Some miscellaneous results of the work of the Bureau of Entomology, VIII

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Title:
Some miscellaneous results of the work of the Bureau of Entomology, VIII
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology ;
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99 p., 4 leaves of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
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English
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United States -- Bureau of Entomology
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U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology
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Insect pests   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Includes bibliographical references and index.
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Also available in electronic format.

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University of Florida
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BUREAU OF ENTOMOIDGY-BUILETIN No. 54.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist.


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MISCELLANEOUS RESU LTS


OF THE
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ORK OF THE BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.
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PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION O THE ENTOMOLOGIST.












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GOVERNMENT PRINTING 'OFFICE.
1905
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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.



U. DEPARTMENT OF AGRI(ULTURE,
BUREAU OF ENTOMOIo)GY,
Idiluqgton. PD. C., Ml1ay 1. 1905.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscripts of sev-
eal articles anId shoter notes, none of which are of s1ch a Iatlrle as
to justify their publication at this time in separate form. The matter
presented is similar to that which has been published in seven earlier
bulletins, and I recommend its publication under the title "Miscella-
neous Results of the Work of the Bureau of Entoaology-VIII,"
as Bulletin M of this Bureau. The initial article on the sugar-cane
beele is a report of anI invetitition conduced during 1904, which
was made necessary by the fact that the insect in question had received
practically no attention at the hands of entomologists for a quarter of
a century. The suggestion as to remedies will. it is hoped, he found
useful to sugar planters of the South. The repot n o" Conchuela," a
Cotton pest of Mexico. contains an account of ivestigations colnducte (d
bcaull of an unusual outbrelk tdring the year, which afforded the
possibility of a thorough study of this insect. It may be in time a
(angerous enemy to cotton cultivatioll in Texas, and possibly in other
nar-by States inl which it als;o occurs. The sugar-beet crown borer
has not previously been detected injuring sugar ~bet or other useful
plants. The dock fals-worm, considered in the next article, is also
new as a pest, as is the pepper weevil, so far as regards published rec-
ords. Everything points to the accidental introduction of the weevil
from Mexico. The article on cold storage for cowpeas is of value for
obvious reasons, one of which is that the experiments reported have
been conducted over a considerable priod and the cost of this method
of treating seeds has been definitely ascertained; it is also shown that
the vitality of the seed is not injured by treatment. The larger canna
leaf-roller and pond-lily leaf-beetl have been unusually destructive
during the year, and have not previously been treated in any publica-
tions of this Department. The report on the grasshopper conditions
of he West shows that grasshopper hae been, on the whole, very
much less destructive during the year 1904 than is usual. It also
(3)

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4

demonstrates the value of remedies, which are more effective when
the insects are not overabundant, and should then be practiced as
a means of limiting injurious occurrences in the immediate future.
The article entitled Collective Notes on the Behavior of the Colo-
rado Potato Beetle in Great Britain" indicates that this Ameri-
can insect does not now exist in England, but that it is capable of
flourishing to a remarkable degree on the Continent. Some interest-
ing facts in regard to the use of hydrocyanic-acid gas as a remedy for
indoor insects have been gained during the year, a portion of which
are embodied in an article and a note in this series. During the year
Mr. Frederick Maskew, of California, has cooperated with this office
in several investigations, two of which are made public-one on the
subject of Fuller's ro'se beetle and the other on the success of an intro-
duced ladybird beetle. Among general notes are short accounts of a
very injurious caterpillar enemy of velvet bean in Florida, an instance
of the complete destruction of the imported cabbage worm by para-
sites, and other notes of minor interest.
Respectfully, L. 0. HOWARD,
Entomologist and Chief of Buredau.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.






















.s~* *,'''l'














CONTENTS.


Page.
THE SUGAR-CANE BETLE (Ligyrits rgiceps Lee.). WITH NOTES ON Asso-
CIATED (illustrated) ......... ..... . G(. Titus-- 7
REPORT ON A MEXICAN COTTON PT, THE "CONCHUELA" (PelatIomat
ligta Say) (illustrated) .. ... ...... .A. Ir. Morrill 18
Ta SUOGAR-BE CROWN-BORR (Hulstea undihletellaf Cleenls) (illus-
trated) .. ... ...--.....-.. ......- ...-...-.. ....- . G, ( Titus 34
TH E KFASE- WO (Ta.rnusiyris Nort.), F Ch(itt iiden and
E. S. %. Titus.. 40
THE PEPPER WERVIL (Anthoom s abeotinct Champ.) (illstrated).
C'. 1. Wtlker-. 43
CL STORAoE FOR COWPEAS (illustrated) ,......... TI Du 49
THE LARGER CANNA LEAF-ROLLER ((aIparks ethliiis Cram.) (illustrated)..
F H. ('CIittelden 54
THE POND-LILY L E-BEETLE (Ualerte lat nymipitoa Linn.) (illustrated).
F. II. Chittein. 58
GRAssPP CONDITIONS IN NEBRASKA, NORTHEASTERN COLORAl), WYO-
MINO, MONTANA, AND WSTERN KANSAS DURIN TIIE SUMMER OF 1904.
IL.wrence Briuer 60
CoLLECrIVE NOTEs ON THE BEHAVIOR OF THE COi)RAAo POTATo BEETLE
IN GREAT BRITAIN---------.....---....... ----..--....... Tieobald._ 65
AN EXPERIMENT WITH HYDRCYANIC-ACID GAS AS A REMEDY FOR THE
CIGARETTE BEETLE IN DWELLINGs_ F. tI. ('ittei ntde and F. Pratt 68
NOTES ON FULLER'S ROSE BEETLE IN 1904 ------ - Fk. Ma skew .. 70
THE GIANT SUGAR-CANE BORER (Castnjh licts Fab.) (illustrated).
C. L. Marlatt_ 71
GENERA N ...... .................................. ....... .....
Reported Success of an Introduced Ladybird Scale Enemy in California
(p. 7); Locuts Malaria, and Mosquitoes in the Transvaal (p. 76);
The Caterpillar of Anticri ge tilis Hbn,, Injuring Velvet
Bean (p. 77); An Instance of Complete Parasitism of the Imported
Cabbage Butterfly (p. 79); Spread of the Mediterranean Flour Moth
in Pennsylvania (p. 80); Tussock Caterpillars in Florida (p. 80);
A Squeang Sphinx Caterpillar (p. 80); A Jumping Gall (p. 84);
The Great Elm Leaf-beetle (ooceta oryli Say) (p. 81); The
Malodors Carabid, is yg s Dej., in Oregon (p. 83); Re-
ported Occurrence of the Asparagus Beetle in California (p. 83); The
Scientific name of the Plum Goger-a Correction (p. 83); Unusual
Food-plants for the Squash Ladybird (Epilchna borealis Fab.) (p.
84); Notes on Orthoptera Collected on Sugar Beets in 1904 (p. 85); A
Mexican Kissing Bug (p. 86); Hydrocyanic-acid Gas Against the Bed-
bug (p. 86); Sigular Increase of "Lerp on Trees of the "Yellow
Box (Eucalyptus melliodora) (p. 87); A Red Spider on Cotton (p.
87); Some Sugar-cane Insects (p. 88); Some Observations on Kansas
Insects (p. 88); Some Local Names for Common Insects (p. 89).
(5)



















ILLUSTRATIONS


PLATES.
Page.
PLATE I. Fig. 1.-Anthonomus aeneotinctus: weevil, work, and pupa in
situ. Fig. 2.-Work of pepper weevil, showing punctures,
larva in situ, and exit hole --------------------------------- 46
II. Fig. 1.-Weevil-eaten cowpeas kept under trade conditions. Fig.
2.-Cowpeas from cold storage .-.. _.--------.. -------- 50
III. Fig. 1.-Cowpeas in cold storage from March 7, 1903, to May 1,
1903, after which time they were stored in the Seed Labora-
tory. Fig. 2.-Cowpeas in cold storage from March 7, 1903, to
November 1, 1904 -------.--------_------------- ------- --- 50
IV. Castnia licus: stages and details ------------------------- 72

TEXT FIGURES.

FIG. 1. Ligyrus rugiceps: cane, showing injury ..----------------------. 9
2. Ligyrus rugiceps: corn, showing injury ----------.... -------. 10
3. Ligyrus rugiceps: larva .------.----.----.--- ----------- ----- 12
4. Ligyrus rugiceps: stubble cane, showing feeding place of larva - 13
5. Chalepus trachypygus: beetle, larva and details ------------------- 14
6. Erax lateralis: fly. larva, puparium, and details ------------------ 16
7. Pentatoma ligata: adult and eggs _----------------------- ------- 21
8. Pentatoma ligata: supposed work on cotton boll ------------------ 29
9. Hulstea undulatella: adult and larva --------------------------.. 35
10. Hulstea undulatella: longitudinal section of injured beet- .. .... 36
11. Hulstea undulatella: upper portion of injured beet ---------------- 37
12. Exorista pyste ------.-..------------------...------- ...---- 39
13. Chelonus iridescens ---------.---... _--. -------. .------------ 39
14. Spilochalcis torvina --------...--------- .-.... --. ... 40
15. Taxonus nigrisoma: larva, cocoon, and adult ----------- 41
16. Anthonomus ceneotinctus: weevil, much enlarged .-------------..--- 44
17. Bruchus obtectus, B. chinensis, and B. quadrimaculatus- .......... 49
18. Calpodes ethlius: adult, larva, and pup -----------------...-- -.. 55
19. Galerucella nymplhtie: adult ..-----------------.---.---.---.---. 59
20. Anticarsia genmmatilis: moth, larva, and details .----------------- 78
(6)







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beetle as known at that time, its method of attack, and some sugges-
tions regarding remedies.
The sugar-cane beetle measures from one-half to five-eighths of ahn
inch (15 to 18 mm.) in length, is jet black above and black and
piceous beneath; head roughly shagreened; thorax with minute
rather sparse punctures; elytra with longitudinal striam and many
small punctures; thorax and elytra polished and shining; on each
wing cover near the tip a smooth, slightly elevated prominence, be-
yond which the elytra are abruptly truncate; abdomen projecting
slightly beyond the tips of the elytra. The legs are coarsely spined,
the front tibiam being broad and armed with four large, broad teeth.
This species can be readily separated from the rice beetle (Chalepus
trachypygus Burm.) by its smaller size and more parallel sides. The
rice beetle is more rounded across the thorax and elytra. The carrot
beetle (Ligyrus gibbosus DeG.) is distinguished readily by the under
side of the abdomen being quite densely covered with reddish hair.

HABITS AND METHOD OF ATTACK.

At the time of the first trip in 1904 much of the sugar cane was
from 10 to 18 inches high. The previous season had been rather
unfavorable, owing to excessively dry weather, and in some fields the
cane was sprouting poorly. Plant cane continued to sprout and push
through the ground until late in June, and many of the buds on
mother cane that were examined in April and May had died from
lack of sufficient moisture.
During the four weeks of the first trip the principal cane-growing
regions of Louisiana were visited, special attention being paid to
plantations at Olivier, Berwick, Morgan City, Broussard, and St.
James. At all places visited the beetle was found injuring cane
severely. In some of the districts it was reported that this was the
first year there had been serious injury, but most of the planters
interviewed stated that they had had more or less loss from the beetles
for several years. Those who had been raising cane for long periods
could recall records of injuries at varying intervals for the past forty-
five or fifty years. Especial injury was reported to have occurred in
1884, 1880, 1876, 1872, and once before the civil war-about 1856-57.
At times, in some areas, almost the entire cane and corn crops had
been cut down.
This past year (1904) the beetles commenced work on the Cne
before the tips had appeared above the ground .and continued until
early in July to do serious damage. The injury to corn began as
soon as the corn appeared above ground, whole fields being, in many
cases, completely laid bare; and even the second planting was
destroyed.






9

The injury is usually made a few inches below the surface of the
ground, in cane generally 1 or 2 inches above the base of the stalk.











































Fo. L-Ligyrs rugicep: cane showing injury-one-half natural size (original).
The depth below the surface of the ground of course depends much
upon the revious treatment of the cane and the amount of dirt




10

thrown up by the early cultivations. The beetles cut a horizontal
burrow into the growing stalk until they reach the center, the center
roll of leaves usually being cut through. The coarser fibers of the
outer sheaths are shredded away with the mandibles and front tarsi,
the latter being used more especially to pull away the stringy fibers
;Ifter they have been cut loose at one end. As soon as the hole is
large enough for the head and a portion of the thorax, the beetle
uses the middle legs as braces while it cuts its way deeper into the
stalk (fig. 1). Some instances were noticed where small and tender
shoots had been entirely cut through and in a few cases shoots that
stood against a larger stalk had been cut through, the beetle continu-
ing its work into the next stalk.
The beetles seemed indifferent to
the size of the stalk attacked,
larger older shoots being injured
as often as the small tender ones,
even when growing in the same
clump of cane. The effect on the
shoots is very different from that
on the oJder stalks, the latter
sometimes recovering from the
injury if not too severe, while the
former soon wilt, the center
leaves dying first. On account
of the beetles' habit of working
underground it was found very
Sdifficult to determine the length
of time necessary to cut a hole to
the center of the stalk. One
beetle was seen to enter the
ground, and twenty minutes later
it had reached the center of a-
a stalk three-fourths of an inch
FIG. 2.-Ligyrus rugiceps: corn showing injury r iy d-
(after Comstock). in diameter, as was readily de-
termined by pulling out the cen-
tral core of leaves. At times stalks containing several partially
completed and one complete burrow are to be found. Usually but
one cutting is made on a stalk, and, if this reaches through the cen-
tral core of rolled leaves, the shoot quickly dries up and in a few
days falls to the ground. When examined, the point t which the
cutting was made now appears decayed, and in and on the rolled
leaves in the interior may often be found small dipterous larvN feed-
ing on the fermenting and decaying cane or corn.
Corn is attacked in the same manner as cane (fig. 2), but the injury
is usually closer to the base of the stalk and more disastrous in its

1I





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12

warm, damp box made no attempt to enter the soil until from fifteen to
twenty-nine hours old. Young, apparently freshly hatched larve in
the field were often found in the soil near to the eggshell from which
they had probably emerged. Those larvae observed were not seen to
feed until at least twenty-four hours had elapsed, and then a slight
discoloration began to show through the thin skin. Fine particles of
dirt were found at this time in the digestive organs. The larvae are
very sluggish in their movements, unless turned out on a dry, warm
soil in the sun, when they hasten to burrow beneath the surface, going
only a short distance and soon making a tiny cell in the earth, where
they curl up in the characteristic manner of white grubs.
The life history from the middle of May until the last of October is
not yet definitely known. The last of October larvae were found in the
fields in considerable numbers in the same positions as those seen in the
spring; also in the mother cane, upright stubble cane, and even at the
bases of growing cane stalks.
Quite a number of the larvae are
now in our breeding cages in
Washington (April 1), but none
.f have as yet transformed. Many
b of those dug out of the cane
fields in October had formed
earthen cells of considerable
solidity and were evidently full
grown. These cells were usually
placed 5 to 6 inches below the
c surface and often close to the
FIG. 3.-Ligyrus rugiceps: larva slightly en- canes. A few were found in the
larged; b, leg; c, face view of head, more en-
larged (original), mother cane. Some were dis-
covered at the summit of stubble
cane, 3 to 4 inches beneath the surface, where they had apparently fed
for most of their lives (see fig. 4). None of the cells found in the
cane fields had parasites in them, but Erax lateralis larvve, one to two-
thirds grown, were several times found near injured white grubs.
But, two pupae were found in the fields, and from one of these, early
in November, there emerged an adult of Ligyrus rugiceps. The other
pupa was injured in transportation and died.
A few adults of Ligyrus rugiceps and one of L. gibbosus were
found in earthen cells at Olivier and St. James. Adults are not usu-
ally common in the fields in October, but a few may be found in the
soil of fields that have shown the most injury the previous spring,
some being in earthen cells, others in the loose soil. A few adults
were also found in the soil at the bases of clumps of Grand Marais "
grass (Paspalumr dilatatum). Adults did not appear at lights at any
time in October and very rarely in the spring, nor were they seen






13

flying in the daytime in the fids, as was the rice beetle. In April
and May collections of beetles c ng to liht were made at Morgan


















































-F. 4.-Ligyru. rugiceps: stubble cane showing feeding place of larva-two-thirds
natural size (original).
natura~l six (orginaI)





14

City, on the shores of Atchafalaya River, Berwick, Olivier, St.
James, Donaldsonville, Lafayette, New Iberia, and St. Charles in
Louisiana, and at Beaumont in Texas. The percentage of.cane beetles
coming to light was extremely small when compared with.Chalepus
trachypygus, the rice beetle. In the fields in the spring practically no
rice beetles occurred, while at lights fully 90 per cent of the beetles
belonged to this species. The remaining percentage was divided
among Hydrophilidae, Lachnosterna, and the sugar-cane beetle. Ligy-
rus gibbosus was rarely seen at lights, and not over 3 per cent of the
beetles were L. rugiceps.

OTHER SPECIES OCCURRING IN FIELDS.

Of the other white grub larva occurring in the cane fields in early
spring and summer, the most common appears to be that of Cyclo-
cephala immaculata 01. The adult of this species is a much smaller
beetle, pale in color, and with dark markings. Nearly full-grown
larvae were found not
uncommonly in the
fields in April and
May. They occur
at the bases of the
stubble cane and be-
neath grass roots
along the margins of
FiG. 5.-CluhIepus trachywpygs: a, beetle; b, larva, natural size; the fields. It may
c, under side of head in detail, enlarged (after Comstock).
be this species that
is reported as cutting suckers of the cane late in the summer. The in-
jury is reported to be of nearly the same character as that of the cane
beetle, but the holes are smaller. Adults appeared in our breeding
cages in Washington early in July and laid their eggs freely in rich
soils. The eggs hatched from six to fifteen days after deposition, the
white grubs at once forming tiny cells in the soil and within twelve
hours beginning to show traces of soil in their intestinal tracts.
It is quite probable that the eggs in nature are laid in the same gen-
eral way as those of Ligyrus rugiceps, but since the species appears
so late in the year there will rarely be sufficient damage to cause rem-
edies to be sought for other than those later on recommended for the
sugar-c(ante beetle.
It is probable that the rice beetle does some damage to thee cane
fields, especially in the rice regions, where it occurs in enormous
numbers. Very rarely was it found in the spring, in the soil around
the cane, or cutting cane, as was the cane beetle. Eggs were twice
found that apparently belonged to this species, but they could not in
the field be distinguished from those of the Ligyrus. Attempts to





..' lly15";" 1

get ggs fr adults in captivity were Iusuessful, but eggs, apl)ar-
etly fully developed, were diected fro these beetles.
L~yrIs gibbons occurs in the fields, but not commonly. It was
bred from larv found beneath young cotton plants in recently
aureId sl It was als( n oticed in a few instances cutting cane.
Its eggs are a trifle smaller than those of the sugar-cane beetle and are
placed in the srme positions about the roots of the cane. Adults
bre from the cotton fields emell ed arly in May from pupw formed
in captivity about ten days previous. In the northern part of Louis-
ian1a thi species has at times ben ver destructive to corn in early
spring, and its ravaes in the nortlerni corn States are well known.
At times it ccurs in truck gardens and will doubtless he found breed-
inl wherever Ithe soil is enriched sufficiently with stable llanure.

ENEMIES.
ird.-Blackbirds may Ibe considered as one of the nmst efficient
elemies of wthite grubs throughlout the Sout h. lUnfortunfately, how-
ever, they are b1comling each year more1 scarce iln many pArts of
Oiuisiana, owing to the fact that the class of imnmigran.ts now comning
into the State as plantation lab rers are constantly, in their splare
time, on the outlook for birds, and especially all small birds, for use
as In the evenins I lave several times nt1iced 1aborers col-
ing hmf e from1 a 1hunt wdith blackbirds, quail. sparrows, and other
small birds. ne of thes seem to come amiss for food and the
direct rsult is rather lard on the bir j Im)jlatiol.
Illrcts.-CocmOIs of a hynemnpterouls arasite, probally a species
of Tipbia, were found in the cells of a Cyclocephala and a Ligyrus
in a few fields at Olivier, and in several places in cells of white
grubs benleath the1 ro(ts of Grand Marais grass. But one specillen
was bred out, and this was too badly daaged to admit of iden-
tification.
Dipterons larva (Erax lateralis Macq.) (fig. 6), were not uncom-
mon at severl places in the sugar-cane region. These usually
occurred at the base of stubble cane or ill decaying lmother ca1ne, but
a few were found among grass roots. In almost every instance there
were found with them either injured white-grub larvne or portions of
the harder remains of such larvat or pupe. From nearly full-grown
larvt taken in the spring there emerged, during the latter part of
June and early July, several specimens of a predaceous fly deter-
mined by Mr. Coquillett as Erax lateralix Macq.
The full-grown larva are about 20 to 25 mm. long, very slender,
shining white, with darker spiracles and a dark chitinous head.
The puparia are deep brown in color, the spines being almost black.
Adult flies vary considerably in size, being from 20 to 28 mm. in
length; the thorax is dark brown, more or less covered with a gray





16

pubescence; abdomen black, shining, with a narrow band of gray hairs
at tip of first segment, sometimes interrupted in the middle; second
and third segments with apical triangular gray patches at sides;
anal segments pale or covered with pale pubescence; the other seg-
ments may have gray patches on the sides. Adults of this fly were
not uncommonly taken in October, and were at that time seen cap-
turing wild bees of several species and an unidentified butterfly.
They are very swift fliers. Small dipterous larvae, found in the fall
in the cane fields with injured larvae of white grubs and in cells
made for pupation, will doubtless prove to be this same species.

















I




1 i

FIG. 6.--Erax lateralis: a, adult; b, face view of head of adult; c, larva; d, head of
larva; e, puparium-all enlarged (original).
Several carabid larvae were seen in the fields feeding upon young
white grubs, but none were reared to maturity.

REMEIIES.
C(ltural remedies.-These will doubtless prove to be most sue-
cessful. Doctor Howard, in his report on this insect in 1880, advised
postponing the planting of infested fields until spring. This will
prove to be one of the best remedies, especially on the higher, lighter
soils. On two large plantations at Broussards it was suggested by
the writer that the owners offbar the cane in April and May and
keep the dirt away from it as late as possible. This suggestion was





17

also tried at St. James on a portion of one plantation. The other
fields on this planttion were handled in the ordinary manner. The
offarred stubble-cane yielded from 15 to 17 tons, while that handled
in the ordinary way was yielding from 8 to 12 tons per acre, and
much of this was of a rather poor grade. The offbarred cane suckered
well, and the suckers grew well anl were not nearly so badly injured
as thilo growing on the other cane. Mr. Lelche. at St. Janies, put
in a few acres of cane in the fall of 1904. but will plant most of
his cane in the spring. This will give hint opportunity tohoroughly
clean the stalks and also to stir the soil in the spring and disturb the
ietles that are hibernating or the pupw of those not yet fully devel-
oped. No fall cale was put ill o ooone large plaltatiln at B ssards.
while at most of the other places visited thee planters have planted
as much cane this past fall as the eason woulld allow.
It is the custom on many plantations to allow the trash to remain
on the field as it falls from the knives at the time of cutting. This is
plowed under, either in the fall or the next spring, and the plant cane
thus gets the full benefit. It serves, however, as an admirable hi(ding
plate tlrosgh the winter for all kinds of insects that are present il
the fields, an(d evelln whe plowed under scrves ti1 sale l) purpo" for
other insects thit irefer to go enleath the soil for winter.
It is the general practice to follow stubble-cane with corn. Some
planters, however, are still attempting to run stubble-cane for two or
three years bfr making the change. Cornfields that follow second
or third year stubble suffer a much greater percentage of injury than
those 1follwinl only tfirst-yeaPr stIubl. Where planlt-cane was
injured badly it was found t hat e cane had been laid in the same
rows that were in corn the previous year, the furrows being cut out
down the corn row, the calles laid in, and tlhen dirt, stubble, and trasl
turned back over them. In any of the plans used. there is bound to be
more or lss trash buried with the cane at the time of planting, and
often tree successive layers of decaying vegetable matter are found,
the two lower of which are scarcely disturbed throughout the year.
It will readily be seen that this affords an ideal place for the breed-
ing of white grubs of all kinds, as well as the larva of several other
insects.
The headlands and roadsides in the fields almost invariably con-
tain grass sod, sometimes sufficient to enable quite a cutting to be
made for hay. In this sod were found the larva of several species of
white grubs, wireworms, and rootworms, all of which are injurious
to corn or cane in either the larval or adult stage or both.
It would appear that some such simple remedies as the following
would materially aid in reducing the ravages of these insects, espe-
cially that of the sugar-cane beetle: Clean culture of headlands,
28739-No. 54-05 M-2





18

ditch banks and roadsides; burning off in the fall of all trash on
stubble field-both corn and cane ground; thorough cleaning of cane
before planting; running no second or third year stubble, and offbar-
ring stubble-cane as late in the spring as the weather will allow.
Hand-picking of the beetles in the spring was quite successfully
employed by one planter. Children were paid small sums to follow
the hoe gangs and plows and pick up the beetles turned out.
While further studies on the life history and habits of this insect
are necessary and desirable, there are some points in its con-
trol which will readily be evident. One of the most important of
these is the disturbing of the grubs in the ground after freezing
weather sets in. Rather deep fall plowing will turn them out and
kill many, and if this is followed by a heavy harrow many more will
be destroyed. Planters in almost all the districts visited have stated
that this would also be of advantage to the soil.

