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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.
S. DEPARTMENT AGRICULTURE,
DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY,
Washington, D. C., December 3, 1901
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Association
Economic Entomologists, which was held at Denve
and 24, 1901. From the fact that the papers presented at the me
ings of the Association are always of great economic importance
Department has hitherto published the secretary's reports as bullet
of this Division; I therefore recommend the publication of the pres
report as Bulletin No. 31, new series.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.
-. .. . .
JL~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ NE'JJAypc7J ILL'lJ.AA' /'L ~.UW IT/I IMTB" i'.
Lie aitory Studies on the Codling Moth ------------------ P. Gillette 5
Th essian Fly in New York State in 1901.. -------------------- E. P. Felt_ 22S
Urig for the Cureulio on an Extensive Scale in Georgia, with a List of
teInsects Caught (ilustrated) ---------- W. M. Scott and W. F. Fiske- 24
A iple Form of Accessions Catalogue ----------------------E. D. Ball-- 37
A rliminary Rep~ort on the San Jose Scale in Japan ------ C. L. Marlatt 41
Futer Notes on Crude Petroleum and other Insecticides -- -E. P. Felt 49
Ntson Somie Colorado Insects --. --------------------.. C. P. Gillette-- 51
A rliminary Note on a New Species of Aphis Injurious to Peaches and
Plms in Georgia (illustrated) ... ... ... W. M. Scott-- 56
Inet Detrimental and Destructive to Forest Products used for Construe-
ri l ..t......i........................................... A D H op k in s .... 60
Osrations on Forest and Shade Tree Insectsin New York State-E. P. Felt-- 63
Reiw of White-Fly Investigations, with Incidental Problems ------------
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... -H A Gossard-_ 68
Hyroyanic Acid Gas Notes. .. Chas. P. Lounsbury and C. W. Mally.. 75
Th se of Hlydrocyanic Acid Gas for Exterminating Household Insects..
... ....---------------------------------..... W R. B eattie-- 80
Inet of the Year in Ohio... .-- ...----F. X. Webster and Wilmon Newell 84
FutSeriously Injured by Moths --------------------------- W. Mally- 9 0
Ntson Four Imported Pests --------------------------- A. H. Kirkland. 93
Druht, Heat, and Insect Life ............Mary E. Murtfeldt. 97
Lsof Members of the Association of Economic Entomologists ---- 101
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IL LUS TRATIONS.
PLATE I. Curoulio gang at work with sheets and bumpers in orchard at
Fort Valley, Ga .-.----- 24
II. urculio gang at work in the Hale orchard, Fort Valley,
FIG. 1. Aphis n. sp: stem mother on peach and plum in Georgia,
enlarged --.--------- -----------. .. . ;
2. Aphis n. sp: winged form on peach and plum in Georga, muc
enlarged ------.. . ... -. ....... "57.... ... ...... . +
3. Aphis n. sp: adult from winged form, much _enlarged. -. 5
4. Aphis n. sp: wingless form, fourth generation, fourth stage, much
enlarged ..---. ..-- ----------- -. . .... ..--- -.. ... . .. 5
4". ++ !;,,!i!!;iiiii + ++ :++++?
-- sit ...... ~ s++O; i ;; +.....
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THITEETHANNUAL MEETING OF THE ASSOCIATION OF
MORING SESSION, FRIDAY, AUTGUS T 23, 1901.
TheAsocitin met in room, No. 3, Denver High School Building,
Denvr, olo., a 10 a. mn. August 23, 1901.
The olloingmembers were in attendance at the sessions:
WiliamH. shmead, Washington, P. C.; Lawrence Bruner, Lin-
ColnNebr; k Ball, Fort Collins, Colo.; A. N. Caudell, Washing-
toniD. .; ichrd S. Clifton, Washington, D. C.; T. D. A. Cockerell,
Mesila arkN. ex.; E. MI Ehrhorn, Mountainview, Cal.; E. P. Felt,
Alban, N.Y.; P. Gillette, Fort Collins, Colo.; A. D. Hopkins,
Morgntow, W.Va.; W. J. Holland, Pittsburg, Pa.; L. 0. Howard,
.Wahinton D.C.; W. D. Huniter, Washington, D. C.; Vernon L.
Kellog, Stnfor University, Cal.; W. M. Scott, Atlanta, Ga.
The meting as- called to order by President C. P. Gillette, who
annoncedthatthe absence of Secretary A. L. Quafintance necessi-
tate th elctin of a temporary secretary. Upon motion of Dr.
Howrd W.M.Scott was elected.
Aftr cllig Tr. Hopkins to the chair, President Gillette delivered
the anualaddrss, which follows:
LIFE HITORY STUDIES ON THE CODLING XOTH.
By C. P. GILLETTE, Fort Collins, Colo.
FELLW-WOKERS: It is no small honor that you confer upon Colo-
rad incomng or the first-time to the. Queen City of the West at the
beginin ofthenow century--the Utopian century for all true sci-
entfi thugt nd the highest human development. Never before
hav yo me sofar away from the time-honored- centers of learning
in te Eat. T-day we are met at the very feet of the Rocky Moun-
tain an inplan view of their eternal snowis, which give freshness
to ur ounainair and unite the waters that feed the two oceans
thatwas ou shres. You have not come in search of health or pleas-
ure%smanydobut in the interest of science, whose one object is to
searh ot te aiding truths of the Creator, and that branch of sci-
enc whch as or its object to make two spears of grass grow where
onegre beore" The object is. a most worthy one. May our ses-
sios i ths pac be marked with an unusual degree of harmony and'
enthuiasm whih shall cause each to return to his field of labor with
er interest in his work.
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In the address which it became my duty to deliver bfore this ass
ciation one year ago I took ocasion to emphasize the importance
iimore life-history study and a greater degree of cooperation in', o '
work. As I exhausted my store of good advice at that meeting, a
this time the results of some life-history studies on one of our longe
if not best, known insects-the codling moth. In this work I h
received much kindly assistance from members of this Association an
others who have auswered my questions, and in some cases ha p
themselves to considerable trouble to collect data and make observ
tions for me in their several localities.
Probably every member of this Association has been disappoint
and surprised many times at finding the lack of positive knowled
in regard to certain portions of the life habits of
insect pests. It is not necessary to discover a new insect, friend
enemy, in order to do good original work of the highest value.
The codling moth undoubtedly causes greater annual loss in Col
rado than any other insect, unless it be the two-lined locust (Melan
plus bivittatus). Our topographical and climatic conditions, with t
plains in the east and the mountains in the west, are extremely varie
and there is a popular opinion among many of our orehardist
the habits of the codling moth in Colorado are not to be
with the habits of the same insect in the Eastern pofrtion of the cnt
For these reasons, chiefly, my studies of this insect bega one
main objects being to determine whether or not there are moreoo
in the warmer portions of the State, where the tenderer fruits a
grown, than in the northern parts and in the East. In some w
this report will be one of progress only, as the work is not complete
A few years ago we were telling orchardists that the codli
lays its eggs in the calyces of the apples, and we might havebe
doing so yet had not Washburn corrected us. We were in e
the fruit growers know it, and have lost confidence to some e
the correctness of our statents. They do not k
are equally liable to be in error in regard to any other matter
the life habits of an insect where our statements seem to them dou
to accept the opinion of another than to verify its correctness. To
a thorouh scientist one must be a good doubter, or at least q
and thinker. Not always gainsaying the statements of others, b
always ready to inquire into the basis of belief even of the m
Riley,' knowing there existed a difference of opinion as to th
ber of broods of the codling moth in different the cou
try, made a special study of the insect in Missouri, and announce
1 Third Missouri Rep. p. 103.
X~iJU. J.U~lO UU~l .ilililC~ysr y I BI~lln .-:i
at least, in all parts of the State of Illinois and farther
Scent years we have had the number of broods estimated
etomologists, in various partsof our country, all the way
our, with variations in the form of partial broods
Sfact it has almost become the custo to announce that
Sy the coling moth is one-brooded wif th ,il iisecond bod
So far as my experience has cone, the insects with
whad to deal have been very uniform in the number of
rwise regular ftractional brood, and I am unable to find
datagivingstrong evidence of such a brood of the
in this country, except that from Dr. Smith, published
n Septemer and October.
letter from Dr. Smith he states that there is a partial
Goi. The fact that at least a partial second brood occursi
wick makes me wonderif two full do not regularly
ocrormal conditions in, the orchard. It is a point upon
e-growing districts where it has been supposed less than
forniag sare grown toperfection. In breeding large numbers of
Species it is not surprising to obtain an occasional
i "=== ~ i i iii iiiiiii iiiiiiiiii iii illiiiiiiii iiliiiii iiiiliiiii iiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiii.iiiiii ii! iiiiiiiii' ii iiiiiiii
I have received opinions of entomologists of equally good standing ill
which they estimate the number of life cycles differently by two broods
in the same locality. Both can not be correct
Again, if the codling moth is partial-brooded in a locality, it seems
larval state, yet all authorities seem to agree that such is the ase.
HOW TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF BROODS.
It is not a simple problem to determine the number of broods of the
codling moth where there are more than one. As the inse always
winters as a larva, it must be double brooded, at least, if all the lare
of the first brood of worms feeding in the fruit change to the pup
state soon after leaving the apples. Care should be taken to o
first-brood larvae, however, and if they do not change in breeding
cages, bands should be left upon the trees for two weeks at least, and
then the cocoons opened to see if any contain pup e. If a good num-
ber of larve are obtained and none transform under natural condi-
tions, it is fair to conclude that the insect is single brooded in that
place. According to my experience the first-brood larvoe will eon-
tinue to appear for fully one month before those of the second brood
will begin to arrive.
The time occupied by the codling moth in passing through its com
plete round of development during the summer will average about
seven weeks. Then if we know when the first larva appear in the
spring and when the latest ones cease to appear in the fall in a given
locality, it will be a very simple mathematical computation to deter-
mine a theoretical number of broods for the season, but it will be no
evidence whatever that such a number exists, unless we know that all
the eggs of a brood are deposited at one time and that all the indi-
viduals of the brood run their course at the same rate. Weknow
these conditions never occur in case of the codling moth. The prob-
lem we have to solve is one in which many runners are to cover a cir-
cular course one or more times; they run at widely varying speeds,
and some of the earliest to start will go around once before the late
individuals.make their start. We suppose all are to cover the course
the same number of times, and we are to find that number and also
learn whether the number is the same for all. Then what. must we
know in order to determine our -nknown quantities? We must know
the beginning and the end of the period during which the insect starts
upon its various rounds of development, and we must know the range
of time in completing that cycle; then we must know whether those
that complete one circuit start upon the next. If one starts upon the
course, it goes completely around-at least we know no exceptions to
occrrece f he insect for the year, we have no occasion to introduce
S. In fact I think their existence should only be
annouced uon the most positive evidence.
ata that I have to offer in this address bear chiefly upon
broods of the codling moth, I have not confined myself
of its life history, and shall give such records and-
sI think may be of interest from our studies of this
SPRING BROOD OF LARVE AND, PUPAF.
spring studies of this insect we have always found it as
ortions of Colorado. It begins to pupate freely just
th oming of the apple trees, at which time, also, the earliest
taken. The date of pupation varies greatly. Those
h side of trees pupate earlier than those upon the north,
ing into the earth about the base of the tree (which many
nto some checked trunk or rotten stump change still
me spent in the pupa state by this brood has varied with
68 days, and the time has been as long in the Grand
Vally asat Frt Collins.
fhe present year the writer took 285 larvm and 7 pupe
of he odlngmoth under bands in an orchard at Fort Collins. May
rly trees were in bloom, he took 33 larv and 4 pupe.
r date pupation took place much more rapidly.
SPRING MIGRATIONS OF THE LARVA.
a in the spring of 1899 that I was told that a man living
nction had put bands upon his apple trees in February,
andy larv of the codling moth under them. The follow-
quested parties in Rockyford, Grand Junction, Canon
CityEdgeatr, and Fort Collins to place at least 10 bands upon trees
earlinpig, to be examined weekly and report results. From
all hesebans but 6 larvee were taken. The past spring I was in
GrandJu in when Mr. Silmon Smith was removing bands to catch
the igrainglarvfe (May 8), and he reported 53 worms from .295
band reminng on two weeks. I also addressed a letter to Mr.
W. H Baber, of Grand Junction, who it was said had been very
sucesfulintaking the larvw, and he reported taking 307 larvaf
April 2a d 49 April 17 from 2,500 bands. So there is a small per-
cenageof helarvae that seek a new place for pupation in the spring,
but the number is usually so small that it seems doubtful if it will
often be a matter of economy to attempt to capture them tinder bands.
I ca notvouc for the identification of larvw in the last instance, but
if heywer al of the codling moth, working the bands must, have
At Fort Collins moths have been captured out of doors as early a
April 26, long before apple trees were in bloom. Our earli est records
for other portions of the State are as follows: Grand Junctionay
SCanon City, May 5; Rockyford, ay 10.
Moths from lare brought into the laboratory during April an
May have continued to appear in good numbers to June 23 at For
Collins, and minoths have continued to appear in cellar breeding age
to July 24. The early larvaw and pupm taken at Grand Junction by
'Mr. Silmon iSmith continued to give moths till June 1 i t
at Canon City by Dr. Peare gave moths till June .4, and those take
at Rockyford by Mr. 11. H. Griffin emerged till June 8. In none o
these cases was any special attempt made to get the latest appearin
moths for the locality. The extreme range in time of appearance
the first brood moths in our cages at Fort Collins in 1900 was 69 days
The following table, giving the dates at which the codling mot
appears in its different stages in different parts of Colorado and i
some other States, may be of interest for coparison, although
arie many b'lan-rs h i that can nt ot be filled at present:
TABLE 1.-Dates of transformations of the codling moth in diffrent places.
',i", ",~ ,Moths fEggs so of first Larv of f ...rst. ..
of first brood. brood.
S Locality. br .oo, i
emer- First. First. M
gence. mcommon. commoo.i
MesillaPar kN.MMex ----,- -.e- ---,--- ..-A --.pr. 24 May 4 --.-. May 31
Grand. Junction, Colo.-.... May -7 May 18 June 5
Rockyford, Colo ----- ---.--- .. y --------------- May 10 ---------- -------Jun15
CanonCity, Colo an-s------- May 5 ---- - - Ido . .
Corvallis, Oreg -----------. -------------.--- May 16 June 20 -. ----------- .
New Brunswick, N. .------------------------......... --------- .......July
Morgantown, Va ............................ ........
Lincoln, Neb---- ----------------------May June --------June 20
Denver, Colo ..------------------- ---- ---------- ---------- ------- July 3 July
Fort Collins, Colo ---------------..ay 5 June July June28 July
Moths of second Eggs of Larve of second
brood. second brood.
Locality. brood Authority.
First. Last. abun- First... o
dant. con i on.
Mesill ,.a Park, N. Mex------ June26 ........... ........ ..... D. A. Cockerell
Grand Junction, Colo June 28 Sept.12---------...uly 23 Aug. 15
Rockyford, Colo ...----------July 5 Sept.15Aug. 6 Aug.20 H. Griffin.
Canon City, Colo--.....-------- July 15 Sept.10..--------- Aug. -------- J. Peare.
Corvallis, Oreg -...------- Aug. Sept... 15...... -. ...... L.
New Brunswick,N.J ............---------- --------------------- ----------. .. Smith.
Morgantown, W. Va --.------ -.- -------- --. ---------- -------- .. -in-.
Ithaca, N. Y .------------- ----- ---------- ---------- - -.... -. . in.
Lincoln, Nebr-------. July 2 ------------------. W. Card..... ...
Denver, Colo --------------- Sept. 5 -av--Brother-.
Fort Collins, Colo .... ---------- July 13 Sept. 1Aug Aug. 3 Sept-1 .P.Gillette.
St. Louis, Mo .....--- ...... --------- July 8 ....... .......... Aug .. V Riley.
Northern Illinois July 15----------......... --- ----------..... .... ...----------W.. Le Baron.
SOn or before. stimated by writer. 3 irst Missri reort.
Of te 1 maes kept Iin breeding cages 2 died on the second day, 3
upo th thrd,1 on the* fourth, 2 on the fifth, 3 on. the sixth, and I
on te svent; a average of a trifle over 4 days. Of 7 fe -males I died
on he ixt da, 3 on the seventh, 2 on the ninth, and 1 on the thir-
teenh; a aveage of a little over* 8 days. Fully half of the females
in breding age did not lay egos .at all.
SPRING BROOD OP, EGGS.
The strtig oint of the. first brood can better be taken at egg lay-
inarance of the moths. The moths that appear
vererlyarcmpelled to wait for oviposition until apples are ready
to ecevether ggs. The earliest that eggs have been observed at
sJune 9, 1900. This year they were not found until
June19. heybecame increasingly abundant -until they reached
thei maxmumabout July 3, and by July 21 it was almost impossible
to fnd n uhathed egg. By July 27Ta noticeable increase had started
agai, makingthe beginning of the second brood.
ProfssorCocerell records eggs as early as May 4 at Mesilla Park,,
N. Mx. t Gand Junction, Colo., I found them in small -numbers
.May25,1900 an estimnated that they might have occurred as early as
the 8thof he onth. S1ingerland records them on May 26 at Ithaca,
N. ., nd ardgives June 3 as the earliest date known to him for
theapparace f the eggs in Nebraska. One is not liable to discover
the irs egs lid by the codling moth, so~it is likely that any of the
abov dats my be too late for the earliest eggs, and the dates in
a gien ocaitywill vary in different seasons with the date of the
blomin oftheapple trees. This is so important a date to have f romn
whichto wrk i studying the life history of the codling moth that I
offe th folowig table, giving the dates at which apple trees bloom
in dffeentporions of the country. It is chiefly compiled from
answrs o leter which I have sent out.
TABLE 1I-Dates at which apple trees bloom in different local~ities.
Locaity.Date of bloom. Informant.
RenoNov ----------- M ar. 2 -Apr. 10 --------------------------------- R. Lewers.
Corvllis Ore ---------- Mar. 25--Apr. 5 ---------- ----- ------------------ A. B. Cordley.
U rbana, III ------------------ A pr. 10 --------------- ---------------- --- - J. C. Blair.
GrandJuncion, olo ---- Apr. 15-2'7------------------- ------------ ----..... .P. Gillette.
Southern ~ ~ Ne er e --- Apr.2 -------------. ---------------------------- J. B. Smith.
Columbia, --------------- Apr. -May 5------------------ -------- J. M. Stedman.
Blckb rg a ------- Apr. M-0... ..............J. L. Phillips.
Lafayette, ~ In --- __ Apr. 20 ---------- ------------------------------ J. Troop.
Linoln Nobr7Ma --------------......... Lawrence Bruner.
RockyApr.8 Col ----- H.H.Griffin.
College3 Park W. G. Johnson.
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Bza M-n --- - y 1- R. A. Cooley.
Mor an ow a ------ ay 1-10 ----------------- ---- ------ A. D. Hopkins.
C n l - - y 1-1o - -- -- -- -- --- M. V. Slin gerlan d.
Gen va N Y ----- ------ y4-17 -------- ------- -------- ------ V. H Lowe.
For C llnsCoo ------ May 5-15. -- ------- ---------------...... C. P. Gillette.
WoosterOhiomany 8-10 ---------------------------------- F. M. W ebster.
C C- May 10 --- ---- ------- -- R. J. Peare.
Lan ing N ch ----------10-12 --- ----------------- -------- L. R. Taft.
Ottaw&,Ca. May 10-15. ---------------------------- J. Fletcher.
Mosow ld ho ---- ---- May 10-15- ------------... J. M. Aldrich.
Burin ton Vt--------- Mayl5 --- -----------------------------. G. H. Perkins.
S- m ayl ---- ---- ---- -------------- E.S.Goff.
Oro o ~ e ------- ---- M ay 20.. --------- ---------------------- W M Munson.
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ii i = i i i i i i i i i ii i i i = iii = iii i ii i ( i i iii iiii i~i iii lllii i iii ii iiii ii i illiiiii i iiiiii ii i i iiii iii iiiiiiiiii iillii iiliiiiiiiiiiliiiiliiiii ii ii iiiiii~ i~
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....... .. ii i iiiiiiii ii iiiiii1ii i iiii iii i i iiii iiiiiiiiiiiii i iiii1iii iiiiiiiiiii
s i;:: ; i iillillill! illii ii ==i ii=iiiiiiiiiiliiiii '"'iii zriii ii~ ~ 0i ll8"ii iiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiii111 iliiiiiii
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ll i i pi-ii lllwll ii pK, iiii 'ii y^Mii B i :
The time elapsing between the emergence of the moth and the depo-
sition of eggs in the cages has varied between 1 and 9 days, with an
average of 6.7 days.
The number of eggs laid in confinement has varied between 2 and
50, and nearly every one has hatched except where males were not
confined with the female. Of 65 eggs incl'sed in paper sacks upon
the trees only 2 failed to hatch. Nearly all the eggs seem to be fertile
at Fort Collins, but at the same time there are many more eggshelsi
to be found upon the apples than worm holes in them, which would
indicate a large mortality among the small worms, In our counts we
have found nearly 90 per cent of these eggs upon the free surface of
the apples and- the remainder upon the leaves. I
CHANGES IN THE EGG DURING INCUBATION.
When the egg is first laid it is of a pearly white color. Later
there appears upon it a faint red ring, marking the position of the
forming enbryo. A day later this ring becomes more distinct and
later disappears, and in its stead there is a dark central spot, produced
by the black head and cervical shield of the embryo. When the larva
leaves the egg the remaining shell appears like a 'fresh egg, except
that it is very flat and along one side the slit from which the la
made its exit can usually be seen. Notes by an assistant, Mr. E. P.
Taylor, upon 57 freshly laid eggs show that the red ring appears up
the second or third day after the egg is laid, the disappearance of the
r appearance of the dark spot 2 to 3 days later, and the
hatching of the egg on the first or second day after the appearae
the dark spot. These eggs were deposited in the breeding cages.
E s observed ian the orchard required about I day more to
probably on account of the lower temperature during night, making
the average incubation period and a fraction days. Riley ei
period as from 4 to 10 days, Washburn as 5 to 10 days, and Slinger-
land as about a week. We have found the time to vary between 6
and 8 days in the laborato emaining el perature ranged between
68 durint the night and 75 during the middle of the day. For eggs
kept in a greenhouse where the te perature ran to 110 during the
middle of the day, the hatching period was 6 days. The rds of
the hatching of eggs in these two rooms is as follows:
TABLE III.-COp par.son of egg-hatching records n a cool ad a hot roo
Cool room; temper- Hot room in green-
ature on accobetweeunt of the 8 ouser tempera-
68 d g te n t and 750 F.tuire, 1100 at midda.
Number of eggs in these o rooms is fo----------------------------- ------------ 15.
Eggs laid .-------.. ...... ---------------------------- ug. 11 (nght) Aug.11 (night).
Distinct red ring-------------....... ....... Aug. 14 -- -- Aug. 14.
Dark center-----.............................-------.------...-.......---Aug. 17-. ........ Aug 16
Hatched--.--...............-........-..-----............------------------...-....----- Aug. 18 (orning) Aug. 17 (evening).
Eleven eggs hatched in each of te above lots, the difference in
time being from evening one day to morning of the next.
It wuldsee from this test that if the temperature of the egg is
kep abve 8'an increase of temperature will not greatly hasten
SUMMRER BROOD OF LA.RVAC.
Our obervatons upon the very early larval habits have not differed
.... ...... ..... ..... iii iiiii~i~
iiiiigllBB I~I~Pi~l~;lII iiiiiii! i~ii Iiiiiili iiiii: iiri'"i ii ii
Sthose made by Card and Slingerland, except that weiiiii
havenot oundany indications of their feeding upon the surface of
the eave. Te earliest that we have ever taken larvwe of this brood
has been June 28. This year the first capture under
band wasJuly1. The earliest record at Grand Junction is June 5,
and t Rokyfod and Canon City June 15; the earliest at Denver
July3. Pofesor Card's record for earliest larve of summer brood at
Linoln Ner.,was June 20, and Professor 'Slingwerland's for Ithaca,
N. ., as uly1. Dr. Smith wrote me July 20 of this year that the-
codlng mth lrym were just beginning to descend for pupation at
New runsvic, N. J., and Dr. Hopkins, of M.Norgantown, W. Va.,
recetlywroe /hat the larvw were just beginning to descend there on
June20. rofssor Cockerell, in 1897, at Mesilla Park, N. Mex.,.
foun larw o this brood deseending 'May 31. This is the earliest
recod knwn t me. If there are four broods of this insect anywhere
in th Unied Sates, I am sure it should be at Mesilla Park.
Theealiet hat we have taken larvoe of the second brood at Fort
Colinsis ugut 3. In each of these localities the number of larvm
whih wll iveover winter as such increases rapidly in a few days
aftr te aovedates. At Grand Junction pupation practically ceases
by Auust 1,at Rocky-ford by August 20, at Canon City by August
s iiii ;:";
tCollins by August 30 (see Table IV).
TA13E I.-Tbleshowi'ng-proportions of larvce, taken at different dates, that live
over winter before, pupating.
