Energy planning base study : final report

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Energy planning base study : final report
Physical Description:
v, 118 p. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Palm Beach County (Fla.) -- Area Planning Board
Publisher:
The Board
Place of Publication:
West Palm Beach, Fla. (2300 Palm Beach Lakes Blvd., Suite 200, West Palm Beach, Fla. 33409)
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Regional planning -- Florida -- Palm Beach County   ( lcsh )
Power resources -- Florida -- Palm Beach County   ( lcsh )
Energy policy -- Florida -- Palm Beach County   ( lcsh )
Genre:
multilocal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
"June, 1979."
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by the Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County, Florida.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 022339084
oclc - 21623141
System ID:
AA00025878:00001

Full Text






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IV, Aj eraqe Yearly NatuW %I SOMO 44%


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Vill n o tw* Owporation r; t t*, W**

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7, 'Ufffbe energy -production since ancient
t di ly 6i tned as a fuel
t' tt" C t tt
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4
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leading world Producers and 4s txp4!yo#r(A$*" O# natural gas provided 41%, of the.

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10 Ob"
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j aw Sq V. f stk urvotp

Maics Power fos Cmv.
SovO fty, FL

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the "d- a rok Oi Is
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quite aluo, 1 Pt III I't



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too,
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El ectri c power gewation first tm i4e a* V04,

as in enera Ali&
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transfered J* &MI&A,
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electric power s

station in the United States begin opMOV-6- is ISO fit

stations were small and Wy sprint". LOA VWUM di "I
I P4 37 4f "M.491
the service area to just a fm Pilo. VA*mwo tktw*
WW Vine T" V* t
zw
use of di rect current

for the "nsion of servics anos. After the )Oft* btual,
reached over 130,000 volts mW was bei" tr*e
the 1950se Sweden had put into 0 on a PMW Punt W11*

capable of tratu*itting a di stance of ever I AM of I*$. or

electrical generating plants 4r *me 4110106t Oft 04114AM

Today, the current electrical production In t6 WOrIO is
# 14 -M
with the United States rating ovor 40% of tW tow* 'h #P'10


Electricity does not occur in a natural wasbI AF

by the conversion of noa-renewabl# tw-ly
h f:' f-:1#e 11 *o'ltty
4W # A
hydraulic power, oil combustion, coal 0 n4twol Vi #t
reaction. In addition,, other expeMwmtal alter-M,14 m0t IOC4t*4 FAA"
and ocean related eacrOes, c"Id patea! 1(t il

conversion of natural resources is$& *I*W, 'A)'$ # jog.
plants. There are several types of
utilize many of the emierv soorces
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jj 't sun vrvht q- i
the f!Ostl'of a Srtpus on! rqy, problem., Mov""'Cur"ntl beipq exgqre d js solar enerAy
Ov whith v, infipitel renp e.
'Apt IWW en, to b, 61 jk ma 't 'WiT ,w
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device was shaped I an d
its inner surface. point at the boilerl 10".0 low L
produce steam which


During the next 60 1*4 War pwoti

built. Betw w 1919 a I IL
registered several pa t
is better known in the
47
field are widely although the Plate' collector came
mimeN Orank, UWA*
used 12M Square eet of col I horsepoww,
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t hi "VWk' )ag J1 towater. Althowffi the e"ite d did advance the tfth444UWI6it*
CQ)44Kt 44
4W i4mAdelSopeo

heating md splar water bmtijiq .,





ZfItl i*V'4*ari f6ot *irfi _14#06 d


wi;4i' ExA41 es of solar systems currently existing


Awr J"
%fi UtTt fA 04:6iin q yew%., i*oii ife
r 4 A j
ftiii Dlf t 'Vhd t -ty


ik4olsr energy is vory 1410 TW use of,
4 !P S, I
01 t1w a#" i*e 4*tarna ti V% V4'1
I*#tjpr4;4kVAronmentally and e4&6-icikIIj. The shortage of er an 444 4 'e' time h* c


I to the I tA*,*04 hnology available.

r imrsion afs" ele to electricity,
el transmitted
facil

Ooft%-Od f, AU -; e4 O -b 'the use of 'y#VWj zed
915, spl Vnwally 1101ted to
#rw4ffAy teq"
ff .,JsA*Iieved that it will not expeod boyand thWusi-Qil

4al use Of solar better, station

discussions'briefly pr"ts

T U_ 7XIa"



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use

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tank and as it rises$ it; S Im Am& JammawbuL
*kw 1,10"INA"60 11jimm

f 1GW xxv, to to comwoQuo lot
y & 11IN it *Plans 111100
Y MOT
Di s1r1b4ttQftjw- Bm I A

y toe, 10 Y'flum

An SAWBRA
it JPT T* W" IftA


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ve wiff"t, MS.



a SUN i 1


to Wth SIM 9ic by 403mis
The for ed ait systki t4lies'WA 1;"119i; 4", r r I t A PUMP ja trvf iffmay :1 yefromm J"m ISM % Th my
t PuRk XV 1 04%0 101ya lot rro" it 1603 w0frAd It $f'o"k
EarcedAi s Vett
th'ad 2f Q I ,vlm woe to rofsh oat
gA&J'Di ViNatip"





t.i. $41
-)f fee Plato via,
oat

ICA all 4 tot-




1'~~fr* I~~t o h rnfr fha otear o
r i og


iL








Fir
Ij

I~~k IjIII q I IIII IW Z-ZOf






........ .Jll 1
---- -" ---"i! #







ILA&
palm Beac
J W
ofsushne TeSot*este a O bewen320to400avr" wisofs
41//
Is -111 Cony eeie 40Lage Dy o 6WSOUso ztI-tt jI/rTI A
Agiste otwstatsoftoOW m~


v~ fti 5 Langey Dys r 185 BU's er W 4. 0





r 14
large, v. I**, but ft$, luseitms



S no ae "i"t stool 1YRM i 4Ck iooput 4 4' 33



& 4n
OgLMjkrojCSft U-4SjkjaerqV, So 4,,, sort mmm mmnt va

" I -1 4 IOWA
IJJ






Sit
pow mo


Mitt
14

lar enerV. f ig", VNI
ori da will, use the most

o mild wini;rs,.,


1% r Tol $4*6 can birusW to creAte thermal or radiant fd T SIZV.
cop beating of, crops- durfav frm

jo at So
V"" *tive4y. its,
V:3 t 041 10 9 W vxzm a OU z 'tiolm oil to,
'Sip"0 4tt eW.o*
44kA AIM*
'WW
4's

iI







IIIIIIIIIIIIII jjj i 11



bef4we t"
EE
maybe -a 44ur iv Gor4imrs I
ti'me,, or, the,-accumulated sOt*p W I
as comPared to a coft*vW c4st comwism of "a so, "s cost,,,matWte*wwe dust vW sysieii. vM Ost oil im"O tiy it