REPORT ON A MEXICAN COTTON PEST, THE "CONCHUELA."
(Pentatoma ligata Say.)
By A. W. MORRILL.
INTRODUCTION.
A report reached the Bureau of Entomology in March, 1904, to the
effect that a considerable falling off in the cotton crop for the season
of 1903, on a large plantation in the Laguna district of Mexico, was
believed to be due to the work of an insect. It was desired that the
matter be investigated by this Bureau, owing to the possibility of
obtaining information of value in connection with the study of cotton
pests in the United States. The writer was consequently detailed
to visit the plantation, the headquarters of which are at Tlahualilo,
State of Durango, Mexico, and to ascertain if an insect was concerned
in the reduction of the yield of cotton for the previous season.
At this plantation can be seen probably the most extensive con-
tinuous cotton fields in the world, covering from 25,000 to 30,000 acres
of land very nearly level, and comprising a portion of an old lake
bed, with fine alluvial soil, the great fertility of which would be
almost entirely unavailable but for water which comes through irri-
gation ditches from the Nazas River, some 40 miles distant. Sur-
rounding the many thousand acres of cultivated lands is a desert, the
principal vegetation of which consists of scattered mesquite trees.
At the time of the writer's first visit (March 7 to 10) there was
absolutely no green vegetation on the estate, except a few cactus
plants in the outlying uncultivated portions, thousands of poplar
trees growing along the banks of the irrigation canals, and a few
ornamental trees and shrubs growing about the offices and living
quarters of the managers.






19

The decrease in yield per acre of planta (planted) cotton on this
n on for the season of 190-3 as compared with the averag
yield per acre amounted approximately to one-third bale. or a total
in round numbers of 6,000 bales. The resident manager of the
plantation ascribed a considerable part of this differnce to lack of
water for irrigation at the most advantaueos times on certain parts
of the estate. In the cotton fieds an examination of various portions
indicated that fully 10 or 15 per cent of all the bolls had been ren-
dered valuless by same agency. A conservative estimate would place
the loss on this plantation at between 1.200 and 1..i0 bales. The
reident manager of the plantation believed this injury to the bolls
to have been caused by a bug which ccurred in ablndance on the
cotton plants the previous season. Fragments of several pentatomid
bugs found among the fallen leaves under the cotton plants were
identified by Mr. 0. Iidemann as Pcitatoia gliata Say. The
injured bolls showed no boll weevil attack and less than 1 per cent of
injury whih could be traced to the hollworm.
Specimens of the insect believed to have caused the injury durilg
the previos asn were sent to the writer in July. and an accom-
panying lettr fro the resident manager stated that te had
Ippeare in the cotton fields for the first time in the seasn. It was
impossible, however, to again visit the locality until several weeks
after ee sp mens were received. The scond visi to Tialhualilo
was from Augus 30 to September 8. 1904, and it was during this
period that the observations recorded in this paper were made on the
life history and habits of the insect believed by many to have occa-
sioned damage to the cotton crop of a single plantation amounting to
many tousands of dollars.
HISTORY.

The species is known to the natives of Mexico, more especially in the
northern part of the country, by the name of "conchuela," a Spanish
word, meaning little shell." That this species should have received
a common name and tlat it should be so generally known among the
cotton growers and laboring classes in the leading cotton-producing
district in Mexico. indicates in itself that it has long been a common
pest in the cotton fiels. The species was first described in 1831,
but, while mientioned in entomological literature several times since,
the writer is unable to find mention of it as a pest," except for a few

aThe yield of seppa, or o cotton as i is known in the Laguna, is not
ere considered, as it receives only surplus water arying in amount from year
to year.
SDoctor Fitch referred to what he supposed to be this species feeding on
Juniper and grape in New York State. but it seems probable that his insect was
P. nierMa Linn. See footnote, page 20.






20

allusions to it in the newspapers in the summer of 1904 as being de-
structive to cotton in Mexico. Several specimens of Pentatoma ligata
were received by this Bureau in August, 1902, from Doctor Dug4s,
taken at San Pedro de la Colonia, Coahuila, Mexico. The labels bear
the inscription, Injuring cotton."

DISTRIBUTION.

The original description of Pentatoma ligata, by Thomas Say,a was
based on a specimen from Missouri. Uhler 5 notes that the species
occurs in Missouri and Texas, doubting the statement of Fitch c that
it occurs in New York. Herrich-Schaeffer d described what is now
generally considered Say's species under the name of Cimex rufo-
cinmctu,, from specimens from Mexico, and Kouchakevitch e described
specimens from Russian America," under the name of Cimnex rufo-
marginatus, which Van Duzee f places as a synonym of P. ligata.
Smith 9 records P. ligata Say as occurring, though rare," at Cald-
well, N. J. Van Duzee f says of the distribution of this species: 'P.
ligata" ranges from Mexico northward through the Rocky Mountains
to Vancouver Island, and apparently still farther north to Alaska."
In the collections of the Bureau of Entomology and of the United
States National Museum are specimens bearing locality labels, as
follows: Pecos, N. M. (Ckll), July 17, 1903; Los Angeles, Cal. (Co-
quillett) ; Arizona; San Diego, Texas (Schwarz); Abilene, Texas
(Morrill), Nov. 8, 1904; Tlahualilo, Dgo., Mexico (Morrill), Sept. 3,
1904; San Pedro de la Colonia, Coahuila, Mexico (Dr. Duges), Inj.
cotton, Aug. 12, 1902.
DESCRIPTION.

The egy.-Diameter about 0.9 mim. and height about 1.2 mm. There
are three distinct parts of the egg which may be termed body or
lower part, neck or intermediate part, and the lid or cap. The last-
named portion usually remains attached by a hinge after the hatch-
ing of the young. The body, the height of which is about two-thirds
a Description of New Species of Ileteropterous Ilenmiptera of North America,
1831.
b Say's Entomology of North America, Vol. 1, p. 315.
c The following references to P. ligata by Fitch and subsequent writers seem
to refer to P. junipf'rina Lin.: Fitch, Ann. Report N YState Agrie. Soc.,
No. 3, p. 389, No. 4, p. 748: Packard, (nide, p. 54G. 1869): Glover. Manuscript
Notes from My Journal, p. 3, 1870; Provancher, Petite Fauna Entoineogique
du Canada eIlemipteres III, pp. 41-42, 1886; Lintner, Fourth Report State Ent.,
p. 25, 1888, Tenth Ileport State Ent.. p. 1432, 1895.
d Wanzewartigen Insectein, p. 94, 1830.
e IIor. Soc. EnIt. Iossicae, Vol. I V, p. )9, 18i7.
I Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., Vol. XXX, p. 41, 1904.
9 Cat. Ins. N. J., I). 120, 1900.






21

of that of the entire egg, is sueylindrical, being constricted in the
middle, roliunded mole or less at the lower end, and at the upper
abuptly curving inward to meet the neck. The width of the neck
on the side (dorsal) opposite the hing of the cap is about one-sixth
Sof the ntire height of the egg and on the ventral side about one-
third as wide as on the doral side. )On the upper margin of the neck
ar pure wh ite blunt proces, numbering as a rule 22. The cap is
subeonical, diameter at base two-thirds of dliameter of body of egg,
height one-fourth or one-fifth the diameter of base. apex rounded or
somewhat flattened. The appearance of the egg is affected by tras-
lucent and opaque areas, which ellm to be due to the abselne and pres-
ence of a oating of awax. The cap is translucent, except for the





















I. 7.-Pntoma liQata: a, adult bug; b, e mass on leas; eg just before emCr-
gence of nymph; d, egg at an earlier stage of development; e, egg from side, showing
exit hole at top; f, egg closed. a, b. enlared; c-f, greatly enlarged (original).
edg, and the neck is translucent, except for its upper edge adjoin-
ingthe cap, the translucent edges of the neck and cap thus combining
to make a distinct ring of pure white. The body of the egg is
opaque, except for three or four small translucent areas, usually pres-
ent on the side When the nymIph is nearly ready to hatch the trans-
lucent areas are quite dark. In some of the empty shells of the same
bat c of eggs the translucent areas remain clear, though not trans-
parent, and in some they become yellowish. The entire chorion is
closely and finely punctate, the punctures in the translucent parts
being smaller than on the opaque parts. The eggs are deposited
in compact batches in the hexagonal system, each egg, except those on
the outside, being in contact with six others.






22

Nymphs.-As only three of the five nymph stages were observed
and described by the writer, it has seemed advisable not to publish at
this time a technical description of any stages except the egg and
adults. A brief description follows, which will suffice to give a gen-
eral idea of the appearance of the immature stages.
The newly hatched nymph appears to the naked eye entirely black,
but under a lens the abdomen is seen to be very dark slate-colored,
with light spots on the lateral margins and a pair of shining black
tubercles at the middle of the-second and third abdominal segments
above. This stage is about 1 mm. in length and nearly as broad as
long; the head is appressed, making the broadly oval outline almost
unbroken; the dorsum is rounded, giving the insect the appearance
of a. minute turtle. The next two stages are much alike, with reddish
or orange border on thorax and abdomen, thorax otherwise black,
head black, abdomen sometimes entirely black, but more often dark
violaceous with black punctures. The fourth and fifth stages-al-
though as stated above not seen by the writer-are without much
doubt characterized by a general black, violaceous, or olivaceous
black color with a reddish or orange border to the thorax and
abdomen as in the first three instars. Also reasoning from what
takes place in other pentatomids, without exception as far as known
the wing pads first make their appearance in the fourth stage as
backward-curving extensions of the sides of the mesonotum, not
reaching the posterior margin of the metanotum. In the fifth or
last nymph instar of all pentatomids observed by the writer, includ-
ing representatives of three genera, the wing pads extend to the
middle or slightly beyond the middle of the third abdominal segment.
Adult.-The original description of the adult of P. ligata by Say
is as follows:
P. ligata. Dull olive green, external edge sanguineous.
Inhabits Missouri.
Body olive green, rather dull; confluently punctured; antennae black; second
joint rather longer than the third; thorax, lateral margin sanguineous passing
to yellowish on its inner side; scutel at tip bright sanguineous; hemelytra san-
guineous on the lateral margin nearly to middle, abdomen on the lateral margin
from the middle to the tip sanguineous; beneath tinged with yellow on the
pectus; feet greenish, yellowish at base.
Length, eleven-twentieths of an inch.
Presented to me by Nuttall as a native of Missouri. The edge of the head is
not reddish.
The top of the head is more closely set with punctures thai the
thorax and is quite black in all the specimens I have seen; when there
is an olivaceous or pale tinge it is scarcely noticeable. The basal
joint of the antennao is sometimes, but not always, pale. The eyes
may be entirely black, or, as sometimes occurs, the outer rows of
facets are olivaceous or more rarely slightly reddish. The under






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24

fields at Tlahualilo, of weeds along the roadside, of the'desert vege-
tation of mesquite (the beans being dry at this time) and cacti, and
of ornamental trees and shrubs at the headquarters of the estate; but
on none of these were the insects found.

SEASONAL HISTORY.
For the information concerning the seasonal history of the con-
chuela, here presented, the writer is indebted to Mr. John Conduit,
who, owing to the immense tract of cotton grown under his supervi-
sion, gives particular attention to cotton pests, and in addition to
personal examinations in the fields, encourages the bosses of the
various parts of the estate to send in to the office specimens of insects
taken on the cotton plant, with information concerning their abun-
dance and injury. The bosses in their turn make personal exam-
inations and send dozens of laborers into the various subdivisions of
the estate to search for any particular insect concerning which infor-
mation may be desired at headquarters. This system made it possible
to obtain accurate information concerning the abundance of the pen-
tatomid bug here considered.
In 1903 the conchuelas were abundant only during the month of
July, and reached a maximum in numbers about July 20. Their
first appearance was in the outlying districts, next to the mesquite,
but they soon spread all over the cotton plantation, though they were
more abundant in certain parts than in others. The insects disap-
peared early in August and did not reappear in noticeable abundanice
during the season, although the cotton plants remained green until
the 17th of October, when the first frost occurred.
Although a constant watch for the insect was kept during the late
spring and early summer of 1904, the first specimen was not taken in
the field until July 6. Several specimens were soon after this for-
warded to me at Victoria, Tex. During the following seven days a
rapid increase in their numbers was noted, causing considerable fear
lest they seriously damage the cotton crop. On July 17, however, it
was observed that a marked decrease in their numbers had occurred.
Nowhere on the estate were the insects as abundant as in July of the
previous year, nor were they so generally distributed. On August
31, the date of my first examination in the cotton fields on my second
visit to Tlahualilo, the insects were so scarce that but five specimens
were found during the first search of one and one-half hours. They
were afterwards found in somewhat greater abundance in another
portion of the estate. No nyIl>phs and only a single batch of eggs
could be found in the field, this latter having been deposited in a field
cage. Several hours each day for nearly a week were spent in the
cotton fields before any adults were seen in coition. During this
p)erio(l 1 many aduilts were HseeI at (ifferent times of the d(ay. In the






25

afternoon of the sevent da of these observations a male was ob-
served courting a female, and later in the same afternoon, in a brief
stop in a field, two pairs of the bugs were sen copulating. During
the last three days snt in investigating this insect many pairs were
oun mating. The reason for the reappearance of the mating
instinct was not apparet. Messrs. Conduit and Vaughan, both in
the employ of the Tlahalilo Company, assert that five or six weeks
earlier in the season the adults were frequently seen copulating on
the cotton plants.
LIFE HISTORY AND IIABITS.
A IDLTS.
etod.-Owing to the scarcity of the bugs during the investiga-
tion and to the ease with which they can Ibe detected when l)resent
the plan of tagging bolls and plants in the field and making records
twice a day, was folllnd to give good results. Somle observations were
imade with adults in confinement in tumnblers, and with others con-
fined in larre wire screens in the fields.
Feedinb habit.-The adults seem to be able to detect food from a
distance, though this point was not definitely (letermined. In each
of three caes when an aIdllt eCtaped froma1 cge 1ut of doo( in a
field where the plants were widely separated. it was afterward found
on the plant nearest in its direction from the age: in other words.
the bugs did nit pass over or near any other cotton plants in going
to the plat upon which they were found.
In confinement, the adults fed on the fruit of the China tree and
twigs of the mesuite tree, as well as l11pon cotton Iolls. Five adults
let in a glass with a two-thirds growi bollworll for six holur
showed no carnivorous tendencies.
lthoug the adults feed upon all )arts of the cotton plant in the
field, the blls are mch preferred to the stems and leaves. Fifty-
seven field records show the total number of times the bugs were re-
corded as feeding on bolls to be 43: on leaves. 4: on stems. 10. The
buis were recorded resting on bolls in the field ten times; on the leaf,
once; and on the stem, once. The blls are undoubtedly preferred on
account of the rich juice of the seed which the insect is able to reach
(except probably in the older bolls with well-matured lint) by means
of its mouth seth. The examination of many bolls shows that the
immature seeds are the objective points of the insects attack. A
preference is alost invariably shown for bolls growing near the
tops of the plants.
In feeding on the cotton plant, the adult generally occupies a con-
spicuous position, especially when on a boll. The writer has never
found them inside the bracts of a square, and when on a boll, never
entirely hidden by the bracts.
When feeding uon a cotton boll the mouth seta do not remain






26

in the usual position in the groove of the rostrum, but the insect,
after inserting the setae into the tissue of the plant, either folds the.
rostrum directly back, freeing the setae entirely from it, or doubles
it up in the form of the letter "Z," the upper angle representing the
joint between the first and second, and the lower angle that between
the second and third segments. At the latter joint the setae remain
in the groove. When feeding, the bug constantly raises and lowers its
head. When the setae are entirely withdrawn from the boll, the spine,
located on the inner side of a fore tibia slightly beyond the middle,
is used to replace them in the rostral groove. The sete are pressed
into place by one stroke of the tibia.
These insects have been observed to feed upon a cotton boll for ten
minutes without withdrawing their setae. One adult under observa-
tion in the field visited four bolls, two on each of two plants in two
days, and remained for over thirty-six hours on the last of the four
bolls. Another adult bug remained on the same boll for two and
three-fourths days. Three remained on the same plant for over
thirty hours, and three others were found on the same plant thirty-
two hours after they were first recorded. In none of these cases was
it known how long the insects had been on these plants previous to
their being first noted. They do not always remain so long, but have
been observed to alight for but a few minutes on a cotton plant and
then fly to another without feeding.
In cages in the field during the middle of the day the insects are
more restless and are more frequently seen crawling about on the
screens; after sundown they are usually found quietly feeding.
Flight.-When liberated in a room the adults fly readily and inva-
riably nearly straight toward the light. In the field their direction
of flight is usually curving and the greatest distance obtained in any
of six flights observed and recorded was 25 feet. In four successive
flights from the hand, held at a height of 4 feet from the ground,
an adult female covered on an average 151 feet per flight. An adult
male, apparently in normal condition, taken when feeding on a boll,
in attempting to fly from the hand dropped directly to the ground.
It is probable that these records are not indicative of the distance
which these bugs are capable of flying when newly matured.
Gregarwousness.-It very frequently happens that more than one
conchuela is present on a plant, even though no others can be found
on plants for a considerable distance in any direction. The belief
that this gregariousness is not due to the adults found on a plant
having developed from eggs laid on that plant is supported by the
fact that careful search failed to reveal the remains of the egg batch,
by the fact that adults under observation did not remain on the same
plant in any case for as long as three days, and also by the frequently
noted occurrence of two or three adults appearing at nearly the same






27

time on a plant which had been free from the insects, as shown by
examinations for two or three previous days. The following is the
Icrd of 34 specimens of P. ligata collected in the cotton fields.
Each re4crd refers to collection from a single plant when none could
be foIundl 1 ilear-b plants: Aultst 11. 2 : September 1, first plant,
", econd plant. 3:; Sptember 2, first plant, 3. second plant, 1; Sep-
tebnlr 3, firt plant, 2 (male and female), second plant, 5 (3 females,
I male. and I escaped); S:eptember 3. first plant, 1, second plant. 1,
third plant, 2; September 4, first plant. 1, econ(l plant, 2; Septemlber
6, first plant. 3, second plant. 2, third plant. 3, fourth plant, 2. The
averaget numbr of bugs per plant in the instances recorded above
was 2|. In addition to the instancs where two or more were found
on a single plant, it might b mentioned that not infrequently after
searchilng for the insects without reilts one is folnd on ea(l h of the
two adjacent plants. while, as in the cams for single plants referred
to above, none could be folund on any other plants near by. To
dtermine whetier this gregarious tenldeny is due to skxual attrac-
tifo or to silt would r u ire mo1re carefuil attetion than it was pos-
sible to give on the occasion on which thes observations were lade.
Eg tybling.-All of the eggs of Pentatina ligata which were
obtained were deposited by females in confinement. They were
deposited in batches of from 18 to 43 egs. )ne batch was deposited
on a mesquite leaf, the others on the bracts of cotton balls and on cot-
ton leaves. It is believed t t hree and posibly four batches were
deposited by the same female. The three batches probably deposited
by the insect efered to num red tother 107 egs. A female pen-
tatonid bug of another genus (Podisus) has beven known to deposit
nearly 500 egs, a fact which not only gives weight to the supposi-
tion that these 107 or more eggs were deposited by the one specimen of
P. ligata, but which indicates that this number oes not necessarily
give an idea of the maximum number a single female may deposit.
EGGS,

The following table shows the duration of incubation and the
approximate number hatching under indoor conditions, the last four
hatches being kept most of the time in small pill boxes:
Egg laying, incubation, and hatching.
Number Number Period of
When deposited. of eggsin When hatched. hche incuba-
batch. tion.
Days.
September 4............................ 43 September 10................ 21 6
September 6.-..................... 18 September 14. --.6......... a 8
Do............ ........9 .....do....---....---- -----...... 24 8
e e r7.......-.-- ........--... September 15-..-- --..........14 8
Do.--...--..---- .....-- .....- ....40 -.. do........................ 21 8

eve eggs becae separated from the batch and were lost bfore any of them
hatched.






28

The average period of incubation, as shown by the above figures,
is nearly seven and a half days under the conditions noted.

NYMPHS.

For several hours after hatching the young nymphs remain closely
clustered upon the top of the egg batch, with scarcely any perceptible
movement. In all cases where the eggs of this species have come
under the writer's observation, less than two-thirds of the total num-
ber in the batch have hatched, although those which failed to hatch
contained nymphs. It was found that, as in many other species of
pentatomids, the nymphs of the first instar which first hatch begin
to feed, after a few hours' quiescence, upon the contents of the
unhatched eggs. It is not impossible that some or all of the nymphs
thus fed upon were already dead. Some of the nymphs which have
been observed obtained enough food from the unhatched eggs to pass
through the first instar. Others became quite plump by feeding upon
the eggs, but fed readily upon fresh cotton leaves when placed upon
them. The first molt occurred the seventh day after hatching, and
the second molt on the third and fourth days after the first. It was
impossible to give the young insects the attention necessary to breed
them to maturity, and all of them died before molting a third time.

INJURY TO COTTON.
INJURY TO COTTON AT TLAHUALILO IN 1903.

As stated in the introduction, it was estimated after a personal
examination of the dry stalks in the cotton fields at Tlahualilo on
March 8, 1904, that an average of 10 to 15 per cent of the cotton
bolls were injured by some agency to the point of worthlessness.
The nature of much of this injury was found to be, to all appear-
ances, identical with that resulting from the attacks of the conchuela,
as observed in fields of growing cotton at Tlahualilo from August 30
to September 8. Concerning some of the bolls, there was more doubt
as to the cause of the injury, which consisted in the locks dying after
reaching a late stage in their development. .The opened bolls showed
more or less stained fibers remaining closely matted together, and at
the extreme tip noticeably shriveled. In consideration of the possi-
bility that this injury was due to a vegetable disease, dry specimens
were submitted to I)r. A. F. Woods, pathologist and physiologist of
the Bure;au of Plant Industry, with a re(quest that they be examined
for evidence of trouble of this nature, but it was found that no fun-
gous dlise(ase could have been reslonsible for their condition. There
being no evidence of a d(isease of a I cterial or physiological nature,
there is but little doubt that the condition described above is due to





29

injury by heteropterous insects, principally y the predominating
Spcies in this particular locality, Peltatom li~ata. The difference
il the nature of the damage produced can probably be explained by
tle difference in the degree of development attained by the bolls be-
fore they receive the first ijury.
INJURY TO COON AT TLAIIiVALILD IN 1~014.

