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BULLTINNo. 14, NEW SERIES.
.S.'DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
DIVISION OF E'NTOMOLOGY.
UNT OF CICADA SEPTENDECIM, ITS NATURAL ENEMIES
AND THE MEANS OF PREVENTING ITS INJURY,
ARY OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE DIFFERENT BROODS.
A L. ATT, M. S,
FIRST ASSISTANT ENTOMOLOGIlST.
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
DIVISION O ENTOMOLOGY,
Washington, 1). C., May 1, 1898.
The periodical, or seven teen-year, Cicada has a peculiar interest
ion to its economic importance, in that it is distinctly American
the longest life period of any known insect. Economically, it
y important in the adult stage from the likelihood of its injuring
stock and young fruit trees by depositing its eggs. Bulletin 8,
e of this division, treated of this insect, but is now both out
of tand out of date. Since its publication in 1885 a quantity of
ns have been obtained bearing on the 'long subterranean life of
ect and other facts relative to its habits above ground, as well as
derable amount of data bearing on the distribution of the differ-
oods. The late chief of th6 Division, Dr. Riley, always took a
nterest in this species, and the Divisional observations and
made prior to June 1, 1894, were made under his active direc-
he recurrence the present year of two important broods makes.
ject a timely one and warrants the prompt publication of a new
Son this insect. This bulletin has been prepared by my first
tt, Mr. C. L. Marlatt, and includes a detailed account of the
its habits and transformations, natural enemies, the means of
eng its injuries, together with a review of the literature and a
phy of the principal writings arranged chronologically. A
ryof-the distribution of the different broods is also given.
Soriginally designed that the bulletin should include not only
more detailed and critical account of the distribution than is
en, but also a chronological history of the different broods, to
was prevented by the illness of Mr. Schwarz.
i iii i iiii l ,)Ii),,~ )J~,,,,,i,,H I, IHi iiii ii ii)J iiiii) ~ ~ ~i)) ~i)i, ) )i ii i iii i iiiiiii 'iliE! iiii!!iil iiiiii ii iii iiIi~~~iiiiiii iiiiii ii iii ~~i~~i iii~~iiiiiiiii i iii)iiiiiiiii iii~ iiiiiiiiiiii
i i i~ i l i i ii~ i i ii i i i ii i ,= ii i i~ i i = iiiii iii i iii iii il i i ii~ ii ii' i iii ii~ ii i ii~ ii i,
) ))) ))) ))) ))))) )) ) ) ) )) )) ) ) ) )
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Theracesbroods,andvarietiesofthe Cicada------------------------- 12
Relaiion ofclimateitothe iiraces.-............i 16iiiiiiiiiiiiii
Thedwarf p eridicalCicada---------------------------------------- 17
Theoriginof the broods ------------------------------------------- 18
Tiiiiiihe broodiiiii appearingin1898 --------- ............ 22
Future ap pearances ------------------------------------------------- 23
Sores of information.-------------------------------------------------- 23
ap pearances ------------------------------------------------------ 29
BroodlVI- ndeci -1898 ........................ ............ 30
Brood V11--:Tredesh -1898------------------------------------------ 30
BroodXIlX---8eptndacim--1899-----------.------------------.-.. ---.- 31
Brood X -Sependeci -19000---...-----------------------------------..- 32
Brood XXI--Bependeecn--1901 --------------------------------------- 833
Brood X--T2edechi --1901.-------------------------------------------- 34
Brood XXKII-Septendechn--1902 .. ------------------------------------ 34
Brood I--Septendeims--903 ------------------------------------------- 37
BroodT V--8ptendecime-1905 ------------------------------------------ 37
Broo VIII--8eptendeci --1906 -------------------------------------- 38
Brood XVIII---2redechn--1907.. -------------------------------------- 40
Brood X- Septendbein--1908 ---------------------------------------- 42
Brood 11--redec --1908-.-----------------------------------.-...----- 43
Brood XI 8 ptiend ei -1910 ----------------------------------------- 44
Brooha~d XIII- eptendec -11912------------- --- -..-- .- ----- 47
The....usical a pparatus................................................... 55.
The song notes of the periodical Cicada.................................. 57
S st of the Cicada............................................ 59
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Transformation Ithe adult stage ........................................... 61
i i t i: i'iii il .-^i-i t- r"^.ii ii
Period of emergenee ...................................
Durationof theadultstage ............................................. 63
Method of em ence ................................................... 63
Cicanda huds, ron es ht ............ .............s ...... ..........s--s 6
TheFactof transfo ation .............................................. 70
adultinsect d its habits----------------...........-------..........................---.......------
Numbers of, and local distribution---....-------------------------------................................-..- 71
The food habits of the adult insect...................................... 72
The Cicadaas an artice of food.---..------.......-- ........... ......----...72
Oviposition and its effect on the plant ....................................... 74
Plants selected.......................................................... 74
Result to the plant of oviposition.................. .................-----------------------------------. 75
Method of inserting the eggs ---------------------------------------78
~eth;odlofi er ghe eggs .......................................... .. 78
The growth and hatching of the eggs ............................... ........ 80
The underground lifo of the Cicada............. ........................... 82
Experimental proofs of the long underground life------.......----...-- ..------.......----... 82
History of the larval and pupal stages. .----..--....--....--...- ....--... 84
Technical description of the diffe nt stages .....------------------------- 86
First larval stage ------------------............--------------.......--86
Second larval stage ................................................. 87
Third larval stage ...................--------.....................--...-88
iFourtoh larval tage- ----........................-.... ........... 88
First pupal stage .----.....-.--....-- .....---..... ...-------------.. .. 8
Second pupals stage -----------------------...........................----------------.........---.....
The habits of the larva and ppa -------......----.....--...-------.... ...- .. .. 90
The food of the larva and pupa ..------.........--......--....-....-.. 90
The location in the soil -----------------.........-- --------.....---..... ... 92
The method of burrowing ...-...---.....-- ..---..--------------------.. ------------......... 93
Damage occasioned by the larvam and pupa .......---------------------------94
The natural enemies of the Cicada --...--..--............... ............... 95
Insect parasites------------------.......-----------------------------. 96
Dipterous enemies --------- ---.------------------............... 96
Hemipterous enemies...................................... .... ..------------------------------------------. 97
Hymenopterous enemies ---.........------.....---------------.............------.....-..--------........ 97
The parasites of the eggs --------..-- ---------------------.. - 98
The larger digger wasp............. ....................-------------------------------------. 99
Mite parasites of the eggs ---------------..---- ....--...---...------101
The Oribatid mites-...................----------------------------------------. 103
Miscellaneous predaceous mites ------------...........---.... --- 103
The vertebrate enemies......--- .....----------------------------------------. 105
The fungous disease of the adults ............----------------- -...- 106
Remedies and preventives............... .......................-----.........- -10
The general character of the problem...... ...... .. ------------------------------- 107
Means of destroying the emerged pup~l and adults. .-- ------------. 108
Means against the Cicada in its underground life............-- ..-- ....-- ... 111
The periodical Cicada in literature ................ ............ .... ......-.... -112
Bibliography of the periodical Cicada--................----........-----------------......- 119
Appendix A. Egg transfers, Broods VII and XXII, 1885..... ---------------- ...... ----.. 135
Appendix B. Breeding experiments on the grounds of the Department of
Seventeen-year Brood XXII, 1885 ........................................ 139
Seventeen-year Brood VIII, 1889-- -------------------------------- 139
Appendix C. Dr. Gideon B. Smith's chronology of the periodical Cicada... 142
Appendix D. Records for 1898 of Broods VII and XV ..................... 146
Thetransformation of the. Cicada -----.--------------------------- Frontispiece
Photograph of Cid chambers, general view, taken at New Balti-
mnore, N Y .Y M ay, 1894 ---------------------------------------------... 66
Two photographs of Cicada chambers, more enlarged than Plate II,
taken at New Baltimore, N. Y., May, 1894 -------------------------- 68
The periodical Cicada, representing typical form and dwarf form ----- 18
ap showing distribution of the broods of the 13-year race ---------- 25
ap showing distribution of the broods of the 17-year race ----------- 26
a showing distribution of Broods XVII and VII, 1898 ------------- 29
Map showing distribution of Brood XIX, 1899--.---------------------- 31
6.Map showing distribution of Brood XX, 1900 ------- ---------------- 32
ap showing distribution of Broods XXI and X, 1901------------------ 33
8.Map showing distribution of Brood XXII, 1902.-------------------- 35
9Map showing distribution of Brood 1--, 1903 ------------------44 36
10.Map showing distribution of Brood V, 1905 --------------------------- 37
Map showing distribution of Brood XVIII, 1907 ----------------------- 41
ap showing distribution of Broods IX and 1,-1908 .------------------ 42
iap showing distribution ofBo~i ;~Brod IV, 1909 ---- .--- -------------- 43
15Map show ing distribution of Broods VI and XI, 1910iiiil~ --i -- 44
ead of Cicada, front view, with right mandible and maxilla drawn ot- 52
22Head and prothorax of Cicada, lateral view, with parts separated to
show structure ----------------------------------------------------- 53
o showing ovipositor and attachments --- ------- 51
.25Tip of ovipositormuchl enlarged----.-.----------------------------- 54
26 ross section of ovipositor. --------------------------------------------. 55
iY8.Pupal galleries of the Cicada -------------------------l------------ 64iii
iCicada scars iiiiin hard-maple tw;igs after seventeen years------- ----. i iiiiii 77i
3. The egg nest of the Cicada, showing nature of wound and arrange-
i ii iii i ii i ; ii ii ii ii ii ii i i iiiiii i ii ii iii i i ii ii ii ii i ii ii ii liliii i iii;iiiiiiiililiili liiiliiiiliiiiliiiiiiiiiliii iiiiiiiiiiliii !iiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiilliiliii iiiilliiliiiliiiliii iiiiiliill
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I~iiiiiI r: i ii iii iii iii iiiiiiiiiiiii iiiii ii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii =! ii i liiiiiiiiiii ii iiliiiiiii;iiiiiiiiii iiii iiiiii liiiiiiiiiiiii iiliiiiliii ili :iiiiiiiliii liiiii i iliiiiliiii iliii i! ii iii iiii iii i i ii i i i iiiil iii iiii ii i i i i
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FiG. 34. Egg, much enlarged, showing young about to be disclosed ............ 8
35. Newly hathed larva, greatly enlarged................................
36 First larval stage, illustrting the larva at the beginning and nd of
this stage --------.... ...-..--- -----.-.-. --..-....-. . .------------ 86
37. Second larval stage, illustrating the structure of the anterior leg ----- 8
38. Third larval stage, illustrating the structure of the anterior le ...
39. Fourth larval stage, illustrating the larva and structe of the anterior
40. First pupal stage, illustrating the structure of a
41. Cecidomyid egg parasite of the Cicada....... ...................
42. Egg parasite, Lathromeris cicadw --. ... -----------
43. Female Megastizus (digger wasp) carrying a Cicada to her burrow
44. Diagram of the burrows of the digger wasp. -. .... -----------------
45. Cicada pruinosa with wasp egg attached to thorax -----------------
46. Full-grown larva of the digger wasp in it burrow eedig on a Cica
47. Larva of digger wasp with anatomical details; pupa of same,
and lateral views............ ...-...... ... .....-...- .......... ...... 1
48. Digger wasp larva constructing its cocoon ..........-----------------... -- 1
49. Cocoon of digger wasp, with enlarged section of breathing pore..... 1-
50. Mite egg parasite, Oribatella sp ........................... .... ....--. 1
51. Mite egg parasite, Oripoda elogata ..-..--...------..--.......-------...----..... ...
52. Mite egg parasite, Oppia l ..........-- ...... .. ... ----------------
53. Mite egg parasite, Pediculoides ventricosus --------------------- 1
54. Mite egg parasite, Tyrogl~yphus sp... ................ -------------------------- ..1
55. Mite egg parasite, Iphis ovalis ......-.........--.................... 1
56. Mite egg parasite, Cheyletus sp ............... ......----------------------------- 1
57. Mite egg parasite, Bdella sp ------------------------------------------ 1
SUMMARY F TH HABITS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
iliii = ======
aor seventeen-year, Cicada, often erroneously called
the sevntbe-yer locust," or merely the locust "-a term which
yto grasshoppers'-is, in the curious featuires of its
lif hitor, udobtedly the most anomalous and interesting of all the
insct J~cuiartothe American Continent. This Cicada is especially
remakabe initsadolescent period, the features of particular diver-
Ssects being its long subterraiean life of thirte..,en or
sevetee yeas, uring all of which time its etistence is unsuspected
andu-nndiate byany suxperficial sign, and the perfect regularity with
whc a the ed oif these periods every generation, though numbering
midualsattains maturityatalmost the same moment.
Tothenaturalist, familiar in a general -way with the peculiar habits of
ular periodic recurrences always arouses the keenest
inteest n acoun of the anomalous life problems presented. To those
i habits, these sudden reurrences not only startle
butoftn ecit te gravest fears for the safety of trees and shrubs or
eveu of annual plants.
In vew f th daage often occassioned by unusual insect outbreaks,
snc fers re ot nreasonable, when, without warning this Cicada sud-
dener greater or smaller areas, filling the ground from
whih i isueswit innumerable exit holes, swarming over trees and
.huig the air vibrate with its shrill, discordant notes.
Durig it shot~arial life it leaves very decided marks of its presence
in te eg slis wich thickly fill all the smaller twigs and branches,
the illng r i juyof which causes some temporary harm. and a sort
ogg uning oespecially injurious to forest trees, but
rees, and very undesirable and disastrous to Young
rstock. (See Pl. 1.)
r hehitoyofth iset the young ant-like larva,
V. btchn gfro th eggs a few weeks later, escapes from the wounded
'Mr.Say nd atetards Dr. Fitch rightly suggest that the name "locust," by
whih i i alostunversally designated, is doubtless from its, suddenly appearing
i~n uchvastnumersat long intervals of time, like the migratory locust or grass-
ii i i i iiii l iii i iii i iiiiiiii~s; ; ;
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= ii~iii ii i i iiiii iiiliii i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiili;iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iliiiiii
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forming-for itself a little subterranean chamber or cell over so
let, where it remains through winter and summer, buried fr
air, and sun and protected in a manner from cold and frost.
in absolute solitude, separated from its fellows, in its moist
chamber, rarely changing its position save as soe accide
nourishing rootlet may necessitate its seeking another. In thi
it passes the seventeen or tbirteen years of its hypogeal exist
dark cell in slow growth and preparation for a few weeks on
society of its fellows and the enjoyment of the warmth and b
of the sun and the fragrant air of early summer. During
period of aerial life it attends actively to the needs of conti
species, is sluggish in movement, rarely, taking wing, and
ever, takes food. For four or five weeks the ale sings his
love and courtship, and the female busies herself for a litt
period, perhaps, with the placing of the eggs which are to pro
subsequent generation thirteen or seventeen years later. At
of its short aerial existence the Cicada falls to the ground a
haps within a few feet of the point from which it issued, to
dismembered and scattered about, carpeting the surface of th
with its wings and the fragments of its body. Such in brief
round of this anomalous insect.
So far as is known, other Cicadas appear every year, usll
paratively small numbers, and this yearly recurrence has le
belief that the larval existence of these species is muh short
limited to a single year. In the absence of direct experiment
however, it may be true that all Cicadas have a long larval e
and the absence of well-marked broods in other species or the
breaking up or scattering of these broods, so that individual
practically every year, have erroneously been taken to in
much shorter term of underground life.1
If we can not satisfactorily explain th reason for the long
of the periodical Cicada or the conditions which led to the orig
peculiarity, assuming it to be abnormal, we can at least se
advantages coming to the species therefrom. Among these
protection from attacks of parasitic enemies, since we can ha
ceive of a parasite limited to this Cicada which could possib1
its existence over an equal term of years. Its occurrence, also
whelming numbers at almost the same moment everywhere w
range of the brood prevents its being very often seriously ch
'The writer recalls that in the summer of 1885 a ery large species of
marinata Say) appeared in considerable numbers amon the scrubby
bordering a stream near Manhattan, Kans., and filled the air with its ver
discordant vibrations; yet, although familiar with and a frequent visito
woods in earlier and later years, no other experience with this particular s
had. It may be, therefore, that this species, which is more than twice the
periodical Cicada, may have an even longer life period.
; ... ~ sr;
-WORK OF THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
a, Fresh wounds in m aple; b, d, e, and f, Condition four months later in maple; e, Wdunds healeinoesan;cThemnt'olsarinwd 'hry,
showing that the punctures may extend both toward the top and base of the twig; g, h, i, j, k ,Ccd cr eete er l ntria riee
f~romi 91d trees; p, h? i? Apple; j, k, 1, Pear
WQ1~e U4"" bi 4""
HABITS AND CHARACTERISTICS.
itisaeral xisene by the attacks of birds and other vertebrate ene-.
n on it in enormous numbers. For this species this is
a is it consideration, for it is naturally sluggish and help-i
les a see. lack almost completely the instinct of fear common
..........sects, which leaves it an easy prey to insectivorous
animls. he amost entire absence of fear and consequent effort to
saveitsef frmldnger by flight or concealment is apparently a con-
ong intervals between its aerial appearances.
The reatst ceck on the species has been in the advent of Euro-
pean onthi cotinent and the accompanying clearing of woodlands
ettlement. The vast areas in the more densely popu-
late Eat, hic were once thickly inhabited by one or the other of
te periodical Cicads, are rapidly losing this character-
istci ndtheCiada will doubtless appear in fewer and fewer numbers
in ll etledditricts. A recent important factor which is assisting
in hisparicuaris the English sparrow, and it has been shown by
Profsso Riey nd later observers that in and about cities nearly all
ias which still emerge under these more or less unfa-
vorabe con itos are devoured by this voracious bird.
The apiddisppearance of the Cicada as a result of the clearing of
forst res, ndthe conditions which accompany settlement, is ntotably
show in he as of Brood I which covers in the main a compact terri-
toryin he vlle of the Connecticut River in the States of Massachu-
in reentleter to the writer, Mr. George Dimmock, who has made
a spcia stdy f this brood in the northern part of the town of Suf-
fiedCon.,sas: "'When I saw them in 1869 the Cicadas were so
small bushes and undergrowth in the rather sparse
Whthey occurred were weighted down with them." In
188 he as uabl to visit the region, but was informed that very few
oftheinsecs apeared that year. In explanation of this he writes:
"Th, wodlndin the vicinity has been steadily reduced and the
Cicada, of wic there are records going back about a century, seem
to b dyng ut.The owner of the land where the Cicadas appeared
(a mn brn n 1152 died in 1892) informed me that the rate of reduc-
tio wa s raidthat he doubted if aniy of them would appear in 1903.7
To the lo er fnature there is something regrettable in this slow
extrmiatin o an insect which presents, as does the periodical
Cicdaso uchthat is interesting and anomalous in its habits and
lif hitor. Dring the long periods of past time the species has
recrre wih bsolute regularity except as influenced by notable
chanes n te ntural topographical conditions and the despoliation
of fress whch as followed the. path of white settlement.. It is inter-
eatngtheefoen thought to trace the history of this species back-
Stime measures its periodic recurrences until in
ossible to fancy its shri notes iarrin on the earsof
.iiN ,,~i"R R; .,
- i"i~: ii ii
.,,,, I~i~~i~ ;~d'i '"ii~l;ls
12 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
by the still earlier discoverers and explorers. Still moreremotely o
followers, ned the soft, newly emerd aa
in time when it had only wild animals as auditors. With these long-
time measures our brief periods of days, weeks, months, and years
seem trivial enough.
THE RACES, BROODS, AND VARIETIES OF THE CICADA.
Much obscurity must always attach to the past history of this insect
and the origin of its peculiar habits, and notably the causes and con-
ditions which have led to the establishment of the long unde
existence and the equally extraordinary regularity in time of emergence
at the end of this period. Explanations may, however, be suggested
for some of its peculiarities as presented in its life at the p
as, for example, the origin of the two distinct races, onewith a 17-
period and the other with a 13-year period, with both of
variety occurs, and the existence of a multitude of distinct broods
occupying the same or different territory and appearing in different
years but with absolute regularity of periods.
A SEVENTEEN-YEAR AND A TIURTEEN-YEAR RAE.
One of the greatest difficulties in solving the problem of the b
of this insect and their geographical limits was removed by the dis-
covery of the existence of two distinct races-namely, one requiring
seventeen years for its development and limited geog hicy,
general way, to the northern half of the range of the species, and
other requiring but thirteen years for it development and co
the southern half of the range of the species.
This interesting and very imprtant fact was first discovered, it
by Dr. D. L. Phares, then of Woodville, Miss., who announced the 13year
period for the southern broods in a local paper-the Woodville (Mis
Republican, May 17, 1845. This paper having only a local circulation,
the significance of this discovery was lost sight of, and probably
came to the attention of naturalists; and it was not until 1868, when
Dr. B. D. Walsh and Prof. V. Riley arrived at the same
and published in a joint article, in the American Entomologist' a mass
of accumulated observations bearing thereon, that the 13year
for the Southern broods came to be generally accepted.
In Professor Riley's first report on the insects of Missouri, published
the following year (1869), thejoint artilejust referred towas
substantially without change, except for a revision of the classification
of the broods, based on data obtained chiefly from a very valuable
Vol. 1, pp. 83-72, December. 1868.
unpublishedmonograph entitled "he American locust," etc., by Dr.
script paper, on the authority of Professor Riley, was com-
ohim by Dr. J. G. Morris, of Baltimore, some four month
aulication of the existence of the 13-year race by Walsh and
ntime for use in the preparation of the article for the First
ort. In it the existence of the 13-year Southern race,
several broods, is fully recorded by Dr. Smith in connection
Sthe specific name tredecim." (See Appendix C.)
existence of the 13-year Southern race was again brought
ene by Walsh and Riley, Dr. Phares published an article
ern Field and Factory, Jackson, Miss., April, 1873, in
ed attention to his earlier publication, cited above, where
e controverted the belief that ther is no 13-year brood,
ertained up to that time by Dr. Smith, with whom Dr.
correspondence,andalsoto an article published May 5
eRepublican, where he used the title "Cicada tredecim.1'
er evidently accepted the conclusions of Dr. Phares and
tem in his last revision of his manuscript memoir, which
ley saw and used. To Dr. Phares, therefore, belongs the
ing made the discovery of the 13-year period for the
ods. Nevertheless, but for the independent work of Walsh
ae knowledge of the facts might have been long lacking,
e upblication of Dr. Smith's monograph,' would have failed
13-year broods was suggested by Walsh and Riley with-
icaarelostaltogethertheauthor himself not being
r themin later years, and the credit for the name tredecim
er race, following the-ustomary rules, should go to Walsh
ery of the 13-year Southern race was of vast assistance
pthe confusion which. had attended the study of the dif-
r enabled Professor iley, with the aid of Dr. mi th's
cease the number of trdecim broods to seven and the total
quces have proven to be valid.
*; i;;; ,li
14 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
other thirteen; hence the impropriety of the specifi name 8eptendecim.
Shall we call the latter icada redei? Why there thiiference in the period
of lives of thetwo t ribes we can not explain. It is not the limate that causes it
as a moment's reflectio will prove. If that were the
more graual For example, in northern New York they
teen year; in Pennsylvania, sixteen; in Maryland an Virginia, fifteen; in North
Carolina and Tennessee, fourteen, and in South Carolina, etc., thirteen years in
completing their existence. But that is not the case. The diff of
place abruptly, on and about the line of 340 and 35 of north latitude o
side of which the period is seventeen years and on the south thirtee
While Dr. Smith is hardly justified in the last statement, it is
theless true that the 17-year race is -northern and the 13-year race i
southern. The territory of the two races is graphically shown in figs.
2 and 3, and is described in detail and mapped for all the broods in a
In this bulletin the two forms of the periodical Oicada have be
designated as "races," adopting the position taken by Profssor Riley
and the majority of the writers on this insect, rather than considering
them to be distinct species, as is held by some specialists. Professor
Riley and others opposed the idea of their being specifcally distinct
not only because of their practical identity in general charae
and habits, but also on the ground of external structure, no material
difference in this respect having been noted between the
although it was known that the individuals did not cross when they
appeared together. Dr. Walsh was very firmly of the opinion, on the
other hand, that they represent two distinct species, yet in a letter Mr.
