arsenic, barium, lead, cad-
mium, chromium, copper, mercury, uranium, zinc, tin, gamboge,
coraln, and picric acid.
Vessels, appers, or covers dyed with the above-mentioned colors
must not he used for holding or protcting articles of food or drink.
This regulation does not apply to the use of the following: Barium
phate (heavy spar, permanient white), barium colors free from ha-
riumcarbonate, chrome green, copper, zinc, tin, and their alloys, when
pp as metallic colors, cinnabar, tin oxid. tin sulphid in the form
of ld-bronze (" musivgold") all vitrified colors in glass, glazes or
and colors on the outside of water-tight vessels.
In the manufacture of toys (including picture cards, picture books,
and water colors, flowerpot covers, and artificial Christmas tres) the
merials mentioned above as forbidden are not to be ued. This
re ation does not apply to the articles enumerated alove as excep-
tisnor to antinony sulphid and cadmium sulphid aplied as color in
"""" m 9 '' r ^ i*






24

gum; lead oxid in varnish; white lead as a component of the s
molded wax, if the same does not aount to more t part in 100;
lead chromate by itself or in association with lead sulphate, in oil or
lacquer, covered by lacquer or varnish; zinc clors insoluble in water,
in rubber toys, if used in the coloring of the rubber, or as lacquer or
oil color applied with lacquer or varnish, and all vitrified colors applied
with enamel.
HTUNGARY.

ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.

The addition to alcoholic beverages of strong commercial essences
with a sharp odor, especially of sharp spices and vegetable materials,
such as pepper, paprika, sea onions, etc., of narcotic substances, fusel
oil, or any other substance that will increase its sharp or narcotic taste,
is prohibited. This prohibition does not extend to medicinal and
dietetic alcoholic preparations.
The manufacture and sale of adulterated wine is prohibited. All
wines are considered adulterated which are not exclusively made from
grape must, with such additions as are necessary in ordinary cellar
manipulation. It is also prohibited to misrepresent the location in
which a wine was made or the variety of grapes used in its manufactre.
The must may receive additions of refined suar, grape suar, or
fruit sugar, as well as dried berries and dried raisins. In the Toquay
wine region these additions are not permitted, but since it is fraud-
lent to designate wines falsely as to the place of anufacture or the
variety of grape used, this prohibition does not affect wines from for-
eign coulntries.
The addition of refined alcohol and pure cognac is also permitted,
and the must may be treated with arsenic-free sulphur and te scu
removed by skimming. The excessive acidity may be neutralized with
calciull carbonate or potassium carbonate. In no case, however, is
any addition permitted which will change the composition to an appre-
ciable extent or cause it ingredients to vary fro e required pro-
portions. The wines in cellar manipulation imay receie an addition
of refined alcohol or cognac, or the usual harmless clarifying agents.
The acidity may be regulated in the case of excessive acidity, by the
addition of calcium ctarboate or os or the aid may
bee icread y te addition of cream of tartar, tartaric acid, or m alic
acid.
Wine imay also be sulphured with arsenic-free sulphur and receive
the prlopr manipulation for its preseration, providing that no injuri-
ous substance he added. In the anfacture of sweet nes refined
sugar, sacharine material, caramel, dried raisins, and the required
amounlt of yeast may be added for the after fer entation. In no c
may anything be added in such quantities that the reired proor






25

various ingredients of the wine shall be altered. The
dition t must or wine of material not specified, or especially of
r g rin, salicylic acid, flavoring extracts, ethereal oils, or
S uid, and of all vegetable, mineral, and aniline colors, with the
e onof afflower, is expressly prohibited.
nated wines can be sold only under the proper designation.
lees may be used in the manufacture of Tresterwein when they
eextracted with sugar water for fermentation, and for Nachwein"
hen extracted with water and refined alcohol or cognac.

ITALY.

DAIRY PRODUCTS.
The term "butter" must be used only to designate fatty material
ined from milk and cream by mechanical operations. The sale of
ormal or rancid butter or butter manufactured from the milk of
Sor improperly fed cows is prohibited. Butter must contain
Sinjurious coloring matter, and must contain no added substances,
h as foreign fats, flour, sirups, chalk, plaster, or soluble glass.
Schemical preservatives may be added other than common salt and
ox, and the latter must not be present in greater quantity than
2 per cent. The fat content of butter must not be less than 82
ernt. All edible fats which are to be used as butter substitutes,
ll butter adulterated with foreign fat, must be sold under some
ic name as "margarine." Butter and other edible fats of animal or
table origin must be in a good state of preservation, and if of
imal origin must have been prepared from a healthy animal.
Cheese must contain no substance which is not obtained from milk
d cream, other than salt and harmless coloring matter.
Thesale of eggs which are tainted or colored with injurious substances
is forbidden.
CEREAL PRODUCTS.
Cereals and mill products must be in a good state of preservation,
fefrom mold, weed seed, and other impurities. The addition of
alum, copper sulphate, zinc sulphate, talc, chalk, plaster, and other
mpurities of all descriptions is forbidden.

