Experiments in growing Cuban seed tobacco in Alabama

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Title:
Experiments in growing Cuban seed tobacco in Alabama
Series Title:
United States. Dept. of agriculture. Bureau of soils. Bulletin 37
Physical Description:
32 p. : 3 pl. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
McNess, George Thomas
Ayer, Lewis W. ( joint author )
Publisher:
Gov't print. off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Tobacco -- Seeds -- Alabama   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Statement of Responsibility:
By George T. McNess and Lewis W. Ayer.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029606610
oclc - 05281960
lccn - agr07000012
Classification:
lcc - S591 .A12 no. 37
ddc - 633.71 M233el
System ID:
AA00025982:00001

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oper of the United States Government.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF SOILS-BULLETIN No. 37.
MILTON WHITNEY, Chief.







EXPERIMENTS IN GROWING CUBAN SEED

TOBACCO IN ALABAMA.




BY




GEORGE T. McNESS AND LEWIS W. AYER.















WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMEYNT PRINTING OF'FICE.
1906.
IVA S, I IIN,
.GOVERNME. PRNTli ,



























BUREAU OF SOILS.



MILTON WHITNEY, Chief of Bureau.
ALBERT G. RICE, Chief Clerk.

SCIENTIFIC STAFF.

FRANK K. CAMERON, in chiarge of Soil Laboratories.
FRANK ). GARDNER, in chlrge of Soil Management.
GEOWRE T. McNEsS, in clharge of Tobacco Investigations.
CLARENCE W. I)ORSEY, ill charge of Alkali Land Reclaiation.
JAY A. BONSTEEL, in charge of Soil Survey.
OSWALD SCHREINER. in charge of Fertility Investigations.

ASSISTANTS IN TOBACCO INVESTIGATIONS.

Walter M. Hinson. Henry Weinberg.
George B. Massey. Otto Olson.
J. B. Stewart. R.8. Epley.
Lewis W. Ayer. W. W. Green.
E. II. Mathewson. George W. Harris.
Harry Rich. Wim. B. Schrader.

2





















LETTER OF TRANSMITAL.


U. S. I)EPARTMENT OF AGRICULTIRE,
BUREAU OF SOILS,
Wlashington, D. C'.. October 9, 190G.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the acconmpanying lmanuscript
report on the work of introducing the production of Cuban seed
tobacco into central Alabama. The report shows the progress of the
work during the three years that experiments have been carried on
in this State. On the whole the results are very gratifying, and seem
to indicate the ultimate establishing of a profitable tobacco industry
in this part of the country. I would reconmmend the publication of
this report as Bulletin 37 of the Bureau of Soils.
Very respectfully,
MILTON WIITNEY,
Chief of BI(uire,.
Hon. JAAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.
3




















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8 EXPERIMENTS IN GROWING CUBAN SEED TOBACCO.

Normal monthly and annual temperature and precipitation in cental Ala

Selma. Marion. Unitow
Month. Temper- Preipi- Temper- Precipi- Temper Precipi-
ature. tation. ature. tation. ature tati

o F. Inches. 0 F. ce. Ince.
January ................................ 40.0 4.58 47.7 3.95 47.1 4.75
February ................................ 47.8 6.28 47.0 .86 48.2 6.44
March ............. ....... ................ .. 58.1 7.37 55.9 4.2 56.3 5.35
April.................................... 63.6 4.44 65.5 3.50 65.8 3.95
May................................... 72.3 2.65 72.6 3.03 73.5 4.00
June..................... ............... 78.9 4.23 79.3 .73 80.1 445
July .......... ..... .................. 81.4 4.67 80.7 4.89 81.7 5.47
August.................................. 80.6 5.65 80.6 4.88 80.8 4.75
September ............................... 76.0 2.04 75.4 3.08 76.6 2.50
October...... ..... .......... ........ 66.4 2.15 65.5 2.63 67.0 2.01
November ......................... 54.8 3.22 5 5.0 3.04 6.0 3.10
December................................ 47.3 4.44 48.2 4.24 50.3 3.88
Year ............................... 63.9 51.72 64.4 47.45 65.3 50.


The data given in the foregoing table are fairly representative
of the conditions as regards the temperature and rainfall of the re-
gion within which the experiments were carried on. A table giving
the actual rainfall for 1904 and 1905 on the experimental field will
be given later. But before leaving the question of general climatic
features it will be interesting to compare the figures given above for
the months of the growing season with similar datafor Habana,
Cuba, to see if there are any broad differences that might indicate
the impracticability of approximating a Cuban type of leaf.

Comparative table of temperature and precipitation for six months of growing
season in Alabama and Cuba.

Alabama. Habana, Cuba.
Selma. Marion.
MonthC Month Tempera- Precipi-
Tempera- Pr cipi- Tempera- Precipi- ture. tation.
ture. tation. ture. tation.

SF. Inches. o F. Inches. F. nce.
April ............... 63.6 4.41 6. 5 3.50 October........... 78.1 8.49
May................ 72.3 2.65 72.6 3.03 November ........ 75.3 4.24
June............... 78.9 4.23 79.3 3.73 December......... 71.4 1.93
July ................ 81.4 4.67 80.7 4.89 January .......... 70.3 2.32
August ............. 80.6 5.65 80.6 4.88 February ......... 72.0 2.62
September.......... 76.0 2.0 75.4 3.08 March ............ 73.2 2.0
Six months... 75.5 23.68 75.7 23. 11 Six monts 73.4 22.00


Regarding the averages for the six months, there is seen to be a
close correspondence between the figures for Selma and Marion
and those for Iiabana. Examined month by nmonth the are differ-
ences which may have considerable etfect in differentiating the char-
cter (of the leaf. At Habana the temperature is equable, the ex-
tremes being only 8 F. apart, while at Selma there is a rane of 18
F. and at Marion 15 F. At Habana the rainfall is very much
hleavier during tihe first two months of the period d very ch less
for the remnainder of the growing sason.






SOILS. 9

As no records of relative humidity have been kept at Selma and
Marion, the following table is given to afford a comparison of the
mean monthly relative humidity for the growing season as recorded
Sat M ntgomery, Ala., which is probably representative of the area
under consideration, and at Habana.

Mean monthly relative humidity at Montgomery, Ala., and Habana, Cuba.

Montgomery. Habana.
Month. 8a.m. 8p.m. Month. Mean.

l ..................................... 86 61 October .............. ............ 78
S..................................... 88 69 November.......... ......... 77
June....................................... 81 64 December ........................ 7
July .................................... 87 66 January ........................ 76
Augut ................................ 90 74 February....................... 73
September............................... 87 64 March............ ......... ..... 71


Turning now to local conditions during the period the experiments
were conducted, it will be noticed that during the early part of the
season the climatic conditions were unfavorable, dry weather and
hot winds seriously retarding the- growth of the plants, altho later
the climatic conditions were favorable to the maturing of the tobacco.
The following table shows the precipitation during the growing
seasons of 1904 and 1905 upon the experimental field at Marion:

Precipitation during growing season at Marion, Ala.

DPrecipi- ate Precip- te. Precipi- DaP. Irecipi-
tation. Dte tation tation. tation.

1904. I9whes. 190nc Inches. 1905 Inhs. 105 Inhes.
...... 0.25 July 27...... 0.15 Ma 8..... 0.62 July 25...... 0.10
May 7...... .32 28...... 64 14 ...... 19 2 ...... 1.10
13..... .22 29...... 1.55 15...... 1.8 29 ..... .10
6 ......53 Aug. 1...... 61 16 ...... 27 30.......
27...... .75 3 ..... 20 21...... 71 Aug. 1......
30...,.. .65 6...... .20 22...... .31 2 .......50
J n 6...... .50 7...... 1.05 2 ...... .12 7...... .5
8 ...... .31 9 ..... 85 30 ...... 11 9 .......
22...... .71 10..... 1.03 June 13..... 15 10 ......10
July 3...... 1.1 11...... 20 17...... .29 11 ...... 60
56.... .91 18..... 69 12...... .40
6 ..... .10 1905. 21...... 09 13,..... .10
7 ...... .0 Apr. 3...... .21 ..... 10 14......
9...... .31 4...... 13 26...... 1.05 15...... .40
11.......11 ...... .11 29...... .90 16...... .4
17...... 1.1 1 ...... .U6 July 4...... 30 s1 ...... .40
19...... .05 25...... 1.05 9...... 4 IS...... 40
21...... .82 26...... .23 17...... .15 22...... 43
22...... .75 29...... .05 21...... .14
2 ...... 2.21 0...... .07 2 ...... 1.28
6...... .22 May 7...... .07 24.....30


SOILS.