Darwin he described the 13-year race as an incipient speies, to
for convenience, it is desirable to give a distinctive name. His pub-
lished views on the subject, given in a posthumous paper, ae ot
below.2 Referring to the impossibility of distinguishing species
tain genera by a mere comparison of the perfect specimens, he says:
Upon the same principle I strongly incline to believe that the 17-year frm of
periodical Cicada (C. septendem Linn.) is a distinct species from the 13-year
(C. tredecim (Walsh and Riley3) Riley), although it has been impossible for me, o
the closest examination of very numerous specimens, to detect any specific difference
between these two forms. It is very true that the 13-year form is co to
more southerly regions of the United States, while the 17-year form is generally, but
not universally, peculiar to the Northern States; whence it has been, with
of plausibility, inferred that the 13-year form is nothing but the 17-year f
accelerated in its metamorphosis by the influence of a hot southern climate. But,
1 See Index to Missouri Entomological Reports, Bull. 6, U S. E. C., p.58.
2American Entomologist, Vol. I, p. 33 5.
3Taking the ground that Dr. Pharos can not be credited with the race name
"tredecim" on account of the ephemeral characte of the journal in w
employed it, the credit should go to Walsh-Riley, since the article in the
Entomologist of December, 1868 where itwas next suggeed, ws a joi
torial one, as is sanctioned by Professor Riley himself in the Bibi
nomic Entomology, Part II, p. 61, No. 474.
A SEVENTENYE AND A HiRTEENYEARlRCE. 1
certainly expect that, if the forms belonged to the same species,
theionally terross, whence would arise an intermediate variety hav-
aime of fourteen, fifteen, or sixteen years. As this does not appear
tplace, b on the contrary, there is a pretty sharp dividing line
bits of the two forms, without any intermediate grades of any con-
rthat the iternal organization of the two forms ulust be distinct,
elly, when placed side by side, they are exactly alike. Otherwise,
aon could there be for one and the same species to lie under ground
for nearly seventeen years in one county and in the next adjoining
der ground in the larva state for scarcely thirteen years? I presume
st bigoted believer in the old theory of species would allow that,
proved to his satisfaction that two apparently identical forms are
ly distinct, whether in their external or their internal organization,
arily be distinct species.
urged by Dr. Walsh give a strong basis of probability
of the specifc distinctness of the two races, and particu-
at where the broods overlap there seems to be no inter-
Walsh's position has been recently upheld by Mr.W. H.
states that in a very careful examination of the material
l Museum he has observed small but constant differences
o races in the shape of the last ventral segment of both
sent purpose, however, it seems wiser to consider the
ery feature of structure, coloration, and habit, in the two
hexhibit the single important point of difference repre-
four years' variation in the length of their subterranean-
te matter of interbreeding they may be distinct, as the
to conclusively prove, the two races represent one species
fal purposes and differ in a very striking manner from all
of Cicada. One race is unquestionably the offshoot of
ii=20iiiii 4 2
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....iiiiiiii iiiii i!!i iii=iiiiE iiliiii iiliiii iiiii iiiiiiii iiii ii iiiiiiiiili il;i iiiiiiiiiiiill il i
iii; !iii"~~iii' ~ "";" liiiiiiii iiiiiiii iiliiiiiii illiliiiiiii ii !iiilii l iiiii ii li iiii~iiiiii
iAii iiiiil~iiI iii~ 10 iiiiii!!iiiiiiiiii= iiiiiiii;ii ii~ ;Jiiiiiiiiil i iiiiiiiiiiiii
16 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
during which the insect can thrive and increase in size in the southe
years less time than in the North, where shorter summers and con
quently shorter periods of growth occur The chie
theory, but not necessarily controverting it, are those made by D
Smith and Walsh in the quotations given. The problem is, however,
very interesting one, and some light may be thrown upon it by the o
come of the experiments described under the head following.
RELATION OF OLIMATE TO THE RACES.
The anomaly presented of two distinct periods for the completion
the adolescent stages of the periodical Cicada, exhibited by the l3-ye
and 17-year races8, and its apparent basis in limate led Professor il
to institute some careful experiments in transferring the eggs of t
13-year race, collected in various Southern States, to different loati
in the Nort, and conversely, eggs of the 17-year race collected in
North to localities in the South, to determine the actual influence
temperature or whether the 13-year race would mintain its norm
period in the North and the 17-year race in the South. The object of t
experiment, in other words, was to determine whether the difference
time of development between the two races is really one of climate a
temperature only or whether a fixed characteristic has been acquire
not subject to much, if any, modification with changing temperatu
conditions. That the separation was orginally caused by differene
in climate in different parts of the range of the species can not
doubted, but the fact that the two races often overlap in the adjoini
territory of their respective ranges would seem to indicate that
time period has become in the course of ages a rather permane
The most elaborate experiments in this direction were instituted
the summer of 1885 in connection with the joint appearance that ye
of the 13-year Brood VII, which returns this year, and the 17-ye
Brood XXII, which next returns in 1902.
In some earlier experiments, made in 1881 with the 3-year Bro
XVIII, the eggs distributed were in such condition that it w
ful whether they ever hatched, and the experiment came to nothin
With the later experiments, however, all possible precautions we
observed not only to collect the egg-bearing twigs at the right mome
and to distribute them in fresh, healthy condition, t s bualso th
they were properly placed under suitable trees and that a record w
made in each instance of the exact locality. Futhermore, most of t
transfers were kept under observation for a time to see that the eg
actually hatched and the larva entered the soil in their new situatio
The-record of these transfers is given in detail in the report of t
Entomologist in the Report of the Department of Agriculture
(pp. 254-257). So far as the records relate to the experiment of 18
this data is reproduced in Appendix A.
TE DWARF PERIODICAL CICADA. 17
Shoud te prio of development of the 13-year race be uninfl-
ence-bythe oldr and longer winters of their new location, the
insctshavng urvved, the adults should appear during the present
fr, the greater cold, and especially the longer win-
ter, b te cuseofthe longer period of the northern broods we may
not xpec theaduls to emerge from these plantings of eggs for two,
thre, o pehap for years. It is hoped that the persons who were
intrste wih teseexperiments will keep a sharp lookout for adults
durig th preentand the following three years.
Wit th 1-yer ace (Brood XXII), which wag transferred to vari-
ous oins i th Soth, careful watch should also be kept during the
preentsumer ndthe following four summers for the emergence of
reprsenaties f tis northern brood.
It semsimpobale that the term of development should be entirely
0 chnge in siglegeneration; but that the transfer in question may
n -fuen deelomet to the extent of accelerating the emergence
in ne aseandrearding it in the other for a year or more may be
THE DWARF PERIODICAL CICADA.
In cnnecion it the discussion of the 13-year and 17-year races of
R. he icaa i isintresting to note also that in both races the insect
Occus intwo istnct types, viz, a large form and a Amall form,
theforer ompisng the bulk of the individuals of the brood and
thelater orerar and often unobserved. The existence of these
Je -orl s 1830 by Dr. ildreth, of
Marieta O andwas especially remarked in the great Cicada year
186. Te tpicl arger Cicada (fig. 1, A) measures on an average 1j
inchs frm th hea to the tip of the closed wings and expands over 3
ide of the abdomen is of a dull orange-brown coloriii
and n th mal for or five segments are of the same color on the
back Th smalerform is rarely more than two-thirds the size of
thelarerandusully lacks altogether the light abdominal markings,
ii~ 8ii"i sl""; "' ii iiiiiiii
althughthe ar soetimes represented on the edge of the segments
The sml fr (g. B) was described in 1851 as a distinct species,ii
Cicaa c4.giiiby r. J. C. Fisher .3 The contention that it represents
a ditint secis ws urged particularly on the ground that there exists
a vaiaton i th geitalia, but this variation has since been shown. by
Proessr~iey otto be constant, and specimens are to be found in
botl sies hic prsent the same structure in these parts. In view of
thi fat ad tatthey always occur together in the same brood, the
specficimprtace f the smaller Cicada is not now admitted, and it
'erecor for 1898 are given in Appendix A.
2 iman's Journal, XVIII p. 47.
Pi. Acad. Nat. $. Vol. V. 272.
iiiiii iiii~ iiiiiiiiiiiiiii .......................... n N HHHNN N ....................
===iii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii :,, iiii~ i : I liiiiii~ iiiiiiiiiiiii; iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
............ ;I iiii ii i sri;;lr,, iiii~ s J,,i,0 i i iiiiii
................ iiii ii iii l x ~i i~ iiiiiiiiii
~~~~ii i iiiiii!i iiii iiiiiiiilliii
"ii"ii ii iiiiii ii .ii!~ ii ii
.:,,,,,,"'i iii iiii~ iiiii
iii;::I'I"~ iiii iiiN iii iiiiiiipii
.;~iiol;siaaIBli; ;ii;nIaii .......... i u~!iii= i~ii .r :::::::::::
,,,,;;,iiiiii,,i % i ::::iiiiiiiiiiii= === i iiiii:.,,,,,
~:;iii;ii~i: li;,:;iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii;;r;;; ::iiiiiiiii ,;,;;;;r %,
iiiiii iiii i iiiiiii;;"
i" ::: " " "iii iii '" i i !i;ii ii iiiiiiii
iiiiiii iiiiiiiiii iiii ==iiiiiiii~ii~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
;;il;;:,slri ii iiii~,"Z iiii iiiiiiii iii ii~ i
NIi iiA~t iiiiii
iiiil ii iiiiiii
18 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
is supposed to represent a dimorphic form of the larger and entitleda
Certai'n divergences, however, may be noted in the dates of appe
ance and the habits of the two forms. The larger one appears soi
days; correspondingly also t
of the former have been fou
..and were not at all fra
The small Cicadas are also
in h t ntin habit .,, not le
form-natural size; c, 4, genital hooks--enlarged; g, paies in orchard, or
singg apparatus-natural size; B, male of the mall thickets lon the s
form (ca-seinii)-natural size; -e, f, genital ooks-en-
larged (after Rley and Hagen). and moist places. It has a
been noticed that the males
the small form have a somewhat different song note, and this last var
tion seems to have been fully confirmed.'
The nomenclature of the species, variety, and races of the
Cicada adopted by the writer is as follows: The Linnean speci
Cicada septendecim, with the tredecim race of Walsh and Riley, and
dimorphic variety cassinii of Fisher.
THE BROODS OF THE PERIODIAL CICADA.
The subject of the broods of the periodical Cicada presents a n
of interesting fields of inquiry, such as the consideration of the
of the broods, their chronological history and classification, and th
exact geographical limits or distribution. These topics will be ta
up somewhat in detail, with the exception of the chronological hist
of the appearances during the last two hundred y an
ing voluminous historical records, which, for reasons to be later not
have been largely omitted.
THE ORIGIN OF THE BROODS.
It is not necessarily true, but it is a reasonable inference, that in
early period of the existence of the periodical Ci on
it was represented by a single brood. Assuming this to have been
'See Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc., Phil., Sept., 1851, Vol. V, 273-275.
THE ORIGIN OF THE BROODS. 19
t icada would have appeared everywhere over its range in the
ear and probably at about thme time. In the long course of
Sth the consequent important changes-geograpie, climatic,
graphi-this origial brood became gradull broken up into
oods, with constantly increasing divergence in the dates of
ance, so that at the present time nearly every year has its brood,
ds, each of which is limited, as i a rule, to well-defined districts,
ch reappearing at the proper intervals with absolute regularity.
upward of twenty broods which have been differentiated, most
Shave been carefully studied, chronological records collected,
e limits of distribution fairly well determined. For convenience
rence, these broods have been designated by Roman numerals
Teorigin of distinct broods in an insect possessing as long a
ping period as the one under discussion is not difficult of expla-
It is a well-known phenomenon in connetion with insect life
hatever may be the period of development of a species, certain
uals will often, for some reason or other, such as insufficient
stable food, -unfavorable temperature, or other conditions, be
d or retarded, while others, for reasons the converse of the last,
condion excepionally fvorable, will devlop more rapidly
be accelerated and appear earlier. Therefore, under the former
c ions w have a longer and under the latter conditions a shorter
sis true to a slight degree at the present time of the periodical
, and especially with the larger broods has it been noticed that
ing individuals appear the year before and others the year after
the eat brood year. It is not diffcult to imagine, therefore, that
exceptional conditions some of the earlier appearing individuals
-later ones may occur in suffcient numbers to establish a well-
m d pecliarity in thisdirection and form a new brood appearing a
lier or a year later than the original oe. If i the long course
es some accident should happen to the parent brood in that
of its range the derivative brood might be left to hold the
as, fo example, the 13-year Brood VI, which last appeared in 18979 is
ind uals from the southern end of Brood VII, with a 13-year period
of old brood resumed the normal 13-ear period.
;ni; . i i i i i i iIii:ii i iiii i iiiiiiiii~ i i i i ))) ) ) ) ) )))))))) ) )) ) )))))) )) ) )))) ) ) ) ) ))) )
)) ) ) ))) )))))) ))))))))))))) )))))) )) )))) ) ) ))))))) )) )) )))) )))))) ) )))))))) )) )) )))))))) il, ;))iiiiiiiiiiiiiis: ;; iii~iii iiii~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~~~~i)iiiii~~~iiiiiiii ii iiii)~~iiii iiii iiiiiiiiii~ ii iiiii~ ii~ ii iiiii
!===)) )i I)))))i)i! ii i iiiiiii iiiiiiii ii~lii iliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigiiiiilillii i. == =: ii iiiiiiiii ii)) i ""iiii"; ii;;iii~i~~~) iiiiIi~iiI S iiiii ~~i1 0 g iiiiiiiii iiiiiii;!iii iiii i)iiiiiiiiiiii)iiliiiiiii
I)" i I;) ,,:ir iiiiiiiiiii ii))i!)i ~Bi;iii~ iii~ii~ iiiiii)iii~i~i
;; s ii ii ciii~ iiii iii iiii fiii - s 1iii
Another marked instance of the same kind is shown in the relatio
between Brood I and Brood XXII, the former being merely an app
di orcontini i i
pied by the eastern branch of Brood XXII, which always preces
broods are indicated in the discussion of the distribution of the i
Local or temporary conditions which have caused a moderate chan
in the time of emergence of the icada are on re
instance resulting from an artificial heating of the soil by hot pip
(see p. 62). A similr instance is suggested by Mr. hwar.
menting on the slightly earlier emergene ofindivid s o
woods, Mr. Schwarz urges that a clearing made in the midst of a de
forest forms a natural hothouse, the soil receiving in such places m
more warmth than in the shady woods. That the Cicadas sh
appear a little earlier in such situations is not remarble, ad he
gests also that under favorable circumstances the Cicada might deve
on such cleared places oneor several years in ad ceof t
time, and that these precursors, if numerous enough, wo be able
form a new brood.
It is possible to conceive also of condtions which would
acceleration or retardation in the development of an entire brood
broods of the Cicada, such as variation in climaticondi
ical changes, or changed conditions of the topography of the count
including the character of the vegetation.
In this or other ways, at any rate, the icada has become
into a large number of distinct broods, often coveringiffe ti
but not necessarily so doing, each, however, maintaining
regular time of appearance.
The slight but constant tendency to variation which h
existence the roods now so well marked, continued indefin
so break up and scatter te present broods as to ultim y
them altogether, and the overlapping of districts and the v
time of appearance would lead to a rather general ocu
year of the periodical Cicada throughout its range, the long period
development, however, still persisting. Anticipating such
from the intermixture and overlapping merely of different broods,
Smith (Smith MS.) rather mournfully says: In those times, if th
sayings of mine should be thought of, they will be ridiculed as a s
stitious legend of the olden ties ."
THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE BROODS.
The earlier writers on this insect, as Prof. Nat. Potter, r. Har
and Dr. Smith, classified the broods solely according to the
of their appearance. In Smith's unpublished register every yeal
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., I 230.
of the Rocky Mountains became known, and be gives the
.Asa Fitch introduced a numbering system for the different
rding nine altogether; but his data on the distribution of
rstanding of the broods in tbi country is substantially
y Professor Riley in 1869, which supplanted the Walsh-
ration of the year before, and is based in part on Dr.
uscript and on the abundant data and information which
iley collected in 1868, when the joint occurrence of the
roods, respectively, of the 17-year and 13-year races, gave
orable opportunity for study and historical research. In
e an entirely new set of numbers was given to the broods.
sessitated by the fact that the earlier writers, with the
Dr. Phares and Dr. Smith, were unaware of the existence
iern 1.3-year race, andecessariily much confusion of broods
Sthe twenty-two broods enumerated by Dr. Riley in 1869,
bservations have established the validity of twenty-one,
fnging to the 17-year race and seven to the 13-year race.
Svary enormously in their extent, some of them being
erritory extending over several States together.
Sall of the broods of the, Cicada which actually occur on
t. The scattering examples of this insect which, while
mber sometimes appear on other than icada years may
either on the ground of acceleration or retardation of
broods which have not been recognized as such and may
d in the process of formation or of extinction. A brood
i is seventh report (pp. 297-301) and was represented by
inJe 1890. NI a letter to Dr. Lintner Professor Riley, refer-
rocurrence, says: "I Wree with you that the Tivoli Cicada
ferred to Brood VIII, and if they were numerous enough
da brood they would form one hitherto unrecorded." He
1bs," ad concludes: 4"1t issafe to say that we know now
22 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
is more than probable that in many places a few and sattered speci-
mens will appear in off years which can not be recorded as precursors
or belated specimens to any of the established broods, and which can
not; properly be called a brood."' (1. ., p. 300.) .
Mr. W. T. Davis records the occurrence of scattering individuals on
Staten Island in both 1890 and 1892, neither of which is a Cicada year.
These may have been of accelerated or retarded individuals, but possi-
bly represent ither remnants of broods or insignificant broods not
It may be mentioned also in this connection that all of the warms
or local colonies assigned to any particular brood, either of the 17year
or the 13-year race, need not necessarily have had a common origin, and
quite as probably came into existence independently of each other or
as offshoots of distinct broods. This is especially liable to be true of
broods comprising widely separated swarms, or colonies, as does for
example Brood XVII of this year.
The largest brood of the 17-year race is Brood XXII, which appeared
last in 1885 and has been well recorded over awide extent of country
since 1715. The largest 13-year brood is o. XVIII, and made its last
appearance in 1894. It has also a long chronological history and is
well recorded. These two broods occurred in conjunction in 1868,
which thus became the great Cicada year of the century.
THE BROODS APPEARING IN 1898.
The early summer of 1898 will witness the recurrence of two broods
of the periodical Cicada, viz, 13-year Brood VII, which is the second
largest of the 13-year broods, and 17-year Brood XVII, a scattering
brood occurring in comparatively small colonies over a wide extent of
territory, and therefore not of great importance.
Brood VII made its last appearance in 1885. It extends over a broad
belt of the country, chiefly bordering the Mississippi River, but also
occurring in isolated areas in adjoining States. The main belt reaches
from southwestern Illinois and western Kentucky southward, covering
a large portion of western Tennessee and much of northern and cen-
tral Mississippi. There are numerous outlying colonies extending over
northern Louisiana up through Arkansas and Missouri and two isolated
colonies in Georgia. Special interest attends the recurrence of this
brood the present year on account of the experiments, referred to in a
preceding section and in Appendix A, concerning the transfer of eggs
made in its last appearance in 1885, giving it supposedly and artificially
Brood XVII of the 17-year, or Northern, race is represented by com-
paratively small colonies in New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania,
orth Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia (), Ohio, llinois, Michigan,
1 Proc. Nat. S. A88s'n of Staten Island, Vol. IV, p. 15, February 10, 1894
ab based on a confusion of this with some other species of Cicada.
Thedistributions of Broods XVII and V1 is shown in fig. 4.'
ing the next seventeen years broods of the 17-year and 13-year
Year. 17-year 13-year Year. 17-year 13-year
18 8 .. .. .. .......... X VII VII 1907. ------ --------- -....... i i .......... -X VIII
1904 ....................... .... .......... 1 .......... 11913 ---------------.---------- X V -----
1 5 .... ............... Y .......... 1914 -- -- -..--...-- -- - x v X
1906......................... VIII XVI 1915 ........... .............. XVII ..........
Itwile noticed that, as a rule a 17-year race and a 13-year race are
a ated in the same year. This is purely accidental, and in point
t the same two broods could only come together at very long
a of te. Taken as a time measure, the recurrence of a joint
rance of any one of the 17-year with any one of the 13-year broods
such broods a lapse of more than two centurie is ecesary.
ample The great Cida year of 1868 will not be duplicated
by the joint recurrence of the same broods until the year 2089,
perhaps the increase of settlement and the changed character of
vegetation and sperficial conditionis over their respective ranges may
ntirely eliminated them, except for stragglers. The broods which
in167 ad will ot again come together until the year 2119.
toflltsdetail'g the chronological records
t, are numerous, and are summarized in Appendix D, p. 146.
Ni;I ~~ ,.~
24 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
on which they are established, and revising, supplementing, and bri g
ing down to date all the facts which have been accumulated bearing
on this subject. The carrying out of this plan was prevented by along.
illness of Mr. Schwarz, and in place therefore of this more elaborate.
revision, I have prepared a brief description of the different broods,
merely sumarizing the distribution by States and counties, an
omitting the voluminous historical and chrpnological records on which
this distribution rests. Th data for these summaries is based on the
rather full accounts given in Buletin No 8 of i
mented, however, by the local studies mad by entolo
others in various Statesz and particularly the rather voluminous records,
collated and classified by r. Schwarz, obtained by the Department,
chiefly in answer to cirulars sent out from time to time. The data
relative to Broods VI and XV, last appearing in 1897, and VII and
XVII of the present year, is taken from circulars published by Mr.
Scwarzin 1897 and 188, ith such additions to the 18
the records of that year made necessary.
It is sincerely to be regretted that Mr. Schwarz was unable peae
the data of all the broods and to give their very interesting chrono-
logical history. His long familiarity with the sbject would have
enabled him to form a much more critical and correct judgment of
value of the records bearing on distribution than could wri
it is hoped that in a future edition of this bulletin this section may be
replaced by matter prepared by Mr. Schwar, asoriginally planned.
The numbering of the broods, as noted elsewhere, is that gi
Professor Riley in 1868, and was bas on the sequence of their a
ance after that date. This numbering has been generally ado
it would be very unwise to alter it for purposes of tempor con
ience. Brood III is nonexistent, having been originaly founded on
record since proven to have been an error.
Of the broods as now accepted, sixteen were separated in the Walsh
Riley paper of December, 1868 (Am. Ent. Vol. I, pp. 68-70). These
broods were afterwards renumbered by Prof r Riley, as elsewhere
explained (p. 21), and six additional broods added. The Walsh-ile
Broods I to XVI, inclusive, as now numbered are as follows: I, LI V V
VIIVIII, IX, XII, XII, XIV, XVXVII, XVIIXX, XXI, and XXII.
Of Riley's additions, Broods II, IV, X, XI, and XVI, and XIX
the most part, are based on Dr. Smith's register as the notes in t
First Missouri Report, and in Bulletin No. 8 of this Division indicate.
The nine broods listed by Dr. Fitch in 18552 compared with the broods
as now numbered e as follows: ..
Brood 1 equals XII, 2 equals XX, 3 equals VIII and XVIII, 4 equals
XXII, 5 equals VII and XV, 6 equals V, 7 equals XII,8 eq
and 9 equals 1.
See Appendix C.
2First Report, p. 39-40p.
of the ida years and localities
........ .ii= ,,i..... ii i,==H ,===p= =H = H =
aps have been prepared, and are introduced as text ii iiii
figuesilustatig (1) the general range of the 13-year broods, (2) the
rane o th 17year broods, and (3) a series of 16-year maps illustrat-
ing he istibuion of the- different broods during the next sixteen
y bginningwith the year 1898.
Theprin of these maps and the careful listing of the distribu-
t oiftiib d by States and counties is largely the work of Mr.
i. iiiili::i:iiii iiiiiiiliiiiiiiiii iiiiiii;iiiiiiii i : : N ii
S. Clftonof his office.
THE ENER-L ANGE OF THE SPECIES AND OF THE TWO RACES.