The capital D build sq s S -fat
COACWOvxiac .44
f ina 1 1 W 11149
f i 4nc such as- subsidized or lomv,40WAWIAL mlizo"C

*0rov nt of 4, 4rut4re a"lyzed to it vill an 4 (
fiiWacie r- um
A


Tv f g ".You of s or,

cqmdn typie s arre di rect a i Uti Itz*'Ahe F1 at Atl n 6011efti thermal-aro Pb6to" Sys

dark ,fa, e and then t this t
Photovo"Itiit-js the Process+
+*
sunvs rays will strike A crot 1 *0
f T -7,44 '11 #nfmr:)%W produce electricity, r 640qz*






*,s,,4pd tempergtwre gradients to turn f v e wt 'r w6i n becomes proac h6s a m6re promising future'

Vs td 'fii more commercial a6lfcation's.


xx
il"Ci with Sqidr Iir. -ErW 11 MW Tr
q t f Win Od I


#046 t COAT64 i

l"**A2MD !t REFLECTOR
CbA""
4
LAR OLL19

-low
e



Oil no THERMAL
WAULAMON,


#

10
z O I i Mw** N l
ia


ahAT n4 tv

fit clalk6%mlou has 4ortboz,

'aw" I 4h%0l I to "40 OW I in V wl't" Solo,

f"14f WAY j
a ow? vou "s 4,114*m





40

t4
VI;4 "* 4F








VN
Most of the cost estimUo that
t
A solar collector can co, I
4"A f V IM
W;'uk -J'f 01 r '
could be reduced, tPe" solar
MT
fuel costs.


A typical 3-ton solar air cdW We.*, 24*tk,

up to $250 000 to install. Thor* are tW,4 ;ks to
fiki If CWf A
en rq t iv ai-ft n" t *1W

peopleAh4,tjnm?" to ins 11 and maintain w& ow tiwAlly*


The other approa cost. However,, S

l%44A& $160W 19 VIM ZM
$500 per kil t t*LMIM .Wo go
1T
feasible, solar air itioning should have a gmtor

'WAr- -IRW 14T I W *
Taxes on improvement family rooms$ extra

homeowner who installs taxable year 1978w an i vati on. This credit i s based on a saxiaw of $300 insul*tion and other energy-conserving iv%

i nc I ude; more efficie"t fwl*ce bWmw w4 ignition 4torm thermal windows or doors. wfttMr-ttr meters and other items approved by
4 "v

-tr r rv






0, Y yrrm 9*
is Ath"d f4or i Tlation'of rene ablq, "rg so ie ip-*Wks- to ;f a i-fsy I i ,
Vncipal reslOen p, which inolkoe Su" S
qar
ewimnt.40
ov (!0 Ja
IVA
44 "'0 0 nif.
44 I
ev opOnt -codes would have to be deal t with locally in

14ir sotrgy -benifits'. The typical problem to consider is
trees or construct a buildirfq that would shade

$6,10',_,System. landscaping codes could be amended to prevent height

pattAi*n prWemi0ifi'large trees. 8un easements will be essential

Qts and ensure equitable access to thi 'nergy source.
o dea t wi t diction
00 nau i t a si' be'! -' *1 h 'in the event ocal'juris
Y*ft# 'standards or -archi tectural review boards. The appearance

$4tO system is not alwaysbecoming,, yet the functioning unit may C S J
e to the community and some oonsideraei'On i6 i4 io'lar
41 1
tatt be, realized.


I'l d Ph X4 t d
r efttrgy wi 11 af cte all types o sectors. tesl"n 4al"
I
V 6 f isti' hot Wat W AIMN ni may'W the
*"4V AdV*4TWT11 rl f 00 If t If, .C use. Common se sun's
i 'ahd indu trQ sectors' miY'ilso u, "' ihe ORO,4 1*t
er, re ransfdr Aibn* Ihto- electricity
aS' Vi"'I As iw ct 1A
rs A -tin Ar
a" 1 s 4 i 04h L awr S .
"Or-tW h# troll( OlAt ,nr
'SZ Ile
V, stu U S,
v p efWb ur an 4rtAs tiz

If
AMC $41W tvwlo AVA4
t in,




I 4

A
'e, N k
Al: ;g votl








ik


With the popularity that sol#r
t ;f 1 2 Y cpl U
shoul d be no more than 4% of IN) ibc4qji Olwojur
n;w :f6us we s! ivoe blum adw 1001onwo, t#VO

Y I tj t 1 .0004 U." 1 it time 04*#
't" ju cool a V NO A
0; i t C Van"
IMAM 10 MY 1AA
Atf, rk W NA451' k! V tht IMP It d& 100Z go fmquahOU .00ifit i4lifft i-.V;mrktnj 4",t thgt4,1ro 4' to? 'mol tplat AIN too 0
1 toe 0 ptrati sy Y I Go f0h 104 A tdO Opt Mts" onx toe 'f Oz #ftt i I

"0 -j Attu $0,006 1. I'MO-01M.Nown soft,
A Q
6714 KINK oinaiosqq
fro ki x t
p"'"O!!OKY SO It, 'INOWN0 axsSfio 100 of pit* 0 it
to 'Mul tohis,
S40q1*q





xwy-j T, zany! fit 11014 UK #w* 100 QS1"MMWV'
?t A 04 POW, 1h CK Ir 4 r" 4# "W
J, ONO %A; Ism 10A It 3 ISMOO *0 wv lod

t
j1110 101 to 40W Ira fer ,Alt 4 411.11 1 a
ol WMA 0301 AmSix 14 uQ10*400 lot! qm alt *a,-jMt
-, n V I I i t" 54W of f & 1 F 0 #- t*4 110 0% mu'VIA x''Aushliq ON NO Asq* too Toft"#i 0OWN tomparud It th# t4*00rtok 'A
OV C-t I wc ow-"fl Irv QVI*p Iowa; -1:010 notelevnz, yetoz 'OrK Abse
q100, 04 too,, waztfr-s wr !"Its 110V *VO4 MUO'de pSfttd:>OM "ah
1 Von syntVAK by ry MIAMI.