SUGAR AND CONFECTIONS.
The word "sugar" is employed to designate the product of the
gr e or sugar beet. It must not contain more than per cent of
ducing sugar. Sirups confections, marmalades, etc., must not be
ermented r in any way deteriorated, and must not contain any other
Sa a which is represented to e present, nor ny toxic
uch as saccharin, cerin, oxali acid, nor such preservatives
boric acid and salicylic acid.






26

BEER.

Beei must be made exclusively from the malt of barley or
cereals, with the addition of hops, yeast, and water. The sale of
which has become spoiled or deteriorated from any causs prohibit
The sale of liqueurs and distilled liquors containing hydrocyanic aci
mineral acids, toxic metals, injurious colors, methyl alcohol, pic
acid, gamboge, or medicinal drugs is prohibited.

VINEGAR.

The term "vinegar" is applied exclusively to the fermented produc
of wine. It must not contain less than 4 per cent of acetic acid, and
there must be no addition of coloring matter or other substances
Vinegar obtained by the acetic fermentation of ber, cider, or alcohol
may be sold if properly designated "beer vinegar," etc. The sale ol
vinegar which has become spoiled or deteriorated on account of
is prohibited. No free acids, such as sulphuric, hydrochloric, nitric
oxalic, and tartaric, and no bisulphite must be present.

COFFEE, TEA, AND CHOCOLATE.

The sale of coffee substitutes and adulterated coffee, or coffee col
ored by injurious substances, is prohibited. Tea must contain n
addition of any foreign substance whatever. Chocolate must recei
no addition of chalk, ocher, or other mineral matter, or indigestible
or injurious vegetable substances.

MEAT AND FISH.

The Italian law requires that prepared meats shall be inclosed in a
wrapper on which the kind of animal from which the meat was pre
pared is plainly stated. It is also required that all meats, blood, et.
used in the preparation of sausage and other meat product must be
in a good state of preservation. The mixture with lard of fat fro
any other source than swine is prohibited.
The addition of coloring matter to fish, mollusks, and crusaa in
order to give stale articles a fresh appearance is prohibited.

MUNICIPAL REGULATIONS OF MILAN.

The municipal regulations of Milan prohibit the addition of colorin
matter of any kind to foods and beverages which normally are coloe
In confections and other foods artificially colored, the coloring matter
condemned by the German law are prohibited, and ll others ex
certain speeified colors. The addition of sacylic acid to beer is
'prohibite d.






27

ROUMANIA.
GENERAL PROVISIONS.
Sis forbidden to adulterate food by the addition of foreign mate-
by removing characteristic ingredients, or by any change of
tion or character whereby the product is made less nutritious,
wholesome or cheaper. The sale of unripe or decayed fruits or
ls, or of unwholesome food of any kind, is prohibited. The
ition of all poisonous substances to food is prohibited, even when
cpooous substance is added in so small an amount as to be ordi-
y innocuous. The addition of drugs to food is prohibited, except
t materils ordinarily used as foods may be used by druggists for
he of preparing medicines in their ordinary forms. The use
injurious coloring materials is prohibited, both as a mixture with
dand in coloring wrappers. The use of poisonous metals, such
Sle z tin containing more than 1 per cent of lead, and tin or
pper containing more than 1 per cent of antimony is prohibited.
ed receptacles must not be coated with an alloy containing
than 1 per cent of lead or more than 0.01 per cent of arsenic.
earthenware which is intended as a receptacle for food must
contain lead so combined as to be extracted by vinegar. Water
s in the preparation of brandy and other alcoholic beverages must
pure, clear, and free from unwholesome ingredients. The use of
Scolors and aromatic essences in the manufacture of brandy
s prohibited.
ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The alcohol used in the preparation of alcoholic beverages must con-
n none of the first or last distillates, must be free from acetic ether,
ue oil, and furfurol. It must contain at least 95 per cent of ethyl
cohol and must answer to the following tests: 10 grams when treated
h an equal weight of strong sulphuric acid remains colorless; 10
swhen treated with an equal weight of a solution of potassium
xid (specific gravity 1.3) must remain colorless: one volume
thoroughly mixed with five volunmes of water must not be turbid
r opalescent; fro 20 to 25 cc when treated in a porcelain capsule
ten drops of colorless aniline or three drops of concentrated
ydrochric acid must remain colorless. The percentage of fusel oil
r t must not exceed 0.2 per cent of the absolute alcohol present;
t o etic ether must not exceed 0.02 per cent; that of furfurol
not exceed 0.01 per cent.
lic beverages must not contain an excessive amount of alde-
,furfurol, methyl alcohol, or fusel oil. The addition of aniline
rivatives and alkaloids of nitrobenzene, piperine, capsicin, cocaine,
hyl nitrite, ethyl nitrate, ethyl ether, methyl ether. amyl other, and
e e s of the various capronic and carilic acids is prohibited.