Takig al th different broods together, this Cicada is known to
occu prttygenrally within the limits of the United States east of the
SOU-r" A kT i
01 Go A
ihi a noriiii in iiiiiiiiii i neoiiiiiiii other woi, it d
sii88iiliiil~;ilii""ilPiiix iii;ii lliii ...i iiii.iiiiiiiiiiiii. :::: : iii...i.iiiii ii ii
ii I i e iinwic iiii feW~~s growth is l
Ae 8 oies IK Ah tteoRodIsflVandthrer
iiii ofteicureieoiti incbt cioc
ad als iiso n r0 Aall )iiiiRiv ad o M h V
sy this may be soimplyfro lac ofobsevaton o th
s n kn n ~in; the peninsula f lorida ltho gh itiii iiiiiiii
heecouieoth t ui bn r
ii~s~~~~~ irsN i iiij i
"~"""'"""l iiiii::: ';iiliiiiiiiiiii,
;; iiiiii~ii~i':;iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii; ,
i i iiiiiiiiii iiii iiiiliiiiiiii iiiii iiiiiii iiiiiiiii
ii:: i ii~~~liiiiiiiiiiii ;
ii~iIIII..:i. iii":;"'" s iriii:'; ii'
s,iii;; sR ;a, i=;; """" at
N,,, S Aii Si .
tA ,s;; ,
0~: l rii~~llii,,,, rir r~, ~ 1 ;~ ;;ii~s
;A R A44 %OUT
V, 0 14r
X A C,~
+s ;, ii;;;
FI.2-Mpshwig itrbuio f hebros f he1-yarrae
Rocky ountais. No roods ave ben foun in nothern ew Eng
land~northernMichigan nor n Minnesota;or, in other ords, it doe
fat ha te peimn ae ewinnube adno lkey o e otd
'In he outhit s nt knwn n te peinsla o Flrid, alhouh i
oems iu the northwestein counties of the State, but its absence here
26 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
* Iui ii a: i i : ri '"i i "i :'';.B '-. -""T? = .l t' ^ .... '"'r '
may be explained by the emergence of this peninsula from the oean
in recent geologic times and also, perhaps, to the unfavorable charac-
ter of the soil and climates a whole. Its western limits are central
Colorado and western Texas. Beyond the Rocky Mountains no broods
are known, with the exception of the doubtful brood recorded as ocr-
ring along the northern slope of the Big Horn Mountains of western
Wyoming and Montana, on the Paci
The terrjtory covered by the periodical icada is gy
rated, in general view, by the two maps showing
and 17-year races, respectively. (Figs. 2 and 3). A brf eamiat
of these maps develops the very interesting and suggestive fact that if
**i 1- ,,J*
D R ANsA o
'pp 1* 0 . byA
northward in Illinois and Missouri of the 13-year race shold fill a
exactly a region little if at all occupied bs of the 17-
This circumstance has a special significance when it is remambere
the northward of the 13-ear is
and VII, and that the records of the former were collected
r "- '" s
Walsh and Riley in 1868, when this brood was in conjunction with e
VII was also in conjunction with this same rood XXII, the
Sfit toge r a g tr a n s s Ts i
which, curiously enough, stop rather suddenly at or the e
State line of Illinois. The 3ossibility is is b a y r
. . ...
properly belong to Brood XXII.i
m will be better understood if the maps depicting the
ritory of the broods concerned be examined. The records
d I of 1885, which might have settled the question, were, as
rendered somewhat uncertain on ccoun of the joint
at year of Brood VII, although in general they seem to
had the previous records. At any rate, there is still sufficient
qothe a racy of the distribu'tion of the several broods
warrant the taking of considerable pains to secure accurate
d of their distribution on the occasions of their next
f Brood VII, it is hopedthat thetrue range will be
e other scattering records of 13-year broods northward
l range of the 13-year race,and similarly of the 17-year
ward, may possibly be based on small and unimportant
so of the individual broods is undoubtedly much greater
Snow assigned, since the records are largely based on the
hich undoubtedly extend over a much greater territory
andpassunnoticed. An illustration of this is given the present
and in adjacent territory in Virginia, probably referable
td, although -this brood has never before been recorded
i RELATIONHIP OF HE DIERENT BROODS.
the maps of the several broods emphasizes what has been
ggested on the subject of their relationship in point of
Sthe ground of time of appearance.
SXV which succeeds it. Brood 1 is undoubtedly a
28 THE PERIODICAL ICAA.
section of Brood XVIII retarded one year, just as Brood X is a
accelerated swarm of the same. Both, curiously enough, represent
eastern extesion of the parent brood.
Brood IV, separated from Brood XVIII by two years, seems to bear
little relationship to the latter, and it is possible that a re logical
VI, of which lat it may be considered as an eastern and northern
extensio. Brood VI, as indicated elsewhere, is a very notable instance
of the formation of a new brood by what is undoubtedly an acceleration
intime of appearance of a portion of larger and-older brood. Its
relationship with Brood VII is very marked and can not be questioned.
As shown above, the 13-year broods eem to divide themselves nat-
urally into two sections, one related closely to Brood XVIII, and the
other connected with Brood VII.
The relationships of Bo broods of the 17-year race are somewhat
more obscure, but here also it is seen that if the enumeration begins
with Brood XI the broods follow each other in regular succession f
eleven consecutive years. Then, after a break of one year, follows
Broods V and VIII, and after another break of one year Brood IX,
which last, however, is a very doubtful and unimportant brood and
may not belong to the 17-year race. Taking up these broods inorder,
beginning with Brood X,, their relationships seem to be as follows:
The main body of Brood XI occupies territory immediately west of
the more imiportant Brood XII, and also presents a number of colonies
extending westward to Colorado. Broods XI and XII seem, therefore,
closely allied in point of origin.
Brood XIII presents little, if any, relationship to the last in point of
location and distribution, but is closely allied to the following Brood
XIV, which seems a western and southern extension of XIII.
Brood XV presents little relationship with Brood XIV in point of
distribution and covers a very compact territory.
Brood XVII, being a widely scattered one, and occurring usually in
small nunibers, does not seem to present any particular relationship
with any of the preceding or following broods.
Brood XIX is local in distribution and ot very important, and is
divided into two sections by the territory occupied by the following
Brood XX, with which it thus seems to be closely allied. Brood XXI
is very distinctly a southern extension of Broods XX and XIX, TIhese
three broods seem, therefore, to be closely allied in their origin, and,
curiously enough, occupy territory which divides the two main sections
of the great 17-year Brood XXII, which next follows in regular succes-
sion. Brood I, following XXII, is evidently an extreme northeastern
extension of the latter.
Brood V, which follows Brood XXII after an interval of two years,
would seem naturally in point of distribution to be a western extension
of the latter, but the two years' difference in time gives it a rather
..... : N N ::N: }2
e~ir~~oa~" .o :~ :[
to V an surouds, in a way, the territory occupied by the latter, and
alsoextnds eatward to the coast.
Broo IX asalready stated, is very doubtful, the Colorado locality
perapsbeig de to confusion with some other species, and the other
recrdsperapsdue to confusion-with the 13-year race.
It wll b see therefore, that the 17-year race divides- itself up into
reltedbrodsas follows: Broods XI and XII; XIII and XIV; XV;
XVII; IX, X, XXI, XXII, and 1; V and VIII, and IX.
THE ANG OFTHE WELL-ESTABLISHED BROODS, TAKEN IN THE
ORDER OF PUTJTRE APPEARANCES.
In he ollwig description of the broods, they are taken up in the
chrooloica, oder of their appearance as indica~ted by the table given
=iiiii!=. ..... ... iiliiiil ; = iiii i W n .. .. =Y ii iiisiiii!iii ii = ii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
iiiiiiii =ii iii ii=iiiii: i ;o;
anyofth miiph'ich accompany the ..
I SOUTHr,,, ,
A KiiTA z I SIN
irn 1 li i ii;ya raenohrwodweee
....11 nd114 r notiiownio theiiisio thos
Ben~~~c aled eitdo h asfr 188ad 91
II ;ai~ns~iil:i iiiiiiiii"~"iiii iii
i~a"""i~ iii.. 1I1i igin
;;-; I i ~i,,,~'"i ; ;' l i'; dlR
ii iiiiiiii ,
rllPP~IilP: iili"""""" ii H~lili: ............................
'";'IIiii~i i\ iiiii
N~"~ ,, 11~~
s~~"; 'I"""" % 0
P~i .'I. , Di
0 W A;;i~:i~;~ ii:i,l,*; :
E A It A _YL-VV
1,LL NO ijjIS;;;;is - ;' A it ;: ?
A 0!"":i:ii I
A. E S,,,; ?" ;;R
4, + A FI() ~ t~z
V 0 R G Ii
_j::;, ;; ,
E A C,,,;u
Aj i~;~ ~ ~i;'r ~ ui" i
FIC1. 4.--Ma showing disribution of roods X 11 ad VII, 1898
013 pae 23. any ofthe mas whic accomany th descrption
includeboth a17-yearand a 3-year ace; i other ords, heneve
brodds of boh race occurin thesame yar the are cmbinedon on
ma. heditrbuio o te rodsofth 1-yarraeis~i indctdb
the lac diss ad inerrgatin pints th later eferingto dubt
.-fullocaltiesand f the13-yer rac by irclsadcrsete latter~i
marl~ng th doutful ecors. Th 13-yar Boods II ad X, ecur
ringrespctivly, n 1.1.1 nd 114, re -ot. hownon te mas ofthos
years, havingsbeen already depiced on the maps for 1898 and 1901
BROOD XVII.-Septendecim-1898. (Fig. 4.)
Our Brood XVII is Brood No. 7 of Fitch and II of Walsh-Riley.
In Circular No. 30, second series, of this Di 'ision, Mr. Schwarz describes
East, and along the Allegheny Mountains to North Carolina, but the comparatively
few loeaities on record are more widely scattered and isolated from eh other than
in any other 17-year brood. It seems more than probable that our knowledge of
the extent of the brood is very imperfect, so that nothng can be said at present
regarding the relation of this brood to other broods Of the
above, Summit and Vinton counties, Ohio, as well as Ohio County, W.
probably incorrect, the records being apparently based upon stragglers of Brood
XV (1880-1897), which appears always oneyear before Brood XVI The
occurrence of the periodical Cicada along the northern slope of the Big o u
tains of Montana and Wyoming is probably based upon a confusion with some othe
species of Cicada.
The distribution, by States and counties,is as follows:
New York.-Richmond (Staten Island), Westchester.
North Caroli a.-Western portion (no specified localities).
Ohio.-Ashtabula, Summit (? ), Vinton (??). ,
Pennsylvania.-Dauphin, Lancaster, Northampton (and adjoining counties), Phil
delphia (Germantown), Westmoreland.
West Virginia.-Ohio (Wheeling) ( ). :
Wioi.-Columbia, Dane, reen Lake, La Crosse, Marquette (), Sak.
BROOD VII. -Tredeci-1898. (Fig 4.)
This brood is Fitch's Brood No. 5 and Brood V also of Walsh-R y.
Mr. Schwarz describes its distribution as now known (Circular No. 0
second series, Division of Entomology) as follows:
Of the various 13-year broods that are recorded, only two are of largeexte
Brood XVIII (1881-1894-1907) and the present brood. Both occupy the Missi
Valley from northern Missouri and southern Illinois to Louisiana, but while Broo
XVIII occurs also in many other localities throughout the other outhern tate
far east as Virginia, the present brood seems to be confined t the Mississippi Val
with the exception of a detached area in Georgia, which, however, has never b
confirmed beyond doubt. In the Annual Report of the U. S. Department of Ag
culture, the geographical distribution of Brood VII has been disussed and illus-
trated by a map. Since that year very little additional information has
obtained. The only locality in Indiana (Posey County) rests upona record re
in 1885, and is, in all probability, not correct. There is also a vague repor, received
in 1885, of the occurrence of this brood in Saint Clair County, Ala.
The distribution, by States and counties, is as follows:
drkansas. -Arkansas, Chicot, Columbia, Cross (and adjacent counties), Desha,
Franklin, Izard, Jackson, Jefferson, Marion, Mississippi, Phillips, Prairie, Pulaski,
Saline ( ), Searcy.
Reported this year from Burk, Caldwell, Macon, McDowell, and Linc
N. C.; Oconee County, S. C.; Champaign and Daware c i Ohii
Montgomery counties, Md.; Fairfax County, V., and the District of
summary of the records for 1898 is appended to this buletin.
UNE OF BROODS IN ORDER OF FUTURE APPEARANCES. 31
Geogia-Cobl *(1), Coweta (1), Dekalb (?),. Gwinnett (1), Meriwether (1),
Illnoi.-Aexander, Jackson, Maeoupin, Madison, Perry, Pike, Randolph, Scott,
Unio., W shinton(??).
i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiil.i:iii iiiiiii: l~; ;~~
-Barren (?), Graves, Trigg.
Lou~sina.Boasser, Caldwell, East Carroll, Franklin, Madison, Morehouse, Red
hI ii = == i =i =;; HH ;~ iii
Rivr, ichand, Washington, West Carroll.
M~imppi-Alcorn,, Amite, Bolivar, Calhoun, Carroll, Claiborne, Coahoma, Copiah,
Frnklin, Hinds (and adjoining counties), IssiiqeiiiiJi1~asper, Lafayette,
Lawenc, Lncoln, Madison, Marshall, Montgomery, Newton, Panola, Quitman,
Rankin~u (nadoining counties), Scott, Simpson, Smith, Tate, Tiishomingo, Webster.
M A ARA A
id iiii iiii.ii
it'i;;..- M a biiioairi iiii on oif o iiiii iiiiiii iiiiiii
ii ,.,,,,;;;;;i l :IPI BB ;
BetoCarll hetrGoce itD vidson=== ,iDeiliiiiiriiiDiiiilioiiili Di ier ii
oOol ii fepkle iiiiii ii
'B iii!,' Hil ;Y il I I "= ii
ii !iiiiii I iiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
4 was foiun iii 12 by ro s r iy n 8 o Dmt
.;,i??;;iiii :; i iiiiiiii iiiiii iiiiiiiiiiii
a~~~ ~I in wetr Ne Yr
.......... iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ii =
iiiiiiiiii"iiiiiiii :;:iiiiiii ililiiliiiiiilii iii
li:8p~l ';; 11iiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiilii;
,,, ., ;ii;:iiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
l r iiiiiiiiiiiiii
summary ofTA t recordsf
.ool-:l iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i i
:,, ;iii'""iiEit "i""ii ii l
ii ii ii i ii ii ii i
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iii ii ii ii ii ii ii
iiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ii
ii ~ $~:11
` iiiiiiiii iiiiiisiiii i iiiiiiiii;ii~iii: i! iii" ,iiiiiiii"iii"iiiiiii
ii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii '';;;';" !!!! !!!!!! ~ll
; iiiis iiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ii i ,p~ ; l; i iiiiiiiiiiiiii
.i .........: i!iil ,i~iiiii~ iiiiii li iiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
'" l iiii~"" iiliiiii iil ' ni"
;,,ii s ;io iiiiiii iiiii iii
,iiiiiiiiiiiiii, a, ,,iiio, ,,iiiiii
; iiiiiii'i iiiiiiii !iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiI iiiiiiiii~ iiiiii
M A e,
ILL N""""'I08 1 L_1
N S A~~ li~ i" ~ ;'' :
ii;;s ,; S a i U R Iir; P""ii
QiII~li ;i":;:pi;l:. ~i
4F F RTrs,.: r"~r r~-r,:iir~rr s rri
T IE N N F.
32 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
Pot nsylvania.-Allegheny, Wa8bington.
BROOn XX.-Septedeci m-1900. (Fig. 6.)
This is Fitch's second brood, which he described as oc ring
western New York, western Pennsylvania, and eastern Ohio, and
B X oWier----4 I
I '" a \+ A
I ; I AR
i -, I e TR0'
^-,i ,_ -i A^^ i
is one of e s ler broods and sn h
i Sr | Jr 'Dir." .-.
attention on i last ai 18. I r
northern portion of 6.-Map showing f Broo XX
Th~e widy sep d swa oc n
Bmerly to X of WaFlsh-e, nley. Dr. .
It is one of the smaller broods -and. seems-not to
attention on its in 1883. Ita
brood, and has been well recorded since the tie f s.
The swarms in western New York have
Slocation, ut they are sto in or
AK. ^^ I* T1 E N N A- E *W
in fact, a report of the ppearanceof the Cicad in
was give in the ew York Her ut cot
_j Lo~~ii lll
teritry inth min s esribd y itc, it th adiionofth
norhen orio o WstVigiia
wasgien n heNewYok Hra(T bu culdno b veifed
'""iii" i ii iiiliiii
RIANGE1R MO gIi OF IBRO IEiN U RAii iiiii
17-yar ace..ad bth probably are based on. confusion of some of the
annualsfhe ida with the periodical species.
The istibuion by States and counties, as now known is as follows:
New Yrk.-Cautaqua (1).
O. m Carrii oll, Columbianaii i Jefferson, Mahoning, Trimibull.
Pe~nsyvana.-ymtrong, Beaver, Butler, Cambria, Clarion, Foreat, Huntingdon,
Mcer, Snyder, Venango, Washington.
South Caro lina.-Barnwell (_?).
BROOD XXI.--Boptendecims-1901. (Fig. 7.)
In te minthi brood (XV Walsh-Riley) covers a rather compact
t e from the Southern part of West Virginia across
iio ,isiii ;t,"'"n ;
ihiiiili iidiiireio fr Loioiiouii tyii i n t iiii
iiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiineiiii i.. 1 8 33I.........
LL iIdicate the e iste c o
0 4jr F .4ko
T -E N N Ei i;~':i;i 8,~;; i ;;.
r\ J6" '"
0 o uT:.riirEiiiil;iB~ " x
% jAR K A NsA.77- 5;~iitiii,,li;li
iiiuiii;;i~a~~;rl I ':;;;;ci:
Ct""'";";" ; i;;~ l~ii' :; ;l "
;;si; ,G E 0 A G IE
_j on r.
0"' I 1 l~~~
E X A "~.;
Ft, .-apabwig isriutonofBrod X ndX,191
Virginia into Norh Carolina. A vey doubtful record referred to thi
bro~od~is given for Oio, and a record fromLondoun County, in th
AF have been based on precursors of Brood XX since it is so widely Sep-r:;
arated from the main swarm.
Theocurrnc ofasar onMatha Vneyrdin1837 s rcode
bj r.Haris -oul idiateth eistnc ofths roo o tat slnd
34 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
The records of subsequent appearances, however, have shown the date
mentioned to have been unquestionably an error for 1832, which refers
the swarm to Brood XX.
The distribution, by States and counties, is as follows:
North Carolina.-Alleghany and Wilkes.
Virginia.-Bland, Craig, Franklin, Giles, Grayson, Henry, Loudoun, Montgomery,
Pulaski, Roanoke, Smyth.
We8t Virgin ia.-Greenbrier, Monroe, Raleigh, Summers.
BRooD X.-Tredecim-191. (Fig. 7.)
The existence of this brood rests on the single statement of Dr.
Gideon B. Smith, to the effect that he was informed that the insect
appeared in vast numbers in parts of Texas in 1849, but that he was
unable to get any particulars. No confirmation of the occurrence of
this brood in Texas was gained either in 1875 or in 1888. Its existence,
therefore, at least in Texas, is very doubtful.
Dr. D. L. Phares furnishes a record of the occurrence of Cicadas in
Louisiana in 1875, as follows:
About the 10th of June, coming up the Mississippi River from New Orleans, at
Bayou Sara, I heard of a family of Cicadas in West Feliciana Parish, La., near the
river and south of Bayou Sara. I requested the gentleman to get what history be
could of them and send me specimens. I have received nothing from him except
the specimens I send herewith-all dwarfs, or perhaps a distinct variety.
Dr. Riley says of these specimens that they can not be assigned
either as precursors or belated specimens to any one of the recorded
broods, unless to this Brood X, of which they may possibly be the
The records for this brood, therefore, are the doubtful one from Texas
and the positive one from Louisiana, having a very doubtful connection
with the Texas swarm, if the latter exists.
BRoOD XXII.-Septendecim-1902. (Fig. 8.)
This is the largest of tfhe 17-year broods, and equals if not exceeds
in extent the largest 13-year brood, naimely, Brood XVIII, with which
it appeared in conjunction in 1868. It is Brood No. 4 of Dr. Fitch
and XVI of Walsh-Riley. It has been well recorded, particularly in
the East, from 1715 to 1885, the date of its last appearance. On this
year (1885) it was associated with the 13-year Brood VII, the second
largest 13-year brood, and the districts covered by the two touched or
perhaps overlapped at several points. Early in that year Professor
Riley issued a circular calling attention to the recurrence of these two
broods and asking to be informed of the localities of their appearance.
The replies to this circular were numerous, and the present distribution
of the two broods is largely based thereon, supplemented, however, by
all the old records. The localities based on the latter not confirmed in
1885 are given as doubtful, except where there is no reason to question
L , ~~~~~~; "~: : II "" ; L;:i, ..: !?ii .:ii!i" ,, i.,ii.. ...
... .. .. ": ': : i ... .." '" i.>,. ii
Throughot the districts where the two broods mentioned approached
or overlapped, the records of 1885 are necessarily somewhat
ras it was not always possible to determine to which of the
ts partiular swarm-s belonged. This applies notably to locali-
the Ohio River near the Mississippi and along the Mississippi
MSA~~~ seBBUR 4 9
; also the areas in north-
ernGeogiaandAlaama, Te rcors otained of Brood Vf1 during
thepreen yer soud lrgey orrct heunavoidable errors made in
GM.8.-Wap a I--, 1t i 0 1
--St Cltr 9 3
-AKeTAt ewas SWuNSINx
ILL I MO B V 414;!.'"''"'.. ;
ickens,~~~~ Ra ,Uiot, Wi
Dlark, Crawford, Dewitt, Edgar, Edwards (?), Ga.atin, Iroquisi (188)
I Arence, Pope, ii
FnIG.Stt excapt showinadsribuio ofsll Boiod Porte, P1l90,nd9tr.
Al~~iam4.--St. Clair (1).Z"". ~".
D~trid of Colam~a.-Thro ghout
Geo .-BarrDan BreFianninge, ForsyllthCase, Franklin, Gilmetr ( ), FrHanl,
Luderson Pickens, n Unioan, RtaWrnite.
Kane (1), Lawrence,, Pope, Vermilion., Wabash, White, Williamson (perhaps Broo
zV H """I,) ;i;
Indiana.Entire Sate excet Howard Marshal, Ohio, orter, Plaski, ad Stark
Keftkr.Brrn BekirdgCarll, aey avesFyet () Fakln
Hw ),Hndron().Jffron eno, arec () M'an eae Mre
(IM), Ohio, Oldham, Trimble. ~
erick, Garrett, Harford, Howard, Kent, Montgomery, Prince George, Queen A
Michigan.-Barry, Branch, Calhoun, Eaton, Genesee, Gratiot, Jackson, Kalamo
Lenawee, Livingston, Monroe, St. Clair, St. Joseph, Washtenaw, Wayne.
New Jersey.-Buriington, Camden, Hunterdon, Merer, Middlesex, Monm
Mrris, Passaic (), Somerset. .
-Yew York.-Kings, Monroe, Niagara, Richmond.
North Carolin.-Caldwell(), Cherokee (), Davie, Lincoln (184), urryWa
Ohio.-Adams, Butler, Champaign, Clark, Clermont (), Columbia, CDela
Fairfield, Franklin, Greene, Hamilton, Lucas, Miami, Montgomery, Piwy,
Preble, Sandusky, Seneca, Warren, Wyandot.
N S AS I 3 SSOU
*FIG,.9. pshowingEdiatribution of Brood Ia1903.
Tennessee.-Blout, Carter, Hambl, Hamilton, S ) J)
SVerm. ..t.- tland.
Virgiia.- Alexandria, ,Crro, la
-rederink, DLoar-doun Futt ov...(), rni Wygdo, ,i ...
Leisg Mfirn, iM-Berkeley, GM n, Hamprto Pr P g ie
Ten, ese.--Blon it, Carter, lnHami.lton, James (?),Joh i .+.