Dates larve Ner umber Nme
Locaity.taken. taken. hiber- Record bv-
Gra d J nctonCoo ------------ Jul 16-23,1900-.----- 33 1
Jul 24-30,1900 -------2 53
Jul 81-Aug. 6,1900, 60 8
Aug. 319M-------- .......... ....-- - - Silmon Smith.
Aug. 13-20,1900- 79 78
Aug.21-291900 ------- 1830 18,30
iAug. 4,1900 192 i g9
Aug. 1-6, 1900 ---- j__ 22 1)
Aug. 7-11,1900 ----- 14 4
Aug. 12-14, 1900 ---51 1-1
Aug.115--21, 1900- 66 56 H. H. Griffin.
Aug. 2i-8,1900- 115 115
Aug. 29-Sept. 6,1900 80 80
iiiiiiio- July 30,1899 -i-i-ii--50
or of hi captures of codling moth larv ii in his orchad durin theiiii
ii~ic~~~~~.;; iiiiis iii;
N N i"R s; "???????
iiiiiliiiiiiiiiiii ui' iiiiiiii
iiN @1 i~i ~ ~ il
'+ r i, = +++iA i A ;
-summer of 1900 in a Denver daily about January 15, 1901. s hav a
clipping only, and do not know the exact date that it was published,
nor the paper followin which it appeared. The record is as follows:ssnMr.
Bands removed. Worm Average
July 1.-17. .-------------------1----------- l .+-------------------------------++ 997
August 2-.-. -. -..... -- -...--..-.. ----- ------------ 747 42
A ugust 12-14.... ... - - - --------. .--------- ----------------- ..-------- ---------- 2818 2
A ugust 22-24----.--- ---. --- .-- -- --------- - - --- ------------------- 60 80860
Se ptember 4-6- .2,225. ...... ...... ...... 1.. .. .. . .. .. 71
The following record, kept by an assistant, Mr. Titus, at Fort Col
lins last year, gives approximately the same Aates at which the two
broods of larvae reach their maximum and minimum numbers. The
dates run a little later at Fort Collins, which is. the more northern
the periods are 3 and some 4 days.
TABLE VI.-Records of codling moth laroxe taken under bands.
[Eleven trees in Harris orchard, Fort Collins, Colo., 1900.]
July. August. September. October.
25 28 81 4 7 11 15 18 22 25 28 1- 5 8 12 15 18 22 9 4 7- 1
10 ..- 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 .3 9 17 4 4 4
13..- 0 0 0 0 7 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 5120 4
14...16 0 10010 0 0 00 3551910 4 4
.. 9 11 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 15 8 28 8 9 9- 7 1 0
18. 2 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 19 6 12 8 0
19---- 3 00 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 211412 2 2:
2 .. 1 0 0 8 6 -0 0 0 0 0 1 0 8 5 10 4 4 12 3 1
21 ... 1 3 0 4 0 0 0 1 0 4 6 4 1 4
2...., 1 000 0 0 00 79 1 858 414 12
23.-- 6 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 3 0 5 5 6
.. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 6 8 7 5 4 13 2
The first brood had reached its maximum when the band w e
removed the first time, July 2. The great mber of ph
between August 11 and 22 indicate the division between the boos.
The second maximum came September 12, and then te n bers
diminished rather slowly for theex two weeks.
Another record kept the same year on a tree gowing in t ll
lawn at Fort Collins gave a similar record, though the first
came a few days later. The record is as follows:
TABLE VII.-Codling oth larvce from bas on tree i colleglawn.
June. July. August. September.
29 7 14 21 28 4 1 1 51 8 15 22
Larv... -------------------------24 8 464 390
Thetotl numerof larvoe taken under the one burlap band upon
i aiIriing in closely cut grass ground was 1,481. We;
didnottak solare a proportion of the larvve from any tree growing
iii,;;,siii; l ;;; ,ii i~i~ii~iitiiii;; j
i iiiiliiiiiiiilii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii'i iiiAiiii iiii iii i i
upon well, cultivated ground.
l, iiiiir;;ii siiii === ""ii ";iiiii ;,i== ar; l =I= i! ii
ili"="iiiiii,, iiiiiiiiiiiiiii==iiiiiiiii iii iiiiiiiiii iiiiii* ii i iiiiiiiiiiliiiilii iiiiiiii= iiiiiiiiiii ==ii
WHEN THE LARVE COME DOWN.
To deermie wht proportion of the larvfe leave the fruit during
and what proportion at night to go insearch of a
p cI andaged a tree that I passed each morning and
eved the larve at about 7.30 a. m. and 6 p. m. from
Augus 15 t 26. here were 414 larvoe taken, 353, or 85 per cent, of
whic ca e totheband during the night, and 61, or 15 per cent,
ween the hours mentioned.,
DURATION OF LARVAL PERIOD.
DrRlev hisperiod as 25 to 30 days outside the cocoon,
Washbrn~a abot 4 weeks, Card 3 as apparently 10 to 14 days, and
Sligerand4 etimted the time at 20 to 30 days. In our reedrds the
tim ha vaiedbeween 12 and 24 days, with an average of 19, at
WHEE THE LARVA ENTE1RS THE APPLE.
Unsrayd teesshould be chosen to determine this point. There
is lsodaner f eror if the examination of the apple is superficial,
-as hav foud tat the larva often enters at the calyx, leaving no
casing i sihtan then burrows out at the side some distance away,
thelater urrw bing kept open, but not the former. An examina-
tionof 26 ppls wrmy by the first brood gave the following results:
Two hndre and iXty-seven apples were wormy at the blossom only,
18 a th stm oly,84 at the side only, and 157 had wormholes at the
'blssm ad lsoatsome other place. Adding this last number to the
firs, w hae 44 ot of 526 apples, or 80 per cent, with wormholes at
the bossomend. he apples counted were of three varieties of crabs.
DURATIO OF OOOON STAGE OF FIRST SUMMER BROOD.
The erid eapsng from the time the larva leaves the apple or
appers uder bad to the time the moth emerges I have designated
as te ecoo stge.The time elapsing before changing to the chrys-
ali RieY5foud tbe,3 days. During the present summer (1901) Mr.
Tayor as arred hrough observations for me upon 76 larvip which
tranformd tomots, for the purpose of determining the average time
I Fourth Mo. Rep., p. 22.
2 Bul. 25, Or. E~xp. Sta., p. 59
s Bul. 51, Nebr. Exp. Sta., p. 22. -
4 Bul. 142, Cornell Exp. Sta., p. 23.
WFourth Mo. Rep., p. 22.
... .... . .... .. ... ... ...... .......ii i i ii l ii i i ii i ii i i ii i i ii i i .. .......... .... .. ....... ........... .... ... .. . .. . .. ... . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .
i i~ i i i i i i ii i i i i i i ii i lli l i iil iiiii i il ii ii i=
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:iiP;r, i :i iiiiiiiiiii
ii iiiiiiiiili ii Iiiiiiiliii l l'"Iii ~ ii : ii,, .. i
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iZ" iiii= =Hiii iiiiiii "Ui=;i ii l;'ii ,".i;F iii iiiii iii ""'ii s~ii Iiiiil; i ii;r';; i ~' = iii==iiii iiii= li ii i ii iiiiiiii iiii = iiiiiiiiiii=' iii =iir iiiiiii
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.; iiir; l i ii ii'i'! i "H il ii iiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiii iiiiiliii i!iiiii iiiiiil iii; iiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i iiii iii
lillllilii~i l===si= ===,, liuiii"i ======!ii i[ i ,"== ii "iiiiiiiii ii
ri;r iiiii ~' li ;
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-iiiii iiiiiiiiii;;iiiiii iiiiiiiiii ii iiii iiiiiiii
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shortest time was 13 (ays, the longest time 3 days, and the average
time 16.75 days.
Observations made for me by Mr. Titus in 1900 for the purpose
of determining the entire cocoon stage and also the duration of its
two periods-as larva and as pupa-gave results which I have tabu-
lated below. His averages for the entire period are somewhat larger
than those obtained by Mr. Taylor. It may be par y due to the
fact that he was compelled to open the cocoons daily before pupation
to determine their condition. This, however, should not affect the
TABLE VIII.-Time spent by codling moth from begining f inning stage to
appearance of moth, Fort Collins, Colo., 1900.
Larve I Moth ap- Num- Total Larvae Moth a- Num-
Total Tot a
Larv, taken. pupated. peared. ber. time. pupated. peare her. time.
------- ---- --- -- _ -- ; - |;
July 2......... Aug. 3 July 16 1 14 July 8-------... July 14 July 31 1 :-
Do .---- July 4 July 18 1 16 July -...... July 1 .... o
Do ........ July 6 July 16 14 Do- ........ Jly1 .-..do. 1
Do ....... .----do.- July 1 20 'July10.-.-. July 14 ,- ..o- 1
Do ----... July 9 July 2 1 22 July 11.. Ju uly 18 July 0 4 1
July -....-.- July July 18 4 15 o ..-.d July 1 3
Do........---....do... July 0 17 Do------............do-.. Aug. 2 3
Do ---........-- do.. July 1 1 18 Do---.....- -do... Aug. 1 4
Do ...-..- July 8 July 2 19 Do ..-. July 19 Ag.
Do --..... do-.. July 8 1 20 Do .----. ..-. o..- g.
Do -------... July 9 July 24 1 21 Do --------..........-..do. Aug. 4 4
July 4--------.....-.. -do... July20 : 16 July 12...-- July 16 July 30 1 18
Do --..-.... do.. July 21 5 17 Do-....... do. Ju 1
Do...... July 8 July23 1 19 Do -- July 17 Aug.
July 5 .... ---------do... July 81 1 16 Do.-------.... July 19 Aug. 4 1 2
Do ........ July 9 July 2 1 17 Do ..---------do.. Aug. 6 1 5
Do ---....... July 10July 23 1 18 Do----...-- July20 Aug. 4 1 23
Do ..... July 9 do- 1 18 Do..--... -- do Aug. 10 1
Do--- July 0 July 22 1 17 Do--..-----..--do -- do
July 6 --.--.---- do July 24 5 18 Aug. 11..... Aug. 13 Aug. 30
Do ....... July 12 -. do 3. 18 Aug. 13..----- Aug.18 Aug.1
Do ..-------. July 13 July 25 6 19 Do ....---- Aug.17 Sept. 5 23
Do --------..-do- July 26 2 20 Do--------..do Sept. a 1
Do --..--.- do .. July 27 4 1 Aug. 18...----Aug.24 1 1
Do -------... July 14 July 30 3 24 Do --....----- Sept. 6 Sept.16 1
Do --..- July 18 July 31 25 Sept. 4 .-----... do -. ....do. ..
July 8 ----.. July 12 July 30 22
The time required tor pupation, according to the above record, af
the larva comes down from the tree, was, for 1 larva, 1 day; for
larva, 2 days; for 10 larve, 3 days; for 18 larva, 4 days; for 15ilarv,
5 days; for 7 larve, 6 days; for 31 arva, 7 days; for 14 larvye, 8 da
for 1 larva, 12 days; for 1 larva, 19 days. The average time-was 5
days and the range in time from i to 19 days. Number of lare
the record, 104.
The time spent in the pupa state by the same lare was as follows:
Four were pupae 10 days; 2 were pupa 11 days; 23 were pupe 12 days;
13 were pups 13 days; 24 were pupa 14 days; 13 were pIIup 15
10 wre p 1 ; ere pppup 17 days; 3 were pup 18 days; 2
were pup 19 days; I was pupa 20 days, and 2 were pu 21
The shortest time in the pupa stat was 10 days and the lo
21 days. The average time was 14 days.
If we combine the stages above given and call the two the cocoon
age, we shall have a record as follows: One moth appeared in 12
ys; 3 in 14 days; 4 in 15 days; 4in 16 days; 11 in 17 days; 13 in 18
yi; 1i8 in 19 days; 7 in 20 days; 10 in 21 days; 12 in 22 days; 7 in
3 days;- 8 in 24 days; 3 in 25days, and 3 in 29 days. This makes
Hatching records kept for me by Mr. H. H. Griffin, at Rockyford,
d at Grand Junction by Silmon Smith, indicate that the duration of
llins. Riley gives the entire cocoon stage as 15 to 21 days, Wash-
rn as three weeks, and Slingerlandd as two or three weeks.
Adrich4 gives the time as a week or more, but greatly dependent upon
THE SECOND BROOD OF MOTHS.
The time of appearance of the earliest of the second-brood moths is
ily determined by hathing them from the earliest wory apples
of the summer. Riley gave this date for the latitude of St. Louis,
mo., as July 8; Le Baron gave it for northern Illinois as July 15;
ard, for Lincoln, Nebr., as July 2; Cockerell, for Mesilla Park,
Mex., as June 26, and Professor Cordley has written me that for
orvallis, Oreg., he finds it to be about AugusL 1. At Fort Collins
he earliest bred moth of this brood appeared July 13; at Canyon
ity, Dr. Peare reports to me that he bred a moth July 15; at Rocky-
rd, Colo., Mr. Griffin obtained the first moth July 5, and at Grand
unction, Mr. Smith obtained a moth on June 28.
The following records for the very latest moths appearing of this
brood (or some later brood, as. the case may be) are of interest in this
cnnection. The latest moth to appear in breeding cages at Fort Col-
ns came out September 16; the latest at Canyon City, September 10;
at Rockyford, September 15, and at Grand Junction, September 12.
hese are all belated individuals, and all appeared after the general
dsappearance of the brood. (See Table IV, giving proportions of
aryoe that live over winter from different dates.)
I know of no definite published records upon the second brood of
Bul. 142, Cornell Ep. Sta., p. 27.
BuL 21, Id. Exp. Sta., p. 101.
iii m:, : ,r
s: l~~g;a E@
~~~~ A~9 ~N1~~o
between broods about 54 days. On ugust 20 it was diicult again
SECOND BROOD OF LARVE.
The earliest that we have taken mature larve of this brood at Fort
Collins is August 3; at Canon City, August 1; at Rockyford, August 6,
and at Grand Junction, July 23, as determined byt t
we have first obtained larve that did not pupate till spr
Table I.) Immediately following these dates the number o
larve rapidly increases until none are found except those which
remain in the larval state till spring. These last dates, in all our
observations, have been ta o mark the close of the ap
of the first larval brood. The dates we have are, for Grand Junction,
August 13; for Rockyford, August 20; for Canon ity, A t 21
and foFo rt Collins, August 30. (See Table IV.)
According to our observations this brood passes the winter
as larva, and begin active pupation at about the time the apple trees
begin to bloom.
The pupa stage of this rood usually lasts much ger t
of the summer brood. We have often had pup remain 3 or
before the moths emerged, and a considerable longer period hs
been very unusual. The longest spring pupal stage that we
recorded is 68 days, March 7 to May 14, at Grand Junction.
THE NUMBER OF BROODS.
While the above data may be weak at some points, I believe it is
fairly safe to announce that the codling moth is defintely two-b
throughout Colorado, with no adequate reasons for postulating pa
tial brood to account for the belated larva~ that have fa behind
the majority i the race. Let us see if the daa we have
bear out the conclusions.
According to our records the entire life history of thesummer bro
is divided into periods about as follows: From egg to larva, 7
from larva to cocoon stage, 19 days; cocoon stage t r
moth, 18 days; emerging of moth. to middle of egg-laying stage, 5
(estimated)-a total of 49 days, or just 7 weeks.
The first larvme matured in the apples last year at Fort Collins J
3, and we began taking larvw that lived over winter August 1
40 days after. At Canon City Dr. Peare took the first larva June 15
and the first larva that did not pupate was ken 47 days later-
1. Mr. Griffin, at Rockyford, took the first larva of the summ
June 15, and the first that lived over winter without changing, 52 days
afterwards, August 6. Mr. Smith, at Grand Junction,
mature larva last year June 10, and the first to live over winter with-
out pupating, 43 days afterwards, July 23. As
Sour records, and as te number of lare not transforming
g rapidly increased from the dates given for the first cap-
at within 20 days thereafter all were of this winter brood,
tain that there could not be a third brood in any of the
loa sentioned, as there is not room for them. A partial brood
ely maturing second brood could be granted if necessary.
could find the first brood of larvfe extending late enough
toor the last larve that pupate, we should have no need
osuppose a partial third brood. This we can not quite
from the data at hand, but we can so nearly cover the
the few days remaining, in which only scattering speci-
ken that pupate, would, in my estimation, easily be covered
ndividuals that have taken a longer time for development
eeding records will show, as it is practically iblein
ding experiments to include the extremes of a brood.
Ieords larv taken from the orchard late in April and
to a moderately cool cellar continued to give moths to
his would easily account for eggs to August 4. As the
Sre found at Fort Collins the same year, June 9, we have
rt larv were taken under bands at Grand Junction in
ne 10, and the last larva pupating were taken August 12,
tes mark the extremes of the brood, provid there is no
partialbrood. It exceedis the time our records indicate for it by 7
time is so nearly prvided for that it seems that a partial
nly be allowed when proven to exist by actually carrying
rough the three generations in breeding cages. So while
say positively that there is not a partial third brood at
tion, or even Rockyford or Canon City, our records do not
pd the writer is strongly inclined to the opinion that it does
A complete third brood can not be accounted for at all.
.Brothers, near Denver, last year collected 2,223 larvT
241 s-he proved very conclusively that only stragglers of the
Syet received suficient data to state what the conditionsi
aoth later than September 15, and he gives June 20 as the
of, August 17tht so wormap p le pa cedi boxe
iiiiiiii i~ iiiiii iiii
,;i~:;i;;;;; u~:m; 'I"'~; ,ll~l;:,;~;;i;;i: "Ri'i'ii .i
data referred to are included ini the present paper. You may st
*1, tt ,oiF f i ,n iPiir,:i! tt'lpTOB^" "" 'iii*i^riapipMiplliiiiTi O l "i":M i
them at your leisure and raw your own conclusions. I
that at no distant time we may be able to make definite state t
without much guesswork as to the nuber of broods of t mpo
orchard pest wherever it occurs in this country, and that the obser-
vations here reported may assist to that end.
On motion of Dr. Howard, Professor Gillette was voted the thanks
of the Association for his excellent addess.s
A general discussion of the address followed.
Mr. Ball thought that much could be gained from this paper as'
lesson upon the magnitude of a complete life-history study, and made
a general suggestion that the life, history of a closely allied species,
living under natural conditions, could often be used as a cheek to the
work on that of an economic species. As an illustration, he cited
case of the chinch bug and thee false chinch bug, which have been var
ously reported as from one to four-brooded, while closely allied species
occurring under natural conditions can be easily determined to
Mr. Howard said the paper was an education upon life-history work,
but suggested that the statement that he insect was only double-
brooded in the South as well as the North was somewhat startling, a
that he was not at all disposed to accept it without further evidence
Mr. Scott stated that he had done very little work on this insect, b ii
from his general notes it appeared to be three-brooded in Georgia.
Mr. Cockerell thought that the greatest damage was done to Septe
ber apples, while fruit maturing in June was not materially damaged
It was almost impossible to grow apples in southern Mexico, while the
insect did not occur in Arizona.
Mr. Hopkins thought that the moth would be governed by the same
phenological law as that which governed the periodical phenomena of
plants and other insects-that is (as determined by him in West Vir-
ginia), an average difference of about 1 day for each one-fourth degree
of latitude and about the same difference for each 100 et in atitud.
The results of observations made by him in June and July, 1901, i
compared with the calculated normals for first appearance of larve
from apples in West Virginia, as follows:
Locality. Date of observation and result. Latitude. Altitude. C ed
Morgantown -- July 3, a few had emerged...........39 45 1,000 July 1 (e
Gerrardstown .... June 27, a few had emerged .-----..--.39 30 400 June 24.
Elkins ----------........... July 9, a few had emerged ----------- 38 4 2000 July 7.
Leebell ........... July 10, frst emerging --.. -...-.....-- .. 38 4 200 July 9.
Huttonsville ..... July 11, a few had emerged .---..-------- 38 45 2,100 July 8.
Near Huttons- July 11, none had emerged----------- 38 45 2,0 July 13.
4;II; ";l:l siBII~
Matured larv collected at Morgantown on July 3 produced moths
on July 16-17. Matured larvoe collected at Elkins July 9 produced
one moth on August 9. Therefore he thought that at low southern
sections in his State the moth might be two-brooded, while at high
northern sections (Canadian zone) a second brood would rarely, if
ever, occur. e also was inclined to believe in the three-brooded
Mr. Gillette suggested that it would be interesting for Dr. Hopkins
to determine the number of broods of the codling moth in high alti-
tudes as compared with low altitudes in his State.
iMr. Gillette had found it impossible to determine the number of
broods with certainty without actually breeding the moths.
Mr. Ball stated that it took an apple a definite length of time to
reah maturity and, in his opinion, this would determine the number
of broods. The period of development of the fruit being the same
North and South, it follows, in his opinion, that the number of broods
Mr. Felt, in speaking of the variability of broods, cited the elm-leaf
beetle, which has one large brood, with a second brood when the foli-
age is sufliciently fresh and tender to support it. He asserted that
the second generation was produced from the adults of the first brood
of Isrvm. Trees infested with the second brood of larve would fur-
nish adults which may fly to neighboring trees and develop a third
generation. There may be, therefore, three well-defined generations
Mr. Gillette stated that the appearance of late foliage upon the
trees could hardly account for the appearance of a third brood of the
insects to feed upon them. He did not believe that an abundant food
supply would cause the insect to pass through another generation.
Mr. Hopkins stated that i its possible for the number of broods
of an inset to vary according to conditions.
Mr. Felt agreed that favorable conditions would produce additional
broods. The Hessian fly, for example, according to his notes, pro-
duced an .additional brood when weather conditions were favorable
Mr. Giette observed that if the codling moth is three-brooded
anywhere it seemed as though it should be at Grand Junction, Colo.,
apples for the insets to feed upon. Extensive observations in that
locality, however, indicate that the insect is definitely two-brooded
and Dr. James Fletcher proposed the name of Percy B. Gregson,
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kins on th ground
economic entomology, and upon motion of Professor Bruner they
were placed on file. In this connection the by-laws touching the
credentials necessary for membership were read by the secretary.
Program committee: W. M. Scott, E. P. Felt, T. D. A. Cockerell.
Committee on resolutions: A. D. Hopkins, William H. Ashmead,
E. D. Ball.
Committee on nominations: E. P. Felt, Lawrence Bruner, Wiiam
The report of the secretary and treasurer for 1900 and 1901 was read
Mr. Felt suggested an annual assessment of 0 ents per member to
defray the expenses of the Association. Mr. Ashmead moved that an
annual assessment of 25 cents be placed upon all members of the
Association. The president ruled both motions out of order, they
being contrary to the constitution.
Upon motion of Dr. Hopkins, it was voted that each present
should be assessed 75 cents.
The meeting then adjourned to meet at 2 p. im.
AFTERNOON SESSION, AUGUST 13, 1901.
The meeting was called to order by President illette,
nounced a paper by Mr. E. P. Felt to be the first on the progra
THE HESSIAN FLY IN NEW YORK STATE IN 1901.
By E. P. FELT, Albany, N. Y.
This pest caused considerable injury in New York State in 189
1900, but the damage inflicted this spring appears, from all accounts,
to have been very much greater than in recent years. Wheat pas
the winter in excellent condition, and the remark was made n
presence that farmers would hardly have thanked anyone for a gu
anty of a full crop, so promising was the situation early in the ..
The season was exceptional, and rains followed each other in quick
succession, producing a vigorous growth of all grasses, so that the
hay crop was an enormous one. So far as could be learned, there w
little indication of the work of this pest last fall, but as the sprin
advanced the grain suffered more and more, till the latter of June
or early July, when reports of the true conditions of afirs b n
come in. Some allowance was made in the case of the eler re
because in 1900 the injury was overestimated in some cases, and
this may be true in part for 1901, but in some
sonal investigation of some of the infested localities
that many of the reports made to me were literallytrue. I was s
pr sowniiiiiiii g a eriiir t wi i p wiiiiir ei sh bn e ii
totalfal fhe grain crop in such cases. These, however, were
was utilized to secure some data which may be help-
tding the situation. Special reports were received
r cent or more of the grain on 134 acres was estimated
ent on 6 ares, and 6 to 12 per cent on 248 acres; or,
r more of the grain on 451 out of the total of 762 acres
destroyed. These reports were not made on badly
iiiiii ne, but on others as well, and they were made in reply'
at that a white beardless wheat, known as No. 6, was
almost without exception, while the bearded red
Sned reports attributes more than a 25 per cent injury
greatly preferred by farmers. -This inquiry was
ted in the spring by flies from overwintered pparia
i i i ii i iii i i i i i ii i l il i i ii iiio. .
miyrepo rts were receive The table is asiollws
Month. Total Number Total
S1900- A ugust. ---------------------................................. ---........ -- - - 2.48 2. 9 i
JSeptember --.i--------.<---------------------i 3.26 297
O ctober ------------------------------------- ...... -- -- -,18 3 .598
N ovem ber ----------------------------------------------.. 8. 4 16 3.9 21
1. 01-. M a rch -------- ------ ------ ------ ------ --------.I.-.-....--............ .......09 1 ii i
April ..4.34 11 4. Z5 4
M ay -----------------------------------------------------. .. 4. 49 18 5.13 1
iIt will be see ithat last Mi y was very wet, rain falling 18 an
respectively, in the tiwo loca[ lities, and it is no wonder that the
generation of the fly thrived, completed its transformations, an
ready to infest late-sown barly. The contrast between a rank,
culent growth of the grain and grain injured by the Hessian f
further shown on one hilly patch of whet in which there was
erable grain on the gravelly, comparatively dry knolls, while i
more moist gullies the stalks of wheat were very scattering.