... ..... -




jv hr

tn r gN g 4:1
TIO
t W97 SO& WaTr
ftttlw r A v xx Ix
is % of, the, problem,
Doi fro V ,
# Y I W,
is furP4 actk ot,
em rjo ap

S& % %YjaMfi js 4044 P vm cre#,' p '6,cq,."Ta t
r t 0
W ,t t7 rp
r
M 1, h are

't-I-O t ,tt
WAP
1100U" 'in solid waste generation can be attributed to: (1) increasing-'A uenqe,' W iricreAse 1", the'
(2) irezUr per capits Ize of ueban.
ybi i,
gn;4,.j n, be- whqlvsale anaret i MAI an %
ftpp ,eW N

'6W 40"4ifW
pn ron S,

sN4 ARJ
6f so-lidwaste fjo W, "a fue I source tfiit_.t4 U k'q t 090%z, _n)
yt) q -solid wasteAir enef-gy could hel p considerably In so]
pt 14MOO.Provi *10-heeded
sposal*, wi tPe
'_ Al iA'tb 44e, -i's
mr ad" Of, 'FonvtAl"O soVIN r

N
is tlillilii i6pl_# .1N
iil* Ir cted-by
bMeWhat *ign sources. The use
Ion,, avk4 patrolled by for
#AmW"rba_n areas to supply both the
W wste C4VOMiOn SbGUl 4

0 oo 104 IT -Sil, fuels




n.,






The future ovtl94* of s*114 major reason 0 tftat, Va pr sa th- OMAIfth A UAO S*** Se6wi o i
Corm 4 Vw Coit


certainly be solved by recycling. resource, such as er*rsy, is such mm tha Ofitioott it"t M (TABLE
Ene yvc "frem'tiifa 4rAs(- jbfW!WfjfOI6nijO
ra Oyery wis
land use patterns, and population donslif9twaWO municipalities. Also, a large volme of solid wste is rwp-fVw-IW---# ib M MOW-W
ste tne 664ikion, kbn6iAwii #69w4'*4'Tw urban aftas hrei"k'n lkciiWi6sioiii to4de"
I- Oe w
preseht"tfi6O.
t L f'to- IVP 4 'j1*1 hj* j t 0146W t t ro,2 got 13"o




f r"nor s q h




f d 6n 4 b I o6 qq" su*M


0 1 4 zmt rn 91t S won It) t Aw z"#*tr 4
A fta jsfnwwwPT





lu, 5
MT, 0 xlfwll (f 1
Tm I KLum
TIE" #9*F 77 TA";e er a conversion for fuellenetty ir j"m4hf4
0""
pper precipitation; Dttimning; Ferroal T Dy,
f %r* 4
el ter. 4 prvdvc#, iv
ik Prima
1C ors

rous Specialized industHal applic6tilons

Gullet reprocessing; Speciallty products: Wood"" Oblymer compoSite; bricks/glasphalt q, ? .
_w,*ui
mall" &"ip Y10tr" so i I conditioning' Organic fertilizer


tp r4 'Aaf f qni doav%'6
u ;
ewar#s; industrial pallets; plastic pipp;
M I T
#rtif 1,4 4pw ift'now t4U 4 T
Ito j 1 0; #1 f T Y*A,,t dr
1'ermil con"Won for fuel/energy Tyt tmm
Rotreaders; Re Iain*rs.,, tpec i allied p Oducts; Paving; Tire-kiplItters-- TbemaP conversion for fbel/enorgy 'IT
Wee&
C a"l 'Paper, and
1 t cpavArs#jqn of
foti /e"r
..............
aUttom AshJii Ilater yasb a' cd"ci
li O itivo; 0 r gate;lLandfill
d I izer
r; 11i


r
w & So, Ma! tf Ad* i PlAin
Elio
r



IMIT
"I I
u*0
bn
_Tt

t",t # IT
IT TT
no ITT, ITT
ITT
ILL'






i 3J
A "U1 W *%04 AM# i IN W
Florl4a

purpose for Its

4s tw, tworoMat p Oil
t
#1 4,11,
The Plan-is 4eviod ta 1.1 INa
ji n qT7Vt7
in the County. .-The tnt of arm*44 I" wim,

spi idw6ate 4v tow, to ft
control.


The pmr*Witites IfOrIM04 -46MIIW*Y& Wa to ai*m AM,
N,
Palm Beacb County. First, tim incressi

coptinvos to praduceei stotr,/16*00
aveoaqw pwsm prdducm,4.V*-t- i rAis

to. 316 9,712, to" pW, ymvVq WO h, ,7*f *AID
0 in
(TABLE 6,,and FIQm' Xxt, h fo jor t
f f
AkE 6,
on
w Y"M
Z ?#X*4W Qqirz toft 219160,08007 "w !*as 1972 Inn
2339,74C twS
400

97
197 5
1978 401s492
e
1979 428 j,,W to" 'n, #
1980 M11"JaLl
1985 mom Aw
# V tn
19904 --1995 1*010,360
tar
#1
These f i gwes, *V, esuat"s 1 -e according to #j
Source: Areat 'T i IWO141XI


44













FIUE








iI0



Mr=It







t 4b I IAN" fif' The Wor ene oqrqt

s am wo lneu w


kat cm provide, '4 '-T


4,A
Major pm*ts vtq Sm"rt, PI
79
r* wu taken in;tV e4ofth Fldrida rree&* The

pa a Chicago consuI6 firm a grant1for $ .6 mi lim bai m
PI t in Rom 4u6t erwth
pano, 4+ T' Pf,
nriftrAh It
verts, i d wa 0 e mett" (A-.L -A A,
a unable subst#ute for Thw nr6iftt
T# ma of 19V?8.