At the time of the second visit of the writer to Tlahualilo it was
ossible to obtain more definite information concerning the character
of the injury caused by the conchuela. This was done principally
by means of tagging in the field cotton balls known to have been fed
upon more r le( s by the ilsect.
External evidence of injury by this hug never appears. except when
a boll is fed upon when
very small and one or more
locks are injured, so that
wgrowth cea ses il the inljured
portions and a deformyity of
the boll results. The inner
side of the car els of green
bolls which have lben fed t
upon b the conchuela
s ow aN minute dark spot.
indicating the point at
which the seta entered, and
sulro( undingl this mally be I an
abnorntal wart-like gerowth
which is of more frequent
|ccu11Ten1 in sm ball s,
or a smooth circula area
which 1Bomes dark green Fu. 8.--Suppo(ed work of I'otub,ton ligautt on cut-
ton oll (Ifrom photo by W. E. Hinds).
and contrasts sarply with
the ligrter background. Large bolls nearly mature have been ex-
amined with as many as twenty-five or thirty of these spots, but
with uninjured seeds, these probably having been protected by the
resistance of the lint to the entrance of the insect's" mouth organs.
This difficulty probably increases with the increasing age of the
boll. In examining smaller bolls it was found that a single spot
on the inside of the carpel was good, though not positive, evidence
of injury, which could be seen only by breaking open the developing
lock. In fields where no bugs of any kind could be found none of
the bolls showed these spots, while in every case a certain injury to
seeds and surrounding lint, which I learned to ascribe to P. ligata
and a few less common species of heteroptera, was accompanied






30

by one or more of these spots directly opposite on the inner side of
the carpel.
The conchuela usually inserts its mouth set&e through the carpel
and developing lint into the seed. An injured immature seed at first
is characterized by a watery appearance, later it takes on a brownish
color and appears decayed, finally shriveling. Two or three days after
the seed is injured by the feeding of the bug, the surrounding lint
becomes slightly discolored. If only a short time was spent in feed-
ing upon the seed of a nearly matured boll, the injury consists simply
in a yellow staining of the lint, but if the boll be less than two-thirds
grown the injury is likely to be more serious. The decayed appear-
ance then spreads throughout the lock, which shrivels and is spoiled.
The observations thus far made show that a bug must spend at least
several hours to destroy the usefulness of a lock of a cotton boll
instead of only the few minutes necessary to deposit an egg, as is the
case with a female boll weevil.
Several observations were made in the field to establish the con-
nection between the conchuela and the injury described above. A
few of these will be outlined. Bug No. 1 was found on a plant upon
which it remained for over twenty-four hours, it being unknown how
long it might have been on the same plant previous to discovery, or
how many, if any, other bugs had been present. On examination of
the unopened bolls it was found that there were uninjured 5, slightly
injured 1, badly injured 6. Two opened bolls were uninjured. As a
check for this plant, the bolls on the next one in the row were ex-
amined, and of the 12 unopened and 3 open bolls all were perfect.
This same insect moved 4- feet to another plant and w*ias found upon
the same boll at each of the several visits to the field during the fol-
lowing thirty-six hours. The insect then disappeared and was not
afterwards found. An examination of the 15 bolls on this second
plant showed only 2 injured ones, the one on which the bug was
known to have fed for thirty-six hours, which was badly damaged,
and another the injury to which was apparently caused by a bacterial
disease of the nature of anthracnose.
On September 4, 1904, at 11.45 a. m., two specimens of P. ligata
were found in the cotton field on a plant, surrounding which for at
least 50 feet in all directions were plants which after careful search
were found to be free from the insect. Six hours later two more
adults were found on this plant, an examination as before showing
the surrounding plants to be free. Two days later the plant under
observation was entirely free from the insects, and on September 8
all t he bolls on the plant were opened and each lock was examined.
Of the 15 bolls 7 were badly injured; 4 (3 of which were produced
on the lower branches close to the ground) were perfectly sound in
every way. As a check, an examination was'made of the 16 bolls on






31

a very similar plant standing 3 feet away in the same row: 14 of
these were perfect in every way, 1 boll was injured by a boll worm,
and the remaining injured boll had the appearance of having been
fed upon when quite small by P. ligata or some other heteropterous
insect. One lock of this bo11ll was decidedly stunted, giving it a de-
fomed appearance. The inside of the carpel of the stunted portion
showed the characteristic mark of injury already described, as did
several seeds with the surrounding lint.
On September 8 an examination was made of the bolls of a plant
upon which three specimens of P. ligata were taken on September G.
As before, the surrounding plants were free from tilhe insects and their
bolls only in few instances showed injury of th ne nature described as
occasioned by this species. Of the 04 oIls over 1 inch in diameter
which were on the plant. 20 were selected at random and carefully
examined, and but 2 of them were found to be uninjured.
As the above observations might lead to an exaggerated idea of
the injury believed to be caused by the insect here considered, it
should be explained that in the field where the above instances ,Oc-
curred the conchuelas at the time were more abundant than elsewhere
Qn the plantation, and even here (with the exception of a limited
area) on no(t more t than stalk o an acre could0 the insects be
folund. The observations indicate, Ihowever, that whel they are very
Iumerous the (o nchuelas are capable of causing considerable l ldamage
to the cotton crop.
The exceptional area referred to above c-onsisted of about 300
suare feet in the cotton field, which was slightly lower than the
general leel. The plants were conseulently growing more vi'or-
ously, and Iore adiult conchuelas were found at work here than else-
where. An examination of all the 1)Ils over 1I inch in d(iameter o(n
10 representative stalks showed that 33 per cent of them were injured,
and of the open bolls on these plants 19 per cent had at least one lock
damaged by shriveling, apparently caused by the attack of a heterop-
terolls insect.
As a check to this examination, 30 bolls, from one-third to three-
fourths grown, were examined on a portion of the plantation which
was remarkably free from insects, and where no heteropterous insects
of any kind could be found. Each lock in each boll was carefuilly
examined as before, with the result that only 2 bolls were found to
show the slightest internal discoloration, and this did not extend to
the seed, nor was it accompanied by the spot on the inside of the
carpel, which the evidence obtained showed to result from the punc-
ture of P. ligata.
Cage experiments were conducted for the purpose of learning how
long after a boll is fed upon the injury becomes apparent and
also how long feeding must be continued to work an injury. Neither






32

ot these points was satisfactorily determined, owing to the brief
period available for this investigation. As has been stated, the size
of the boll is an important factor; probably a single bug in a few
hours, or perhaps minutes, can produce an injury to a boll one-fourth
or one-third grown which will prevent its developing perfect lint.
On the other hand, it seems that after the lint reaches a certain degree
of development, perhaps when the boll is about three-fourths grown,
it is beyond the limit of danger of serious injury from the conchuela.
The following records show the only information obtained from the
cage tests relating to the question of how long after being attacked,
the injury to the boll appears:

Results of cage tests with Pentatoma ligata, 1904.

Num- Apparent- Injured Severely
Cageo ber of ly sound When caged. When examined. Inllsred injured
o. bugs. bolls. bolls.

1 5 8 September 3 ----------- September 7-...--...-1- 4 2
2 6 26 September 4 ...----.... .....do--------------- 16 0

The cage tests were made in a portion of the plantation apparently
free from the conchuela and other bugs, and where no injury to bolls
could be found which was likely to have been caused by such insects.

RELATION OF MESQUITE TO INFESTED FIELDS.

The co:chuela is believed by Mr. Conduit to be identical with an
insect which breeds upon mesquite beans.a. In the early summer of
1903, owing to specially favorable weather conditions the crop of
mesquite beans was unusually large, and it is generally believed in
the Laguna district that an unusually large number of the conchuelas
developed in the mesquite, and upon the maturing and drying of the
beans the insects made their way into the cotton fields in correspond-
ingly large numbers. Both of the writer's visits to Tlahualilo, made
at times when there were no green mesquite beans, and no specimens
of P. ligqata could be found in the mesquite or anywhere else except
in the cotton fields, nor could any remains of their immature stages
be found, except a batch of eggs from which the nymphs had emerged,
which was found on the ground among the dead leaves on March 8.
Although no direct evidence could be obtained concerning the origin
of the large numbers of the insects which infested the cotton fields
in 1903, the statements of Mr. Conduit concerning the portions of
the estate where the insects occurred in greatest numbers, both in
1903 and 1904, seem to show a connection between these portions and
the parts of the uncultivated land surrounding the estate on all sides,
upon which the mesquite growth was most abundant.
a Since the aove was written this has been verified by the writer.






33

INJTU TO COm o AT TLAHUALILo, MEXICO, BY OTHER HETEROPTERA.

The injury to cotton by P. ligata is probably the same as might
rsult from the attacks of many other heteropterous insects. Several
species of pentatomid bugs were cllected feeding on cotton bolls,
but none were numerous enough to cause appreciable damage. Next
to P. ligtat, the most abundant heteropteron found feeding on cotton
bolls was Leptogloxsu8 zonatus Dall. The injury found on the ex-
amination of bolls upon which bugs of the latter species had been
feeding I was unable to distinguish from that resulting from the
feedin of the forner. The individuals of the above coreid were not
common enough in the cotton fields during the firt few days of Sep-
tember to interfere with observations on the conchela. The fol-
lowing heteroptera. in addition to the species above mentioned, were
found on cotton at Tlahualilo between August 31 and September 8,
19. For their identification the wrier is indebted to Mr Heide-
mann, of the Bureau of Entomolog: Apiomerus spissipes Say
Zel a reardlii Kol.. Ltargu cbwitu 11H. S., Oncopeltus fw~satu~ Dall.,
Murgantia hitrionica Hahn, and Thyanta perditor Fab.
INJURY BY THIS AND OTHER PENTATOMIDS IN THE U"NITED STATES.
The species here considered has been taken on cotton in our own
cotton States, ut neither it nor any other pentatomid has ever, so
ar as the writer -an learn, proved of much consequence as a pest in
e cotton fields. The eggs of pentatomids are attacked by several
hymenopterous parasites, which probably more than any other factor
revent many of the species from becoming serious pests. c0a-
ionally, however, we find reports of a species of this family. pre-
viously unknown except, perhaps, for a scientific description, spring-
i suddenly into prominence as a pest in one locality or another
d the following season becoing of the same slight importance as
al. An instance of this kind is briefly mentioned in a previous
Sof this Breau, Pentatoa yi Sta being there referred to
appearing as a serious wheat pest in Colorado, Arizona, and New
in the summer of 1903. Many pentatomids and other heter-
terous insects, which probably all cause damage to cotton similar to
t of P. ligata occur in the cotton fields in this country. It is pos-
that this species y be sporadically of more or less importance
,y unde circumstances where, by the unavoidable
oweevil, the small margin of profit makes
reduce e lowest practicable limit injuries from the
or ming the truth of the report that this species
b ds upon mesquite beans, it is evidently much more likely to
aBulletin No. 44, Division of Entomology, p. 86.
2873--No. 54--05. m--3






34

appear in cotton fields in injurious numbers in such irrigated dis-
tricts as the Laguna of Mexico, where, when their chief food supply
in the desert becomes unfit for them, they are driven to the cotton
plants from necessity, there being almost nothing else available for
food. In other localities the insects might become widely distributed
among various crops and only small injury be done to any one of
them.
SUGGESTIONS FOR CONTROL.
As these insects in the cotton field almost invariably occupy a
conspicuous position on the cotton plant, usually on a boll, there is
little trouble for even an inexperienced person to find them when
present. Their habit of segregation is of much importance in this con-
nection. Whenever they become abundant enough to deserve atten-
tion from the cotton grower, hand picking, or knocking into collect-
ing pans containing oil, will probably be preferable to spraying with
contact insecticides, the value of the former depending in a measure
upon the availability of cheap labor. Clearing up the fields in the
fall, destroying both the cotton stalks and the weeds surrounding the
fields by burning, would prevent, in a large measure, the hibernation
of this, as well as many other cotton pests, and constitutes a practice
the adoption of which by all cotton growers is strongly urged by eco-
nomic entomologists. It may be advisable under some circumstances
to provide for the treatment of the conchuelas on mesquite trees when
it is found that they are developing thereon in threatening numbers,
and when experience shows that these trees growing close to cotton
fields are an element of danger, it might even be good policy to remove
them entirely.

THE SUGAR-BEET CROWN-BORER.
(Hulstea undulatella Clemens.)
By E. S. G. TITUS.
While investigating the general insect enemies of the sugar beet
the past season (1904), the writer found at Waverly, Wash., Echo,
Oreg., and Spreckles and Oxnard, Cal., evidences of an injury to sugar
beets that could not be traced to any insect at that time occurring
in the fields. The injury at these places was quite local, usually
occurring in small patches over some of the fields, and was most
noticeable on the richer soils. The beets had been injured earlier
in the year and their growth practically stopped. Some ofthe tops
had lived on for some time, but had eventually dried down. When
these were lifted only a small portion of the beet usually came with
them, and this a rather ragged portion of the crown. Digging into
the soil, the remainder of the root could usually be found, shriveled
and dried up, but rarely showing marks of injury.





35

Vacant spaces could be seen extending sometimes 10 or 15 feet down
a row and covering an an area from 2 to 5 rows wide. Those few
injured beets that had survived the attack were dry, almost lifeless,
the leaves being small and the root of no value.
Upon reaching the Santa Ana Valley and neighboring beet regions
in smouthern California. especially at Chino. the work of this insect
became m1ore com1 on and the dIllage ill plac(es was (itle seerefe.
The owners attributed the loss to plant lice and cut worms, but a very
slight examination was sufficient to show that the beets hald been
attacked by some borer, and that work on them was still in I)rogress.
At Huntington Beach, near Los Angeles, and at Chino. the larvt
causing the injury were found in several fields, and at the latter
place moths, which later proved to be the adult form of this phycitid
borer, were rather common in one field on the l~et-sugar company's
ground.
From examination of the beets it is evident that the young larva
at first works on the beet just be-
low the bases of the leaves, eating
through the outer skin and either
boring directly into the beet or
work ing its way arounldt the crownl
beneath the epidermis, thus making
a swollen line that has the appear-
ance of a mint, often much like
early work of Pegomya ricna and
siuilar species mining in leaves.
As the larva grows in size it forces
its way farther and farther into the Fio. 9.-Hulstra undulate fl: adult and
larva-enlarged i original).
beet until it reaches the center, when
it may bore directly downward or pass on through the beet and
then return and feed up and down inside the root. In all the gal-
leries examined I found more or less evidence of a silken tube.
Those of the older larvew that were feeding on the outside of the
beet had constructed tubes covering their operations and protecting
them from contact with the soil. Sometimes these tubes extended
for a considerable distance away from the beet. These tubes are
very fragile, and not nearly so firm in construction as those made
for hibernating purposes by the sugar-beet webworm (Loxostege

Several larvv were usually found attacking a single beet, and, from
the fact that tubes were found extending from beet to beet down the
rows, it is probable that the larve after killing one beet may pass on
to another one in which they will complete their grov th. Pupn






36

were usually found in the tubes outside the beets, but a few pupa
cases were noticed in the burrows.

















































FIG. 10.-Hulatea undulatella: longitudinal section of beet and small beet showing
injury-natural size (original).






37

There are apparently two broods of this insect, egg being laid
in early spring upon the young beets and the dult appearing in June
or July, when the second brood eggs are laid The larva of the second
brood develop and become full grown in the fall, and probably most
of the adults emerge at this time, although two of the larve taken last
October ar still (April 1) in that stage in our breeding caes. It ma
be that in southern California the adult emerge in the fall and lays
eggs on some native food plant. Adults were quite common in that
region in late September especially in the early evening bfore dark.
They would fly quickly when disturbd, but only for short distances,
and usally alighted on the under side of beet leaves or on the ground,
the color of which they closely resemble. Some minute white eggs
were found at the bases of leaves of beets. which may belong to this
species or to the tortricid mentioned below.
This moth has a wide distribution, having been taken in many
parts of the United
States. Specimens in the
National Museum bear
labels from the follow-
ing localities: Maine
(Packard); Massachu-
setts: New York (Bur-
nett); AIngles. N. J.,
June 23 (Kearfoot);


St, okton. Utah numer-
ous specimens, dates,
June 24. 29, August 4. 6,
7, 8, 11 3, and Septem-

ing); Denver Colo., May
1, 15, and Septe mbr 15;
': un d*ua :te.lla (original).
Pueblo, Col., July .-vi~ orio et injured by HusLeaa
(Kearfoot); Pullman, itl (original).
Wash. (Piper); Kaslo, British Columbia (Dyar & Caudell): San
Francisco, Santa Clara, and Alameda, Cal. (Koebele) Williams,
Ariz., July 7, 10, 23 (Schwarz & Barber); Flagstaff, Ariz., July 8,
24 (Barber); Sapello Canton, N. Mex. (Oslar). The species was
described by Clemens a under the genus Nephopteryx in 1860 from
specimens "From Dr. Charles Girard, Washington, D. C., Pennsyl-
vania, Canada, and Massachusetts."
The statemebt that the insect was reared frorn elm, which has
a 1860: Clemens, Pro. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., p. 205.






38

several times been accredited to Clemens, has very little foundation.
Following his description he says:
Early in October I found the pupa of this insect at Niagara Falls, on the
Canada side, under shelter of loosened portions of the bark of American elh.
They were inclosed in a cocoon of silk, mixed with particles of bark. On the
same tree I took a number of larva which were ascending the tree to undergo
pupation. I did not, however, obtain imagoes from any of the specimens.
The body was nearly uniform in diameter, with the ordinary number of feet.
Head as broad as the body and dark green. Body dark green, between the seg-
ments yellowish and dotted with yellow; first rings with two black dots on the
sides.
Doctor Hulst,a after giving the following localities for this spe-
cies-" Canada, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois,
Virginia, Texas, Colorado, Utah, California "-states that he has
received it from Texas in August and September, and then quotes
Clemens's remarks given above, but omits the important statement
that no specimens were bred to maturity. The other published ref-
erences to the species simply record it as feeding on elm, an error
evidently derived from the original reference or from Doctor Hulst's
paper.
Doctor Clemens's description of the larva he found does not accord
with the larve taken on sugar beet, and from which specimens were
bred that were identified by Dr. H. G. Dyar, of the United States
National Museum, as belonging to this species. Our larve when
fully mature were 16 to 18 mm. in length, head slightly narrower
than first segment following; pale brown in color, darker on tip
of elypeus and tips of mandibles, antenna and palpi paler, almost
yellow; body varying from pale green to dirty yellow, paler be-
tween segments, usually a single black dot on each side of the first
segment; feet all tipped with black. The larva is very transparent,
so that the internal anatomy is clearly visible.
The adult measures 12 to 16 mm. across wings when fully spread.
Fore wings dark gray, varying to a pale gray, with traces of
fuscous and black scales interspersed, a red spot usually present
within the basal line, irregular dentate lines along outer margin are
darker; hind wings dark fuscous, shading out darker on outer mar-
gin, fringe very pale: thorax with a dark spot on each side near
front; abdomen varying from gray to almost black; antenna gray,
half the length of the fore wing; palpi varying from white to
brownish red, darker at tip.
Many of the larva or pupew were parasitized. A dipterous para-
site was identified by Mr. 1). W. Coquillett as Exorista pyste Walk.
a 18!0: Hulst, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., v. 17, pp. 187-188.






39

(fig. 21). It bred from pupw taken at Chino and Oxnard. Cal. This
parasite was also reared from the pupw of an unidentified tortricid
found feding on the leaves of sugar beet at the same places. Three
" of

ireared but with the
ex.eption of the onef
noted below it was im-
posible to tell whether
tI ey were bred irom
larvaI or pupae. They
were identified by Dr.
W. H. Ashiead. of
the United States Na-
tional Museum, as
CelOnuS iridescens
Cr., S~iloekhals tor-
vi;ia Cr., aInd IHr o- f.
bracon ,ebehtor Say..
Specimens of Ce-
ON iridP Aenx ( (ig. Flit 12. 1 .- ristaf pysate much ienlrged ioriginal).
13), issued from pupaz
of the crown brer in early Octobr. This parasite is reprented in
the National Museum collections by secinens from Agricultural Col-
eMich. Waington, D. C.: Sout Dakot) Colorado; Wyoming;
Corvallis, Oreg.: (ar-
land. Utah; Kukak
Bay. Alaska; Easton.
Wash..and San Diego,
Cal. The last of the e
specimens (bearing
the U. S. Dept. Agr.

from a phyticid larva
Ior from the pupa)
foundl feeding in the
seed pods of A phyllon
Stuberosum. This spe-
cies is entirely black
Sexcept the legs, which
P. 13.-helon iridece-greaty enlarged (origina). are marked with pale
yellow; about 4 mm.
in leng;th very rugosely punctured on thorax with longitudinal stria,
on abdomen. fro
But one specimen of Habrobracon hebetor Say was reared from the






40

crown borer; this issued October 5, 1905. This species has been
reared from several of the flour and meal moths a in this country. A
European species, Bracon brevicornis Wesm., is, as stated by Dr. Chit-
tenden, quite probably a synonym of Say's species. It has been
reared from two species of Ephestia and from lepidopterous larvae in
Europe. The species has black antenne, head, and thorax; abdomen
fuscous; leg more or less pale yellow; femora usually black at base;
ovipositor of female black.
Spilochalcis torvina (fig. 14) was bred from the crown borer, and
also from pupae of the unidentified tortricid before mentioned from
Chino, Cal., in early October. This dainty little chalcid is jet black,
with many pale markings, though usually there is a brownish-red
shading from white into the black;
the abdomen is somewhat fuscous
on the side beneath.

REMEDIES.

Cultural remedies tending to
thoroughly disturb the soil at the
time the larvae are nearly mature
and destruction of the beets show-
ing injury will doubtless aid the
control of this pest. It will com-
plete the destruction of the injured
beet, since the larvae will in all
FiG. 14.-silochalcis torvina-much en- probability breed out even if the
larged (original).
beets are removed from the soil.
A more complete study of the life history of the insect may show
opportunity for other remedies.

THE DOCK FALSE-WORM.
(Taronus nigrisom2i Nort.)
By F. I. CHITTENDEN and E. S. G. TITUS.

September 5 and 6, 1904, the junior writer observed larvai of this
species of tenthredinid at Menominee, Mich., attacking sugar beet
and a yellow dock (Rumnex patientia or brittanicus).
The larvae were feeding on the upper sides of the leaves, usually
placing themselves parallel with the larger veins; often veral
lawrv were found feeding side by side, reminding one of colonies
of the grape social caterpillar (Harrisina [Procris] americana Guer.).
From 6 to 20 larvm were counted on single leaves both of sugar
beet and lock, and as many as 70 were taken from a single plant.
a 1897, Chittenden, Bul. 8, ni. s., Div. Entom., Dept. "of Agric., pp. 3-41.






41

iT y are quite active, readily curling up when disturbed and usually
rolling down the leaf into the mass of young leaves at the base. It
is interesting to note that larva were also active in confinement, but
not easily disturbed, not curling up unless considerably agitated.
This was doubtless due to the handling they had received in packing
and unpacking and to the jarring incident to their long journey, all of
which had the effect of cusing them to be less easily disturbed than
under normal conditions.
Dock was rather scarce in the field at this time, the beets having
been recetly cultivated and their leaves at this season of the year
so covered the ground that the young dock leaves had not had oppor-
tunity fr growth. It is probable that the larv on the beet leaves
had been hatched from eggs deposited on dock, and that they had


















FI 15.-Taronus nfr*isoma: a, adult; b, larva; r, head of some; d, ecuo In in stalk-all
enlarged ioriginal) .
resorted to the former when the dock was cut down. Severl beet
plants were seen that had been seriously injured, and the dock leaves
remaining in the fields were riddled. Dock plants growing along
roadsides and in uncultivated fields were not infested. The larve
seen showed a preference for leaves more or less protected by other
leaves; they usually rest flat on the leaf, but some were noticed
slightly curled when resting near the edges.
At this time the larve belonged to several- stages, three at least,
one being the mature stage.
DESCRIPTION.

Mature larva.-The prevailing color of the mature larva is leaf
reen, slightly paler than that of either of the leaves on which it
feed, this paleness being, plerhaps due to the prhsence of a faint






42

bloom on the surface. The larva is of the normal tenthredinid form,
the surface not very strongly wrinkled, 6-annulate, smooth, and not
shining; the head is pale, nearly white, or pale green tinged with
brown, clypeus with a distinct brown spot, a brown band sometimes
present above the clypeus, head usually darker on the upper third;
eyes black, mouth-parts dark brown, tips of mandibles darker; the
lateral surface, as well as the lower, varies from pale yellowish to
pale but distinct green, this color extending from the line of the spir-
acles, the darker coloration of the dorsal surface often almost envelop-
ing the spiracles; body slightly brownish in the folds; spiracles
small, elongate-oval, black. Segment 13 is much paler dorsally than
the remaining segments. Besides the three pairs of nearly white
thoracic legs, which are more or less infuscated at the sutures, there
are eight pairs of abdominal legs (segments 6 to 13), which are also
pale. Length, 13 mm.; width, nearly uniform from the second
thoracic to the antepenultimate segment, 1.5 to 2 mm.
Antepen ultimate stage.-What appears to be the antepenultimate
stage closely resembles the mature form, but is less greenish in color
and has a proportionately larger head. In this stage, larvae are pale
green, with a somewhat irregular, ill-defined, broad, darker green
space on the sides just above the spiracles; white piliferous tubercles,
somewhat faint, but quite noticeable in living specimens, occur in this
stage. Length, 10 to 11 mm.; width, 1.2 mm.
Yountyer 8tage.-A still earlier stage was represented by very few
specimens and was very much darker. Dorsal surface pale brown,
shading into black at the sides; piliferous tubercles distinct, large
and white, arranged in regular sets; head almost uniformly dark
brown. Length, 7 to 10 mm.; width, 0.9 to 1 mm.
Larve placed in a rearing cage in the insectary did not feed on
sugar-beet leaves, but when dock was substituted fed until maturity.
From these larvae three adults issued September 24. Larvae kept by
the junior author with him on his trip westward were.confined in a
small tin box and fed on beet leaves. From these one adult issued
October 3. The larva from which this adult came formed a naked
pupa in the box September 23, and this pupa was kept wrapped in a
beet leaf until the adult issued.
The pupa.-The pupa is at first pale green, with dark extremities
and tips of feet and palpi brownish. Before the adult emerges the
pupa (arkens considerably. Length, 10 mm.
The adult.-The general appearance of the adult sawfly and the
arrangement of the venation of the wings is shown by figure 15, a.
A brief characterization of the genus was given by Norton in 1868,.
a Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., Vol. II, p. 211.






