The onset of canonical babbling in environmentally at-risk infants

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The onset of canonical babbling in environmentally at-risk infants
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Myers-Jennings, Corine C., 1952-
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Communication Processes and Disorders thesis, Ph. D
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1994.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 107-114).
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Also available online.
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by Corine C. Myers-Jennings.
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Typescript.
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Vita.

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THE ONSET OF CANONICAL BABBLING
IN ENVIRONMENTALLY AT-RISK INFANTS












BY

CORINE C. MYERS-JENNINGS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1994





























Copyright 1994


by


Corine C. Myers-Jennings














This research is dedicated to the memory of my father, Mr. Clarence W.

Myers, who died on March 28, 1992. It was the desires of his heart that his

children strive for excellent and make worthwhile contributions. As my advocate

and supporter, it was his dream to see me reach this milestone in my life. It

saddens me that he was not granted that privilege, but through his great strength,

integrity, and perseverance, an unforgettable legacy was left with me. "The just

man walketh in his integrity: his children are blessed after him," Proverbs 20:7.

I am greatful for the many sacrifices that my father made throughout my

life to ensure that endless possibilities were available for me. The thought of

these sacrifices encouraged me to persevere through many dismal times. For that

I shall be eternally grateful. To write his favorite quote "Many daughters have

done nobly, but you excellent them all." Proverbs 31:29, has allowed me to make

him a part of the final chapter of this endeavor.












ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to first give thanks to God who made it possible for me to

embark on this scholarly journey. I give him all of the praises and the honor that

is due. I am grateful to each individual who assisted in one of the most

demanding and rewarding challenges that I have ever experienced. Collectively,

they have made an invaluable contribution to my personal growth and

development.

There are no written passages or intricate words to express my sincere

gratitude to my mentor, Dr. Alice Tanner Dyson. As an advisor and supportive

friend, Dr. Dyson, demonstrating and demanding excellence, directed me with

patience, steadfastness, insight, and great humility. Her technical advice and

moral support has been invaluable to me during my matriculation at the

University of Florida.

I also would like to express my appreciation for the support and input

given to me by the other member of my supervisory committee, Dr. Vivian

Correa, Dr. Patricia Kricos, Dr. Linda J. Lombardino, and Dr. Howard B.

Rothman. Each of them has have been an invaluable source of information and

inspiration for me. Special thanks goes to Dr. Abbott for his concern and

consistent contact with me. Also thanks are due to Drs. Brown and Gerhardt and







the faculty and staff of the Department of Communication Processes and

Disorders.

I am indebted to Mrs. "Bee Bee" Fearnside for an excellent job

opportunity and allowing me the room to develop and grow and to the 44 staff

members and the families at the Gainesville Family Services Center. Special

thanks go to Phyllis McKnight who hung in there with me. Sincere and profound

words of appreciation go to Dr. Ronald McDavis and Connie Sadler Lee for the

initial support I really needed to re-enter the world of academia. Many thanks go

to my numerous friends and "adopted families": Jerry and Gwen for opening

their home and providing that "true" friendship; The BGSO family for continued

support; my many "EMAIL" and telephone friends and the doctoral students.

Special thanks go to Dr. Harold Powell for believing in me and supporting my

efforts and to my colleagues at South Carolina State University. Extended thanks

go to Ann Reid and J. Willette Ford, examiners in my study, for their untiring

dedication in the search for subjects and the collection of speech samples. To

Carol, Cheryl, Rosa Perry, Freda, my "Orangeburg" friends, and Alexis who

started with me, I extend thanks.

To the most important people in my life, my dear mother, Ethelena C.

Myers, my husband, Elder Patrick Jennings, my brother and his wife, Ronald and

Bernadine Myers, I will be forever grateful for their continuous and unselfish

understanding and support, encouragement and love. To LaVern, Ivory, Deloris

and Marilyn Smith, I love you.














TABLE OF CONTENTS


DEDICATION ......................................


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ....................................

ABSTRACT ..............................................

CHAPTERS


1 INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF
LITERATURE ..........................


...... 1


Introduction ...........................
Review of the Literature ..................
Vocal Development .................
Stage Models of Infant Vocal Development
Studies of Vocalization of Special Groups.


Other Related Studies
Summary and Statement of th


e Problem..........
e Problem .........


2 METHOD ....................

Subjects ......................
Medical History ...........
Socio-Economic Background ..
Hearing Status ............
Vision Status .............
Normal Development .......
Environmental Risk ........
Procedure .....................
Examiners ...............
Canonical Babbling Status ....
Informant Training .........
Data Collection ...........
Instrumentation ...........