Of the various ty s of soils to be found in the Southern States
th e of the Orangbu eries are bst adapted for the production of
both cir wrapper ;and filler tobacoe. The two sils of this series
used in the expriments in central Albama are the Orangeburg fine
sandy lo( m and the Oan burg clay.
11N---No. 37-O 1 2






10 EXPERIMENTS IN GROWING CUBAN SEED TOBACCO.

ORANGEBURG FINE SANDY LOAM.

The surface soil of the Orangeburg fine sandy loam consists of a
gray to reddish fine sandy loam, with a depth of 15 inches, overlying
a red sandy clay. This soil frequently contains small iron concre-
tions and at times bands of fine gravel. It is one of the widely dis-
tributed soils of this part of the State. It varies in topography
from rolling to quite hilly, and the drainage is good. In places the
type shows decided erosion, and where the washing is developed
with some uniformity over sufficient territory the soil grades into
the Orangeburg clay. The Orangeburg fine sandy loam is derived
from the sands and clays of the Lafayette mantle and is one of the
characteristic soil products of this geological horizon. The Lafay-
ette formation has been subjected to great erosion since its elevation
above water, resulting in the very uneven surface features now found.
Sandy ridges vary with gravel-capped hills, while in many directions
the small streams have developed their miniature valley systems
often to a surprizing degree. Much of this soil is still in forest,
composed of a fair, mixt growth of pine, hickory, black oak, and
red oak, in which lumbering is occasionally conducted. The gravel-
capped hills and ridges must be separated as the gravelly phase of
this type.
The following table gives the average results of mechanical analyses
of samples of the Orangeburg fine sandy loam:

Mechanical aialyses of Orangebury filu smildy loam.

Fine Coarse Medium Fine Very fine S. la
Number. Description. gravel. sand san d. sand. sand. lt.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cnt. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
12700,12702.. Soil ............. 1. 12.2 122.1 36.7 16.1 14.5 6.3
12701,12703.. Subsoil........... .3 5.8 7.6 25.2 12.5 18.4 9. 3

)ORANGEIEURG C'LAY.

lThe Orangeburg clay consists of a dark-red, heavy, sandy loam,
of a depth not exceeding 4 inches, overlying a red, sandy cla suboil.
In cultivated areas the transition between the soil and subsoil is more
gradual owing to the effects of plowing and high bedding.' The soil
occurs in the more elevated parts of the uplands in both Perry and
Dallas counties. Its topography is at times very hilly, but there are
frequently to be found high but fairly level areas which make very
good farning lands. The occurrence of such level tracts in the most
elevated parts of the uplands indiates that the present crests of the
hills and ridges were once the plane of an extensive and uniformly
level peneplain, and these hilltops and ridges are the results of exces-
sive erosion utpon such a penep)ill and by no means due to any






EXPERIMENT OF 1903. 11

process of violent uplift. The soil is well drained, and in the hillier
areas must be protected from washing.
The Orangeburg clay owes its origin to marked erosion of the La-
yette sands and clays in the uplands and is developed where the
sandy surface soil is measurably removed from such soils, as the
Orangeburg fine sand and the Orangeburg fine sandy loam.
The tracts of Orangeburg clay are very generally cleared in this
region, the native growth being mostly hardwood. It is said, how-
ever, that while crops produce more on this soil in good seasons than
on the sandier types, they are likely to suffer from drought even more
than on the sandy types. The soil has naturally a higher moisture
capacity than the sandier soils, and its liability to drought must be
traced to the fact that it is plowed too shallow. This shallow plow-
ing is not so prejudicial on the sandy soils, because there is always a
considerable sandy root zone before the clay is reached. But on this
clay soil, unless plowed deep, the crops are unable to develop a suffi-
iently deep root system in the unbroken clay, and the surface roots
suffer as soon as the shallow-tilled surface dries out.
The average results of mechanical analyses of samples of the
Orangeburg clay are given in the following table:

Mechanical analyses of Orangeburg clay.

Nmber. Description. Fine Coars Medium Fine Very ftine Silt
gravel. sand. sand, d. n nd.lt Cl .
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cet. Per cnt. Per cent. I r j' nt.
,1270 Soil ............. 0.0 1.4 6.3 3.7 4.3 19.1 29.7
12707,127 .. u il.......... Tr. 1.1 5.2 29.5 3.7 16. 43.7

EXPERIMENT OF 1903.
The experiments in Alabama were begui in the spring of 1903.
Arrangements were made with Mr.. C. H. Greer. of Marion, for the
use of 3 acres of la:nd-1 acre of the Orangeburgh fine sandy loam and 2
ares of the Orangeburg clay-barns, etc., under the following agre-
ment:
1. All the necessary land and shed roml for 3 acres shall Ie donatted free of
charge by thi owner.
2. The Depvlrtment of Agriculture shall provide and pay for such fertilizer
or manure in quantity and kind as may he nleed : shall preltir the ln1d,
plant the crop, and cultivate aid harvest the same.
3.The Dprtment of Agriculture shall furnish teams and ttols at such
timels as lmay be nle'ss ary for the cultivation tand care of the crops.
4. The partment of Agriculture shall have entire control of the production
and htandling of the toba(co iln uch warehouss :111 slhpl s ittcs 1lmal ry sM'le
desirable, ad shall in no way he amlpered or interferle with by the wishes
or views of the owner.
5. In eas the experiment is a sucess and a doirable type of ('unan filler
eaf is produced, In oder to gt a fr and rllable opinion of the Cmniercial






12 EXPERIMENTS IN GROWING CUBAN SEED TOBA O.

value of such leaf and for the purpose of establihing a market r, the
Department reserves the right to retain for free distribution to dlers and
manufacturers any amount up to 50 per cent of the crop witho compen-
lion to the owner. It is further agreed that a person selected by the Chief of
the Bureau of Soils will be designated as the owner's agent to sell on the most
favorable terms possible the remainder of the tobacco and del the gross pro-
ceeds to the owner of the land, it being clearly recognized that the cr belon
to the owner and not to the Department, the Department merely acting as an
agent in a cooperative experiment to demonstrate to the people of Ala ma
that a high quality of Cuban seed filler leaf can be produed on a certain soil
found in the course of the soil survey and to secure reliable and accurate in-
formation as to the value placed on this product by leaf dealers and cigr manu-
facturers.
The field on which this experiment was conducted was situated on
the outskirts of Marion and contained two types of soil-the Orane-
burg clay and the Orangeburg fine sandy loam. The surface of the
land was rolling; in fact, a hillside. In the upper part the soil was
loamy, while on the steeper slopes it contained more clay, owing to
the partial washing away of the top soil, altho the land had been
terraced to prevent this washing. Altho a small plant be was made,
owing to the lateness of the season it was found impossible t pro-
duce enough plants at Marion for this experiment, so that most of
the plants used were shipped by express from the Bureau's experi-
ment station at Nacogdoches, Tex. These were transplanted to the
field as they arrived.
SAbout March 27 the soil was prepared by breaking it broadcast to
a depth of 6 inches. A deeper plowing would have been better, but
owing to the compactness of the soil it was almost impossible to pre-
pare the land deeper. After plowing a wooden drag or clod breaker
was used, as on the part of the field containing the most clay the plow
left many clods, and in order that the field should be in the best me-
chanical condition it was necessary that these should be broken up.
Well-rotted stable manure was procured from the local livery stable
and this was applied broadcast on the land at the rate of 10 two-horse
oads to the acre. Stable lmanure Was used in preference to commer-
cial fertilizer because of the lack of humus in the soil. Tis was
plowed under and the land allowed to lie in this condition until the
middle of April, when th soil was bedde up in rows 3 feet apart.
During the time the land was being prepared the weather was very
dry and some difficulty was experienced in getting the soil i good
,ondition.
On April 18 there was a good rain, and transplanting was com-
menced on the Orangeburg fine sandy loam, but about April 25 the
wNeatller again becalme cool and (dy, which conditions were ad for
the young plants set in the field. The cutworms also caused some
t rouble, necessitating considerable resetting. Transplanting and re-
setting were continued until May 9, on which date the entire acres