SLouon, in) Pol Sl ,
T ;F_ N
0 1 \r_ ;_RK NSA U
Fi.9.M pi isrbtinofBoo 93
Penylaia-das edodBrkBaiBuk, aboCese, ubeln
DaupinDelaare Frakli, Futon Huningon, unita, ancster Leano
LeibMfliMnre ongmry othmtnPryPiadlhaShylil
Snyer Smeret Uion Yrk
Tense.-lmt areHmleHmlon ae ?) ono () nx
Lodn cin(?,PlSotSveSlivn ahntn
-Vrina-Aeadra AgstCrrl, lrk n ajinn cutes aifx
Irs V0gni.BeklyGanHrd, ;ms iean doiig onieJefr
so madonngcutes ierl ogayPtnm()
l Ci ;c;ngin. -Sauk.';r
BROOD I.-Sepfendeclam-1903. (Fig. 9.)
Thi isa small brood, limited for the most part to the valley of the
Connctict River in the States of Massachusetts and Connecticut,
wit on, olony in the vicinity of Fall River separated from the main
swarm. I is Brood I of Walsh-Riley, and Brood No. 9 of Dr. Fitch,
who epots it as having occurred in 1818 and 1835. It was recorded
alsoby r. Smith from 1767 to 1852, and the genuineness of the brood
wyestablished in 1869. i
tribution, by States and counties, is as follows:
set.-Bristol, Franklin, Hampshire.
1 ~BROOD V.---8ptendecint-1905. (Fig.10.)
Thi vry compact brood, described by Fitch as Brood No. 6 and by
Walh-Rley as Brood II1, covers in lairge part a prairie region extend-
,"OR'ii K OTA II
........,, iiii~i~ iii
N 8 A 8MISSOUR
Ne v e G 4
If of Bro 1, whicU ocur %o th jotpatiqmllclne
>ds bordering streams.i
triuton s ivenili~ll be~;:,'lois basd on he loalitis lised i
rence of the b 188 Hn
A, TE E
ID % A R KA NS
I~ ,,, EO RG'^~
_j Iir; l,~ :lssg~; i~, ;;; :
.T E X A S:i.;..x;;: ; ; ,,,;;~ i;;,.
v li "l"i:"l" r I'i;"; :; :; ? ~ t-
As the periodical Cicada i limite to orestarea thebodsocr
The distribution as given below i based on the localities listed i
Inec if ol ip.3, it uc ddtin adcoreton s h
last -occurence of he brood i 18M madenecessary
The earliest known record we have oft-the appearance oef periodical Cicadasis i
Moreton's Memoriall," in which it is stated that they appeared at Plymouth,
moeth Counity, Mass., in the year 163. Now, according to that ate, one might
visit re corded brood of Moreton's belonged to this Brood V,
exactly founrteen periods of seventeen years will have lapsed between 13
but, strange to say, we have no other records of his brood than that in the M
oriall whereas there are abundant records of their appearing one year later in
Isame locality, evoter since 1787. There therefore good reason to believe that
Edgar, including Lee, Dekalb, Dupage, Kane, McLean, Rock Island, etc.
Indiana.-Lake, Laporte, Porter.
lova.-Allamakee, Benton, Blackhawk, -Bremer, Buchanan, Cedar, Chickasa
Clayton, Clinton, Delaware, Dubuque, Fayette, Howard, Iowa, Jackson, John
Jones, Linn, Louisa, Mitchell (?), Muscatine, Scott, Tama, Winneshiek (?).
Michigan.-Berrien, Branch, Cass, Hillsdale, Oakland (1), St. Joseph, Wayne
Wisc6nain.-Crawford, Dane, Grant, Green, Iowa, Jeff.rson, Lafayette (1), Milw
kee, Richland, Rock, Sank, Walworth, Waukesha.
BRooD VIII.-Sept ndecim-1906. (Fig. 11.)
On authority of Mr. Schwarz, our knowledge of the exten t of t
brood up to 1889 is practically based upon Dr. Fitb's observations
1885 in the account of his third brood (Brood V WalshRiley), si
its reappearance in 1872 did not apparently attract any attenti
Dr. Fitch confused this 17-year brood with the great tredeim Bro
XVIII, which occurred with it in 1855, the year of his record, and th
exact dividing line between the two broods is still open to question.
In asking for reports on the occurrence of this brood n 1889 Ri
and Howard gave its extent as follows:
The region commences in southeastern Massachusetts, extends south across L
Island and along the Atlantic coast of New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland as
as Chesapeake Bay; then up the Susquebanna River in Pennsylvania to a poin
little below Harrisburg; thence westward in Ohio, embracing the southwest
corner of the State and the northwestern portion of Kentucky, and then upw
through southwestern Indiana, endig in central Illinois. It ible also t
there is an eastward extension of the region from Kentucky into southern W
Virginia, as Cicadas occurred in 1855 in the Kanawha Valley, and also in the couni
of Buncombe and McDowell, in North Carolina; but as these appearances were
verified in 1872, it is probable that they belonged to Brood XVIII, which is of
The distribution of this brood, as given below, is based on the abo
with such additions and corrections as were gained from the records
1889, Prof. J. R. Smith adding some records from New JerseyDr
RANG OF BROODSINORD BER COFB FUTURE IBW39
Georia.GoronHabrsham, Rabun, Towns, Union, White.
111noi.-Bo-n, J Daiess, Lake, McHenry, McLean, Putnam, Stephenson,
Joidana.Clay Crafor, Daviess, Gibson, Greene, Knox, Lake, Lawrence, Pike,
Pose, Sllian, andrbug, Vigo, Warrick.
Kenuck.-Aair AlenBath, Boyd, Bourbon, Breakinridge, Carter, Casey, Clark,
iiiiiiiiii iiii' i 'i;
= = == i = .... ... .... =
= ,, iiiiiiiiii = iiiiiiiii l ii iii,, iiiiiiiiiii ii iiii iiliiii iii iiiiiiiil. iiiiii iii liii i
ton, C Estill, Fayette, Fleming, Franklin, Greenup, Jackson, Jefferson,
i !2 iiii iiiiii~ iiii iiliiiii
ii~ ~ ~ ~ ,; ii i;iii iiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiii
A, IC Aiii
x liiiiiiiiiiiiii ii
;;;;;liiiiii I~;s~:. lii" "' ii'i ' i iiiiiiiiiii
r1 si"' lA is : i ii"~ i1i
annessls o su
.... heb Trimble Wynei.
ii'- -"i;Iiii ii
"''~ii~i~iiiiiii~'iiiw r~ili .ii~iii~mK~ii~ii.. i i iiiii
nbe, dwell, Haywood(T), Mc"owell, Miidiion
Be4f larCntr Cheise a l iu
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T F N N E- 0I;
41D Ir I'i
0 5 "" ""
0 ra +;,; l~ ;;
T E x~,, I- i r "1
PulaskiRock aste., Russll, Shely, Trimbe, Wayne
North Carolina.-Buncombe, Caldwell, Haywood;f), Mc owell, Madison
bia,.Cumbeland FranlinHuntigdon LancsterLycoing, ifflD, Motour
Northumberland Snder, Union, York
South Caroli~:~a.-Edgrefield. I
Tonamsee.-Bledsoe, Claiborne, Robertson.;';
Weat'Virgnia. -Kaawha, Loan, Wood
mny of Dr. G. B.Sith, wo
appearance in C erokee County, Ga., in 1828 1841, and 1854. Dr.
G. Morris records its appearance in the same locality also in 186
The records obtained since the latter date have extended its rang
so that it is now known from four States, occurring, however, in s
tered localities, which may indicate an incompleteness of the record
rather tan the nonexistence of the brod i iterveig
This brood immediately precedes in time of appearance the large
year brood known, namely, Broo XVII, whic n
1907. Brood XVIII ocpies the issisippi Valley as wel as
eastern States, and lies immediately west f the territory occupied
Brood XVI, the relationship between the two being similar to th
between Broods VI and VII, namely, of occupying dii t
and being separated in time of appearance by bu ne year.
The localities for Brood XVI, as listed by Pro r Riley i
given below.2 None of them were verified in 1893, but an addition
and very doubtful locality-Motgomery County, Al.-ws rep
It is very desirable to have confimation of all the localities ention
and a careful study should be made to determine more accurately t
range of the brood.
The distribution, by States and counties, is as follows:
Alabama.-Lowndes, Montgomery (?).
North Carolna.-Lincoln, Moore.
BROOD XVIII.-Tredeim-1907. (Fig. 12.)
This is the largest of the 13-year broods, and also the best
perhaps, from the standpoint of distribution, of all the broods. It
Fitch's Brood No. 3, in part, and Brood XIII of WalshRiley.
existence has been known since 1803. Its limits were most
studied by Walsh and Riley in 1868, particularly for the Missouri a
Illinois localities. As has elsewhere been explained (p. 27)
probable that some of the northern counties, at least of Illinois a
Missouri, listed for this brood belong to the 7-year Brood XXII, wh
appeared with Brood XVIII in the year mentioned. Some addi
data were obtained in 1881 and published in Bul n No.
Division, and the records were brought down to 1894 n the
issued by Professor Riley in that year. The later records, mstl
reply to the cular just entioned,considerably modi and
SAnn. Rept t. Agric. 1893, p. 204.:: :
2 The recordt on which the localities fthi brood are b regive in
torial note in Vol.. Insect Life, pp. 298-299.
* .* > '- ,.i-i::: *:p, ,, ,
the ang of he roo. The relationship of this brood to Brood VI
iiiiiiiiiiiii ii-i~iii~;iiiiiii iiii
It presentiiimitare as follows:.
Alabma.Autuga Blunt, Bullock, Cherokee, Colbert, Cullman, Dallas, Dekalb,
n, Hale,, Jackson, Jefferson, Lamar, Laderdale, Lowndes,Iiiiii
,,,,, ,, i N i iiiiiiiii
iil iii ";;:,,: sls s ii:~r: iii;ii;' iiiiiiiii iii
@ = i i i N iiiiiiii
iiry, Perry, Randolph, Russell, St. Clair.
Bnton, Boone, Carroll, Clark, Clay, Conway, rawfor, Drew,
Frann, Greene, Hemptead,.Hot Srin, Iard, Johnson, La-
renc, LganLonkeMadison, Marion, Newton, Prairie, Paulaski, Randolph,
;4erc, Sbatin, hapStone, Van Buren, Washington, White.
Georia.Cambel, Ctoosa, Chattooga, Cherokee, Fulton, Harris, RabUD, Rich-
ass, Champaign, Christian, Clark, Clay, Clinton, Coles,
Craword CumerlndEdgar, Edwards, Effingham, Franklin, Gallatin, Greene,
iii;;'"" ii" :,;s;:s iii iiiii-
i ,, l "ii ii" iiiiii 4; ir iiii
AKOTA1 W oo
f 0 W Ai
RA A A <80 St
CPO WA IA
0 i R A 0 i 4D
-U~~l~ e ;g .,we
............ ii i
aiii :u i
iii ii i i ii i i .................... i:
iiiiiiii iiliiliiii;;ii ,t~ iii llliiiiiliii iiiiiiiiiiiiil
iiiissl~i s slaIiiiiiiiii: I
iiiii iiii G r eiii
riii iiiiiriiie LM i-
Oy, Er(o BO ou
.~i"~l~~iii~bs~isl'~iiiiiiii ~;;;~~; _,.s"
;;; I ii ,iiii,, 'i
0 0iiii U
iiiiliiiiilill ,~iiii~ii~i""'" u.!!ii. ,i,,iiiiiiii r
iri~? ni"' "iiiiiii
;.... iiiii ;iiUiiii::; ~ s" ~
;;;l'P, "r,l ii" .
"i" "i" ii....iiiu : iiiii
iiiiii, ;i;ii l R l-~ ~
C, 0 """i; E ;" P;; I;k
0,rs ~ O~"'"
X A S C, 0";"""
FI. 2,a sown dstiutono Boo VM I7
Hatnilton, Hancock, Hadin, Iroquois, JasperjJefferson, Jersey, Joiiso, awene
Liv ngstn, M~e= Macn, Mcouin, adisn, ario, Masac Monoe, ont
goukery Mrgan Perr, Pitt, ike, opeRandlph, ichlnd, aline Sanamon
Shely, S. ClirUnio, Vemilin, abas, WahingonWayn, Whte, ill
son, Moroe, Oka bbeha
MissuriAudrinBury BatonBenon, ollnger Bone, utlr, Cllaay.
Cedar, Chariton, Clark, Cole ", C Looper, Da;de, Dallas, Douglas, Franklin, Gasonad
Linn, Livingston, McDonald, Macon, Madison, Marion, Monitea, Monroe, Morga
Newton, Oregon, Pettis, Phelps, Pike, Polk, Pulaski, Ralls, Randolph, Ripley, Salie
Warren, Washington, Webster, Wright.
North Carolina.-Caldwell, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, Iredell, Macn
Madison, Meklenburg, Swain, Wake, Wilkes.
South Carolina.-Aiken, Anderson, Chester, Greenville, Laurens, Oconee, Oran
burg, Pickens, Spartanburg, Union, York.
Tennessee.-Bedford, Blount, Coocke, Davidson, Gibson, Giles, Greene, Hamb
Hamilton, Jefferson, Knox, Lawrence, McMinn, Marion, Monroe, Montgomery, Ru
erford, Sevier, Wayne, Williamson.
Virginia.-Brunswick, Halifax, Hanover, Prince George.
0N A 0 W A~ ,
,,0ooD IX.-S ei 198 (Fig 13.)
obtained in 1885, reporting dits occurrence in Fa Co y Ai
occurrin ~ i n Lee County Iowa in 184.
CIO 0% A i
The dstriution, by States and counties, is as follows:
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~i .iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii.ii.@
iia a i iianklii.
BROOD II.-firedeci-1908. (Fig. 13.)
Thi isa sall brood, founded on-I records given by Dr. Smith. Some
of heloaltiso cited were confirmed and others negatived on the recur-
rene. f te rood in 1869, as reported by Professor R iley ini B Llle tini
NsDivision. Since that date two doubtful localities ave
beenaddd, ne in Virginia and the other in North Carolina, possibly
basd o 17year broods which appear ed in conjunction with this
N0 N0 A
'30L)THA AI z ISCONSIN
Iilon bK Ntates Snd Ao i ol
.- --Wilke (9).
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiepresentingtheextre me outhern r n e i i of i
Its existence:; was"" confirmed;; in 180 whenw reors er
iiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiii iiiiii iiiiiiii iiii iii!i : "iiii"i!iilliilliili l~i i
ain isexenin @ lso ino lba i Missisipi, a
hdno ro o em occu |ii
A, T E. N N;
X Ai Iiiii
Georgia. -Greene, Jasper, Muscogee, WalkerICS Ij~l, Wahigtn
Vorth Carolina.,-Wilkes (1).
iiiiii;;iiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~ ii~ iiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiii
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii '' =
i, ii,, @ iiiiiiil i iiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiii
iiii iiiii ii iiiii iiiiii ii iiiiiiii i
BROOD I.-_7 deei=-109. (Fg. 14.
A: thiCiai.iaiiiiiiidiiiiDi.S m t iiiiiiiiiaiaiiiiiiriiiii
14ii15 Its existence wa confirmediin 1870iwhenirecords were,
.iiiiiiiiiii~~is ~ I I ..........................
obtaned ndictingitsextesionalsointoAlaama,"Misissipi, -li
1: Tennessee." ""'""'
It is broo whic, accrdingto reort, oes nt see to ocur i
44 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
dense swarms, but scatteringly, at least in its more northern range. No
records of its appearance which have come to our notice were made in
1883 nor in 1896.
The distribution, by States and counties, is as follows:
Florida.-Gadsden, Jackson, Washington.
Misiasipp i.-Jackson, Tishomingo.
BROOD XI.-Septendecim-1910. (Fig. 15.)
N O..S O..
The following summary of its disrbibugi on il o ubsatantivny Dr Smith.
1893, pp. 204-05. and ildes the o rers,
0 13 A I ie'
confirmations and additions coming om the careul in
by Professor Riley n 1893.the year o i l per
reS' ce of ths brood ansas a o. n
eceived doubl cfirmi 18, n t ol
rmie uveif, I, lhug h dr m iion w iie
secial seArc was 0ef \ t- i
183 p, t h
cnfirmatn ao c l iaio
Th olwn umr fisdsrbuini usatal sgvnb
ProesorRily n he eprtoftheDearmen o Aricltrefo
1893 pp 204205 ai~ inlude th oldrecrdstogtherwit th
cofiraiosmi.adiioscoigfrmth arfl rvetgaiiimd
by Pofesor Rley n 183, te yer ofits ast ppeaanc
remhid ivriie. ltbug'te isrit entond asviitd id
speialseachwasmad fr eidecesoftheinsct
The distribtion, by Sates and cunties, isas follows
Di~ric ofColmbia.-North of Washing-ton.
Indian.-Kno, Posey, Sullivan.
Kan~s. Dicinson, Leavenworth.
Maryland -Pince George, south half of St. Mary.
Xort Carlin.-From IRaleigh, Wake County, to northern line of State; Davie,
Cabarus, Tedel, Rowan, Surry.
ii ; iiiiiiiii i iiHiiiiiiiiii iiiii iiiiiliiiiiiiiiiisiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iliiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiil iiiiiiiii ii! iiiii N iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiiii
Pewiytrnia-Adamns, Cumberland, Franklin.
Virgnia.Fro Petersburg, Dinwiddie County, to southern line of State; Bed-
de; valley from Potomac to Tenessee and North Carolina boundary.
BROOD VI.-_redecim-1910. (Fig. 15.)
Thi 13yer brood, which appeared last in 18977 is of small extent,
but ellestblished by many reliable records, the oldest of which
1806. It is Brood IV of Walsh-Riley.
A summay -of the distribution of this brood was given by Mr.
n ircular No. 22 of this Division, issued in May, 1897. This
inqiryres lted in the report of but one additional locality. The dis-
drelationship of this brood is given byMr. Schwarz in the,
circlar efered to, as follows.:
It s cnfiedto parts of southern Mlississippi and adjacent parts of Louisiana
ossippi) the particular localities being given further on. Dr." D. L.
Phare, ofWoodille, Miss., has taken particular pains to ascertain the extent of
thi brodandhis lucid-and concise account, already published in 1885, in Bulletin
8)f this Diision, is herewith reproduced:
"Ther wsten limit is the Mississippi River, the southern about 8 miles north
of Bton ouge the eastern about 4 miles west of Greensburg, the county seat of
miles west also of Liberty, in Amite County, Miss., thus extending
fro 15to 0 mles from the M(ississippi River, and from. the vicinity of Baton Rouge,
108 mles o th northern limit of Claiborne County, Miss., perhaps even farther.
The threfreoccupy East and West- Felicia~na, the northern part of E~Ast Baton
Roue, he orhwest corner of Livingston and the western part of St. Helena par-
isbsy a.YandWilkinson, 'Adams, Jefferson, Claiborne, and parts of Amite, Frank-
ay parts of one or more counties in Mississippi.
Thereprtsreceived since 1885 are mostly confirmatory of Dr. Ph ares's statement,
but r. Toma F. Anderson, of St. Helena, La., writes us that the parishes, or at
leat prtsof he 'parishes, of Tanoipeahea, Washington, and St. Tammany had to
be dde totherange of this brood. His statement is quite definite; still a confir-
new localities is desirable.
Broo, V isevidently a forerunner of the very large. 13-year Brood VII, which
wil apearin 898 in the Mississippi Valley. The geographical range of Brood VII
was appe ou in the Annual Report 'of this Department for 1885, and. it will be
IA -orreponent (Mr. H. J. Giddings, Of Iowa), writing under date October 6, 1892,
L 14r~prtstha -dring June of that year he found the periodical Cicada to be quite
commn. I hi reply Professor Riley was inclined to consider these specimens as
iiirood XI, but if so they establiiliiished a new locality for the brood (see
==n~lB il" iiiii iliiiiiii ii.iiiiiiiiS,
.;;,ii l;": ;;"'';;;
i = i l ii i =
;""' ;"l: i:'l
=I~ iL == i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiii
.....~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~"" i iiii ii= !iiiiiiiii iiiiil iliii" iiiiiiililiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiiii iii iii iili i"i"liiiiili ii iiiiiili ii iii iii iiiiiiiii iiiililiiiiiiiiii iiiiiii ii i iiiiiiiii ii~iiiiiiii
........... ...iiiiiiii iiiii il~is,;iiii: iiiiiiii ii iiiiiiiiiil iiiiiii iiil i iii i iiii
ii i l i l i i i i i i i ii i i i iiiiiiiii~ ~ il i iiii iiiliiiiiiiiiiiii~i llllli iiii~ i~ ~lill illliiiiiii iii ii i i~ ~i i ii ii i~ ~ ~~i i i ii i i i liii i~ i i iii
i~ii i iiii8 is iiiiiiiill"' i iiiiiiU iiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ,i, ii~ iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiii
...,, i'" III~ i ...
'"i [iii"liiiiiiiiiliiiiT;iiii iiiiiiiiiiiii
ii;l; il=:O i""' "" iiiiiiiii~ iiiiiiiiiiiil iiiiiiiiiiiiiii
ii iiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiii iiiiiiiiiii iii iiliiiii
iiiii~ iiiii iiiiiiii I i liiiiiii iiiiili iiii iiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii =i iiiii
ii~ ~lii iiiiiiiliii
iiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiliililiiiiii iliiiiiiiiiliiiiii
46 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
seen from this map that the southern limits of Brood VII almost precisely coinetde
with the northern limits of our Brood VI.
"The following is an enumeration of the States and counties from which Brood
VI has been recorded:
"IMieiesippi.-Counties of Adams, Amite, Claiborne, Franklin, Jefferson, and
Lo uiana.-Parishes of East Baton Rouge, East Feliciana, Livingston, St. Helena,
St. Tammany( ), Tangipahoa (t), Washington (1), and West Feliciana."
BROOn XII.-&eptendeowm-1911. (Fig. 16.)
This is one of the best recorded of the broods, since its almost exclu-
sively eastern range brings it in the immediate vicinity of the large
towns and more densely populated districts of the Atlantic seaboard.
A wnssm OBA o
0 A4 A
F. 16 M showi r f
ih desrie ;ts limit as hi roo
III. It has b ord o it y
On e a n of is E 5
studies were made by Dr. J. A. Lin~tner. The Diiioaoeid
vast A u 1I
vast number of reports from these and other States in answer to a cir-
cular prepared by Professor Riley and mailed in May, 1894. Some of
the Southern records obtained in 1894 are doubtful, and this applies
RGE OF BROODS IN ORDER OF FUTURE APPEARANCES. 47
o the localities in North Carolina, because of the occurrence
ibution as listed below is based on the old records given in
t ccited, with such additions and corrections as the reports of
ibution, by States aid counties, is as follows:
-Fairfeld, Hartford, Litchfeld, Middlesex, New Haven.
-Anne Arundel, Calvert, Charles, Prince George, St. Mary.
-Albany, Columbia, Dutchess, Greene, Long Island, Orange, Putnam,
ockland, Saratoga, Staten Island, Ulster, Washington, Westchester.
S , Wake (), Warren (), Yadkin (?).
a.-Berks, Bucks, Chester, Dauphin, Delaware, Lancaster, Lebanon,
gomery, Northampton, Philadelphia, Pike, Potter, Sqhuylkill, Wyoming.
-Albemarle, Alexandria Amh;ersiit :iI A -ppomattox, Bedford, Bucking ham,
peper, Fairfax, Faquier, F vanna, Goocbland, Hanover, Henrico,
J C d L s a nTPince Edward, Rappahannock,
ta of 0 rt 1 ear b it go
ii;i~ iii iiii, ,:ii ii i i ii i iii i i i iii i ii iiliiiii iiiill~ ~i illiiiiii liiiliiii iiiiiiilii iiii iiiiiii iiiil iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiliiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiilii iiiil~ iiiiiii
'== iB i = === .......... i i
~Ir i |Hi t~~ai
a ; :N ""
48 THE PERIODICAL COO ADA.
lying in the States of Iowa and Missouri. Records are given by Dr.