28

Aloes, gamboge, jalap, or saccharin must not be added. The use of
mineral acids and the compounds of the heavy me s such lead
copper, and zinc is forbidden. The use of alum and of refuse
charcoal which has not been puriied is forbidden Alcoholic ever
ages may be colored only with the following: Turmeric, alcoholi
extract of carrots, safranin, safflower, marigold, cochineal, carmin,
orseille, sandal red, Brazil wood, mallow, whortleberries, currants,
raspberries, cherries, anchusa roots, indigo armin, caramel choro-
phyl preparations, and litmus. For varying shades mixtures of the
above may be employed.
The use of the following colors with alcoholic beverages is prohib-
ited: Aniline colors of all descriptions; colors containing copper, lead,
zinc, aluminum, antimony, and arsenic.
The addition of alcohol and the use of suphurous acid for the pur
ose of regulating the fermentation in the preparation of distilled
beverages is prohibited.
Distilled liquors must have the following alcohol content:
Ordinary brandy from 12 to 35 per cent by volume;
Plum brandy from 20 to 35 per cent by volume;
Cherry brandy from 15 to 40 per cent by volume;
Sweetened liqueurs, crnes, rosolio, etc., from 15 to 40 per ent by volume;
Cognac from 45 to 70 per cent by volume;
Runm and arak from 45 to 70 per cent by volume.

WINE.

Wine is described as a product of the alcoholic fermentation of grape
must, without addition of any description. If the source of the wine
is not given it must answer the following description:
The extract content must not be less than 1.4 gras per 100 cc for white wines
and 1.7 graims per 100 cc for red wines. S t ines and southern dessert wines
must contain at east 3 grans of extract per 100 cc.
The iniimui limit for ash cov nt is one-tenth that of the extract, 0.14 gram
per 100 cc in white wines and 0.17 gran per 100 cc in red ines, wil the ash
content of southern sweet wines must not be less than 0.3 gr per 100 cc.
The ercentage of alcohol must be between 6.5 and 15 percent by vole. South-
ern sweett in contain from 8 to 20 per (ent of alcohol by e and srkling
wines from 8 to 15 per cent by vol umie.
The glycerin contn t ube at lest 7 parts by weight for of alcohol
Swet wines 1must contain sugar in the roportion of 30 per cnt for an ahol onn
of 15 per cent.
The content f fixed acids mut e at least 0.5 gra per 100 c and the tartaric-
acid content must us a frm one-fifth to one-sixth of the fixed aids present The
saliau-chiorid content must not exced 0.005 gram per 100 ce and the sulphuric
acid, calculated as 1 tssium sulphate, must not exceed 0.2 grain per 100 cc
Sparkling wines must not contain more than 0.05 grain potasi sulphate per
100 cc. Wines must not contain more than 0.0008 grain of free sulphurou id or
less than 0. 003 gram of phosphoric aid (PAO ), per 100 oe.
New wines whose fermentation is not completed ust conain at
least 1.55 gram extract per 100 cc exclusive of sugar. Wines which






29

o nt come within the standard given above or which contain more
0.2 of acetic acid per 100 cc must not be sold as beverages.
sale of wine prepared from dried raisins and the addition to wine
f ny substance other than the product of the fresh grapes, except in
Smanufacture of medicinal preparations, is forbidden.
Wines made by the alcoholic fermentation of dry raisins, of mix-
of raisins with grapes, or of saccharine solutions of any sort
r than pure musts, and those treated as follows are held to be
dulterated:
e mixing with wines of organic or inorganic acids, or aromatic essences; the
tion of glycerin, salicylic acid, boric acid, barium sulphate, strontium, alini-
mand magnesium compounds, and of such substances as gum, dextrin, and resin,
the purpose of increasing the extract content.
The addition of the following substances to wine is especially pro-
ibited:

ompounds of aluminum, magnesium, strontium, barium; the sulphites and sul-
tes of calcium and sodium; free mineral acids, compounds of lead, zinc, tin,
pper, ad arsenic; mineral colors and aniline colors of all descriptions; glucose,
o or rude sgar; crude alcohol; glycerin; boric acid and salicylic acid and
eir compounds; artificial essences and saccharin; pokeweed berries and juice of the
me.
The following methods of treatment are permitted:
The blending of pure wines; neutralization of excessive acidity with calcium car-
nate; filtration through pure vegetable charcoal; the use of clarifying gents, such
gelatin, alb in, isinglass, and kaolin; the sulphuring of empty casks by means
pure arenic-free sulphur; the addition of pure refined spirits to sweet wine in
ch antities that the limits given above shall be retained; the addition to sweet
e of refined sgaoror gluco in such quantities that the limits given above shall
retained; the hing of casks with refined alcohol before they are filled, pro-
ed that the volume of the alcohol so employed does not exceed one-halt per cent
Svolume of the wine manufactured; the addition of pure carbon dioxiil in the
rparation of carbonated wines; the plastering of red wines, prrvi!cd that the
udct does not contain more than 0.2 gram potassium sulphate Iwr 100 cc; the addi-
in of mst; and the psteurizing of wines.
IThe manipulations ientioned above, however, nutst not be carried to
uh an extent that the composition of the wine will be rendered dif-
rent from the required standards. All malipulations which change
he character of the wine and serve to adulterate it are forbidden.