43

with a description of the adult. As the latter is als brief, it is tran-
scribed herewith. The original description appeared in 18(62."
Color blue black; abdomen rather long flattened, acute; antenna slender,
S joint enlard, thilrd longer than fourth, apical joint as long as the preed-
Ing :;clyps angulate emuirginate labrum and hbse of nmndibles p'le rufous;
legs rufous or loney yellow; base of cox- and tarsi black: wins faintly
cl.ouded st igman a nd sta black.
The length of the body, including tie head. is three-tenths of an
inch. and the expanded wings measure double that. three-fifths or
about five-eighths of an inch in length. The t'vpe locality is I)orches-
ter. M s. It has als heen reported frolm Calnada by Provancher
and from New York City by II. (. I)yar.
Iis species hs 1ha ben rearled by Doctor I)yar from larva, taken in
New York City feeding on ur.rex spb and knotw eed (PIolygonrin
lapathiflm ) and the larva have been described by him under the
niame Strongyloiigaste aboris Prov. (a synonym).
Quite recently Dr. Jatmes Fletcher has mentioned the ocurrenceof
this species in Canada. During 1902 the larva, were reported in ev-
ral localities in western Ontario. as also at Ottawa, injuring apples
thl daaIllge )be11i of o So rious a nature tha thea fruit was u11ch dis-
figired aId in mtanly inlstalnes it was rendered 1unfit for market and
was ed to pig. The larva have also been observed feeding n
Rumex and Polyginum in Canada.,'

REM1EDIES.

The remedy is to prevent the growth of dock and knotweed in beet
fields and apple orchards, a matter not difficult of accomplislhent if
the weeds are hoed out in spring before the sawflies appear for ovipo-
ition.
THE PEPPER WEEVIL.
(Anthn)ous u Aefotinctus (Champ.)
By C. M. WALKER, Ten porarytI Field ACent.

Oct r 2, ,10, Mr. J. F. Nooe Boerne, Tex., brought to the
writer's attention specimens of sweet peppers which were infested
with a species of Anthonomus. The close resemblance which this
insect bears to the Mexican cotton-bll weevil has given rise to some
confusion regarding the two species on the part of those interested
in the growig of the affected crop.
SProc. Boston SoNa Hist., Vol. IX, p. 119.
STrans. Amer. Ent. Soc., Vol. XXII, p. 311, 1895.
e Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. V, p. 199, 1897.
SBul. 40, Div. Ent, U. S. Dept. Agric., p. 81 (193) ; 34th Ann. Rept. Ent. Soc.
Ot., 1903 19 p. 70; 1. c. 1902 [1903]-brief mention.






44

DETERMINATION OF THE SPECIES.

Specimens of the pepper weevil were submitted to Mr. Schwarz,
who reports as follows:
It is a species of Anthonomus hitherto not recorded from the United States,
and is no doubt A. tfeeotinctus, described by Mr. G. C. Champion in the Biologia
Centrali-Americana.a" The few specimens found at San Antonio in November by
Mr. Walker and myself on pepper plants agree perfectly with Champion's
description. However, all the numerous specimens bred by Mr. Walker from
pepper plants at Boerne, Tex., uniformly differ in having the legs throughout of
a bright orange-yellow colOr, whereas in the more typical specimens the thighs
are dark except at base. The difference, striking as it is, is most probably due
to the immature condition of the Boerne specimens and the mature condition of
the types. The pepper weevil, which is often con-
founded by farmers with the cotton-boll weevil, is
much smaller and much shorter than the smallest
specimens of the cotton-boll weevil. The legs are
much shorter; the elytra are more convex and much
less elongate than in the cotton-boll weevil; and,
more especially, the front legs do not have a double
tooth as in the boll weevil, but are furnished with
a single, not very conspicuous tooth.

SDISTRIBUTION AND DESTRUCTIVENESS.

According to Mr. Louis Lamm, of Boerne,
FIG. 16.-Anthonomus ceneo- Tex., upon whose farm the insects occurred
tinctus: weevil, much en- in large numbers, the weevil had been no-
larged (after Hunter and ticed there for two seasons, having been
Hinds).
seen for the first time in October, 1903, and
again during the summer of 1904, causing a loss of more than one-
third of the crop each year. At San Antonio, Tex., a number of
farms were so seriously infested during the previous season that
the growing of sweet peppers as a market crop was discontinued by
a number of market gardeners. Reports received at the San Antonio
market show that a pepper weevil had been common for three or four
years in that vicinity; there is not, however, conclusive proof that
the insect referred to is identical with the species here considered,
,fince a similar species has been reported on peppers in Texas. There
exists an erroneous idea that peppers are often infested with the
cotton-boll weevil, and it is possible that a confusion of these two
species has given rise to some of the reports. According to present
information, this species is not abundant in the State in localities
other than those above menttioined.
a Coleoptera, IV, pt. 4, February, 1903, p. 169, PI. X, fig. 5.






45

INDICATIONS OF INJURY.

The first indications of injury by the pepper weevil may be seen
the dropping of the peppers and the general unhealthy aspect of
he plant and of the fruit remaining thereon. The small peppers,
becoming infested i ediately after the blossoms fall, drop in large
numbers, so that the ground at the base of the plants becomes strewn
with the decayin fruit. This condition may be taken as a tolerably
certain sign of infestation. Not only is the small frit affected, but
the full-gron peppers also fall to the round: and if one of these
be opened the interior will be found either wholly or partly black-
ened and decayed, the seeds having ben eaten into and the pulp
consumed, until finally decomposition completes the work of destruc-
tion. The author of this damage may be found in most cases, within
the pepper, either in the larval or pupal stage (Pl. I), or the adult
tself may be found in the pod. from which it would ultimately have
ped by cutting away a hole just large enough to allow the passage
f its body (P1. I, fig. 2, d). In the small fruit the occurrence of
or young larv, is indicated by the presence of sears made by
he weevils either r i ii or feding. The large fruit often
appears unsightly and misshapen from this injury. The absence of
blooms is another indication of the presence of this pest. Although
oly a small proportion of the buds are usually infested. still, as
tose that have been punctured fail to bloom, the lack of blossoms
undoubtedly due, to a considerable extent, to the work of this insect.

LIFE HISTORY.

As is common with other scis of Anthonomus, the eggs are
laced in such a position as to be invisible to the naked eye and well
rotected from any conditions detrimental to their future develop-
ment. Eg are laid in the very small buds of the pepper plant, in
the blooms, or in the young fruit just after the blossoms fall. The
intermediate and also the mature stages of the fruit offer favorable
conditions for the deposition of eggs. The weevils apparently pre-
fer, however, to oviposit in the peppers immediately after the blooms
fall, observations made in the field showing that fruit affected at this
stage contained a relatively larger number of eggs than did the more
mature peppers.
The female, with her long snout, bores a small hole through the
(P. fig. 1, b, and fig. 2, b) and, if necessary for the reception
of the egg, excavates a cavity in the adjacent seeds of the fruit. If
the pepper has already attained sufficient growth so that the seeds do
ot come in contact with the outer wall of the pod, the egg may be left
rotruding, with about one-half of its length exposed on theinner





46

side of the pod. When oviposition occurs in small buds the egg is
placed in a cavity excavated among the immature anthers.
The egg is pearly white when first deposited, but turns somewhat
darker with advanced development. The form is quite regularly
elliptical, tapering slightly toward the micropylar end, but varies
somewhat according to the conditions of pressure encountered within
the pepper. The average length is about 0.5 mm. and the width
0.3 mm. (- by & inch). There appear to be o characteristic mark-
ings on the outer membranes of the egg, which are soft and delicate
and easily ruptured. Under normal conditions the egg hatches in
from two to four days.
The newly hatched larva is about 0.5 mm. in length and has the
appearance of a minute, white, legless grub. As it grows larger its
color is modified by the contents of the alimentary canal.
The larva has the characteristic crescentic form common to most
curculionids, with a large, light-colored head bearing darker colored
mouth parts. Its growth is at first very rapid, especially during
the first three days, and at the end of this time it is about three
times its size .when first hatched. At this stage the head is very large
in proportion to the body, the latter being deeply wrinkled and cov-
ered with tubercles. At the age of 2 weeks, after undergoing at
least one molt, the length averages nearly 5 mm., while the body has
become much larger and stouter and the body wall more deeply
wrinkled. Viewed laterally, the body tapers considerably from the
middle toward the extremities. The head is of a light amber color,
with conspicuous mouth parts. This stage appears to be that of the
full-grown larva.
The amount of food available and the climatic changes naturally
influence the growth of the larvae, but under normal conditions the
size of the same stage varies but little. This conclusion is borne out
by the resulting slight variation in the size of the adults. The
larve retain their crescent-shaped form throughout their growth,
except that when about to change to the pupal condition they become
somewhat flattened and the lateral swellings are more apparent.
After attaining full growth the larva transforms to a pupa within
a cell (P1. I, fig. 1, c) formed of dried excreta and decaying matter,
and situated within the pepper pod, usually occupying the space
which has been eaten away among the seeds. The cell is oval in
form and varies somewhat in size, the average length being about
6 mm. Two or three cells are often present in a single pepper and in
some cases each one of the four interior compartments into which the
pod is divided has nourished a larva. The location' of the pupal cell
appears to be a matter of no significance, as cells may be found at
many different positions within the seed pod, the larve evidently










I-


a.

















3






0
0.









E
0










FIG. 1 .-ANTHONOMUS NEOTINCTUS. FIG. 2.-WORK OF PEPPER WEEVIL

a, Weevil, enlarged; b. short pod, showing an egg puncture (E) and a feeding puncture (F); a, Bud of sweet pepper, showing many feeding punctures; b, small pod,
c, opened pod, showg pup in cell beneath. showing one egg puncture above c, section of pod, showing larva in
[Photo ph by W. E. Hinds. opened cell beneath; d, small pod, showing exit hole of weevl.
_.........._.... .[_Photogrra h by W. E. Hinds.]





47

ptpating near the portion upon which the last feeding was accom-
plished.
The pupa is short and robust, about 4 mm. in length, and nearly-
3 nnm. in breadth at its widest part. In color it is pale amber, with
dark-brown eyes. The snout lies clos to the ventral surface of the
body. Above, the wing pads are conspicuous, and blow them the
gs protrude. The antennw, arising from the snout, are folded
below the head. and appear dorsally as knobbed appendages at the
sides of the wing pads. The abdomen tapers to a point behind and,
the outer sergents being free. the tip can wriggle nervously, a- it
often does when the pupa is disturbed. The pupa is covered with
tulbrcles, from each of which arises a long hair or spine. A short
time before transformation to adult the color becomes much darker,
the abdomen, however, retaining the original hue. The pupal stage
occupies from six to ten days. Upon the full developlent of the
adult the cell is broken open and the weevil emerges into the cavity
of the pepper pod, remaining there until hardened, after which it
cuts its way out through the pod wall (PI. I, fig. 2. d). The color
immediately upon emergenWe is light yellow, but in a few days this
changes to a darker yellow-brown, fbcoming, finally, almost black,
with the exception of the bases of the femora, which are orange.
FOOD AND FEEDING IIABITS.

So far as is klown to the writer, this insect has no other food
plants than peppers; yet i is certain that it can exist upon at least
the varieties of the plant, including the common sweet pepper
and two varieties of the so-called "hot pepper." The weevil may
also, perhaps, live upon a wild peppr which is common in wooded
localities in southwestern Texas. The fruit of this plant, a small
red berry, has an exceptionally pungent flavor and is used rather
extensively in the manufacture of a variety of pepper sauce. There
is a possibility that this" wild pepper may prove to be the original
food plant, but thus far the weevil has not been observed feeding
upon it.
The young larva, when first hatched, feeds upon the soft. pulpy
tissue forming the interior lining of the pod. This food it can obtain
in abundance, since it is here, in the majority of cases, that the egg
is deosited. Usually the larva does not attack the seeds until it
has attained considerable growth, except in those cases in which the
egg is placed in a cavity excavated for its reception in a seed. The
see, extending out laterally in a cluster from the bases of attach-
ment, offer secure lodgment for the larva, which eats away the outer
edges and excavates the interior, thereby causing serious injury
(P. fig. 2, c). The adult weevils appear to feed equally well in the
uit at different stages of growth, although the small, tender buds





48

seem to be the most seriously injured (P1. I, fig. 2, a). By means of
the sharp mandibles at the end of the snout the weevil will bore its
way through the pod, eating from the center in a circle as far as the
length of the proboscis will permit, sometimes increasing the dis-
tance by forcing the head and thorax into the opening made. A
number of such punctures in a tender bud or young pepper will soon
cause it to fall to the ground.

REMEDIAL SUGGESTIONS.

In view of the .fact that the discovery of the work of this insect
was made so late in the season that no experiments in the application
of insecticides or other remedial measures could be performed, it is
impossible at present to describe any sure method of destruction. A
few suggestions, however, may prove of value to those who are
directly interested. From the knowledge already gained concern-
ing the feeding habits of the adult insect, which are very similar to
those of the Mexican cotton-boll weevil, it is evident that the use of
internal or stomach poisons, such as Paris green, would not give sat-
isfactory results. Since the area devoted to the cultivation of pep-
pers is not, as a rule, very extensive, there is one remedial measure
which may be advised with some assurance of success, i. e., the gath-
ering and destroying of the infested fallen fruit. As a general rule
the peppers found upon the ground contain larve, pupue, and even
adult weevils in large numbers. If the fruit thus fallen be collected
and destroyed by burning, or some other equally certain method,
immense numbers of the weevils will be killed and the future crop
protected to a certain extent from further infestation. If the fruit
is allowed to remain on the ground, however, it will furnish a favor-
able opportunity for the development of the immature stages within
the pods, and the adult weevils emerging therefrom will at once
attack the peppers which may have escaped previous injury. The
expense involved in this procedure would be slight, since the work
may be done by unskilled persons with a reasonable chance of success.
Judging from what has been learned of the life history of the insect,
it is safe to say that, beginning as early in the season as the young
buds or peppers begin to drop, a collection should be made as often
as every fifth or seventh day, gathering not only all fallen fruit, but
also all buds and pods still on the plants showing an unhealthy color,
a deformity of shape, or any other sign of having been atacked.
Whether the infestation be severe or slight, the interval between the
collections, if this method of control be adopted, will be the same,
since the interval depends upon the developmental period and not
upon the abundance of the fallen fruit. If the collection of the
fallen fruit be steadily followed up, the damage done by the weevil
can, in all probability, be very largely prevented.






49

COLD STORAGE FOR COWPEAS.,
By J. W. DuvE Reed Laboratory, Bureau of Plant Industry.

INTRODU CTION.

The value of cowpeas for the improvement of the soil as well as
for forage has long been recognized. In recent years the area on
which cowpeas are grown has been reatly extended. With the in-
reased acreage there has been a more widespread distribution of the
weevils destructive to cow peas. Lare quantities of seed are destroyed
1annually inI this way, ntailing a great loss to seedsmen.
Carefully conducted experiments, extending over a period of nearly
two years, have shown that cowpeas can be kept free from weevils if
stored at a temperature of 32 to 34 F. It is understood that this
method is practiced to a limited extent by a few seedsmen, who find it














FIo. 17.-a, Bruchus obtectus; b B. chinenais; BI. quadritnarulatuss-all much enlarged
(after Chittenden ~

ar more satisfactory than the methods of fumigation which have
been so generally used.

WEEVILS INFESTING COWPEAS.b

There are three kinds of weevils which do considerable damage to
wpes during storage-the common bean weevil (Bruchus obtects
ay), the cowpea weevil (B ruhus chinensis Linn.), and the four-
ptted bean weevil (Bruchtus quadrimaculatus Fab.). The adult
bete of each of these species is shown in figure 17, a b, and c. The

What is here said concerning the storage of cowpeas applies equally well to
garden pes and beans, and presumably to other seeds of a similar character
which are attacked by weevils.
The notes on the ravages and life history of these weevils are based on Dr.
H. Chittenden's "Insects injurious to beans and peas," Yearbook United
Department of Agcutu for 1898, pp. 233-20. Figure 17 is taken from
me paper
28739-No. 54-05 M-






50

first-named species is met with in cowpeas much less frequently than
the last two.
The species breeding in the cowpeas which served as check samples
to the series kept in cold storage were the cowpea weevil and the four-
spotted bean weevil. The principal food of these two species is the
cowpea, and they are found in most countries where cowpeas are
grown. The first eggs are usually deposited in the field, but the
greatest damage is generally done after the seed is stored. The
beetles continue to develop in the dried and stored seed for several
generations. Under favorable conditions, depending chiefly on the
temperature, six or seven broods may develop within a year, according
to Doctor Chittenden's observations. If not checked their ravages.
continue until the cowpeas are unfit for any practical purpose, not
even serving for the sustenance of the weevils. Plate II, fig. 1, shows
cowpeas which have been destroyed in this way.

(ONDITIONS AND RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS.

The experiments herein discussed we.re conducted with Clay cowpeas
grown in Georgia in 1902. A germination test made of the bulk lot
in February, 1903, showed a vitality of 83.5 per cent.
March 7, 1903, duplicate sets of twelve lots each, put up in cloth
bags, were stored in trade conditions," and in cold storage at Wash-
ington, D. C., Richmond, Va., Jacksonville, Fla., and New Orleans,
La. At each of these places the trade conditions were represented
by seed warehouses. The cold-storage samples were subjected to a
temperature of 320 to 34 F. The remainder of the original bulk
was kept in the seed laboratory at a temperature varying from 550 to
800 F. Samples from the entire series were tested from time to time
for germination. The results of the tests are given in Table I.

rTABLE I.-Percentage of germination 'of cowpeas stored at various places under
trade conditions and in cold storage on March 7, 1903, and returned from
s.torage at various dates.

Percentages of germination.
Date of re-I
turn of seeds Original Washington, D. C. Richmond, Va. Jacksonville, Fla. New Orleans, La
from stor- bulk lot -~ --- -
age.a kept in Trade Co Trade Trade Cd Trade o
seed lab- condi- condi- old condi- condi- Cold
storage, storage. storage, storage.
oratory.?, tions. tions. tions. tions i

May 1, 0 I3 81 84.5 92 83.5 i 90.5 90.5 91.5 .83 82.
June 1, 14, (C) 996 93.5 97.5 92.5 94.5 .4 90
July 1, 10 (1c) 93 94.5 74.5 87 (c) 90.5 11 9
Aug. l, 1 t3 (e) rf .5 92.5 (c) 87 (c) 83.5 88
Sept. 1,1903 (c) (c) 84 () 83.5 (C) .5 4 85
Nov. 1,1903 () () 96. 5 (c) 94.5 (c) 9 7 () 93
June 1,1904 () (c) 87.5 (c) 70.5 i (c) 85 ()
Nov. 1.1904 c) () 92 (0) 4.5 (e) 5 () 7

The dates given are approximate only, varying slightly from actual dates of return o
Swes from stornge. (;erinmantion tests in all cases were made within a very few da
lifter return of se(eds from storage.
1 The orlginrl Iulk sample germinated 83.5 per cent in February, 1903.
SI)estroyed by weevils.
1 Many destroyed by weevils.







Bu. 54 Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE II.





























SFi. 1 .-WEEVIL-EATEN COWPEAS FROM "TRADE CONDITIONS," WASHINGTON, D. C.,
SEPTEMBER 1, 1903-NATURAL SIZE (ORIGINAL).































FIG. 2.-COWPEAS FROM COLD STORAGE, WASHINGTON, D. C., SEPTEMBER 1, 1903-
NATURAL SIZE (ORIGINAL).







.Bul. S, Bureauof Enmo U. S. Dept. of Agrfculture. PLATE III.































Fla. 1.-COWPEAS IN COLD STORAGE FROM MARCH 7, 1903, To MAY 1, 1903. AFTER
WHICH TIME THEY WERE STORED IN THE SEED LABORATORY (ORIGINAL).


































FlG. 2.-COWPEAS IN COLD STORAGE FROM MARCH 7, 1903, TO NOVEMBER 1, 1904
(ORIGINAL).





51

The table shows that the period of storage extends over two sum-
m from arch 7, 1903, to November, 1904. Throughout this
tire period the cowpeas kept in cold storage were not injured by
wevils and showed practically no deterioration in vitality. On the
er hand, the cowpeas stored in trade conditions were all de-
stroed by weevils durin the first summer. The 1bulk lot kept in the
eed laboratory. Bureau of Plant Industry, where the temperature
was very favorable for the development of the weevils, was the first
to be destroed. In May 1903, this seed germinated 81 per cent, but
one month later the weevils had destroyed every seed. At this time
the etls were present in such number as to cause a ris in tempera-
ture within the bag of seed of 11.5" C. (20.71 F.). Samples from
Jacksonville germinated 90.5o per cent in Mlay and 94.5 per cent in
June, 1903, but by the 1st of July the seed had een destroyed by
vils. The seed stored at Richond was not all destroyed until
te Augulst test. The Washington and New Orlealns sries showed
Oplete failuire in the Septemller test. but in each of these cases maniy
s were dest oped iat the time earlier tests were Imde.
The foregOing reults with the cowpes kept in trade conditios "
l trate exactly what has bben experienced by every eedsillaln who
has attempted to carry cowpeas over the suumer in his warehouse.
However. where the eeds are handled in large bulk they will be de-
styed much earlier in the season. a a result of the heat generated
Sthe evils duing the transformation stage. As a result of this
Sht the second brood will develop much more quickly than was the
cse with small lots as used for these experiments. The actual comn-
ercial conditions with seed stored in quantity would be much the
se as shown in the control saple stored in the seed laboratory-
t is, the sed would be destroyed earlier in the season. Plate II
Shows cowpeas which were kept in trade conditions (fig. 1) and in
Cld storag (fig. 2) at Washington. D. C. The plhotographs were
aken September 1. 1903, approxiiately six months after the seeds
re stored. Figure 1 shows the weevil-eaten cowpeas. which failed
Sshow a single germinable seed: figure .2 the cowpeas after six
onths in cold storage. These cowpeas had not deteriorated in vital-
yit and germinated 8~ per cent.

FT OF COLD S'ORAGE( ON THE VITALITY OF THE SEED A6ND THE FUTURE
DEVELOPMENT OF THE WEEVILS.

T samples of seed were tested for germination as they were
k from cold storage. The remainder of each sample was then
in tin boxes. The temperature of the laboratory where the
sees were stored was slightly higher than that of the ordinary living
room






52

It was supposed that the weevils would develop in the cowpeas
after they were taken from cold storage and subjected to a higher
temperature, but in no case did the weevils ever develop, not even
in the samples which were taken from cold storage May 1, 1903, less
than two months from the time they were first put into the cold-
storage room.
The samples from cold storage were tested again for germination
March 11, 1905, two years after the beginning of the experiment.
The results of the germination tests are shown in Table II, together
with the approximate time the samples were in cold storage and the
time they were subsequently stored in the seed laboratory.

TABLE II.-Percentages of germination of cowpeas stored at various places at a
temperature varying from 32 to 34 F. for from two to twenty months, and
then in seed laboratory at a temperature varying from 600 to 800 F. for from
four to twenty-two months.a

Duration of storage.b Percentages of germination.

In cold In labora- Washing- Richmond, Jackson- New Or-
3034 F'. 6o0-0 0 ton, D. C. Va. ville, Fla. leans, La.

Months. Months. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
2 22 79.5 80 81.5 77.5
3 21 81 84.5 86.5 84.5
4 20 73.5 83 77.5 76
5 19 80.5 77 81.5 71
6 18 81 82.5 83.5 86
7 17 75 78 92 79
15 9 83.5 85 79 79
20 4 70.5 79.5 64.5 79
Average ....---- 78.06 81.21 80.75 79

a Seeds placed in cold storage March 7, 1903; tested March 11, 1905.
b Durations of storage here given are approximate only, varying slightly from actual number
of days of storage.