....... iii


iv

viii








Transcription ............................... 37
Analysis of Data ............................. 38

3 RESULTS ...................................... 38

Description of the Babbling ..................... 40
R liability ...................................... 52

4 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS .................. 54

Comparison with Literature .......................... 54
Im plications ..................................... 59
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Study ................. 61
Need for Further Research .......................... 62
Conclusions ..................................... 63

APPENDICES

A SUBJECT PROFILES ............................. 64

B INFORMED CONSENT FORM ..................... 106

REFERENCES ........................................... 107

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .................................. 115













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE ONSET OF CANONICAL BABBLING IN
ENVIRONMENTALLY AT-RISK INFANTS

By

Corine C. Myers-Jennings

December, 1994

Chairman: Alice T. Dyson
Major Department: Communication Processes and Disorders

The development of communication skills begins in infancy, before the

emergence of first words. Any delay or disability that influences a child's early

communication development is likely to have an effect on the child's subsequent

personal, social, academic, and vocational life. The purpose of this study was to

determine the age of onset of canonical babbling in infants who are environmen-

tally at risk. A group of 41 environmentally at-risk infants were included to

answer two questions: (1) How many at-risk infants began to babble by 10

months, the upper end of the normal age range for the onset for canonical

babbling? and (2) Of those infants who did not begin to babble by the expected

age, at what age did the onset of canonical babbling occur?

A battery of tests, checklists, and interviews was used to determine if the

41 infants were normal in aspects other than environmental risk. Parents and








caregivers were trained to recognize possible canonical babbling and to call the

researcher to tape and confirm the onset of babbling. Tapes of the infants were

then transcribed by two listeners and analyzed to determine the canonical bab-

bling ratio.

The results indicated that about half of the infants began babbling after the

expected age. The other half began babbling during the period predicted for

normal babies, 6 through 9 months. These results were discussed in light of other

research and of their implications for further research and the improvement of

infant care programs. The importance of identifying and intervening with at-risk

infants was stressed.













CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE


Introduction

Effective communication is fundamental to all aspects of human

functioning. The development of communication skills begins in infancy, before

the emergence of first words. Any delay or disability that influences a young

child's early communication development is likely to have a significant effect on

the child's subsequent personal, social, academic, and vocational life. In recogni-

tion of this fact, speech-language pathologists and audiologists are increasingly

involved in the delivery of communication intervention services to younger and

younger children. The early years are crucial for all aspects of human develop-

ment; therefore, it is important to know about the experiences of infants and

toddlers in many areas of their lives. National data (National Center for Clinical

Infant Programs, 1986) reveal that whereas most of our nation's children begin

their lives in healthy, secure circumstances, some of our children do not. An

infant who enters life facing one form of risk to healthy development, often faces

multiple biological and environmental risks of varying kinds and severity. Distin-

guishing children who will develop problems from those who will not is a difficult

task. Ideally, skilled professionals would have adequate time and resources to do

the job. Realistically, those infants with severe handicapping conditions may be









identified soon after birth, but those with mild to moderate delays may not be

identified until they enter school. Early identification of these infants and young

children may benefit not only the parent and the child but the school and the

community as well. For early identification to occur, an awareness of the effect of

the environment on infant developmental milestones is vital.

Medical technology has made possible the survival of an increasing number

of infants who previously would not have survived a precarious neonatal period.

With the advent of neonatal intensive care nursery facilities, both national and

international medical personnel have become interested in methodologies to

reduce factors that may potentially contribute to developmental delay while

children are still in the nursery. A vast quantity of information about the medical-

ly at-risk infant is available to us. Factors that are known to contribute to greater

perinatal loss and greater risk of developmental delay for those surviving infants

have been presented in a variety of formats. Personnel in hospital settings are

being asked with increasing frequency to participate in clinical services, joint

research efforts, education of parents and other professionals, and developmental

follow-up activity with at-risk infants. As a result of this knowledge, many changes

in public education have taken place, and many professionals have taken unique

positions to aid in the ongoing evolution of services to at-risk infants. Although

only a minority of clinicians and educators are currently involved in providing

services to this population, interest is clearly growing as an increasing number of

states are mandating services to younger and younger children.









A review of the data (National Center for Clinical Infant Programs, 1986)

assembled about the status of American infants and toddlers suggests that there

are gaps in available information about children from birth to 3. Whereas an

enormous amount of information is available on "high risk" infants or infants who

are biologically or medically at-risk, the infants who are considered normal at

birth are not followed as closely. It is important to know circumstances of their

families, the risks to life and health they face in the first years of their lives, the

family and community environments in which they develop, and the sources of

health care available to them during the early developmental stages.

Therefore, it is important to study the effects of early experiences on

development. Speech-language pathologists and audiologists are professionals who

should have a role in prevention, early identification, assessment, and intervention

with infants at risk for communication disorders. Currently, these services often

are performed by other professionals or not at all. Speech-language pathologists

are becoming more aware of the environmental risk factors in early development,

but little information about their contributions or influences on communicative

development is available.