In the discussions of this paper, Mr. Ashmead asked what r
Mr. Felt would -.Pe-ommend.
Mr. Felt replied that late sowing and trap crops plowed unde
the most effective remedies.
iiiii Mr. Howard suggested the possibility of varieties resista
Mr. Felt said that No. 8 was said to be resistant.
Mr. Scott then presented the following paper:
JARRING FOR THE CURCULIO ON AN EXTENSIVE SCAL
GEORGIA, WITH A LIST OF THE INSECTS CAUGHT.
By W. M. ScoTT and W. F. FISKE, Atlanta, Ga.
CURCULIO DAMAGE TO PEACHES AND PLUMS.
In Georgia, where peaches and plums are extensively grown fo
ket, perhaps the most perplexing problem that confronts the
is how to combat the curculio. The San Jose scale, so preva
siouth Georgia, is thoroughly controlled by the ke 1 rosene-water t
ment, the peach-tree borer is held in abeyance by the cutti
method, and thn e brown rot is fairly well controlled wit the Bo
treatme t; but the curculio has succeeded in baffling all contri
for its destruction, except, perhaps, the tedious and-expensive m
of jarring the trees and catching the beetles on sheets stretch
frames made for that purpose.
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E G A WOR W S AN B IN O A F V GA.
F p furnished by Scott & 0isk- .
...w : i, : ii,
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CUOLQGN TWR IHSET N BMESI RHR TF: ALY A
Frmpoonp unsh.b ct ~Fae
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w ', . .
From photograph furnished by Scott & Fiske
N ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ -i CUCUI GAGA OKI H AE CARDFR ALY A
C~ k ~ I" s~g, ar
wi ;i i ~ i ii ~~s
3 i .";R ~~i.l~ ~ n iyyg~ll
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Cu~cu~loGANG AT ORK IN TE KALE RCHRD FRTVALE, A
From phtgah unsedb ett&Fse
aid plums done by the curcul in iiiiG iai i25 pecen i othenir"eii
-P n the ruit adult== beetles:
are sprayed with Bordeaux mixture it was observed that brown
veloped almost exclusively on fruit that had been punctured or
ninto by the curulio, and the point of brown-rot attack was
y at wounds made by the beetles. It is evident, then, that this
tiiiii it ,i, iii iiii
is responsible for considerable brown-rot damage either by actu-
a nveying the spores or by merely breakin the skin of the fruit
THE JARRING METHOD IN THE HALE ORCHARD.
aps the most extensive work against the curculio that has ever
ndertaken in the history of peach and plum culture was con-
Sby the Hale Georgia Orchard Company, at Fort Valley, Ga.,
gthe past season. About 200,000 bearing peach trees and 50,000
g plum trees were jarred several times between April 18 and
L. The entire orhard was gone over aib6ut six times, while>
locks of trees, particularly those adjacent to woods and other
io-harboring places, received the jarring every day (except
gang of 5 hands each. Each gang was supplied with an outfit
ing of two sheets stretched on the underside of light wooden
s, 6 by 12 feet in dimensions, a pole 8 feet long padded with rub-
none end which served as a bumper," and a supply of baking-
r cans in which to confine the insects captured. Each pair of
sh swas carried by 4 women or children, accompanied by a man,
The several gangs moved through -the blocks of trees together, each
i a row, as shown in the accompanying illust'rations. Aboutiii
iiihalf hour the. sheets were placed on the ground, andl IIIall hands
enlgae in picking' off curculio and other insects that looked sus-
p In most ases the lady-bird beetles were allowed to escape.
jarring was done from 3 a. in, to 9 a. m. and from 2 p. m. until
ingwork. With the- 11 pairs of sheets about 40,000 trees were thus
over in a day. (See Plates I and 11.)
$ 1iii i i
We furnished Mr. J. H. Baird, superintendent of the orhard, wt
yanidie jars for killing the insects in bulk one a week
e in they were gone over quite carefully
different species occurring therein mounted. These were afterward
determined, so far practicable, through theof
Howard, by Messrs. F. C. Pratt and 0. Heidemann. Portions of se
eral lots were separated and the curculio counted in order to et
tion and carefully measuring the remainder a tolerably exact es
varied from 56 to 94 per cent, the average for the entire s on
about 67 per cent. The gross number of curculio was in the neig
borhood of 137,000.
No attempt was made to determine the percentage of females,
if it be granted that the sexes were equally divided and t
female was capable of depositing 200 eggs an idea can be had of t
immense damage that was prevented by the jarring work.
The most important results, however, showed up in the small
centage of curculio-damaged fruit from the jarred orchard as co
pared with the adjacent orchards that were not jarred. It was qui
impossible, of course, to arrive at definite figures, but a fair estima
of the comparative results was obtained by examining both the im
ture fruit on the trees and the ripe fruit as it came into the
In the midst of the shipping season, July 23, we made final note
on the work. The system of sorting the fruit in Mr. Hale's pa
house is about as perfect as it can be made on a large scal e.
hand sorts for two packers, and all fruit showing curculo damage, ro
or other defect is discarded. Out of one day's shipping of 5 c
or 2,062- bushels, there were only 20 bushels of culls, or about 1 p
cent. Some damaged fruit is always overlooked and allowed tot
the market. For this we allowed another 20 bushels. In this o
there was very little premature dropping due to curculio dam
from our notes we would place this amount of damage about equa
with the amount that came into the packing house. A fair est
then, would place the amount of curculio damage to the enti
at 4 per cent.
An adjacent orchard of 130,000 trees was taken as a check. C
ful notes made in this orchard and its packing house place
amount of damaged fruit at 40 per cent of the entire che
roundings attending the two orhards are about the
should be-explained that the untreated orchard has never receive
the same clean cultivation that Mr. Hale's orchard is
ful notes, made in thi
,hswould certainly account for a small part of the difference in the
prentages of damage in the two orchards.
There seems to be no question as to the successful outcome of the
epriment, and Mr. Hale, who shipped. 143 cars of fruit from tle
ocard, considers the money required for the jarring well spent.
Astudy of the collections of insects made by thus jarring the trees
hsrevealed many interesting features as regards the species present
adtheir comparative abundance. Albout 325 species were mounted
d determined; the larger part were found in insignificant numbersi
btmany were abundant. Outside of the Coleoptera and Hlemiptera,
veyfew of any order were taken, and of these no record has been
kp. The presence in considerable numbers of the peach borer, San-
niaexitiosa, during the early half of May is, however, worthy of note.
LIST OF FAMILIES REPRESENTED.
Te Coleoptera easily outnumbered the Hemiptera, even W ithout
cnidering the immense numbers of cureutio, and many of the species
weeof economic interest. The list of families represented is as
CARABD,.-Very few sp~ecimens early in the season, but many at later dates.
Lebia. as might be expected, was common; Calosoma sayi, twileoxi, and serit-
tator were scarce, but conspicuous from their size and color; Platynns was
the most com mon genus, and represented by several species, of which lim-
batus was present in the largest numbers.
PH onmA= .-.-Scarce.
COCINEars DA.--These beetles, of such great economic importance in reducing
the numbers of such -widely distributed scales as Aspidiotus forbesi, etc., were
sorted from the jarrings as made and set at liberty. Thus -no good idea could
be obtained as to their actual abundance; but, judging from the large num-
bers that escaped the mercy of the sorters, very large numbers must have been
originally present. Thirteen, species were identified (counting Seymnus as
one), the most of them known as scale feeders. The most common was, how-
ever, Anatis 15-punctata, with a close second in Hippodamia convergens.
Among those that have been especially noted as feeding on the scales infesting
peach in Georgia were Coceine.lla sanguinea, common; Chilearns bivulnerits,
common; Excehomus tripustulatus, scarce; Hyperaspis signata, scarce.
Seymans was common, but the species are as yet undetermined. Strangely
enough, Adalia bipunetata, which occurs about plant-lice in swarms, was
ENDOMYcHImaE.- Very rare.
DER-aFms~iLDA, Nr ouni TRoGosI and DAscr.-All rare.
AEMAso. -Abundant. The species, however, largely such as breed in rotten
wood, such as the old stumps often occurring in orchards, or in its environs.
For instance, Alaus myops was common and conspicuous; Perothops muceida
was very commoa in some lots, and in general the species were of. little eco-
.. ... ... ."
tESnTIDAv.-Abundant. The collections in this family were interesting, prin-
cipally on account of the abundance of the genus Chrysobothris. C. femorata
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was very common toward the end o'f the season; area was eally cm-
mon throughout, and the same true of harrisii. s-signata was less
so, and a small form that may bly
scarce. It seems probable that all of these feed on peach, femorata unques-
tionabl so, while azrea has been noted from to July as being a com-
mon frequenter f peach trees, especially when d and
dozen other species of the family were taken.
LAMPYRiD.E -Also a very common family, certain small species of Telephone
being very abundant, arranged according to abundance. Chauliognathus was
also extremely common later in the season.
MALACHIIDA. -Fairly common.
CLERID,.-Made fairly common by the presence of Olerus thora s in so
PTIN Dj. -Several species, the "twig borer" Amphier bicadatus in some
ScARABInaID.-The presence of Anomalwa undulata in numbers gave this family
considerable prominence that it would not otherwise have possessed. La
nosterna was unexpectedly scarce, though in some variety; L. tritis was the
only common species.
CERAMBYCIDAE. -Rivaled only by the Chrysoelida for variety, though few spe-
cies were abundant. Elaphidion villosum was common through the s
In all about 40 species were found, and of them a few of the smaller were
CHRYSOMELID-Over 50 species in this family were determined, though
of them were of but occasional occurrence. The flea-beetles were
by some very prettily colored forms. Perhaps the mos interesting
ically was Diabrotica 1.-punctata. This was one of the most common of l
the beetles, and is quite injurious to the peach in early spring, eating out
center of the blossoms and opening buds Thepotato and sweet-pota
found their way in oonsiderable numbers the slaughter.
TENEBRIONID.-Abundant, represented by some of the more common
LAGRIIDAE.-Quite common. -
MORDELLIDJ~.-Rare until nearly the end of the seson.
ANTHICIDAE.-Species of Notoxus were fairly common, and later in the season th
insects are among the most commonly seen on the trees, crawling continually
over the leaves for some obscure purpose.
OTIORHYNCHID.-Rare, except for one species, Araigus fulleri, which
lots of the catchings was very common, but was far from being uniformly
throughout the season. What its habits may be in this connection is a qu
CURCULIONIDAE.-Conotrachelus nenuphar of course formed a large proportion of
the total number of insects caught, but a proportion that lessened as the
advanced, varying from 94 per cent under certain conditions to as low as
per cent toward the end of the season. This is in part due, we think, to
fact that much fewer curculio were caught and partly, also, to the in
numbers and activity of other insects. In addition to nenuphar,the
species of Conotrachelus were taken: C. anaglptius was common, C. senu-
hlus, scarce, and C. cribricollis, scarce. All these were noted as
common during the latter part of the season Others of this y w
spicuously numerous, as Chalodermus neus, Ant us s lls
cies of Cryptorhynchus and Baris.
OLYTI .-Scolytius go was abundant throughout the season and formed
a considerable percentage of the insects outside of urculio.
.-Co n, and represented by several species. The rare cratoparis
briwanotuncommon in one catching, but the individuals received were
in a state of decomposition that spoiled them for specimens.
The Hemipter were very interestng, embracing as they did insects of
ite varying economic status. The number of families at all common
ere limited, and, strangely enough, the Capsid were wholly without
presentatives. Any one of a dozen species could be selected from the
pid or PentatomidT that would outnumber in individuals all the
her species of bugs together, saving, perhaps, the Pyrrochorid.
TT-Abundant, including boh predaceous and phytophagous forms.
Stiretrus anchorqgo was common, with both white and orange ground color and
much variety as to detail of markings. Podisus was abundant, but the mate-
rial has not yet been thoroughly worked over for species. Four or five species
of the large flat Broohymena were more or less abundant, especially toward
close of season. bals pugna was abundant. Eschistus, the most com-
.-This family wa also abundantly represented and by species of the
highest economic importance, foremost among them being large quantities of
the leaf-footed plant bugs. Falling in this group were: Acanthocephala declivis,
common and conspicuous from its gigantic size; Metapodius femoratus, to
which the same remarks apply; M. instabilis, rare; Leptoglossus oppositus,
abundant; L. phyllops, still more abundant (these two latter species formed
10 per cent of the total catchings in some cases); L. corculus, rare; L. n. sp.,
rare. The injury which these insects do in an orchard must be considerable.
They sometimes occur in swarms on the trees, flying freely -about from one to
another, and piercing and sucking green, ripe, and rotten fruit promiscuously.
There can be little question but that they thus act as agents in the dissemina-
tion of brown rot, and very effectively in a climate so conducive to the devel-
opment of this disease as Georgia Ethoth galeator, a species that is often-
times a serious pest to nursery stock, piercing and sucking the terminal shoot,
thus causing it to wither and the stock to branch, was caught in some num-
bers. Chariesterits antenrator was abundant, and in all 17 species referable
to thf family were taken.
-Sarce, on the wholeSeveralspecies of Lygus; one, turci, fairly
rocohRIDX.-Common; represented by Largus succinle.us..
AEBID E. -Ratr.
EDUVIID. -Represented by half a dozen species, aft scarce or rare.
Poorly represented by a few Fulgorids, Jassids, and M embracids
LIST OF INSECTS CAUGHT FROM PEACH AND PLUM TREES IN JARRIN
Calosoma secrutator Fab. Les rare than Langria mozardi Lee. Fairly com
C alooma w'ilcoi Lee. Rare. LangiIria gracilis Newn. One spe
Calosoma sayi Dej. Rare. men only.
Pasimachus marginatus Fab. One. Tritomafestiva Lee. Rare.
Amara spp. Fairly common. Tritoma thoracica Say. Less rare tha
Calathus opaculus Lee. Common to- fetiva.
ward end of season. DERESTIDE.
Platynus limbatus Say. Not found in
ctchings untl end o Aut n r a l.U .
Platynus sp. Scarce.
Nemotarsus elegans Lee. Rare. Epurwa labilis Er. Rare.
Philophuga eiridicollis Lee. Fairly
Chlcerius tomentosus Say. Rare.
Harpalus spp. Fairly common toward m only. One
end of season. men only.
Anisodactylus rusticus Say. Fairly Helodes pulchella Guer. Rare
common toward end of season. E L A .
Anisodactylus terminatus Say. Rare. ELATERID .
SPHALACRIDE. Adelocera discoidea Web. rl
Olibrus spp. Common. Lacon rectangularis Say. C
COCiNELLID. end of season.
Alaus ocellatus minn. Rare.
Megilla maculata DeG. Abundant. Alaus myops Fab. Common.
Hippodamia glacialis Fab. One only. Cardiophorus sp.
Hippodamia convergens Guer. Com- Elater linteus Say. One only.
mon. Ludius texanus Lee. Common.
Coccinella affinis Rand. Rare. Melanotus eonardi Lee. Rar e.
occinella affnis var. venusta Melsh. Melanots communs Gyll. C
One specimen only. Melanotus sp. I. Common.
Coccinella sanguinea Linn. Common. Melanotus sp. II. Common.
Anatis 15-puntata Oliv. Abundant. Limonius grises Beauv. Co on.
Mysia pullata Say. Common. o Limonius sp. I. One speimen only.
Psyllobora 20-maculata Say. One speci- Limonius sp. II. Common.
men only. Sericosomus silaceus Say. Common.
Chilcorus bivulnerus Muls. Common. Melanactes moro Fa n
Exochomus tripustulata DeG. Scarce. in the season.
Exochomus pilatii Muls. Scarce. Perothops mucida Gyll. Common earl
Hyperaspis signata Oliv. Rare. in the season.
Scymnus spp. Common. THROSI
ENDOMYCHIDJE. *<*" '"*'*
ENDOMYCID. Drapetes geminatus Say. One specime
Aphorista vittata Fab. Rare. only.
Analz~g 5~21)2~a~ )~~~). ~'I;~t~~iwx
Calcophora virginiensis Dru. Fairly Clerus thoracicus Oliv. Fairly common.
ommon. Chariessa pilosa, Forst.; Rare.
Calacophora georgiana Lee. Fairly Orthopleura damicornis Fab. One speci-
common. men only.
Dicrea obscura Fab. Common.
Bprestis lineata Say. Several speci-
mens. Ernobius mollis Linn. Commnon.
prestis striata Fab. One specimen Sinoylon basilare Siiay. Rare.
only. Amphiceems bicaudatus Say. Common.
Bprestis decora Fab. Several speci-
Mlanophila notata Lap. & Gory.. Sev-
O i"ii r i iiiii ,iiiiiiiiii
eral "pecimens. Canthonprobus Germ. Rare.
Anthaxia viridifrons Lap. Rare. Canthon praticola Lee. Rare.
Anthaxia cyanella Gory. Rare. Aphodius sp. Rare.
Anthaxia~flavimana Gory. Rare. Serica sericea 111. Rare.
Crysobothris femorata Fab. Common. Diplotaxis puberula Lee. Scarce.
I~rysobothris 6-signata Say. Fairly Diplotaxis sp. Rare.
common. Lachnosterna arettata Smith. Rare.
Crysobothris chrysoela DaCosta. Com- Lacknosterna fusea Froehl. Rare.
mon. Lachnosterna crenulata Proehl. Rare.
Cirysobothrisiharrisiiients. Common. Lacinosterna cognata Burm. Fairly
rhiysobothr s sp. Several specimens. common.
Amccodera culta Web. Rare. Lachnosterna luctuosa Hotn. Fairly
grilus sp. Several specimens. common,
Brahys acrosa Mels. Fairly common. Lachnosterna tristis Fab. Common.
LAMPYIDE.Anonuda minuta Burm. Rare.
.Anomala undulata Mels. Abundant,
Ers humeralis Rand. Fairly common. especially early in the season.
Poturis pkennaylanica DeG. Scarce. Euphoria sepulchralis Fab. Fairly com-
Cauliagnathus ma rgina tus Fa b. mon toward end of season.
Abundant toward the end of the sea- Euphota fulgida Fab. Scarce.
son. Trichius pzger Fab. Several.
Clochromus perfaceta Say. C'ommon. Valgus squamiger Beauv. Rare.
Podabrus frater Lee. Common. Valgus canalieulatus Fab. Rare.
Peephorus tineola Fab. Common to- CRMYIA
ward the end of .the season.
Teephorus sp. Common. Asemum moestum Hald. Rare.
Teephorus bilineatus Say. Scarce. Phymatodes amamsa Say. Fairly com-
Plemius laticornis Say. Fairly com- *mon.
mon* Phymatodes varius Fab. Rare
xAL~om~a* hion cinctus Dru. Rare.'
Colops eximius Er. Common. Elaphidion mucronatum Fab. Several
Colops4-maculatus Fab. Lesscommon specfmens in the last catching.
han emnise.ElapAidion villosum Fab. Abundant.
,,The most common erambyeid, ex-
;iii'" ii ii i
cept possibly Hyperplatys:-aculatus.
CLERIME, Elaphidion unicolon Rand. One speci-
iii iiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iii iii@ ii
Elasmocerus terminatus Say. Fairl
Ismoern temintusSay FarlyHeterachthes ebenus Newn. One of the
ommon.more common Cerambycids.
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Ancyldcera bicolor Oliv. Rare. Lema or a Fab. Rare.
Elytroleptus flormdanus Lee. One speci- 'Lema sayi Or. Rare.
men only. Babia 4-guttata Oliv. Fairly common
Batyle saturalis Say. Rare. in the last catchings.
Stenosphenu dolosi Ho rn o. CommonI Chlamypliccata Fab. Rare.
Clytus marginicollis Lap. Only one Cryptocephalu 4maculatuSay.Com-
Xyotrechus colous Fab. Rare. Cryptocephaus4-maulatuvar.noas
.eoclytus erythrocephalus Fab. Rare. Fab. Comim on
Euderces picipes Fab. Rare. Cryptocephalus p. One pecimen only.
Euderes pini Oliv. Rare. Pachybrachys morosus Hald. Com
Ragium lineatum Oliv. One specimen Pachybrachy carbonariusald. Ra
only. Pachybrachys luridus Fab. Common.
Acnelops bivittata Say. Rare. Pachybrachys subfaciatus Hald. Sev
Acmaerops discoidea Hald. Rare. eral specimens.
Typoers zebratus Fab. otanunom- Pachybrachys stritus Le. Rare.
mon species. Xanthonia 10-notata Say. Common.
Leptura cruentata Hald. Rare. Glyptosetis pubescens Fab. Rare.
Monohamnus titillator Fab. Fairly Myochrous denticollis Say. Rare.
common. Typophorus canellus Fab. Not com-
Acanthoderes decipiens Hald. Common mon.
in the last catching. Metachroma quercata Fab. Rare.
Liopus crassulus Lec. One specimen Metachroma luridum 01. Rare.
only. Colaspis brunnea var. costipennis Cr.
Liopus variegatus Haid. Rare. Common toward the end of the
Hyperplatys aspersus Say. Almost as Doryphor 10-lineata Say. Rare.
common as maculatus. Doryphora juncia Germ. Common t
Hyperplatys maculatus Hald. One of times.
the most common Cerambyids. Chrysomela similis Rog. Several
Acanthocinus obsoletus Oliv. Rare. mens.
Acanthocinus nodosus Fab. One speci- Cahrysomela bigsbyana Kirby. Only o
men only. specimen.
Ecyrus dasycerus Lee. Several speci- Lina lapponica Linn. Rare.
mens. Lina scripta Fab. Common.
Eupogonius tomentosus Hald. Quite Diabrotica 13-punctata Fab. Abun-
common toward the end of the season. dant.
Hippopsis lemniscata Fab. Rare. Diabrotica vittata Fab. A few speci-
Atcxia crypta Say. Rare at first, but mens only.
more common than Elaphidion illo- Cerotoma trifurcata Forst, Comm
Sun1 in the last catchings. Blepharida rhois Forst. One specimen
Saperda lateralis Fab. One specimen only.
only. Edionychis thoraa Fab. om
Tetrops jucunrda Lee. One specimen (Edionychis vians Ill. Rare.
only. (Edionychispetaurista Fab. One
CHRYSOMELIDaE. men only.
(Edionychis miniata Fab. Common
Donacia aequalis Say. One specimen (Edionychis scaaris Mels. Rare.
only. Disonycha pensylvanica Il. Fairly
Donacia sp. One specimen only. common.
Dsoycha caroliniana Farb. Fairly... Hymenorus sp. 11. Common toward the
co mon. end of the'season.
D soycha, discoidea Fab. Several loomera sericea Say. Common.
D soychia abbreviata Mels. Fewer common in the last catchings.
speimens than of discoidea. Chromatia amcena Say. Rare.
Dioycha 5-vittata Say. One specimen
only. LAGRIMID .
1atca chalybea Ill. Common. Statira gagatina Mels.' Fairly common
ia ignita Ill. Not nearly so com- Late in the season.
mn as chalybea.
Hatca rufa 111. One specimen only. -MoNoxMIDE.
Crpdodera helxines Linn. Common. -
Sytna elongata Fab. Several speci. Hyporhagus punctulatus Thom. Rare
tota sapularis Oliiv. One speci-
!iiii~~~~I;;;iiiiii;: iiii:'ii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii;iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iii' iii ii;;;'I iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiii I
men only. Hypulus (litrata). One specimen only.
O otota dorsalis Thunb. One speci- Eustrophus tomentosus Say. Scarce.
Ootota rubra Web. One specimen PYTHIDzE.
Casda bivittata Say. Common in theBoo ioorS.Rre
latr catchings. M R EI.E
Cotoycla aurichalcea Fab. Fairly
Comon. I Mordella 8-punctata Fab. Common in
Cotoyela guttata Oliv. Fairly com- the last catching.
mo.n. Mordella sp. Several in the last catch-i
Cotoycla purpurata Boh. Rare. ing.
Ch rly orpha argus Licht. Rare. Glypodes helva Lee. Scarce.
Mordellistena sp. Scarce.
Spr ophagus robinice $ch. One speci- Eurygenius wildii Lee. Fairly com-
m n only. m n
TENEBRIoNIDA. Notoxits nuperus Horn. Fairly com-
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s aLeotoxus bicolor Say. Rare.
enoplita viridipennis Fab. Rare. MELOID.E.
iiii ii i i iii ii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiii ii i ii iiii i iiiiiiiiii i iiiii il iiiii i" ii
Platydema rufleorni S8turm. Scarce.
Helps americanus Benau. Common. Macrobasis unicolor Kirby. Rare.
H osa da2teloides Germ. Abundant. Epicauta vittata Fa~b. Rare.
P leurus geminatus Sol. Rare.
Rhinomacer elongatus Lee. Rare.
Hyenorus obscurus Say. Common. YN ITDE
Hyenorus dorsalis Sz. Common.
Hymnorus sp. I. Common. Pterocolusovatus Fab. Fairly common.