EXPERIMENT OF 1904. 13

had been set and a good stand obtained. The tobacco on the upper
part of the field, or the Orangeburg fine sandy loam, made a good
gro th, but that planted on the Orangeburg clay started growing
ver slowly. On May 16 there were experienced some very heavy
ran, and on the clay land about 3,000 plants were lost by drowning.
The were reset as soon as the climatic conditions became favorable.
From this time until June 13 the weather conditions were favorable,
with the exception of a slight hail storm on May 30, which, however,
did very little actual injury to the crop. The tobacco on the loamy
soil continued to make good growth, and on June 6 it had reached
the height of 4 feet (see P1. I), while that planted on the clay soil
seemed to be stunted and some of the plants had budded. About
June 20 there occurred a period of drought, and some parts of the
crop began to fire at the bottom of the stalk; but on June 27 there
was another rain and the tobacco seemed to take on a fresh growth,
the condition of the crop over the entire field being promising, and
pecially so on the Orangeburg fine sandy loam, where about 1 acre
of the tobacco was 5 feet high.
Harvesting was commenced "the latter part of June, when the
tobacco that was first planted was cut and hung in the barn to cure.
About July 16 it began to rain, and continued showery for ten days,
which necessitated the placing of fires in the barn to prevent the
tobacco becoming damaged from pole sweat and mold. By July 19
all of the crop was hung in the barn. From this time on the climatic
conditions were favorable, there being alternate d:amp and dry
periods, which greatly facilitated the curing of the leaf. (n July 27
the tobacco that was first hung in the barn was taken from the poles
and stript, and this work continued until August 1, by which time all
the crop had been stript and packed in boxes ready for shipment to
Nacogdoches, Tex., where it went thru the process of fermentation in
the Bureau's warehouse. The 3 acres yielded 1,305 pounds of curel
tobacco, or an average of 435 pounds of merchantable tobacco to the
acre.
EXPEtRIMENT OF 194.

Owing to the abnormal season of 1903, when drought toward the
time of harvest prevented the tobacco from ripening )Prperly, and
because of the marked effects of climate on the quality of tobacco, it
was not consid(ered fair to draw filnal conclusions ( grding ithe adpt-
ability of Perry County soil and climate to the I)roduction of a Cubal
eed filletr from that season 's experiment. Therefore arranlgeents
we madI e witn r. Jhn Sprott for leasingr 1g acres of Oran, burg
fine sandy loam and 1 acre"s of Orangeburg clay, together with facili-
ties for curing th t obacco. Teams and tools were also furnished the
Bureau by Mr. Sprott at rea onable prices. The two fields on which






14 EXPERIMENTS IN GROWING CUBAN SEED TOBACCO.

this experiment was conducted lie some miles ast of Marion, across
the Cahaba River. The Orangeburg fine sandy loam field is situated
in what is known as the second bottoms and the previous year had
been planted in corn followed by cowpeas. The Orangeburg clay
field was situated on the top of a hill, of which there are many in
this locality, and had for several years prior to 1904 been farmed by
tenants, who used it for cotton. Consequently the field was pretty
well depleted of vegetable matter and not in such good mechanical
condition as the Orangeburg fine sandy loam field. These distinct
types of the Orangeburg series were selected to make possible a
further comparison of their relative merits in the culture of tobacco.
The results of the previous year's experiment were clearly in favor of
the loamy soil, which stood the extremes of the weather better than
the clay soil, besides responding more readily to fertilization; but the
test in that year, owing to shallow plowing of the clay soil and the
unfavorable season, was not considered definitive.

PREPARATION OF SEED BED.

The preparation of the seed bed was begun on February 2 by cut-
ting the wood necessary for burning the bed, but on account of the
unfavorable weather conditions the actual burning of the bed was not
commenced until February 11. This was performed by placing poles
across the bed. Upon these poles was placed the cord wood and brush
which formed the fire. This was allowed to burn until the soil had
become heated several inches deep, when it was drawn over another
section of the bed, fresh brush and wood being continually placed
upon the fire, so as to form a good bed of ashes upon the burned land.
This op)eration of dragging the fire was repeated until the entire sur-
face of the bed had been treated. The bed was then allowed to cool
off, and before the ashes from the fire could be blown awa y the
win)d or wxasht off by the rain the bed was (lug upl and all the large
roots removed. After this mwork had been per-forrned a fine-toothed
rake was used to remove all the fine roots and trash, thus leaving the
bed in a fine pulverulent condition. Cotton-seed meal was then ap
plied broadcast at the rate of 100 pounds for the 242 square yards of
the bed. This was worked into the surface of the soil and the bed
was raked and leveled off again, thus leavig it i the best possible
conditionl for receiving the seed.
Pol es were tlln plalced arounl the bedl and made secuvre by stakes,
iarlt1 btinlg drlawln u) to the poles on the outside so as to prevelnt
waslling of the bie in the caIse of heavy rains. For the convIlenien
of the lalorers when watering or weeding had to be done, the bed
was divided into three ections.






PREPARATION OF LAND. 15

The seed was wn on February 18 at the rate of a tablespoonful
to every 10 square yards of bed. Seed imported from the Vuelta
Abaj district of Cuba was used, and after being sown was lightly
covered and watered. The entire bed was then covered with cheese
cloth as a protection against insects and heavy rains. During dry
weather the bd was watered every morning and when necessary
weeded and poisoned, and by April 21 the plants were large enough
to transplant.
PREPARATION OF LAND.

In preparing the soil (Orangeburg clay) on the Sprott hill a
" scooter" plow was used to loosen the soil on each side of the old cot-
ton stalks, this field having the previous year been planted to cotton.
The stalks were then pulled up and placed in piles and burned.
Owing to the lack of organic matter and the compactness of the soil,
it was deemed advisable to plow the land with a long scooter plow,
as a hardpan or plow sole had been formed about 4 inches under the
soil thru continued shallow plowing. The land was plowed in both
directions and to a depth of 8 inches. Still deeper plowing would
have been better, but owing to the condition of the soil it was impos-
sible with the tools available. A furrow was then laid off every 3
feet, and in this furrow were placed 50)0 pounds of cotton-seed meal
and 500 pounds of cotton-seed hulls per acre. This was thoroly
incorporated with the soil, after which two shallow furrows were
turned on it, thus formipg a ridge or small flat bed upon which the
plants were to be set.
The Orangeburg fine sandy loam field was found to be in a 1much
better mechanical conditiont tha the clay field. The former had
be11n i corn and cowpeas the l)revious year, and in the fall the corn-
Stalks and cowpea stubble had been plowed under with a 2-horse
turn plow. thuis addilng considerable humus as well as :about 40
pounds of nitrogen to the acre. furnished by the cowpea stubble.
Most of this vegetable matter had dcayed during the winter. A few
of the cornstalks remained, and as these would be a considerable
hlndralce in t he cultivation of tobacco they were gathered alnd
burned. The soil in this field being a sandy loam, underlain by a
clay at a depth of aLbut 14 inches, it was much easier to prepare
than the other. he field was bedded, four furrows to a row, with a
1-1ho0s plow. Into thet flrrow thlls formill ws ed wsthe salme
amount of fertilizer as was used on the Sprott hill field. This was
thoroly mixt with the sil with a round-shovel plow and two turn
furr os placed upon it, thus forming a sliht ridge. In this condi-
tion both fields were left until the plants were large enough to trans-
plant.