One possible predictor of later speech and language development may be

the age of onset of canonical babbling. Canonical babbling is a stage in vocal

development that is characterized by consonant and vowel reduplicated syllables,

e.g., [mamama], [dadada] (Gesell & Armatruda, 1941; Nakazima, 1962; Smith &

Oiler, 1981) whose timing approximates that of adult speech. The onset of









canonical babbling in normal infants (Oiler, 1978; Stark, 1980; Zlatin, 1975) and

in some special populations (Brown, Bendersky, & Chapman, 1986; Menyuk,

Liebergott, & Schultz, 1986; Oiler, Eilers, Bull, & Carney, 1985; Oiler & Seibert,

1988) is known. However, as with other developmental skills, the effect of the

environment on babbling is not known. Thus, the purpose of this investigation is

to examine the age of onset of canonical babbling of infants who are environmen-

tally at risk.

Review of the Literature

Vocal Development

At birth the infant's only vocalization is crying. During the first year,

children move through several stages while developing the ability to produce a

variety of speech-like sounds. Each stage is related to its predecessors in a

coherent way. The orderly progression of each stage appears to have certain

universal aspects. However, individual differences are found within each stage of

development and possibly in the degree of overlap of behaviors deriving from one

stage and those that are characteristic of its successors. The stages of develop-

ment of speech sound production have been described by three investigators

working independently (Oiler, 1978; Stark, 1980; Zlatin, 1975). Although each

investigator used unique descriptors for each stage, there were no fundamental

contradictions. The investigators did not disagree about the sound types heard

during extensive longitudinal and cross-sectional investigations of infant sounds.

Differences in the interpretation of sounds and their implications on emerging









intellect, motoric development, and specific speech practice were more a matter

of varying focus than of differing philosophies. Consequently, a synthetic stage

model incorporating the descriptive characteristics of each of the three investiga-

tors was constructed (Oiler, in press) and is used in the following section.

Stage Models of Infant Vocal Development

The models of Zlatin (1975), Stark (1980), and Oiler (1978, 1980) were

formulated in the mid 1970s. Zlatin focused on cognitive/sensorimotor develop-

ment; Stark focused on vocal development as a motoric phenomenon and saw

speech emerging from other vegetative sounds; Oiler sought to characterize the

systematic emergence in infant sounds of general characteristics of vocal produc-

tion that would be manipulated in later meaningful speech. Each of the investiga-

tors used the concept of stages as approximations and emphasized that ages could

vary substantially across individuals.

Stage 1 (Approximately birth to 1 month)

During the first stage, reflexive sound making is most certainly apparent.

Infants cry, burp, sneeze, cough, and hiccough. Stark, in particular, emphasized

that these sounds are a part of the general vocal capability of the organism, and

she sought to find the origins of speech development therein. The sounds that

Oiler referred to as "quasi-resonant or quasi-vocalic nuclei" were referred to as

"vegetative" by Stark and Zlatin. It is not clear whether these sounds are produced

intentionally by the infant, but it is not surprising that they would be called

"vegetative" because they resemble very low intensity, mid-pitch grunts.









Oiler's quasi-resonant nuclei (QRN) include normal phonation (not vocal

fry, not breathy voice, etc.) but do not involve any systematic contrast between

opening and closure of the vocal tract and do not make use of the full potential

of the vocal cavity's function as a resonating tube. The limited resonance of the

elements gives the category its name. Utterance duration is commonly a few

hundred milliseconds, roughly consistent with the timing that is seen in real

speech syllables. Acoustic analysis of the QRN has shown it to consist of a broad

band of low amplitude resonances primarily below 1200 Hz (Murai, 1963; Naka-

zima, 1962; Oiler, 1986). Auditory phonetic analysis has suggested that QRN's

range from a syllabic nasal to a high, mid, unrounded, nasalized vowel (Doyle,

1976; Oiler, 1986). In QRNs infants seem to phonate with their mouths closed or

nearly closed.

Another important vocalization that is clearly reflexive at this stage is

crying. Crying is patently unlike speech in its phonation and timing pattern, as

indicated in numerous studies. An intense cry is specifically noted to have

considerable "dysphonation" or noisiness that is seen spectrographically as

interharmonic fill (Truby & Lind, 1965; Wasz-Hockert, Lind, Vuorenkoski,

Partenen, & Valanne, 1968), and its timing includes segments that are tied to the

breathing cycle in specific ways and to an extent that speech is not (Lester,

Corwin, & Golub, 1988). Furthermore, the pitch range of crying is greater than

would commonly be expected in speech; whereas the pitch of quasi-resonant

sounds gives the impression of being precisely that of speech. The quasi-resonant









sound is like speech in range and in mean value if the characteristics of the

infant's vocal tract and larynx are taken into account. The quasi-resonant sound

may be thought of as quasi-vocalic-a vowel-like sound produced with the vocal

tract at rest, often closed. Quasi-resonant sounds are not judged by the listener as

well-formed nuclei. Oiler (1980) suggested that during the first stage, the baby's

vocalizations indicate the consistent production of at least one sound category and

manifest his ability to control phonation, one critical parameter of speech.