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jai;jt~;;:~i;;i;i; ;N ; ;';;~ ,
Pandeletejus hilaris Hbst. Rare. Phyrdens undatus Lee. Fairly com-
Aramigs fulleri Horn. Abundant,s- on.
pecially in the early cathings. Crptorhnchs p. Common.
CURCULIOIDCryptorhynchus sp. II. Rare.
oUl Fo Rimbilicata LeE. Rare.
Apion pp. Common. Baritranversa Say.
Pachylobius picivorus Germ. Abun- Baris pp. Abundant.
dant. Trichobaria trinotata Say. Rare.
Hylobius pales Hbst. A few specimens Madarus undulats Say. Rare.
only. Centrinus picumnus Hbst.
Lixzus concavus Say. Rare. BRENTHIDJE.
Lixu musculus Say. Rare.
Otidocephalus chevrolatii Horn. Rare. Es minta r Several i
Coccotorus seutellaris Lee. Rare. mens. "e o
Anthonomus scutellatus Gyll. Abun- CALANDRIDA.
.. ."~RJ/ ^ e C iii.- %jj-^
Anthonomus suturalis Lee. Rare. Calandra oryza Linn. Quite common
LSmosaceus plagiatus Fab. Rare. soo.
Conotrachelus nenuphar Hbst. Ex-
tremely abundant. Scolytus ruglos Rat. Abundant.
Conotrachelus seniculus Lec. Fairly T A
Conotrachelus cribricollis Say. Not Toxotropis pusilus Le. Common.
common. Anthribus cornutus Say. Comm
Conotrachelus anaglypticus Say. Co- Cratoparis lunatus Fab. Common.
mon. Cratoparis lugubris Oliv. Severalspe
Chalcodermus ceneus Boh. Common. imens in one catching.
Corimelena unicolor Pal. Beauv. Fairly Stiretrus anchorago Fab. Fairly com
Corirmelena nitiduloides Wolff. Fairly Podisus spinosus Dall. Common.
common. Podisus modestus Dall. Common.
SCUTELLERID.E. Proxys punctulatus Pal Beauv. On
Aulacostethus marmoratus Say. Fairly Podops cinctipes Say. Rare.
common. Brochymena carolinensis Westw. Rare
Aulacostethus simulans Uhl. Fairly Brochymena arborea Say. Rare.
common. Brochymena 4pustulata Fb. Fairl
Camirus porosus Germ. Rare. common.
Orsilochus guttatus H. Schf. One spec- Brochymena annulata Fab. Common
imen only. Neottiglossa cavifrons Stal. One spec
CYDNID.E. men only.
(Ebalus pugnax Fab. Common.
Pan gus uhleri Sign. Fairly co- ormidea lugens Fab. Common.
mon. Euschistus servus Say. Abundant.
Sehirus cincetus Pal. Beauv. Rare. Euschistus tristimu Say. Common.
i===u c=iiiassusii Dall. Rtare. Alydiiis eurinus Say. Rare.i
Lioerm uheri Stal. Rare. Harmostes reflexulits Stal. Rare.
Trihopplasemivittata Say. Rare. Corizus punetiventris Dall. Fairly
Perbauslibolaris Stal. Common. Common.
l~ynt a utator Fab. Common. BERYTIDE.X,
Mu ga ti h sti nilyah..n Jalysus spinosus Say. Rare.
-Aezraensylvanica DeG. Rare. LYGIEmD.
Nezra ildiat Say. Common. Nysius angustatus Uhl. Rare.
Banaa dizidita Sy. Cmmon Ishnorynchus didymus Zett. Rare.
ard' ii Stl L common
I ii iiiii 'iiii ii ii~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii "~;; "i
-Banasa ai Stiai+ LessiiiiiiniGeocorisa borealis Dall. Rare.ii
than di Oedancala dorsalis Say. Rare.
s eralis Uhl. FairlySy.Filco
Dendocois futiicoa Begr.OneDorachosa illuminatus var. umbroasu
specimeno onrly.On Dist. Rare.
SLygaeu tweicus var. kalmii Stal.
COREI.N. Fairly common.
Chaieserwantennator Fab. Com- Lygceus bicrucis.Say. Scarce.
mon.ILygaus facetus Say. Rare.
Chelnida rttigera Uhl. One speci- Oncopeltus fasciatits Dall. Scarce.
i~ornoerisdistinctus Dall. Fairly agsucitsLn.Com .
Arcimru clcarator Fab. Rare. ARAnDEs.
Euthothagleator Fab. Common. Brachythynchus granulatus Say. Rare.
i i .. . ii i i i"
Aeanthochala declivis Say. Quite
Netpodusfemoratits Fab. *Common. Coriscus sordidus Rent. Rare.
M etapodiu instabilis U hl. Several REDUVIID E .
Leptglosm phyllopus Linn. Abun- Sinea spinipes H. S. Fairly common.
dant. ilyas cinctus Fab. One. specimen only.
Leptglos-u eorculus Say. Rare. Zelus luridus Stal. Rare.
Lepogosusoppositus Say. Abundant. Zelus soceus Uhl. Rare.
Lepoglssis n sp. Several speci- Apiomerus crassipes Fab. Several speo-
Anaa riti DeG. Rare., Myodoelha serripes Oliv. Several speci-
.......ra S.ay. Rare. .m..ns.
Homa~is coagulata Say. Several Tylopelta gibbera Stal. Rare.
specmens.Stictocephala festina Say. Fairly com-
'Onenzeopi undata Fab. Fairly com.- mon.
MOILArchasia auriculata Fitch. Rare.
Va costalis Fab. Fairly Com-
Auaczesirorattw Fab. Common. A single specimen of a large specie&.
i ii i ii iii i
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Mr. Ashmed said that it was very gratifying that something w
being done with the curculio proble'm, and he recound se of
difficulties which attended the attempt toward its control. He men-
tioned its parasite (Sigalphus curculionis, Fitch) and suggested that
if it did not already occur in Georia it be introdeed.
Mr. Bruner spoke of the great variety of iacts cau a
a desire to see the complete list.
Mr. Hopkins suggested that many of the insects would fly away in
the process of jarring, and for that reason all the insects that might
occur on the trees would not be taken. He thought that most of the
Lachnosterna might thus escape, but that a better explanation of the
scarcity of these insects in the catchings was probably in the fact
for some reason they were not generally abundant this season.
also spoke of the interesting relations existing between insects and
fungi, as referred to in the paper comparing the curcuio and the l
footed bugs in their relation to the brown-rot fungus with the mut
dependence between certain Scolytids and the fungus with which
are closely associated, in causing the death and rapid decay of fore
Mr. Scott said that the operation was conducted during the
morning hours when the insects of nearly all sorts were ina s
dormant condition, and on this account many species were
which would not have been later in the day. The leaf-footed
might be cited as examples, for, though captured in numbers, t
are among the most active insects. It would have been
have listed many species of Hymenoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, e
but it was not thought advisable because the specimens were in a
badly mutilated condition.
Mr. Galloway said that the agency of insects in disseminating brown
rot was a point that should be taken into account in the treat
Mr. Howard thought that while cheap labor made the i
method practicable in Georgia, in the North the higher price for labor
might make it too expensive.
Mr. Ehrhorn said tha this pest did not exist in California and
the fruit growers there were in reat fear of its introduction.
Mr. Gillette said that so far as he knew it did not occur in oo o
and that they also entertained fears of its introduction.
Mr. Bruner, Mr. Howard, and others, thought it would add m
to the value of this paper if it were accompanied by a complet ist
the insects taken in the jarring operation, and th writersee
requested to furnish the list for publication.
Mr. Ball then presented the following pa p'er:
A SIMPLE FORM OF ACCESSIONS CATALOGUE.
By E. D. BALL, Fort Collins, Colo.
Asociation has listened in the past to three excellent papers
iation methods in economic entomology, and aniiy State worker
resent time who has not a thoroughly satisfactory system of
ng his observations can not do better than carefully study the
presented on this subject by Dr. Forbes, Dr. Hopkins, and
or Webster; and if his department has an abundance of cler-
p he probably. can not do better than to adopt one of these
On the other and, if his working force is somewhat limited
difiation hereafter suggested is submitted for his consideration.
hor has, however, no intention of offering a system in compe-
ith either of these, but simply of suggesting one or two modi-
s that can be used in connection with any of these systems or
ed system to be used when it is imposible to carry out a more
erage working force of our stations in economic entomology
dt exceed two men, and if the division of salary be any criterion
Sover one-third to one-half of their time is devoted to the eco-
n work. Now, under such conditions it would be impracticable
tain a system of recording requiring the expenditure of any
consideiable amount of time 'in the clerical part and'at the same time
y n any very extended experimentation, hampered as they are
ordinary routine of the college work.
ter- important facto that may well be considered here is that
sombination of college and station not all collecting is along
Slines, but that one of the dutie as a college officer is to build
tematic collection, an obligation requiring almost endless years
ful and thorough work. Naturally enough this work and that
ation is carried on at the same time, and it would seem that
Ssystem of recording for the smaller sttions, and, in fact for
at majority of our stations, would be that in which the two dif-
bjects could ii combined, and that with ai minimum amount
Sany one of the complete systems, if one chooses to do so.
In this system, which may be conveniently called the date system
siit..~sl. ~l;~ nlul; B~il@ ;, ;;i n iu:irS
When a collection is made, the first thing to do is to write up the
accessions catalogue. To do this, write the date in the left-hand col-
umxn in figures, the month first, as 6-12, the year being written only
once-at e top of each page. In the second column write the
locality just as it appears on the label, and in the third column the spe-
cial locality where these insects were taken. In the next column
write the name or simply the initials of the collector. Then for the
rest of the width of the page any notes of value on an
as in any other system. I usually here outline the e
the stops made, the particular plants collected from, etc., noting as
go along any facts that will add to existing knowledge. In thi
if there is anything to record it is written out, and if there is nothing
special to note or only facts that have been noted many ti bef
the simple date and trip note will be sufficient. Oftentimes in way
when the life history or food plant of a species has been made out, a
great deal of additional information or confirmation can be gained
from these short notes; while any deductions made at that ti
probably have been erroneous. A sample form follows:
6-12 Fort Collins.. R.R. south ---- E. D. B. ~ minutus oundabdt. nstraw y
their breeding e. On south to altala
field found Menopls biittatus larve
Fosmall to halfti-grown, a bdt. on margins and.;
Sditch banks. Swept Jassi ad
afrom Agropyrum glaucu. On over to dry
pond took Laccocera abdt., both sexes, from
dry ground, by f ence; also several Lygids
Coleopt. from willow.
8-3 D u ra n g o, Up hill east .--- E. D. B Swept Artemisia 3-dentata; took short-
Colo. winged grasshopper, common everywhere
one Phlepsits sp. litke one from Rifle, thr
white Anabrus from clumps on illside.
Swept oak; took Eteix sp. nearjundus
(red) Scaphoideus, Melinna. Swept cedar;
took Scaphoideus (white tip). red Platyme-
topius, a green Eutettix and the pretty
8-15 FortCollins- North 6 miles--. C. P. G. Swept dryground; took two speciesof Scolops
and Driotura. Small bees from Cleome,
Bomibus from Helianthus. Typhlocybim
abdt. on apple.
The labels we print ourselves on a hand press. They are all print
out except the day of the month, and where large collections are made
on a given date the entire label is set up. The regular Fort Collins
labels are all printed in advance for the season; the others are printed
at odd times and as they are needed.
The labels are never over 10 mm. long and 3 mm. wide; the card
points are cut with a razor to a uniform length of 9 mm., and
labels are pinned at one en and extend under the card poi
insects that are pinned through he body the labels are pine o
to extnd parallel with the long s of the i
very rare that a label extens beyond an insect, and nev
card point, thus insuring a neat collection.
In referring to the notes the date is used the same as an ordinary
e number by looking on top of the page for the year and then
ecolumn for the month and day, which will follow each other
order the same as in a series of numbers, and will be found
ly. Having found the date one will always find the exact
and conditions of capture and any other notes thought worth
ADVANTAGES OF THIS SYSTEM.
Tain advantage of this system over the others is in the fact
ean collect and record any number of specimens of a species,
number of species, without materially increasing the labor
he mere labor of mounting and labeling any specimen, while
ter systems each individual specimen must have its acces-
aogue number written out -and placed on it, a special entry
the accessions catalogue for every species, with all of its
ying records, cross-references, etc., and consequently but
imens can be mounted in a given time.
er important factor of utility is in the fact that it is not at all
yto separate or mount up any of the specimens at the time of
.All that is necessary is to write up the record, place the
nd date on the package containing the specimens, and it
-double purpose of an accessions number and the future
n practice we usually mount the specimens at the time of
mte record and then put them away to dry, labeling them up
eatest gain comes from the fact that there is nothing placed
set that is not necessary to any well-mounted specimen, e.,
ad date label, and that nearly all of this label is or can be
phus requiring a minimum of hand work.
t that this system requires that every specimen be correctly
it boi place and date will commed it to many persons
e received material for determination from half a dozen dif-
periment stations bearing nothing more distinctive than a
Mrmt suggested thatmnumerals should not be used to represent
of note taking required cards, a field book, and an accessions book,
iht he coul not adopt r. Ball's system to advantage.
ckerell said that he used no numbers, and thought that cards
e convenient than record books. In his experience insects
i = i i = = i i i ii 1 ! iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
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but were so labeled because the owner or collector happened to be
Mr. Hopkins said that his system had been modified and improved
since it was first announced at the Madison eeting; that he was more
than ever convinced of the importance of some well-planned and con-
venient system, varied accrding to the special needs and requirements
of the individual collector or investigator, by which the necessary col-
lecting notes and original observations may be permanently recorded,
so that they will be available and intelligible as long as the specimens
and notes may exist.
The records which he considers as absolutely necessary to
pany all specimens are, exact locality, date, collector's name, and if any
further notes are made on food habits, life history, descriptions, etc.,
an unduplicated number (for the species of any given on
logue or set of notes) should always accompany the specimens.
said that locality and date labels with collector's name are all right
all that are necessary simply for collected material, but all biological
material, and that on which special observations are noted in a
or on a card, should, in order to be of permanent value, bear a
referring directly to a corresponding number of the entry in
or on the card. To avoid the large numbers which would resul fr
many years of active work, he has adopted a subharacter or subumber
or both, to distinguish the many species which may come under t
head of one general note; as, for example, the insects collected
a dead pine- tree, accession No. 7775 would refer to the general
while the separate species and their relation to each other and toh
trees may be designated by the addition of a letter to the number (775a
which may be extended, as required, fro a to z, and still further
extended by double letters, or better by 1 2 1~ 2 3 etc. to
designate several species found on different parts of the tree, or a
the parasites and other natural enemies associated with a given enmy
of the plant.
With this system it is not necessary to identify the species in
field, since the individual number will enable it to be identified at any
future time or by a specialist, and the name subsequently ente
with colored ink in the original note.
He stated that it seemed to him that the permanent usefulness and
advancement of economic entomology depended, to a great extent
accurate and full field notes systematically recorded, so that the
be most available for the individual worker, his assistat
Mr. Caudell said that a system almost exactly lke that re
posed by Mr. Ball was introduced some two years ago by a w
the Journal of Applied Microscopy and Laboratory Methods,
II, page 449 (1899). The scheme was recommended for all kinds of
and the individual number is prefixed to the regular num-
nstead of added, and the day of the month comes first. Thus,
the ample quoted, a specimen collected on August 12, 1899, would
Ball replied that the system referred to by Mr. audell related
ping slides of embryological and histological material, and
the date system part of it was the same, the application was
different. He had been using the system five years before that
as published. He also said that every collector ought to be able
e the genus of the specimens taken, but that if he could not, a
-escriptivewords would serve to identify the species when the
al was worked over. Ile suggested that it be borne in mind
discussion that the present system was not offered as an
rement upon the systems of Messrs. Felt, Hopkins, and Forbes,
r any laboratory where they had help enough to carry out one
se systems, but that he thought that it was an improvement
the system in use in the majority of economic laboratories and
te date system feature might be incorporated into any system
Ashmead indorsed Mr. Hopkins's system and said that he
a put the name of the collector on the specimens received at the
um. He ordinarily used two labels, but three were used when
ginal label of the collector was retained. He thought it of pri-
importance to accompany the specimen with the name of the
.Bruner agreed that the name of the collector should always
session then adjourned to meet at the capitol at 9 o'clock the
morning for the purpose of looking over the State museum,
ning to the hig-school building at 10 a. in. for the morning
MORNING ESION, AUGUST 4, 1901.
SB C. L. MARLATT, Washington, D. C.
estion of original home so far as Japan is concerned. The
,and that time and facilities are lacking to make it full and
i~ i~ ii iiiiiiiIiIIIIiiiI Ui iIii;.i +++++++ +++++++++++ +++++++ ++++ ++ ++++++++++++ ++ ++++++++++++++++++++ +++++ ++ ++++ +++++++++++ ++++++ ++++++++ + ii,~
!lli~8i;~" N.I'~;"" I;.~ ~
iii rr r ,::,:i r i
@ i i ii i ii i i i i @ i ii i iii ii i i ii i ii i ii i ii i i iii ii i ii i ii i i ii i ii i ii i ii i i ii i ii ii i ii i i
lower extremity f Kiushu-the large island completing the chain
the south. In all some 35 provines or distrits have been visited a
carefully examined, the points being selected where orchard and nu
sery interests were oldest and most important. There remains to
explored the north half of the main island (Hurdo) and the norther
island of Hokaido, the whole of Japan covering a stretch of latitud
about the equivalent of from Newfoundland to Florida.
The Japanese Government has taken and is taking the greatest inte
est in the investigation, and has sent out with the writer one of the of
cials of the Central Agricultural Experiment Station of Tokio, Mr.
K. Hori, a capable entomologist of Cornell training, and, furthe
more, has interested the agricultural experiment stations and schoo
and governing authorities in the provinces throughout the Empire
the investigation, and extended a multitude of courtesies wh i
would be impossible here to list.
All scale insects have been studied and collected, and especial
those of fruit trees and economic plants, and-as far as possible with
out interfering with the main object-other injurious insects also.
This report, however, relates to the San Jose scale exclusivel
except as it seems desirable to include some facts discovered relatin
to the peach, plum, cherry, and mulberry scale (Diaspis pentagona
the very general occurrence of which in Japan has a very marke
influence on the role played by the San Jose species.
To give a correct picture of conditions, some knowledge of Japanes
fruit-growing must be had. In the first place, this industry as know
to America is unknown in Japan, except in a few small districts.
The great mass of the Japanese fruit trees are grown as yard orn
ments, or in little garden patches attached to the dwelling house
Every little thatched cottage has its flowering cherry tre and plu
tree, and very possibly a pear, a peach, a persimmon, and very often
an orange tree. Sometimes two or three of each sort will be grow
and the more pretentious hardens of the wealthier townsmen amou
to miniature orchards-the different fruit trees and ornamental plan
being jumbled together in rank confusion. In other wordst, epo
ular fruit and flowering trees, while universally grown, are in ver
There are a few orchard districts where numerous patches of fro
one-fourth acre to 3 or 4 acres of fruit trees occur. These are chief
of the old native pear tree, m6re or less invaded by replantings
American trees or new orchards of the same, some small apple orchard
(more extensive in the north, where I have not been) very rarely,
small peach orchard (only two seen), and in the south small orchard
(not common) of orange.
The walnut orchards of the island of Kiushu are the only ones th
truly compare with orchards in the American sense.
Growing fruit, and especially the deciduous varieties, amounts. t
little in Japan, but is increasing with the introduction of America
s. Her enormous population of 46,000,000 has compelled the
of cereals and other necessities of life wherever possible, and
these ecessities te and mulberries must be included, but.
re grown as hedge plants, or where rice can not be grown very
ple too poor to enjoy more than the most meager living, the
e have not indulged very much in such luxuries as fruits.
love of the beautiful, manifested in a thousand ways, finds
common exemplification in the presence everywhere of flower-
s (cherries, plums, etc.) where fruit trees might be grown, and
ditions briefly described have been characteristic of the coun-
two thoupad years-her agriculture being scarcely altered
fro h time ofAlexander.
estinctively native Diaspine scale of Japan is the Diaspis pen-
already referred to. It is what we know in America as the
each scale, and which in Italy is the enemy of the mulberry.
a this scale is found on the flowering cherry and plum, grown
y dooryard, in all the parks and temple yards, along roadways.
ag the little strips of soil dividing one rice patch from another,
most worshiped in the season of bloom. These trees, cherished
here else in the world, attain a great age, and when protected
es or almost immovable supports, inclosed with fences and
and labeled with iposing stone monuments, become to the
ogist valuable records of insect work or the absence of it, of
rtwo hundred years' standing. The peach-a rough-barked
tree in Japan-it infests as a rule but slightly. The mulberly
badly attacked, as are also other plants, and notably the Kaidoe
-barked ornamental tree ver commonly grown.
son for believing this scale insect to be undoubtedly native or
ed so long ago as to practically amont to this is that it occur
er, not only on the main islands, but on the little islands
'nd, furthermore, in every dooryard and on absolutely every
nd pm tree within the limits of the Japanese Empire. Such
ul and invariable occurrence I have never witnessed anywhere
yrarely does it occur 'ore than scatteringly, so that great.
ta rle in keeping it thus in chek. The chief agent in this
Sis a little twice-stabbed ladybird, which I identify from thei
and is undoubtedly of comparatively recent origin in Japan.
to its attacks on the pear and apple, having spread (rarely, as the con-
'litions show) to the others from these two.
The pear in Japan is represented by the old orchards of native trees
and dooryard or garden trees,i usually iial ative for the mst prt
These orchards and trees are usually of considerable age, ffty to one
hundred years, except the replants. During the last thirty years a
good deal of American pear stock has come into Japan chiefly from
California without any fumigation, and very often undou
infested with the San Jose scale.
The nursery business in Japan is very largely limited to three
principal nursery districts or communities, and these were early th
infested, and the new stock from America and the native varieties
grown in the nursery alongside of the former, and infested therefro
have been sent out all over the Empire in small lots and u to
replace trees in old native orchards or planted here and there in yard
and gardens, scattering the San Jose scale exactly as it was in eastern
America a few years ago, and the San Jose scale conditios in Jap
to-day are the exact counterpart of what they are in our Eate
In many instances I was able to see the beginning of scale infes
tion on American or other stock obtained but a few months b re
from one or other of these nurseries, two of which I have examin
In two instances, at least, the San Jose scale was on the young tock of
,experiment stations-American varieties, which the stations w
experimenting with and about to introduce in their respecti
In most of the orchards of native trees only, the scale had acquired
but a very slight foothold. Newly set trees (which were traced in
nearly every instance to one of these nurseries) were the cen
eontagion, or in, some instances new orchards alongside of o one
had carried the scale to the bordering trees of the old orchard.
Old native pear trees in yards and gardens are usually still e
from this scale, and when infested, easily accounted for by the earby
presence of new stock. It very naturally suggested itself that the
native pear of Japan is resistant to the San Jose scale, and this is t
more plausible because it is a rather scraggy, rough-barked an
much more so certainly than the American varieties.
A very little examination demonstrated, however, that the San
Jose scale once carried to one of these native pear trees affects it
as severely as it does the American variety, In other words, it is not
scattering or rare, but when it once gains lodgment, multipli
idly in the temporary absence of its ladybird enemy, and occa
ally kills a tree. Were it a native species we should i
widely scattered, though probably sparingly, in these old o
and yardtrees, as is the Diaspis on the cherry and plum, etc.
The apple is scarcely grown at all in the south two-thirds of the
Empire, save as exemplified by a few orchards near Tokyo. Further-
ai origin. .The native apple of Japan is a crab, grown more
nment than fruit and a very rare tree, unknown to most
proved varieties of apples now grown here came from Amer-
ornia), and the industry isnot 30 years old. Muchof the
undoubtedly infested when received, and I am informed
orchards of north Japan have suffered much from this insect
estart although the nature of the trouble has not been long
red. Its very general non-occurrence in, the one or two-hun-
-old plum 'and cherry trees, or those of lesser age grown in
a throughout the Empire, is very significant, especially as it
attasoth of these trees when carried to them. It should be remem-
Salo that Koebelre did not find it ini Japan at all some ten years
rfectly pate-t, therefore, that the San Jose scale came from
ato Japanon American fruit trees which have been regularly
during the past thirty years, and chiefly from California,
e San Jose scale has been longest and worst. Its wide distri--
n Japan has been by the leading nurseries, just as in America.
re that the Diaspis has benefited Japan. The little lady-
y of this native scale insect has taken readily to the
d species, and has very materially checked its injuries. A
hown, there isnot a corner in all Japn where this ladybird
occur with the Diaspis, and wherever the San Jose scale has.
ied it has found this active and fecund predaceous insect
lape discovery and measurable protection. Isolated trees
e covered with scale before the beetles find them, or new
and replanted trees infested with scale will be injured, but
nt last long, as a rule.
n Jose scale is attacked also by one or two Chalcidid para-
sumably the ones we have in America and brought to Japan
h scales or cosmopolites. (Sent to Dr. Howard for identifica-
Siiii i for the origin and present status of the San Jose scale in
case. The Japanese insect is the typical San Jose scale. All the
features and characters noted in the so-called varieties may be found
in a single colony together with the typical scale as we know it in
I merely mention this misconception here to report a false security
felt by German importers and offiials in letting Japanese
into Germany and other European countries without chek until
within the last twelve months, when Germany included Japan with the
United States as dangerous sources of plants.