Smith in both Iowa and Illinois in 1844, and it has been regularly
recorded since over a portion at least of its range. The Iowa distri-
bution of the brood was carefully studied by Professor Bessey in 1878.
The range of the brood as given below is based on the published
records, together with a number of additional localities collected from
the correspondence of the Division by Mr. Schwarz.
The distribution, by States and counties, is as follows:
Illinoi&.-Champaign, Fulton, Hancock, McDonough, Mason, Warren.
Greene, Hamilton, Henry, Iowa, Jefferson, Jasper, Johnson, Keokuk, Louisa.
Madison, Mahaska, Marion, Marshall, Monroe, Muscatine, Polk, Poweshiek, Ring-
gold, Story, Taylor, Union, Van Buren, Wapello, Warren, Wayne, Webster.
S Z 1 i oo
.. "" -' *"'J GE.. 0P
N. *M % U % 'I
Schuyler (1), cotln ( ), .hlby
-W- X -
-T ape. IfAhaIpg
Lthe l attMo, cv)g ar onro (.) ...tn Roail trnd
Brorn .-ei-13 (Fig. 18.)
Thi body al
I i r, i
BROODX IV.-Sep endecm-191. (Fi. 18.
Thisbrod, dscrbed y Wlsh-ile as roo X, ucceds rom
XIII y on yea, an in he min apearsto b a wster extnsio
of he atercoerig apotio o sothwstrn ow, eatrnKnss
an IdanTertoy wthdtahd ocltis nMisur adote
Stats. ts rignalconnection with Brood XIII is apparently well
show by he ajoiing or overlapping territory occupied by the two
brood, toethe wit the fact of their separation by a single year.
Thisbroo waswel recorded in-18 797 t he data being published by Pro-
fessorRileyinB etin 8 of this Division. A number of additional
ro wi obaiiiiiiii at its last appearance in 1896.iiii
Sd o the brood as now deermined is s follows:
lisdias Territory.-Mucogee, Tulsa.
sallas, Fremont, Mill, Montgomery, Page, Pottawattamie,
Kans&-Alen, ouron, Chase, Coffey, Douglats, Greenwood, Jackson, Johnson,
iiiliiiilii liiliiiii~ ii ii~iiii i !iii ii! iiii~liiliiiiii,] iiii iiiiilrI iiiiliiiiiiiil "";'i i ii i~,,il, iiii i.i iii ii iii!iiiiiii
LynMainMorris, O iisa iige, Pottawatomie, Wabain i iee iWilson, Woodsii = iii onilli
-Mihanan. Caldwell, Grundy, Holt, Jackson, Johnson, Saline,
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~ iiiiiiiiiiiii iiii iiiiiiiii;, ; iliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
Fannin, Kafman, Wise.ii
-Se ,-1914. (Fig. 19.)
Bso X ptn e in r~~;:" '""
N I SA;
0 ./ 0
g. p 9
A I Z so*14
............... NRI:: I .... .IN~ "Nix" ~ ;'i
00ii er s 1iica r
-raj Ry --- r No. 2 e
@;l;~s; 'R,% i
JY 0 @FtOO
2 @ :
'""" lA i ii8 "R"ii i iiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiii"iiiiiiiii
0 ;K RKiNSA
Fi.r.Ma loig ~rbtono ro X,194
Z B rted from Ohio as early as 1795. F'; ~rlI:."il:,I~~itch decribd itas Bood
o~alsh-Riley as Brood XI.
The Ihnits of thi brood as known rior to 18977 th date of its las
pearwe wee gien byMr. chwar in irculr No 22, econ
50 THE PERTODICAL CICADA.
series, of this Division. In 1897 its distribution in Ohio was very a
fully studied and mapped by Prof F. M. Webster, and in WestV
ginia by Prof A. D. Hopkin. The distribution.as listed belo
based on Mr. Schwarz's circular, with the additions noted by Me
Webter and Hopkins, together with sh other localities as
repo ted to the Divisrion byl correspond
Ipeaking of its relationships with other broods, Mr. hw
known only from States west of the Missisippi iver, so that no relationship
to exist between these two broods. Brood XV, which ap
than Brood XV, is known from a number of localities both east and west of th
ritory occupied by Brood XV, but these localities are so scatteredand of so
extent that no relationship between the two broods can be pointed out. o
s with other 17year broods ae very tempting, bt are, of
tion in the present state of our knowledge. Still, can it be a mre coincidenc t
the territory occupied by Brood XX (1883-1900) is evidently a northeastward e
sion of that occupied by Brood XV, or are geological reasons sufficient to ex
the fact that the territory occupied by Brood XV almost exactly fills the gap be
the two great divisions of Brood XXII (1885-1902)?
The distribution, by States and counties, of this brood as now kD
is as follows:
Ohio.-Athens, Ashland, Belmont, Carroll, Columbiana, Coshocton, Craw
Cuyahoga, Erie, Fairfield, Franklin, Gallia, Geauga, Guernsey, Harrison, Hoc
Holmes, Huron, Jackson, Jefferson, Knox, Lake Licking, Lorai, M oning Me
Meigs, Morgan, Monroe, Msking Noble, Perry, Pickway, Pine, Portage,
land, Ross, Scioto, Stark, Summit, Tscarwas, Vinton, Wto, Wayne.
Firginia.-Highland ( ).
West Virginia.-Barbour, Boone, Brooke, Braxton, Calhoun,
Fayette, Gilmer, Grant, Greenbier (), Hancock, Hardy, Harrison, Jackson,
wha, Lewis, Marion, Marshall, Mason, Mineral, Monglia, Ni
ants, Pocahontas, Preston, Putnam, Randolph, Ritchie, Roae,)
Tucker, Tyler, Upahur, Wayne, Webster, Wetzel, Wirt, Wood.
SYSTEMATIC POSITION AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS.
The periodical Cicada belongs to the Homoptera e of the
divisions of the Hemiptera, or great order of sck ects, famili
the public mind under the name of bugs," and including, in
to the graceful and attractive species like the C
species as the plant bugs, squash bugs, nd certain anial para
The members of the suborder omoptera, to which the Cicada an
allies belong, are, however, distinctly removed f
of "bugs" just referred to, namely, the Heteroptera, and lack
gusting odor and habits, as a rule, of the latter and
order of sucking insects. The Homoptera as a rule comprise c
winged insects, which subsist on the juices of plants, ad are a
usually in flight and often beautful i
are not only the largest and most striking i
'i ';~ : *:~ i * : '
SYTEATIC POSITION AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS. 0
someof he peces measuring over 6 inches in expanse of wings, but
in he alese are enidowed with the power of song, which last ebar-
.... a invested them with great popular interest i i all iiiiages; and
espcialy n he poetry of nature are they noteworthy, from the time of
us Cicada is represented by species in all. parts of the
wo~, oer 00 distiDet forms being already known, and they are
espcillyabndant in North America, nearly 100 species havinig beenl
df thecontinent and adjacent islands. The more familiatr
of hes inect to the popular wind are the common Dog-day Cicadas,
or Hrves Fles, represented by several species, the most abundant of
whic is erhpa, Cicada pruinsoa (tibicen). The sleepy droning of these
annullyapparing species in July and August is comimonly taken as a
bea, ad i amost fa-
I iir hrceristic of
The priodcal spe-
it-iks s mch ore sle-n-
1,,d and graceful than
,*je mjorty f the an-
AUl vsiors bt strue-
turall is not very dis-
Imzdfr h ost part '1j
'black in color, with
oragered ees and
,Pb, n ith the
of hefor nearly
ii iiii iiiiiiri i i i i i i ii i i i i i i i i i
-rnpaet igs stam-
In dscusing the
*trutureof tis iage~t MGa.20.--KeaA and prothorax of Cicada, lateral view, showing
piarts in normsal position--for description, see fig. 22 (author's
partcula aten tion ilunstration).
ii== = iiiii iii~i i,.;l i' ii=j .ii= iiiia;."i~i~iiiii i ~ i u ii i s~.... ii; iiiiiiiii== = iiiii ii i = i uR =iiii !ii = i ~ ii iii .. iiiii
iii = i~siiiiiiiiii iiiiiii ====iii iiiiiiiiiiiiiilliiilil iiii iiiiii.iii iiiiiiiii iiiiii .l iiii ~ billl ..;ii iil" :, r il'" x
*ill be given only to
Oe iporantorgans, viz, those for taking food, or the beak; the
W-6trinet orpiercing plants and depositing eggs, or the ovipositor;
nof song in the male insect.
A crsoy eamination of-one of these insects fromn above reveals its
*athr roustbody, covered by two pairs of transparent parchment-
ke lliticl ings, which rest roof-like over the abdomen; the short
allveosebed with great oval prominent eyes at. the lateral angles,
e treemintte ocelli arranged in a triangle on top, and the very
ort tred-ike anteinnw projecthig between the compound eyes.
owed fr mbeeath, the triangular prolongation of the head into the
Ui ;iiiic ""W""~"" i'"i;ii 'i i,
!~ aii ;;; iii ii"''
i~~. iii iiii iii
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i i~ i iiiiiii iNi;i:iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiilR HH
ii i ii i
ii i i ii i i ii i i i ii i i iiii i i i ii i i ii i i ii i i i ii i i ii i i ii i lli ,,, I :
@ ii iii ii iiiiiiiiiiiiiii"iiiiiiii iiiiii
iiiiaia~'i~ la~i: iiiiiii:; iiE i ii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiii
== = == A ii iiiiii===:==iiiii= i;iiiiiii iii === = =
,,,!;,,,;;,,,,; iiU~ii!!i i~ I iiiiiiiiiiiii~ r ...::~: i r a
s'":~s;RI l .i~sni ii
52 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
three-jointed beak is to be noted; the legs not especially large or strong
except for the anterior femora, which are much thickened; in the
female the complex instrument for the deposition of eggs projecting
from a fissure or slit in the lower surface of the abdomen, and the
blunter abdomen of the male without the fissure beneath, but with two
large ventral plates at the base of the abdomen covering the sounding,
disks of the vocal apparatus. The latter is located on either side of
the base of the abdomen and appears as two inflated ribbed drums of
lighter color than the general body surface.
The structure and workings of the more important organs, namely,
the beak, the ovipositor, and the vocal apparatus, follow in some detail.
THE MOUTH PARTS, OR BEAK.
In the order of insects to which the periodical Cicada belongs, though
vastly modified, it is possible to trace all the essential parts found in
FIG. 21.-Head of Cicada, front view, showing the normal position of mouthparts on the left, and
with the mandible and maxilla drawn out on the right-for description, see fig. 22 (author's
the mouth of true biting insects, namely, the upper lip (labrum), the
main pair of jaws (mandibles), the second or lower pair of jaws (max-
illa), and, beneath, the lower lip (labium). Within also are the two
tongues, one projecting from the roof of the mouth (epipharynx), and
the other (hypopharynx) attaching to the upper base of the lower lip.
These tongues are short, and of service probably in facilitating the
suction necessary in raising the fluids of the plant to the mouth. They
do not extend beyond the mouth cavity and never enter the plant tissues.
:i e~ ~gg ;, ] !,,,,,;,
m j~'s ( 1,
'"" ,, "; i'iA i ;;Bp i ,,",i~i i ,",
THE MOUTH PARTS, OR BltAK. 53
The upper lip is comparatively short, and serves its normal purpose
as a covering for the adjacent parts of the mouth. What correspond
to the short, powerful biting jaws of gnawing iDnsects are in the, Cicada
greatly elongated and thread-like, and .brought together to form a sort
Spiering and king apparatuiii which is inilosed in the greatly
elngated lower lip. The latter is three-jointed. and deeply grooved
above so as to be almost tubular, and acts as a support and sheath for
th piercing seta-like jaws, and also assists in conveying the liquids
from the point of contact with the plant to the mo uth cavity. The long
riiilii;l:;"" "'"' iii iiii :iiiiiiiiii iii ;; ~a:iiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiii
iii E~ ~~.Iii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ~ ii~iiii~ ~
s i l:: lii~d"ii iiiiiiiliiiii~i~ii. ':""i ";iiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~ ~ iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
Ilwer lip tiii iiildbaribed is the piercing beak in popular belief, yet in i
Pam 22.-Rfead san protboax sof Cicada, lateral view, with parts separated to show structure I, a,
elypous, b and e, labrum, d, epipharynx; 11, same frombeneath; 1I, mandible, a, base, b, sheath for
sota, e, mandibuhliartseta, cau mielar base of latter; III, maxilla with parts similarly lettered; IV,
labium, with ltirieojoitsteas follows, a, submentum, b, mentum, c- ligula; the hypophiaryrkx is shown
at d,' fromside, d', froma above, and d"*, from beneath; V, prothoram (auther's illustration).
point of fact it niever enters the tissues of the plnt, the puncture being
made soley by the fine, stiff, needle-like jaws or setwe, which can be
projected at will by the finsect with gr~eat force from the tip of the beak.
(See figs. 207 21, and 22.)
In the per~iodical Cicada no food is taken in the adult winged stage
as a rule. Somke observers insist that the females, which are longer
lived than-the males, pierce certain plants and sustain themselves on
plant juices, but W8i is certainly in very small amount and is not con-
firmed by the majority of observers.. (See p. 72.) The male is very short
lived and certainly never feeds, and taken altogether, therefore, the
feeding by the emerged insect is insignificant in amount and not of
nea 16al importance. Tr~houg hout the long adolescean t. perid, how-
i, comprising the larvaliiidipupaliiiiiiiiiiifth iiiinsect uind iiii
ii i iZ
liN~ ;ric; Nl iN :: ~;; B
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? :: ii : ?? ?? ? ? i' :
.... iiiiiiiiiiiii1 iiii illiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiili iiliiii
iiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiU: ~ r ii iiiiii ii r,;,gi~ l ~ ;~
i~! !liiiiiiiiiiiiim iil
i ii iiiiii i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
ii ii i iiii Al ;
iii iiiiiiii ,iiiii; iiiiiia ii .I-
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= ============ ii :: :B1
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:iii~ii~ Ii ii iiiiB iii i i ;;;
54 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
d,"i o C ide .* ,I' :. ,. ., .. .
the soil, the taking of food is a constat feure. The strcte f
mouth pr these primir t is i til in ti
that of the adult, and the characteristic features are illustrated in t
foregoing figures with subjoined explanations.
In the taking of food by the larv and pup, as th
rest on the root in their earthe cells, the tip of
beak, namely, the lower lip, is brougt to ear on 1
root, and by alternating lonae
cpecially the upper pair, which are th stronger a
which represent the great jaws or mandibles of biti
insects, the soft, succulent layers of the cambiu
the bark are reached, the slender setw being support
strengthened, and directed by the stronger and en
cling sheath-like lower lip. The irritation caused b
FIG. 23.-The peri- the set to the lower lip and within this along the ba
view of female to portion of the set
(after Riley). THE OVIPOSITOR.
The ovipositor, or twig-piere- 7 aa
ing and egg-laying organ, of the
female Cicada is also a very com-
ment. It is-
sues from d a
groove, or .24.-Abdomen of female showing ovipos
fissure on and attachments: a, ventral, b, lateral, a
dorsa view (origina
side of the abdomen, and at rest is nearlyconcea
except at the tip by the broad overlapping side
of the eighth dorsl egment. The oviposi
proper is protected and covered when at rest
f two valves, which form a sort of sheath, or s
bard. The inclosed ovipositor is a very toug
horny instrument, spear-sbaped, and serra
b at the extremity, and consists of three piec
namely, a back portion (probably two pie
FGo. 25.-Tip of ovipositor, grown together), which acts as a supporting
much enlarged: a, from
above, b, from beneath, connecting piece for the two lateral blades. The
with dotted portion to lateral pieces, or blades, slide up and down
show the alternating mo- alternation on tongue proje.ti from th
tion of the side pieces t
(original). or supporting piece, have serrated cutting edg
and are the chief agents in piercing twigs prep
atory to the deposition of eggs (fig. 2). The relative position of
three parts of the ovipositor and the nature of the locking tongu
TEMUSWICUALA APPARATU SJ. .55:
grooesandclapswhih make one tube of the whole, are illustrated
iu te acompnyin crss sections (fig. 26).
The iffrentpiees~f the ovipositor attach to flat plates partly
coneald wthi an ataching to the wall of the abdomen, and are
oet byiiiweiiuiimuscles both in making incisions in the twigs
aud assng he ggsfro the oviduet (which
open atthebas oftheovipositor) through
the tue frme bytbethree parts of the
instumen untl thy rach their final lodg-
mentin he tig.Theact of oviposition
willbe escibe inanoher place.
T MSC APPARATUS.
-Perapsthemos ineresting feature ofa
tlj antom oftheCiada to the popular
mnia aratus, by means of
whic it akesits ecular note, or song.
Thi aparaus nd hesounds produced by
its ossesorhavebee studied a~nd de-
scried b man natralsts, beginning with
iiiii I~ ,Ai P" iiiiiii=i ii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i ii i iiiiii iii
; iiiii ;i i;
th eyi act the fullest andi
mot ccraedez~~pin of the method of
produing oundandthe anatomical strue-
FIGe. 26.-Crose section of oviposi-
i ~ ~ ~ ~ iii iiiiiiiiii iiiiiii
tare if t iiii o ii these insects is the tor: a,iwith part attached ill nat-
st century, by that ural positio, separated to show
interlocking ton gues and grooves
mousFreiichpioneerin the study of the (original). in..
The orkof e~amurwas confirmed and added to a hundred years
latr b a ostpaistaing study of living specimens by another
Frech tudnt, Soier 2and for a minute technical description of the
anatmy nd wrkigs f the sound; apparatus the reader is referred
Tbe~pecil. mdifiato and structure of these parts in our periodi-
eal peces avebee stdied by the more impor-tant older writers,
as ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I Potranhmthadmre recently by W. J. Burnett 3 and
E. G. Lo,,e.4
Aslradyneift of song is found in the male insect only andi
the rue oundappa atu consists of two small ear-like or shell-like
intlteddrus stuaed n the sides of the basal segment of the abdo-
men. hesedrum ar6caused to vibrate, by the action. of powerful
muslesandhe oun isvariously modified by adjacent smaller disks-
.r souding boards-and issues as the peculiariiiiiii
I Hitoie ds Isectes, VWl. V (1740), pp. 158-170, pl. 17.
2An. Sc. nt.France, 1837, Vol. V1, pp. 199-217.
t.-Nat. Hist. 1851Y Vol. IV, p.72.
4JO~n. N Y. icros'. 80C.1 1895 X1 pp u. 39-42.
,=iiiiiiiiiiiii'=iii ii=0iiii====:: :;;=
iiiii iiii~ iiliiiiiiiii iiii i==== iiiii
i 'i iiN i ii i;
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iiiiiiiiiiiiixiiiiiiil.i. niiw r Iiiii
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ii:il ii i iiiiiiiii i iiiiiii il iiii ii i iiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
;nii i;;i,iii~;:: ii iil i i iii l.iili; i iiiii = iiiiiiiiiiii ii
... ............... ==========ii~ii: U 80; ,=, = = = = iiiiiiliiiii liii
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iiiii lii iiiiiiii
or, if -heard again, mistaken for that of -some other insect. The t
for the covering afforded by the closed wings of the resting in
in other Oicadas these drums are usually protected by overlap
valves or expansion of the body wall.
The sounding drum,or im ,"as umur termed it, of the
odical Oiead ea is a tee, dry, ci
plated with the convex urface t o T r a
thickenings or folds in the surface of the parchment-like dru,
strengthen the drum while perhaps rendering it at the same time
elastic. The sound is produced by the rapi vbrationorundula
Scaused by the spbiy
ing or snappieg inan
out of these corr
muscles of very p
liar structure situeds,
within the base of
abdomen set thes
,cada, very m
sound is produced
FG. 27.-The musical apparatus of the periodical Cca: a, view which is some
from beneath, showing the plates (light colored) covering the buled
soundin-g disks; b, dorsal view, the timbals showing as light-
colored areas; c, section at base of abdomen, showing attach
ment of large muscles to timbals; d, timbal greatly enlarged, in bal in the base o
normal position; e, same drawn forcibly in by the action of one
of the muscles, as in singing (original). abdomen of the ist
chamber, and a third occurs in the thorax joining the t t. T
are closed by the body walls and membranes, and the two abdomnl
ones beneath by the very peculiar "mirrors," or "spectacles 1-
tense, mica-like membranes situated at the base of the abdoen
protected and covered by the semicircular rigid disks projecting
the thorax. These transparent membranes are often mistaken fo
true sound organs, but they are rather sounding-boards, or druni t
increase and trainsmit the sound vibrations induced by the play o
timbals. That they are not essential to the production of sound c
shown by slitting them or removng the altogether without there
any cessation of the note. Much more important modifiers of sound
the semicircular disks rojeting from the thorax over the mirr
fopened or cut off, allow it to escape in greater volume. In
SThe position assumed by the male when singing is always
h t.ad upward. The abdomen is then elevated and apparently
ia with the beginning of theou i sound is lowly brought down
limb, when the note ceases. After a rest of a few seconds this
Srepeated. These abdominal movements vary in different
specisoficada and determine in a measure the peculiar -notes of each.
E SONG NOTES OP THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
gofthe different species of Oicadas is very distinctive, and
rwith the music of these insects can as readily recognize
lar species by its peculiar notes as one knows the different
mals by theirs. The general character of the notes of the
r song produced by the myriads of these insects in a warm day from
Sof May to the iddle of June is wonderful. It is not deafening, as
i it; even at its height it does not interrupt ordinary conversation. It
natmosphere of wild, monotonou sound, in which all other sounds float
distinctness. After a day or two this music becomes tiresome and dole-
y very disagreeable. To me it was otherwise, and whe I heard the
t 25th of June the melancholy reflection occurred-shall I live to bear
proaches a colony of these insects a peculiar roar, not unlike
theofa fctory or a distant reaper, falls on the ears, and this
er and more intense as one draws nearer, having at times
wding in the midstofa colonya peculiar all-pervading and
geffect. The individual notes are somewhat obscured under
thmstances but in the lulls the characteristic sounds strike
'the peliarit is never to be forgotten, especially the
moufalling note at the conlionof each effort. Nearly all the
priters on the Cicada, and notably Potter, Smith, and Fitch,
pted to analyze the song note of this insect, but the most
y made, is that by Professor Riley,2 who distinguishes three
otes s ha teristic of different seasons or conditions of
th e lfe of the male insect.
smiliar to the popular mind is the ote described by F it as
'gowered until the soud expires." The length of this note
2 Science, September 25, 1895.
iii i==== = i = ii ii '=== ii ii i i, iii iiiiiiiii ''=ii ="'"=ii == iiii I iiii ===iiiii ~i=' iii =iliii i ii iii i I !i i~ ii ;''il iii= ii" ii i iiiiiii
si8i a= i = s = = =i == iii i iiiiii i = i~i ii iiii
irr ~ 8. ...................... N @ U;
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il'lO= = : = !== iiiiiii ii~ iiiiiiiiiiiiiIllli
Bl ~ ~iiiii ~ i;: .ii
even twenty seconds. This note is the characteristic one of Vie heigt
of the seasn, when great numbers of males are singing together,
is rarely made by solitary individuals or when there are only fe
together. Some instinct alo seems to prompt the singing in uniso
and as it rises at such moments the intensity and volume of sound l
a startling and weird effect.
The second'important note is what is ordinarily kas the h
r-r-r-aoh" note, and is made early in the season, or when the ales a
few in number and recently emerged. The termination of this note i
notable even more than the last for its peculiar mournful cadence an
lowering of pitch, which is very characteristic. It lasts but two
three seconds. It has been compared, rather fancifully, I think, b
Professor Riley to the whistling of a train passing through a short tun
nel, or, when made by several individuals, more accurately to thecroal
A third, but less important, note is the clicking or intermitte
chirping, consisting of from fifteen to thirty short, quick sounds, some
times double, the whole lasting about five seconds, and resenibling t
sharp clicking of the chimney swallow or some of the field crickets.
When disturbed and at the moment of taking flight the insect is a
to make a short cry or sharp chirp.
All of these notes are similar in the small cassini form, but of hige
pitch and less volume. As described by Dr. A. W. Taylor, iti
"uttered without much change of tone, and, individually, s quite lo
as compared with that of the other form but colletively the ois
when the observer is near, sounds like the rushing of a stong win
through trees of dense foliage." At the distance of a quarter of a mil
it sounds like the noise made by a swarm of bees passi gh hhrou
air close at hand."