Stark (1980) and Zlatin (1975) emphasized that during the first months of

life, many glottal stops and glottal fricatives occur. It appears that many of these

glottal sounds occur as onsets, offsets, and interruptions in the quasi-resonant

utterances. Such occurrences may be further suggestive of the infant's developing

control over consistent phonation. Irwin and Chen (1946) in their transcriptions of

early vocalizations had also noted the occurrence of "h's". Their historic observa-

tion seems, in the present perspective, to have stood the test of time.

Stage 2 (Approximately 2 to 3 months)

The second stage is characterized by the emergence of laughter and by the

development of articulatory skills in what Zlatin called "primitive syllables." The

word primitive is emphasized because the utterances appear to be less regular in

the timing of their openings (QRN) and closures velarr consonant-like elements)

than syllables normally are in mature languages. Because these primitive syllables

often have posterior consonant-like articulations, they have been called "coos"

and/or "goos." The articulations are various, including fricative-like, stop-like, and









glide-like patterns, and the constrictions are not always at the back of the mouth.

Many are labial; some appear to be apical-coronal (produced with the front of the

tongue). It is not clear how the back sounds are articulated. The velum, the uvula,

the pharyngeal wall, and the epiglottis have all been implicated (Kent, 1981).

The alternation between quasi-resonant sounds and consonant-like articu-

lated sounds inspired Zlatin to note the similarity between these infant vocal acts

and mature syllabic articulations. Oiler (1980) also was impressed with the

similarities between the infant sounds and speech, despite the fact that the nuclei

in infant going were most commonly quasiresonant. In speech, the most com-

monly occurring syllables have "fully resonant or fully vocalic" nuclei. The vocal

tract is not at rest, but rather assumes a shape that is maintained while normal

phonation is produced, yielding a clear vowel-like quality. The vowel-like quality

of fully vocalic sounds includes resonance patterns that tend to contrast effectively

with the resonances of consonantal closures. The combination of fully vocalic

sounds and consonant-like sounds makes possible clear and highly differentiable

formant transitions between consonants and vowels. This is the pattern of most

mature syllables, but it is notably not present in most "primitive syllables" of Stage

2.

Oiler (1986) referred to Stage 2 as the precanonical "goo stage." The

going indicates that the infant is capable of producing significant variation in the

sound as a result of articulation. The nuclei are not usually fully resonant, margin-

to-nucleus intensity difference is insufficient, and formant transitions may violate







9
the timing or intensity change requirements of canonical syllables. This represents

a partial mastery of aspects of both syllable nuclei and syllable margins.

Stage 3 (Approximately 4 to 6 months)

In the third stage of vocal development, babies explore a variety of

articulation capabilities and the vocal manipulations needed for many new

parameters. This stage has been described as an expansion stage by Oiler and

Smith (1977) and as an exploratory mapping stage by Zlatin (1975) who quoted

Mattingly (1973) in support of this view. Infants squeal and growl, apparently

exploring the pitch parameter. They yell and whisper, manipulating the amplitude

dimension. They produce a wide variety of fully vocalic sounds, exploring the

potential vowel space (Buhr, 1980; Kent & Murray, 1982; Lieberman, 1980;

Lieberman, Buhr, Keating, Hamby, & Landahl, 1976). The infant also produces a

wide variety of articulations including labial fricatives, trills, and vibrants. The

infant's development of these sounds indicates an emerging control over a variety

of parameters that must be controlled in mature speech (Oiler, 1980).

A characteristic that was noted by all of the investigators was the repetitive

action involved in the playful use of a particular sound or in apparent practice.

Three terms were used to describe the stage: vocal play (Stark, 1980), explorato-

ry mapping (Zlatin, 1975), and expansion of capabilities (Oiler, 1977). Oiler

(1980) proposed that the playful exploration of the infants at this stage suggests

intentionality, but he left open the question of whether the infant has a goal in

the use of sounds that resemble speech. These utterance types involve a pitch









range from as low as 100 Hz in growling to over 1000 Hz in squealing, a more

than 10-fold range.

Toward the end of this stage an increase of occurrence in a new type of

primitive syllable is commonly seen. In these "marginal syllables" the infant

produces a consonant-like articulation and a fully vocalic nucleus but fails to

produce the kind of timing that is normally seen in mature syllables. The transi-

tion from consonant to vowel is too slow, and consequently the syllable sounds

aberrant. It is apparent by the end of this stage that the infant is on the verge of

producing syllables that could be called "well-formed" or "canonical," the kind of

syllables that had been deemed transcribable in early infant studies because of

their resemblance to speech.

Stage 4 (Approximately 6 to 10 months)

The onset of canonical babbling, especially reduplicated canonical babbling,

is often relatively clear and salient even to the unsophisticated listener. Infants

seem to say "bababa" or "dadada," and parents sometimes mistakenly think the

baby has actually learned to communicate with words. This impression is under-

standable because the baby has begun to produce vocalizations that are similar to

the syllables of natural languages. In many instances the reduplicated or single

syllable canonical babbles are pronounced in such a way that, if they were

properly coordinated with meaning, would indeed constitute true speech.