The dwarf pear and apples, etc., in the chief nursery of "Japan.a
as I have found, all infested with San Jose scale (The dwarf trees
are ordinary nursery trees from the nursery rows, starved and ut
back, and not special varieties.) These have been exported, the pro-
prietors inform me, to America, to two or three ports in Germany
(up to twelve months since), and are still sent to Engl W
sent to America they are now fumigated, because Mr. Cra has sent
some lots scale-infested to limbo. Most of the export plants are
mental plants, pines, maples, etc., but a good many of the quaint
dwarf fruit trees in flower pots and bearing fruit are also
shipped abroad. I do not think this need alarm Europeans, for I much
doubt whether, with the climatic conditions of Europe and with
conditions of fruit growing there, the Sa Jose scale ever will
to much on that continent.
In connection with the identification of the San Jose scale in Japan,
I wish to add that Professor Sasaki, the entomologist of the A
tural College of the Imperial University, following Professor
has held that the Japanese scale was distinct from the form oc
in America. He also expressed to me the alternative belief-
all compatible with the first, however-that if the same species it
came to Japan from America on imported stock.
In the last view he is undoubtedly correct, and I have no do
but that he will give up the former view, which he has hith
His chief anxiety, evidently, was to free Japan from the of the
an Jose scale of America one way or another, and both of his th
attained this end. He is therefore well pleased with this re
As an economic problem the San Jose scale is not so impo
Japan. It is widely distributed already, and extermin
the question, but the natural conditions of climate,
growing, fungous disease, and parasites will probably a ys
scale in check.
Most orchards of pear and apple, etc., Are grown as we do gra
on trellises, and the trees are cut back to mere dwarfs, all
being within easy reach.
Labor is so cheap that the trees can be given a very thorough hand
scrubbing every winter and now in s it is theractice to do this
twater wash, just on general principles of cleanliness. I
tit merely necessary to recommend soap instead of salt as
morevalable where scales are concerned.
T mportant feature for America is the Japanese ladybird ( Chilo-
ili). With the literature available here I can not determine
his beetle has already been carried to America by Koebele
re, but I am expecting daily information on this point from
on, so that if necessary I can send, or at least make the
Ssend, living beetles to California and the East.
ral discussion followed the reading of Mr. Marlatt's paper.
M. krell said that he was very glad to. hear Mr. Marlatt's
it threw a great deal of interesting light on the conditions
n Japan. Hitherto we had greatly lacked information of
He wished to correct one statement in the paper, that he
(ker) considered the Japanese insect distinct from the true
secale. This was the exact reverse of the truth, but he did
that the scale presented some varieties in Japan, as, for
the one feeding on orange trees, a thing the insect in Cali-
ver did. Mr. Marlatt's statement about the Chilocorus was
resting. The speaker had noticed a similar case in Arizona
%wh ehilocorus ac, feeding normally on the native Diaspis
name to prey upon the introduced date palm scale -(Parlatoria).
ds the main proposition advanced by Mr. Marlatt, that the
scale was certainly not a native of Japan, Mr. Cockerell
see that any proof had been offered. The fact that the
iurred mainly upon imported American varieties was just
iht be expected if it were native to Japan, as the American
would be less resistant than the Japanese. It has been
dby Dr. John B. Smith that the Keiffer pear was, to a con-
degree, resistant to the scale. Now, this pear was a hybrid
Chinese sand pear, and it seemed to show that trees having
r Japanese blood, or one should say sap, were more or less
Sthe sale. The fact that the scale ws not found on wild
platsinJapan proved nothing. Mr. Coekerell had found many
Coccds i New Mexicb on wild plants, and though the plants were
abunantthe Coecids wvere usually confined to very limited localities,
;nd~venafter years of residence in the immediate' vicinity were very
ltobe overlooked. He also knew of cases such as those of
Toumeyea mirabilis and Da~ctylopius prosopidlis in which these iso-
cooies were entirely destroyed by parasites or predaceous
-The Sa Jose scale belonged to a Palwarctic or at least a Holarctic
up, ad must surely have originated in the northern temperate
e.Itcertainly could not be supposed to come from Europe, and
it did not seem likely that it was American. Hence, on general princi
speaker thought it might just as well have come from China as Japa
In concluding, Mr. Cockerell id h i i
Diaspis pentagona was certainly a native of Japan. On some suc
grounds as those mentioned by Mr. Marlatt it might be referred t
Jamaica and various other places. He did not consi
certainly where this scale originated.
Mr. Jordan said that a very large proportion of the flora of Japa
possible that the San Jose scale might have been introduced int
Japan from China. Upon his trip to Japan he was impressed wit
the utter neglect of the orchards in that country and the w
destruction of birds.
Mr. Kellogg said that Mr. S. I. Kuwana, assistant in etomology a
Stanford University, spent all of last summer collecting and stu
the Japanese scale insects, giving special attention to the San Js
scale. Eighty species were taken, twenty of which were new.
Kuwana visited three of the four principal islands of the Empire,
found the San Jose scale generally distributed throughout these i
in native orchards as well as on imported trees. The San Jose s
has been known to the natives of Japan for more than thirty
under the name of ki-abura. He could not agree with Mr. M
that the weight of evidence was in favor of America as its nat
home. He was of the opinion that there were not yet sufficient fa
at hand to determine this point definitely, but that the preset ind
cations were that the insect came from Japan to California. Hest
that Mr. Kuwana had d found the scale attacked by t
daceous insects, which would have some weight in favor of Japa
its home. He thought that both Mr. Marlatt and Mr. Kuw a
made a mistake by confining their investigations to the lines
railroad instead of giving the wild plants more particular at
Mr. Howard said that in his opinion Mr. Kellogg's statement as t
parasites did not affect the point in question, that native parasite
might attack an introduced species of scale. He thought also t
old native trees were quite as liable to the attacks of scale as in
duced plants. He said that Mr. Marlatt's wide experience in
of the Diaspine group of scales in the eastern United States a
equipped him for the investigation now in progress in Japan
his expressed opinion should have the greatest weight. He
opinion that the weight of evidence indicates that Japan is
original home of the San Jose scale, but that it was introduci
Japan from America; but stated that Mr. Marlatt would be nstru
to extend his investigations into the wild country, in the h
securing further facts bearing upon the question at hand.
The next paper on the programme was presented by M.
i:8:~'~ l 1:IB~lB QiP
TS 01 (1) THE PERIODICAL CICADA IBN WEST VIRGINIA;
(2) THE HESSIAN FLY; (3) THE GRArE CURCULIO.
By A. D. HoIN S, Aforgantown, Wn. Va.
Mr. Ehrhot wanted .to know if the parasite of the Hessian fly was
bundant in West Virginia, and stated that these parasites did not
nd that he desired to obtain some material in the
ope of establishing it in his section.
Mr. Hopkins replied that these parasites were very abundant last
Then Mr. Felt presented the following paper:
FURTHER NOTES ON CRUDE PETROLEUM AND OTHER INSECT-
By E. P. FEL T, Albay.1 Y .
A preliminary paper on some work along these lines was read by
he writer ait our last meeting and a full account of the experiments
1900 has been presented in his report for that year, and the results
here set forth need no repetition at this time. No very apparent dif-
frences among the trees experimented upon, aside from those
orded during 1900, were observable in the spring of 1901. All the
ees passed the winter about eqally well, after making due allow-
e for their condition, and though several trees died, it was only
ose which were in a desperate condition the preceding autumn. It
rather significant that of the three trees sprayed with undiluted
erosene in the spring of 1900, but one was alive a year later, and of
he four treated with undiluted petroleum, but two were alive, and
both of these came through the winter with a large proportion (25 to
Sper cen) of teir bs d It is bu, just to add that most
f these trees, as previously recorded, were at the outset very badly
The poor results obtained with spring applications of kerosene and
mechanical emulsion's of the same led to the concentration of the work
bAle-oil soap in varioAs combinations.
Another test was made with undiilted c rude petroleum rome oil
sent me direct fro the Frank Oil Company, Titusville, Pa. It'll
Swere sprayed April 11, 1901, witht is 0oil. Te day was bright
11823-No. 31-01- 4
O t irr **'rr iiiiii~;iiliiiii~;;;
^^S-^~llE '''""^1" '" "'W ""31 "si" j~lEL" jl. A. -^S JI~l *H "" ssg 'assai''
0 1iis~iii, _~;l;" i
and there was a gentle breeze. Tree 116, a badly infested Lomb r
plum, showed serious injury July 3, at hilibs wer
dying and the remainder did not present a normal, vigorous appear
ance. August 9 the tree was dead and all the leaves thrown out i
the spring had shriveled. Tree 117, a very badly infested rawor
peach, was also sprayed at the same time, and July 3 it was dead
It might be added that the oil was used liberally, and that in th
case of tree 117 the infestation was so very bad that it w
expected that the tree would survive
Some comparative experiments with mechanical rude petrole
emulsions were made. The above-described oil from Titus
an oil used in the experiments last year were tried. e la a
purchased in the Albany market as crude petroleum sold by th
Standard Oil Company. It is a quite fluid greenish oil, and that
in 1901 gave a reading in the field of 41.8 Beaum. Neither the 2
nor 25 percent emulsions of either oil injured the trees, so f
could be seen, this agreeing with the results obtained with the
sions of Standard oil in 1900. The Standard oil, that is the heavie
one, appeared to be a little more effective as an insecticide, but
lighter Titusville oil has been used in 25 to 50 per cent emuls
without injuring the trees and with very satsfactory results
insecticide, it would appear that the heavier the oil the l
used with safety and the more effective it is as an insecticide. T
is evidently a very narrow margin between the amount of this
stance necessary for satisfactory work against scale insects andh
which will seriously injure or kill trees, especially peach and p
trees, and in the case of those very badly infested, particularly if th
bark is quite rough, it s doubtful if enough oil can be a
kill practically all the insects and at the same time not injure
The experiments tried last year with a combination of 1 p d
whale-oil soap to 4 gallons of water, to which was added 10 per
crude petroleum, were not quite satisfactory, as it was hoped tht th
combination would prove more effective as an insecticide and les
injurious to the trees than either substance separately in the
proportions. This year both 10 and 15 per cent of the crude petroleu
obtained from the Standard Oil Company were used in cominai
with the pound to 4 gallons solution of whale-oil soap. There
perceptible injury to the trees in either case, and the San J
was pretty thoroughly checked with both mixtures, the one wi
higher per cent of oil giving on the whole the best satisfaction.
The results obtained with whale-oil soap solutions, both and
pounds to the gallon, were up to date practically the same as
last year. The scale was severely checked, but in no instance w
so thorough as where crude petroleum in some form wa
pounds to the gallon gave a little better result t th w
tt said that he had made similar experiments in Georgia
o the control of the San Jose scale and had obtained gratify-
lts. He had used a 25 per cent strength of crude oil with
peach and plum trees, spraying in the winter time, with the
sat the scale had been effectually destroyed and the trees
t.ot aged. He had found, however, that the undiluted crude oil
ach trees outright, as did also refined kerosene. He had
Pennsylvania crude oil registering 43' on the Baum6 oil
he high price of the crude oil, as purchased from the Stand-
OilC;oimpany, made it more expensive than refined kerosene, and
eason, and because of its variable character, he did not rec-
it for general use. For three years he had used a 20 per
gth of kerosene with water as a remedy for San Jose scale,
sults were all that could be expected from the application
oray whatever. He said that at the recent meeting of the
tate Horticultural ociety the general expression from the
wers was to the effect that the San Jose scale was no longer
ice the kerosene treatment had proved so effective. He said
tha ested orchards of more than 100,000 trees each were being
ful use of comparatively weak applications of insecticides
ott replied that this was true, as he had frequently found
breeding on warm days in idwinte
e so high, and suggested that it might be obtained at a
By C. P. GIELETTE, For Collins, Colo.
n wild mustard and Monolepis nuttallii, Wilting the plants to
ground, Plants of yellow dock, and even Helianthus, were liter-
vicinity entirely escaped the accumulations of these bugs; but that all
served as food plants I am not certain. It is a common insect in the
State upon beets, and has been reported to me as injuring cabbage
The usual contact poisons-kerosene emulsion
buhach-were used upon the bugs in the ordi n
satisfactory results. In fact the most thorough applic w l
hardly kill any of these insects.
Aspidiotus howardi was first found by the writer some
Canon City, Colo., where it was present in injurious numbers
European and American varieties of plum, attacking both twigs an
fruit. Scattering specimens were also noticed at that time u
pears. While the scale has remained in considerable numbers in t
small plum orchard where it was first found, I have not known of its
occurrence in any other locality until the present summer, when I w
called by the horticultural inspector of Delta County, Mr. lH.
Mathews, to go with him to determine what scale was infesting a p
orchard in the vicinity of Delta. The scales could be found u
nearly all the pear trees in the orchard, attacking both bark and fruit,
chiefly the latter. There were but few trees upon which the sc
could be said to be abundant. We visited the orchard June 12,
which time young lice were hatching in small numbers. These w
of the usual yellow color, but the little scale that first forms over the
is pure white. From that date to August 20, at least, these young
have continued to appear. On raising the scales from the fmal
nearly always found two or three young lice beneath them, and f
some time thought the scale must be viviparous, but a new lotf
scales sent by Mr. Mathews August 7 contained females bene
which eggs were found. The eggs apparently hatch very soon af
they are deposited, as it is usual to find two or three young lice
but one or two egs under a female. Possibly he females are
oviparous and viviparous.
The scales cluster, for the most part, about the blossom end the
pears, and where they rest upon the cheek of the fruit they usal
cause a depression and sometimes a red ring, which is consieed t
be characteristic of perniciosus. In this orchard occasional scle
were found upon plums also. I have fruit with me with these
upon it that you are at liberty to examine.
Chermes abietis.-This louse is abundant upon silver spruce in C
orado, especially in high altitudes, causing the cone-like galls the
tips of the new growth. The galls are always present in conside
numbers in trees of silver spruce upon the college campus at F
Chermes sp.-Two species (possibly one) of Cheres, one if
Douglass spruce and one pine (Pinus ponderosa), are abudant
every year in the northern portion of the State, at la a
Cad Denver. Like C. abieis, these also deposit their eggs in
each egg being anchored by means of one or more M axy
nd covered with a white waxy secretion from the abdomen
ale. These lice are very small, not exceeding a millimeter
They are dark in color and are all wingless early in the
Early in June winged individuals appear. These winged
have less of the waxy secretion with which to cover the clus-
gs that they lay upon the leaves, and so they cover them with
mously large wings. Both species seem to be entirely ovi-
.The ewly hatched lice arrange themselves in rows along the
le ,and when the white secretion is well formed they are com-
overed by it. The species infesting the pine is specially
ns at the new growth at the tips of the twigs, and the little lice
ry largely between the pairs of needles that grow together
and eartheir base.
Bo ce and egs are readily killed by the use of kerosene emul-
owale-oil soap. (Photographs were shown illustrating these
T ain louse (Nectaophora grana a) did considerable damage
ien Colorado last year. I know no previous record of its
n in this State. This year it has occasioned no complaint,
,AndI ve noknowledge of itoccurrence.
ar Mr. Ball investigated the injuries of this louse along the
e Santa Fe Railroad in the State and found wheat, oats, and
tacked, but the chief injury was to wheat.
Th owball plant-louse (Aphis vibernm) is a comparative recent
in in the northern portion of the State. For the past two
tas been rather abundant upon snowball bushes upon the
of the State Agricultural College at Fort Collins.
lia) continues to be one of
pests that our ash shade trees have to contend with on the
the eastern slope in the State. It is not destructive to the
seriously mars their beauty, and the secretions that fall
Slice are annoying, to say the least, to those who would enjoy
the had of one of our best lawn trees.
The aple louse (Aphis mali) has become one of the most -,ommon
of or'pant lice within the State, Occurring upon both slopes. The
egg aken the twigs of apple trees in the fall so that they are
noticed during winter by the owners of orchards, who send them to
mologist for identification. The strange thing about these
tat we. have not been able to d any lice hatching from them
pontres where they are deposited, and twigs have been brought into
e lboatory bearing thousands of eggs of this louse; but we have
suceded in getting any to hatch. It does not seem that it could
be due to lack of fertilization, as the little wingless brown males occr
Thecabbage louse(Aphis brassic) seems to be a worse pest p
cabbages and cauliflowers than the cabbage butterflies, P. rapi and
The beet army worm (Laphiygma flavimaculata), which ravaged th
sugar-beet fields to such an alarming eitent in the Grand Valley i
the summer and fall of 1899, was almost entirely
same area in 1900, in spite of the fact that the moths
enormos numbers late in September for hiberna
occur in considerable numbers last year, however, in the
Rockyford, Colo., where sugar beets were being grown for
time in large numbers for commercial purposes. The past sm
the first brood of this insect appeared in considerable num
at Palisade, in the Grand Valley, and in the Arkansas Va i
vicinity of Lamar. It is now time for the second brood to be
full force, but I have heard nothing of it yet. It loos as
another native insect, formerly unknown as a destructive species,
come to stay a an enemy to beet culture.
The cabbage Plutella (P. cruciferarum).-A curious instance in
food habits of this insect was called to my attention the pre t
mer. Mr. H. E. Mathews, horticultural inspector for Delta
sent me a quantityof leaves from small peach trees, with hu
small white cocoons upon them, with the statement that somen
peach defoliator had appeared in an orchard in Delta Co and :
wished me to tell him what to do about it. I could not tell
the insect would turn out to be, but in a few days moths of t
bage Plutella appeared in large numbers, and I was almost as muc
puzzled as before. I told Mr. Mathews the ordinary food h
the insect, and then he explained that the year previous the
in this orchard had been allowed to grow up to a wild mustard,
that the weeds had been thoroughly kept down this summer. T
moths, doubtless, hatched there in large numbers and, not findi
their natural food plants, deposited eggs upon peach leaves, u
which the larvfe developed. (Photographs of the cocoons of
insect upon peach leaves were exhibited.)
The thistle butterfly (Pyrameis cardui) was unusually ab
throughout the State while fruit trees were in bloom, so t
inquiries were made as to the significance of this insect in
The bean ladybird (Epilachna corrupta) does considerable
to the foliage of beans, particularly wax beans, near the foothi
the east slope of the mountains every year, but the d of destru
tiveness varies much. The present season the injuries
more severe than for several years past. It is also dificult to comb
on account of the beans being very suscepti to
ne upon the under side of the leaves. The arsenicals,
hm to be our best means of destroying the beetles by
p There i a Phytoptu mite that seems to be steadily
se in Colorado, which attacks the cottonwoods. As the
lin the spring, reddish exresences begin to form about
upon twigs and limbs, of a more or less reddish color,
to enlarge in size during the summer. The year follow-
Sgrowth may appear about the old gall and new ones
ly spring the mites within the chambers of the galls are
color, while those that appear during the summer are
cr. In the northern portion of the State these galls are so
to be very noticeable to passers-by when the foliage is
'f Soe limertrly are li fthd with tshem, so that scarcely a twig
without one or more of the galls upon it.
euliar development, as the result of Phytoptus attack in
ods, takes,place in the same trees, and may be due to the
,so far as I know. It is the transformation of the flower
large pendant masses, often 6 or 8 inches in length, re ixind-
o ng slender cluster of grapes. An interesting thing in
th this abnormal growth is that the attack of the mites
ower parts to revert into leafy growths, pointing to the
development of the parts of the flower.
t present summer I have never heard of leaf-cutter bees
Saant enough to seriously deifoliate plants, but am told by
lady residing near Fort Collins, some 10 miles from the
her rosebushes were so badly defoliated by them the
that it was necessary to cover them during the day t
esaw a number of mature radishes, every plant of which
prce t Newport, Oreg., and fro the Engelmann spruce at Sand
President Gillette then announced that the proposal of now mem-
bers was again in order, whereupon the following names were offered
W. D. Hunter, Washington, D. C., proposed by Mr. Bru
non L. Kellogg, Stanford University, Ca., pro by r.
Dr. W. J. Holland, Pittsburg, Pa., proposed by Mr. H opkins
The meeting then adjourned for lunch, to reassemble at 2.30 p. i.
AFTERNOON SESSION, AUGUST , 1901.
Mr. Scott presented the first paper of the afternoon programme, viz:
A PRELIMINARY NOTE ON A NEW SPECIES OF APHIS INJURIOUS
TO PLUMS AND PEACHES IN GEORGIA.
By W. M. SCOTT, Atlanta, Ga.
Early in April, 1898, I observed a chestnut-brown Aphid great
numbers attacking plum trees in an orchard at Fort Valley, Ga.
insects were crowded thick on the growing tips and leaves of sever
thousand plum trees, and their injurious effects were then evidenc
by the curled and twisted condition o
the leaves and stunted appearance of
the young shoots.
Thinking it was probably only o
of the well-known species of plant-li
Scommon to the plum, I took no specia
.notice of it more than to have the in-
I fested trees treated with 10 per cent
'.. kerosene in mechanical mixture wi
water, which proved to be an effi
S Several days later the same conditions
.. were found in plum orchards at M
shallville, and during the course of the
FIG. .-Aphis n. sp: stem mothe on season the insect was located at a num-
FiG. 1.-Aphis n. sp: stem mother on .
peach and plum in Georgia, much en- ber of places in middle and so
larged (from drawing furnished by Georgia. The following year, 1899, this
Scott). insect again showed up in numbers even
more injurious than when first observed. Investigations during that
year showed it to be generally distributed over the State, equally p
lent in the northern, middle, and southern portions. It wasthe
to fest the peach as well as the plum. Its natural food plant w
appear to be the wild plums, as these were found badly infest in
every section of the State. Among the cultivated plums the
Goose, Robinson, and Mariana appear to be favorites of this
but the Jaanese varieties also suffer serious damae from its
In Jul of the same year specimens of this Aphid begran to be sent
ice as being injurious to the nursery stock, and the fall nur-
ection showed it to be a serious pest in the nurseries, particu-
lJune-budded peach trees. The terminals are attacked early
in hesesoon and further growth is seriously checked.
became evident that this plant-louse was not one of the
scommonly known to infest stone-fruit trees, as I had first
ingly, on November 4, 1899, specimens of this insect were
ed through Dr. Howard to Mr. Pergande, who identified it as
app tly a new species of the genus Aphis. (This iniformation was
aied by the statement, "I think it well worth your while to
makaareful study of this insect.")
e sale overshadowed every other pest, and all of my time
pied in dealing with it. At that time, therefore, it was out
uestion to start any breeding work whatever, and nothing
FI.-Aphis n. sp: winged form on peach and plum in Georgia, mueh enlarged
(from drawing furnished by Scott).
cedone on-the Aphis more than to make general field notes.
st session of the State legislature, however, I was given an
al appropriation, which made possible the employment of an
and an extension of the work.
ethe nursery and orchard police work still demands most of
the imeof both my assistant, Mr. W. F. Fiske, and myself, it was
decied hat between us -we might trace out the life history of this
newAp~id. Accordingly, on March 25, 1901, a plum tree in Atlanta,
ic ad noted the previous year as being badly infested with the
"cewasexamined just in time to find the newly issued to nearly full-
larym present. These had apparently hatched from over-
torn eggs, as evidenced by the presence near them of the dark-
wnsells, and the five antennal joints that developed in the adult
aaAs six joints in the adults of succeeding generations.
From hese stem mothers, colonies were established both in the
ies and in the open air on young plum trees grown from
Mariana c.ttings and also on peach seedlings. Isolated colonies on
the original plum tree were also watched.
In some colonies when members of the fifth generation reached
generations were reached. Our field notes show that the winged
form appeared in south Georgia as early as A 1 ee
winged individuals were found in great numbers in Atlantaonaplum
tree that was not at first- under observation as early as May 1.
until the present date (August 14).
After about twenty-four hours
from maturity the winged individ-
uals leave the colony and estab-
lish themselves, either singly or
in groups of two or three, upon
neighboring trees, where they feed
for several hours before giving birth
to young. The terminals of suc
lent shoots were invariably select
and the peach seemed to be pre-
ferred to the plum; in fact, the
locate on the plum, although
eral plum trees were growing on the
It was never observed that the
direct offspring of the winged form
FIG. a-Aphis n.sp: adult from inge developed wings, but some individ-
nished by Scott) generations usually do so.
It was also observed that when a colony was kept reduced to a
small number of individuals no winged individuals would dev
but when allowed to increase to considerable numbers some
would always appear.
On August 14 some of the colonies had been carried to the tenth
generation from the winged.
In order to get further assurance that an old species was not under
observation, specimens were taken from one of the breeding numbers
and submitted to Mr. Pergande, who again identified the insect as a
new species of the genus Aphis.
It is desired to carry this breeding work on until the true males and
females are secured before describing the species.
Adalia bipunciata frequented our breeding colonies in great num-
bers,and it was a continual fight between us and the beetles as to
whichshould have the lice.
larve of Seymnus, as well as certain Syrphid flies and Chrys-
opi also preyed upon this Aphis.