BEER.

e er must be prepared exclusively from nalted barley, hops, yeast,
water, b alcoholic fermentation. If a portion of the barley is

e indicatig that fact.
Beer may vary in color from dark yellow to clear brown; it must
avea iharacteristic odor anrd tastee and be charged with crron dioxid.
t. ust contain from 2.'5 to ;6 per cent of alcohol, froi 3.5 to per






30

cent of extract, from 2.5 to 4.9 per cent of dextrin, and from 0.
per cent of maltose.
The original wort from which it was prepared
extract content of at least 9 per cent and the dof fe
must be at least 48 per cent. The total acid co t must not
0.35 per cent. The acetic-acid content must not exceed 0.06 per c
the sulphuric-acid content must not exceed 0.2 per cent; the glycerin
content en st not exceed 0.04 per cent; the ash con must not ex
0.3 per cent.
The addition to beer of alkaline carbonate for the purpose of
tralizing excessive acidity, of calcium or sodium suphites, salicyli
and boric acids, and similar compounds, is prohibited.
No coloring matter must be added except caramel and that naturall
extracted from malt. The addition of sacharin, aromatic
and extracts, hop substitutes, such as picric acid d its compounds,
aloes, and all injurious substances in general, is prohibited.

VINEGAR.

Vinegar is defined as the product of the oxidation of refined alcoho
or the fermentation of wine, beer, and the juices of various fruits, 0
as the mixture of pure concentrated acetic acid with pure water. I
must be a clear liquid, free from suspended matter, and may have
color of the material from which it was prepared, varying from brigh
yellow to red, or it may be colored with pure caramel.
Vinegar must not contain more than 8 per cent of acetic acid n
less than 4 per cent. The manufacture of vinegar from crude alcohol
is prohibited.
The addition of the following substances to vinegar is prohibited
Solium chlorid; mineral acids; isulphites; poisonous metals and similar su
stances, such as lead, copper, zinc, arseic, and an timoy; black pepper, c
pepper, or other subtances for the puroe of givig a ar or itter tte; prod
of the destructive itillation of wood (acetic acid excepted), such methyl al
acetone, etc.
CHEESE.

Cheese must contain nothing but the normal caein, proteids, but
fat, milk sugar, and mineral bodies obtained in its preparation
pure milk. Its reaction must be neutral or acid. The sale of c
anufactured from milk of diseased or improperly fed cows is pro
hibited. The addition to cheese of any foreign su
alkali, for the purpose of neuralization, foreign anial or vegeb
fat, starch, and flour is prohibited. The addition of artificial
for the purpose of giving a ripe taste to green che is prohi
The addition of injurios colors and of artificial colors
of chemical preservatives is pro ibited.








BUTTER.

tter is ined as the product of milk or cream of the cow or
o. It is white or yellow in color, of uniform consistency, and
tns small amount of casein, milk sugar, lactic acid, unorganized
ies, etc. Butter must contain at least 82 per cent of fat, and the
e of butter prepared from adulterated milk or the milk of diseased
improperly fed cows is prohibited.
Butter must have the normal taste and odor and be free from ran-
city, bitterness, fungi, dirt, etc. The addition of injurious artifi-
cial, mineral, or vegetable colors is prohibited. The content of
sodium chlorid must not exceed 8 per cent, and the addition of for-
eign materials, such as starch, flour, and foreign fats is prohibited.

LARD AND TALLOW.

The addition to lard and tallow of foreign materials, such as foreign
fat, alum, calcium carbonate, gypsum, sodium carbonate, starch, flour,
and the sale of rancid and deteriorated fat are forbidden.

VEGETABLE OILS.

The sale as foods of vegetable oils obtained with the assistance of
heat, hot water, steam, or by means of heating the press, or separated
by means of such solvents as carbon disulphid, petroleum ether, and
benzene, is prohibited. The admixture with olive oil of any other oil,
such as sesame, peanut, rape-seed, sunflower, cotton-seed, mineral, and
animal oils, is prohibited.
The sale as food of the oil prepared from decayed or fermented
olives is prohibited. Table oil must be free from rancidity, and the
total acid content must not exceed 1.66 per cent. The following are
the requirements as to specific gravity of the oils mentioned:
Rape-seed oil, 0.914 to 0.917; olive oil, 0915 0.918; leo il, 0.915 to 0.922; coton-
seed oil, 0922 to 0.931; sesame oil, 0.923 to 0.924; poppy oil, 0.924 to 0.937; nut oil,
0.9 to 0.97; lineed oil, 0.932 to 0.937.

CEREALS AND FLOUR.