Table II shows that the vitality of the samples remained practi-
cally uniform, regardless of the length of time they were kept in
cold storage. This fact should clear up any doubts, which so many
see(dsmen have entertained, that seeds kept in cold storage would de-
teriorate very rapidly if afterwards subjected to atmospheric changes
of temperature. The results, it is true, are somewhat lower than
those given in Table I, and the average percentages of germination
are likewise lower than the germination of the original control
sample. But this must be considered as a natural deterioration,
inlasmuch as the peas at the time of this test were two and one-half
years old. The test showing the lowest percentage of germination,
No. 8, was from Jacksonville. When this sample was received it
bore indications of being damaged by moisture, and the test made at
thiat time (November 1, 1904) showed a vitality of only 50 per cent.
There was, however, a marked difference in the color of the cow:
peis. The earlier samples taken from cold storage had darkened






53

color, while e t peas fresh from the cold storage room were not
iscolored, ave perhas, an occasional seed. These differences in
or are shown in Plate III (figs. 1 and 2).

COST OF COLD STORAGE.

While a few seedsmen have adopted the method of keeping cow-
peas in cold storage, the majority contend that it is too expensive.
Those who practice the cold-storage treatment, however, find it
entirely practicable and economical. Data obtained from a number
of the largest and best equipped cold-storage houses in the United
States show that the cost of storing a bushel of seed of this kind
varies from 3.6 to 7.5 cents a month, depending chiefly upon the
quantity stored. The former price is for seed stored in carload
ots and the latter for quantities of 10 bushels or less. The cost
f cold storage for the season, from four to seven months, ranges from
5 to 25 cents per bushel, depending upon the length of time and the
uantity of sed stored. A numer of the cold-storage men are
lready familiai with the handling of stock of this kind, and from
oe the lowest rices were submitted. But to pay the highest
rice, 25 cents per bshel for the season, is analogous to paying that
ice for a new stock of seed.

HOW SEED SOULD BE STORED.

Cowpeas, when kept in c old storage, should be handled in bag, just
in the warehouse. The objetion frequently raised by those who
re unfailiar with the cold-storage method is that of excessive
moisture, the contention being that cold storage would necessitate
seial containers. This objection, however, is not a valid one, for,
at teperatre of 32 to 340 F. the air can retain but a compara-
tively small quantity of water vapor. Furthermore, at low tempera-
res moisture is much less deterious to vitality than at temperatures
uch as are found during the summer months in warm, moist climates,
here seeds of all kinds soon lose their vitality. It is, however, de-
srable to keep the seed as dry as possible, and sparate cold-storage
should be provided for stock of this character.
If the bags of seed are taken from cold storage and placed in a
moist room, there may be in exceptional cases a sufficient con-
tion of moisture to cause "sweating." But if the cold storage
r hs been dry and a good circulation of air is maintained between
t ags fra short time after they are taken from cold storage, the
ture of tseed will soon be the same as that of the surround-
i air and the dnr of sweating" will be overcome.






54

SU MM ARY.

Cowpeas can be kept free from weevils if maintained at a tempera-
ture of from 32 to 340 F.
The vitality of the seed is in no way injured by the cold-storage
treatment.
Cowpeas can be carried through the summer in cold storage at a
cost ranging from 15 to 25 cents per bushel for the season.
It is not necessary that the seed be planted soon after it is taken
from cold storage and subjected to atmospheric temperatures; for
this is not followed by a more rapid deterioration in vitality.
The storage room should be kept as dry as possible, and the seeds
handled in bags as in the warehouse.

THE LARGER CANNA LEAF-ROLLER.
(Calpodex ethlius Craml.)
By F. II. CHITTENDEN.
During the past two years the leaf-rolling caterpillar of Calpodes
cthl;hus Cram. has attracted considerable attention from its ravages
in fields of canna in portions of South Carolina and Alabama.
In September, 1903, Mr. H. M. Simons wrote of its attacking the
foliage of the canna plant in the vicinity of Myers, S. C., sending
specimens in all stages except the egg, the first adult issuing Sep-
tember 21.
In September, 1904, a similar lot of specimens were received from
Mr. L. H. Read, Fruitdale, Ala., who wrote of the difficulty of cap-
turing the butterflies, although they were quite plentiful among the
canna plants. Thousands of the caterpillars were in the fields, and
hand-picking was out of the question. All bronze varieties of canna
were injured, including eight or ten varieties. Among those most
attacked were Mississippi, Mont Blanc, Explorateur, Crampbell, and
Italia. A few green varieties were somewhat affected, but as a rule
were scarcely touched, obviously owing to their thicker and tougher
leaves. The caterpillar was observed at work only at night.
In 1904, also, the species was observed somewhat abundantly at
Baton Rouge, La., by Mr. A. L. Quaintance, and sparingly at New
Orleans, La., by Mr. E. S. G. Titus. Although only two instances
of severe injury are cited, these are doubtless merely representative
of iany which were not reported.
This species and its injuries have been known for many years, yet
no coImnprehensive article on it has, to our knowledge, appeared in any
work on economic entomology, although the insect in its various
stages was described in detail by Dr. S. H. Scudder in his Butterflies






55

of the Eastern United States and Canada.a The entire appearance
of the insect from the larval stage to the adult is indicative of its
tropical origin, and it is still somewhat restricted to the South. There
is a possibility, however, that it might gradually extend its present
distribution if it could obtain a footing in grenhouses where cannas
,re grown.
DESCRIPTIVE.

The butterfy.-The parent of this singular leaf-roller is a butterfly
belonging to the subfamily Pamphilinm of the family HIesperiida, or
skippers. It is one of the larger skippers, with a wing expanse of
between 1 and 11 inches. The head is very broad, with large eyes,
and the body is thick and heavy. The upper surfac of the head,















6 d a

FX I 1S.- CalpodC8 ethliue: a, butterly; b, larva; e, pupa, front view; d, lIlpa, side
view-all enlarged (origlual).
thorax, and a portion of the abdomen is thickly covered with long
olive hairs. The wings are dark brown, with white semitransparent
spots, arranged as in figure 18, which also shows the location of the
masses of yellowish hairs, the contour of the wings, and structure of
Athe antenmE. The lower surface of the wings is much paler brown,
or flvous, and more nearly uniform in color. The head and body
are still paler yellowish. The adult is sometimes called the Brazilian
skipper.
The egg is illustrated by Scudder. It is subhemispherical in out-
li, as viewed from the side, and has a convex base, while the surface
Svery irregularly reticulated, in most cases pentagonally. The.broad-
diameter is 1.25 mm.; height about 0.7 mm. Eggs have not been
a Vol. II, pp. 1750-1757, 1889.





56

seen by the writer, and the color does not appear to have been desig-
nated.
The larva or caterpillar is quite remarkable because of its semi-
transparency. Its surface is without hair and the general color is
moderately pale green, with dark-orange subtriangular head, which
is marked by a frontal subtriangular space. The thoracic segments
are greenish testaceous and more or less tinged with orange, at least
in preserved specimens. The remainder of the body is nearly trans-
parent, presenting a view of the vascular and nervous system beneath
the skin, as illustrated in figure 18, b. The length of the larva, when
full grown, is about 1h inches.
The pupa is nearly as striking as is the larva. It is of similar pale
greenish color and of the appearance shown in figure 18, c, d. The
head is prolonged into a curved process, and the tongue extends in a
nearly straight line considerably beyond the prolonged anal tubercle.
Without the projections it is nearly as long as the larva.

DISTRIBUTION.

Scudder states that the principal range of this species is from Cen-
tral America to the northern parts of the'South American Continent,
although it inhabits, also, the extreme Southern States of our Union.
So far as can be learned it is still known only from the Gulf States,
South Carolina, and Porto Rico in our domains. It also inhabits
Cuba and Jamaica, however, and in South America occurs as far
south as Argentina, where it was years ago reported to be common
by Burmeister.
ACCOUNTS OF INJURY.

In the records of the Bureau of Entomology we have accounts of
injuries and of other observations on this species, as follows: June 7,
1880, we received from Dr. J. H. Mellichamp, Bluffton, S. C., a report
that the larva had utterly destroyed some luxuriant plants of Canna
flaccida in his garden. August 9, 1887, we received from Mr. A. L.
Townsend, Bay Ridge, Long Island, report that the species did much
damage to French cannas and Caladium esculentum. In our rearing
cages the butterflies hatched June 12 and August 26.
The caterpillars appear to affect only plants of the genus Canna,
when they are obtainable, and sometimes they are so abundant as to
do much damage, at times utterly destroying luxuriant plants. Dr.
II. G. Dyar mentions a case where the larvae were eating the leaves of
canna planted in the grounds of a hotel at Miami, Fla., considerably
injuring the appearance of the plants.






57

LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS.

Eggs are laid singly and separately, sometimes in groups of from
5 o 7, on the under surface of leaves. According to Miss Helen King a
they hatch in six days, while in Florida, according to Witt-
feld, they may hatch in four days.
On hatcing, the caterpillar, as is common with many species, de-
vours a portion of its eggshell, whereupon, after feeding lightly on a
leaf, it folds the latter over and confines it in place with a few stitches
of silk, enlarging its retreat as it develops. From the tubular case
thus formed it feeds along the edges and retreats within when dis-
rbe. It is careful to eject all excreta and exuviw, but in spite of
its 'leanliness the caterpillar is frequently attacked by diea.
A good account is given by Miss King in the article above noted,
which is largely republished in Scudder's work. Doctor Dyar has
srtained that there are custolarily five stages of this larva, and
describes them fully in Entomological News." The larva, when full
wn, develops to a pupa in its resting plaee "held by a transverse
oop and a band of silk for the cremaster." The cremasterial band
Sattached at one end to the leaf; at the other to the transverse
tread." This accurately describes the pupal case as observed in
scimens rcived at this office. Under other conditions this case
ight be different, as described by Mr. Charles R. D1odg.
According to dita accumulated by Scudder, the butterfly is on the
ing in southern Florida in May, and from eggs laid in the middle
f the month the butterflies reappear in the firt half of June. In
South Carolina the season is a little later, and there mature cater-
pillars have been observed before the middle of June and fresh but-
terflies from the 1th of the month to the end. Scudder concludes
that there are two generations before midsummer. Judging by
recent experience there are likely to be two more generations before
cold weather, but we do not know how the winter is passed. The
moths from one of these generations appear in the latter part of Sep-
tember.
Of the butterfly Angus has stated that he was attracted to an indi-
vidual, which he captured near ew York City, by the peculiarity
of its movements on the win; tey were very undulating, like those
o gnats, as they rose and fell almost perpendicularly and in a very
Smanner." Wittfeld adds that one of the favorite times for
t of the butte in fair weather is after sundown. Miss Helen
Kindescribes its motion as very rapid."
SPsyche, Vol. III, pp. 322-324, 1882.
b Pages 163-165, 1898.
c Rural Carolinian, Vol. II, p. 593.






58

REMEDIES.

The large holes made by this leaf-roller in the leaves of canna and
the rolled-up leaves, together with the excrement, which will be found
below the affected leaves, will serve to indicate its presence, and its
large size permits the control of the insect by hand-picking. Any of
the arsenicals will kill it, but their use is not always desirable because
of the presence of children in the vicinity and the fear of their being
poisoned. An ordinary spraying with an arsenical, preferably arse-
nate of lead combined with Bordeaux mixture, could, however, be
made without any real danger of poisoning. After an arsenical has
been used, Bordeaux mixture should be tried alone as a repellent.

THE POND-LILY LEAF-BEETLE.
(Galerucella nnymphwar Linn.)
By F. H. CHITTENDEN.
During the first week of August, 1904, this leaf-beetle became so
abundant in the District of Columbia that it deserted its natural
food plants-aquatic species of the genera Nymphaea, Sagittaria,
Braseiia, and Nuphar-and attacked near-by plants of other botan-
ical families not at all related to those which form its normal food.
Mr. George B. Sudworth, of the Bureau of Forestry, reported the
species on basket willow, remarking that it appeared capable of
doing considerable damage to this plant. Mr. Sedgwick N. Lander
reported injury to beans. In both cases numerous living specimens
of the beetles were furnished. August 4 Mr. J. L. Reeves visited
Mr. Lander's place, and with little effort obtained a thousand or
more of the beetles by sweeping the infested plants. In confine-
ment the beetles fed for several weeks on the leaves of both willow
and bean, gnawing minute holes from the epidermis of the upper
surface, thereby producing the effect of fine network.
This species is evidently of foreign origin and is now common
to both continents, and its semiaquatic habits are familiar to most
collectors. The writer has in mind another report, made August 3,
189!)!, by Mr. R. Balluff, of injury to a native pond lily (Nymphaea
sp.) growing on the grounds of the Executive Mansion at Wash-
ington. As this leaf-beetle does not appear to have been mentioned
hitherto in any publications of this Department, a short account may
he iinteresting.l
The species has frequently received mention under the name Gale-
.1CU .sw fgttr.. Gyll. It is related to the common cucumber beetles,
belonging to tthe same tribe, the Galerucina, of the Chrysomelide
or leaf-beetles. The beetle (fig. 19) measures about one-fourth of






59

ninch in length, and may be distinguished from other species in
our fauna by a number of characters, among which are its per-
fectly slooth thorax, pale elytral margin, acute sutural angles, and
completely separated middle coxt. this sparation being due to a
prolongation of the mesosternum meting the metasternum. The
thorax is dull yellow, with three piceous spots, and the elytra are
darker brown, somewhat coarsely and densely punctate.
This insect occurs abundantly throughout northern Europe and
Siberia. and in the northern portion of our own continent from the
Iudson Bay region southward to the District of Columbia and
Virginia. It is recorded also from Texas. California. and Oregon,
but doe not seem to have been recognized in neighboring States.
It seems probable that it was ntroduced
many year ago froni the Eastern Hemis-
phere.
An account of the earlier stages of this
species, with notes on its habits and illus-
tration of larva, pupa. and adult, were
given as early as 1775 by Baron De Ger."
Later writers have al described the
earlier stages, the list including Bargagli,
Gadeau. Weise, and Quilter.b The de-
cription by the ast-mentioned author, in
the writer s opinion, can only be doubt-
fully referred to this species. He stat"es Fie1,-l.ct l yrrw,
that the larva occur on Polygonwl am- auut sx times enlarged (orig-
phibi mr in England. concludes that the
parent deposits eggs at the root of its fod plant, and that the larvae
are consequently aquatic, coming up out of the water to pupate on
leaves and stalks of aquatic plants. He also describes the beetles as
turning black in two or three hours after transformation, which is
not true of this species.
Of the earlier stages in America, the late F. G. Schaupp described
the larva in 1883, briefly characterizing the eggs and pupa. More
detailed descriptions have been furnished by A. D. MacGillivray.d
The egg are ovate, shining yellow, and are laid in small patches
of from 6 to 20 on the upper surface of the leaf. Larvae, pupla,
and beetles in all stages of growth were observed near New York
City in July. The larva is bluish-black above, and yellow on the
a ires pour servir a L'hlstoire des Insectes. Vol. V, pp. 326-329, P. 10,
figs. 1-6.
SThe Entomologist, Vol. XX. pp. 178-181, 1887.
SBul. Brooklyn Ent. Soe., Vol. VI, p. 54.
SBul. 68, N. Y. State Mus., 1903, pp. 325, 326.






60

under surface, of elongate form, when full grown measuring three-
eighths of an inch in length; widest at the middle, and tapering
toward either extremity. Many larvae are frequently found together
on a single leaf, where they eat the upper surface, doubtless because
the lower surface of the leaves of the natural food plants rest on
the water. As a result of these attacks the leaves become brown and
unsightly. The white lily is less affected than yellow lilies.
As to remedies, the arsenicals are quite effective, and Paris green
is reported by Mr. Sudworth as checking the ravages of the beetles
on willow. When spraying bean plants, arsenate of lead is prefer-
able, owing to the danger of scalding the more tender leaves if
Paris green is used. When this species occurs in troublesome num-
bers on aquatic plants it might readily be destroyed in all stages,
and especially as larva, if the ponds, fountains, or other places in
which the lilies are growing could be flooded so as to bring the
insects to the surface. A few drops of kerosene spilled on the water
would then destroy the floating insects.

GRASSHOPPER CONDITIONS IN NEBRASKA, NORTHEASTERN COL-
ORADO, WYOMING, MONTANA, AND WESTERN KANSAS DURING
THE SUMMER OF 1904.
By LAWRENCE BRUNER, Temporary Field Agent.

In compliance with instructions received last July, the writer spent
the greater portion of the month of August in endeavoring to ascer-
tain the existing status of the grasshopper, or locust plague, through-
out the region lying to the east of the main divide of the Rocky:
Mountains and west of the Missouri River. In order to accomplish
this work in a satisfactory manner several journeys were undertaken
over the various lines of railroads located in the region under inves-
tigation. The officers of all of these roads cooperated in the work
by kindly providing all transportation necessary for visiting the
various localities known to have been infested by these insects during
recent years.
In order to ascertain more clearly the conditions in Colorado, the
entomologist of the State Agricultural College, Prof. C. P. Gil-
lette was consulted. Visits were also made to the Agricultural
College of Montana and to the State University of Wyoming, where
niportant data bearing on the subject under investigation were
obtained. Some additional records of grasshopper abundance were
gathered from the daily press reports, while data bearing on the
presence of locusts in other localities not visited were gleaned from
various persons.
By carefully arranging and studying all the information accumu-
lated it would seem that the general status of the locust pest, over






61

the region ebraced in these studies, is greatly improving. Practi-
call everwhere these insects are rapidly decreasing and getting
down to their normal numbers or even below the normal. Of course,
the causes for this decrease are various,. bing somewhat different in
each locality affected. These calses were given and discussed to some
extent in my report at the close of the season's work during the
s~unmer of 19f1.a
August 2. 1904. the writer left Lincoln for the purpoi 'e of visiting
southwestern Nebraska and eastern Colorado. taking a daylight train.
A eareful outlook was kept from the car windows for signs of locust
injuries or the presence of these insects in more thani orlinar num-
bers. Not until after leaving Oxford, however, were such indications
observed. But from a few miles west of that pflace all the way to
McCook it was clearly indicated, both by the presence of the insects
on weeds along the right of way and by more or less damage to the
outer rows of corn growing near alfalfa and small grain, as well as
y deserted r and weedy fields. Each of these conditions was occa-
1onally lquie apparent, even fron the moving train, and increa0sed
Westward. The species of locusts most concerned in these r.vayes
were two: Melanoplus di'fferentiali Thos. and JI. hbiitutats Say.
Tese two forms habitually frequent low ground and other areas
vergrown with rank vegetation.
The morning of August 3 was spent in the vicinity of Me('ook.
Here it was found that several additional species of locusts, like I.,
emur-ridrut DeG. and M1. at1lnis Riley, were quite rnunerous, both
in alfalfa fields and on the prairies. The deserted fields which had
grown up to rank weeds were the homes of still other species, of which
AEoloplus regalis Scudder and Aflanoplus laklin u Scdder were the
chief forms. These latter were quite partial to Russian thistle and
lambs-quarters as food plants. Hesperotettl specio s Scudder,
hich is a feeder on Helianthus, was very common, while several of
the grass-infesting species were present in numbers above the normal
as observed during ordinary years. These latter, however, were con-
centrated at places where the grasses still showed green, and possibly,
n account of this bunching, their abnormal abundance may have been
only seeming. It might be well to state that this particular region
as suffering greatly from drought, a fact which undoubtedly had
much to do in causing the more than ordinary locust injury.
Leaving McCook, the writer had an opportunity of seeing the con-
ditions along the Republican Valley almost to the southwestern
corner of the State. Just beyond the junction of the Frenchman
and the Republican rivers it was noted that the drought conditions
were less severe, and vegetation improved as we progressed west-
SSee Bul. 38i n. s., Divison of Entomology, U. S. Dept. Agr., pp. 39-49, 1904.






62

ward. Some species of locusts and a few signs of their injuries were
still occasionally apparent, even as far as Haigler, Nebr. Here a
halt of over a day was made. A comparison of the conditions as
found here this year with those of a year ago showed a great improve-
ment. Possibly only half as many of the insects were present this
year as last, and these were pretty well bunched in certain weed
patches and alfalfa fields located in the valley near the river, whereas
last year they were quite generally distributed. Beyond Haigler but
few locusts were found in hurtful numbers, indicating that this local.
ity is almost on the western boundary line of the plague. From Wray,
Colo., all the way to Denver, their numbers seemed to have dwindled
to normal, or even below. At least, such appeared to be the condition
along the line of the Burlington Railway. In fact, as nearly as I
was able to ascertain, this condition prevails throughout most of
Colorado east of the Rocky Mountains, save perhaps in two or three
isolated localities in the valleys of the Arkansas and South Platte
rivers near the State line. The diminution in their numbers appears
to be due chiefly to fungous diseases and natural enemies, both of
which seem to have been abnormally effective during the past two or
three years.
All of the region lying along the eastern base of the range between
Denver and Fort Collins was at this time remarkably free from these
insects. None whatever were seen while riding between the two
cities named, although a careful watch was kept throughout the
journey, and an inquiry at the agricultural college located at the
latter place elicited the information that hoppers were scarce in Colo-
rado, while few or no reports had been received the present season
concerning their presence or ravages.
Going east from Fort Collins, a few of the insects, it was learned,
were to be found in and about alfalfa fields in the vicinity of
Greeley. Northward from Greeley to Cheyenne, Wyo., no species of
grasshoppers were seen in abnormal numbers. Nor were they found
to be present along the Union Pacific Railroad between Cheyenne
and Laramie in sufficient numbers to be noticeable. At Laramie few
individuals of any species were to be seen, although several trips
were made for the special purpose of obtaining specimens. Professor
Bufflun, director of the experiment station, who does the entomolog-
ical work in that State, also informed me that, so far as he knew,
similar conditions prevailed over much of the State of Wyoming.
Leaving Laramie and proceeding eastward over the Union Pa-
cific Railway, no grasshopper signs were visible at any point between
Cheyvenlne and North Platte. It was ascertained by inquiry that
although considerable injury had been done by locusts for sev-
eral years, and even as recently as the year 1903, they appeared:
to have dwindled to such an extent that this year they were not






63

t in numbers above normal. Then, too, the person in charge
the branch of the ENebraska Experiment Station located near that
lace reported like conditions. As the train approached Gothen-
rg, and from that point as far eastward as Kearney, some signs
of local abundance and slight injury by two or three species were
apparent. Now and then corn fields and weed lpatches adjoining
alfalfa fields showed their ravages. In two instances magnificent
examples of the usefulness of birds as locust destroyers were noted.
In both cases the birds in question were gulls, possibly Franklin's
or the lauing ll. These birds were present in flocks of fifty or
more and were cogregated on alfalfa fields which showed decided
marks of locst injuries; and it was plainly evident from their actions
that the birds were feeding, sice some of them were on the ground
and others in the air. One of these flocks was near (otlenburg and
the other not far from Kearney. Some days afterwards a gentle-
man fromt the latter place told me of a similar sight that le himself
had witnessed. It is probable that these birds were nest ing on the
artificial lakes made by danming up the mouths of ravines in con-
nection with irrigation and power ditches in the vicinity, and were
occupied in foraging.
There appeared to be no locust injuries along the Platte Valley
nuch lower down stream than Kearney. although it was followed as
ar as Grand Island. where a change was made to the Burlilngton
ad so as to reach Lincoln via Aurora and York.
Leaving home again on August 10, and going by way of the
C1icag and Northwestern Railroad up the Elkhorn. the writer did
ot observe hoppers in hurtful numbers east of Chadron and Craw-
ord on the Little Whie River. Even here a comparison with con-
itions as observed by the writer a year ago showed the l)pet to be
argely on the decline. Scarcely any traces of injury were visible
een about the edges of cornfields adjoining allflfa and weed
atches-the localities most commonly frequented by the species of
csts most abundant here. The journey was continued westward
s far as Casper, Wyo., where in 1901 considerable grasshopper injury
ocurred, as observed by the writer during a visit made at the time.
Strip into the country a few miles from Casper showed but few
lusts. Even the usually abundant prairie or plains forms were
elow the normal in numbers, and in some places decidedly scarce.
Inqiies among ranclhmen elicited the information that the pest was
raduall becoming scarcer throughout the alfalfa growing district
the southeast of the town, where some marked damage had been
ne by the insects as late as a year ago. Returning to Crawford,
r., a stop was made in order to observe conditions away from
etown and railroad. The result was as stated for Casper. From
here the writer returned to Lincoln over the Billings and Black Hills






64

branch of the Burlington, but no locust depredations were encoun-
tered or reported en route.
Learning that several good rains had fallen since his former visit
to the upper Republican Valley, the writer, on August 17 and 18,
made a second trip to southwestern Nebraska. At this time vegeta-
tion was greatly improved in appearance and the hoppers were some-
what scattered as compared with two weeks before.
The last trip of the month was made to northern Wyoming and
portions of Montana, where last year considerable locust injury
occurred both in cultivated districts and on the ranges. While
locusts were this year normally abundant in the valley of the
Yellowstone River from a short distance above Billings nearly to
Livingston, their work was only occasionally perceptible from the
car windows. In this particular district the reports of greatest
injury came from Red Lodge and vicinity, not far from the Wyoming
line. Here the species concerned were chiefly Aulocara elliotti Thom.,
A. femnoratum Scudd., and several other plains-inhabiting species
like Melanoplus infantilis Scudd., M. occidentalis Thom., M. pack-
ardii Scudd., Cordillacris occipitalis Thom., and Mestobregma kiowa
Thorn. Besides being infested with abnormal numbers of these
insects, the region in question, as well as much of the adjoining
territory, was badly affected by drought. These two causes com-
bined to render the grazing exceedingly poor. Considering the
dwindling in numbers from last year to the present time it seems
that the pest is quite certainly on the decrease, even in the district
of greatest abundance.
Auigust 23 to 25, inclusive, a drive was taken through the Galla-
tin valleys in company with President Reed and Professor Cooley of
the Montana Agricultural College. No locust injuries of importance
were found, but in certain areas several species were present in num-
bers most certainly above normal for the district. There were two
species of Melanoplus, a form of atlanis and an undetermined species,
and Camin ula pellucida Scudd. Last year a much more extended
district was overrun. Encoptolophus sordidus Burm., which was
abundant in 1903, was rare this year.
A visit to Helena and the immediately adjoining regions showed
the various local species of locusts to be much below the normal in
abundance as compared with former years.
Wh1ile no work was done in western Kansas and southeastern Colo-
rado, it was learned through others that some locust damage- ccurred
inl the vicinity of Garden City, Kans., among the alfalfa fields, but
efforts at remedying the evil were being made. Machines were in use,
poisoning with the bran-arsenic mixture was regularly carried on,
and large flocks of turkeys were being employed to rid the fields of
the pest.