Inthe discussions of this paper Mlr. Ashmead said that the record
new Aphis attacking the stone fruits was very interesting, in-"
asmuc as this group of plants already suiffered from the attacks of
half a ozen well-known species of planrt-lice. He suggested that the
Aphidideeafforded a splendid field for investigation, and that there
pessing need for such work. He said that Mr. Pergande was
ity on this group and had in his possession the types of both
Mr.runer said that his former assistant, 4h l Wlis,
4idexensive work upon the aphides,
bing 35 species, but that his
*ork ad not yet been published.
Gllette called attention to the
ea danger of the black peach... ...
'"" ;'" i l; ; ;i; ii, ,;;; i ;;i ;il ;; ,:7, ," "
Jhis being disseminated on nur-
sk, and said that it had been
uscomunicated to Colorado f rom
N t in order was a talk upon
Fihing insects with fungous *-
eases," by L. Bruner, Lincoln,
M.Bruner said in part that the
e sful control of the chinch bug
som sections by means of a
ngu disease had been a great Fe.G4.-Aphsu.sp.: wingless form fourth
balaiy to working entomnologiBst, generation, fourth stage, much enlarged
becase tis scces ha creted (from drawing furnished by Scott).
flebelief that injurious insects in general could be controlled by
fungou diseases. As examples of insects destroyed by f ungi he
enioed the ebinch bug, locusts, and house flies. He said that the
isas among grasshoppers would act only when conditions were
vrble; that a grasshopper might eat a diseased one and be immune
conitions were -not just right.
He ad received from the Department of Agriculture what was
poed to be the South American locust disease, which proved to
onya Mucor. 'The material was distributed over Nebraska, and
some who received it reported good results, others cussed."'
hsexperiments he had found that none of the locust diseases were
In the* discussion of this subject Mr. Gillette said that he often
recommended the farmers of his State to grind the diseased and dead
grasshoppers as finely as possible in plentr of water and then sprinkle
the water upon plants where the grasshoppers were feeding. In his
opinion the disease germs are usually present, and the disease wil
make its appearance when the climatic conditions are favorable. He
believes the only object in scattering the germs is to make more
certain the spread of the disease whn other conditions are favorable
Mr. Cockerell was of the opinion that the diseases of i
not be effective in the destruction of scattered individuals, but
where insects were crowded together the introduction of disease woul
meet with success. He thought much good would result f
dissemination of the diseases of insects.
Mr. Hopkins then read the following paper:
INSECTS DETRIMENTAL AND DESTRUCTIVE TO FOREST
USED FOR CONSTRUCTING MATERIAL.
By A. D. HOPKINS, Morgantomn, W. Va.
There is constantly increasing complaint among the manufactur
and consumers of construction timbers relating to the difficulty
securing material that is free from defects caused by wood-b
insects. This trouble appears to be due to two conditions-on
diminished supply of the best timber, the other that of incr
injury to forest trees by insects.
The increase of insects is largely due, it is believed, to pre
crude and wasteful methods of lumbering and general forest
ment. The old, defective, and undesirable trees are allowed to st
which, with the stumps, refuse logs, and tops in the cuttings, serve
breeding places for vast numbers of the kinds of insects which
blame for the injuries complained of, as well as for increased da
to the standing timber in the remaining uncut forests.
THE PRINCIPAL INSECTS.
The principal insects which are injurious to the wood of f
trees and their timber products may be briefly referred to a
The oak timber worm (Epsalis minua) is without doubt the wor
enemy of oak wood throughout the eastern, middle, and
United States. It breeds in old stumps and logs, dead and d
standing trees, as well as in living tees, whih i isy
enter through the slightest wound in the outer wood, and n ae
years the larv of successive broods penetrate the heart w
extend their mines for a long distance above and below the
entrance. Under favorable conditions the larvf will contin
work in the heavy lumber and square timbers cut from
infested for many years after it is takenfrom the woods
in the structure. Especially is this true with reference to oak timbe
Sn railroad construction, such as ties nd culvert, bridge, and '
ng timbers. This insect will breed in old oak logs as long as
Ssufficient amount of sound wood for it to work in, and under
able conditions it will doubtless do the same in railroad ties and
ii|i 3lliiOiii iils"ii
esimilar material which comes in connection with the ground.
estnut timber worm (meylon sericeum) is another exceed-
ructive inset to the wood of iving, dying, and dead oak
stumps, l and heavy construction timbers as long as the con-
Sare suitable for it to do so. The destruction of the wood of
estnt trees throughout the Appalachian region, so far as its
for consruti material is concerned, is well-nigh complete.
ihnot oy breds in the roots and stems of living oak and other
r trees, but in old stumps and logs, railroad and other timbers
t of moisture.. Some years ago I observed a large number of
apparently of this species, in some old oak railroad ties which
station in organtown. It is therefore evident that this class
g wood borers contributI nota little to the rapid deterioration
Sbyid, or round-headed borers, of
ntroder, Leptura, and other allied genera, which breed in the
of dead trees and logs, hence are capable of breeding in railroad
ad similar construction material. There are also many species
family Buprestida with similar habit. In the Scolytid there
rge numbers- of species which bore in the wood of living, dying,
dead trees and cuse serious defects. Indeed, there is a long list
eies of Coleoptera which bore in the wood of trees and construe-
mbers and contribute to rapid deterioration and decay.
nepid6pter there are some very destructive enemies of the wood
ng trees, notably the carpenter worms, which infest the oak and
l tand bore large holes through the best part of the wood.
ed roduct in the mill yvards before it is used, after it is used in the
strueture; and until it is so badly damaged that it must be replace
by new material.
When we take into consideration the enormous amount of timb
used in railroad construction alone, and the damage to such materi
by insects, from the time it is taken from the forest until it is replae
by new material in the structure, it is plain that we have in this
economic problem worthy of special at tion. It in
the determination of methods of preventing to v
interests, but the conservation of our forest resources, the
of present and future supplies of that which is in greatet
When there was an abundant supply of timber it was possible
select only the best and to discard the defective, but at present
become necessary, on account of the growing searcity, to ue
timber that is defective. This is evident from the character of
railroad ties and other construction material observed in the l
yards, and piled along the road ready for use. Therefore, the p
lem of treating defective timber to promote its durability is be
an important one. The need of investigations to determine the
character of the various kinds of defects caused by insects and t
relations to the entrance of wood-decaying fungi, as a prelimin
the discovery and adoption of practical methods of cheking or
venting premature decay, is apparent.
In the accumulation of data relating to the kinds of insects to
for the commoner injuries, and to some important features in
habits, life history, and distribution, considerable pogress has
made within recent years. While this technical knowlge
insects, the characteristics of their habits, and the character of t
work is of prime importance in suggesting methods of pre
losses, there is a feature relating to experiments with such
to determine and demonstrate their practical application, whi
requires a considerably greater expenditure of money and time t
yet been available. Indeed, the funds available from pub appr
priations for original investigations of this character are nt sufficie
to warrant the undertaking of the elaborate experiments nece
If, however, private individuals, or companies whose immediate in
ests are involved, would cooperate with departmets of sci
research in this work, as is being done in some other lines of in
tion relating to forestry problems, it is believed that result o t
greatest value could be attained.
Mr. Cockerell asked wheheer a moderate number of forest
might not in a way be beneficial by killing out the old trees and l
ing room for the young ones to grow. He also mentioned the
habits of the sugar cane Xyleborus in the West Indies, which, fro
attacking dead wood, had come to attack the livin suar
M.Scott suggested that Georgia afforded a splendid field for inves-
s of this nature, as valuable timber in that State was being
ydestroyed by the work of insects. He made particular refer-
othe wholesale destruction of chestnut and oak.
Bruner said that he had been onnected with growing trees
forest reserves and that he had seen the destructive work of
rest insects. He said that species of Dendroctonus kill thou-
f trees in the forests of the Black Hills. He thought the
of Forestry should take up the matter of insects in connection
her work, and he thought the time ripe for the publication of
ly the one he had determined as a new species, from specimens
the United States Department of Agriculture from the Black
o which he had given the manuscript name Dendroctonus
psa. He also said that it belonged to the division of the genus
includes the most destructive enemies of the pine and was,
re, doubtless the one to blame for the serious troubles which
ime to time during the past threeyears has been reported from
VATIOS ON FOREST AND SHADE TREE INSECTS IN NEW
eason of 1901 has not been specially notable on account of
depredating on either forest or shade trees. The senatorial
o orm (Anisoa senatoria Sm. & Abb.) is more or less abundant
year at Karner, only 7 miles from Albany. This summer there
ery large deposition of eggs, and by July 27 it was easy to find
shoots defoliated, and none of the larve were more than one-
rown. Th srub oaks (Querus prinoides and Q. ilicifolia) are
o suer severely before the end of the summer, as is not infre-
d gthe greater part ofJuly and in early August.
matic collecting at intervals of ten to fifteen days throughout
have not been determined. Anomala lucicola Fabr. was present in
considerable numbers, mostly on pine, though not uncommon on oak,
from June 26 to July 19, and a few were taken as late as the 27th. One
or more species of Dichelonha occurred rather abundantly during
the latter half of June and the first week of July. Monohamms c-
tellatus Say and M. titillator Fabr. were taken in very small numbers,
though larvie which must belong to these species and to M. confusor
Kirby appeared to be common enough in this locality. Glypto1eli
hits Oliv. was captured on hard pine in rather small numbers from
June 4 to 26. The common pine weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck.) was
obtained in large numbers on hard pine, it being specially abundant
in June, but occurring in small numbers throughout July and in early
August. Two other weevils (Magdalis lecontei Horn and allacea
Lee.) were also taken throughout June and during the first week in
July in association with the white pine weevi The former of these
two was even more abundant than the Pissodes.
Bark-borers.-The hard pines at Manor, Long Island, the white
pines in the vicinity of Albany, and the balsam or fir trees of the
Adirondacks have all suffered more or less from the attacks of various
species of bark-borers. Investigations in all of these localities
to reveal adequate cause for the great mortality among these trees
unless it be due to the work of species of Tomicus. I am well aw
that Dr. Hopkins, who has made a special study of bark-borers and
is a well recognized authority on the group, inclines to lay blame on
forms belonging in some other genus. The work f Dendroctonus
terebrans Oliv. was very common at the bases of the hard pines on
Long Island, and I found it in smaller numbers in white pines about
Albany, but never in large enough numbers to cause very seriou
injury. In both of these localities, however, Tomicus calligra
Germ. and T. cacographus Lee. and, in some instances, other s
were uniformly present and many of the trees bore many pitch tubes,
the work in most instances of the first-named form. Tomics cllig-
raphus was found by me last fall working in enormous numbers in
dying white pines, the beetles not hesitating to run galleries into liv-
ing, apparently healthy tissues, and so abundant was the insect that
I could not help thinking it responsible in part, at least, for the death
of the tree. This month I have found undoubted evidence of Tomi-
cus calligraphus' entering what to every appearance were healthy
trees. It is true there were not quite so many branches at the top of
the tree closely inspected as there frequently is, but the needles
were all green and gave no evidence of injury, and the bark from the
base of the trees to the top was nice and green so far as the eye could
discern, and yet such a one had been entered in large numbers by
Tomicus calligraphus, and the beetles are even now running primary
galleries and depositing eggs. The trunk of this tree was well spotted
with pitch tubes, and small masses of pitch had dropped on the leaves
siunding shrubs. The tree above described is only one of
arwhich show an attack of this character in one stage or
iiiiiiiit trees in the rather small groves of white pine are dying
eets*of the work of this. insect and of its ailies. At Man or
ad, the hard pines covering an area of approximately 60
les were largely killed through the agency of bark-borers,
iilined to believe that iiiii species of Tomicus have. consider-
with the matter. Tomicus ceacographus Leo. and T. pini
iirequently associated with their larger relatives and in some
ay be the first to attack a tree. This opinion is further
ed by the fact that Tomicus balsameus Lee. undoubtedly
balsa treesin the Adirodacks. I have found this spe-
S in immense n.umbers in the entire length of the trunk of
ms. The top of one tree examined had browned some, but
limbs were apparently unaffected at the time it was cut and
Adults of this beetle were found throughout the tree run-
verse galleries in green tissues, eggs had been deposited in
atances and larv of various sizes and even pupm were found.
eresting ase of complete girdling was discovered. Two
iiarting from the point of entrance on a green limb about an
ndieter, worked in opposte directions around the limb, and
specimen was cut,,their burrows had overlapped each other
mmus. displays in New York State a great readiness to attack
r dying trees, and I have noted a number of cases where
nging to this genus and also Buprestid larve were working
which appeared to have suffered no greater injury from other
ana slight lowering of vitality incident to drought or other
ble conditions. These liary, though working in consider-
i i i ~ i i ii~ i ii~ ii I i i ~ ii iiii iii i i ~ ii iiii i~ !iiiiiii i~i~iii iiiiiiliiii i iiiilii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiii~iii ii iiiliiiiii iiiii ili i i
son, each individual paying for the treatment of his own tres. Th
general condition of the shade trees in both eities is much improve
by this work, and considering l the trees in the streets of both
the results are decidedly in favor of Albany. This is probably d
almost entirely to the fact that it is much more econoinical to take
street at a time and spray all the trees than to go hither a
as desired by private parties. The former is
city undertakies to spray all the trees on the streets, while the latte
must obtain where spraying depends upon the will ad financial abi
ity of the owner of the abutting property. It might be well to ad
that as a rule Albanians neglect the trees on their own premise,
Trojans, who have spraying done, invariably include the trs o
premises as well as those in front of- the property. The elm
beetle has almost undisputed sway in the poorer portions of T
because the residents can not afford to have their trees sprayed, whi
in Albany these as well as those inhabited by the wealthier
are treated and the results are most beneficent, because it is inthe
poorer quarters that shade is most urgently needed. It ther
seems to me most advisable to urge the prosecution of such
when necessary, upon municipalities rather than to allow it tode
upon the enterprise of private individuals, solely use it
the greatest good to the greatest number at a minimum of ex
This imported pest is slowly extendin its age northward of Al
and Troy and in some localities where no spraying is done it is t
season proving a scourge to both European and American e
Forest tent caterpillar (Clisiocampa disstria Hilbu.).-This i
has been a most serious pest in New York State for the last fo
five years, and in localities here ad there it has proved
destructive this season. The outbreak of 1901, so far as I can ear
was much more limited in area than in the previous years and c e
largely to sections adjacent to where the insect had been special
abundant previously. The caterpillar appears, as a rule, to
to exist in large numbers in one locality for more than four or
years in succession. This is probably to be explained by the lo
activity of natural enemies. Another marked feature has been t
increasing predominance of the pest in orchards. It is perhaps hard
necessary to add that most of the injuries in orchards could have be
prevented by timely and thorough spraying.
Carpenter moth (Prionoxystus robinice Peck).-This is a
enemy to maple, oak, and ash trees in certain sections of New Yo
State. Its destructive work at Ogsdpnburg was brought to
tion by Miss Mary B. Sherman, of that place, and through her so
interesting examples of the borers' work in sugar-maple
secured. One-third of a section or a tree about 1 inches in diamet
was fairly riddled with the large burrows of the
insect. It was so abundant as to ruin a number of fine trees in th
ty and necessitate their removal. The work of this pest at
,lo was brought to my notice by Mr. M. F. Adams, of that city, and
gh his kindess I have been able to secure good examples of the
s' work in ash and to observe its operations in oaks. This spe-
aso occurs on Long Island. All the examples of its work seen
Sshow that the full grown caterpillars prefer to run their bur-
at some depth in the wood, and that as a rule they run so close
Scommunicte so freely with each other as to destroy the value
fested trees for timber. This insect also causes large unsightly
ds wherever its burrows come near the surface. Caterpillars
t to pupate frequently take refuge in these channeled wounds,
which the pup work themselves partly out before the disclosure
,, h imago. The eggs a:are probably deposited in any available
where they adhere to the bark iather firmly. A piece of root
h had been bored by the willow curculio (Uryptorhynchus lapathi
) was lying in a breeding cage and a female Prionoxystus
b ed the opportunity to deposit six or seven eggs well within the
pparently the females do not hesitate to oviposit before the
parance of males. Some eggs which were found in the office
ed, possibly without being fertilized, but it was impossible to
this latter point. Dissection of a well-distended female, which
bly had deposited -no eggs, showed that she contained 269 well-
rmd ova and A3 which were partly developed, making a total
The, small lcanium igrofasciatum Perg. has proved a rather seri-
emy- to soft maples in Albany. This scale insect has been so
. nt on some small trees as to nearly cover the under surface of
limbs, and so much honeydew was exuded that the walks beneath
kept moist. The severe drain on the trees prevented much
Sand resulted in te killing of a number of the smaller imbs.
ay infested twigs havea marked sour-semiputrid odor, due in all
ability to the decomposition of the honeydew. Young began to
a in Albany about June 14, and by July 15 they were about 0.5
ong and were thikly set on the smaller twigs.
do cuaceiGeof This comparatively rare pecies was
in l [IB B g j i la V 1 t I'
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unpleasant, odor about this species when present in large numbers.
It is not nearly so offensive as in the case of Lecanium nigrofasciatwn
a whitewashed appearance, but literally plastering the under surfa
of many limbs. A number of these pines, as a consequence, have a
thin foliage and are sickly.
Mr. Hopkins congratulated the author on the large number of spe
cies recorded, but he doubted that the tent caterpillar had so changed
its habits as to attack pine. He was of the opinion that the occurrene
of this insect upon pine was merely accidental.
Mr. Ashmead said that he al was skeptical about the ocurrence
of the tent caterpillar on pine, and he advised Mr. Felt to withh
that statement from publication until further investigation could
Mr. Cockerell mentioned that in New Mexico the larve of li
campa fragilis sometimes crawled up the pine tre+s and pup
among the needles, but he did not find any proof that they ate the
leaves. With regard to the insect called Pseudococ aceris in
Eastern States, it could not be placed in Westwood's genus Pseu
cus, but belonged to Phenacoccus. The species was almost ce
not the European P. aceris, but was probably American, and wi
The secretary read the titles of the following papers by absent m
bers, and, upon motion of Mr. Bruner, they were accepted for p
cation in the Proceedings: Review of the White-Fly Investigation w
Incidental Problems, by H. A. Gossard, Lake City, Fla. Hydrocyani
Acid Gas Notes, by Charles P. Lounsbury and C. W. Mally, Cape Town
South Africa. The Use of Hydrocyanic Acid Gas for Exterinating
Household Insects, by W. R. Beattie, Washington, ). C. nec
the Year in Ohio, by F. M. Webster and Wilmon Newell, Woos
Ohio. Fruit Seriously Injured by Moths, by C. W. Mally, Cape Town
South Africa. Notes on Four Imported Pests, by A. H. Kirkland
Boston, Mass. Drought, Heat, and Insect Life, by Miss ry
Murtfeldt, Kirkwood, Mo.
REVIEW OF THE WHITE-FLY IVESTIGATION, WITH INID
By H. A. GosSARD, Lake City, Fla.
The white fly (Aleurodes citri) reached its maximum of detructive
ness last year, and called forth much apprehension both within th
bounds of its present distribution and outside of them. Abt
county puts out something like 200,000 boxes of oranges per year,
worth on an average $3 per box, and since infested groves usually turn
out one good crop not oftener than once in two years, and sometimes
only once in three years, it is only reasonable to believe that with the
insect absent the present annual yield of fruit in this county would
be more than doubled. The damage to this single county alone can
be hardly less than one quarter of a million dollars per year. The
direct and indirect consequences of the insect's presence in the State
could have amounted to but little less than one half million dollars
I believe the orange industry will flourish in spite of the fly and,
barring freezes, that the restoration of our groves over middle and
northern Florida will continue at a rate exceeding that of white fly
dissemination, but if present conditions continue it appears that
within a half 4ozen years our State will receive almost a million dol-
lars less than it would with clean groves, though we do not doubt
that the total income from the crop will have multiplied as many or
more times than the loss during the interval. I am very sure the
inset will not become worse anywhere than it was in Manatee County
last year, and if groves are excellent property there at present they
ill remain paying holdings in said county and elsewhere, notwih-
standing the presence of the fly.
Signs of alleviation from the pest have been noted for some years,
but,not until last year did the value of its fungous enemies become
emphasized to the most casual observer as a more than decimating
factor in its extraordinary numbers. By autumn disease had so
reded t that the worst infested districts are this year cleaner than
they have been during any of the three seasons since coming under
my observatioh. A visit paid to the infested territory in early July
led me to recommend that the trees be left to themselves until the
appearance of the September brood of larve, when resin wash might
be applied if the fruit was becoming smutty with mold.
The fungous diseases of the insect seem well distributed throughout
the State where thei fly occurs, but may have been introduced by the
hand of man following- the coming of the fly. I have observed both
ers usually make an effort to introduce these fungi whenever the
Aleurodes appears in a -new locality. The brown fungrus seems more
dread it inspires, it is noteworthy that the earliest infested grove in
e mentioned in some ofi the very ear liest literature of white flyii
ears, s stil liiiiig andivigorou, with theii iec p i iiiii e tr ees,
,-, I i N~li '
.this il Jlyear promising to just about piy forh oo
against th insect fwior some years in this grove. C
unquestionable vitality under such circumsngnout as the oulndo
ability Qf white fly to parasitic and predaceous atngeslit yeer
impossible to doubt that natural agencies other than funwi
to the relief of the trees before their life is spent. However, I hav
seen trees unmistakably killed by the insect, and the interior branche
very often die from its attacks.
UNRECORDED POINTS IN ITS LIFE HISTORY.
Some adult flies of the fall brood may be observed,by reliable
in early December, all eggs hatching before the middle of thaton
Nearly all the insects are in the third or fourth stage before Ja r
1, the eggs of a few stragglers alone furnishing specimes in the fir
or second stage. I recall no instance at all of having observe t
first stage as late as Christmas. The earliest imagos were o
upon some lemon bushes in a few very sunny and sheltered s
Ellenton, Fla., on the 11th of February. Egg laying. had already
menced at this date. The body of the spring brood, howeve doe
not appear until in April and May. This irregularity of appeara
with the late and early dates for imagos, suggests that the l
November and early December representatives belong to a straggn
fourth or winter brood. Further confirmation of such a guess may b
found in the marked overlapping of broods, especially noticeable i
the spring. This overlapping, every possible stae of the insect
represented at the same date, may be observed in one spot, but
value as evidence of a fourth brood is somewhat diminished by
fact thatthe appearance of corresponding broods may vary tw
three weeks in places not 20 miles apart.
A leaf of young orange, 5 inches long and 2- inches wide in the m
dle, collected at Myers June 22,1901,9, by careful mathematical com
tation had upon it upward of 20,000 eggs. While so many eggs upo
have observed them as thickly placed many times.
Resin wash is the spray most commonly used to destroy the insec
In the hands of one who understands its use satisfactory s
almost certain to follow. If no attention at all is given the in
smutted fruit must be cleaned with a dampened sawdust a
by some form of brush machine, the carrying qualities of the frui
being much impaired by either method. Kersene sp s a
effective as the resin wash.
The assistance of Prof. C. W. Woodworth, of the California Experi-
and experience were utilized during this period. Various styles of
tents-hoop, sheet, and bell-were made ready, from 8-ounce duck -or
6-ounce drilling, the cloth ing mildew proofed at the tent factory.
When upon the ground where they were to be used they were painted
with linseed oil, into which enough lampblack was stirred to give body
to be almost impossible to paint a large bell tent without serious dam-
age, necessitating extensive patching, unless the derrick upon which
it was swung was in perfect working order and repair, so as to avoid
the risk of leaving a fold in the canvas for even a short time while
drying out. The weight of oiled tents is also a great objection to them.
Catus juice is not available in Florida in sufficient quantity for tent
reatment and some new application' must be found. A preparation
by sailors in semitropical waters has come to my attention, and I
ope it is not without value. Mr. Arthur Weaver, who superintended
e fumigatio of Mr. A. G. Liles's grove, used the preparation and
reported it lighter, tighter, cheaper, and more satisfactory in every
respect than oil, with which he hd had equal experience. It is said
not to burn cloth and to be mildew proof. Cloth so treated and in use
upon boats in Gulf waters is said to last five or six years. Such endur-
ing quality is a very great consideration in our moist climate; and if
continued experience with the recipe proves it to be as satisfactory as
reported, I shall feel that one long step forward has been taken. As
the recipe came to me but recently, I have not yet given it a personal
test. The formula for this paint, as used by Mr. Weaver, is given in
the Annual Report of Florida Experiment Station, now in the hands
of the printer. The remainder of this paper, as well as much of that
already given, consists in the inain of almost verbatim extracts fro
For trees not over 12 feet high hoop tents were found to be most
satisfactory. Above that to 20 feet in height I think sheet tents will
As one result of the work, a iew pattern of derrick was devised for
ments than the California patterns or perhaps I should designate tents
handled thus as box tents, for they are swung in pairs with the derrick
fthe idea was achieved by the writer's combination of ides derived
tro various ++:+ sore..
+;+ + + +: +++++++; + + ++ . "+ + +++ +
+++ +' ++ +++ + + ++++ "+ ++ ;+/:.+ .+ + +. + + + i + +. : + + + +., . + + +' +
--- ;- ; + ++ .+ .++ . + +: : + . +. ,+++
Y+, ++ +,+ ++ ; :,/ +
.,,:,, ,,,:,i;++ + ++ + +++ + ++ + +++++++++ ++++ +
+ + i
for trees 30 feet in beight, and stands between the rows to be treated.