QAI -a

fad 11U.,UAW "fuse mo 44"m

di stion proce s to conve dail 5or t ) 100 OF VW lit P i

me ane gas. IrV

LI
A.
"_4 B flY2 ab -Orw S-S-Ionl s fif
1W ..... OW.
pa. icles# As Oe refuse 4 'sh 10 WOW

re e is then deposi topr i a larle
LIT
t wasteAs pul i nto' tl' sificoiw j iidi

btdde6i ding, all dirt Ust-m-&WI ot r fl Obte- al

th mi xed with sltoo and-taken to thC 406 C Of 14
4P
di ters' the r4i kurti i& A 4 1
%
W% met

produced er t* of re f -4;e
to
gas is pro&ced. This gas is
A

IBM,






feetof gas per yearva,- v 1A "'I NjFVRQ%;Rkh #pq#s Ar Yover ; 10 AN home s 42 I f ij@*,neqded.jq this ;vont;y touldbe

_oar gas .,prodw,




POP%*$ q**#oy.j,4 to,
twjp4eted-ln ING, MOM ty i n RON, When jamp jpa,,#ts;,, (I ii&,sal-iA walked, p=ceWwq! plAnt, and Holr l0w4basto T.J.69144 jillyPEOPCO Ml 40411
ksWbAoe wle val us nd wjll Jormv t rematlo bg refuse

Wk*W W t Ask Orwor R oaanerati aq oplantwl I Aak* t4e vtom
turbinesin order to produce electlihoStyAl thea*",Ii AM;




Q* b $ R9 004 hot 4w,
44
-y" 77Ifuet for el ectill4tyo prodoptte, ipwtQe, OvInn Oi v P),w)l wly,

t# "Aotk wl

4Lt.1- L -.4L -06*

10 it" 1000 49460mvp t li #j


ULOWUL 101 K SAM P41
"ask'.
-"T III-WOMIM
7777w

7 77




Aib






A s i gn i f i caets reftm ftr OM S i the tmobodous'll--msubtr"ftaVOT%*U-*W-Uft 40 in A dimmshmq tV"1Y4vw#6S% AWN $It i W F 4 1
Area Planning Board Of FOO Stach CGdrAYr**6~ #Wt 40SOW in the County are "hadicaPped by a high Wattr tablo* PW suitabltdilpmAl Siftsf*WA daqmlo4w O"Mis ww
Thi s .-is olso i*dwPAYy -"i f"t Viat A *W" 1.6 W0 V "I projects Mvetem
wm&l WotettW set fora 1PV 1j*VWft 4*q"Wf** 1gadfill loot
importa*t quas"S" --aris" jf*4wwre ta
only other option is i*L1rxfttiw#q n 9s 0


There --are several w^tmw4*kV bft *w"*W0Vw *W WO INA am
to fuel. Refm mW bit ik#wmt** t*,*,W 4006M
14
power stem aftw
be used UP, f ir4ag elbtb W VW14# bO44*U*1'4AMRM*r 4iU44tO
41
the refuse through a V0691 1111tary.9"'p"i VOM6


In s ivolle- terow ,tftis iV arAiSM I Q IM
a gas, -p", 61w
IL L
carbon. After this pmess U campletWa utility boiler f4wthe
there it appmximaftly L 10v*MOW OWN jWoWt*W WW. r"eals that 14% Of oi* tow "n' W. Y 111 "0 every tem rocycledi I *-mff I Mw RT#*V KIM. 14 VO14! tog Olpef



ZEN=




I4I
Liteavrg
i s a b t 1 M K H n a e a e h u s a r d c
--1S Wi6'Wl roid
en gH
14 U otl e!iImI t 'O,'t,1 ttd
v t mtiiycivre rmta o frfs ol
T4A v
ar omjrsldwsecneso prtosi rgesi
i 1J
- hr r ln orasldwseicneao ob oae

OiM 4info'it he almBahCutSoWWae
"" Oi!br at ha ilpouetta oe o i

--4Y
Auhri 'o amBi buttetcnlg o
a 441v#r ww sAalbba ~l 6ue* n ie5AaIO bl4wst oveso ha isn




'*' Id


NOW fOOMAWN060*010000


The* il > Awnloll NO
help amonvsj,.ojev:, W immiyuh mim i
777-TT7,4" Ute f4*
p* 0""QF4 top
t 1#* IWWOOIN dlv Ut
J41W IMPOPM0100 tog


Alai
40mbly of 00% %goes 0004 ;an* r -N410 to; ZKOWNRA OUR Ot V NOV WO tilt m1kr"VIO


S IND Af#p j" 1 O"WO)O) f0m it






The



a OKA t f1*0040tsit


31 AAQA WOW

Ir Fs'? '1010 041 ISO a 0 F1 t1fW"WtA
tip 1LO YAP '01 0 1 1 90 4 C* t 4WIT I ShAVICK 1100 440 AN, "opaW Op 4i mv
i"A







"ir
OKa~b_*(r = o'tefis o xermn




-41 t 4f
betiicto Adiitain, Iee'so
I' o I,
ila tlresal idgnrto a in14 tG~-pl
Itti idtrie,10fethgxhdagnrtn
'A
Alwtsi ltog osrcto otiqaldnal n Clo W l *-T ffv




MW
Feerl nY1v~dA1' h tain Svrl gsie Otl andth Ntina Arotuic,

an d~velome' atiitesingW
lvr~ufiMWK -0,6
.. .. .. .