16 EXPERIMENTS IN GROWING CUBAN SEED TOBACO.
TRANSPLANTING.
Several days before transplanting the young plants from the bed
into the field, the cloth was taken off the bed for the pof
ening the plants so they would be better able to wit d the
of the sun after being set out. Transplanting was ben in t
Orangeburg fine sandy loam field on April 21 and in the
burg clay field on May 9, the entire crop of 3 acres being set out
May 13. Owing to the dryness of the weather at this iod,
care had to be exercised both in pulling the plants from the bed and
in transplanting them in the field. The bed was first saturat w
water, so that the plants could be pulled with as little damage to th
roots as possible. They were then placed in smallboxes and con-
veyed to the field, where the following method was used in pnting:
Holes were dug in the bed every 10 inches, and into h of th
about one-half pint of water was poured. The plant was set i
moist soil, dry soil was drawn about it, and the whole prest firmly
about the roots. This method of planting, altho rather tedi
gave very satisfactory results, as the dry soil preventeany aki
of the surface around the plant and also retarded the evaporati
of moisture.
In most of the older producing States tobacco is set by a machi
Three m~i are required to operate it, one to drive and two to
the plants. It not only opens the furrow, but waters and covers the
plants at the same time. From 3 to 5 acres can be transplanted
a day with one of these tobacco setters, and as a rule better
can be obtained than where hand setting is practised. Tobacco
by a machine has been known to grow and produce a fine crop, wh
the climatic conditions would have been fatal to handset toba
As the industry extends in Alabama and larger a pl
by the individual farmer, there is no doubt that achine setting
supplant the present method of setting tobacco.
CULTIVATION AND PROTECTION AGAINST INSECTS,
About ten days after the plants were set in the field they wer
their first cultivation. Hand hoes were used, breaking the cr
which had formed upon the bed and placing fresh oist soil aro
each plant. Three hand hoeings were given the crops in both
after which wing sweeps were used entirely. While the plants were
small a 12-inch wing sweep was used for the siding furrows
18-inch wing sweep to plow out the middles, but after the
were lagr an 18-inch wing sweep was used for both siding and
die breaking. Both fields were kept clean of gras and
the last cultivation was given each field just after the p
topt, leaving the tobacco on a rounded bed, with a furrow between
the rows deep enough to carry off the water after heavy rains. Shal









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cUA SEE TOBCC ON ORANEBUR FIN SAD LOM MAIN AL









Bul. 37, Bureau of Soils, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE II.
































FIG. 1.-CARROTS OF ALABAMA CUBAN FILLER.































FIG. 2. BALES OF ALABAMA CUBAN FILLER.






TOPPING, SUCKERING, AND HARVESTING. 17

lwand thoro cultivation was practised at all times, care being taken
to disturb the roots of the plants. In cultivating tobacco it is
sry that the crop should be plowed with a shallow cultivating
impment, such as a wing sweep or cultivator.
Slight mulch should always be kept upon the surface of the soil
!o prvent the rapid evaporation of moisture that occurs if the soil
is left for any length of time without being stirred. It is a frequent
mistake among tobacco farmers, even in some of the older tobacco-
ucing States, to give their tobacco crop a certain nuber of
wrkings and then lay it by" the same as they would corn or any
irdier crop. They need not be surprized if maximum yields are
no secured with this method. Cultivation should be given the crop
at least once a week, and after each heavy rain, just as soon as the
condition of the soil will permit.
Sveral kinds of insects were encountered during the various stages
Sthe plant's growth. Just after transplanting cutworms gave some
oble, making it necessary to reset a portion of the field. These
we overcome by using paris green mixt with middlins or corn
mal. A mixture of paris green was also used to combat the ravages
of the bud worm, and when the horn worm appeared the crop was
1sryed every two weeks with a mixture consisting of 1 pound of
paris n 1 pound of lime, and 125 allons of water.4 By con-
stant wating and the prompt application of the proper remedy,
insect pests were kept under control.
TOPPING, SUCKERING, AND HARVESTING.
The flower bud appeared from seven to eight weeks after setting
out the plants. These, together with several of the top leaves, were
taken out, care being exercised that no damage was done to the rest
of the plant. According to the vitality of the plant, from fourteen
to sixteen leaves were left to mature, and in no instance, except
where the plant was selected for the production of seed, was the
flower bud left. No definite rule can b laid down as to how many
leaves should be taken off with the bud, as the climatic conditions
during the growing season, the purpose for which the plant is
grown-whether for wrapper or filler leaf-its vitality, and general
character must determine how low or high the topping should be
done.
After the plants were topt suckers appeared at the junction of
the leaves with the stalk. These were also taken out when larte
enough to be removed without injury to the plant. In all. the crop
aThis mixture is reommended by the Bureau of Entomolo. For informa-
tion onbaco iets ad ens of ontrol see Farmei Bulletin No. 120,
The Principal Insects Affecting the Toa Plant, by L. 0. ioward, Ento-
U'.~ ,,, ;








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20 EXPERIMENTS IN GROWING CUBAN SEED TOBACCO.

proper condition. When charcoal is not available, wood that has as
little odor as possible should be used, as it is important when curing
cigar tobacco to avoid giving the leaf any foreign odor. The ba
curing is completed when the midribs of the leaves are cured, at which
time the tobacco is ready to be taken down. To get the tobacco in con-
dition to be handled, all the ventilators must be left open the night
before. In the morning the tobacco should be soft and pliable, but
not wet, and the ventilators should be closed to retain the moisture.
When tobacco is cured on the stalk, as in Alabama, four or five weeks
in the barn will produce a good cure; but whether it can be stript as
soon as cured depends entirely on the climatic conditions.
STRIPPING AND TYING.
During the first damp weather after the tobacco had be thoroly
cured, which occurred on August 29, a portion of the crop w taken
from the tier poles and stript, the barn having been left open the
night before to allow a free circulation of moist air, which puts the
tobacco in good kase." This damp season was of short duration,
and there was not time to strip the entire crop.- From this date up
to September 19 there was a continuance of dry weather, but on this
date a slight fog brought the tobacco on the lower tiers in "order,"
and 680 pounds were stript from the poles. The weather again
turned cool and dry and no more tobacco could be taken down until
October 17, when 200 laths of tobacco were brought into order and
stript by hanging them in an open shed and saturating the dirt floor
with water. On November 2 there was a good rain which brought
the remaining tobacco in order, and by November 8 the entire crop
had been stript and graded, three grades being made, namely, sand
leaves, middles, and tops. The grading was done so that the tobacco
could be better handled in the warehouse, as leaves from different
parts of the plant, owing to their different character, require different
treatment in the fermenting process. The tobacco was then tied into
hands containing from forty to fifty leaves and packed in boxes for
shipment to the Bureau's warehouse at Nacogdoches, Tex., where it
went thru the fermentation and finial assorting.
FERM ENTATION.
The 680 pounds of tobacco that was shipped from Alabama the
latter 1art of September was placed in bulk at Nacogdoches on Octo-
ber 20, and the remainder of the crop--700 pounds-was bulked in
November. In fermenting this tobacco the following method was
used: To support the blk a platform was made, 5 feet wide and 12
feet long, raised about 4 inches from the floor of the fermenting room.
At the ends of this platform were placed headboards 5 feet wide and
about 6 feet high. After covering the platform and headboards with
paper the bulking was begun by laying the two outer rows, placing






FERMENTATION. 21

the butts of the hands even with the edges of the platform and allow-
ing the tips of the leaves to point to the center. Then another row
was laid on each side allowing the butts or heads to rest two-thirds of
the glenth of the leaf from the butts of the first row, keeping the tips
pointing to the center. A third row was then made on each side in
the same manner. This made six rows across the width of the plat-
form, or sufficient to cover the floor. The second tier was laid in the
same manner, and this process was continued until all of the tobacco
was bulked. The top of the bulk was covered first with cotton blan-
kets and then with rubber blankets. The tobacco remained in the
bulk until November 12, when the temperature began to fall. It wa1
taken down, well shaken, and rebulked, building the new bulk as the
old one was taken down. In rebulking, the two top layers were taken
off and placed in cases. Then the tobacco was taken from the old
bulk, layer by layer, and the new bulk built. When about half of the
bulk had been turned, the two layers that had been placed in cases were
laid upon the new bulk and the cases refilled with warm tobacco from
the middle of the old bulk and set aside until the remainder of the old
bulk had been packed on the new, when the tobacco in the cases was
used to complete the new bulk. The blankets were replaced to keepl
the top of the bulk from drying out. In this way what was the inside
of the old bulk became the outside of the new, and what was the
outside of the old bulk became the inside of the new. By following
this method every part of the bulk received the same degrree of
fermentation.
The following table gives the temperature of the bulk during fer-
mentation. Three thermometers were used, designated in the table
as A, B, and C. These were placed in different parts of the bulk-
A at the bottom, B in the center, and C at the top of the bulk.
Temperature of the bulk during fermentation.
Thermometer- t >'ermiOxEter-
Date. Date.
A. B. I C.. e A. Bt. C.