Cereals which are unripe, deayed, or decomposed, covered with
fungus, affected by vegetable or animal paasites, or mixed with other
varieties of cereals, cn not be sold for human food, nor shall flour or
eal prepared fronm the above be sold as food. The sale of a mixturi
wheat, rye. arley, or maize flour with leguminous flour or other
foreign material, except when properly designated, is forbidden. The
ash of cereals and of the flour prepared from the same must have an
a line reaction, The sale of flour which has deteriorated in any way
which contains more than 18 per cent of water is forbidden. Te






32

sale of wheat flour which contains a mixture of the fur of any other
substances, such as rye or barley, is forbidden. The addition of mi-
eral substances, such as calcium carbonate and gypsum, is forbidden.

COFFEE, TEA, COCOA, AND CHOCOLATE.

The adulteration of coffee with any foreign substances, or of coffee
from which any ingredient has been extracted, is prohibited. The ix-
ture with coffee of artificial coffee beans or the ale of artificially
colored coffee, or of coffee treated with any oil, roasted after the addi-
tion of sugar, or which has spoiled or deteriorated in any way, is
prohibited. The sale of coffee substitutes may be permitted under
some appropriate designation, such as "chicory," arley coffee,
and "fig coffee." These substitutes, howeer, must be free from
injurious substances, and must not contain more than 5 per cent of
ash or more than 14 per cent of moisture.
The term "cocoa" must be applied exclusively to the product of the
cocoa bean. Cocoa powder, from which a portion of the fat has been
removed, may be sold in packages which are so designated a to inform
the purchaser of their nature, provided that they shall contain at
least 22 per cent of cocoa butter. The ter soluble cocoa" may be
applied to the same product when alkalized, provided that it contain
not more than 2 per cent of potassium or sodiu carbonate. The
addition of artificial coloring matter, of foreign starch or fat, or for-
eign substances of any description, and the sale of cocoa so adulterated
are prohibited. The sale of cocoa butter containing an excessive
amount of cocoa shells is forbidden.
The term chocolate" is applied to the product of the cocoa bean
which has been mixed with sugar, with or without the addition of such
flavoring materials as vanilla, cinnamon, etc. The sale of tea which
contains the leaf of any other plant, which contains ay foreign sub
tance, or whose nature has been changed by extraction, is forbidde

SUGAR, IONEY, CONFECTIONS, ETC.

It is forbidden to sell confections in rceptacles of poisonous metals,
or in receptacles which are tinned or coated with an alloy containing
mole than 1 per cent of lead, or which have in their composition any
metal or glaze which is attacked by the confection or the sirup con-
t iinig it.
loney is defined as being the natural product of the bee, and con-
taiing from 78 to 92 per cent of invert suar; from 1 to 8 per cent
of ane sugar; from 1 to 2 per cent of proteids; from 0.12 to 0.44per
cent of ash; from 10 to 1.5 per cent of water.
(lucose which is intended for use in manufacturing confections
ulst be comerilly pure, and must contain from 88 to 95 per centof








; rom 5 to 12 per cent of water; not more than 0.5 per cent
of ash, and must contain no unfermentable matter, preservatives, or
other foreign material.
Sugar must not be mixed with grape sugar, ultramarine, or indigo
blue to a greater extent than 0.2 per cent; nor with gypsum, barites,
kaolin flour, saccharin, dulcin, or other similar impurities.
Confections must not be mixed with dulcin, with flour, mineral sub-
stances, or with those coloring matters which are prohibited in the
general regulations regarding artificial colors. They uiiist not be
ornamented with flowers, leaves, etc.. which contain injurious coloring
material nor inclosed in receptacles or wrappers colored with injurious
compounds.
The following colors are permitted:
Wkite.-Ground cereal and potato flour.
ello.-arrt, aranin, log d, marigold.
Red.-Sorrel, madder, cochineal, carmine, red sandal wood.
Greei.-Chlorophyl, spinach, and the mixtures of yellow and ,lue c ,lrs that
are theinselves permissible.
Blue.-Litmus and indigo carmine.
Violt.-Mixtures of blue and red colo( that are permissible.
Broi.-Caran el, cocoa bans, limorice.
Blak.-Purified bister.
The use of all colors which contain antimony. arsenic, barimn com-
pounds, cadmium. chromium, tin. copper. m1ercury, lead. uranium.
zinc, piric acid, and aniline derivatives is prohibited. The use of
gilded or silvered bronze or tinfoil which contains tin, lead. zinc,
nickel, antimony, or aluminum, is forbidden.