II
Enryhsfnedi xeso 3 uhpooyp nt ld an eelpet fot aerflce I h mo~ f oel 01 m %, 11 "'t ; D
wind-elatd program





ON



oil so
OD
0AE
ion i'N AIR, *1

t LL.



OAK









tio z G
44


4A
04 P
slow

CA

vs vit I


Ai, -A- low
1,*Aki "n -R t to Iss-vva -issitfiqu yo bs

4 JE Fk1 Wt"S4V f "0
441 T* *"f#40
ri odi iam teaAs Art a "mV rA. s i P d 4 ILI
ell If
rA 11W 4 0 f 1 0 V,*htf t t tr t e t 1 ov *e t i c
ia* id"a 4177 1
*

rsv# I W j jff-vaqm loll
ui W w to
Ui wi ui y ; ,, lok"st! ,d 40
Of 1 41 0 CL
V Oliq" W w 104 1 M* ss.,
t ,

*" N "s A$ a#* b" no boo fdst*YAV 0A 2V14 v ba iw
W a A
ih r4A&k. IhMWAMLIEmi haoa Alma OL

I" l
OPP. vrmpwv AFT


40
"414








in the early a
4 ti I V
are easterly. Sei bmfk






days c *'v*Cti6 c I as It
m Tbe*

f
Fbe the *I rk b4 eAS 16
40,4* f
V" JL
n seeds vtur Iles

WiCAUS t t vind, So"is tow *,tl I ths of the V"r

04-w-hourthmshol Windt *Currl
j
fac si4 -11 1 .
A
4,, k, 4 V
idnd 'S Itufattm f 1.4"

7 mi Thise, itfa*ta are Avems'e, "Pami I
r by xa Lt n-! F,,'4r AIr I
as recorded itte, k4ft 01,46 fig,
ifiternation'41 Al ripok.


T6 use- 0 wind po w*er 6i si ril 44v, tft 44"
trans" r4ti4o'co
J J ;, F ftal LAI'' free. t use i prov

wind v*W ties are variable and w4wvdictables, Via p" 4
LO A
*,d JM
and SAWive*hd
Sirhi -e 11* NO
menf 'ik*jnd energy conversion s.ysteiK 4&
oip 4a,,.t, raAs r#O

t
<

-T


.1T




he 40 .%%*1 -- I"'- .4 I

V
bo I) J f
WNW, 4 t $10"
Tivisma"Y-f. 'Substo i4kl'r*SfttC e *Iapment must be 'devoted to modern wind
-iZkftwob 0400 (tsisvp
tow oqUiso especially in bla e dynamics and engine control. To
lam Mi iv 4,W 1, *01AP f 4'%4o, 4."*w 419
MO-W-Ow"moft common albeit economically crucial consiriints,
4 4 p vtl n I
is onnew conce
Is W Cx pts, which propose the uie of wind concentrators. Today's wind qenera ors of g6od aeroi.44i- 41 tWIN-A
C'tqenera e abou 5% of the theoretical maximum. But there
---&MOOT bog tc fv i Z to s "O -2,, 1 tO
C"Straifit$ that must be neutraltzed in order to further enhance
R r 413 10 401 SAJ Is-,vly tv** t flq
1tty of wind generation' concepts. Among them are:
'04wpvXIMi ty of tkW iL
M
0g.fow-er he'i-qht. While''ind speed and constancy ry stuidies indicate that-a tower
imina eight

4q
,0 ent, 'Power genera ti ojnr M.* h ol o4i ca 1 bT 7a thro u grS i a
,04-vortex generation
4rdeF, ta-epsWepM,
*MTtiOh41MskudI-es'and eering'must undertaken,
#t MePt I f4i 0* Md, 40 t-10 f 44"14 1 Ffl; 00 4

ause ifie winds are intermittent and not
6;69 mans suggested are a c6pressed air" sy'stem,, the ustof flywheels, batteries, or electromagnetic I ttorage systems.' This constraint'is Perhaps the
all Others.

Oft I'M-004 40w*00cated
S ON".
Af fOrq4n ti P"4Wf,
lit J* S"KAW, JN pr ts n4tiv
TWE are per ps t east 6*1ex of i I thi Y. "Such't"Mraxt
J 'eristics 4Ct as Constraints and
wl cw Itty







4 C, k




-IL 2 1



In short, ;oftsidmble ft$4*rcbl AWK
1;0* nt'3640
rewye the current CM'tMfAts'*
energy-conwsion-spteft son 1011 Its",
I tz
indeed. over 2,000 Wi*A 9*W*A6-rs
-A'NU"ftW4 014(0" Ot 44W states today and the mober US 0M--411"o .46 f Oler
-'vt r' kWW'V1% AW
"could supply between 6 and 10 percent of VW
WtqRK
needs hy the year 2000.* The U.S. Offfte Of SCUMI
I "+ h 14 0 r! ;. '-I I Z' 'Tr r, I box t ( b-1 s W" ad 124M 1 end of the scale predicts mom portent by VIC WA Of 010 'Men Aotl'hl" 60W IQ Vfr
-)*ig, VOW* iw=
-N
TI of
In Palm Beach County,, prel Weary sl ies IWO
M-um kl6mff
offlWrAIN ja #0
jor "0 T Jj 0 Ir f Ah"*t h4;*
assessment, however preliningry. is bss"mWbM1A*11 GW
I -t: r 4 VO wiot*r. i6w


i r-1 &"rbq* Ah tol Oak&
'to

W 'T6*t tI 1wtqM 'k.0 "MI" "t 00A

4
U41*,' 14 i *Li IaM N"So 4 tab"


i r6 u








A
Al f f 1,66')t f qqt be# vs t



PSI











6f 'o c daPn fe Vi ft proMes AAS MON" tt Ot


S', W%%*ftw* 0 &is's At, "&ft& I ed4fe#h


I* fJ




'1 !4 of the gulf stream raises the possibility using this Is
t 4tw'fiw~ *6t Of ihe* VT'f' rtdwt M 04

JOI
Mts',
-WO4 be the sAJW 4* AW uW ib f 7 t6 I 66 s th u s cW,,,ft

-A 04 ti*e- is a remot* and improbable PossIbility.
)Oro

W-, -now jijv (AA To
Aug



_ge
Ave


OWAP MOO- *1


JJTO 541 fir bio, low







................