Oct. 22 ........................ 38 35 3. Nov. 1s.. ......... ............
23 ..... .... ........ ....... 35 35 16 ... .... ............... 28 21 30
.... ......... .... 44 3 17 ................. ..... 2
25......................... 4s 36 1;is 17...................... 2
26....................... 40 36 19 ........................ W 1 40
27......................... 40 1 36 20 ........................ 1 44
28......................... 45 41 i7 21 .................... 44
29............. .......... .1 41 3S ...................... 3t 01 45
0 .................. .... 1 3 23 ........................ 42 39 45
1.......... ............ .. 44 8 38 24 .. ........ ... .... 4 5
31 .......................... 1 31 21 -12 44 V1 4
Nov. I......................... 50 31 39 15 .......... ..... 41 410 45
2 ................ ......... "A 41 40 26 ........................ 4 41
.............. ..2..... 4.0 .....1 o. .. .... ...... .. 43 41 V4
................ ......... 1 41 40 28..................... ... 43 41 45
......................... 2 4 219 ........................ 4 4 4
6 .................. ... ... 1 43 1 ............. 412 41 43
8 ........................ 0 43 41 2 ...................... 40 42
9........................ 0 42 41 ............ ............ 41 40 42
0.......................... 4S 42 41 4 ... ...... ..--..... .... II 1 411
I ......................... 41 41 sa. ......... ...... 40 40 41
12a ....................... 44 41
SBulk turn 1 .









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oqi uIII poaiUd soqlp uUq Apoq o1mol polulIIuol(aIO a,11! kl:oll 1J AoAiqSI1
osoj 'uqj) 0Juol paouaoao! ip UIUO aql0 'sa111AI ajlaod po'ulo. s rdo1a p1 U
OA Isad aqL .uaiotLoaq pue 'q.sui!I 0AB1O?! 'i111'u0! sap, B0I' 1a)I[
0oui paXa u sk AJ !! poluaaij U[0ojoql UIIooq puq oo t'qo11 oq aI j
"DMnIIV aIMV DOMI(IVWh

0s d p10 q uop1!0 '1u1a1(
assao 101 anuqp iI fP 'San0 8 ad0?IU aqi1 jo 1ldo1|l ui8a(| poa0.1
iaqpjnOt ou 'o 01 uo!i!puo sIqtl uIII jI puun popunqoa ().).)I'yOI Imu,!q
"JIV sq: puu ^dnq *fOl uiojj u0ql sHio oIaaqoJ s0,Axa uqz 'amrl s!q J V
"C aqa uo aa vop Of B!ino I oquiaa-o .llu s.ioaiuou
-laiq aaaI IB u.I paoulpap 1uIt1Br, Oani 1aad1iiao olq "0uj>i[n1 q saiij omp
aoj papma Ua Tnitu aoqm )rqI amoul s9aM1 S) s:A\ "'I .1(iU1iuao[
poq, '.,0 o p 'papaoao.i iuiniuixiu ai IlP 1nl 'aso-i UliM11. ajll0.Iaduilla
wi urjnq 7s. aqi Iu np jsoI ami.llsOmI r} mapida,.i oo pll|(Is-
paX~pads Itt!) gl ajqaAoRPOjptiiqaci oS A oaaq]tioo oq, ")ai'ld uo) pul.
uoDjuuam oum1uxIu aqt 1 ll 'Oilij^ol/ipui lili a odr!i i/at pm).l:p,)o
011 'A" 1o.ll1ip s AI13313'BId 51u liuljom lo. .IOJ Uiilplo.i oq!l "-, pul I-
uo alsa aOi uI tiv6aq oia.)p papva)q u I, ilod s-q:1 umo.2[
"0 oCt Pat o 'o0S 0jupP 41. uo (5uloq "6 .j0qtll.AO-K 11111 1 Ipiin.1
,-) Jou 411q linpvja; oso a j 0ladi111 -q I sinod ii -,I

j:o ama uoqAk 'gg; aaqoja0- uo quojiqn a ;'up sg[.Ip osaq o

o ",T MasK'. V"O D.IIVOH K I 710- g






YIELD AND COST OF PRODUCTION. 23

YIELD AND COST OF PRODUCTION.

The 3 acres cultivated in 1904 yielded, in air-cured tobacco, 1,3:0
pounds, or 460 pounds to the acre, but owing to the unfavorable
cli-tic conditions during a portion of the growing season some of
the tobacco fired and after curing was found to be worthless. This
along with the pole-sweat tobacco reduced the yield of commlercial
leaf to 1,001 pounds, or 334 pounds per acre. The total cost of pro-
duction was $237.36, or 23.7 cents a pound.
The following statement gives in detail the actual expenses in-
curred by the Department in the production of Cuban seed filler leaf
tobacco in the Alabama experiment of 1904:

Cost of production.
Plant bed:
Labor, 100 hours at 7i cents -----_----___ ____-----------------. 50
Cheese cloth, 280 yards at 4 cents ($11.20), good for 2 years ----_ 0
Nails, 3 pounds, at 3 cents --_ ------__--__._ .----------------

13. 19

Preparing land:
Hire of one-horse plow and mule ------------ ------------------ 2. 3
I abor, plowing, 75 hours at 7T centts_ 5. -02
Cotton-seed meal, ton at $25 per toni -_1-S ...... 15. 75
Cotton-seed hulls, $ ton at $11 per tonl -------- 8. 25
Horn for distributing Imeal -------_----------....-_____.... A
Labor, distributing fertilizer at 7" cents er hour- .,.. 75
Labor, team and driver, 10 hours at 30 cents per hour -.----_ -___-...... 3. 0:i

3S. 22

Transplanting:
Lahor, 240 hours at 71 cents per hour-----.--_----__-----.. 18. I(
LalMor team .land driver, 47 hours at :8j cents Iper lourl- .___. .I 1. 10
Tin buckets, 2 at 20 cents each-------- ----.---------------.... .40

32. 50

Field culture:
Labor, hoeing, 40 hours at 5 cents per hour-- 2. ..... .. )
I or, plhwing, 10) hlurs at 7 cents 1 er hit . ................ 12. I0)
Paris greenI, 5 piounlds at 25 cents per ploundll 1. 2
H es, 2 at s8 cents each .. _.. .... ....... .. . 1.0
Corn meal, 1 bushels at $1 per -A bush-el---. ....... 1. 5.

IS. 35

Suckering and harvesting:
Lamor, 30 hours at 7I ents per hour .. ... .-....... 22.
Lalro, team anld driver, i5 holrs at 8) cets r ho ur "......... 1.

42. IM




*






24 EXPERIMENTS IN GOWING CUBAN SEED TOBA O.

Curing and stripping:
Labor, 310 hours at 5 cents per hour----------- -- ------
Labor, team and driver, 10 hours at 30 cents per hour--------
Packing cases, 4 at 50 cents each -------
Wrapping paper, 10 pounds at 5 cents pr pound.-------------- .5


Other expenses:
Rent of land, 3 acres at $3 per acre -----. .. ------------------ 9.. i
Lumber for barn, 2 loads at $1 per load ------------------.-.- 2. 0
Nails, 10 pounds at 3 cents per pound-.---------------- --...
Laths, 1,500 at $2 per M ----------0-----0------------------_
Labor, 30 hours at 7A cents per hour ------------------------ 22
Labor, team and driver, 13 hours at 30 cents per hour---.------- .
Fermenting 1,001 pounds of tobacco at 5 cents per pound- -------
71.10
Recapitulation of expenditures.