Stark's emphasis on motoric development led her to see reduplicated

babbling as a general rhythmic motor development. This position is clearly









plausible in the context of data on the development of other rhythmic acts

(kicking, hand banging, etc.) that have been described by Thelen (1979) and seem

to show comparably sudden onsets. Ramsey (1984) showed an association be-

tween the onset of canonical babbling and the onset of handedness in human

infants.

During Stage 4 of vocal development, infants are capable of considerable

variation in vocalization. The fact that various sound types, which were developed

during exploratory mapping of the previous stage, are brought together in a

smooth fashion in the canonical stage can be taken as an instance of coordination

(Oiler, 1980). The babbling is characterized by a series of consonant-vowel (CV)

syllables, with each syllable perceived as being similar to every other. It resembles

speech much more closely in its timing than the vocal behaviors found in any

previous stage.

The formal characterization of the nature of canonical syllables became a

critical goal for investigators during the 1980s. It became clear that with a formal

characterization, it would be possible to evaluate gradations of speech-like quality

or "speechiness" that had been previously inaccessible. In a work by Oiler (1986),

the acoustic characterization of canonical syllables was described in the context of

a model that was termed "metaphonological." Metaphonology specifies how

acoustic parameters (frequency, resonance, intensity, and timing) are manipulated

to generate well-formed, concrete phonetic units in any natural spoken language.

The syllable has a power envelope with peaks (nuclei) and valleys (margins)







12

differing by at least 10 dB. The peak-to-peak duration in canonical syllable strings

cannot be less than 100 ms (for very low-stressed syllables) and not more than

500 ms (in very slow, deliberate speech). The nucleus of a canonical syllable has a

periodic energy source and relatively open vocal tract to yield full resonance and

at least one margin of low resonance and relatively closed vocal tract. The

transition between canonical syllable margins) and nucleus involves a smoothly

changing frequency, intensity, and resonance pattern. Transition durations fall

within specifiable limits-25 to 120 ms. Both the intensity and frequency ranges of

speech sounds are limited; the intensity range is equal to or less than 30 dB and

the frequency range is at least two-fold. Because metaphonology attempts to

account for the underpinnings of phonological systems, the tacitly known rules

that form the building blocks of speech systems, this model has more recently

been called an "infraphonological" model (Oiler & Lynch, 1989).

Infraphonology is in its own kind of infancy, because only "canonical

syllables" have been characterized. These represent the minimal rhythmic units of

natural languages. Oiler (in press) proposed future plans to characterize infrapho-

nological patterns defining a variety of additional levels of rhythm, e.g., the metric

foot, the phrase, the utterance, the discourse unit. Additional specification is

needed even in the domain of the syllable. In the meantime, it is clear that the

notion of canonical syllable is not illusory, but rather quite easily defined. The

model points out the potential importance of canonical syllables as indicators of

an emerging ability to produce the sounds of speech.









Stage 5 (Approximately 10 to 14 months)

In Stage 5 the productions are still primarily CV sequences, as in the

previous stage, but now the reduplicative nature of the utterances is no longer

present, and a variety of consonants and vowels can co-occur, e.g., [bawidu]

(Oiler, 1980). This type of utterance is referred to by Oiler as variegated babbling.

During this stage the consonantal repertoire increases substantially. A second

characteristic of this stage is the presence of adult-like intonation patterns.

Parents often believe their children are producing whole sentences-statements,

questions, exclamations-but in their "own" language.

Studies of Vocalization of Special Groups

Many have assumed that babbling gradually approximates the phonological

patterns of the language (Locke, 1983; Oiler, Weiman, Doyle, & Ross, 1975;

Stoel-Gammon & Cooper, 1984). Because the phonological preferences of the

child tend to center on commonly occurring speech sound categories, there is a

tendency for children all over the world to produce the same kinds of sounds.

This tendency has been noted repeatedly in general reviews of studies represent-

ing a wide variety of languages (Locke, 1983). Given that there are obvious

important similarities among infant babblers all over the world, it is intriguing to

ask whether or not there may be differences. There has been a wide variety of

studies that have attempted to find differences with little success (Atkinson,

MacWhinney, & Stoel, 1970; Eady, 1980; Eilers, Oiler, & Benito-Garcia, 1984;







14

Oiler & Eilers, 1982; Olney & Scholnick, 1976; Preston, Yeni-Komshian, & Stark,

1967; Thevenin, Eilers, Oiler, & LaVoie, 1985).