4j V

The oM y reaftleo pWvM* IWI-S, are* is a- Wifft, caumdmft, Th* ORW*', VvOWAIAMPIMPOOr




OW *t
Otm Thenal fter9k Convemim 10M), vilbie, am *ltel4il M,
4P
ft*cb cotmty.

10 VWXWK Iwo, )am OTEC AS aw"Of I* jo *461,;
W 4 s4w! *44W a" Ps plr,"t" I TrW-W-7qr- 74 OW

1 61 -Os "Wa. "Oh"iw 40 OW"W


OTEC* offers ow Von, iblt so* a f remmble best load-electrI4 $000%v x4m, thikt, Uwv*; #WAAN*, 01016041 -0,

butl gm to 4V4 ipm 1 er*rW prAooc", OW W*U *f boot AMW

in its fqrv4jm e r"tAg",Wft* 00"Oftu I

untill,4-%6, 1OWWOPWOWAM"a of WWOMMItAs Nexico.59
4F

The bAR4 O.EP S04w it prwf *eA f* fjWE.,, tempojiw" #j fif"vot ish U Vw w"tt W ammoft e i 16 i
imp
7
qeV*r#t ijW iT,? awwj4 to* 4006 Now

-tsystem. Ms fl--"A evaporate a working fluid in t17* OTE


4dO




hq








'Tow a POT




LLI
Out We the'
tit andly; I v 9
Ak





CT*A Woo 04''001 04 W10:4 1;

11 qq,

00 votfoolwa m notebill to n6orl sm 0 lVwX
Ln


zllk i YOU

sixg





'AWKI IlYrr'300 I f k 0 z ou



*6" f IM
ONO, f f, voluvo




air V 10ownfu'tAO oRt!f"141 4; Sir
A www- mew, Shce 11 too 0114 to rAQ aft




AMY




lot







-;V Pwikr MAW" Wrz
IL A.16electricity. Tt# VW40


is Pwww'tq't4


Son vOry ko-14; q4*44
Jff
Jrr viable T%* AM 1
to be overc4ve:
Itt



2) Dev#1qp a VAbj# AM11T#wd O#ft (941"400"kO
Ow 4j1p4"- of, %"WrwM *ad bieftid 4) Develoft hnolosy of subartat w*ilicols Or Tod

LS and ro-A -W ...




At Oft Ow. OTU ts
are and at tOW, "StI Ot. 01 qftft
overitiding problem that silf I in I S the ability of to* for eXtended pAvi the irommt. 7ftt *01
overcow wi I I boo vs s
of
Wam e"e
TRW.

j




117, A'.% 4


T

Ulf P FILE KH


&f TlorfIAd, is f6t sely/energy c sum ve Wi h

Pt
t14-&Unty 'relies to ally on energ sou s "import d"

'*Wiate. '66 clfni'ng eser s of s h n renewable nd n*atural s cr s Rg r,,. un n4rgy p ga, f4 ri ci

4*i_ ron foreign energy p u krs make t 0 saryLto possess

A _T"0, of Present Pali Mach 104 er res ces ant conIt, "'I's Also necessary o ass s p ent' energy sources

4i-, Umptlcrn t thei i ct* 'future physical,

001"t, thro hout e unt


1 1 6
iVcff 60 S n Per a onsump*tion"Ot "such enerqj

'o 'natu r M li I quefied petroleum (L.F
A
u6t, S, ee
ted to i ncm*ase Lit t1n N,
_d P 0 groI Ai'so'. this tS
P f 4,t 41 Ot
abtotmobile a e prin'A'al, form
P
0 quate mas's trans, t. facil iiies, the

1, ved' h County of this size-, and "urban spraw jo ri ty, dependent fj UX VUVIStS, the, m on autorh f
ivaii ,nlni hce' .Pthl t6unt Lane r conIr F Ett*, f ell'

t
tit,
t y energy
14
'P "46k el at
i A01 l vty
f U UuWA T1W












9 v

04- ON low000faso *Wt 10 Add

sit 4,00MOVIV, 6000VIs nu WON Orel install to

q 746 x1bralson sets at M

win, 4W 140was C*W

J1* W 94#*t 14*404

tM

44 4J hoc

KOPKO
HE


tow" WIWI

IN k V#kV*W



01
wwt AWL04 4>4 00604VIA I

A





hesr Sol It 410gloq0t ftvp* 10

Mo z M 03 z MN 0116g t, awwok

T


.0k,








',"xaUgorixO4 os being either:::"dapitalu
f
,V]L- energy sowoces are finite and Oonw
NO gas are i ml
J",$ jk #TA,.,Petmleum, and nature A111
souricos occur naturally, are -caipable of 01" llyt limi t0- by rateof use rather'that..supply.
",,1fw1,vd6 wind, solar power,, and solid waste.


Spumes,


-, "0, I kiNssJ I 'ftels) currently provide virtually all fbrms MW*10YOU. The PriAci pal, problem associated with

catoppry AncTode tncreai- fpq per unit prices bilityof supply,, -and envi rim,04 di on, Pwe 4ue1s hamm forwd the traditidftl
0 JA) development o f the, County. It

*J "' fnerv Sourtes. itill cootftw t*" AW future ti I a] Urnat'i xel 144 je place# ihoiervi"Ajt JO



*'Oft"Sy S#W #w.*r*np*paj--'swwCe cof;


e It in the 'form of Olectricity, Electricity



400*r
N,


-SiN, M:
J






AL
cons UOKU" *10104W1110 MA,
7 7 777."N% 7k 7- T
countywl* V zw .