Item. l c.


Seed bed........ .... .... ............... .................. ................. 1319
Preparing land...................................................... 9.2 3.9
T ansplantng ............................ ..................... .... .......
Field culture .............. ....... ... ......................... .
Suckering and harvesting ..................................................... 42.00 4.2
Curing and stripping ...................................................... 21.00 2.1
Other expenses.................................................... 7.10 7
Total..................................................................... 237.6 a23.7

a For the expense of growing tobacco where the farmers themelves the
work, see tables on pp. 30 and 31.

RESULTS OF THE SALE OF THE 1903 COP.

In order to ascertain the opinion of the trade as to the qualities
and commercial value of the tobacco grown in Alabama, and to
determine the possibilities of establishing its production upon a com-
mercial scale, the Bureau deemed it advisable to place the crop of
1903 upon the market. Arrangements were made with M. Herman
G. Vetterlein, of Philadelphia, to undertake the sale of this cco
In the fall of 1904 the Department issued a catalog showing the nm-
er of bales of the various grades of tobacco in its po son, and
this catalog, together with samples of the leaf,a was w ely
ited. The Department had no interest in the sale, all moey re-
ceived, less the broker's commission of $1 per bale, being turn o
to the owner of the tobacco at Marion.
Judgig from letters received by the Department f
firms purchasing the tobacco, it eems to have give satisfaction,

a The Department reserved 50 per cent of the crop to be distributed as free
samples to the trade.









Bul. 37, Bureau of Soils, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE III.































FIG. 1.-TYPE OF BUILDING NOW USED FOR CURING TOBACCO IN ALABAMA.
































FIG. 2.-MODERN TOBACCO BARN: TYPE OF BUILDING THAT SHOULD BE USED IN ALABAMA.







DISTRIBUTIO OF THE 1904 CROP. 25

at some complain that it is not as aromatic nor as sooth as the
a leaf. In earl every case the manufactures admit that it
e of the best domestic fillers they have ever tested and predict
a fure for it, if produced at reasonable prices.
Te following letter was received from Mr. Vetterlein inegard
o t sale of the tobacco:
PHILADELPHIA, PA., February 23, 1905.
DEAR S: The tobacco grown in Alabama under the supervision of the
Bueau of Soils being now sold, I would herewith report that, while there was
a very complete and thorough distribution of the catalogues calling the atten-
tionof the manufacturers of cigars and dealers in leaf tobacco to the experi-
ments made in the above-mentioned State, the demand for samples to test the
meits of this tobacco was not so great as one would expect, and this can only
be accounted for by the fact that the manufacturers of cigars are loath to take
up anything new or different to what they have been using for fear of in-
juring their established brands of cigars, the result of years of work and
expense. However, various samples and bales have been distributed sfficiently
to warrant the statement that the Department has succeeded i growing a
superior piece of filler tobacco, part of it being smooth and mellow in taste
and flavor and part of it having a trifle more body; but all being very suitable
for mixing with Havana or even for using clear. With continued growing and
handling it with the natural improvement that one would expect in its continual
production, in the end it should find a position in the market where its merits
ld create a satisfactory demand. To secure this desirable result it will
be necesary for the growers to be satisfied with small profits in the beginning,
ad prices should be made accordingly, so as to invite purchasers.
Ild you will find a statement showing how the tobacco grown by your
Department has been sold.
With kind regards, I remain,
Yours, truly, 1H. G. VETTERLEIN.

Statement of tobacco gro n Alabama under the supervision of the Bureau
of Soils and sold by Herman (G. 'Vetterlein. C. I. (rccr crop.

Sbales, Nos. 38, 3 0, 4, 94, 14, 3 pounds net, at 30 cents- ----____ $10.3
1 bale, No. 37, 78 pounds net, at 40 cents .-------.-----_-_--.. 31. 2)


Commission at $1 per bale --_--_.-----.-----.---- -----____.

130. 50
It will be seen from the above statement that this tobacco ranged
in price from 30 to 40 cents a pound. The prices were for the
inished prouct, and covered not only the original cost of growing
e tand the expense of fermenting, srting, and packing.,
t also the shrinkage in weight and other losses incident to these
operations.
DISTRIBUTION OF THE 19I4 CROP.

In previous experiments in Alabama the Bureau had conducted
I;ts investigatioIs cooperation with the owners of the la on
the exeriment was made but in 1904 in oder to hae the






26 EXPERIMENTS IN GROWING CUBAN SEED TOBACCO.

entire control of the tobacco produced, the Bureau rented the land
and other facilities for producing the crop. As he object of the
Bureau was to bring the product to the notice of the trade in as wide
a manner as possible and to receive from the cigar maufactur
and dealers in leaf tobacco their opinions as to the quality of the
tobacco grown in Alabama, it was considered abvisable to make a
free distribution of the crop. From October 28 to December 4, 1905,
samples were sent to more than two hundred of the principal cigar
manufacturers and leaf dealers of the country; and from the letters
received by the Department the tobacco seems to have given satisfac-
tion. Extracts from letters received from Pretzfeld & Co., of New
York, and from Celestine Vega & Co., of Chicago, follow:

[Fronm Pretzfeld & Co.l
Samples of filler tobacco and your favor of October 31 were duly received.
Excuse if we lid not report sooner on same. We find but slight difference in
the merit of the fillers and all of them are good and useful. We consider the
sample marked "Alabama the most pleasant in taste and flavor and the best
tobacco.
[From' Celestine Vega & Co.]
Alabama filler tobacco: Size, perfect; burn, perfect; taste, retty good;
texture, very good : curing. yery good: pac;.ng, very good; value, high.

('(OO)PERATIV E EXPEITMENTS OF 1905.

Encouraged by the success of the earlier experiments, the Bureau
issued a circular in December. 1904, giving a brief outline of the
work accoliplished so far and announcing the purpose of the Bureau
to cooperate with a limited number of farmers in the growing of a
comme1rcial c)rop -during thl season of 1905.
Inl Fe)leruary. 1905, a meleting orf farmers interested in the culture
of tobacco was held il the court-house at Marilon, Perry County0 for
the p1lrpI)se of formlulatin g pllans to carry on the work. Owing to
tle n11clenient weather, a severe ice storml raging on the day set for the
Ilneting, only a few leading farmers attended. Nine of the agreed
to undertake11 the growing of tolbacco. The total acrea P promised
waIs 12 acres, anlli lhe farms were well distributed over the cointVy
fromll ear :Marion to points 12 miles away, thus affording the farmers
of the couInty who had the (rangeburg typ)e of soil on their farms
the opl)lortllnity to watch tlhen progress anlid praictiability of growing
Cuban fed filler tc)aeco in their vicinities. To all the farmers agree-
ilg to, c(oolerate the Bure1a of Soils promised to furnis imported
C(ua1n ued and to ul)ervise the production of the crop in all its
stages free of c.harge.
On a-rount of the ext relely unfavorable weather conditions dur-
ing the month of February it was late in the season before the plant







I II It ) I A\d lI flp I JI IoI At I II) %;1'W H IU1IVJJ I li IAO1lu m
n|rtti ) ir1! rUll *"jii uo poqs! u liU ;*I* |tad\- us
l .i s 1,1( i jo 41 tI aa! aI l o l lu ao!.uI oqU su
-Ati,. n. 'u jo d (l l 1 .io 111p141 lu Aqi oq 1j1o p1 00 o Np!Mo I s
U ~r11I~ll; llJ $ 1)~)A~o )11 1I .]().I Silo I )0(1 "l}4 aU l p l'Ui}U1(14(1UJ P A OR 0.11
111l4T OtliP) slO1 oIllI! o! oaa Oti A'llI (1u11 'lds uta L aao0 1 sA p I MO
ITl1: II. t U n1 p 1u )1111 () q1 )1mI)IU AU 9)} J .1011O J +SM 11U1 t-Mj, r1J
-Itl|!!t Jl! mtil 0ill |11,I alddli,- ( SO ls* (a 1s.uolaodoad Ialls u1I WxM
"il)Ii11 0)8,II,-)I), jw p u oll It-<. I()Oq 0l 4 4q o puj 3 d 1 on o
,11qii)s l! .O 1 A("),o!ldt tis?,od. jp olJlis jo spunod 00 u tom pa
-ol:i)l X Oj stlil 0O (18 U tl L "toi aIo 0oaom1 Apo^a q)loj !- -a I