SAU SAGE.
SaU 8ge and other folrmls of preserved eat mu11111st be free fromll liver,
kidneys. lungs, and viscera and consist entirely of the flesh of edible
domestic animals, game, and birds put up while fresh.
The preparation of cannred and preserved Imeat products fromi
un~~Und or uilnwholesollme Ileat or frol the fleish of diseased animals
O of other allnimals titan those ordinarily used as food is formbidden.
The preparation of canned and dpreserved c ish which has l been killed
by mians of poisonous substances, the manufacture of food p)roducts
from the same, and the preserving of tish products in oil tlhat is ran-
cid or for any reason not edible, is prohibited. The use of (onl nercial
preservatives such as snlicylic acid or boric acid. tannin, alumn, ul-
phrous acid, potassium chlorlid, sulphites, glycerin, wood \vinegr,
ipuT vin egar, f11sel oil. and othe1r unwhlesom sulstalncs for the
preservation of meat or vegetables, is prohi!bited.
The coloration of preserved vetetables and fruits with mineral and
aniline colors is forbidden, a s isalso the coloration of sausages and
p rved meats.
1384--No. 61-01-3






34

TUNIS.
WINE

Wine is defined as the product of the fermentatn of fresh grapes.
The product obtained by the fermentation with water of the residuum
of fresh grapes (after expression), whether with or without the addi-
tion of sugar, and the mixture of this product with wine in whatever
proportion, can not be sold unless properly designated on all casks and
receptacles and on all books, invoices, bills of lading, etc.
The product of the fermentation with water of dried raisins can not
be sold except under the name of raisin wine. The same holds tru
in the case of mixtures of raisin wine with true wine, whatever may be
the proportion.
Any addition of the following substances to wine is considered an
adulteration:
1. Any coloring matter whatever.
2. Sulphuric, nitric, hydrochloric, salicylic, boric, or other analogous acids.
3. More than 0.1 gram of sodium chlorid per 100 cc.
4. The product of the fermentation or distillation of figs, locust pods, pimpernel
flowers, bellflower, rice, barley, and other materials containing sugar.
The casks or receptacles in which plastered wine is placed must be
marked with large letters indicating the same. The books, bills of
lading, invoices, etc., must contain the same information. The con-
tent of potassium sulphate must not exceed 0.2 gram per 100 cc in
any case.
SWITZERLAND.
GENERAL PROVISIONS.
Beer must be made exclusively of cereals, either fresh or malted,
hops, yeast, and water, by means of mashing and alcohol fermentation.
All beer when sold must be clear and not rendered turi by yeast,
bacteria, acetic fermentation, or in any other manner. In the preara-
tion of beer the following are prohibited: Malt and hop substitute.s
all coloring matter except that of mlt, preservatives such as salicyli
acid and boric acid, and saccharin; and the addition of lkalies for
the purpose of correcting excessive acidity.
Sulphurous acid must not be present in greater quantities than 0.0014
grain per 100 cc. Beer shall cotain more extract than alcohol, and
the extract content of the original wort must not be less than 12 per
cent. The extract content of the wort is obtained by adding together
the extract content of the beer and twice its alcohol ontent. Th
degree of fermentation must not be less than 48 per cent, or if less
than that amount the reducing subsnces present, calulated as altose,
must not exceed 3 per cent. The degree of fermentation of the ori
inal wort is obtained by the formula 100 (1 Extract), in which is
the extract of the original wort. The foregoing standards do no apply
to the so-called double beer, such as bock beer and salvator ~er.






35
ACANTON OF BERNE.

tion to meat of boric acid, salicylic acid, formalin, sulphites,
other chemical preservatives, except sodium chlorid and potas-
Snitrate, is prohibited.

CANTON OF GRAUBfNDEN.
eat.-Meat and meat products must have an appetizing appear-
an, a normal odor and taste, and must not contain any harmful
impurities, such as metallic poison, drugs, ptomaines, parasites, etc.
Te addition of preservatives, with the exception of salt and saltpeter,
is forbidden. Sausage must not contain more than 70 per cent of
water, and bread crumbs, etc., shall not be added.
Butt and butterfats.-The term "butter" shall be used only with
refeene to the product of fresh milk and cream, either in the fresh
te or the melted fat of the same. The fat content of fresh butter
Sbe at least 82 per cent. Butter shall not form a part of the name
of any product containing fat from other sources than pure milk. The
sae as food of fat which has become rancid, or has in any way dete-
rioated, is forbidden.
FlZur and meal.-All flour and meal must be so marked as to indi-
ate the grain from which it is prepared. It must be free from mineral
impurities, fungi, and weed seeds.
anned vqetable.-Canned vegetables must not contain over 10
of copper salts per 100 grams of fresh food.
oney.-The term honey" must be confined to the unmixed product
of the bee It shall not be used either by itself or in combination
with other syllables or words to designate adulterated honey or honey
subsitutes. Such adulterated honey and honey substitutes imust be
incloseA in receptacles earing labels on which the term sirup"
appears in distint type. Also all invoices and shipping receipts of
such adulterated goods must be marked with the word sirup."
r. -The term b eer" must be used only in reference to beer made
exclusively from malted Iarley, hops, yeast, and water, by means of
ashing and alcoholic fermentation. In case pairt of the barley is
Srep ed by some other cereal the same must be plainly stated on the
labe. alt and hop substitutes are plohibited, Beer must he clear,
wholesome, and free from yeast; the original wort from which it was
prepared must have had an extract content of at least 12 per cent.
Brs Whose degree of fermentation is less than 48 per cent must not
contan over 3 per cent of maltose. These regulations do not pply
to the so-called double beers, such s hock beer and salvator beer,
The ash content must not exceed 0.3 per cent, and the sulphurous
aid content must not exceed 0.004 g per 100 grams. The presence
Iof oric and salicylic acids in beers is forbidden.
14.--The t1erm wine" shall be applied exclusively to the her-
ereprepared from the juice of fresh grapes without the adition of