The strength and clearness of all the notes vary with the weath
conditions, and are loudest when the air is dry and warm and clear,
between the hours of 11 and 3 o'clock. On wet days, or when the a
is unusually moist, the sound is much diminished, and heavy or conti
ued rains stop it for the time altogether.
While it is almost universally true that the song of the Cicada
never heard between sunset and sunrise, they will, on very rare occa
sions, when disturbed, start up singing in concert in the middle of t
night. Prof. A. D. Hopkins noted an instance or two torhis kind i
connection with the brood of Cicadas appearing in West Virginia i
1897. He says:
I was fortunate enough to bear the starting of one of these concert on a clea
moonlight night in June. One male in an apple tree near the house suddenly cal
out as if disturbed or frightened. His neighbors in the same tree were thus appa
ently awakened. One started the fmiliar so not which wasat
by numbers of other males, and, like the waves fro. a ebble droed into sti
wusic rapidly spread until it reached the edge of the thick woods, where
te previous day. This continued a few minutes, until all had apparently
an the song ha reache its highest pith, when it began to radually
sd in a short time silence Iagain prevailed.
very general outbreak of this insect are associated many
in local papers of its stinging human beings, the sting often
it is stated, more or less seriously to the person stung. Such
were especially abundant in the great Oicada year 1868, and
important Cicada year before and since similar reports have
e. So great was the fear in 1868, as noted by Professor Riley,
tme cases fruits were avoided as being stung and poisoned,
drinking water was sometimes under suspicion.
as investigation of the reports has been possible they have
o be either utterly without foundation or much exaggerated.
again to Dr. Smith's manuscript, it is seen that le spent
or in carefully investigating such accounts, and found in every
he followed up, where death had been reported as caused by
te or sting of the locusts, the story to be entirely fabulous.
ses of apparent stinging he suggests that the sufferer had
been stung by a wasp, as will be later explained, and soundly
o the susceptibility of some people to whom the slightest scratch
fsor Potter referring to the COicada, says in this connection:
ot defend itself against an ant or a fly. We have handled
ale and female time after time. We have mutilated them, but
sor Riley says that of the thousands which he has handled, and
reds of other persons including children, who have also
these insets, not a single bona de case of stinging has, to
te periodical Cicada can pierce the flesh with its sucking beak,
S-like laments contained in it, or per-
emely rarely with the ovipositor in the case of the female, is
in the bounds of possibility, and some apparently well-authen-
sensitiveness on the part of the individual, as suggested by
vy trial in common experience,
iii ~~~~ ii~ i ii iliiiiiii i iiiiiiiiiiii'iii i i iiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiii
11 iii ii iiI iiiii ;iiiiiiii iiiiii iiii iii liiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiii iiii i iiiiii iiiiiii i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i iiiiii iiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiii
===i =i i i i i i i i i ii i i i i i i i i i i = i i i i ii i i i i i i i i l i i i i i i i i i i i i l i ii i i i i i i i i i i i ii i i i i i i i i i i = === i i! i i iii llliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiii ii
.... i iF i i ii ii ii i iiiIii : i I iili i ;i iiI ii "iiiii iii iiii i! ii iiili i!i i i ii iiii i! i' iii i ii"li i"iiiiii i iiii i'li= !iiiiiiiiiii i i iii iii ii~iiiiiiiiiil
....i == iii iii il = ii i i iii iiii= =ii ii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~ ~ ii = = illi iiiiiii~i==i iiiiiii~ iiiiiiiiiiiiii~~ii iii iii)))~)))))iiiii))i)) ))) )) )) )) ) ) )))) ) =iii))))) iii~ ==iii iiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiri) ii =iiiii
IB iiiiiRI :ii iiiiili ii ii I )i
ii A i i i i i i i i i l i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i iiiBi i iii i i i i i i i == i = li ii ii i i i i i ii iiiilliii ::';;B R ,; iiliiiiii! iii
.i';i;,ii; ;a l, .. . .i i!iiiii fii i iiiiii !iiii iii~iii = = iiiiiill
@ i i i i i ii i ii iiiii iii i i ii i i iiiii;li
i~ i i iii iiiiii)ii H i(i) )iiii~ ~ i~i~ iiii)ii i ))i)))iii)ii ) i)))))) ))))) )))))) )))))))) )))))))))))))))))) ))) )) ) )) )))) )))) )) )) ))))) ))))))) ))) ))))))))))) ) ) ))))))))) )))))))) ))))) ))))))))) )) ))))))))))))) )))))))) ) )) iiii,,i,~iiiiii~~~~i
s iiiil i iii iiiii iil iiiii;i;;i i iiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiil iiiilii i i ii iiii;i iiiiii iiii~ i iiilii ii iiiiiiiiiii;i;iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiii iii;iiii;iiiiili ii ii i)|:iiii ~ i! "iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiililiiiii i iiiiiliiiai ii iiiiiiii ilii iiiiiiiIili liiiiiiii iiiiii iii i
==== iii ii i~ iliii i i iiiil i ii!~ iiii] iii i lil i ~i i~ ii iiii i~iiii ii iiii~ iiiiii iii ii ~i; i liiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiili~ii ii i ii iiiiii i iiil il iii i iii!liiiliiiii~~ i! iiiliiii iiiiii !i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliii iiii~iii !iliiiiii i== i iiiiii i i~ii
i iiiiiliiii 41ii1il~iii ii i iii!i i~i !iliiiliii i
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60 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
With all reports of stings by the dawhichhavebeen
it is not to be questioned that some of them have a basis in fact
many of tesereports are undoubtedly cases of wrong determin
,There are, for example, several large digger wasps which provi
Jlegastizus specio0su, described later on under the heading of
enemies of the Cicada (p.9) As 9 first suggeste
afterwards more fully shown by Dr. Walh, it is not unlikely that
or some allied wasp, flying with its rather heavy burden, might si
against or alight on some human being, and upon being brse
would retaliate by stinging the offender and then flying away, lea
the Cicada behind. In the absence 6f the wasp the icada would
naturally be accused of the ofense. The usual prey of this w
which appears rather too late in the season to account for all the
of stinging reported, is the later-appearig annualicadas.
The rare cases of stinging by the Cicada, that have any basis in
may be accounted for, as already suggested, by a thrust either of
From the structure of the ovipositor, as already described, it wi
once be perceived that there is nothing impossible in a wound b
made by this instrument. The objections to this s tion are
the ovipositor when not in use in placing eggs in twigs is concea
a sheath iu the insect's abdomen, and also tha the piering of a tw
other substance by the ovipositor is a slow and laborious process,
therefore, would not account for the quick sting usually described.
no case has an egg been found in the flesh, and in fat it is improb
that an insect should be allowed to rest long enough on the fles
accomplish the insertion of an egg. Furthermore, tests were made
reported by Dr. Walsh2 and later by Professor Riley, showing
absurdity of the theory that the stinging in question is done by th
of this instrument, the female not being able to puncture the soft, y
ing flesh at all. In one test reported by Professor Riley, Mr. Wil
Muir, of St. Louis, removed a female from a tree while she was in
act of ovipositing, and placed her on his finger. Although she ins
tively endeavored to continue her work, she was not able to make
least impression on the soft, yielding flesh. A second experiment
made by Mr. Peter A. Brown, of Philadelphia, who himself made
eral punctures upon his hand with the ovipositor without experien
any more serious results than would have followed pricking with a
or other sharp instrument. In a third experiment Dr. Hartma
Pennsylvania, introduced some moisture from the ovipositor into
open wound and it caused no inflammation whatever.
'American Entomologist, 1, pp.7,8, September, 1868.
iiN iiiiiiiiii iiiii
The o osit havngoben remverd asotent proable Thref sestilel
ing, tiie beak only remains, aiid iti isiie by.i meansiof tis
instrument5 htheatr prctcal all th ocalled ofthe Ofiche Cicaeasole
made.~~~~ Th trcur ufthe i bea ehaoaread bee iadi scuns sed, adiiso
not at allbt imroabe thug crtailey a rreocurrenceucha lthe Ceioa-
dawhe hed ocagh, may thrut outchmoe slende sthean puncture o
the~ ~ ~ ~ l skn ayohrheaingeou insectsarel konyo. sig 1i
giiss of the iididdua isi however, in the cae iof the groiidafr thei sol
criterion ~ ~ of ijr.Tea theni repornts of thicaastingsc p lshow som
varition inthe ffets bute asarulerut the resl e s mcess sieriouhs
tha th stngof be.,an noyitl muchvergne thn the puntur of asun
needliiou erbro usually lealen imme diiiiiii
The~ ~ ~~Mj daeobh sun fteCicadasefroml teio groun aheftergteire
long~~~ ~ cocamntaiesalite weenith the laiueaio beng lteerainthre
Norh tanin'beSouh.In the accohurtsaof toishir-sec rtpu oli thedb
Professor ~ ~ Rienadmotothrbrtersy upt thmeratresentstimenituhas
beeon sttdhrite diverrnce in ti iiuing
beteenthenorher an the socuthrne ofbroods t V l i 87,sattrhlomres
strictlyo pparabu the las0wek of May'l butin thet nomlpridfrthmr enc
of~~~ ~ th nscmhruhutisrage. Thlath 7ther may be, however, ahe
consderble iffren e inti meieed n gs onumelevationindin toeepertre,
coutry alo etemind ndoubted1lyhboftemperaturillhbe beeemburey
established.r The variatioon--lin in the dae fapaac soilustratedt
bye theiin follwin ofeoorids.
Dr. P wr iting -O f the occurrecofrood Vppe ing in 1871, states
nof Philadeabutphe 20t fbunApril oft thths inse
bulkof te boodid rot theirg until were obterved 8hof May, whenn
they~~~~ caefronrm h athinuedsto numers congetinuingtoersfr ae
in imiishngnumersU1to ingo the 18th oMay. It. owiposl b nte remebere
thatthi isthe ostsouhern of ahe 8the brof s-n inJhesoehes
corerf issssipiand the adjonin professof iLouisinotdtat. n
that in te neighbohood of Piladelphi an abundnce of thse insect
vicniy o S. oui 6 tey commenced to issue on the 22d of May, and
b h2thotesmmonth the woods resounded with the rattling
coscts." At Washington, DA C. in the Cicada
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year 1885, scattered individuals appeared on May 23, and they iss
perhaps, most abundantly on the niiight of the 27th. Those emerg
within the city were somewhat earlier in appearance than was the e
in the neighboring woods across the Potomac in Virginia, probably
the same reason that the trees in the city put out their foliage a lit
earlier than in the near-by woods.
Mr. Davis, writing of Brood XII as it appeared in 1894 o Sta
Islan4, New York, says that as early as May 19 many Cicadas a
emerged, the first individuals of the swarm being noted six or sev
Mr. A. W. Butler, writing of the brood appearing in 1885 in Fra
lin County, Ind., says that while i n a few localities individuals
seen as early as May 28, in other places not distant they did
emerge until June 4, and later.
Mr. Hopkins made a careful study of the dates of emergence in t
Virginia in 1897 in connection with Brood XV, and found very co
erable variation in time of appearance both between the northern a
southern border of the brood and between the lowest and highest
vations within the area covered by the brood. For the former a dif
ence of nearly two weeks was indicated by the records, and fort
latter a difference of nearly w. T, hof nearly four weeks. This varitias
appears to be due to the difference of climate between the north
and southern sections and between low and high elevations, i
former case amounting to 3J degrees, and in the latter to over
degrees in average summer temperature. He deduces from his ob
vations, as a general rule, that there is about three and one-half
difference in the time of the first general appearance of the icada
each degree of difference in the average summer temperature, wht
it be due to latitude or elevation.'
An interesting case of artificial acceleration in the appearance
these insects is recorded by Professor Riley as follows: Dr. E. S.
of Alton, Ill., having placed some underground flues for forcing v
tables, the unnatural heat caused the Cicadas to emerge by the 20t
March and from this time on until May. Other instances of ac
eration are given in the discussion of the subject of retardation
acceleration in times of appearance as a possible explanaton of
formation of the different broods. (See p. 20.)
Notwithstanding the difference in time of emergence in the ab
citations, the fact nevertheless remains true of the great uniform
evidenced in the time of emergence, namely, the last week inMay, f
the great bulk of the territory covered by the differentbroods of t
Cicada, and this fact is one of the noteworthy features i the life
tory of the insect.
The males precede the females by several ay and disappear ea
in the summer, both by reason of being sorter lived and also on acco
'JBulletin 50, W. Va. Agric. Exjer. Station, p. 17.
Sare still filled with females actively engaged in ovipositing, the
s are altogether absent and their songs are unheard.
DURATION OF THE ADULT STAGE.
Under normal conditions the Cicada remains in evidence in the woods
or six weeks, occasional individuals occurring later, but as a rule
disappearance is almost as sudden as their appearance and is
lete in the first weeks in July. Mr. Butler, writing of the 1885
d in Indiana, says that twenty-three days after the appearance of
ecada a perceptible decrease in numbers was observed, chiefly from
appearance of the males. On July 15, nine days after they had
ippeared from.the river valley districts, they were still abundant
ctive in more elevated situations. Mr. Davis, writing of the brood
94 on Staten Island, says that by the third week in June the Cica-
ommenced to die of old age, and yet the males were still singing
he females were abundant in certain localities as late as the 8th of
while by the 15th of the same month all had disappeared.
r. HopkiS found on the bills near Morgantown, W. Va., that the
d sof the Cicada appearance, were about normal, the first adults
aring on May 20, the first general appearance not coming, however,
the 24th. Cold weather intervening, there was a subsidence again
lthe 30t, when they emerged again in enormous numbers. Ovi-
on began onthe 13th of Julne, and by the 17th of the month the
s on the wounded twigs commenced to wither. All had disappeared
eaping from the soil the pup burrows directly upward, but not
a in a straight line, and under normal conditions emerges directly,
le g as l roundioieiiiiii hoiiiii thesize ofi a man's little finger. While
generally true that they do not pierce the surface at all until they
ipe for tansformation, they see to have a frequent habit of pene-
ngnerly to the top of the ground some time before they actually
i nd remain usually within their burrows or sometimes emerging,
oncealing themselves under logs, stones etc. awaiting the proper
t to come fort. Usually throughout the month of April they
from6i to 12 inches.
ii; '"' n t;""" un
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64 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
"towers," "roofs," "chimneys," turrets," and "adobe dwellings?%
,ablif the writer mistakes not to
one which h a hi'therto been
looked, is by Professor Potte,
e; ; e refers to th rofs of
tenements" as b einig el:
arched and so firmly cemente
housesthat water is never, f d
chimneys them, although all of the s
STeroundig grounds aree ov erfl
.............and perfectly saturated," an
-- *-- stating that "the locust is no
singular in this provision," he r
Flo ities. 28.-Pupal galleries of the Cidrainda: e, front view; fe, i the same co,
e, orifice; b, section; e, pup awaiting time of the crayfish
change; d. pupa ready to transform (after Riley).s
and some insects asbu
houses along water courses, where the soil is wet, rfesem ing "all
chimneys," as a provision against "inundation and drow*ing.?
The first definite account of the Cicada huts we owe to Mr. S. S
Rate. Invo the, of Lancaster, Pa., who desried hem as occurring i
localities where the drainage was imperfect. He says:
We had a series of heavy rains here about the time of their first appearance, an
in such places and under such circumstances the pupoe would continue their galleri
fro 4 to 6 inches above the ground, leaving a orifice of eg even wi
face. In the upper end of these chambers the pup would be found waiting t
approaching time of change. They would then back down below the level.of t
earth (as at d, fig. 28) and, issuing forth from the orifice, would attach themselves
the first object at hand and undergo their transformation in the usual manner.
Professor Riley had the accompanying figure (fig. 28) made from o
of the chambers furnished by Mr. Rathvon. This chamber measure
about 4 inches in length, with a diameter on the inside of five-eight
inch and on the outside of 11 inches.
As will be later noted, the exit hole at the base of t tu
instance was probably abnormal, the insect issuin, as s b
observers, almost invariably from a hole clawed through the su
of the cone.
The next instance of the occurrence of these c s of whh w
1 otes on the Locu8ta etc., pp. 17 18
THE HUTS, OR CONES. D65
rather remarkable oneand is given by Prof. J. New-
ese cones appeared in ay and June, 1877, in a shallow
ause which had been erected on the site of an old orchard
atN. J. The cellar had been dugto the depth of about a foot,
n closed until about the time of the emergence of the Cica-
was opened and the bottom was found to be thickly beset
nes or tubes from 6 to 8 inches high. The explanation for
i structures ggested by Professor Newberry is that the
,ing a dark chamber, were apparently attempting to work
ht. What is probably the true explanation of their occur-
e given later. An excellent photograph of one of these
hich considerably exceeds 6 inches in length, accompanies
eren cited include all the records of the occurrence of these
o1894. In that year, however, these structures were noticed
ities in New York ad New Jersey, on the appearance of
and excellent opportunities were afforded for their study,
f which was taken by several competent observers who
e s.sated that careful examin.ations could be made. The results
estigations have cleared up much of the obscurity which
Srson to note these structures in 1894 was Mr. William T.
reported their occurrence in April on Staten Island, New
,Yg thatthe pup had been found on the 8th of that month
s on the edge of a meadow, where they had been erecting
h above the damp ground. In a later article he says:
t dof April many pup were found in the woods along Willow Brook
ogs, and the chips about stumps of trees cut down in winter. Many
out protection of this kind, and their presence was indicated by the
cones of earth among the dead leaves. A heavy footfall near the cone
"ause the insects to retreat, but if they were approached silently
nocked over their constructors would be found within.
e cones were 3 inches high, but they did not average more
's. The experience of Mr. Davis corroborates the theories
ii i ii ii iiiiii ii i ii ii i ii ii iii ii i i i i ii iiiiiiiiii iii ilillii~iiiiiiiiiiii i i iiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiii~i i i i iiiiiiiiiiiiiii~i~ii ii iii liilliiii iiili ili i liil~iili iiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiii i iiiii ii ii ii iiiii iiiiiii ii ii
inm any thousands and occasionay hundreds of th
in some cales being intermingled with the ordinary opes
.New Baltimore, N Y., 16 miles south of Albany, as earl stels
week in April the ppe had brought up, apparently from
depth, masses of soft clay-like material and molded dt abo
into conical and cylindrical struntures for their tempoo
In places the ground was almost covered with them, as m
sve being counted to the square foot. The cones inclined
able anogle from the pe
and measured from
iin eight, and the cab
was uniform in diameenit h
hole in the ground. sd emeteing
the poaf made a rofot in o a
the upper part of tlr cg
its eilape. The acthe aig-
ures (log. 29), publishte bn D panu t
ofnr in the report aitedd repisitdttwo
of the chimneys abouoweri
Stheir natural size.
In the Twelfth Repot t
list of localities in eea Y i
h~ ~~ where they were foundin 84o
Fif,. 29--Clay bu ildin gso the periodical Ciada gt6 ihRt8O
of the chambers andaccomp
conditions of the soil, and also on the method of their
Two of the plates illustrating this report are reproduced inti blei
(see Pls. 1I and 111). They are reproductions of photogrpsosml
areas of cone-covered districts.
Two very elaborate accounts of these structures, by M.Bnai
Lander and Dr. E. G. Love, were published in 1894-957teauhr
seeming very -near the actual truth in their explanationo h h<
nomenon. Mr. Lander describes the occurrence of the cnsa oe
by him as follows:
On the 4th of May, 1894, while in the woods on the summit of SouhMntia
Nyack, --\. Y., I came upon a spot that had recently been burnt over.O hsael
obser-ved vast quantities of the Cicada structures, entirely closed,avrgnabu
2* inches in height, the aggregation ending at the very edge of thebrtscin
So thickly studded was the ground that often eight or ton would efudi h
space of a square foot; in one case I counted twenty-three in such asae um
quent explorations showed that the Cicada city extended over anaraontlw
than 60 acres. Eight large aggregations were discovered by me on tpo h yc
hills and the Palisades, covering many acres, and one near a stonequryaaloe
elevation-none of them in a place subject to overflow. Later, whe nyth bn
of the domes remained, I visited two areas where large numbers had enfud n
in ground thinly covering massive sandstone and another hard by ury hr...
the top soil was thin.
The explanation offered by Mr. Lander is that the doebiles
E; I i r ii iii;iiiii
; iii iii;;': ; ii ;
...... ... ....,,
iii -7 .
iiiiiiiiiiii'iii ~ lrli~s
THE HUJTS, OR CONES. 67
rking in it effectively, had responded more quickly to the eat
and early summer, and the pup coming prematurely to the
ssed and extended their burrows as a means of protection
a ting maturity. The extension of the gallery above the
ough not suggested by Mr. Lander, may be explained by
instinct which impels the insects to burrow upward from its
tantiation of his theory, Mr. Lander calls attention to the
iiiiiiecords for March and April, 1894, which indicate an unusually
erature throughout the region of the domed burrows, causing
ts to bloom a month before their ordinary season. The occur-
hese structures over burnt areas, which would be acted upon
ckly by the sun, supports his belief. Additional support of
kind is an instance recorded by Prof. J.B. Smith I in a letter
from Mr. J. H. Willets of Port Elizabeth, N. J. The latter
-at On April 24 a fire from the South Jersey Railroad burned
al hundred acres of woodland, leaving the earth bare. Six
these fresh holes and raised tubes appeared, and yesterday
surface was literally covered with them." In further descrip-
ourself standing out in the woods in south Jersey on 100 acres of recently
ae from lI to 2 inches in diameter,
ae top, with a hole inside extending down in the earth 12 inches at least,
d you will see mentally what I saw yesterday physically.
instance also. on the authority of Mr. Lander, the turrets
aptly at the edge of the burned area. The other instances
trctures ited by Mr. Lander also bear out his theory. As
ey were located on rocky cliffs with uniformly shallow soil or
ituations where the soil in which the Cicada could work was
I the midst of one of the largest colonies a deep gully
300 or 400 feet wide, in which the soil was a deep loam.- Here
Sno domed brrows although the hills on either side were -
Srinary way in this gully in almost incredible numbers, leaving iii
G. Love, who also studied the problem of the Cicada huts
N iiiii, Ui', ii ?, ,,, a ? i +
I i i ii ii;ii i i iiii ii !i i i i i
.......... iiiii iiii ii , ii i i i i i ii i i ii iiii iii i i i iii iii i ii iiii iii iii iiiiiiii ii iiiiiiii! l iii iii i iii ii ii iiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ilii!iii i! ii ii l iiiii i iii iiii iii ii
............................ iii i iii E iiiii s'iN~ ~
low and on the high ground; singly and. in coloniesof manytosn.
One hut, even in a damp soil, may be surrounded. by a oe hls
from which the insects emerge without making any hus nbfe
where we may expect to fnd them they are never seen.Acetn
the theory proposed by Mr. Lander for the condi~tion foun oeiti
the Nyack region, Dr. Love does not deem it entirely adeuta e
says: "The huts are sometimes found in places in whici
great depth and which are not especially exposed.
at Baychester, where only a few ts were found, and
soil and so well protected that it was only after careful ar
were discovered." He offers the -supplementary explana
it is hardly possible that the Cicada larva can determine
the distance to be traveled in their upward journey
required to accomplish it which will vry with the at
to be tunneled and the directness of the line followed in
tions, it may often happen that individuals reach the
they are prepared ,to assume the adult condition, and
doing would be greater when the conditionsall utited to
passage. In protected localities where the soil is deep thelrf yn
near the surface will be more likely to emerge before their
are complete, and would thus be led to the constrction
This, he says, would also explain their seeking tempo
they do, under logs and stones, as has been previously n
The explanation offered for the construction of the Cc
Mr. Lander, as supplemented by Dr. Love, seems, on th
factory and adequate, so far as the conditions studied by
are concerned. The conditions as described by Mr. R
inform us as to the nature of the soil, but both in the
and the later instance described by Ar. Davis, the we
the ground would seem to indicate a soil of a consid
This would seem to give a basis of reason for the explana
by Mr. Rathvon and accepted by Professor Riley. o
esis, therefore, seems to be in a union of the explan
namely, that the cone-building habit is induced either
soil, proximity of the pupfe to the surface, or conditio
warmth, which brings the pupa to the surface in ad
normal time, and more rarely to unfavorable condition
The explanation of the occurrence of these structures
suggested by Professor Riley is certainly untenable.
that the individuals constructing cones in such sitt
because impelled by habit that had become fixed and he
course of a long period of existence'in low wet situation
limitation of these cones to areas presenting pecul
thoroughly disproved this theory.
v.of Entomology, U S. Dent. Agr. PLATE I11.