Su illll(l I I(1,1 (.0llp 1ojO d sO A 1.1. "u 'M u![ Uld a oII motSI
011s1 1t11. \Ik:!!lU, Jltlo u! )J(l OI' uI uijp sX J "kpJ 1p1 ao wp!a kO-oJ
,, j1,0
puJlt l a11 )Il s-t1o0o{ jo slu1no1 00i)(q1a1IJoz!ld j d a pu ud pla 0;
sUAoa1 Iui AMid Ipo lis q1 010iAt SUAo p!I a141,h spo d 01 4 SIUpdvM up la
"paoold AaI1.(H q Mi M spO;D11O
o1 po!I1ddI s1VA1 t! a1zaI0 iSUj.II sIU OP sineI 0sB pnuOiO lqs aooJ
"utl aO I~4At soiti .i doo p uoml sUMOS puuq[ iq O sasi SIf uI o "
)s1(ot l- I0o loS 31tHiI '0li1 uo 0oo pul oajoqU-Oo U utsn sios IoS
atlq no sytoauip atl! jo os 'S;Aoid 0uuranj avujpj!pao qyiA suop
uo,[oaq s11a JutiO fqji u!AOld aJ1 uopuoX)a 4ado0ad uO s UiUI.
sB su!ua paiup l .F1 ao jU uIos Su pua)PadS a od sp ot sunox os01y1

ssoao)d Tatl 1 -o(lo oa)i a oau oalIi! 'sluid duno.C -qI jo 4uuwd p0opi
-(Il'No ..x[) 4 1 i S ()1 pill Ma01jmo aozmJ paoj O1p 0 q1 p' lu4Imp, s lui
qItlA, ssU tt 1111i[\(I po1s.\j: s paq siqL '"I!os pqq-pasI jo
u!lalns tr aqiusi v( o lip vSmL Stp pus 'jood puiiBs aqj s%
0iIo A[iU() u() p psO jo o^Baoro PUOxS [ljou paas-uopuoa qpIA pazI
U~(,oq spaq4 ol pauIulqo ssou sll4Jid jo" pujs !-tJ jq spq asa mo
poq jo spa.Ba b6 o O Nao o()I u iAAs q ps o snuO
fI oj I jtoolds ] uoj 'Oi Y[Jai^ ol ponuiluoa pur f; g rmaqo uo
uB oqq l);Il pl jo Itll.m\os qj,L "qlnoS aoq jo suoipas Isom o|uo
O.Ill? 1la-qAxm s Allll;la TaI o. Soi ouipoos )Il o j a slpa ood pUB sau
Il. !lO sdIoo 's-u-Id au [ jo q)l Aoj'aOtl suolsVq JUIdOAO3 OqjL 14
s JqFAi pajaooa pui, 'poluBld 'pajmdajd a0a p 0utd so s'
abs paapun x!s "suoya^ $upInpoad-o-aaqo uiaoqaou Qv ui
-uad uo(1 oa o st S, '1IoBJTJ pioo BP SY1UI[U Aq 9l nomq qa vuo
Oaotl .a1ollo mop tit opm aa sao.ao !qA j 'poq Juam alp
Aq punoJ -)I '011.u11nq piul "aq aoq jDo tu1141na 0 q stuialls ims o
SIurq oqI uo opur ao.k spaq aiq So muo -pa d otq pnoos

^ *& d'61o Sa;1NH:IHIIXa AIf1IV1adOOO






28 EXPERIMENTS IN GROWING CUBAN SEED TOBACCO.

tate transportation to the field. In order to have the
planted early enough in the season, it was necessary to perform
of this work during dry weather, altho whenever it rai or was
cloudy the setting of plants was pushed vigorously. During the
dry weather holes from 12 to 14 inches apart were dug with a hoe
and about half a pint of water was poured into the holes, the plants
being set in the moistened soil. Dry sil was then drawn around
the plant, which prevented it from being scalded or the soil around
it baking. When the transplanting was done during wet weather it
was not necessary to dig holes with the hoe, and a small hole was made
with a dibble or peg, into which the root of the plant was placed and
the soil prest tightly around it.
About a week after transplanting, by which time te plants had
taken root, the soil around them was lightly broken with a hoe.
This was done as often as necessary, either to break the crust which
would form on the surface of the soil after each rain or to remove
weeds or grass from around the tobacco. Shortly after the hoeing,
cultivation was begun with small sweep plows, plowing three fur-
rows to the row, which pulverized the soil on both sides of the tobacco
as well as in the middle of the rows. As the size of the tobacco in-
creased larger sweep plows were used for cultivating, and this was
continued every week, or as soon after each rain as possible, until the
tobacco had obtained its growth and was ready to be topt. As far
as possible a mulch was kept on the surface of the soil at all times to
prevent the rapid evaporation of moisture, as well as to check the
growth of weeds and grasses.
The usual insect enemies of tobacco were encountered, such as cut-
worms, bud worms, and hornworms. These, with the exception of
the hornworm, were kept in check by an application of paris green
mixt either with corn meal or fine sifted sand. For the hornwor
a solution of paris green was used, applied with a knapsack spray
pump." The crops were poisoned as often as necessary, and in every
case the tobacco was poisoned for hornworms prior to cutting and
placing it in the barns. If this precaution were omitted the worms
would cause considerable damage to the tobacco while in the process
of curing, at which time it would bo almost impossible to check their
ravages.
The tobacco was ready for topping as soon as the seed buds ap-
peared. These were taken out along with a few of the upper leaves.
After topping the tobacco, suckers appeared And were removd.
Cuban tobacco has a tendency to sucker freely, and it was found nec-
essary to break off the snckers three times between the time the crops
were topt and their ripening.
a A mixture of 1 l of of Paris green and 1 pound of lime to 125 of
water was a11 as r lmmended by the Bureau of Entomolo y.






COOPERATIVE EXPERIMENTS OF 1905. 29

Harvesting was begun the middle of June, Care was taken not
to allow the tobacco to become overripe, but to cut it just as it reached
the right condition. An ordinary corn knife was used, the stalk
beig severed about 2 inches above the ground. It was then allowed
to lie on the ground long enough to wilt-about thirty minutes dur-
ing the heat of the day, or a little longer when cut early in the morn-
ing or late in the evening-when it was carried on stretchers or in a
wagon to the barns and speared upon laths 4 feet long, from 8 to 12
stalks to each lath. These were hung on tiers, there being sufficient
space between the tiers to allow a free circulation of air.
There are no tobacco barns in this section of the country, so, as the
growers did not feel justified in going to the expense of building until
the industry had past the experimental stage, use was made of
available buildings already upon the farms. Gin houses and corn-
cribs were the buildings generally used. (See P1. III, figs. 1 and
2.) These were fitted with tier poles and made as serviceable as
practicable at small expense. These accommodations were at best in-
adequate and made it very difficult to regulate moisture conditions,
especially in a climate where the humidity is so great during the
curing season. During rainy periods it was necessary to place fires
in the barns, the tobacco being removed from the lower tiers inmme-
diately over the fires. Planks were also placed on the lower tiers over
the fires tobreak the volume of heat and to disseminate it to different
parts of the building. Firing was kept up regularly during the rainy
weather, the barns being tightly closed to prevent the entrance of
moisture from outside. During dry weather the barns were closed
during the day and opened at night to prevent too rapid curing or
"haying." of the tobacco. Considering the type of buildings in
which the crops were cured and the poor facilities they offered, a
very satisfactory cure was obtained by most of the growers.
As soon as the tobacco had cured, which it did in al:ut five
weeks from the time of hanging it in the barns, it was taken from the
tier poles, the leaves stript off the stalks, and sorted into three grades
consisting, respctively, of the top, middle, and sand leaves. These
were tied separately, from thirty to forty leaves to each hand, and
afterwards packed in boxes and delivered to the arhouse at Marion
for ferientation. The tobacco was bilked on Septemillr 9 and al-
lowed to remain in bulk until September 18. whIen it was taken down
and rebulked. The temperature was not recorded during the first
bulking, but when taken down on October 3 the temperature of the
bulk had reached 1050 F. On this date the tobacco was pac(ked in
ases for shipment to Quincy, Fla., as the entire crop had been pur-
chased frm the farimes at 15 c~lnts per )ollud by a firll of leaf
dealers and pacers of that city, who finished the fermentation and
assorting in their own warehuse.