36

any foreign substances. Wines whose volume has been inc by
the addition of any foreign substances, or which are prepared from any
other fruits than wine grapes, shall be so labeled as to indicate that
fact. The sle of wines which have become sour or deteriorated in
any way is forbidden. Wine whose sulphurous acid content, calcu-
lated as potassium sulphate, exceeds 0.1 gram per 100 cc shall be
designated as "plastered ;" if it exceed 0.2 gram per 1 cc it shall be
designated as "excessively plastered." Wine must not contain more
than 0.002 gram of free sulphurous acid or 0.018 gram of combined
sulphurous acid per liter. A higher content of sulphurous acid is con-
sidered unwholesome. The addition of preservatives, such as boric
and salicylic acids, is prohibited.
The alcohol content of medicinal wines shall not be less than 13 or
more than 20 per cent by volume. They shall not contain less than
0.2 gram of ash or more than 0.2 gram of acetic aid, 0.2 gram of
potassium sulphate, or 0.002 gram of total sulphurous acid, per 100 cc.
Brandy and l~ ela:r .--The presence of poisonous metallic com-
pounds, such as copper or lead, and of free mineral acids is prohib-
ited. The alcohol of brandy must not contain more than 0.2 per cent
of fusel oil.
ViTn g-r. -Vinegar must not contain less than 3 per cent of anhy-
drous acetic acid. The presence of free mineral acid is prohibited.
The sale as wine vinegar of vinegar made from any other substance
than wine is prohibited.
c!,ptWacle-s.-All receptacles and wrappers for food must be free
from harmful substances. The use of lead foil or of tin foil containing
lead is espcially prohibited.
Cblrtinl matter. -The addition of artificial colors to meat or meat
products, wines and similar beverages, beer, distilled and wood vine-
gar. coffee, tea, hocolate, condiments, fruit juices, fruit lemonades,
and bakers' products supposed to contain eggs is prohibited. The
additiMn to foods of artificial colors which contain harmful substances,
such as the following, is prohibited: Antimony, arsenic, barium, lead
cadlmiui. cpperi (except that copper salts may be added to canned
vcgetables inl amlounts not exceedill 10 nIllmg 100 gralls), chromium,
mercurHy, zilnc. and tin. The use of gamllboge a1d ilnjurious aniline
colors is also prolbilited.

(CANTON OF LVUCt'ERNE.

The adulteration of foods by extracting from, adding to, or chang-
ing in any way that will decrease the value, is prohibited. Only
substalnces mllay be fadlded wlich ar1 necessary in preparation, trans-
pomrtatioln,0, or presel'ation, a1nd which do not increase weiglt or injure
(ualiItyv. I'Te 1name nmust not misrelpresent plce and manner of pro-






87

duction and manufacture. Food that is unripe, unsound, or for any
reon unfit for food must not be sold. Standards for cocao, etc.,
vineg, honey, coffee, flour (wheat or rye), milk, must, tea, drinking
water, and wine are given.
Beer-Beer must contain more extract than alcohol, and must be
prepared from wort containing not less than 12 per cent of solids.
The glycerine content must not exceed 0.4 per cent. Not more than
3 c of normal alkali shall be required for the neutralization of total
acids in 100 grams of beer from which carbon dioxid has been
removed by shaking. Not more than 1 cc of normal soda solution
shall be required for the neutralization of volatile acids. The con-
tent of sulphurous acid must not exceed 0.0014 grams per 100 cc. At
least 48 per cent of the original extract of the wort must have been
fermented. These standards do not apply to the so-called double
beers (bock beer and salvator). Beer which is turbid because of the
presence of yeast or bacteria shall not be sold. The addition of
unwholesome preservatives, such as calcium bisulphite, and of alkaline
su~btances, such as potash and soda, for the purpose of correcting
excessive acidity is prohibited. The use of so-called beer color (cara-
mel, etc.) is prohibited.
Bra d.-The addition of 15 cc of brandy to an equal volume of
distilled water and a few drops of a solution of potassium ferro-
cyanide should not produce a red-brown precipitate, and the addition
of an excess of ammonia must not cause a marked blue color (presence
of copper). Brandy must contain no trace of lead or free inorganic
acid. The content of fusel oil must not be sufficient to produce a tur-
bidity when the brandy is mixed with 3 volumes of water, or to allow
the globules of fusel oil to separate when 1 volume of brandy is mixed
with 1 volume of ether and 2 volumes of water. Brandy nmst con-
tan at least 46 per cent of alcohol by volume. except old brandy,
whose alcoholic content may be as low as 44 per cent by volume.
Butter.-Butter must contain no fat except that prIepred from milk.
Fresh butter must contain at least 82 per cent of butter fat. The
ord "butter" must not be used, even in combination with other
words, to designate articles containing fat from other sources than
milk. For instance, such terms as Kunstbutter'" (artificial butter)
and "Kilbelbutter" (tub butter) are not permitted for articles contain-
ing fat from other sources than milk.
Coco and cocoa prpa a~ t .--Foreign additions to coca, such as
flour, starch, and spices, and even sugar, must be stated on the outside
of each package. The addition of alkaline carbonate not to exceed 2
per cent a be d to the hulled cooa pwder for the purpose of
rendering it soluble.
: Viin ar.-Vinegar must contain at least 4 per cent of azetic acid.
The addition of ther acids, of pungent or aromatic substances, and