TOF CICADA CHAMBERS, MORE ENLARGED THAN PL. 1, TAKEN AT
NEW BALTIMORE, N. Y MAY, 1894.
T119HUS7Ol CONES. 691111;1I"'~~
hano exit orice at e ground, as described by Mr. Rath-
To is onfrmed by the studies made by the observers cited above,
th, nec ivriably clawing its way out at the top. Mr. Lander notes
,on istacewhere the pupal shiell remained attached and stuck in
tb sumitofthe burrow, the mature insect having escaped. Accord-
ing o Mr Laner, also, the huts are probably constructed at night, the
insect tain dra~ntage of the moist air, which would prevent the too
rapi dryng f the earth used in making the little tower and also of
the~ deiat iot insect itself. As described by Dr. Lintner, the cham-
bers re costruced with soft pellets of clay or mud brought up from
sed rmly into place. On examination, it will be seen
hat~~M thyaewl ounded and rather firmly compacted within, although
'"";; ii"; 8 1' 1 111
e~~~ mak fteclaws of the pupae are usually visible and leaves and
isi o" iiii'
icks re ote incorporated in the walls. No one has actually observed
e Jnsctswhle* at work on these structures, and, although Mr. Lander
..e off a number of cones to see if they would be
=") '='=' ri=ii =' ;l:,Rs .;,, ,,, m
pardi insect failed to do so whilei being watched. Subsequentlyii
rtions were found to be recapped, but at some little dis-
te broken edge. In this connection may be quoted the
seratonofMr. Lawton, of Nyack, cited by Dr. Lintner. Mr. Law-
n fond hatin every case except one the pupa repaired the cones
a atertheinjury by bringinig up pellets of mud and roofing over
...e boke potiont about half ,an inch from the top. Thle repairs were
egu ononeside and gradually extended over the opening horizon-
Ily ter bing no attempt to form a dome-shaped roof. In some
stanes he epairing of the, chamber began within a quarter to half
hou afer njry bad been caused, and within three or four hours
openng as entirely closed over. On one occasion a pupa was
wihapellet of mud in its lawii.ii
The act batthese cones bad been noted only on two or three occa-
sionsprior 1884 led to the belief that they were very rare andil
abnomal Thir extraordinary abundance in 1884 in connection with
l seem to indicate that they are by no means as rare as
r~heeto suposed, and it may be inferred that the absence of records
iii iutithe lack of examination, especially in localities where iiire
the c.wou.d be favorable for their appearancei i This view is
bte announcement in a recent ltitter from Mr. Davis of
theiscoery f a cone April 30, 18982 on Staten Island belon gin g to
Broo XVIIvwich appears this year. He says that the cone was just
pperin abve the dead leaves, which, with the ground also, were
TwefthReort, nsetsNe Yokp. 83
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ihs terotiiiiirestig subject) It sh iiou iii
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';iii Z iiiii iiiii
iii '"!ii:I': wpn::
g ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ;; an sueriia cntrcio waevr
70 THE. PERIODICAL CICADA.
The phenomenon connected with the transformation of the periodic
Oicada from the pupal tQ the adult stage is a very interesting one an
always flls the observer with considerable wonderment. As remarke
by Mr. Butler, when these insects emerge from the ground it is usuall
with a rush, and a lively scramble ensues for each elevation near tii
point of their emergence. Trees, bushes, weeds, poles, stumps, fences
in fact, everything upon which they can get above the level of thei
recent homes is ascended. The instinct which has caused them
burrow to the surface of the ground still drives them in the sam
tion upward, and they seem to make up for their long subterranea
periods and their weeks of waiting near the surface in activity whe
the time has finally arrived for their emergence. The different ste
undergone by the insects in transforming from the pupal to the adu
stage have been perhaps most accurately described by Professor Rile
as given below.' The plate accompanying his description is reproduce
in this bulletin as a frontispiece.
The unanimity with which all those which rise within a certain radius of a give
tree crawl in a bee line to the trunk of that tree is most interesting. To witne
these pupa- in such vast numbers that one can not step on the ground without cras
ing several warming out of their subterranean oles and scramblin over
ground, all converging to the one eeutral point, and then in a steady stream la
bering up the trunk and diverging again on the branches, is an experience no
readily forgotten and affording good food for speculation on the nature of tint
The phenomenon is most satisfactorily witnessed where there is a solitary or
The pupa (frontispiece, figs. 1 and 2) begin to rise as soon as the sun is hidd
behind the horizon, and they continue until by 9 o'clock the bulk of them ha
risen. A few stragglers continue until midnight. They instintivly crawl alo
the horizontal branches after they have ascended the trunk and fasten themselve
in any position, but preferably in a horizontal position on the leaves and twigs
the lowermost branches. In about an hour after rising and settling the skin spli
down the middle of the thorax from the base of the clypens to the base of t
metanotum (frontispiece, fig. 3), and the forming Cicada begins to issue.
The colors of the forming Cicada are a creamy white, with the exception of t
reddish eyes, the two strongly contrasting black patches on the prothra, a bl
dash on each of the cox~e and sometimes on the front femora, and an orange tinge a
the base of wings.
There are five marked positions or phases in this act of evolving from the p
shell,viz the straight or extended, the hanging or head downward, the clinging
head upward, the fiat winged, and, finally, the roof winged. In about three min-
utes after the shell splits the forming imago extends from the rent almost on tl
same plane with the pupa, with all it members straight and still old by their ti
within the exuvium (frontispiece, fig. 4). The imago then gradually bends ba
ward and the members are loosened and separated. With the tip of the abdo
held within the exiu, the rest of th bod hangs extended at right anes fro
it, and remains in this position from ten to thirty seconds or ore the wing pa
separating, and the front pair stretching at right angles from the body and oblique
crossing the hind pair (frontispiece, figs. 5 and 6). They then "radually swell, an
'Annual Rept. Dept. of Agriculture, 18, pp. 237238.
gs to the first object reached, whether leaf, twig, or its own shell, with-
rely from the eviumi and hangs for the first time with its i ead up
se, figs. 7 and 8). Now the wings perceptibly swell (frontispiece, fig. 8)
a until they are fully stretched and hang flatly over the back, perfectly
with beautiful white veining (frontipiece, fig. 9). As they dry they
roofed position (frontispiece, fig. 10), and during the night the natural
fte species aregradually assumed (frontispiece, fig. 11).
required in the transformation varies, and, though for the splitting of the
Sfll tretching of the wings in the fat position the time is usully about
intes, it may be, nder precisely similar conditions, five or six times as
there are few more beautiful sights than to see this fresh forming Cicada
ifferent positions, clinging and clustering in great numbers to the outside
as and branches of a large tree. In the moonlight such a tree looks for
ad as though it were full of beautiful white blossoms in various stages of
T.E ADULT INSECT AND ITS HABITS.
NUMBERS OFj AND LOCAL DISTRIBUTION.
s a better idea of the im ense numbers in which these insects
than has been elsewhere given may be gained by quoting some
iven by Mr. Mcook. Under one tree he counted 9,000 burrows,
aer another a small birch the number of exit holes was estimated
; and since many of the burrows interlaced underground, and
snsects emerged from the same opening, even these figures do
ate the, actual numbers. In another case 668 openings were
na space 10 feet by 4 feet, and 17 distinct openings in a space
6 in ei e ssquare.t
ually decreasein numbers as one ascends, the greater secarcity
ticeable both to the eye and the ear, th rattling chor
iiiutain west of ranesville was ascended the Cicada was found, i
;i iri~ i ii ;;;,,; i ii i ==iiii iii iiii ii i i ; i iiii ii i!ii ii
............... = = i .. ............... .......... ii ii = i ii iiii=,ii"l iii i i i' 'ii'i ii'i"i iiiii ii iiiiii'i ii"ililiiiii!iiii!iiiii i
72 THE PgRIODICAL CIcAt)A.
ing, from their weight. This point seems to have, been the eastern
border of the swarm, and a few rods farther up the Cicadas became
very scattered and soon ceased altogether.
They often also appear in greatest number in rather well-defined
districts within the general range of the brood, or, in other words, are
irregular in local distribution. This variation in abundance is due in
some cases to differences in the character of the soil, and in others per-
haps to varying surface conditions, as of timber growth, etc. They
prefer, apparently,- white-oak groves, and are most abundant where
the land is high and well drained and the soil a rich sandy loam with
a sandy or soft clay subsoil. The irregularity of local distribution is
confirmed also by the experience of Mr. Davis on Staten Island, who
reports of the 1894 brood that they were very rare in sandy districts,
while in districts less sandy they appeared by thousands. He says
also that they occurred by millions on certain hills and in certain bits
of woodland, yet at a short distance away, under apparently unaltered
conditions, they were very scantily represented.
The local abundance of the Cicada in well-defined districts is also to
be explained by the fact, already noted, that the winged insect is slug-
gish and scatters but little from the point of emergence, which, with
favoring circumstances, tends constantly to concentrate rather than to
scatter the species.
THE FOOD HABITS OF THE ADULT INSECT.
The taking of food in the adult stage seems to be of rare occurrence,
and has been observed and commented upon by few of the entomolo
gists who have studied the species. That the periodical Cicada feeds
at all has even been questioned, and it is quite possible that in some of
the cases where it was supposed to have been feeding the action of the
insect was misinterpreted. Such feeding is limited, at any rate, to the
female, as in this sex only do we find a perfect digestive apparatus,
that of the male being rudimentary. One of the most reliable accounts
of the feeding of the adult Cicada is given by Mr. Davis, who reports
that the black birch and the sweet gum are its favorite food plants, and
that it is not uncommon to see rows of Cicadas along the branches of
these trees with their beaks embedded in the bark.
Whether in this case all of the insects were actually feeding or not
is doubtful, and at any rate no appreciable injury from the feeding of
the adult insect has ever been noted,even on trees where they occurred
in countless myriads.
THE CICADA AS AN ARTICLE OF FOOD.
The fact has already been alluded to that the common name "locust,"
given by the early colonists to this insect, was undoubtedly owing to
a confusion of the Cicada with the migratory locust of the Orient,
which has been an article of diet from the earliest times, and is so
eaia. A similar locst is also-now highly esteemed as a food
e class of insects known as grasshoppers, and on this conti-
nRcky Mountain grasshopper or locust has also, as is well
n long used as an article of food by certain Indian tribes.
Cicada was eaten by the red men of America, both before
the coming of the colonists,is indicated in a memorandum,
Sleft by the iRev. Andrew Sandel, of Philadelphia, who,
Sthe use of locusts as food in eastern Asia, states also that
ais so used by the Indians. Dr. Asa Fitch corroborates this
giving as his authority Mr. W. S. Robertson, who informs
tthe Indians make the different species of Cicada an article
ory year gathering quantities of them and preparing them
le by roasting in a hot oven, stirring them until they are
welll browned. made with the Cicada as an article of human
Howard in the early summer of 1885. The following is an
Waid of te Doctor's (Riley's) cook he had prepared a plain stew, a thick
id a broil. The Cicad were collected just as they emerged from pupw,
own into cold water, in which they remained over night. They were
cxt mornin, and served at breakfast time. They imparted a distinct
leasant flavor to the stew, but were not at all palatable themselves, as
wuced to nothing but bits of flabby skin. The broil lacked substance.
alatable method of cooking is to fry in batter, when they remind one of
M. Keleher, who sampled some of the dishes above described,
d the writer that he found the iiiiiicadas fried in batter to be
aabe, and that he much preferred them to oysters or shrimps.
Te iiiiit liking manifeted by various a inimals for the pupii before
they have emerged and for the transforming adults has
t ealsosttesthat when the Cicadas. first leave the earth they areii
full of oily juices; so much so that they are employed in
Journal of Science, 1830, Vol. XVIIIp. .47.
:iiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiii= =iiiiiiiiiiiiiiRiiiii
74 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
full of a thick white matter like cream and that hogs rooted up the
fact that great numbers of them are "devoured by hogs, squirrels, all
kinds of poultry, and birds, which live and fatten on them."
i * *A ,ii , m '" ii ;; iii iiii , .i _
That they are sometimes considered to be poisonous when made an
object of food is indicated in the following quotation from Dr. Phares.
Many species of domestic and wild birds, quadrupeds, and other animals eat the
Cicadas greedily and with impunity. In 1859 they were said to have killed a few
hogs in Amite County. They have no poison about them, yet it is not to be won-
dered at that an occasional hungry hog or other animal, eating very largely of such
food, should become sick or even dio. Dogs become very fond of them. Oneevening
I watched a bitch catching and eating so many that I expected her to become sick
from her rich feast of fat things, but she was in no way injured. Indeed, I have
never seen any animal injured or otherwise.
As has beeh indicated elsewhere, the liking of domestic animals and
birds, especially the English sparrow, for the icadas, both i their
newly emerged condition and in the mature state, is one of the most
potent influences in exterminating or greatly reducing the abundance
of this insect in thickly settled districts.
The use of the newly emerged and succulent Cicadas as an article of
human diet has merely a theoretical interest, because, if for no other rea-
son, they occur too rarely to have any real value. There is also the much
stronger objectionn the instinctive repugnance which all insects seem
to inspire as an article of food to most civilized nations. Theoretically,
the Cicada, collected at the proper time and suitably dressed and served,
should be a rather attractive food. The larv have lived solely on
vegetable matter of the cleanest and most wholesome sort, and sup-
posedly, therefore, would be much more palatable and suitable for food
than the oyster, with its scavenger habit of living in the muddy oozeof
river bottoms, or many other animals which are highly prized and
which have not half so clean a record as the periodical Cicada.
OVIPOSITION AND ITS EFFECT ON THE PLANT.
The Cicada becomes almost perfectly hardened and mature during the
first day of its aerial life, and does not wait many days before beginning
the important business of its existence in the perfect stage, namely,
depositing the eggs for another brood. Courtship occupies a compara-
tively short time, and the sexes are found together usually within a
week after the emergence of the first individuals. Within two weeks
the egg punctures begin to appear here and there in the twigs. From
this time on oviposition proceeds very rapidly, and thousands ofindivid-
uals may often be noted working at the same time on the same tree.
The fact that the Cicada is not especially choice in its selection of
trees in which to place its eggs is patent to any careful observer,
although a preference is generally shown for oaks and hickories, and
*t .'*.. '1'' ~ '* "** ". 8:-.. :;8
ple among the fruit trees. Any plant which presents itself is,
er, accepted, often herbaceous ones and occasionally evergreens,
gh the sticky resinous sap of the latter seems to be distasteful
se insects. No careful, complete list of plants in which they ovi-
has been made, although several observers have made rather
ive lists, notably Mr. Butler and Mr. Davis, the latter having
red the Cicadas laying their eggs in between seventy and eighty
bushes, and herbaceous plants on Staten Island in 1894, and
also that he had evidently not nearly reached the limits of plants.
e cases even the large petioles of plants, like the horse-chestnuts,
een oviposited in. A list of plants could be given which have
nut on record, but it would have but little value, as in every dis-
Swhich they appear they will oviposit in practically all plants
hcome their way, with the exception of pines, as already stated,
t they are not very echoice in this matter is shown by a case of
instinct reported by Mr. Hunter Nichols, who observed a female to
on the iron rod of a bridge and attempt to insert her eggs, even
ding them to the number of seven, some of which remained attached
rod and the others falling to the ground. Other similar cases of
Sthe part of the insect are noted by Mr. Davis. In one instance
le had attempted to insert her eggs in the very hard stem of
atr (8milaxr rotudifolia) and in another place had thrust her
itor entirely through the stem of a plant only to find that it was
part of the plant selected for a receptacle for the eggs is almost
the twigs of the previous year's growth. When larger limbs
eoen, as occasionally happens, the female evinces her dislike for
by constructing only a nest or two instead of the long series of
hich are usually characteristic of her work on limbs of newer
RESULT TO THE PLANT OF OVIPOSITION.
effect on the plant'of the cutting of the smaller twigs by the
ein depositing her eggs has been often described, and is apt to
esp ally noteworthy and disastrous in the case of such favorite
a theoak hickory, and apple, and in the case of the latter, espe-
lea.are conspicuous for the remainder of the summer. Many of the.
ing which results is often of considerable extent, giving the for-
iii = i = = = il i i ........... i i = ii i i i i iii ~ iiiiiiil l iiiiiiiili = i i .............. iili=i l iii ii ii i i i lii il liiiil iii ii l lliiiii ii i i i iiii i i i i ii i i i i ii i iiiiiii i i i
=~~~~~,rs x -;ii i i ii i iiiiiiiiiii =ii ili = = = i iii.ii i i i ==ii iiiiii ii i iiiii ii i.. l iiiii! i i iiiiii
iiiiiiIiiiii iiiiii~ iiiii~ iiiiii~iiI iii i B:i iiii~iiiii iiiiiii iiiiiiiiiii i '~ 1 iiiiiiip
... iii i="ii =iii iiiiiiiiN =====ii =iiiiiii iiii!iiiiiiiiiiiiliiiii iiiiiiiiiiilii iiiiiiiiiliiii i iiiilliiiliiiiil~iiiii ' n iii iiiiiliiiii
... iiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiii =='iilliil iii'=iiiii~iilili iiil='iliii!ii iii =li;~~iiiiiii i i iiiiiiil~ = l~i iiiiii ii~ii iiiiiiiiiiii==iiiiiii,=ii ili!
iiiiiiii iiii i iiiiii iiiiiiiii iiiii J ii~iiliiiiiii I iiiii;iiiiiiii;iiiiii lr .iii.iiiiii ; i ;"i~~iiaii iiiii iii~ii"iii"i iiiiiiiiiiiiii)
or nearly so, withi n two or three years. With fruit trees d
tock, on the other hand, and especially on newly cleared ground
the vicinity of forests or groves wii,
the icada abounds, the injury is
The following extract from a le
from Mr. William G. Wayne, of Se
Falls, Y., illustrates the injury
times experienced. Referrg to in i
Hudson River Valley brood appea
fruitage of the orhards almost cm
pletely. Nearly3 a the tender bran
of the trees were so wounded in tt u
deposit of the eggs that they bel l
ing; b.-gfrom the main stems in the follow o
,Peach, pear, and apple trees s m '"
modisping tofand even grapen erse
tbadly injured. With fruit trees in
however, the wounds heal in af
yearsfilling the twigs soer egg that often the
detectedetely or partly severs but, as
Hopkidie. This o iothn ihrecently
and i Ob is bae partly ot br
transpthat many t s relanted trees, the
FIG.o n a confusincture of Cicathea: a, twig low, and with the
showing recentpuctures, frowi fronterii a nd t
side, an t illustratiog manner of break-
that many twigs are broken by the winds and partly
pruning beetles, which after ovipositing in the branches, cut them
iN~rriiib .liii il
iii iii iiiii iiliiii ~ iii i ii i iiiiiiiiii
OVIPOSITION AND ITS EFFECT ON THE PLANT. 7 7ii3,
neary of, cusing them to fall to the ground, thus furnishing their
,larve helead or dying wood in which they develop.
Trdity of the theory that the Cicada purposely cuts the limbs
to wakenthem and cause them to break off is shown' by the fact that
a limb is broken, through the weakening from excessive punc-
other causes, and falls to the ground, the drying up of the
limbinvaiably causes the eggs to shrivel and die. The breaking off
of imb, herefore, is purely accidental, and is confined, so far as due
7 7 T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FIG. of-icd such roken hr-aple ftllen aterseveneenlear (ift kn gea no g
giv hetree a deadened appearance, is small in comparison with the
any hicer and stouter limbs which remain attached, and probably
ore han90 per cent of all the eggs, and more than 99 per cent of
os. tatultimately hatch, are laid in twigs which never break off,
ughoftn -much injured. A very few youngO mayL come1 ifrom twigs
iii ] ,,, i
u uc ilji~ iiiiiiiiiiiii Iiiiiiiiii
i ii ii iii ii iiii iiiiiii iiiii
iiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiii ii iiiliiiiiii
iiiliilli ii iiiliilli ii iiii i!!liii iiil~iii
iiiiii iiiiiii~i~iiii iii~iiiiiiililiii iiii iiiiii
iiili iiiiiiiiii iiiiiiBi~iiii
iiiiiii iiiiiiiiiliiliiiiiiiiiilii iiili iiiiii
iiii i ii i ii i iiiii ii i iiiiiiiiilliii iiiiiii
.iii ii i i i iiii iii iiiiiiiiiiiiiii
iiiiiiliiiiii~ i ii~i liiiii ii~ii liii~ii
iliiiiiiiiiliiiiili~ ii i~iiiiiiliiiii~iiiiii
ii iiii liiiiii iil ii iiiilliliiiillii! ii i iiiii
iiiliiiliilii iiiiiiii iiiiiiliiiii iiii iiii iii iiiiiii
iiii iiii iiiii~ i iiii iiii iiiii~ iiiiiiii~ iiiiiiiiiiiiii
iii~ liiii liiiliiiiiiiiiiiiii~ iiiiiiiiiiiii Iii i! i
iiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiii iii iii ;;ii i iiiiiii ii ii
ii iiiii iiiiiiiiii,,
ii~liiiiiiiiiiiiii i iiiiiii
nrrs .ii' ;E;"!i iiiiiiiiiiiii iiii
i~iii~ii iiiiiiiii iiiiii iiiii ii i
rs i r
78 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
not been entirely stopped.
The after effect of the egg punctures on the twigs is shown in t
deformity which characterizes their subsequent growth. In the pr
cess of healing the punctures usually assume a wart or knoti
appearance, as represented in the accompanying illustration of a
apple twig (fig. 31.) The effect of punctures in hard maple twig ft
the lapse of seventeen years is shown in fig. 32, and on varis pla
in Plate I (se p. 10) these illustrations being kindly loaned me by
Hopkins.' Though ultimately healing over exteriorly with the grow
of the surrouziding wood, there remains in the centeof the twig a dea
been found in place six years after they have been inserted in the tw
by the female Cicada. :
Considerable danger follows the work.of the icada, in that as
as the wounds remain open or as dead spots on the limbs they are
only a source of weakness in the case of winds, but they offer 'attrac
ive situations for the attacks of various woodboring insects If l
to themselves the limbs might entirely recover, except for the s
but the borers gaining entrance through these spots complete the wo
of destruction which the icada began. Furthermore, such op
wounds or pockets in the twigs of fruitrees Mr. Hopkins has sho
to be favorite points of attack for the woolly aphis, the presence
which not only prevents the wounds from healing but causes addition
abnormal growth, adding considerably to the injury to the branch
and making them more liable to the attacks of other insects.
METHOD OF INSERTING THE EGGS.
The work of the female Cicada in inserting her eggs is an interesti
subject for study, and so little does she mind the presence of
observer that the operation can be closely watched without-her exhib
ing any alarm. The position taken is almost invariably with the he
upward or directed toward the tip of the branch, the work being steadi
prosecuted in that direction. When her course is interfered with
the occurrence of side shoots, instead of moving to one side or t
other she reverses her position and thus follows her row of punctui
in a straight line completely to the base of the intervening shoot. T
branch selected is ordinarily of a size which the female can surrou
and clasp firmly Ahh her legs to give her the strong attachmentnec
sary to enable her to force her ovipositor into the wooy tissues.