To each side of it is attached a aff 22 feet long, also of spruce pine.
iThe foot of the gaff clasps the mast with arms of oak, being rai;is
and lowered with double blocks and pulleys exactly after the manner
of a ship gaff. The top of the gaff is double blocked and pulleyed t
the top of the mast, so by means of its top and bottom attachments
the gaff can be raised to any height, its top many feet above
of the mast, if necessary, or it can be lowered to
Since it can take any angle of direction also it may be qui
adjusted to trees of any height and at variable distances from the
mast. The top of the bell is attached by pulley near to the n
the gaff. Three trail poles of hickory, each about 10 feet in le
fastened to one side of the lower border of the tent, their ends be
securely lashed to each other with rope, so that when they pull
is caught up and bagged slightly at these points of union of the t
poles, as additional protection against tearing. The center of each of
these trail poles is connected with the top of the gaff by pulley,
thus the border of the tent. to which they are attached may be ele
vated to any height, the opposite border swinging free wthin re
near the ground. A trail rope is atthed to each of the trail poles. A
pulley ropes belonging to the apparatus are secured to
In operation, when the mainr ast, on rollers or wheels, has b
placed in position, the height of the tree to be fumigated and its d
tance from the mast are noted, and the foot of the gaff is raised o
lowered to the point of greatest advantage, as learned from experience.
:f the trees of .... -' ....
If the trees of a grove are of nearly uiform height and at regula
distances apart one correct adjustment will serve for the whole grove.
A similar adjustment is made of the top of the gaff, thisopera
necessity being repeated with every tree. The topof the tent i
drawn fully up and then the three trail poles; the hanging free
near the groundnd nd as much of the border as possible is now b
into position and the top of the gaff lowered some if necessary.
is now given to the trail poles, and a man at each trail rope so pu
the pole to which his line is attached that the whole tent dro in
position over the tree. The lower border of the tent must be ex
strong to avoid tearing. It is best bound with rope. To remove th
tent from the tree the procedure is almost exactly reversed. With
men trained to work together the tent may be lowered over a tree i
seven or eight minutes and removed in about five. Since the opera
tion of removing the tent from one tree raises it almost in position to
drop upon the next, the time required for changing will not be th
sum of eight and five minutes, but the last five minutes is divided
etting almost in position to lower upon another by a quick adjust-
ver a tree from this position. The apparatus requires four men,
one of whom may be the fumigator if his chemicals have been weighed
out beforehand. A gang of four can operate about four tents or two
derricks. This gives forty minutes to the tree and allows ten minutes
or shifting of each tent. In order to realize this expeditiousness inii
ractice all apparatus must be in perfect working order and repair
nd the men trained to handling it The results secured in my pra
ice satisfied me that this would be a reasonable estimate, for it was
done often enough in this time with our then imperfected apparatus
Some determinations made by Professor Miller, of the chemical
epartment, are of interest and importance. He found that 1 ounce
f sulphuric acid and I ounce of water, mixed and cold, when added
1 ounce potassium cyanide yielded 428.4 cubic inches of gas; that I
unce of sulphurie acid and 1 ounce of water, mixed and added imme-
iItely while warm to I ounce of potassium cyanide, yielded 467.9
ubie inches of gas, greater by a little more than 9 per cent than with
cold mixture of water and caid. Mixing the acid and water, there-
ore, only as used means a saving of 6 or 7 cents per tree on large
ees requiring 2 pounds of cyanide. He further determined that a
eater proportion of acid did not materially alter the result, and that
mmonia seems not to be formed immediately after the reaction under
A number of experiments were made with citrus twigs, orange,
emon, pomelo, etc., infested with white fly, to determine the suseepti-
ility of the inset to the gas, dose of chemicals to use, length of time
necessary,. and most favorable t emperature for treatment, influence
of moisture present upon the leaves when fumigated, etc.
It was found that in its larval and pupal stages theinsect was very
edily killed by much lighter doses of gas than are commonly used
gaist the black sale in California; in fact, the field practice with
y, in cloudy weather, and at night. But little injury to trees or foli-
ge was observed if fumigated at night, during cloudy weather, early in
Ue U lin t
iiiiiii ii i~iiiiiiiii ii iiiiiiii iiilliiiiii
before 4 p. m. in sunshine were invariably somewha t injured, some j
no permanent injury was done, but the crop upon such trees was not
ably reduce d. The dropping of lea
comparatively little significanc, the t.s inst o din, a
amount t, be" detected after a few
sometimes do in California, putting o new foliage and going along
if nothing special had happened. However, the burning of limbs a
injury to bloom is another matter, and therefore midday fmigi
can hardly be practiced. While some defoliationd w
trees. In examinng hundreds of leaes ao s
fumigated atr ther times than midday, even after c inigs t w
strikingly noticeable nor was damage to limbs or Ifrop of sufficie
render it so nearly clean that it would nd no i
amount to bor e detected after a few months. Some of
done as late as February 18, when the blossoms were beginning to ope
some of them being well expanded. The bloom seemed unaffected
the treatment unless groth fork was done with the sun at high mer
The white fly seemed practically exterminated upon the tr
trees. In examining hundreds of leaves from dozens of trees abou
ten days after they were fumigated, and covering thousands of insect
I was able to find but a single living specimen. If a grove was segr
gated from all others, I have no doubt that one fumigation
render it so nearly clean that it would need no additional atte
for two or three years. The great hindrance to its becoming a pr
ticable remedy is that few groves are so isolated that the fly will
come to them from neighboring groves, and since the insect seek
young and tender growth for egg-laying purposes there is, perhap
sooty mold. ..
Special observations were made g to determine te effect of the
upon ladybugs. On the afternoon of January 22, 72 l bugs
all Chilocorus bivulnerus, which had fallen to the ground un
gation treatment, were placed in a shallow tin box ad erft
January 23; at 9.30. m. of the latter dae 70 beetlrs weein
box, .a few of them active; at 4 p. m. 06 remained in the bo~ ab,
dozen of them showing signs of activity. At 8.45 a.. i.
62 ladybugs were in the box, and 60 at 12.40 p. The 60
exhibited signs of animation, all being observed to be dead
days afterwards. January 24, by p.' m., anoher lot of 7 fall
nearly all of the same species as before, was collected and keit
same iannei' as the first ones. January 25, at 4.30 p. the
were dead, 16 out of the lot having recoered. n the
cent of the whole revived; in the second lot about 9 per cent.
mittal of these -notes is prompted by the increasing employ-
ydroyanic acid gas as an insecticidal agent in closed build-
o r than for the destruction of insects accompanying nursery 4
f late we note recommendations in American rural papers,
in dwellings to destroy bedbugs, the strengths mentioned
Sordinarily employed for scale insects. Scale insects, we
nd, are exceptionally easy to destroy by the gas, and there-
-foeperiences inh treatment of more resistant insects and
ellaneous tests we have made may have interest to Ameri-
has been regularly used during the past two and a half
ffect the destruction of vermin in the sleeping coaches on.
os systems of the Cape government railways. With the
of this treatment, complaints from bug-bitten passengers,
ery frequent, abruptly ceased. On recent inquiry it was
sd that the railway management remains perfectly satisfied
measure. Bugs are no longer found, but the coaches are
one in about four months.. Two I-pound charges of 98 per
anide are used to a coach and the exposure continued from
r hours according to the length of time available for the
wo pounds to a coach is about equivalent to an ounce to
the colonial jails swarm with vermin despite many methods&
to mitigate the pest. Carbolic preparations, the use of,
rr sblimate in whitewash and as a spray, the burning of sul-
the liberation of sulphurous acid fumes are all reported
SHydrocyanic acid gas is now coming into use as a last
nder our direction several jails have been treated with sue-
it is understood that the government will soon have arrange-
mplete for a regular and systematic fumigation of all the
@,,, ,;~; ;i:,; ;I~ '
rl;:lll~"" ;i iNil ~ ~iE
Blankets and as far as possible all else that comes in contact with
prisoners are so disposed as to be most freely exposed to the action
of the gas; suspension of sleeping blankets by one corner from grat-
ings forming the floors of galleries is sometimes practicable. Th
exposure is continued as long as circumstances allow, with a minim
.of two hours.
The procedure of the work is kept as smple a i
especial difficulty is experi ed in treating
spaces. A number of cells sometimes have to be tre
In one case a corridor 90 feet long, extending in c upolas to a h
of 50 feet, and inclosing with its connecting cells an a
140,000 cubic feet, was treated as one space. Forty-three charges
ach weighing 3 pounds, were used, and 20 of these were generated i
cells off a gallery above the main floor. Five-gallon tins, in
kerosene oil has been imported, and from which the tops have
cut, are generally used for large charges. These are found
take 3 pounds of cyanide, and to be serviceable for two or thre
usages. Their recommendation is their ubiquity in this coury a
their inexpensiveness. As in orchard fumigation, 2 ounces
ure of water and 1 ounce by measure of sulphuric acid are u
ounce by weight of cyanide; thus for a 3-pound charge of the lat
3 pints (United States measure) of acid are added to 6 pints of wa
When a space necessitating the employment of many generti
vessels is to be treated, as was the case in doing the corridor
mentioned, the water only is measured directly into the vesses, th
being then, if not before, placed in the positions desired. The aci
is measured into small receptacles, as tin basins, placed wit
arm's. length of the vessels, and the required weight of cyande
each, for convenience in handling laid on a square of chee cth
mosquito netting, or even newspaper, is also laid within re
Squares of cheese cloth, made bag-like by tying the alternate c
are preferred for holding the cyanide, particularly whenthe
discharges to be made is a long one. When the time comes to "fire
an assistant, beginning at the farthest corner from the exit, po
the respective measure of acid into vessel after vessel, and whe
has a start of half a dozen vessels the operator follows, and, with th
greatest dispatch compatible with certainty in action and a
avoid splashing, drops the bags of cyanide into the steami aci
water mixtures. Familiarity with the work, quickness of movement
and a cool head are essential to safety, .and no person not
these qualifications should attempt multiple discharges When th
series is short the operator himself may attend to the addition of
the acid and the cyanide, and even measure the acid directly i
water. The objection to following ts procedure i n
that the acid-water mixtures may have time to cool, and th
fail to fully react upon the cyanide, particularly the lar
onsider this hand dropping of the ieya ide into vessel after
l far safer and much more expeditious than methods of drop-
which involve the use of strings manipulated from without the
.Theclothbagfacilitates the dropping act, and retards but
brief space the evolution of the gas. Curiously the cloth is
times practically uninjured by the chemicals.
at care is always needed when the spaces are opened for venti-
Sto keep out inquisitive parties, and it is then that the responsi-
of the operator is greatest. On still days the generation of
by fires and the burning of large lamps is useful to expedite
al of the air. The gas soon dissipates from empty rooms, but,
to bedding somewhat tenaciously; hence several hours' airing
drable if severe headaches are to be avoided. It has been noticed
persons with weak hings, of which there are many in some
I s among long-term convicts, suffer painful inconvenience from
of gas unnoticed by their healthier fellow-prisoners.
Spblii departmeint in charge of plague work adm inistrationi
aegun to mak limited use of the gas for dwelling fumigation to
iit fleas, and lice.i The procedure follo wed i
s tsame as in jail wo ilrk and the same strength of gas is used; as,
ged control over the premises'an be had the exposure is made
se various governmental uses of the gas have not been inaugu-
without experimental demonstration of its efficiency. Our
conducted in tight spaces, have shown that much stronger gas
uired to destroy bedbugs than to destroy armored scale insects.
res the strength of gas as the ratio of the
er of ounces of yanide used to the number of cubic feet in
! space inclosed. Gas at a strength of 1 ounce to 450 cubic feet.
iiiiii ==.. H====ii itoli ijI'Slilifil"! i*iiii!
Stobe uniformly fatal to scale insects (Aspiditus aranii, A
w iA.pi ad Dstago) exposed ti o it 6for an hour,, I
o have little, if any, effect on bedbugs. A portion of a given
er of bugs is destroyed by an hour's exposure to 1 ounce to
i ft g; ad te desroyd increased
se in the strength of the gas and the period of the exposure.
O main series of tests with bugs was made in a photographic dark
ved I ounce to 190 cubic feet for an hour, and three, 1 to 155 for
ieame pr but none I to 155 for two hours; these effects w ere
mens were recorded to survive the strength of I to 235 for one hou
and three for 1 to 235 for two hours, but in these instances the peci
mens were all destroyed at the end of twenty-four hours, it not at th
time being known that any might subsequently recover. In ever
case all of the bugs were stupefied by the ga and none wer
to again become active until at least two hours had elapsed. With the
1 to 150 strength for an hour, none showed signs of life at the endo
five hours, but twenty hours later one couldra and a
move its legs, and on the following day a third responded
lightly; at the end of a week the one seemed fully recovered whil
the others were still too weak to move about. It is evident fro
these tests that 1 to 155 gas for an hour is too weak for room fumiga
tion since not all fully exposed bugs may be destroyed. It is onl
fair to mention, however, that in practice we have known 1 to 1
gas give seemingly perfect results in a nuber of instances.
other times while greatly decreasing the pest its use has not been
The eggs of bedbugs seem to be devitalized with the use of abo
the same strength of gas as is fatal t tthe active stages, but we
had little opportunity to make observations on this phase of thepr
lem and therefore speak with reserve. Seven eggs laid within t
hours of their exposure failed to hatch after treaent for two
in 1 to 125 gas, the space in this case being a fairly tight room in
plague house and the eggs being fully exposed; nineteen eggs six d
old failed to hatch after exposurefor one hour in to 150 gas in
dark room referred to above. Check eggs were not prerve
eggs hatched in numbers of seemingly sound ones taken from tre
railway coaches at the beginning of that work. It may seem
that eggs should be devitalized by the gas, but in experiments con
ducted here three years ago it was determined that scale inset
(Diaspis pentagona and other species) succumbed to I to 300
fact, it was observed that eggs of a species of Dactylop
vitality from an hour's exposure in the strength of gas men
when adults escaped death. Check lots of eggs of the diffeet
The common roach (Ectobia germanica) succumbs to overnigh
treatment with 1 to 100 gas. The kitchen and scullery of one ohe
Cape Town clubs swarmed to an almost incredible extent with ti
insect. The spaces were treated with the strength intimated,
the morning not less than a half bushel of dead roaches were swep
up. About fifty that bore ootheca were boxed and broug the office
and no eggs hatched from them; there was no check test, ho
to determine if such eggs would hatch were the females otherwise
Thefleas on a dog confined in a room, treated for a
180 gas, were all destroyed; one hundred were ved
er observation for a week to make certai that the result was as
appr be. L (Hfmatopinus spp.) on rats confined in t he
e space were also destroyed. So were several kinds of ants and
commonhouse fly; but not one of several hundred specimens of
ious kinds of tcks,and only 40 out of 57 bedbugs. Ticks are the
ait susceptible to the gas of all the creatures we have exposed.
lt Agas persis, Amblyomma hebrcm, and Rhipicephalus
rsi.have been exposed in lrge numbers to 1 to 150 gas for two
ithout a single specimen manifesting injury., A score of
ciens, exposed for an hour in I to 80 gas, and every
ore. Eight long-starved eversi exposed to this strength were
ch affected, 4 of them being killed and the other 4 greatly enfeebled.
ay be of interest to mention that cultures of Bacillus pestis, the
gue organism, exposed by replacing the customary cotton plug with
vering of gauze, were unaffected at this strength and in weaker
ngts. Thisbacterum is accounted easy of destruction by ordi-
thepractical application of the gas we consider it advisable to
ove all water and all moist substances that might absorb the gas
ency by decreasing its strength. Water an
at that have been exposed to the gas should be regarded as danger-
for consumption. We purposely exposed meat and water to
remelystrong gasto see if the were really rendered poisonous.
h proved quickly fatal to dogs which began to partake of them.
t exposed and then allowed to air for a few days proved harmless.
r exposed and afterwards made into bread was eaten by one of
he gas may be the most reliable agent for the destruction of insects
thin a confined space that we have, but in general it is a mistake to
ider it an infallible eradicator. The extent to which insects in a
Sace are protected by the character of their coverings can be deter-
.mned only b experiment, and then only roughly. Individuals
mg sale insects in masses on their food plants resist strengths of
far in excess of what is uniformly fatal to isolatedspecimens of
ir kind. This we have observed in the orchard and demonstrated
thin door easings of a jail after the sur'rounding space had been
exposedf or threeand a half hours to 1 in 90 gas and two specimens
out of seven, placed between box covers screwed together so that the
insects were held but not crushed, survived two hours of treatment
with I to 125 gas. A beam of light was visible between the boards
and the survivors were found within 3 inches of the edge. A thin
covering of dry dust or earth seems a great protection. Living sow
bugs and earwigs were found along with numerous dead ones on the
surface dirt of the plague room mentioned above as having been
treated for two hours with 1 to 125 gas. None of th creatures were
in sight when the room was closed, and lte presumption is that
that escaped destruction were disturbed from the rubbish on the
earthen floor too late to get a lethal dose.
Grain insects have been experimented with to determine if a
of grain was sufficiently penetrated by the gas to effect the destruc-
tion of those contained therein. A series of tests with this object in
view was made in a tight glass-sided ce inclosing 4.16 ubic feetof
space.- To insure accuracy the cyanide employed was weighed ou
on delicathebalances. The results of the tests were most disapo
ing and have led to our abandonment of hopes that the gas wo
serve as a substitute for carbon bisulphid in the treatment of
grain. Strengths of gas up to 1 ounce to 12 cubi feet (10 grams to the
case) were found inefficient to destroy Calandra oryza, C. gr
and other common grain insects in an exposure of forty-two hours.
In the test with the strongest gas grain bag containing about a
bushel of refuse corn mixed with coarse mill screenings alive with
the insectaswas exposed. The case was tight, the chemical reac
perfect, and the gas still strong at the end of the forty-two hours;
scores of the insects escaped death. Throughout the series it w
evident that the air wlthin even small bulks of material remine
harmless to the insects a short distance from the surface. The insects
which crawled away from the mass and those at or very close to
surface were generally destroyed.
THE USE OF HYDROCYANIC ACID GAS FOR EXTERINATING
HOUSEHOLD INSE TS.
By W. R. BEATTIE, Washington, D. C.
With the growth of our population and the consequent ro
together of residences, the problem of the prevention and con
household insects is deserving of careful consideration from a sanit
standpoint, but one that is usually overlooked. These pests are to
found in fewer or greater numbers, both of species and di
in every dwelling, office, or storehouse, and no perfectly efficie
means, either to prevent their gaining an entrance or to ext
them when they are once established, has as yet been devised.
Recent successful applications of hydrocyanic-acid gas e
extermination of insects infesting greenhouse plants have sue
of the same remedy for household pests. It is now no longer
ut an established fact that 0.10 gram of 98 per cent pure
potassium volatilized in a cubi foo aubict of spewill, if allowed
for a period of not less than three hours, kill all iroaches
eriments which led to this conclusion were made in a small
which is used for laboratory -purposes by the Division of
is structure has for some time been infested with several
s, the more numerous and troublesome of which was the com-
oach (Periplaneta americana). The building consists of one
basement, the upper part being rather loosely built, as it is
ughout with matched lumber. This method of construction
umerous hiding places for the insects, and also renders
a difeult by permitting the gas to escape too quickly.
e building are several sources of moisture, a rather high
nt temperature is maintained in some of the rooms, and
tities of seeds and substances that serve as food for insects
Smaking conditions well adapted to the development of
Dtheearly part of last year the roaches became so numerous
etriment to the work of the laboratory, and it was necessary
me means of checking them. On the evening of May 10,
uilding was closed, and after opening up the interior of the
much as possible the entire structure was fumigated experi-
ithabout-0.08 gram of 98 per cent pure cyanide of potas-
ubi foot of space. The gas was allowed to remain during
or until it gradually escaped. When the rooms were
h following morning there remained a perceptible odor of
Sgas bt ihis soon disappeared after opening the windows and
STh ledges aid window sills were strewn with dead house-flies
loors bore abundant evidence of the effect of the gas on
Not a single insectthat showed indications of remaining iii fe
found in thebuilding.About a quart of the fies and
us as to be a nuisance and a detriment to the work of the
found that fully 10 per cent of them had not been killed and were a
lively as before treatment. The mice, however, showed no indication
of life. The dose had been sufficiently
to remain long enough to kill the more resistant of the roaches,
The third and most satisfactory experimet of the series was co
ducted on the evening of June 20 1901, whn a a icio
gram per cubic foot was allowed to remain in the bi
On the following morning the gas had nt etirely aped,
flies, centipedes, spiders, cockroaches, and mice were dead, wi
exception of a few roches which had secreted themselves be
sash and frame of a loosely fitting window, and had thu
enough pure air to prevent their being killed.
To convey an idea of the injury caused by the presence of
numbers of roaches in this laboratory, it might be stated that, fr
quently preceding this last fumigation, photographic plates p
racks to dry and allowed to remain on a table for one hou ere c
pletely ruined by having films eaten from the glass; packets of
stored in mouse-proof tin boxes were so eaten as to allow the s
escape, and in many cases the seeds themselves were
Since this fumigatlon no inconvenience has been caused by the w
of roaches or mice.
By aid of the results obtained from the above experiments, togethe
with our present knowledge of the action of hydrocyani-acid
exterminating greenhouse and scale insects, it may be stated t
dwelling, office, warehouse, or any building may be economi
cleared of all pests, provided that the local conditions will pe
use of this gas. It probably would be dangerous to fumigate a bul
ing where groceries, dried fruits, meats, or prepared food materials
any kind are stored. Air containing more than 25 per cent of
is inflammable, therefore it would be well to put out all fire in
inclosure before fumigating. Hydrocyanic acid in all of its forms i
one of the mostt violent poisons known, and no neglect should at
once entered the blood of any of the higher animals. When cya
of potassium is being used it should never be allowed to come in co
tact with the skin, and even a slight odor of the gas should be avoi
Should the operator have any cut or break in the skin of the h
face, it should be carefully covered with court-plaster to prevent
gas coming in contact with the flesh or the possibility of a sm
ticle of the solid compound getting into the cut, which would cau
death by poisoning within a few minutes' time.
Hydrocyanic-acid gas should not be used in closely built apar
ments with single walls between, as more or less of the gas will pene
trate a brick wall. An inexperienced erson should never
potassium for any purpose, and if it be found practicable to treat
done under the direction of competent officials. Our experiments
ave shown that a smaller dose and a shorter period of exposure are
ired to kill mice than for roaches and household insects gener-
ally, and it readily follows that the larger animals and human beings
would be more quickly overcome than mice, since a smaller supply of
pure air would be required to sustain life in mice, and small openings
are more numerous than lar ones.
The materials employed and the method of procedure are as follows:
After asertining the cubi contents of the inclosure, provide a glass
or stone ware (not metal) vessel of 2 to 4 gallons capacity for each
,000 ubi feet of space to be fumigated. Distribute the jars accord-
lug to the space and run a smooth cord from each jar to a common
point near an outside door where they may all be fastened; support the
ord above the jar by means of the back of a chair or other convenient
bject in such a position that when the loaid of cyanide of potassium is
athed it will hang directly over the center of the jar. Next weigh
upon a piece of soft paper 500 grams (about 17.1 ounces) of 98
er cent pure yanide of potassium, using a large pair of forceps for
handling the lumps, wrap up and place in a paper bag, and tie to the
end of the cord over the jar. After the load for each jar has been
similarly provided, it is well to test the working of the cords to see
that they do not ehtch or bind. Then remove the jar a short distance
erom under the load of cyanide and lace in it a little more than a
quart of water, to which slowly add 1J pints of commercial sulphuric
acid, stirring freely. The action of the acid will bring the tempera-
ture of the combination almost to the boiling point. Replace the jars
beneath the bags of cyanide, spreading a large sheet of heavy paper
on the floor to catch any acid that may possibly fly over the edge of
the jar when the yanide is dropped, or as a result of the violent
chemical action which follows. Close all outside openings and open
up the interior of the apartment as much as possible in order that the
full strength of the gas may reach the hiding places of the insects.
See that all entrances are locked or guarded on the outside to prevent
persons entering, then leave the building, releasing the cords as you
go. The gas will all be given off in a few minutes and should remain
annnorinBWt e lvaid^ o lff notasis~flpi~uml~'^"Jctcp is ipassed. UFso that ::wheny^^^ t S h ei coj r rd^'iv'iult
on the top of the jar but will not prevent the easy descent of the ca
nide into the acid. The weight of this paper will W no way interfer
with the escape of the gas.
At the end of the time required for fumigation the winows
doors should be opened from the outside and the gas allowed to escap
before anyone enters the building. A general cleaning should follow
as the insects leave their hiding places and, dying on the floors, ai
easily swept p and burned. The suphate of potash remaining i
the jars is poisonous and should be immediately buried and the ja
themselves filled with earth or ashes. No food that has remaine
during fumigation should be used, and thorough ventilation shoul
be maintained for several hours. After one of our experiments
was noted that ice water which had remained in a closed cooler h
taken up the gas and had both the odor and taste of yanide.