Oiler (in press) summarized efforts made by Benedicte de Boysson-Bardies

and her colleagues in France on subtle differences between the babbling of

French, English, Arabic, and Chinese babies. In a series of studies Benedicte de

Boysson-Bardies and her colleagues found that a French baby in the middle of

the second year of life, produced babbled sounds that resembled French more

closely than English or Thai (de Boysson-Bardies, Sagart, & Bacri, 1981). The

adult listeners could recognize French babies (6-10 months of age) as distinct

from Arabic or Cantonese babies based on babbling sounds alone (de Boysson-

Bardies, Sagart, & Durand, 1984). The 10-month-old French, Arabic, and Canton-

ese babies seemed to attune their vocal productions to long-term spectral charac-

teristics of their language community (de Boysson-Bardies, Sagart, Halle, &

Durand, 1986). The vowel formants of infants from French, English, Arabic, and

Cantonese families were similar to characteristics of the formants occurring in the

language of the individual infant (de Boysson-Bardies, Halle, Sagart, & Durand,

1989).

Oiler (in press) concluded that the French studies did not find that it was

easy to distinguish between the babbling of infants from different language

communities but that, with sufficient care and the knowledge of how to look for

the differences, differences can be found. The clearest differences were seen in

the realm of vowel production, an area that has been investigated far less than









consonant production since the advent of the modern era in infant vocalization

research. If the results of the French studies stand the test of time, they will

indicate that language listening experience plays a role in the form of infant

sounds at a very early age (Oiler, in press).

In the last decade, a new view has been achieved in the study of the

babbling of deaf infants, a view that was impossible in the context of earlier less-

sophisticated models. The earlier studies had suggested that deaf infants "babble"

just as hearing infants do, although the deaf infants have been thought to vocalize

less (Appleton, Clifton, & Goldberg, 1975; Fry, 1966; Holmes & Morrison, 1979;

Vander Zanden, 1981). Stoel-Gammon and Otomo (1986) and Stark (1972)

indicated that on closer examination with sophisticated transcriptional tools, the

babbling of deaf infants in the first and second year of life differs notably from

that of hearing infants. Working in the infraphonological framework and focusing

on the onset of the canonical stage in infants, Oiler et al. (1985) and Oiler and

Eilers (1988) have shown that deaf infants are drastically delayed in the onset of

canonical syllable production. Whereas hearing infants virtually always enter the

canonical stage prior to 11 months of age, deaf infants almost never do. In the

Oiler and Eilers (1988) study, the role of auditory experience in the development

of the phonological and metaphonological capacities was examined. "The meta-

phonological perspective takes account of the articulatory/acoustic patterns of

speech sounds in all mature spoken languages. Auditorially, canonical syllables

were identified by phonetically trained listeners as those having the following









properties: (1) at least one fully resonant nucleus (i.e., vowel of identifiable

quality, high nasalized vowels being excluded by the resonance requirement); (2)

one nonglottal margin (i.e., consonant other than glottal stop or glottal fricative),

(3) duration of syllable and formant transitions that fit within the range of mature

syllable production, and (4) normal phonation and pitch range." Oiler and Eilers

(1988) identified canonical babbling from tape-recorded sample of spontaneous

utterances in the following way.

A 50 utterance minimum is commonly sought, and vegetative and/or
presumed involuntary utterances (coughs, sneezes, cries, involuntary
grunts, etc.) are excluded. A single utterance is defined as a "breath-
group," with not more than 1 sec. of internal silence. For tape
recorded vocal samples, an operational definition of canonical stage
includes a .2 or greater ratio of the canonical syllable to utteranc-
es (Oiler, 1984). The ratio is determined by simply counting the
number of canonical syllables in a sample (in some cases, multiple
canonical syllables occur within a single utterance) and dividing by
the number of utterances in a sample. (p. 444)

Results indicated that from 8 to 13 months of age, the deaf subjects differed

strikingly from hearing infants of comparable age. The deaf subjects produced no

repetitive canonical babbling, whereas all the hearing infants produced many

canonical syllables. The topography of the deaf infants' vocalizations resembled

that of 4-to 6-month-old (i.e., expansion stage) hearing infants.

Oiler (1988) suggested that these results have fundamentally altered our

understanding of the role of listening experiences in the development of a

phonological capacity. It now seems likely that listening plays a very major role in

what the infant comes to pronounce in the way of syllables and, indeed, deter-

mines his/her ability to begin the process on schedule. The myth that audition









plays no role in normal babbling may be attributable in part to the fact that

differences between the vocalizations of deaf and hearing infants are obscured by

some important similarities. Both deaf and hearing infants produce many preca-

nonical vocalizations that are substantially alike, among them raspberries, squeals,

growls, etc. (Stoel-Gammon & Otomo, 1986). Also, the shift from back articula-

tions of the going stage to the more front articulations of later stages appears to

occur at similar ages in deaf and hearing infants (Smith, 1982). At the same time,

it remains unclear exactly how similar the precanonical sounds of hearing and

deaf infants are.