Presently, Sow
consumes A% 40 kritrWty towa" 411W,

o f deman d. r*' va 'l I r 4 inr.rease in totat'Oosmptionj a residentl4l im, h" 606

11 j,397 KWH in 1973 1 0; 39 i no i S T ~APMWVMWWjW*
7
N
.conservation measureA, designed to easo the i**lct of escalttin# "WIV
-4

K In 1978,, -natural gas vazlbe -1- lk
nq for M of thel Wtfl' MUM,

....associattoo with cmde faill %, 771
of 0atUMI'Vas inCTV&"q tw ..'burios completely, w4th transportaties W*
within tt* COURtyV vrimipo a" vercial sector, ,which, atauhtetfor-5 Residential use accounts fbr 18% of total W, th tw
consuming the remaining 2%. Generation of el
4L
of n6tral gas, by thetomweial sftUW. Att""" daudd

Spac anO water hoWngs co0AWbOW9.


Consomption of -Aaftral SM, Wavd*&$W%* B r i t *sh jft poll !Wdft ty. t*W #a 41 **W **R DeSP40 sow docreww. 4 a *Wtaovl k
#k
it ist anticipated that natural gas Co un ty.








Reach county is gasoli tie, A i d h::: M. A teltned 'Oroia ukt., o c' ru e a

t**O! *djVtdsmOtt tr1i rW Is 6qfte!. pal use s i n thb
'40
fT4$1 4 too tt pt dftr fo* I-, 4i


aW, increasing an average 11tM 1470
In 1,970, about 150 million gallons of gasoline were 1-4 O

94W'%Masbidl tv Z56, millio"i gallb i.
A
40dLAIAL ag vfWtAt"mo t Individulls'withih
r,77 7 1 F ,
f6r transportatiOn. "fActor in 'the dev6loPmOnt*bf At" t present time it appears 1fiat gas6lind 4i'l I bec'r e




I [-A

&Mftot 6f ewyly d6vdft l ffi, th bjtm i i s tv Ga' '.'*"

Vht sn il' A t IC by Vroddii n gas
IL
gas given
productfon. the resultant f uel is a.,11"
q LIO
44M 4kSiratle trait's of naturail.qasfi.e.5 ea$O of transport,
Pr4&4Mt IW4'
Oro *4Rd"



f 41
$,Wbfy?4#1 UIr 0 f f J.A

t (W 0 -to T'a I
77y' r) vtv: O,-A fpr- v t !it4f,


IM WY
*se,',P1 'the f d! Is extremely





4A

lindtft4s "t t wi th natum),

PH wAri ly, WOUMW kt '-u A
sparsely populated areow V"






This
.-.48MMst rates the

Is consumed, fossil
..'enerp Supplies.,is I I
WrINVIfIf F
a ffteft r 4vai I jkb* *V,* I vi
..... .... ly
wo sr
AtIment, the County Possesses-m tWq*nmn,;4

that can be converted into coosawMe- r*s*MeS-*- Aj I I eo*yM qqWS*Fw Ik"d
ported tnto Ow Covot -frw v44 W sf"ve$ f1W

transpartatOrt wo4w.' Tbo rPSOJA Wev TMwVORMW

diminution of soup*"

a nV o r t raas rw* 4 1#4




I fuel to 4 ON info' Mt

that production of sw h fuels as petroleum Md VAtw*1

decmse DecKwing productim-W It. w4WWAffoc*

tiOA4
A "M 0 '14 "kA
Abil i tj( is, Ow w MAN

nlyt W

hey
4







P#,mrsqy avai)ooility and consumption is per uni t 64 4 yu J:
Tar such commonly used energy sources as gasoline, At
d$
211 Ural gas have beencontinually escalating. These increased
not It V
as slowing development limi ti nq tourism, and
*1
C6 ,4
..... WA ,k4
IN-4 0 -53


IVy MR m directly or indirectly impact the continued
641
ztp n VA
-county 1, n a negati ve fashion. One means to offset such

Af, o"'ative 1wpacts 9'6 identify those sources of energy that may

r .e on traditional energy sources. In som
r HT
-X# 1A
b f tenate energy sources may be feasible now or

't tqre., Qther al ternati ve energy sources may provide
ay b part of a total 'solution to meeting County
t
1 A I e future.

0;,Sw Woe 1911 j
A 'me nerU Sources

3 rail 41
;"*q V, 00 jill
bar4cterized by, their' natural occurrence, regenie in limits on theiruse due to them4nnerqf their IM
As a whole, these energy sources are considered Infinite

M use of these solurces, oenerally is limited by such t1,Mt( eudl* Woe 0 WWt("V zW,),5t
off I 'Aa
"I Mr An 0 conoml C c nsi However, their

V ;re s
01 status of f t 1ply of CA"Pital

I C r't 9f their mtontiats.
0 jj in ,

%9 C 4; b6e le fff frz
041,Y a )*tarally 0,00-orrin, 9 energy Wurce, is #400 # OtVmb -, Toe qav *to y,-io,00 pot 6 *0 406tfts-of solld woste softr4teA' daily in the
-Z*"04*6 'I Ck 10 6W Wft relati" ease. Itootobir loft I& Ibi 110 V




iF


F
r _dm WA JRR* 'Now
f U190t bin XT04*65
1--mr ; *I lit
sol Id vwste,* itaAwant 1-11WORM
F l a V3000 ROW
-4 a A- A &A
It" %NWAAWRW I fol" I
IMIMNO t Ovst 40"Ur it' a"" now Pre"atly Bad& ftuaty md Fl*ri dik ftwM"

cooperative venture to wastruct a steaks pra*aiiq i i6s1i imoav mO j L


Methane gas, an acwtable substitute f Mae
or notwal "I"t
dasstfled vtdsMv**d W,44 h I I i 1 "0
2T)kfor OU10410 V7 a",other suchchemical procwsas,4 ik
_TW
At. present. a mWwne wrwml on 4fw$14&y I S f'j- is,
1 T1r f i; 4771W t Flori da ea 'anexpe6awAs) basUi. -1-11c aA TIM