For dwellings one fumigation each year would be sufficient, but f
storage houses it may be necessary to make an application every thre
or four months to keep them entirely free from insect pests. T
cost of materials for one application is about 50 cents for each 5,00
cubic feet of space to be treated. The cyanide of potassium can
purchased at about 35 cents per pound and the commercial sulphur
acid at about 4 cents per pound. The strength of the d
increased and the time of exposure somewhat shortened, but thi
increases the cost and does not do the work so thoroughly. In no as
however, should the dose exceed 0.22 gram, or remain les than o
The practical application of this method of controlling househo
insects and pests generally is to be found in checking the advance
great numbers of some particular insect, or in eradicating them whe
they have become thoroughly established. This method will be fou
very advantageous in clearing old buildings and ships of cockroache
INSECTS OF THE YEAR IN OHIO.
By F. M. WEBSTER and WILMoN NEWELL, Wooster, Ohio.
Broadly speaking, the past year has been marked by the unusu
abundance of many of the more common insect pests.
During the past spring and early summer the chinch bug has done
serious injury over the area which seems particularly favorable
it, viz, the country lying between the Scioto and Big iami river
which section is, approximately, the most frequently apd seriousl
affected by it. As in other years, Sporotrihum globuliferum, t
fungus enemy of the insect, has been distributed to all that hav
applied, and the packages thus distributed amount to about 1,700 i
number. As this fungus has been continually sent into this regio
since 1894, we can now state, with pretty good assurance of corre
ness, that the artificial introduction throughout this eriod has ive
Sof te insect. This year, however, we have started our
Ituesofthis fungus with affected chinch bugs collected in the
Sthe material having in the meantime been kept in ai
ht o in a dry room. It can not now be said by those who knowii i
at he seof this fungus against the chinch bug is an experiment.
Sa isfactoriy in wet or moderately damp weather, but
i iiiintd when a drought is prevailing.ii
.Owig tothe fact that wheat was almost universally sown late last
UIL and only the earlier sown fields were attacked by the Hessian fly,
A~t insethas' not claimed the attention this year that it did last.
Onorthern portion of Ohio little or no wheat was so badly
qjued astfall as to necessitate plowing under this spring, unless it
efore September 20, 1900, and comparatively little wasiii
eriusl inured, north of latitude 40', unless sown prior to Septem.-
.er25 190.Wheat plants that had been killed last autumn by the
t fly were collected in quantity from many sections of the
tat an paced in the insectary in order to learn the probable con-
itio of the fly in the fields in the spring of 1901. Only in two
I ii~ I i~~~l~i ~liii"r11?1
d we secure Hessian fly in great numbers In one of .
es caesthe wheat had been sowrn September 12, 1900, and the,
the wa fom the experiment plats of the Ohio Agricultural Experi-
Ren Sttio at Wooster. In some instances we reared myriads of
e itte prasite Polygnotus hiemalis Forbes, and the number of
.es let n doubt of their efficienicy in che.king the increase of the
y; ut n ome other cases we reared. only very few parasites, and
venles Ris or none at all, so that it seems possible. that there was
Isoanoherunknownl influence which tended to reduce the number
f -adut fie that emerged this spring.
The ose-hafer (Macrodactylus subspinosus) has not been as abun-
#antoverthe State before in ten years, always in near proximity to
e~ady and. It is hardly worth while to state that we have found no
praticl masures of suppression, but it may be stated that a mix-
tureof ponds of arsenate of lead and 50 gallons of water had no
effect upon them.
Iwp es of Epicauta (E. iaa and E. pennsylvanica) have been
unuualy toublesome, and, as usually follows, a lack in the number
The traberry weevil (Anthonomus signatus) worked serious dep-
datins i the strawberry -fields of Scioto and adjacent counties,
.11 on-haf the crop having been destroyed by the pest. Informa-
on o it raages was not received in time to permit Mr. A. F. Bur-
s$, ho as sent to 4nvestigate the outbreak, doing more than to
ove thinfested fields and lay plans for work next year.
The eartworm (Hydr(Ecia nitela) was reported as working consid-
le ijur in a wheat field in the central part of the State, and a
Sflorit in the north of the State c laind bittely of t
ravages of the pest in his carnations set out of doors. Carnations in
the experiment station greenhouses suffered severely in March from
the attacks of cutworms (Peridroma saia), which fed on the petal
and burrowed into the unopened buds, working chiefly at night.
The Southern turkey gnat (Simlim meridioale) became quite
abundant in Wayne County durin May, causing
ness among teams working in the fields near their breeding places.
One of these places was located not far from Woster, in alittlebrook
fed by springs and flowing over a rocky bed. Adults we abndan
May 11, and larv-some of them very small-and pup, as well as
adults, were all found on the 16th of same month.
pear in destructive abundance this year in the area where it did so
nates, in part at least, in the adult stage.
Bruchophagusfunebris is widely distributed over the State, and its
injuries to red clover seed are frequently reported during autumn.
The grapevine root worm (Fidia iicida) which was less destr
tive last year than it had been for some time, seems to have tak o
a new vigor, and is this year again very abundant on the
Strangely enough, its ravages are still mostly confined to the gra
region about Cleveland, extending therefrom in uch farther to the east
than to the west. In a small nursery, near Tiffin, some 85 miles to
the west, a small lot of young grapevines was attacked and
leaves very badly eaten, while in no other part of the grounds
the grapevines attacked. Arsenate of lead has not given us m
satisfaction in fighting this pest, and te results of this year's ex
ments with this insecticide in the vineyards have not been very sa
factory, though not conclusive.
The canker worm (Palearia vernata) was present in many sections
of the State in increasing numbers. There was some complt
the inefficiency of arsenate of lead against these, but in all c s
failure investigated the spraying had been done in an inefficient
ner, and the result could hardly have been otherwise than ineffectual.
The corn worm (Heliothis armiger) not only attacked yo go r
ing corn, but also worked in the broom corn, doing considerl
damage to the latter.
The western corn root worm (Diabrotica ongornis), though it
locally eastward to the Atlantic coast, is not known as a pest east of
central Ohio. Its advance across the State from the west
observed by entomolgists, and this advance throughout
growing sections has been indicated in the bulletins of the
ment station. During the last nine years everyone conn
the entomological department of the station has watched carefull
for thefirst appearance of the insect about Woose but not u l
ad it been observed within a distance of 50 miles. A single
l was observed last summer on a garden sunflower in the
Twenty-five years ago, in northern Illinois, where now its
a in the corn field are only prevented by continual crop rota-
his insect was as unusual as it is at present at Wooster, Ohio.
y in the spring of the present year the pea louse (Nectarophora
tor) appeared in the clover fields throughout localities where
had been injuries to the peas last year and later spread to the
of growing peas. In Ohio those engaged in pea culture on a
cale only plant the earlier varieties, which are picked before
th isect migrates from the clover.
earlequin *abbage bug (Murgantia histrionica), which was exter-
ad by the severe winter a few years ago, except in the extreme
rn part of the State, has begun its northward spread again, and
en reported as destructive at points along the Ohio River.
spring a number of the egg masses of Mantis religiosa were
i from Professor Slingerland and placed in several portions of
Sate, inluding Wooster. We have watched these continually
lacing them outside, and in no instance have we been able to
t hathing of the eggs. Unfortunately some of the iasses were
red, apparently by mice, as they were protected by wire netting
repellant against the infestation of dwellings by ants, we have
aphthaline crystals with success.
sa indication of the somewhat gregarious nature of Limenitis
pus, 27 larva were found on a group of less than half a dozen
ardy poplars only a few inches in height. These were observed
i tber near Cleveland.
ysomphalus dicyospermi was found in considerable abundance
station greenhouses on Chamerops humilis. The close super-
esemblance of this species to Aspidiotus perniciosus renders it
ch has been said and written relative to the danger of spreading
San Jose scale (Aspidio s perniciosus) by the shipment and sale
ested fruit. While daner is admitted by entomologists, in no
ce has an introduction been traced to this source. The follow-
xperiments, by no means onclusive, will indicate that introduc-
y this means is beset with difficulties when we try to do it:
n the trees.
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on 26th of same month these were renewed. July 9, 1901, no scal
could be found on the tree.
October 15, 1900, six badly infested plums were placed 4 inche
scale was to be found on either tree, previous inspections by othe
having given the same results.
October 15, 1900, six infested plums were placed against the base o
a young apple tree; an infested apple was placed against the base
another tree, also young; an infested pear was plced against the ba
of a young peach tree, and eleven days later another infested pea
was placed against the base of this last tree. Up to July 9,1 n
of these rees carried a single San Jose scale, so far as could be
from repeated observations by different entomologists.
As indicating the activity of San Jose sale on fruit, dun
period between October 15 and November 2,1900, the following o
rations are of interest: October 9, 1900, a couple of windf
very badly infested by San Jose scale, were placed under observatio
October 13 young scale were alive and very active on both apples; o
18th one apple was nearly decayed and many of the female
deadi, five, however, remained alive and ontained living young;
live females and active youg found on both apples; 22d, one
decayed, the females dead, and apple discarded, the remaining
carried living females, but no young were observed. November
1900, the remaining apple carried living females, but by 16th
apple also was decayed and the scale all dead.
In this connection it must be remembered that it was only aft
repeated attempts to introduce theSan Jose scale in the insectary
fastening sections of badly infested limbs to young trees growin
therein, that we were able to succeed. While the foregoing does no
and could not prove that infestation may not originate from ies
fruit, it does show the great difficulty in causing it to do so
In all of our microscopical examiations of scale insets Ap
fusdpennis has been found but twice, in both cases in San Jose
Pentilia misella is, however, on the increase.
The plum tree mite (Phyoptus phlocopes) seems to occur gene
ally wherever the Damson plum is grown, as it has been observed
sent from all quarters of the State. Serious dam was
reported from Wellsville.
Trirhabda tomentosa was observed in the act of defol
prickly ash (Xanthoxylum americanum) in August, in some cases th
trees dying from the effects of these beetles.
Ischyrus nigrans has been reared from a species of Agaricu
Anthaxia viidifrons, Eupristocerus ooitans, Sinoxlon basilar
ra catullus has been reared from strawberry leaves in August.
iigulalis, Blasobasis glandulella, and the parasitic species
is proatceratis were all reared from seed cluster of sumae.
funeralis with its parasite (Habrobracon gelechi), Pyralis
astobasis glandulella, and Galasa rubidana have all been
massesofgrapeleaves collected in vineyards.
.freana and Eudemis botrana with the parasite Bracon
re allreared from seeds of the garden sunflower.
deru velutiana, Oxyptilus tenuidactylus, Exartema permun-
da species of Glypta have all been reared from larvae feeding
lis bu ana, togetIher with the parasite Bracon mellinor,
olitha prunivora -was reared from berries of a species of
ria malifoliella and Ornx geminatella, with the parasite
mber of spraying experiments were carried out with the follow-
s: Swift's arsenate of lead, 3 pounds to 50 gallons water,
gh there was a heavy rainfall the ight following the appli-
1 aw small and medium-sized larvoe were killed, and about half
searly or quite full grown. Later, the same experinment was
Sagain the application was followed by a heavy rain, despite
n, on willow, 3 pounds to 50 gallons water killed small and
-sized larve, but did not seem to affect the older and larger
ruined the potato vines.
Arsenate of lead has given the best results, with no injury to the
foliage, while Pari green and green arsenoid give each about the
same results, both being inferior to the arsenate of lead.
Experiments with whale-oil soap, Owens Standard
to 2 gallons of water, had no effect on either larve or adult Doryphor.
The same brand of soap was applied against Diabroticavi
strength of 1 pound of soap to 1, 2, 4, and 8 gallons of water. A
ture of 1 pound to 2 gallons of water, or weaker, did not pro
cessful as a repellant, while 1 pound to each gallon of water kept the
beetles away, ut seriously injured the cueumber plants to whiclh
mixture was applied. One pound of his soap to 8 gallons of
was ineffective against Aphis on cherry, but the same strength m
pletely repelled the three-lined plant-bug from chrysanthemums
that the plants were not again attacked by this insect.
Tobacco dust was ineffective against Doryphora 0-lineata, P
treta vittata, and Diabrotica vittata.
FRUIT SERIOUSLY INJURED BY MOTHS.
By C. W. MALLY, Cape Town, South Africa.
During May, 1900, numerous letters were received coplaini
serious injury to fruit by moths, specimens of which were submtt
to Mr. L. Peringuey, assistant curator South African Museum,
determined them as Ophiuza lienardi.
With the exception of one specimen, this is the only species r
resented in the material received from the fruit growers. A sum
of the correspondence has been given in the Agricultural Jorna
July 5, 1900.
The moths were apparently most injurious in the East London
trict, serious complaints coming from East London, Komgha, F
Jackson, Kentbury, and as far inland as Grahamstown.
It frequently occurs that a number of moths cluster on a si
fruit, and some of the reports indicate that there was scarcely a
that was not covered with moths. One correspondent re
moths as swarming on a load of pineapples that were being ta
market. Sone idea of the seriousness of the injury may be g
from the statement of Mr. Walter A. Edmonds, Komgha, that" 20
extra fine oranges, on all of which, except those picked half
directly the moths appeared, have been spoiled." Thus far in
the following fruits has been reported: Apples, pears, plums, gr
peaches, figs, oranges, guavas, bnanas, pineapples, loq
medlars; also "native fruits, berries, and flowers."
The fruit growers agree as to the importance of the pest; b
observations on the habits of the adult are consider y at vri
y they are nocturnal, readily attracted to lights, and easily
Sby means of poisoned sweets. Others report observations
trary. The essential point seemed to be whether the moths
d the fruit themselves or simply took advantage of some
during oviposition. There was no opportunity to make defi-
rvations till the latter part of April, 1901. While en route to
farm, near Trapps Valey, Bathurst Division, it was conven-
stop with Mr. G. W. mith for the night. On being asked
he had noticed any unusual insect injury the present season,
Sthat the fruit moth, though not unusual, was doing very
age to apple. We took a lantern and proceeded to the
at once. There were about 50 trees, located along a small
bearing a light crop of fruit. Numerous specimens of Ser-
ra Cram. (kindly determined byMr. C. G. Barrett, London)
nd, often from one to five on an apple, and scarcely a fruit
Sfound that did not show several punctures. The moths
o signs of being disturbed by the presence of the lantern,
Sattracted to it. I selected one specimen for study and placed
rn so that every moveent could be observed. The probosis
Sinserted through a very small round opening, the moth very
dly withdrawing it till the tip was near the surface and then
g the head back and forth rapidly laterally forced it down full
to the pulp of the fruit. This was kept up for some time. As
showednosignsofleaving or changing its position, I pro-
Sobserve numerous others and always with the same result,
e feeding quietly and continually withdrawing and inserting
boscs. Several times a moth was seen to alight on an apple,
Stime it began feeding through one of the several punctures
whic it seemed to detect instantly. A few were seen
gthrough aslight mutilation or crack in the fruit. A careful
tion of the proboscis and the punctures indicated that the
ere quite capable of taking care of themselves. No other
ere observed on the fruit. The following day not a moth
beseen. I examined the grass and bush along the stream with-
ts. Soon after sundown they again put in their appearance
an feeding the same as before, gradually becoming more
s. I kept as many under observation as possible, but they
no intention of making fresh punctures. One specime was
elected and kept under continual observation. After it had
ding for about thirty minutes it became restless and then, as
diving the cause of my devotion , deliberately moved about an
e same lateral motion of the head as before. With my hand lens I
tips alternately striking the surface of the fruit and gradually effect-
ing an entrance. No sooner was the opening nicely started than the
moth quickly returned to the former puncture, as if to say, "More
juice and less work."
This observation confirms the pubi d tat t b . a tt
who cr rds the observations of his sisr reii i h ly
(Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, June, 1900, pp. 140-144; July,
1900, p. 163; September, 1900, pp. 207, 208; also Entomologists' Record
and Journal of Variation, July 1, p. 193, and October 15, p. 267, 1900;
Nature, May 31, 1900, report of meeting of Entomological Society.)
The same moth was kept under close observation from 9 to 11. 30 p. m.,
during which time it did not leave the puncture, but fed continually.
The moths do not make a single straight channel, but force t
proboscis down at different angles, thus producing a conical inju
one-half inch or more in altitude, penetrated by numerous very fine
channels. The tip of the proboscis is black, very hard, finely pointe
and provided with spines, which seem to serve the purpose of ras
the pulp of the fruit, thus enabling it to be drawn up with the ex
ing juice. The fruit in te vicinity of the punture is very plia
On removing the surface layer the injured portion is seen to be quite
Apples do not decay speedily, but remain for some time, the s
decay perhaps rendering them the more readily detected by the moths.
While feeding the wings were usually in a horizontal position
motionless. At other times there was a slight but distinct ra
vibration. In some cases the wings were slightly elevated, o
ally vibrating as stated above.
On one occasion an egg seemed to drop from the ovipositor. I t
precautions to secure any additional ones, but obtained nothing
small drops of liquid; found no trace of the eggs. I dissected a
number of females, and in one found three light green eggs, ribbed
very much like those of eliotis armiger Hbn., but flatter a
I revisited the orchard about half an hour before daybreak a
found the moths still abundant and feeding as contentedly as before.
Just at dawn they gradually disappeared. I singled out four to deter-
mine their hiding place. Touching two of tm with m
they flitted away, it being still too dark to follow them. The th
soon darted away toward the ground and was out of sight.
fourth remained some moments longer, but, unfortunately, I l
away for an instant to rest my eyes.
During the following evening I secured about 30 for specimens.
Occasionally one would flit away, and I could distinctly hear it
the ground. On lowering the lantern it was not always easy to locate
them, their colors being somewhat protective. They made no effort to
escape till aain disturbed, sometimes permittin themselves to be
pinto the cyanide bottle in an apparently lifeless condition,
ng to escape after the yanide had begun to affect them.
eies (errodes inara Gram.) was only found on apples and
Oranges, although ripening nicely in the same orchard, were
uched. A few specimens of three other species, one of which
oranges, were also observed on apples.
ermine whether or not the moths could be readily attracted
ted sweets some tins of jam-strawberry, apricot, and plum-
oured and placed in some of the trees. In others the same
a were spread on sheets of paper and fastened to the branches
fruit. With one exception not a moth paid any attention to
Irhes. One opecien was seen on the edge .of the tin of plum
disappeared before I could determine whether or not it was
Swe succeed in destroying the insect in some other stage of
ent the only way to secre the fruit is to apply netting while
NOTES ON FOUR IMPORTED PESTS.
By A. H. KLND, Boston, Mass.
the present smer Massachusetts has borne the unenviable
Sattachig to the nly State harboring the gypsy moth
ia dispar Lin). She now enjoys whatever benefit company
isery, for during-the present month a colony of the insect
Sfound at Providence, R. I. The infestation in this city is
overatleast 2 square miles in the residential district. The
simens were discovered August 1 by an amateur naturalist,
cott Newhall, who carried them to Mr. James M. Southwick,
entomologist tothe Rhode Island board of agriculture. Mr.
ck rightly conjectured that they were gypsy moths, but to
Smatter beyond doubt, took specimens to the office of the
usetts board of agriculture, where the writer was able to
Agust 2 the writer made an examination of the colony and
in the incipient stage, no trees being defoliated. The street
e quite generally infested, and it seems probable that the
ars have spread from the original centers of infestation by
Son teams and that in this way a large part of the city may
lm the nearest infested point in Massachusetts. The colony
1 < ..... ''ni i ,ii: iE'"1 1 tl ylllf j y ^ ^ l d : iT i K & "
these clustestr apparently being over 3 or 4 years old, thus showing
that there are many centers of infestation..
It was most unfortunate thates inork against the moth in Massa-
chusetts incurred the enmity of a large numb
employees. It was well known to them that the finding of the moth
outside of assachusetts probably would ae the
the work of extermination. When the mattr of c ii t
was being discussed in the legi, latur the i persistt r r
successful, all the available clues being tfollowed up withut
results. While the occurrence of the moth in Providence may be due
to some well-known means of distribution, in the absence of facts
showing this to be the case it is hard to avoid the belief that the moth
may have been deliberately carried to that city.
The Providence city authorities have acted with commendable
promptness in the matter, and under the direction of Mr. Souti
competent men are at work destroying the egg clusters with creosote
oil. It is earnestly hoped that the fight against the insect will be con-
tinued in order that its future-spread may be prevented.
In Massachusetts the gypsy moth has spread unchecked since the
cessation of the State work against it, February 1, 1900. To those
who had tried to make this work a success it was gratifying to
that in 1900 practically no damage by the moth occurred through
the whole infested district. The former infestations had be
severely dealt with that comparatively few scattered insects rem d.
In some of the larger infestations, particularly in the central town
there were enough moths to serve as nuclei for colonies, and t
present year in restricted localities numbers of trees have bee defoli-
ated. The season has been favorable to the increase of the moth, a
at the present date (August 15) formidable numbers of the egg
ters may be seen in all of the central towns of the infested distri
It seems probable that in a few years the insect, if unmolested,
be sufficiently abundant to repeat the widespread damage cau
Already there are indications that public sentiment is becom
more favorably disposed toward the past work of the gypsy
committee. Without doubt in a few years the increase and a
of the moth will again make necessary some organized effort to re
While the cessation of the work against the gypsy moth s
unwise, and was a great disappointment to those familiar with it,
is fortunate that out of this work have come accurate and effe
methods of dealing with the pest when it again appears in force. T
value of these methods is well illustrated in the case of the Provi-
dence infestat. Within a day after the colony was discovered a
ed man, equipped with the proper apparatus and insecticides,
placed at work destroying the egg clusters, and in a few days
mplished more than an amateur could have done in as many
hile not as important in its injury to trees as the gypsy moth,
insects have created a greater local commotion than the brown-
owing in about the order named.
is generally known, the hairs of the brown-tail moth caterpillar
<"mt rB IB A "ow dii"
ng in contact with the human flesh produce a fierce and endur-
iritation. As the caterpillars atured and commenced to
te in search of shelter, large numbers of children and many
tswere severely"poisoned bythem. So numerouswere com-
Sfrom this source, and so prevalent was the belief that a new
emic disease had appeared, that the Boston board of health gave
blihearingon the subject. At this hearing it was explained
the so-called epidemic was due to the caterpillar hairs, and that
he destruction of the winter webs which shelter the hibernating
ets, future annoyance could be prevented. As has been deter-
ed by Mr. F. J. Smith, former chemist to the gypsy moth com-
tee) the irritation caused by the caterpillars is probably of a
mhanical nature and not due to any poisonous principle contained
te hairs. The hairs are barbed and very brittle, and when once
ed in the skin are easily broken, and require several weeks for
has not been possible to continue following accurately the spread
is insect, but it is now known to occur in Brockton and in Hud-
Mass., and probably it has established itself throughout the ter-
y lying between these localities and the known infested region,
king a total infested area of over 1,200 square miles. More or less
k has been done against this insect by local park and street boards,
where this has been carried on along approved lines the results
is noticeable that the moth is strongly attracted to lights, and
e the greatest infestation is usually where street lights are most
alker, is very effective in destroying the pupTs, but its services
aking Massachusetts as a whole, the most general damage by any
Bon where it threatens to cause serious damae. it is noticeable
to a less extent along the main lines of railway.
The severe injury by the beetle in the larger cities of the Connectt
cut Valley several years ago led to the introduction of municipal
spraying operations. The original methods of work have been im'
proved until they are now very effective. The chief reliance is placed
upon a thorough spraying with some form of arsenate of lead as soon
as the foliage develops. It has been found most practical in large
operations to use several powerful hand outfits, carrying two lines o
hose, rather than to mploy one or two steam outfits. The greate
number of outfits permits the thorough treatment of the trees in a
entire city as soon as the foliage has developed, and thus the beet
is not permitted to damage the trees in one part of a city whil
spraying is being carried on in another section. The work of the
Springfield city forester, William F. Gale, has been particularly we
carried out, and has served as a model for similar operations in othe
While the beetle, as a rule, has but a single brood throughout the
State, a well-defined second brood occurs on Cape Cod and a partia
second brood in the Connecticut Valley. In neither locality has this
latter brood caused damage worthy of note.
Willows and poplars throughomt the State are becoming more and
more subject to attack by the imported weevil (ryporhynch
lapathi Linn.). This insect seems also to have followed the wate
courses while spreading through the State, although the transporta
tion of nursery stock is responsible for a large part of its journeyings
Nearly all our nurseries are more or less infested with this weevil
whose life history the writer has worked out in detail. Late in the
summer, after feeding for some weeks on the petioles and young shoots
the beetles drill small holes into the bark beneath leaf scars r othe
irregularities and in them deposit the eggs singly. The holes are
then carefully filled with bark dust. The eggs hatch in a short tim
and the young grubs feed in the bark for a few weeks and then ente
hibernation. At this time the grubs may be detected easily, as their
presence is revealed by the black outlines of their burrows, which are
plainly visible on the bark. With the advent of spring the weevi
enters the sapwood and grows rapidly to maturity. When full grow
the grub returns down the burrow, enlarging it to a uniform diameter
then ascends to the upper end, prepares a tight chamber, and trans
forms. The beetles commence to emerge in June. There is
variation in the time of emergence, those insects breed in young
shoots emerging first, while those feeding in the older wood appar
ently require a longer time for their development. While the isect
as a rule hibernate as young larvIe, individuals in all stages of growt
are sometimes found in winter in the heartwood of old trees.
In Germany this weevil is known chiefly as a est of the basket willo