38

of aniline colors, is forbidden Vinegar made by dilutin
vinecgar essence must be designated as "essence vinegar."
lwwy.--Only the unsophisticated product of bees can be degated
as honey. The word honey can not be used in combination with other
words to designate any article other than pure bee honey; for in,
such terms as table honey" and "Swss honey" are permitted onl
for pure honey. All honey substitutes, such as comercial glucose,
molasses, and all mixtures of the same with honey, must be so labeled
as to inform the purchaser of the exact origin and composition of the
contents of the package.
C~Cjf'.-Coffee must not contain more than 4 per cent of ash, except
Mocha coffee, which may contain 8 per cent. The use of artificial
colors in coffee and the fraudulent mixture of adulterants is prohibited.
Flr,.-The ash content shall not exceed 2 per cent for rye flour or
14 per cent for wheat -flour. The water content of wheat and rye fl6ur
must not exceed 15 per cent. That of other varieties must not exceed
18 per cent.
(der. -Fermented cider shall not contain less than 3 per cent of
alcohol )by volume, 1.5 per cent of extract, or 0.15 pr cent of ash.
Wine. Wine must not contain less than 6.24 per cent of alcohol by
volume. The extract content must not e less than 1.5 per cent for
red wine or less than 1.4 per cent in white wine. The ash content of
wine must he at least 0.15 per cent. By ash content is meant carbon-
ated ash. The percentage of volatile aid expressed as acetic acid must
not exceed 0.2 per cent. The sulphuric acid (combined) content,
expressed in terms of potassium sulphate, must not exceed 0.2 per cent
for medicinal wine and must not exceed 0.1 per cent in dry wines.
Wines which contain over 0.008 grami of sulphurous acid per 100 c
must nt be sold for consumption without previous cellar manipula-
tion. These restrictions are not applied to sweet or sparkling wines,
and apply only to medicinal wines when the latter are speciiei. he
addition of artificial colors is prohibited.
aT/t/g .-- lSausae ad ally simlhar prparations l must have been
prepared exclusively from11 sound, fresh lleat, fat, liver, and blood,
with the custonary addition of spices. All other additions, sub as
s;tarcy llaterials re Cons!ide- d ra adul terants.

CANTON OF ST. (*ALLS.
1All materials intended for food must be so labeled as to inform the
purlcha. r as to their exact nature. Th se of adulterated or unwhole-
some food) is prohibited. The usual regulations concerning the sale
of butter, ole argine, lard. etc., are enforced. The so-calld St.
Gall's sausallge (Kalbeischbratwrst) iunst not contain more than 2
per cent of add led starch (o flour. I rse-Illet sasagre mst Con-
tain more than 3 per cent of starch or flour. The ale of cider and

I






39

similar preparations made from green fruit is forbidden. The sale of
all foods contaminated with poisonous metals, such as zinc and lead,
or inclosed in receptacles lined with zinc or lead alloys, is forbidden.
Wne.-Medicinal wines must not contain more than 0.002 gram of
total sulphurous acid, more than 0.2 gram of sulphuric acid expressed
in terms of potassium sulphate, or more than 0.2 gram of acetic acid
per 100 cc. White wines must not contain more than 0.002 gram of
free sulphurous acid or more than 0.018 gram of combined sulphurous
acid per 100 cc. Wine whose sulphurous-acid content exceeds this
limit is considered unwholesome and muust be subjected to cellar
manipulation before it is sold as a beverage. Wine which has become
sour or turbid owing to the acetic-acid fermentation, or- which has
deteriorated in any other way, must not be sold as a beverage.
Beer.-The addition of alkaline substances for the purpose of neu-
tralizing the excessive acidity of beer is prohibited. The addition to
beer of salicylic or boric acid is prohibited. The sulphurous-acid con-
tent of beer must not exceed 0.0014 grain per 100 cc. New beer or
beer which has become turbid by reason of the presence of yeast cells
or bacteria must not be sold as a beverage.

CANTON OF ZURICH.

The addition of all preservatives to meat. except salt and saltpeter,
is prohibited.
Coffee substitutes shall be named according to the chief ingredient
when possible, as chicory coffee," malt coffee," etc. Whetn the
product is a mixture of a number of substances, it shall be designated as
"Kaffev-surrogate," and either the chief constituents shall be printed
on the label or all of the constituents conununicated to the board of
health.
0




































C





e m
Ad




0I ..