OTS ON T BEHAVIOR O THE COLORADO POTATO BEETLE
IN GREAT BRITAIN.
(Leptinotara [ I)oryplora i deem rlillca t Say).
By R. V. THErrIl.

WYE (COURT. lre, lEngblanud.
The advent of the Colorado potato eetle into (ireat Britain in
1901 gae rise to rave apprehensions, which, judging from its behav-
jor during its tay n our shores. were certainly not unifounded.
For once the country was prepared to deal drastically with this
Inwellomie intrder, for a bill had beeni pafsed bn) iy Hb h oes of
irliamlent inl 1877 by Nmans of which the existing moard of agricul-
ture has power to take over land infested with the Colorado potato
tie so as to insure its eradieation. The necessity of this measure
Ws amlly s lhow duringl 1901 Iad 1902 when the" spearman" a was
resent in ths country.
The few notes I made on the general behavior of this beetle during
is stay with us maly not xbe unlwelomle t tihoL in whoise lanl it
fih(lS, land of interst to othler ito whosw country it may any
day be imoted. I believe the British invasion is only the third
at 11has o;red in Euroipe. the two \i evxious outbreaks la iit
~ulred in (iermany son years aigo.
The beetle was frported t tthe olliials at the board of agriculture
l ugulst 1901. Ias being prellt iln soiec allotments in Tilbury
Dckyar. ()n the 22d of that month I visited the dockyard and
ound the beetles very active and full.of generative vitality. They
were ot Illllierols, soime to dow n or mlore only being observed, bIut
allny more lrhad evimdently been at work and somi had beile collected
ld killed. At this time they were depositing eggs. and I found
Rai ill all sap s of developlient. At a glanlce one could see that
e beetls had been at work so tobacl tl; he colony had beenl
re some onths fore it was detected. The potatoes were
tieably defoliated, but mainly, it seemd. by the larvae and not by
teadults. The beetles did not seem to take wing, but were most
dtiv crawling abiut in the bright sunshine. I never saw one take
ii the ope n but those I brought away for further observation
came most active in the breeding cages, frequently using their rosy
i and dashing up gainst the glass of the cages. Later I noticed
hein my garden taking short flights under their muslin tents.
The a~d where this colony had taken up its abode was treated in
A name someti es given to the Colorado potato beetle, based on the old
neric term Doryphora.
28739-No. 54--05 m-5






66

a very drastic manner by the board of agriculture's officials, but as
we shall see, without clearing the land completely of this serious pest.
The potato haulm a was cleared and fired with paraffin and the ground
heavily coated with gas lime and later plowed up. The land was
also soaked with paraffin, and gas lime was put on at the rate of
60 tons per acre. I may here mention that one of the inspectors of
the board of agriculture and myself found that the beetles could live
in a tin of gas lime unharmed; one would not, therefore, expect this
unknown quantity to be effective against the adults, although its
caustic properties should destroy larvae and pupa. It does not do
so, however, for reasons which I shall point out.
The land and the neighborigg plats of potatoes and the district for
some 3 miles around were examined later and no further specimens
were found. I went to Tilbury again on September 17, 1901, and
could find no trace of beetles, larvae, or eggs around the invaded area.
I brought some twenty beetles and larvae away with me on the first
visit and kept these in confinement in breeding cages under safe guard-
ianship in my garden. The larvae all became mature by September 23.
In very few cases did I notice the beetles feeding, but the larvWe,
especially in their closing stages, were most ravenous. Besides
potato, I fed some on tomato and. found they did not thrive so well,
others on deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and on sow thistle
(Sonichls oleracevis), on both of which they flourished admirably.
Some eggs were found on the sow thistle at Tilbury; hence I tried
it as a food plant. Soon after bringing the specimens home I found
that the adults readily buried themselves in the earth when the
weather was dull and cool.- Several adults which I took in August
lived until the following spring, a few died, and others deposited eggs.
The eggs found at Tilbury varied greatly in color according to age,
some being yellow, others deep orange. They varied in number in
the last batch from 9 up to 40. The beetles, it seemed, did not mind
whether they laid the eggs on the upper or under sides of the leaves.
ThoIse laid in miy garden were nearly all on the upper surface, while
those at Tilbury were mostly seen on the under surface.
The egg stage lasted with us ten days, and in one case seventeen, the
larval stage from three to five weeks, and the pupal stage from seven
to ten days in summer. One larva lived seven weeks and then died.
A few larva existed for two weeks without any food and eventually
tra nsformed to adults after being fed.
1 o my surprise, one warm day in November, some dozen beetle
nmline out of the ground and remained on the surface in a sluggisl
(o(ditio1 b1ut before nightfall they had buried themselves again
I dliqg iil the ground in January and found they were all lying abou
a Dry stalks, stubble.-ED.






67

6 inches down in the soil. Although the land was lumpy, they had
gone into the solid soil and did not shelter under the clods or stones.
ertainly all th I kept passed the winter in the adult condition.
In my laboratory they came out of their winter quarters in March,
but in the open not until April 17, and the last on May 4. Some
early potatoes had been planted with them and they commenced egg
laying on May 20. All these check spcimens were then killed.
One could tell at a glance from their dingy color that they were hiber-
nating, and as none had appeared to my knowledge by that date at
Tilbury it was hoped the measures taken by the board had been suffi-
cient. On the contrary, the beetles had survived the rough usage.
and fresh speciments were reported at the end of May on the same
land. I went there on Junel 2 for the bard and foundl tle beetles
ejmergingl froml the ground ill smlll num1 rsq and was at once strulck
by the difference in appearance between theni and those I had so
recently killed at home. One could easily see that they were only
just hatched, the elytra being soft and almost cream colored between
the dark lines. 0ne of the inspectors noticed them emerging from
te (ound that had been treated in the )preious autun with gas
lime and paraffin.
There is not the least doubt that the specimens had just hatched
froi plupr. As is well known, the pupat, especially in light, friable
soil like that at Tilbury, are found at a great depth, so that in this
case nieither the gas lime. paraffin, nor p)lowing hlad affected them.
The land was only plowed to a depth of 10 inches and many larvw
may well have previously burrowed deeper than that and so have
escaped harm.
We thus had the insect living in two ways with us during the win-
ter, namely, as adults and as pupw. The latter is, I believe. excep-
tional in America, although my friend, Doctor Iloward, tells me it
has been observed by Professor Smith.
Very few specimes were found in 1102 and thes were dealt with
by constant hand picking. During the last two years none have been
se at Tilbury, so that we may safely say that the energies of the
officials in charge have been rewarded with success.
Another scare occurred in 1904, live specimens being taken to the
Hereford Museum, but these had been brought over by a lady from
e United States as curios, little knowing the penalty attaching to
e introduction of the live insects into this country.
I think we may safely say that Leptinotarsa decemlineata does not
exist in this country, but that it can flourish to a remarkable
derhas become a well-established fact.
One point of interest I may mention in conclusion-namely, that it
oo "xfund an enemy in Britain in the form of the larval seven-
od ladbird (Coecinella 7-unctata Linn.). These larvae are






68

normally aphis feeders, but I found quite a number at Tilbury,
which were observed in several instances feeding on the Colorado
potato beetle's eggs, devouring them most greedily; and I can not
help thinking that they did much of the work in getting rid of the
enemy. The eggs of this ladybird were deposited on the potatoes
and were sent in, in many instances, as Colorado potato beetle eggs.
They certainly present a general rough likeness, but can at once be
told by their smaller size and paler yellow hue. The pupa of this
beneficial insect also bear a slight resemblance to those of the potato
" bug and have frequently been sent in as such. They are very
much smaller in size, however, and could not be mistaken by an
expert.

AN EXPERIENCE WITH HYDROCYANIC-ACID GAS AS A RIMEDY
FOR THE CIGARETTE BEETLE IN DWELLINGS.
By F. II. CHITTENDEN aliad F. C. PRATT.

During the first week of September, 1904, two persons residing in
the northeast section of Washington, I). C., complained of injury
to furniture, rugs, and tapestry in their dwelling houses, submitting
specimens of the larva and adult of the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma
serricorne Fab.) as the cause of their troubles. The first house-
holder was very fearful lest the insects would spread from the only
room infested to others, including one containing a valuable library;
and the other, a lady, was in an exceedingly nervous condition,
brought about through her ineffectual struggles to evict the bugs "
from her domicile. Gasoline, benzine, black flag," and various
other insecticides, including formaldehyde, had been used without
avail, as had also red pepper. The insects were believed, and with
reason, to have fed and multiplied on the last-mentioned substance.
As no experiments had hitherto been made with the hydrocyanic-
acid gas treatment for this insect, experiments Avere instituted in the
second house. A visit to this house showed injury plainly visible on
the upholstered furniture, and the edges of a carpet were frayed.
Numbers of beetles and their larva were observed, the last in cells
preparatory to pupation.
Experimen t No. 1.-The gas was used at the usual strength-1
outnce of cyanide of potash to 100 cubic feet of space, the doors and
witl(nows being quite securely closed. The exposure was seventeen
lours. IUpon aerating the following morning many beetl'es were
folllnd apparently dead on the floor and were swept up and kept in
a box to ascerlaill if they might revive. All died, however, and the
result was looked Ipon as satisfactory.
.rExperimet No. 2.-About two weeks later more adults were
noticed about the house, and as they continued to accumulate notice





69

was given to this office, and a stronger test was recommended, three
ti es the usual strength-that is, 3 ounces of cyanide of potash to
100 cubic feet of space-and a longer exposure. This was applied
September 28, and renewal was made the following day, twenty-
three hours later, arrangements having ben made so that jars con-
tailing fresh acid could be introduced and charged with cyanide
throug a window. The second exposure lasted nineteen hours, or
practically forty-two hours in all.
SPrior to experiment it was ascertained that the insects had been
breeding in the lower covering of the chairs. Dozens of larvan were
ound between the covering and the webbing which was nailed across
the latter.
After airing the infested roon hundreds of larvae were )observed
tat had fallen from the lower covering of chairs (which had pre-
viously been ripped off to facilitate the efct of the as) to the floor,
and all adults observed were (ead( a were also h()ou flvies. Some of
the larv al beetles which had b(en subjected t to reatlment were
placed in a vial to determine the effect of the experiment. They all
died. but considerably later it was found necewsary to dislose of the
chairs. as they were still infested.
Owing to tthe failurl of our first exlrimlent with hlydl rocy'anic-acEid
g-s against theP cigartte tle, as also of alntiler experilment on the
Confulsed flour lbeetle (l'Bol li conflf m l)uv.), it was suspected
that something might be wrong with the ingredients, and accordingly
a sample of cyanide of potash was selected at ranldo and submitted
to Mr. J. K. Haywood, of the Bureau of (hemistry, for analysis. lHe
reported that it contained 37.18 per icent cyanogen. 9.57 per cent
chlorine, and the remainder a mixture of potassium and sodium, the
analysis showing that this sample wa-s not the product paid for: in
other words, not 98 per cenit potassiulm cyanide, but a mixture of
potasium cyanide, sodium cyanide, and sodium chloride. The three
mpounds were p esent in such proportions that the mixture yielded
3 per cent of the amount of hydrocyanic-acid gas it should yield if
the sample were pure potassium cyanide, and yet the amount of cyan-
ogen which might be produced by this mixture could be 53 per cent,
whereas in pure potassium cyanide it is 40 per cent.
In the second test against this species the potassium cyanide was
sed three times as strong as in the first. In the meantime, a sample
as being analyzed by Mr. J. K. Haywood. His results were as
follows:
Per cent.
Potaissma cyanide .------------- -------------------51. 70
dtium cyanide.--- ---------------------------------. 2.07
0odium chloride ------ -- --------------------- 3.89
Potafssium arbonate ---------------------------- 39. 28
Other impurities--------------------------------2. 76
M ture-----------------------0. 30





70

This analysis showed that the sample on treatment with sulphuric
acid yielded only 54.50 per cent of the amount of hydrocyanic acid
demanded by theory for pure potassium cyanide. An examination of
the residue from the sample after treatment with sulphuric acid was
also made, and it was found that the blue color of this residue ap-
peared to be due to Prussian blue (ferric ferrocyanide), a compound
left in the mixture by a faulty method of manufacture.
Mr. Haywood also made an examination of two samples of flour
which had been treated with hydrocyanic-acid gas October 11 for
Tribolium confusum, with the result that no traces of the acid were
toc be found in either sample, showing that the flour is not affected
in any way by this method of fumigation.

NOTES ON FULLER'S ROSE BEETLE IN 1904.
By FDK. MASKEW, Long Beach, Cal.

The following notes are compiled from observations on Fuller's
rose beetle (Aramigus fulleri Horn) made by the writer during the
season of 1904 in Los Angeles County, Cal.
Throughout the month of May larvae of all sizes were abundant in
the infested berry fields, both in the strawberry plants and in the
surrounding soil. The greatest depth at which larvae were found in
the strawberry fields approximated 5 inches. In the case of black-
berry and logan berry they were found attacking the roots at a
depth of from 15 to 18 inches.
May 23, in the soil surrounding a strawberry plant, the first pupa
was found. This plant, while wilted, was still green, and contained
no grubs in the borings in the stem. The writer was unable to esti-
mate the depth at which the pupa was found, since it came up in a
trowel full of loose soil.
June 17 the first beetle was noticed. It was feeding on the foliage
of an ornamental shrub, Lagunaria pattersonii. During this month
beetles became numerous.
July 29 the writer was asked by a local nurseryman what was the
nmatter with a large potted ornamental asparagus (Asparagus plu-
mosus m iOlnus). The plant presented a very sickly appearance, the
stemss.being hard and dry, and the foliage yellow. Finding no evi-
dence of scale insects or mealy bugs, the roots were investigated, with
the result that 84 larvaI and pupae of Fuller's rose beetle were found
inl the soil and upon the roots contained in the 10-inch pot. The pot
n(d pllant had been suspended from the rafter of a lath house and
h(ad not been disturbed for eleven months.
A ugust 19 a beetle was observed in the act of ovipositing. The
face of the foliage of a crested wattle (Albizzia lophantha), a potted






71

plant. The foliae was about 5 feet above the ground, and above the
egg mass it was drawn together and fastened by a webby substance.
These eggs, placed in a phial and carried in the pocket, hatched
August 24. Many e masses were subsequently found and hatched
out.
The beetles were very numerous and destructive during the months
of Augst and September on ornamental trees and plants in the
nursery yards, no plants except different secies of Auricarias being
exempt from attack. They appeared to eat the foliage of the castor
bean with as much gusto as that of the Lima bean, and the pungent
flavor of the young growth of the caniphor lmexpper, and the different
eucalypti apparently suited their palate- equally as well as the siiccu-
lent young growth of canna. They were repeatedly taken at work
on these plants. The foliage of all stpcies of acacia for sale here is
greedily eaten, excepting pe-rhaps A. (ultriftomi and .1. 'rmatcl. and
the writer has een the mlarket value- .50--of potted camellias and
Stercua acerifolia destroyed by these psts in twenty-foulr hours.
While at Oceanside, San Diego County, September ) the writer
noticed, in the orchard of the Rev. Mr. I)odd. a large number of
inect castings on the foliage. While searching for the cause, an
immalture and apparently sound apple dro)ped to the ground. An
examlination showed that its stem had lben freshly evered by some
insect. Mr. Dodd, on having his attention called to this, stated that
he had found a brown beetle eating the stems, and pon investigation
the writer traced the injury to Fuller's roe beetle, the culprit being
found at work in several instances. Timle was very limited here
and no opportunity was offered of studying this interesting phase of
the subject.
This insect, in all of its stages, has :ben found Iby the writer, from
Carpinteria. Santa Barbara County. to El Cajon. San Diego County.

THE GIANT SUGAR-CANE BORER.
(Casptnia licus Fab.)
By C. L. MARLATT.
The appearance of an important new sugar-cane pest in Demerara,
British Guiana, has some interest for us, inasmuch as the West
Indian sugar-cane borer, also known as the -" larger cornstalk-borer "
(Diatra saccharali Fab.), for many years an important enemy of
cane and corn in the United States, traveled northward through the
West Indian Islands from the same region. reaching Louisiana at an
early date and now ranging as far north as Virginia and Maryland.
That this new cane insect may come north seems doubtful, as the
family to which it belongs is essentially tropical. While belonging to
an entirely distinct family, the habits of this new cane pest closely par-






72

allel the older and better-known enemy of this staple. The adults,
larvae, pupe, and eggs of this insect, together with canes showing
the larval burrows and containing the larve, were transmitted to
Col. G. B. Brackett, pomologist of the Department, by Mr. B. Howell
Jones, of Georgetown, Demerara, who gave a rather interesting
account of it in a letter which is quoted below. The insect proved to
be Castnia licus Fab., and the only known food habit hitherto re-
corded is the breeding of the larvae in the Upper Orinoco in the roots
of an orchid. As shown in Westwood's Monograph of the genus
Castnia (Transactions of. the Linnaean Society, 2d series, Zoology,
Vol. I, p. 173, 1875, and by Herbert Druce in his Lepidoptera-
Heterocera (Biologia Centrali Americana, Vol. I, p. 26, 1883), this
insect has been collected in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, east
Peru and Bolivia, Guiana, Trinidad, Amazons, and Brazil. Accord-
ing to Druce, it is a scarce insect in Central America, but seems to be
more abundant in its more southern range.
The material sent by Mr. Jones was so ample and in such an
excellent state of preservation that it seemed worth while to have
careful drawings made, which are reproduced for this note. (P1.
IV.) The large size of this insect, in comparison with Diatrea sac-
hcaralis, commonly known in this country as the larger cornstalk-
borer to distinguish it from the smaller cornstalk-borer (Elasmo-
palpus lignosellus), warrants the application of the term given at
the head of this article to this new cane pest; The assumption of
the cane-feeding habit by this insect is another illustration of the
sudden development of an injurious food habit in an insect which for
years has had no economic importance, and shows how little can be
predicted of any insect from its known food habits. It is to be hoped
that this insect will not develop a northern trend through the West
Indies as did its forerunner, the larger cornstalk-borer. The fact
that it is not especially abundant in its northern range in Central
America is an element of security, but can not necessarily be relied
upon, because this scarcity may be due to a lack of suitable plants in
which it can breed. Mr. Jones's letter is a most interesting contri-
bution to the knowledge of the history of this insect, and it is signifi-
cant that now that it has found a food plant furnishing abundant
means of reproduction it breeds in enormous numbers. I quote the
letter referred to in full:
GEORGETOWN, DEMERARA, BRITISH GUIANA,
November 28; 104.
G. BRACKETT, Esq.
DEAR SIB: I am taking the liberty of sending you a small box containing the
eggs, caterpillars, chrysalis, and butterfly that has been doing some damage to
some of our cane fields. It is entirely new to us here, though some planters say
they have seen it before, but they did not think it did much damage. In the
present case it is doing a great deal of damage, .and a few children with nets







Bul 54, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agrculture. PLATE IV.












































c !d




er













CASTNIA LICUS FAB.
a, Female moth; b, larva, lateral view: c, first abdominal segment with proleg; d, egg; e pupa,
ventral view: f, Jpupa, dorsal view; g, spiracular cleft; h, abdominal segment, enlarged to
show rows of reflexed spines: i, segment of cane showing larval burrow and larva-larva,
pupa., and moth natural size-egg and anatomical details variously enlarged-cane one-
half natural size (original).
li4.
C cIt





CASTNIA lvs FAB



a, eral mth b lrv, atra vew c fr,,t t)Iminl egen wthprle, gg e ppa
vental iew f, ulm (In,11 vixv:!/,sl~racuar lef: h aliomial egientenlrg-d t
showrow of eflxed ~in~s:i, sgnint o cae SIONiT~ laral urro an lara-lrva
I mp, ad moh nttial sze-glyand natmic detilsvarousl enargd-(,~leWle
ialf naural sze (orginal)






73

have caught upward of a thousand of the butterflies in a week. At present the
attack is onfined to one esate but. of cur. it may spread. This is the third
year t has been notied. In the two irst years comparatively slight damage
as done but at preent time a great deal of damage has been done. The
rpilar enter the ane bth from the bottom, cose to the root, and work
upward through four or five joints, or enter above and work downward, form-
inn a chrysali at the bottom of the cane or in the ground at the base of the
cane. The terpillars ap r in October and November, and, as this is our
chief reaping seson, many of them are destroyed by the mill. They have been
found In fields of loose vegetable oil which have been top-dressed with filter-
press refuse.
My objIet in writing to you is to ask you if you would put this before the
entomlogist of our partment to see if the butterly is known, and to aseer-
tain its name, f it is. It als might be interesting to those eng;aed in studying
the cultivation of sugar cane and the disase from which it suffers.
Hoping I am not giving you too uch trouble and trespassing on your kind-
ness. beleve in. yours faithfully,
IB. IOWEL.L JONES.
In a sub I lent letter, under date of February 2, 1905. Mr. B.
Howell Jones gves the additional information that the plague of
ese insects still contines on the Enmore estate and many thousands
of the moths are being cauht weekly. He says the only remedies so
far practiced are catching the moths and destroying the grtub when
found. An attempt to attract the moths by putting a strong light in
the fields at night was without sucss.

SYSTEMATIC RELATIONSIHIP AND DES'RIPTIVE NOTES.