Other recent research has addressed the problems of early vocal develop-

ment in children with Down syndrome and other mental handicaps. Dodd (1972)

and Smith and Oiler (1981) have indicated that infants with Down syndrome show

similarities with hearing infants in the frequency and length of utterances, the

number of different vowel and consonant types produced, the age of onset of

canonical babbling, and the age of occurrence of the shift from predominantly

back to predominantly front articulations. These findings have suggested that the

level of intellect does not play a major role in the patterns of vocal development

that are seen.

Oiler and Seibert (1988) studied 36 prelinguistic children, 17 to 62 months

of age, who were participating in a full-time stimulation program at the University

of Miami's Mailman Center for Child Development. They were all engaged in

training intended to accelerate cognitive, motoric, and linguistic development. No







18
specific speech therapy was provided in the program. Results suggested that older

children with mental handicaps, 17 to 62 months, who were not speaking mean-

ingfully usually produced a rich complement of canonical babbles, sufficient to

suggest from a phonological or infraphonological standpoint that they were ready

to speak. Children with mental handicaps who did not show canonical syllables in

proportions resembling those of 11-to 13-month-old normal infants showed no

sign whatever of emerging speech, whereas some of the children with mental

handicaps whose babbling was similar to 11-to 13-month-old normal infants were

beginning to use prereferential communication. The results suggest that an

evaluation of canonical babbling can suggest whether or not the infant or child

meets certain readiness criteria for the onset of meaningful speech.

Brown, Bendersky, and Chapman (1986) examined the utterances of

infants born preterm in order to ascertain whether there were any differences in

speech sound production between healthy preterm infants and those who had

suffered trauma. Thirty-three infants whose corrected ages ranged from 9 months

to 22 months were assessed. Twenty-one of these infants had suffered intraven-

tricular hemorrhage (IVH); the remaining 12 had not suffered any trauma. The

results showed that both groups of preterm infants were delayed in speech

development when compared with developmental norms. The IVH children

showed more serious delays than did the other preterm infants, and the range of

delay was much broader. The range of delay suggested that a number of different

factors may have been operating. These factors included trauma and differences









in interactive behavior with parents. With trauma, the locus of the hemorrhage

and the maturity of the central nervous system at the time of the insult are

associated factors. A hemorrhage and consequent ventricular dilatation that

predominantly affects the left hemisphere may have a greater impact on speech-

sound behavior than right hemisphere trauma. The less mature central nervous

systems of the younger premature babies at the time of hemorrhage may have

greater facility for compensatory remodeling. When considering the interaction,

the 12 infants who had not suffered any trauma stayed in the hospital for a

shorter period and suffered less severe medical complications than did the IVH

infants. These infants were less at risk for problems of bonding with subsequent

effect on attachment and interaction than was the IVH group.

Other Related Studies

A large number of published studies has dealt with the prediction of

outcomes within the first few years of life using measures of perinatal and

neonatal medical complications or deviance as predictors (Cohen, 1981; Gold-

stein, Caputo, & Taub, 1976; Hunt, 1981; Sigman, Cohen, & Forsythe, 1981; St.

Claire, 1978). The most frequently used outcome variables were measures of

cognitive and neurological/motor developmental functioning (Drage & Berendes,

1966; Field, 1981; Field, Hallock, Ting, Dempsey, Dabini, & Schuman, 1978;

Hunt, 1981; Rubin, Rosenblatt, & Balow, 1973; Sigman et al., 1981). The overall

finding from these studies is that infants who have suffered neonatal complica-

tions show significantly elevated rates of problems in physical, cognitive,









neurological, and motor developmental functioning during early childhood.

However, prediction of outcomes for individual children on the basis of type and

severity of perinatal complications has not been very successful (Hunt, 1981;

Sigman et al., 1981).

The most generally accepted explanation for the relative lack of predictive

power of neonatal events is that later functioning of the individual child is

determined both by the child's constitution and by the specific characteristics of

the environment to which the child is exposed. With the exception of complica-

tions that result in debilitating disorders, the overall predictive power of environ-

mental variables alone has been shown to be considerably stronger than that of

constitutional variables (Broman, Nichols, & Kennedy, 1975; Caputo, Goldstein,

& Taub, 1981; Sameroff, 1981; Sameroff & Chandler, 1975). One explanation of

the above effect is that environmental variables are likely to constitute by far the

strongest influence on development from the early childhood years. Whereas the

impact of perinatal and neonatal variables often is directly observable from birth,

environmental variables begin to show their impact gradually over the first years

of the infant's life.

In studies using environmental descriptors to explain the dynamics of the

developmental milieu, for example, quality of home or mother-child interaction

pattern test scores have shown an early association with environmental variations

(Beckwith, Cohen, Kopp, Parmelee, & Marcy, 1976; Yarrow, Rubinstein, Peder-

son, & Janowsky, 1972). Several states have started to track at-risk and disabled









infants during the first three years of life (i.e., Washington, Oregon, Missouri).