The exact method of making the egg fissure and depositing the eg
has hitherto, in the main, been either very briefly referred to, or t
actions of the insect have been inaccurately interpreted. The descri
tion of this process, hitherto generally accepted and quoted, is
by Dr. Harris, substantially as follows: Raising hr body somew
I Bulletin 50 W. Va. Ag. Ex. Sta., Plo. II and IV.
iiiii~~~~iiiiii"' iii~i iiii'ii"!ii r:iiiii~iiii 'iliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii' iiiiiiiiiiiiiiilii
i"~ .iil; ,,,;:~,i: i ;:i i iili
METHOD OF INSERTING THIE EGGS. 79
iig, the point of her ovipostor is brought to bear on theiiiliiii
"barkat anangle of 45 degrees, and is thrust slowly and repeatedly into
Sak n wood, the two lateral saws working in alternation. Wheni i
fulyiiiiisete the instrument is pried upward by a motion.iiiiiii of the abdo- i
g and loosening in this way little fibers of wood which,
remaiing atached, form a sort of covering for the egg fissure or Dest.
Thecutingnormally extends nearly to the pith or about one-twelfth of
pth, and is continued until space is made to receive from
tento weny eggs. After preparing the egg nest as described, the
Abmal move back to the point of commencement and again thrusts in
er vipsitr, using the two side pieces as grooves or channels to COD -
aced n pars, sepa,-
ted by acentral
nge f ooy fiber,
hich as ben left
inds"tu rb and
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiii ii
iiiiiiiiier at thei
Two eggs hav-
ng been inserted in
e p o rtio n of th e fis- C,
refrs ade, thea bcd
.FIG. 88.--Egg nest of the Cicada: a, recent puncture, front view; b,
viposio isw1ith- same, surface removed to show arrangement of eggs, from above;
rawn and gain in- c, same, side view; II, ego, cavity exposed after eggs are removed,
~and showing the sculpture left by the evipositor--all enlarged
erte, an twomore (after Riley).
ggs ae plaed in
ii withihiirst; this operation being continued until the egg nest
s flle. Astep or two forward is then. taken, and after a brief pause
est is begun. About fifteen minutes is occupied in pre-
an illing one of these nests with egrgs.
account is substantially correct so far as the superficial iiiiilii
pperanesare concerned. Instead, however, of first making an egg
I [,bestandafewards filling it with eggs in pairti, as described, the female
.,#posts~herow of eggs on one side as she makes the original cutting
n te Se then moves back, and, swinging a li iittle to one side,
i-nsrts hrogh the same, hole the second row of eggs parallel with the
Ofirt th s laing a small bit of undisturbed wood fiber between the
reggs. This method of inserting the eggs corresponds to
4,kht knwn o be true of allied insects which deposit their eggs in. prac-
Ifiall tb sme manner, and is confirmed also by the careful observa-
V-sos mde y Mr. Ira H. Lawton, of Nyack, N. Y.7 in 1894, and reported
ProesorLintner.x M1r. Lawton found that the placing of each row
f. ggsoccpied a little over twenty minutes, or, for the construction
Twelfthor ,;, Ror Inlsec~its. New York. v
IiTw lfti iiReprt i iiii !iNiiw Yoriikip.275.
2011 Niiii ii46iiii iii
;s~~;iiii !i~i' " i,i;; ii si iiiiii
i~oi;iioi:i;,o l iiiiiiiiiiiiiu iiiiisiiiiiiiiiioiiiiiiiiiiiii
.O Ii";Riiiiii-"iii" iiiiii. 0iii iiiiiii; iii iiiii ii ii
I; = =A @ .............. iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
minute, and after four chambers were made the female would indt
the nufemale ber of nes so weakde from four or fv
fifteen or twenty, the latter number being not at all unusual, anda
the grond and found in a single limb. The punctures are o
The eggs remontinuousn slit fore 2 or 3 inches.
Th deposited. Profasses from one limb or from one tree to another
she has exhausted her store of eggs, which have been estimated to gi
watching them untithe youing larva1 JWett.|
from oeggs dposix hundred. By the tie he eg ig is c e
the yong on e 2 of Julweak from her inessant labor that she fall
hDr. Smih. Mss Morris and orsooberoms a vtiter vr
The eggs remain in the twigs for six or seven weeks after be
deposited. Professor Potter was one of the first to determine
Suuu period by m cetn e
Fi. 34.-Egg, much enlarged, showing to noted range s a s
youwatching them until the youg larvd(origial) were disclosed He reports
Some interesting instacehv 6
noted of retarded development of eggs in n atsy 'g
.* . vo.y'^j -'_<** -. T',, s, '' "".,**'"-s iisi ."":lf ^
ftions whch had hierm on the t o e he wtnessed te htn
fessor Smith.ey notes s a ndse of thisorter period, and
and undoubtedly considerable variation
their flae Except ih ...s.r
to weasomewhat earliconditionser, the eggs e
June and most bunda autt mi of tt
Shatcohing paerd rgshohe idtf e at re
SThe egg s a very deli i ad m y oers cate,
inch long, to pers, as stated, from
TheSome interesting instances have
oted of retarded development of eggs in. plants yielding gummy ex
tions which ing throe timetically closed the nests from the outer air.
tanhattched until the end of th ea, ft t t
atheir foliage. Except in the extreme south, where all of the
batehing period ranges from the middle of July to the first of Aug
The egg is a very delicate, pearly-white object, about one-twelfth o
The shell is very thinand transparent, the form of the larval insect show-
that oviposit in the Iivin g parts of plants, the eggs of the Cicada ree
a certain nourishment from the plant and netually increase insize..
before hatching, by absorption of the juices from the adjacent plant c
ITXE GROWTH AND HATCHING OF THE EGGS. 81
val icadamakes its escape by upturing the eggshell over
from the upper end downward about half way, by muscular
mes accompanied with an inflation of the head and forward
pte body. The rupture in the shell once made, the larva works
ut by twistings and contortions until the tip of its body only
n the egg slit of the shell. The entire insect, however, is still
in an extremely delicate and almost invisible membrane
and after resting a short time the violent movements are
med, and by wriggling, twisting, and inflating its head,
ad anterior parts the thin enveloping skin is burst open, and
,bl effortscoupled with contractions and expansions of the
larva draws itself out, leaving the thin white skin held in the
tipofeeggshell. The larv-nearest the opening come out first, the
.owing in regular order, each usually pushing out the aban-
Ito t ggsheld of the preceding one,
"tourmonly several remain at-a
S Ithe loose woody fibers of thei
eat the moment that it becomes
,kable than other
i'iiie th av bIeiiign i iuslu iiytvl
enlarged (after Rilev).
ves no injury. The peculiar instinct which impels this newly
arva to thus precipitate itself into space without the least
ly hatched larva (fig. 35) is about one-sixtenth of an inch longii
Sconsiderably in general form from the later larval stages,
82 THE PERIODICAL CIADA.
The aerial life and habits of the periodical Cicada, which have so
only been discussed are open t easy study and have been fairly
understood,certainly since the time of
but from the time of the disappearance of the young larva beneath
soil and thereafter, througout its long hypogean existence, obser
tions are difficult and have hitherto for the most part been limited
the occasional and accidental unearthing of specimens, an no co
utive series of observations of a definite brood or generation have be
made. The discovery of and the proof for the 17-year or 13-ye
period for the development of the Oicada is, th
chronological records, but so noteworthy are the recurrences of
important broods and so full and complete are the records, some broo
having been regularly recorded on the occasion of each visit for nea
two hundred years, that there is no possibility of doubting the ac
racy of the time periods from such records alone; nevertheless t
unusual feature in the life of the Cicada always arouses skepticism
the minds of persons who have not given the matter sdy nor ha
examined the historical records. To silence such objectors, rather th
because of the need of experimental proof, wao Rir
many years interested in demonstrating by actual rearing exp
the period of underground development of this other wor
to follow a particular generation through its subterranean life of sev
teen or thirteen years, as the case might be, watching its develop
and preserving examples of the different stages.
The great difficulty of conducting to a successful termination exp
ments of this sort will be appreciated when the long period
the experiments must necessarily extend is remembered The extre
delicacy and softness of the larv themselves especily in
years of their existence, introduces an additioal d ifficulty, as
slightest touch or pressure injures or crushes them and renders
unrecognizable. It is therefore often difficult to find th even w
the soil is very thickly tenanted.
The difficulty of carrying out breeding experiments with th
under any but natural conditions is illustrated by various e
direction undertaken by this Division. In one instancea
newly hatched Cicada larva were allowed to penetrate the
potted oak tree of small size. None of thes larv
single year. In another instance the larva were allowed t pn
the soil in large breeding tanks, each contain yo
being planted out of doors in the soil These were left undis
a number of years, and although the conditions were seemingly ve
favorable for a successful outcome, when an examination w fi
made, no traces of the larva were found.
* * : ; '; .;** **;*~ .." i: .~:* ** .-
The arles sy~in Te osstemai atemt ton folo tegevlomnt ofrome
C were itefeldinMissoui b fssRil, i S
yearto earunder trees which were known to have been thickly
gs. The first records approaching in any way to com-
plobtained with the 13-year Brood XVII, beginning with
itsapparacein 1881. Observations on this brood were continued by
:.Mr. Barlowat Cadet, Mo., with a fair degree of regularity until July,
1891whenthe unfortunately terminated.
Durin the en years over which these observations extended the
,, i ii) iii ~ iiiiiii iiii( ii ii))iiiiiii iiiii) iiiiiii )) i iiii) 1s10 3ii "' "".~~,
I ~ ~ ~ ~' iiiiiiii ,iiiiii) ii i~i iiiiiii i
loped through all four larval stagesii and was ready to
ehtr te frstpupal stage. The first molt occurred after a period of
from ne yar t eighteen months, the second molt after an additional
.peiodof wo ears, the third molt after an additional period of three
yeas, nd hefourth molt after an additio-nal period of three or four
year, lavig i this 13-year brood three or four years more for the
A much moecareful series of experiments were instituted in connee-
.tion ~ ~ wihte i7yar Brood XXII, beginning with its last appearance
1hetime thatthe eggs of the l3-year BroodV11 were
bein disribte to various points in the North in order to determine
theeffct'f te temperature and climate (see p. 16), quantities of
egg-adentwig of the 17-year brood noted, collected in Virginia, were
distibutd uner certain linden and oak trees on the grounds of
the Dearten of Agriculture at Washington, D. C. Larva came
t fom hee tig in some numbers and went into the soil under the
tree,, bt nt ian sch abundance as could have been wished for the
s',sucesfu oucoe of the experiment. This brood was followed in its
-undrgoun lfe from 1885 to 1896, at which time the specimens had
becme o rrethat extensive digging resulted in the discovery of very
,fewindvidalsand further search was a~bandoned. With this, brood
thefist ol ocurred after~one year, the second molt two years later,
thethi'd oltthree or four years later, and the fourth molt after an
addtioal hre or four years, thus occupying upward of ten years
wit th for'larval changes and bringing the insect into the last
,javalstae wth somte six or seven years for the subsequent larval
much orepromising experiment, because of more abundant mate-
rial wa intitted on the Department grounds in 1889 with Brood V111
,ofthe17-yar ace, which will next appear in 1906. The egg-infested
ofood,obtained in North Carolina, LODg Island, Ketucky,
t*a Oho, eredistributed in enormous numbers under oak trees in the
eDepartment of Agriculture and also under sycamore and
illo tre,% 'he eygs in most instances were hafching when received
wee pace under trees in the very best condition for the larvie to
co. ............i mI~i .... Ii ~;U;.....~ ii
A l l iiii vii'ii""" "
) iii ii i iiiiiiii iii iiiiiI iiii ii iiiiiiiiii iiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiii iiiiiiiiii
ai : ;; ; i ii ); ; E l~ i iiiiI iii i~ lr
'"" ,i'"N~ IR
IIii |1 ml~i
iii ~ii i~~i~ ii) i'iiiiii ii
r.ii r iii
84 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
enter the soil. Unfortunately no examination was made for a number
of years, but in 1892 the writer made excavations under a large nam-
er of trees and found the larv in their third stage, having passed
their second molt three years from the egg. They were present in
enormous numbers, so that a single spadeful of earth would often turn
up a half-dozen or more larvfe. An examination made in 1893 showed
the larvae to be still in the third stage. No examination was made
thereafter until April, 1897, when the larvw were found: in the fourth
stage, some of the specimens having recently assumed this stage, but
most of them probably a year back, judging from their size. The
abundance of material in this experiment gives greater promise of
successfully following the brood to the adult stage.'
While none of these broods have been followed through an entire
cycle, the records are sufficiently complete to demonstrate conclusively
enough the long underground life, if it required any proof in addition
to the chronological records of appearances. A valuable outcome of the
experiments has been that they have afforded the means of studying
the different stages of growth represented in the underground life of
the Cicada, which had never before been investigated. The following
history of the larval and pupal development is based for the most part
on information and material secured in the experiments just outlined.
HISTORY OF THE LARVAL AND PUPAL STAGES.
A careful study of the material collected in the course of the experi-
ments described in the last section demonstrates the interesting fact
that this species, in spite of its very long period of growth, presents
the same number of adolescent stages as is found in insects which go
through their entire development within a single year or even of the
more rapidly multiplying species, which have many annual generations.
But six distinct stages are found, four of which belong to the larval
condition and two to the pupal. In other words, the larval and pupal
changes in the periodical Cicada are normal and are not increased by
its long preparatory existence.
It has been inferred hitherto, and notably by Professor Riley, that
owing to the continual use of the claws in burrowing, this species found
it necessary to shed its skin and undergo a molting once or twice
a year, and instead of the normal number of changes or molts there
were probably from twenty-five to thirty. An examination of types of
the different larval stages which Professor Riley had provisionally
separated demonstrates that the differences on which these supposed
stages were based are either individual and exceptional or due to the
difference of age within the same stage, and that as far as structure
and size of the hard parts of the larva and pupa are concerned the
normal number of stages only are represented in this species.
'The records of the plantingse on the Department grounds of the eggs of Brood
XXII in 1885 and Brood VIII in 1889 are given iu Appendix B.
its: long s
Iia oiiiiind in the size and structure of the legs, andii ei,,,ecally
rease in thesize of the head and hard parts generally, and
iodical i a especially it is also very doubtful if it ever
ut a decided change of the sort indicated. Its life beneath
in its moist cell over a rootlet is a very quiet one and free
the wearing action of rain or the drying of the outer air, so
d of a molting or change of skin would apparently be much
at in an exposed or much more active insect. It probably
rely has occasion to burrow to any considerable extent and
en remains for years in the same cell, which it enlarges from
without change of location. For these reasons the writer
So believe that moltings only occur when change of form
essary by the increased size of the insect, and this seems to
a by denite structural peculiarities, which easily permit us
the different stages or determine the age of any larva within
ao. The larva of a particular molt or stage of growth will vary
consyin of the body and the softer parts, eepresenting per-
ence in age in some cases of one or two years, but the hard
ar structure of the enlarged anterior legs furnishes perhaps
mns of distinguishing the adolescent stages of this species
fromcadas and the modiftion which these limbs undergo
rnt molts th bst mans of dtrmining ageof the
T6peliarities of the anterior legs consist in the enormous
tof the femora and tibi and their development into struc-
hresemble somewhat the cutting mandibles of biting insects
e fossorial forelegs of the mole cricket. The peculiar
these legs is in fact especially designed for digging, tear-
ig ai t sportingearth in the course of the insect's subterranean
lie leady indicated, the amouit of burrowing in the early stages
tage and in the pupal stage it is similar to the other tarsi
"i ii "i" ii i =ii iiiiiii ii iii i iii iiiliii ii iii iiil! iliiii~i iliiiiiiiiiiiiii~ ~~i!iiiiii iiiiO l~= ~ iiiiii~~iiiiiii~iiiiii~ iii~iiA iiliililiiiiiiii iiiii i~iiiiii~iig i~ ,iiiiiii
86 THE PERIODICAL CICADA.
,, :' .. -] .. ""' "I "* i' M
the soil, facilitating its climbing trees or other objects; in other w rds,
service, become rudimentary
with the first molt and early dis-
bappear in the subsequent larval
,' : **
a they are folded back along the
tibim, so as to be practicallyffune-
,, J( ,A j j' /, ,, j r ,lia i" *' ' -
::~ ....geice after the ppa has emergedi
thec~ p iar'EmIk o vl ii fi isf A
*from the g ound.
of the different stages which fol-
lows will facilitate the easy
recognition of any particular
Sstage. The chief points to be
the age of the larva and whether
con side iu
b, antenna of samie; c, larva eighteen months old;
d, enlarged anterior leg of same (original). spees are the measurements o
the corresponding parts of the
legs and antenne, but particularly the variation in the structure of
the peculiar comb like organ which is found on the apical margin of the
front femora, together with the important diffrernces in tlLhe hairy
covering of the body and legs.
clothed with numerous scattering long hairs. Te general color is
creamy white, with prominent, deep red, almost black, eye spots. The
antennao, beak, and legs are, relatively with other stages, very large in
comparison with the size of the body. The auterior femora are developed
in general as in the later stages, though lacking the comb-like organ
and the minute second subapical tooth which appears in the fourth stage,
and the first tooth from apex is somewhat moort pointed than in later
stages. The anterior tibia re also more slender and the madilelike
and~~~~~~~~~~ th iuescn aia o m
and te fist toth ma~xm r
stgs The; a;rlor ,lbl"~s -- Io
arth excavated in burroii i soi -prominent in the later stages,iis but
parsely represented. The anterior tarsus is inserted considerably
ithin the tip of the tibia projecting beyond the latter, and is armed
a its extremity with two, nearly equal, curved elaws, similar to
hose on the middle and hind tarsi. The basal joint of the twojointed
tarsiil all the feet is very minute and with difficulty detected, and in
fact becomesstill more inconspicuous in later larval development. The
ntenae are seven-jointed, as in all the subsequent larval and pupal
tages (one of the characters distinguishing this species from other
llied species, particularly C. pruinosa, which has an additional joint);
.but the presence of a very prominent antenual tubercle gives an
ppearance of eight joints, the number which I have hitherto assigned
it. The rst true joint is robust
ad a little shorter than the second,
,e two following are subequal and
sorter than the first the fifth is
soter than the fourth, and the sixth
nd seventh are subequal and shorter
g reg- FI.7.-Second larval stage: a, anterior leg,
ularly from the apex, which is armed outer fare; b, same, inner face (original)
with cved spines, one long and one
ort. The terminal three joints form something of a club tip. During
his stage the larva increases in length to more tan 3 m. and the
abdoted swells and becomes more robust. The length of the hard
itinous parts remain, however, unchanged, as follows: Anterior
emora, .27 mm.; anterior bi, .30 mm.;hind tibie, .33 mm.
an a year, the first molt usually occurring
uring the second year after hatching. (See fig. 36.)
econd alstage.-Theaveragelength of the larva in this stage is
bot 4 mm. The more horny partsnow measure: Anterior femora,
.50 mm.; anterior tibi, .55 mm.; hind tibiT, .80 mm. The general
pip c is ue fomtei e m ii I prii
li I i :a
";";"I"" lE I;; ";;
88 THE PERIOICAL CICADA.
more properly a mere spie in the first stage, is now very m la iii
and ; broadened at the base into a prominent triangular pi
inne i (original).
The tarsus is rued d to a horny rdiment about three times as
are ni "ceable;" hai"y armat'ur
ofs wide, and is closely applied to the inner surface of the tibial .j
which extends the i he lengith of the tarsus beyond the latter.
three months of the
arsecond year of thped.
S1lasts nearly two yeas
orLength, 6 to 8 t
femoralanterior femorab has one
ditionalmm.; anterior timai
rin all countmng the'in"i
innerblunt upper face (original).
1.85The antennal joints de- eo
creastill more reduced; numerous parallel rows of short hairs on the
of small spines on either side of middle ad hind tibi, while the
inbasal twohe excavated earthmi-
nal two being, however,n
are wetivelyoped. wAin-
terior tarsusfo redued to
mere tapering spur aboutleg,
df e f emo ral comb has one ad- lo)e .
ditional tooth, makinge.
blunt upper one (fig. 38).
The antennal joints de
basal to the terminal, the -, 0 to 5m;
basal two and the termi-.; h
nathee to being, however, b
Srible and9ourt arval tage: ,fll grown m
the anterior pair, more numerous and longer and stouter
peeding stages. The anterior tibia has a small tooth
Mlarger blunt subapica one. The femoral comb has again an
oth, making five in all. Antenme as in the preceding
imentary wing cases somewhat more prominent than in the
ais in this stage at the completion of the eighth year of its
ad the stage probably lasts three or four years.
p l stage.-Length in. the early condition of this stage about
7m.;a"terior femora, 3.30 ,mm.; anterior tibi,,e, 3.60 mm.; hind
m. width of head, 6 mm. Eye-spots entirely wanting;
nees well developed, as in later ppal stages. Wing ases
liger than second,
og as second, others
tau b a length. The an-
to, to m td are nearly asin
go tfg 40)er face of hie lat-
thet joint is very mi-
Sa rterior pair -and
Swith two wurved llawsa
thtifwhieb one is rather
the other. Femo- !/'
......sparated from the a a r
his is particularly true of the anterior limbs. The sexual
Anterior femora 4.20 mm.; ,nterior tibir, 5 mi.; hind tibix, 7.50 mm.
width of head, 7.50 mm. The anterior tarus in all unearthed spe
tunity is afforded for much variation in mode of existence and habi
The interesting features to be considered are the feeding and burro
THE FOOD OF THE LARVA AND PUPA.
The food taken by this insect beneath the soi ecessarily fid
n n;s i .. *zl m se t'e 'ne ": .' '
in is subterranean life, as also its method of feeding.
Potter and Dr. Smith were of the opinion that the insect i its d
ground life obtained its nourishment from the su moi
roots of plants through capillary hairs at the tipof the proboi-
curious misapprehension, as the hairs metioned arise
and have no connection with the true piercing and sucking set P
fessor Potter expresses himself on this subject as follows:
In all places they are found attached to the tender brils of p
are disturbed or driven from them they sek for others the t t
liberty. This is their only aliment, not the substane of the roots of the plan
which they can not divide and cominate without teeth or jaws to use them,
the mere aerial exhalation from their surface. This well-established fact wo
seem to account for the slowness of their growth, and furnishes a reason
a subterraneous residence.
This absurd view of the method of nourishment of the larva a
pupa is on a par also with the belief of the same authors, reviving t
statement of Aristotle, that the adult insect subsists o "the de
exhalation of vegetable barks," which was supposed to be swept up
a brush of hairs on the tip of the proboscis. Dr. mith claims a ba
for this theory of the feeding habits in personal observation, and it ha
been supposed by others to be supported by the well-known fact t
the Cicada will occasionally issue from the ground that s
tically cleared of timber and under cultivation for a numbeer of years
and that other species are known to issue fro the rairies. The
ticaily 40"r of;i"l tter "'",il""';; n"r
l much of their sigificance when it is remembered that any
even annual, as of farm crops, would supply ample root
the Cicda larva during the growing period of summer, and in
months they undoubtedly lie dormant in their eartheni cells.
the first writer to point out and demonstrate the true
feeding of the larva and pupa of this insect in their under-
eistence was Miss Morris, of Germantown, Pa. That the
rvee and pupw pierce small roots with their sucking beaks
f nthe juices of the plant, as do other plant-feeding Hemip-
ints, as their normal, if not their sole method of subsisting
royen by her investigation, and has been confirmed repeat-
ediggings made by the writer, and there can no longer be
lity of doubt in the matter. In practically every case, in
Sexperience, where the cell in which the larva rested was
ii I condition for examiination a small root, oiine-sixteenth to
rnth inch in diameter, was found to border usually the
of the cell, and in several instances larv were found with
b sso securely embedded in the root that they were not easily
In other instances the roots showed unmistakable signs of
n punctured by the slight swelliug and reddish discolora-
feeding abit can best be witnessed in light, rich soils, and
tings of the brood of 1889 under oak trees on the Depart-
ds, the soil beneath these trees was so thickly inhabited
aen the depths of 6 and 12 inches every spadbful of earth
w out numbers of the larv, nd a most excellent opportu-
rded for the study of their habits. In hard, packed soils,
s~titly supplied with roots, the diffieulty of getting out the
rfect condition is such that one might easily be led into
dthe comparative rarity of the larve in such soils adds fur-
tdifficulty of determining their feeding habits.
this reason, I have no doubt, that the opinion has obtained
arters that the larv subsist not on the roots of plants, but
ishment obtained fom the surface oisture of the roots or
emoisture of the earth, which might be supposed to con-
less nutrient material arising from the decomposition of
ble matter. That the moisture of the surrounding soil may,