30 EXPERIENTS I GROWING CUBAN SEED TOBACCO.

The yield from 12- acres, not including unmerchantable tac
was 4,457 pound, or 356() pounds to the acre. The loss in weight in
handling and curing was 293 pounds, and the average weight of the
tobacco as harvested was 380 pounds r acre. The largest yield ob-
tained by any individual grower was 48 pounds per acre and the
lowest 260 pounds per acre, green weight.

Aetual expenses incurred by the grower securing the largest eld.

[Area planted, 1i acres.]
Plant bed:
Stable lmanure, 13 loads, at 25 cents per load ___ ------_. $3. 25
Labor, ox and wagon, 1 day _1 ______-------- 1.50
Cheese cloth, 135 yards, at 3 cents per yard - - - - ------- 4.05
Nitrate of soda, 15 pounds, at 34 cents per pound -- ------- .50
Labor, 110 hours, at 5 cents per hour -- -------------------- 50

14.80
Preparing land:
Labor, plowing with two-horse plow, 10 hours, at 20 cents per hour 2.00
Labor, plowing with one-horse plow, 15 hours, at 10 cents per hour 1.50
Labor, distributing fertilizer, horse and wagon, 10 hours, at 10 cents
per hour _..-----------------.._--------------- 1.00
Stable manure, 20 loads, at 25 cents per load--------- 5.00
Cotton-seed meal, 5(10 pounds, at $1.10 per hundred -------..--- 5. 50
Sulfate of potash, 200 pounds, at $3.50 per hundred- -0-..---7.00

22.00
Transplanting and cultivating:
Labor, 56 h1ours, at 5 cents per hour1---.._--------__----------- 2.80
Labor, hoeing, 30 hours, at 4 cents per hour ---------------------- 1. 20
Labor, plowing, one-horse plow, 17 hours, at 10 cents per hour----- 1. 70
5. 70
Poisoning:
Labor, 12 hours, at 5 cents per hour .._. .... ..-,60-.-.
Paris green, 3 pounds, at 25 cents per pound .--------.------. 75
1.35
Suckering an1d topping:
Labor, 40 hours, at 5 cents per hour .--- ------ ------- 2.00

Harvesting and stripping:
Labor, 125 hours, at 5 cents per hour- .--------------.-.6. 25
Labor, 230 hours, at 3 cents per hour- -.--.---.---.- --- ----6.
13.15
S'artage ^and niscvllaeoius exenrses:
Labor, tem and driver, 10 hours, at 30 cents per hour..-------- 3.
.ox-es, i, at 23 eits ech -- ---------------------- ------ 1.
eIti (of lrn an[ ild ill plelielnts, 2 months, at $2.50.--.-- ---- ---- 00
LIathl. 2,50, at $2.3 Iper thousand --- ..------ -----, 25
Rent of land, 1I acrs, at $1.50 per acre .------------------.. 2.25
17.75







COOPERATIVE EXPERIMENTS OF 1905. 31

Total operating expenses ---------- ------------------------- $76. 75
Value of 1,272 pounds of tobacco, at 15 cents per pound .._.. .. __ 190. 80
Profit ---------------------------- ------ __ - ---------------114. 05
r ofit growig ... per pound --........ ..... ... ....-- ~ ... -,....... ............. ..... 14. 05
Cost of growing tobacco, per pound 06

Actual expenses incurred by thue grower securing the smallest yield.
[Area planted, 1 acre.]
Plant bed:
Stable manure, 1 load, at 25 cents- ------_ ... -......_ $0. 25
Nitrate of soda, 10 pounds, at 31 cents per pound .-------- ._---- 33
Cheese cloth, 40 yards, at 3 cents per yard .....-..-.-..- 1.20
Labor, 50 hours, at 5 cents per hour -----------.-----.----. 2. 50

4.28

Preparing soil:
Labor, plowing, one-horse plow, 20 hours, at 10 cents per hour ------ 2. 00
Labor, distributing fertilizer, horse and wagon, 10 hours, at 20 cents
per hour __-----------------______--_ __ 2. (u
Cotton-seed meal, 500 pounds, at $1.10 per hundred ........ 5. 50
Sulfate of potash, 200 pounds, at $3.)0 per hundred.......... ........ 7.
Stable manure, 10 loads, at 25 cents per load----- -... 2.50

19.00

Transplanting "and cultivating:
Labor, :30 hours, at 5 cents per hour- -----------------------. 1. 5o
Labor. hoeing, 10 hours, at 5 cents per hour. ...... ... 5(
Labor, plowing, 13 hours, at 10 cents per hour..- ---..------------- 1. 30
3. 30

Poisoning:
Labor, 10 hours, at 5 cents per hour. _-- ... 50
Paris green, 2 pounds, at 25 cents .. .-.-. ........ 50

1. 00

Suckering and topping:
Labor, 3:1 hours, at 5 cents p1er hour__ 1. 5.

Harvesting and shipping1
Labor, 150 hours, at 5 cents per hour. 7. o

Cartage and miscellaneous expenses:
Labor, ( c :artage, anitd Iboxes ....2. 5o-
Rent of far.I al 11d imllplellimits. :. u
RIent o1f 1 are of land 2. 1n
Tobcc sticks, 1,100, at $2.50 per thousanr d 2----. 75



Value of :79 pounds toba:c at 15 cents lIr p )undi 5,. 5(
perating expensel -... ...... ..... .. .... '
Profit over operating exeles 0. ... .. 2
Cost of growing tobacco, per pmind ..... ............ 12
I 'i"-*- .. ... .- .. -- . .1. 0 2






32 EXPERIMENTS IN GROWING CUBA SEED TOBACCO.

The marked difference in the yield and cost of these two
to a slight extent due to the climatic conditions under wh they
were grown. The soil in both fields was the same, the com
and the quantities of fertilizers applied were the same, but g t
differences were noticed in the preparation of the soi The grower
obtaining the largest yield plowed his land with a two-horse plow,
breaking the soil deeper than the other, who broke his land with a
one-horse plow. This difference in preparing the land proved, under
the climatic conditions of the season of 1905, to be a very important
factor in determining the yield and profit of the crops. During a
part of the growing season this section of the country suffered from
the lack of rain, and all crops planted on land that had received
only a shallow plowing in the spring began firing, while thos crops
where the soil had been plowed deeper and afterwards kept in a good
state of cultivation continued to grow and keep green. The differ-
ence illustrates the advantage of such cultivation as will conserve
soil moisture.
This object lesson in tillage should be well imprest on every farmer
who wishes to obtain the 1lest results from a crop of tobacco. The
land should be plowed deep every year, and if the plowing is done
in the fall subsoiling is also advisable, especially on the Orangeburg
types of soil. The crop should be kept in a high state of cultivation
thruout its growth, and as soon after each rain as possible the sur-
face should be stirred to produce a soil mulch. The crop should be
hoed by hand whenever necessary. This operation is usually re-
quired when the plants are small, at which time a growth of grass
or weeds is especially injurious to their development.

CONCLUSION.

In 1906 the acreage of tobacco in Alabama increased more than
200 per cent, and there seems to be no reason why a profitable indus-
try should not be built up if the farmers will only conduct it along
conservative lines and endeavor to produce the type of leaf that is
(lemanded by the trade. Diversified farming ust be the future aim
of the southern farmers, and the introduction of tobacco in central
Alabana will be one more crop added to the staple products of that
sction of the State.

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