Solid waste conversion offers many possible* besofits inclvdftm

the,&nount of land i i a rA m for, smite rV I apM 11 vwa I I id tiV U*

oa fossi I fusts. *M a* =4qW*n tkt th*4*" oil
47,+ 06t5j lwt tv !3
problems foci rq, tbe;,Cwty enA# 44ivtOFA0tW"t 4 lit, 10101*ft itt

pr*cess U teeknelo0cally, ftwitfirwW
III. VA I o I
rtasanabl* period of tiw.* t I oe
21 W
4 f4 t
'ju 'f0to4w i A
Problems that may be encountered in devolopiag ttis *Wsm
Wtffl tO 8-au On rm%^ A OM
NW& 1br ]*Ise volweeaf-1014* vliwgft %WS&
_3 _0
p6pWated tarew., aW ecoooaie, v**O

tat,
i nth 401 a (ftct

So 1Ar poftj% t capto "WaswL coot rtA PW tW:

has 'S 16nij. hft;t6*,, ofj use.

an4 pump, jbr centuries. It is
1,0- 01 kw 5.0 faNo, used widely for commercial aod: J Aq$us l
4t

..... .... I I




.00


of U W fow V1111, J* 11mi te d 't. hci:pa I to: resi




a xavisWabjeer(ergyform' thsougit-Ahe use of colo, n", *1 t
Nw q6tt ond, ,conatritVII the The ft6t (#nergy')-'

*s,,gtW, ar ,41r.,-vhich, th6a pro4idL*v, VT
$*iWiin he 910eicific task fbr which fhe' Sol ar power A&VIcIe'l" -*


INOW At e -salgr energy t m a 64, ts,


.16%s mak PIH

Nro qW *44)- ,4WWIIJI anct ts esped aYly, adaptable- to, provi ding
*C- les ng,, jmr- umi t -to's ts of
610Sital 44 'aO&A ftreavl
id, J ci s, A:nd gradually derlirtingc6lsts of solat energy




r






4x
04, 1 #Jf
I hy 'r 4W AZYW





-, *00




4w# Mi. bin
#
# #
l*to, x1W waft
#


4J&










These income, -*narg soorc", sqqWka
resources thst-' MwWox

ti *0 to tVW futuft'* As $40,
dependable &M uniotsvruptsbl* SoWO* 40m" fUlt 41 It

Nwo rte 0, f v*U 1 L A0 &1, 2 D Ir

I I
$Jternate s. urces have a wm*er, of qt#ert ad

free. S4ww#*,AbW en s JLIUNE31LI

kvvwnadvmt ewO *A**%
altermte enerW sovrm tWbWmiftl eh*60 iff'UROT"ITT14

4 9* r
Even with a4termte. sovvn Ojv*U"4jy at* #qWstill exist which i nhi bi t gmte r use CprW n pfT Xk*"
espe cially ocean power. roWre. lengthrper

testing beftr*, Oty
Another com4,*W16 1* **Wvftdt4s*J0*vft#%k
currentlyjeasibU
I'M
or steam product oa are q4i to expeaslyt #ft M 4 Its
traditional lbs W fuel s urms. JVwver 17V A ;-j
or drastiga).J X rgdovW *0 -4sOtt *l ,
rim ad 4%"
Ii, ab 'WU
unknDwi ,i*p#rA-Wt*e. --Hc4e
by win4

is iqa do a f the A

is their lAck, of coj*tau:*,,, Wilo AND"Ir
seriou&-barriler to





th seo wn pwr selc i'w m6 bae, wihI tr rv

Wc t"f+4tk~l0ge'ftebiefs n

W-0ij4iu~r(o~ehooi rolm eanpol





O,i Toaheemxiu
i 0k
!~jplrint vroeti O to
Armo"aAte a'huh tpeetol oeta
4't L 7

i/, r eeain ae~nln emciai aa hmp ml uxe
hr
A aY







w

14 w


(November,'Mg7ig; V61MB 77
T
Florida Deortment 6 "ttlt

(Tallahassee, Florida: FUMV' Ap
3 'bid

4, Vr'
FDOAZSEO, Sources of EnM Used in Flori4c ISWI sa,
Florida:'MMi V *6,
5

6
#r
7
FDOA/SEO, FgOSA!s ts,,0 EutWe SyWlj( #wA1%tmfi&Qf QVM AR
'florida: FDOA., February, 1377),, p. 230
'L I -,-, 0 r f Ob v Cm Q
'YDOA/Divisioh of State UtjjjitjL:jS M
9
Ibid. r*1 #1
ID
FDOWO 19;

Area PIOMing'0604 vfo- POW , k
data riasearch.
hAJ
ty, Ow!* t" 72
Ibid.

13
Florida Public Utilities, Inc. Gordon Gerald, tel "*p po 1A

15 APB
(WWPOO
"A*,"ta h *4t A 11 A- iri&A i6 Oid qporati
4411
17FDOA/5 Eomajj ,of Inermyspu !Wimi-164w ov
t- 11 1r- - jf Tf
18
FDOA/SEO, Forecasts of Future W lj 4ndqgM#,k If M7 19
Florida Public Utilitiesjnc.: and Flo Oas ;tr-. i I, t fty, 197C'',
Ara


FM/9EOj, lite 146eW*
41






'V VI








14



WA,








-sea,




oil all





IV 1V

If
4tv








It 114

*$r*V






It

At

1 4 f TV






1H







I" *_6A qA
44De*4 J t kn A Am
interview, April 45
o"id a, W,W E* aw Dismal Syste*UI %e
Beach Florida, AM lok
'; r #
46Til" Hot P*IM sea*,

47palm

A "

49
Ibid. # 10
50see pa*rft Tk 00
-77
51
Ibi d.
'9 AA
521bid'. #

53ROot. S#grs, TMWbrjd AAtd
lite Pfft"
54"Awr
'Icaft Basic Science Club#
American Basic ScienM Club* Iftc
55 Medard Gabel
Arrsw 'Dooks,;

6N i dw -yet: W&& lit Sri
Engrg: Use, Cmserv&ti0n "d for the AdvancAsMt Of SCIAft", at *I
10 1 '1 P__57EII" Wk4r$ *1 rch is
U.S. Dept. of 58ROIW" ow
TH
59
TA, Curtol, "AA AVAtex all
DLmcoftef''1977 (9507, Fla.:



f I *time A60)