The family Castnidai to which this insect Ielongs. includes a con-
sidejrabe number of vere showy and large ioths limited to the ino-
troical region and miore abundant t in South Anwrica than in Central
America and Mexico. one species, however, having been reported in
the United States. The systematic position of thi family has been
the sbjec of me controvers among pecialit. ()On account of
the clubbed antennw and general showy character of the moths they
were originally assigned to the Rhopalocera and to the genus Papilio.
The discovery of the larvc and pupa, and something of the habits of
some of the species has led to more correct ideas of their relationships.
In larval and pupal characteristics one is reminded of Cossus. The
examination of the material submitted by B. Howell Jones to Doctor
Dyar led him im ediately to place them in the family Tineidae-an
anomalous disposition in view of their great size. but warranted by
evident structural characters. The habits of but few species of this
gnus are known, and these agree in being internal feeders, and this
is probably true for all. In this particular species pupation occurs
wit~in the larval burrow. Other species, however, leave the burrow
nd form loose coc6ons. The following brief description of the






74

different stages is appended, not as a technical contribution, but as
supplemental to the plate:
Adult.-The wing expanse of the adult female is 3 to 4 inches.
The male is smaller, having a wing expanse of 2- to 3 inches. Con-
siderable variation is exhibited in the ornamentation of the wings,
two distinct varieties being illustrated in the material in the Na-
tional Museum. The general color is rusty brown. The forewings
are crossed with a broad diagonal white band; the posterior wings
have a similar band, broader and less sharply defined, crossing them
at right angles to the band of the forewings. The hindwings have
also a submarginal row of 6 or 7 reddish-yellow spots, the central
spots being much larger than the lateral ones. A variation in colora-
tion, as in the example figured, is seen in some specimens in the pre-
ence on the forewings of an additional irregular row of spots forming
a band exterior to and irregularly parallel to the broad transverse
band. The notable feature of the wings is the brilliant opalescence,
especially notable near the body. The antennae are clubbed, giving
them a resemblance to the true diurnal Lepidoptera. The under sur-
face is lighter than the upper, with the markings approximately
repeated and rather more distinct save for the yellow spots, which are
faint. There is also an additional submarginal row of white spots
on the anterior wings.
Larvca.-The larva, illustrated on Plate IV, figs. b and c, varies
from 2 to 21 inches in length, is white or flesh-colored, and very
elongate. The head is relatively small and pointed, of a light chest-
nut, with mandibles and more or less of mouth parts black. The
body is smooth and practically devoid of hairs, although minute ones
which have significance in classification are found, as indicated in the
drawing. The prolegs bear two transverse rows of stout curved
s pines or hooks. The spiracles are very large, oval, prominent; the
prothoracic pair and the pair on the last abdominal segment are
about twice the size of the others.
Pupa.-The pupa (figs. e and f) measures an inch and a half in
length, is fairly robust, chestnut brown in color, and in general
smooth and shining. There is a strongly excavated crescent-shaped
spiracular pocket on either side of the pronotum. The prominent
features are the two transverse rows of strong reflexed spines, or teeth,
on the dorsum of each of the abdominal segments extending laterally,
a little beyond the spiracles. The anterior row of spines is much
stronger th thathe posterior, and the latter is wanting or nearly'so on
the two terminal segments. The tip of the pupa is squarely truncate
a1nd ornamented with a series of sharp ridges.
Eg'/.-The egg (fig. d) is flesh colored, white when empty, very
elongate, and with five strong carinae, giving in cross section the






75

tellate figutre shown in the illustration. Length, one-sixth of an
inch.
The segment of cane showing the characteristic larval burrow with
larva in situ (fig. i) was drawn from one of the canes sent by Mr.
Jones. The pupa is formed in a little cell similar to that occupied by
the larva in the cane.

GENERAL NOTES.

REPORTED SUCCESS OF AN INTRODUCED LADYBIRD SCALE ENEMY IN
CALIFORNIA.

Under date of September 2, 1904, Mr. Frederick Maskew. Long
Beach, Cal., sent specimens of the introduced ladybird beetle. Ihizo-
bils lophanthte Blaisdell, with the statement that t has very effectu-
ally controlled the purple scale (MytilMspI cti,;iul Packard) in the
Chula Vista leaon orchards (during the year. this report being based
upon testiiolny funllilshled by Messrs. Allen anlt C(opeland. extensive
gowers alnd comnpetent clos obsrvers. Our correspondent's per-
sonal experience with this ladybird was limited to the lemon orchards
of Pacific Beach. Reviewing his long acquaintance with the pur-
ple scale in the eedling orange orchards of I's Angeles County. his
findings were highly gratifying. ie reports as follows:
Old purple scale were abundant on most of the trees. but were in every in-
stance dead the s having apparently all hltched. The most diligent searhl
failed to find any live young scale on either wood, foliage. olr fruit. At the
time of this investigation., eptember 7. the parasites were found only occasion-
ally, but I ewas assiure tdhat they had 1eln very n111erous dluringl tlie past year.
Knowing the vagaries of the different Rhizoliids. I am inrlined to look upon
these results in San Diego County as an adaption to local food supply, induced
by the absence of other forms due to extreme drought rather than a case of
true parasitism.
This same beetle is very enerally distributed throughout Los Angeles County,
and I have often found it in very singular locations. It has attracted much
attention during the past year and has been identified by different local au-
thoritie as Rhizobius toowtoom wbe, r'cymnus um(rEiniclliclli. S1eymn1mls loplian thw,
and Rhizobius debilis.
In commenting on the identity of these species. Mr. E. A. Schwarz
of this office furnishes the following notes:
Rhobitis tootoombw Blackburn is a synonym of Rhizobis lophaintleh Blais-
dell.
Rhizbius debili8 Blackburn is closely allied, but a little larger, more metallic,
and with darker prothorax and darker underside of the body.
Seymnus marginicollis Mannh. is entirely different from Rhizobius, yet is
frequently mistaken for Rhizobius lophanthw. It is a native of California, and
feeds, both as larva and imago, on plant lice that affect various fruit trees and
many herbacous plants. It never feeds on scale insects.





76

It is claimed that Rhizobius lophanthe was probably in California
some years before it was introduced by Albert Koebele from Austra-
lia, having evidently been introduced accidentally. It was noticed
among the mountains north of Pomona, Cal., in 1891, and in San
Diego the following year. Some notes on this and related species
have been furnished by Prof. John B. Smith in an article entitled
" Scale Insects and their Enemies in California," published in Bul-
letin No. 6, n. s., of the Division of Entomology, pages 46-48. There
can be no doubt that the effectiveness of some of these ladybirds has
been handicapped by the somewhat careful methods followed by
growers of citrus fruits in California in spraying and fumigating
scale-infested orchards. Nevertheless, it is extremely doubtful if any
of these ladybirds, after having once obtained a foothold, could be
exterminated by fumigation or spraying, as some affect to believe.
If any species have died out, it has probably been due chiefly to
natural causes, such as insect and other enemies, and climatic condi-
tions deleterious to their development.

LOCUSTS, IMALARIA, AND MOSQUITOES IN THE TRANSVAAL.

We have just finished a most successful locust campaign. I do not
know how many swarms of locusts we have killed, but it will evi-
dently run into thousands. In one little valley about 20 miles wide
and 20 miles long our official force killed about 1,500 swarms, varying
in size from 10 by 12 feet up to swarms occupying an area of 5,000
square yards. In this valley there were also 30 farmers working on
their own farms, and I would not care to estimate how many locusts
were killed. From evidence given by old residents and by the natives
I find that this has been one of the worst locust years in their memory.
They all agree that if these swarms had not been destroyed nothing
would have been harvested in this locality, whereas at present all the
damage could be easily compensated by a $5 note. The Kaffirs are
especially keen on this question of destruction, and have turned out
in hordes to aid the district locust officer. Our success in this valley
is one of the many successes which we have had throughout the
infested districts of the colony. We are placing our main reliance
l)poin a strong arsenical spray. The spray consists of 1 pound of
Or'se11ic, half a pound of carbonate of soda, 1 pound of sugar, and 10
gallons of water. These chemicals are boiled together so as to make
the solultion arsenite of sodium, which is sweetened by the sugar. In
order to show you how effective this is, I need only cite one 'in-
stance of a farmer who noted a swarm of fully grown "-voet-
galgers "--that is, grasshoppers in their last stage before obtaining
wing -which was 200 yards long and 50 yards wide. These locusts
were advancing down a hill toward his "mealies." (The term






77

mealies is used in this country instead of corn.) This swarm
was s n>umerous that it stopped a railway train, the latter being
obliged to go back several times before it could cross it. The farmer
sprayed a semicircle about 60 feet wide in front of the swarm, using
the Arical spray. As a result not a single locust escaped. It
seems that the sugar in the spray has a great attraction for them, and
they eat their fill of it to their utter destruction.
As t t the prevalence of malaria on our eastern line of railway, we
have at last sueceeded in awakening the railway people to the serious-
ns of the situation. Next Tuesday we expect to start on a mosquito
survey of about 150 miles of railway, in cooperation with one of
the railway medical officers. I shall make accurate surveys of the
breeding plaes and the kinds of mosquitoes found, while the doctor
will make bloo studies of the inhabitants, including the natives.
horses S, goats, birds, andl olter animals. We are being fur-
nised with three car-one for living plrloses. one for a laboratory,
and one for kitchen and dimling roon. If I am not mistaken, I think
that this is the first time that any entomologist ever had the oppor-
rtunity of cnducting studies of this character under such favorable
CirculflstianlS.-C. B. SIMPSON, t o/amgist Trui'aal Jle rtcp l t
of i Agriculture, Pre ti, Traa al. A aluth I frica.
THE CATERPILLAR OF ANTICARSIA GEM MATIiIS INJIdRING ( VELVET BEAN.
October 8 1 we received fron Mir. A. Fredhohin. Fort D)ruii.
Fla., numbers of the caterpillars of the Noctuid moth. A it1 a;ar f/em-
matilis Hbn., found on velvet beans (JhewrIa utilis). VWe have also
received a communication relative to the great injury accomplished
by this species in Florida (localities not stated). The insects were
stated by Mr. John Parker to occur in great numbers and to destroy
the vines by entirely denuding them of their foliage. Mr. Parker
thought that(veral gelerations were produced each season, as they
appeared to be well-nigh continuous breeders. The larvaw are exceed-
ingly active, and at the slightest disturbance jump to the ground,
where they wriggle about rapidly until a place of security is found.
Blackbirds and rice birds eat them, but the insects are often too
nimble for the more clumsy birds and many escape. When, how-
ever, the birds are in large flocks, as frequently happens, they .must
undoubtedly be of service. The," green sparrow was said to be
the most active as well as successful enemy of the larvae. These
birds, however, do not occur in great numbers, but one of them would
get in nder a vine and pick off larva after larva. The larvae remain
on the under sides of the leaves.
The velvet bean is highly recommended for winter pasturage in the
extreme South, for hay, and for soil renovation; it is also used as a
nitrogen gatherer in orange groves. The occurrence of this insect,






78

according to Mr. Parker, is the principal drawback to the extensive
planting of the velvet bean in that section for either winter pasture
or hay, as it leaves no foliage on the plants to be fed to ck or to be
cured, nor, in fact, vegetation to plow under for fertilizing. For sev-
eral years velvet beans have been planted, anh invariably the caterpil-
lars alone were benefited. Many fields and a small grove have been
badly damaged. In the groves 50 to 60 per cent of the plants were
injured; in open fields injury was still greater.
Our correspondent had heard of several complaints of this cater-
pillar destroying velvet beans. A Mr. J. A. Willis, Alger, Fla., had
had his crop ruined for several years.
The caterpillar of this species is long and slender, cylindrical, the
last pair of legs projecting backward and spreading. The body is
sparsely coated with
rather stiff black
hairs which arise
from small white
button-like tuber-
cles. The head is
large, a little wider
and higher than the
, : .body, rounded, and
/ with a slight notch
in the middle. The
head is orange yel-
low or greenish yel-
6 low with a few
Fr. 20.-Anticarsia gemmatilis: a, moth; b, larva, dorsal view; small blackish dots.
c, head, seen from front; d, first abdominal segment, lateral The general color of
view-a, b, enlarged; c, d. more enlarged (original). varis
the body varies from
dull green to olive brown, which becomes yellow in inflated speci-
mens. It has a nunmber of fine white lines, one dorsal, two lateral-
separated by a blackish shade-and a distinct yellow and white pair
along the stigmata or breathing holes, with a little dark edging below.
It has eight pairs of legs. The mature larva measures about one
and one-half inches in length, and one-sixth inch in width. Alto-
gether it is an attractive species, as will be seen by the illustration
(fig. 20, b). The character of the head and the arrangement of the
stripes on the sides of the body are shown at c and d, respectively.
The moth is also ornamental in spite of its somewhat somber
colors-dull brownish gray with darker brown shades arranged as
shown in the figure at a. The body is stout and narrowed to the apex.
The expanse of the fore-wings is about one and one-half inches.
If the velvet bean should come into general use in Florida and
neighboring States, the extermination of this caterpillar is apt to.






79

become a matter of considerable economic import. Doubtless the
youngest caterpillars of the first generation could be readily reached
by means of a spry of Paris green, arsenate of lead, or other arsen-
ical, and this would have the effect of greatly reducing the insect
for future generations, provided the work is carried on thoroughly.
Or the arsenical could be distributed dry, as used against the cot-
ton worm, by shaking it from bags fastened to each end of a
oard or pole and carried by a man mounted on a mule or horse.
ater generations of the caterpillars will be apt to be more numerous
and more difficult of treatment on account of the difficulty of placing
the poison where all of the caterpillar will be reached.-F. H. C.

AN ISTANCE OF COMPLETE PARASITIM OF THE IMPORTED CABBAGE WO\RM.

A number of maturing caterpillars of Pieris rapn were.gathered
at Wa1sington, Augus 28, 1904, to asertain what percentage might
be parasitized at this time, as many wer obviously injured. Sixty
per cent of all that could be found in the last stages developed para-
sites of the imported Braconid A pafnteles loimratus Linn.. all of
which issue iln masses of cocoons from their host wlithi two days
aftr the latter were taken under observation. The renmainig cater-
pillar all transformed to pup)l) and thereafter to perfect butterflies.
During the first week of Septem r another lot of these cabbage
"worms was oobtained from cabbage and other cruciferous plants
from our experimental garden, all of the mature individuals that
could be secured. These were counted and cared for in the same
manner as bfore, and toward the end of the first week it was noticed
that not a single larva had survived. No pups were formed, and
therefore no butterflies issued, and since a mass of Apanteles cocoons
was counted for each caterpillar that had been gathered, a case of
complete parasitism was proven. As soon as it was noticed that the
caterpillar had failed to pupate, both larva and pupa were sought
for on the grounds, but with negative results, showing that the same
condition existed both in rearing jars and in the open.
The cocoons of Apanteles glomeratus were counted and found to
vary from 30 to 35 to a mass; in other words, a full-grown cater-
pillar usually harbors about this number of parasites. A secondary
parasite was observed issuing from a comparatively small proportion
of the Apanteles cocoons. In one instance the Apanteles and the
secondary parasite, a chalcidid, Tetratichus microgastri Bouche, and
an introduced for like the primary parasite and its host, were in
equal numbers. In another case the proportions were 13 to 40. The
usual number of secondary parasites was 2 to each primary parasite,
but in some cases 3 of the secondary parasites must have issued from
a single cocoon.-F. H. C.








SPREAD OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FLOUR MOTH IN PENNSYLVANIA.

March 15, 1905, we received specimens of the Mediterranean flour
moth (Ephestia kuehniella Zell.) in different stages from a corre-
spondent in Montgomery County, Pa. The insect was reported to
have given no end of trouble since it arrived in some corn about a
year before. The injury was of the characteristic form due to the con-
struction of webs in the flour, in spouts, elevators, and reels, which
prevented the stock from running. It was necessary to remove
bolting cloths from reels, and to take out elevator belts and clean
them. The fact was noted that the stock in the elevators and reels
is kept so warm from grinding that the insects breed nearly as rapidly
in winter as in summer. The insect was accompanied by the con-
fused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum Duv.).
The recent very rapid increase of this flour moth has been already
noted in the Yearbook of this Department for 1904, page 603.

TUSSOCK CATERPILLARS IN FLORIDA.

March 22, 1905, we received word from Mr. E. Neve, Tampa, Fla.,
that an army of caterpillars had made their appearance in that city
and in several localities in the suburbs, stripping oak shade trees of
every leaf, and spreading to other plants, even invading houses by
entering the windows, crawling over porches, and climbing walls.
Some persons claimed that the caterpillars stung them, causing ugly
sores, and it was feared that the orange groves in the vicinity of the
city would be infested. The insect concerned in this case is one of the
tussock caterpillars, Hemerocampa inornata Beut., a near relative of
the better known northern white-marked tussock caterpillar, Hemer-
ocampa leucostigma S. &. A.' The soreness complained of was the
result of the irritating action of the hairs of the caterpillars on the
delicate surface of the skin, particularly on the neck and back of the
hands.
A SQUEAKING SPHINX CATERPILLAR.

September 20, 1904, Mr. A. C. Wharton wrote us of a large cater-
pillar which he had taken at Port Gibson, Miss. It was described
as over 2 inches in length, of a pale greenish blue color, and armed
at the posterior extremity with a rather stout spine curving back-
ward. On capturing it with his fingers he was surprised to hear it
emit a distinct sound resembling the squealing of a very young moiuse.
The sound was faint but quite distinct at a distance of 2 feet. The
species was identified by Dr. H. G. Dyar as Cressonia juglandis S.
& A., who states that this species always squeals" when seized,
from which fact it is quite generally known as the squeaking sphinx.
The caterpillar of the death's-head moth of Europe, anduca atro-








p0 Linn. (better known in literature as Sphinxr atropos), makes a
hising or, more correctly, crackling sound which seems to be pro-
duced by the rubbing together of the mandibles or jaws, each of
these being provided on its outer surface with a row of prominences
serving as a stridulating organ. The sound is not unlike that made
by the discharge of an electric spark or the snapping of the finger
nails together. Sometimes the sound is continuous and resembles
that made by winding a watch. The death's-head moth itself also
makes a sound, which has been compared to tlhe squeak of a mouse.
There has been wide difference of opinion as to the manner in which
these sounds are produced, and the reader i., referred to Tutt's British
Iepidoptera, Vol. IV, pages 44453 where the matter is treated in
detail. The pupa, shortly before emergence, is capable of emitting a
sound similar to that of the moth, although fainter.

A JUMPING GALL.

July 6, 1904, Dr. Morris Gibbs, Kalamazoo. Mich., sent a number
of galls found underneath oak trees. When received nearly all of
the specimens were jumping about in a very lively manner and to
a considerable height for such small objects. Their motions are
considerably different from those of the better-known jumping bean,
which are caused by a lepidopterous larva similar to the codling imioth,
and known as Cirpocapxa 1a1titans. These galls occur at the rate
of a thousand to a single leaf, and are formed on the under surface
of different species of oak. They have at first glance the appearance
of a clover seed, having an average d(iameter of only 1 r1m. Closely
examined they are found to resemible a ainiature acorn. The insect
which produces this gall is a cynipid fly, Neuroterus s6altatoritus Iy.
Edw., a common species, reported from ()hio to Michigan and Mis-
souri and westward to California. It has been surmised that the
peculiar bounding motion of thlis gall is caulsed by the larva within,
whose motion is similar to the leaping of the cheese skipper (Piophila
casei Linn.). A technical description of this gall was given by
Riley in the Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis
(Vol. III, p. cxci). The same writer also mentioned this species on
page 142oftheAnnalsandMagazine of te Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Vol. XII,
fifth series, 1883.
THE GREAT ELM LEAF-BEETLE.
(Monocesta coryli Say.)

During the past two years injury by this species, which is ordi-
narily rare, has been observed in Virginia. September 21, 1908,
Prof. William B. Alwood, Blacksburg, Va., wrote of damage by this
28739--No. 54-05 m-O






82

beetle and its larva at Manassas Gap. It was feeding on red elm,1
and in one case utterly defoliated a tree 16 or 18 inches in diame-
ter. July 25, 1904, Mr. W. C. Davis sent specimens in the egg,
larval, and adult stages found on elms which were being injured at
Rockbridge Baths, Va.
A good account of this species, with descriptions of its various
stages, was published in the Report of the Entomologist for 1878
(Report of Commissioner of Agriculture, pp. 245-247, P1. IV),
which includes illustrations of the different stages, with a very brief
account of the life cycle, the impression evidently being that the
insect was single-brooded. It was stated that toward the end of
July and early in August the worms cease feeding and descend into
the ground, burrowing therein and forming a simple oval cavity
a few inches below the-surface. They lie dormant therein through
the fall, winter, and early spring months, assuming the pupa state
but about a week before the beetles issue." The experience of the
present year indicates a possibility of two generations or a long gen-
eration due to a long egg-laying period, as the eggs received July
25 hatched before the end of the month and the first week of August,
larvae attaining full growth during the latter half of August.
August 27, 1904, Mr. Otto M. Von Schrader, Charlestown, Jeffer-
son County, W. Va., sent specimens of the larva, none of which had
transformed to pupa when received on the 29th.
By request Mr. Davis kept this species under observation, and
August 24 sent specimens of the nearly mature larva, with leaves
almost completely skeletonized. In regard to the possible occurrence
of a later generation he wrote substantially that July 12 the beetles
were very abundant, but by the 25th they had left many of the trees
entirely. In our rearing cages the beetles remained well into the
first half of August. At Rockbridge Baths a considerable number
of egg clusters remained, although the number observed seemed out
of proportion to the numbers of beetles, fair evidence that the beetles
do not deposit more than two egg masses. August 1 the eggs began
to hatch. Although the larva were not more abundant in the latter
part of August, the damage accomplished was ten times greater, as
they destroyed the leaves more rapidly and more thoroughly by
skeletonizing them. They prefer the under surface of the leaves,
as do nearly all of their kind. Often, however, they are found feed-
ing on the upper surface, presumably when this portion is in the
shade. They sometimes eat through the leaf, but normally skeleton-
ize it. Many leaves turn brown and drop without showing any signs
of having been touched by the beetles.






83

TE ALOIROUS CARABID NOMIUS PYGM~EUS DEJ., IN OREGON.

From time to time we have had ocasion to mention this offensive
little ground beetle and its occurrence in various portions of this
count"r, from the Pacific coast to Michigan. August 20, 1904,
Messrs. Woodard, Clarke & Co. called attention to an invasion
in Prtland, Oreg., where the insect was the occasion of unpleas-
:at co e ont the part of those who were so unfortunate as to
be b to work in the vicinity of the bugs. Considerable ex-
pense was incurred in the payment of plumbers' bills for efforts to
locat dead rats which failed to materialize, and employees of the
firm feared typhoid fever, and were loath to remain at their post of
duty. Our correspondents stated that there was no evidence that
these betles were dependent on extraneous influence or disturbance
as a cause for their emitting the odor. They watched very care-
fully around a drain pipe on the lower roof. and the beetles seemed to
emit the odor at all times. It was believed that their presence in
nubers ight be accounted for by dense forest fires which might
have driven them fro the woods and surrounding fields, the air
being at times thick with smoke. This beetle is discused more in
detail in Bulletin No. 9, n. s., of this Bureau. pages 49-53.

REIRTED NCE OF THE ASPARAGUS BEETLE IN CALIFORNIA.

During December, 1904 we received word from Mr. R. E. Smith,
plant pathologist at the University of California Agricultural Ex-
periment Station at Berkeley, Cal.. reporting that the common
asparagus beetle (Crioeerb S aparagi Linn.) now occurs quite com-
monly in that State in certain localities, and that it is becoming a
serious pest. It was, he writes, observed incidentally in connection
with asparagus rust, and growers were satisfied that they had seen
the insect only within recent years, and that it seemed to have come
at about the same time as the rust, which has been prevalent since
1901 or 1902. It is not as yet generally distributed over the State.
No specimens of the species appear to have been seen by an ento-
mnologist, hence some doubt attaches to this report.

THE SCIENTIFIC NAME OF THE PLUM[ GOUGER-A CORRECTION.

There has been so much confusion in regard to the scientific name of
th plu gouger, particularly since the appearance of our note on
is subject in Vol. II of Insect Life (pp. 258, 259), that it seems
esirable to ring the matter up again. As long ago as 1876 Le
te wrote, in his Rhynchophora of North America (p. 194) that
honomu prunicida Walsh., which was originally described in the






"84

Prairie Farmer for 1863, and redescribed in the Proceedings Boston
Soc. Nat. Hist. (Vol. IX, p. 309), was a synonym of A. scittellaris
Lec., the latter having been described in 1858 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.,
Phila., p. 79), thus antedating Walsh's name. In Doctor Dietz's
revision of the Anthonomini (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., Vol. XVIII,
1891, p. 191) this point of synonymy is only briefly mentioned on the
authority of Le Conte. Until the appearance of the note in Insect
Life quoted above, Henshaw, in his Bibliography of Economic
Entomology, corrected this synonymy in accordance with Le Conte's
views; but in consideration of the facts that Dietz did not see speci-
mens of A. prunicida Walsh, and that many are still in doubt concern-
ing the right name to use, some further elucidation of the matter seems
desirable. We have therefore asked the opinion of Mr. E. A.
Schwarz, custodian of the coleoptera of the National Museum collec-
tion. He reports that there is in the museum a specimen in the
handwriting of Walsh and from the old Riley collection, labeled
prunicida, which agrees with the description and specimens of scu-
tellaris of Le Conte as accepted by systematists.
Therefore the true name of the plum gouger is Anthonomus scu-
tellaris Lec. As to Coccotorus scutellaris Lec., the name Coccotorus
is treated as a subgenus by Dietz.
Mr. C. F. Baker mentions an Anthonomus scutellaris reared in
great numbers from wild plums in Colorado (Entom. News, Vol. VI,
1895, p. 29), which may belong to this same species or to A. hirsutus
Bruner, recorded, so far as we know, only from Nebraska (West
Point) and on a single food plant, Prunus pumilo. Hence the note
by Bruner in Vol. I, Insect Life, page 89, really refers to his new
species, hirsutus, and the figure there used should be continued for
scutellaris in preference to the two figured in Vol. III of the same
publication, neither of which is quite correct.

UNUSUAL FOOD PLANTS FOR THE SQUASH LADYBIRD.

August 26, 1903, the writer found larva of Epilachna borealis Fab.
about two-thirds grown feeding on leaves of muskmelon, beans, and
Ambrosia artemisicefolia. These larva were kept in separate breed-
ing cages and reared to maturity. They fed freely on the plants on
which they were found, pupated at about the same time, and the
pupal period was practically the same-eight to ten days.
There was no squash or pumpkin growing in the fields where these
larvae were found and no cucurbit in the field where those o bean
and Ambrosia were taken.' The muskmelon field was separated by
shrubbery from the bean field.
It is, however, extremely doubtful if this species could develop
from egg to adult on any other than cucurbits.-E. S. G. T.






85

NOTES ON ORTHOPTERA COLLECTED ON SUGAR BEETS IN 1904.

During a trip through portions of the sugar-beet growing sections
of the United States made in lay and June and in September and
October, 1904, a number of Orthoptera were collected, and these have
recently ben identified by Mr. A. N. Caudell, of this Bureau. Only
those arked by a star () in the list have ben previously reported
on this crop.
ost of the Orthoptera taken the first trip were immnature and
culd be identified at the most only to the genus. Nymphs identified
by Mr. Caudell as belonging to "Melanoplus at/lais Riley or M. femr r-
rebrnu De G." were found at bongmont, Colo.; Montrose, Colo.;
Paonia, olo., and lhi, Utah. doing1 considerable damage to young
beets. At Echo, Oreg., several species were captured feeding on beets
adjoining an alfalfa field that had recently ben cut. They had
entirely defoliated the beets along the borders and in some places
had advanced well into the field. At no other points were grasshop-
pes n doing serious injur, though several of the beet growers
complain of severe injury in years past.
The following is a list of the spechis identified:
Stipator minutus Thomm.: Olney, (olo. ( 4Oct.). 4 J.
Agene tettir sudcri Birun.: Lagrande, Oreg. (14 Sept.), 1 J; Spreckels,
al. (20 Sept), 2 .
Circotex ocedntali Brun.: Spreckels, Cal.. 8 ,3 9.
Gophocruns claratus Thor.: m. Longiont, Colo. (8 June).
Arphia paudonitana Thorn.: Fairfield as. 10 Sept.), comnon.
ChortophaUa vridiffaciata De 0.: Fort Collins. Colo. (1 Oct.); Longmont.
Colo.
Dioteira carolina L.: Menomine. Mich. (5-4 Sept.); Daggett, Mich., (5
Sept); Waverly, Wash. (10 Sept.); Fairfield. Wash. (10 Sept.); Lagrande,
Oreg.; Echo, Oreg (15 Sept) ; Sprekels, Cal. (2) Sept.)-comlnon at all places.
Dissoeteira spurcata Sauss.: Waverly, VWash., rare.
Camnula pellucida Scudd.: Fairfield. Wash.. common on high ground.
Sphragcn collare Sudd.: Menominee. Mich., rare i beet fields.
Trierotropi juliana Scudd.: Lagrande. Oreg.
Triertrpi n. sp.: Spreckels, Cal.; 2 speciens.
Trimeroropi uinculata Scudd.: Lagrande, Oreg., Echo, Oreg., Spreckels, Cal.,
Delta, Colo. (14 June), several.
Skistocerca ren ta Scudd.: Echo, Oreg., rare.
*Melanoplus atlanis Riley: Waverly, Wash., Fairfield, Wash., Lagrande, Oreg.,
Echo, Oreg., Spreckels, Cal., very common at all these places.
*Melanoplus birittatus Say: Menominee, Mich., Daggett, Mich., Fairfield,
Was, Waverly, Wash., Rocky Ford, Colo. (29 Sept.), Fort Collins, Colo.,
Oln, Colo. (4 Oct.), very common. At Olney was also taken 1 specimen of
the brhpterous form.
Melanoplus devastator Scudd.: Spreckels, Cal., rare in beet fields.
*Me plus differentialis Thorn.: Menominee, Mich., Daggett, Mich., Olney,
., R y Ford, Colo., Manzanola, Colo. (3 Oct.), common.
Melanolu femoratus Burm.: Fairfield, Wash.






86

*Melanoplus femur-rubrum DeG.: Menominee, Mich., Daggett, Mich., Lagrande,
Oreg., Echo, Oreg., Spreckels, Cal., Olney, Colo., common.
Melanoplus fordus Scudd.: Olney, Colo., 2, 2 .
Melanoplus gracilipes Scudd.: Spreckels, Cal.
Melanoplus intermedia Scudd.: Spreckels, Cal.
Melanoplus lakinus Scudd.: Fort Collins, Colo., Olney, Colo., several.
Melanoplus marginatus var. pauper Scudd.: Spreckels, Cal.
Melanoplus tenuipennis Scudd.: Spreckels, Cal.
Melanoplus sp.: Fowler, Colo. (9 June), Longmont, Colo. (8 June), Fort
Collins, Colo. (6 June), Montrose, Colo. (13 June), Delta, Colo. (15 June),
Paonia and Hotchkiss, Colo. (14 June), Lehi, Utah (17 June), Byron and
Durand, Mich. (29 June), all nymphs and very common.
Phcataliotes nebrascensis Thorn.: Lagrande, Oreg., Echo, Oreg.
Conozoa behrensi Sauss.: Echo, Oreg., Spreckels, Cal., common.
Xiphidium fasciatum (?) DeG.: Byron, Mich.
Cordillacris sp. (nymphs) : Greeley, Colo. (2 June), Grand Junction, Colo.
(12 June).-E. S. G. T.
A MEXICAN KISSING BUG.

Under date of September 12, 19Q4, Prof. A. L. Herrera, Comision
de Parasitologia Agricola, Mexico, D. F., wrote that a large form
of bug commonly known in that country as chinche voladora," a
specimen of which he furnished and which proves to be Meccus pal-
lidipennis, Sthl., is the cause of considerable apprehension of serious
injury, especially to children which it attacks by puncturing the skin
with the beak and sucking the blood.
The species is a reduviid, larger than our native so-called kiss-
ing bugs," and is closely related to Conorhinus, the genus which
includes the cone-noses, our most bloodthirsty species. It measures
upward of 1i inches in length, and is five-eighths of an inch wide
across the middle of the abdomen. It is black, with two triangular
bands converging at the apex of the scutellum, while each segment of
the connexivum or reflexed sides of the abdomen which border the
tegmina is variegated with white, resembling the markings of certain
of our common turtles. Its beak is a little longer than the elongate,
pointed head. The insect is so large and of such formidable appear-
ance that we would naturally expect it to be capable of a dangerous
" bite."
IIYDROCYANIC-ACID GAS AGAINST THE BEDBUG.

March 17, 1905, Rev. Ruter W. Springer, chaplain, U. S. Army,
Fort Washington, Md., states that he has used the hydrocyanic-acid
gas process for the extirpation of the bedbug in the barrack builings
of that fort with considerable success. He reports as follows:
The experiment was first tried in a large barrack building, according to direc-
tions. Several receptacles were broken in mixing the acid, but the intended
results were perfectly satisfactory. Since then my own residence was twice
invaded, beyond the reach of ordinary remedies. In each case the effort at
relief was perfectly successful. The last time a half a dozen insects were cap-





87

tured and placed in a glass. The glass was thoroughly wrapped up in a folded
shet, then in a pair of blankets, and then in a quilt. At the close of the experi-
ment these insets were all found dead. As to pasting up cracks, I discovered
that inch strips of newspaper, soaked for some te ti in water, and patted into
place with the hand, would make an excellent gas check for any reasonablle
length of time, and afterwards would come off easily without requiring hours
of a Ior

SINGULAR INCREASE OF LERP O TREES OF THE YELLOW BOX."

When traveling on the train between Melbourne and Macedon. I
noticed a patch of probably soeic hundreds of ares off land on which
the trees of A'awlypFtus melliodora al)ealred to be coveredl with snow,
but whil on close lnspection proved to be anx elorllols 11num1ber of the
lerp insect (Liops1ylla rottuandiPenlnis Frogg.). covering the leaves
so sely as to give trees the as)pct before alluded to. I can not
account for this abnornal increas, as, although the lerp insects are
com on enough l in the forests arolun Melbournle, never before in over
fifty yeal of occasilloal blsh life have I Penll t1he 111singular waxy
coverin in such e at profusion. This -asPon I has abea hoIt one
Inld te le rp is by no tmeans confined t the one sp)eies of Eucalyptuls.
It will be interesting to note how far the trees will be affected, and I
hope to supplemenit tils short note very soon.((-C'IITARLES FRENsc:,
oernrnent En tomologist for wictoria, I str.A lia.

A R~E SPIDER ON ( TTON.

Under instructions from the Entomologist the writer proceeded,
July 9 to 10, 1904, to Batesburg, S. C(.. in order to ascertain the pri-
mary cause of injury to cotton which had been reported in that
section, whether red spider or sole disease of the plant.
On the plantation of Mr. E. F. Strothers was found a small field of
Coton Il n whic a red spider was becomingl common. The field was
first 1ttacked, according to Mr. Strothers, on the south side, or nearest
the road, and was found infested for a distance of some 200 or 300
yards into the field. Some plants were already dead, while others
had lost nearly all of their leaves. The leaves at first have the pecul-
iar scarlet appearance due to the attack of this mite. This coloring
occurs between the larger ribs, near the base of a leaf, and gradually
spreads in all directions. As the injury becomes common over the
la, the red color dies out, giving place to a dirty yellow, which later
fades out, and the leaf shrivels and falls. Larger and older leaves
are attacked first and soon commence to curl; younger leaves, when
attacked, do not curl until injury has spread quite extensively over
the leaf. The mites also attack the squares, flowers, bolls, and stems.
These mites were found on five plantations in and around Bates-
bur and in every case north or northeast of water oak or elm trees





88

that had been injured by red.spiders earlier in the year-presumably
this species.
On Mr. Cunningham's place violets and roses had been injured by
this red spider, these plants being in a northerly direction from
seriously affected water oaks. Across the road from this place is a
small piece of cotton which was the most seriously affected of any
seen. A field adjoining the yard and west of the house showed no
injury. Earlier in the year this region was visited by strong south-
erly winds, and it is quite probable,that the species living on the
shade trees at that time were carried into the cotton fields.
On Mr. Mitchell's plantation, 2 miles out of town, injury was
slight, but the red spiders could be found over a considerable portion
of the field. Other cotton fields on this place and between here and
Batesburg showed no injury, not a specimen being found. Cotton
fields in all directions from Batesburg were visited and general con-
ditions were the same in all cases.
Several insects (such as grasshoppers and smaller Hemiptera)
were found on cotton leaves in infested fields with young red spiders
attached to them.
From material collected by the writer Mr. Nathan Banks deter-
mined the species as Tetranychus gloveri Bks.-E. S. G. T.

SOME SUGAR-CANE INSECTS.

Anomala semilivida Lec. and Myochrous denticollis Say were found
feeding on leaves of sugar cane and corn at Berwick, Morgan City,
Broussard, Billeaud, and Olivier in April and May, 1904. At Brous-
sard they occurred in all the fields visited; at other places they were
rare. At Berwick small red ants were noticed carryiifg living adults
of M. denticollis to their nests.
Larvae of the bollworm (Heliothis obsoleta [armiger] Hbn.) were
found very rarely, feeding on the upper unfolded cane leaves in early
spring, working downward from above.
The sugar-cane borer (Diatrcea saccharalis Fab.) was quite rare in
young stalks in the spring, but in the fall some fields of Trinidad "
cane near Berwick were quite badly infested.-E. S. G. T.

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON KANSAS INSECTS.

We are in receipt of a comnunication from Mr. F. F. CrevecoQur,
Onaga, Kans., in which he reports a few observations made during
1904.
During the fall he observed the twelve-spotted cucumber beetle
(Dia)brotica 12-puvnctata 01.) feeding on apples that had been injured
by birds or other insects.






89

The cotton worm (Alabama argillacea Hbn.) and a common wasp
(Vespa gemana Fab.) were also quite abundant, feeding on apples.
The wasp especially was observed to eat apples so that nothing was
left but the skins.
October 2 a curculio, Conotrachelus posticatus Boh., was observed
feeding on apple.
May 15 one of the willow wevils, DorytomE s muidus Say, was ob-
serve in the pupal stage under stones by the water's edge along a
crek. The adult issued two days later.
June 15 he observed a dipteron, Ecthodopa pubera Loew., feeding
on a wild bee of the genus Halticus.
A moth, Ghlahyria (Homophysa) sesquistr l Hbn., was reared
from larval cases in the nests of the ant, Creinastoyaster lineolata Say.
July 23 a large robber fly of the family Asilidw, Promachus verte-
hraths Say, was observed attacking a tachinid fly, Jurinia aterrima
Desv. The Asilid mentioned is often seen attacking Melanoplus
atla ni Riley and other grasshoppers.
One of the long-orned grashoppers, a species of Orchelimum,
doubtfully referred to rulgnre, was seen September 19 eating an adult
soldier beetle, ClIauliogudthis p7ennsylvanieus DeG.

SOME LOCAL NAMES PFOR COMMON INSECTS.

During August, 1904, we received a number of insects from Hon.
J.. Mitchell for identification and as a donation to the Natiqnal
Musehum, wit notes on their habits and the local names applied to
the. The most interesting species are as follows:
Pyrophorus physoderus Germ., from Jackson County, Tex., known
as the "hominy beater," a name which it shares with Alaus oculatus
Lin. and other snap bugs" as far north as Washington, D. C.
This specis is lumious, having luminous spots on the thorax.
Mo~edulae carolina Drury, the cicada wasp;" dig holes in the
sand and has ben seen killing cicadas frequently, but no other insects.
Daymutilla orca Blake, the cow-killer ant;" a solitary species.
Arachnophroctomus ferrugineus Say, the "red spider hawk;" kills
spiders and buries them. An individual was observed dragging along
a large gray spider.




rLI"""



































































































































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INDEX.


Page
Aaa sp., injury by Aramium fulleri .---.----- ------.-- ..71
o ai s, ln _s..................... ._ _......,......., .. .__. . <;1
JEOloplu alim, on-- -------------- We
Alabama argillaca, feeding on app--- ------ ....------------------ 89
Ala~Ia oila ts(, lI o al I! name .... ...8.. .


Anttt i eotinictus, article by C. M1. Walker -__------------------ 43-49
confusion with oIll weevil ..... 4.3. 44
description of addult- ----..-.. _--_----------_ 47
laral stlages -..---------.- 4G1
pupa --..- 47
pupal cell..----------.- ---- ---- 4t1
determination ..-- -----------------. --- 44
distribution and destructivenes ------------------- 44
effect of injury -.--------- ---------------- 48
extent of injury ---_-----_-------------.-.44_ 44 45
food and feeding habits---------------- 47
indications of injury..------------------------ 48
life history and habits --------45
remdial suggestions -..---------------._ ---- 48
irsutus, reared from wild plum- -------------- --- 84
prunieida-=A. cutellars --------------------------- 83
suellaris, synonymy------------------------------- 83-84
Anticarsia getmatilis, injuring velvet bean, notes---------------- 77-79
Apante glomyreratus, cmplete lprasitism Picri r apw -----------. 79
Apiomeruq spissipes, on cotton ---------------------.--------- ------. 33
Apple, unmreprted enemi es ---___--_--- ------------------ --- 8,89
tems cut by rais fulleri ------------- ----- 71
Appls, injury by Ta s nifri.o -------------------------------- 43
Arachniophroctons fer in local iname ----------------------- 89
Arai fller, foo pilts d injury --------------------------- 70, 71
Arsenical spray agint locust --------- ------------------ 7
sprays against pond-lily leaf-beetle ------- ---------- 60
Asparagus beetle. report from Califoriai -------- ------------ 83
oriamental, injury by Aralnigus fulleri -------------70
Atropa belladota, food plant of potato beetle------------------------ 66
Aulocara elliotti, in Wyoming and Montana ----------------- 64
femoratum, in Wyoming and Montana-----------------64

Bean, velvet, attack by Anticrsia gemmatilis ----------------------- 77-79
Bean weevil, common, cold storage__ -----49
four-spotted, cold storage ------------- ---.... .........-- 49
91






92 INDEX.

Page.
Beans, injury by Epilachna borealis ------- -- ---84
Galerucella nymphwua'__ ---.-------------- 58
Bedbug, notes on remedy ----------------------------- 86
Beetle, asparagus, occurrence in California ------------------- 83
carrot. (See Ligyrus gibbosus.)
cigarette. (See Lasioderma serricorue.)
confused flour. (See Tribolium confusum.)
cucumber, feeding on apple ---- ------------------------ 88
offensive ground ------------------------------ 83
potato. (See Leptinotarsa decemlineata.)
rice. (See Chalepus trachypygus.)
rose. (See Aramnigus fulleri.)
sugar-cane. (See Ligyrus rugiceps.)
(See also Leaf-beetle.)
Berry plants, injury by Aramigus fulleri -------------------------- 70
Birds, insectivorous-------------------------- 15,63, 77
Bollworm, feeding on sugar-cane ---------------------------88
Borer, crown. (See Hulstea undulatella.)
giant sugar cane. (See Castnia licus.)
larger corn stalk, spread and range ----- ------------------71,72
smaller corn stalk ------------------------__---------- 72
West Indian sugar-cane ---------------------------- 71,72
Bracon brevicornis=H=abrobracon hebetor- --------------------40
Brasenia, food plant of Galerucella nymph ------------------------ 58
Bruchus chinensis, cold storage----------------------------- 49
obtectus, cold storage---------------------- 49
quadrimaculatus, cold storage ---------------------- 49
BRUNER, LAWRENCE, article ------------------------------ 60

Caladium esculentum, injury by Calpodes ethlius ----- --------- 56
California, beetles, notes----------- 75,76,83
Calpodes ethlius, article by F. H. Chittenden ---- ---------------- 54-58
description of butterfly----- ------------_--- 55
egg ------ ------------------ 55
larva -------------------------- 56
pupa --------------- ------------- 56
injury to canna---------- ------_--_----------- 54,56
life history and habits----- ----------------- 57
origin and possible distribution -------- ---------_ 55
present distribution -_--------- ---------------- 56
remedies--- 58
Camnula pellucida, in Montana --------- ------------------64
Camphor, injury by Aramigus fulleri----------------------------- 71
Canna, injury by Aramigus fulleri- ----------------------- 71
leaf roller, larger. (See Calpodes ethlius.)
Carabid, the malodorous, in Oregon---------------------- --------
Carpocapsa saltitans, gall production -----.------------------------ 81
Carrot beetle. (See Ligyrus gibbosus.)
Castnia licu, article by C. L. Marlatt ------------------------ -- 71-75
description of stages ------.---------------------------- 74
records and range --------------------------.-----------72
systematic relationship- ... --- ..-- --- ---..... 78
Castor bean, injury by Aramigus fulleri -- -------- --.------.... 71







INDEX. 93

Page.
Caterpillar, a sq--ueaking ---------
Chalepus trachypygUe at light------- 14
daiage to sugar ne ---------------------- 14
egg -------------------- 11
flying in field --------- ---------------------.. 13
size and appearan ce---- ------------------- 8
Chaulognaths pennsyanics predeous enemy .------------------- -
Chlonus ide nscn-.- notes on -------------
parasite of Hulstea iundulatclla------------
phycitid .--------.----------------- 39
China tre, food of Pntatoma ligata ------------------------------- 23
I NDN, F. H., and E.s. G. TITU. article---------------- 40
and F. C. PRATT, article-------------------------.8
articles 4 -------------- ---. 54.
notes ----------------- --------------------- 77.7
"Clead Wasp" scntifc name ------ ------... -89
Cigarette beetle. (Se La.iodlrdia ecrricone.)
Cime rufocinctls=Pentatona ligata ---------- --20
rutfoarginatus= Peratona ligata ----------------------- 20
distinguished from Pentatoma liGatat--------- 23
onlla ptmpuntata feedng on potato beetle-----. -67
tru etellarisAntonomus sutlaris ---- .-----.----- 8-4
Cold storage for cowpes artile by J. W. T. Ivel ----------------- 49-54
ost of treatment ----.------------------- 53
experiments 5.. .----------------- 50
metlhl of storing___.----.------ .... 53
results of -expe-ri-men-ts --- ------- -52
su ary ------------ ----- -54

Conchuela." the. (See Pentatotna ligata.)

Conotrachelu posticatus, feeding on apple----- 8
Cordillacris oc itali, In Wyoming and Montana ------------- 64
Corn, injuries by locust ------------------ ----- 61
sugar-cane beetle ------ -------- 8,10,17
Crl--stalk borer, larger ---- ------ 71,72
smaller -.------------------------7 72
Cotton, injury y "conchuela." (See Pentatloa iilata.)
heteropterou----------------------- 33
red spider ---------------------- -----87
wor, feeding on apple----- ------------- ---89
"Cow-killer ant," scientific name----- -----------
CoNpea weevil. coi storage- 49
Cowpeas. (See Cold storage.)
remastoatr lineolata, note on nests---------------- 89
Cressonia juglandis, a squeaking caterpillar -------- -- 80
ris asparagi, occurre in California ----------- 83
Crown borer, sugar-beet. (See Hulstea undulatella.)
Cucuber beetle, feeding o apple -------------- ---- 88
Cyanide of potash. (ee Potassium cyanide.)
clocphala imnaculata, damage to cane------------ ---------- --- 14
egg -------------- ---- ----------11
occurrence in fields---------14







94 INDEX.

Page.
J)asymutilla orca, note on common name ----- .__-_- 89
Diabrotica 12-punctata, feeding on apple -__----___________ _88
Diatrwa saccharalis, occurrence on cane----------------- ------- 8
spread and range_---_--------------------______ 71,72
Dock false-worm. (See Taxonus nigrisoma.)
yellow, insects injuring. (See Taxonus nigrixomna.)
Doryphora==Leptinotarsa _----- -----------_-----------------65
Dorytomsus mucidus, pupa observed under stone-------------------- 89
Droughts, relation to grasshoppers -----------------------------61
DUVEL, J. W. T., article --------------------------- 49

Ecthodopa pubera, feeding on wild bee --- --------------- -----------89
Elasmopalpus lignosellus -------------- --------------------- 72
Elm leaf-beetle. (See Monocesta coryli.)
red, defoliation by leaf beetle ------------ -------------- 82
Encoptolophus sordidus, rarity in Montana------------------------64
Ephestia kuehniella, spread' in Pennsylvania ----------------------80
Epilachna borealis, note on food plants -------------------------- 84
Erax lateralis, breeding note ---- ------------------------- 15
description and habits -------------_-- ---------__- 15-16
occurrence near white grubs ----------- ---------12
Eucalyptus melliodora, increase of lerp "_ ----------------------- 87
spp., injury by Aramigus fulleri--------------------------- 71
Exoriste pyste, parasite of Hulstea undulatella ------------------- 38

False-worm, dock. (See Taxonus nigrisoma.)
Flour, effect of hydrocyanic-acid gas -------------------------- 70
moth, Mediterranean, in Pennsylvania -------- ---------- 80
Flour-beetle, confused. (See Tribolium confusum.)
FRENCH, CHARLES, note -------------------------------------- 87
Fuller's rose beetle, article by Fdk. Maskew------------------ 70-71

Galeruca sagittaric-=Galerucella nymphla' ------ ----------------- 58
Galerucclla nympher, article by F. H. Chittenden -------- ---------58-60
description of adult ---------------- ----- 58
egg and larva -------------- 59
feeding habits ----- ----------------------- 60
food plants __------ --- ------------- 58,59
origin and distribution ------------------- 58, 59
remedies --------------------------------60
Gas lime, treatment for potato beetle ---------- ------------ 66
Germination of cowpea, effect of cold storage--------------------- 50-53
.Olaphyria sequistriali., in ants' nests-------------------------------- 89
Grand Marais grass, food for white grubs ------------ ------- 12
Grape caterpillar, social, feeding habit ------ ------------- .40
G rasshopper conditions in the Western States, article by Lawrence Bruner- -6O4
(Grasshoppers on sugar beets, list-------------------------------- 85--86
Grubs, white. (SeeC Ligyrus rugiceps.)

labrobracon hlebctlor, notes --------- -------------------------, 40
parasite of Huistea tindulatella ---------------- 389
IIlakberry, food plant of PentatoJma ligata.- ----------------------- 2
Halictus sp., piredaceous etlmy ----------------- ---- -------