The Polk County, Oregon, program (Johnson, 1989) addressed the need for

monitoring the development of infants and young children designated at-risk. The

high rate of poverty, single parenthood, teen parents, and unemployment created

a need to monitor children for developmental delays due to environmental as well

as biological risk factors. Distinguishing children who will develop problems from

those who will not is a difficult task. Ideally, skilled professionals would have

adequate time and resources to do the job. Realistically, those infants with severe

handicapping conditions may be identified soon after birth, but those with mild to

moderate delays may not be found until they enter school. Early identification of

these infants and young children benefits not only the parent and child but the

school and the community as well.

Polk County Infant Monitoring Project (IMP) was designed to effectively

measure the development of infants from birth through age 3 without involving

professionals or transporting the family to a test site. The IMP used question-

naires to assess developmental skills at various ages (Bricker, Squires, Kaminski,

& Mounts, 1987). Simply worded questionnaires were mailed to the parents seven

days before the child reached 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 30, or 36 months gestational age

(corrected for prematurity when necessary). Both subjective and objective criteria

were included to assist in identifying at-risk infants. Objective criteria included

low birth weight, hospitalization, and genetic or congenital abnormalities. The

subjective factors considered were parent apprehension about development and







22
family instability. Each questionnaire contains six or seven questions on develop-

ment in each of five areas (domains). The domains were communication, fine

motor, gross motor, adaptive, and personal/social. The results showed that certain

risk factors are better predictors of developmental difficulties than others.

Grouping children from households with such factors as child abuse, suspect

caregiver interaction, and concern with parenting abilities demonstrated the

critical need for monitoring the developmental progress of these children.

Abnormal results were found most often for questionnaires sent to families with

questionable parenting skills. Over one-third (38%) had abnormal questionnaires,

and 14% exhibited delays serious enough to warrant intervention services (N=63).

Other factors that placed children at-risk were teen parents, single parents,

parents with two children born within 18 months, multiple births, and lack of or

late prenatal care.

Current statistics (Walkins & Melnick, 1985) indicate that one-quarter of

all babies born in the United States are born into poverty. One fifth are born to

single parents. The United States infant mortality rate is higher than that of all

other industrialized countries. There were more than five times as many births to

single women in 1983 (737, 893) as in 1950 (142,00). Almost 37% of the 1983

births (270,000) were to unmarried teenagers. Children 3 years and under

comprise 30% of the abused population but only 22% of the general population.

More than 50% of all women with infants under age 3 were in the labor force in

1986. Approximately 70% of all infants and toddlers in out-of-home care by non-









relatives are in family day care. Over 70% of family day care is unregulated.

Nineteen percent of family day care providers have an eighth grade education or

less. Little is known about the speech and language development of children at-

risk and especially children who are environmentally at-risk.

Summary and Statement of the Problem

The onset of canonical babbling is clear and salient even to the unsophisti-

cated listener. Infants seem to say "bababa" or "dadada," and parents sometimes

mistakenly think the baby has actually learned to communicate with words. Stark

(1980) explained reduplicated babbling as a general rhythmic motor development

in which the infant suddenly acquires mastery over this activity. The essential

component to this new skill may be active control of opening the vocal tract at a

point above the glottis.

Oiler (1980) and Stark (1980) both agreed that canonical or reduplicated

babbling, characterized by a series of consonant-vowel (CV) syllables with each

syllable perceived as being similar to every other, begins between the ages of 6

and 10 months in normal babies. It resembles speech much more closely in its

timing than the vocal behaviors found in any previous stage of vocal development.

Although there is agreement about the general nature of the stages of vocal

development and their order of succession, ways of discriminating the onset of

each have not yet been clearly specified. The onset of certain stages, such as

cooing, laughter, and reduplicated babbling or canonical babbling, appears to be







24
more clearly marked than the onset of others, such as vocal play or expansion and

single word production.

Investigators have concluded that the onset of canonical babbling is

delayed in several populations. Oiler et al. (1985) and Oiler and Eilers (1988)

have shown that deaf infants reach the onset of canonical babbling much later

than hearing infants.

Oiler and Seibert (1988) studied prelinguistic children with mental handi-

caps, and found that most of them produced substantial numbers of canonical

syllables. However, substantial variability in ratios was found. Values ranged from

0 to 1.59 canonical syllables per utterance. Twenty-nine children showed ratios of

0.2 or greater, a value that has been set as a minimum to indicate a canonical

stage vocal pattern (Oiler, 1984). The five children with the highest level of

expressive language development-small vocabulary of prereferential spoken

words-had the highest babbling ratios. The most potentially useful result of their

study appeared to be the indication that the babbling ratio may help in the

prediction of meaningful speech development. The addition of a babbling ratio

factor to analyses of infant behavior may substantially increase the predictability

of language development outcomes. Although children with high ratios may or

may not talk, results from this study indicated that a child with a very low ratio is

unlikely to talk until the canonical babbling increases.

Brown, Bendersky, and Chapman (1986) examined the utterances of

infants born preterm. Thirty-three infants, whose corrected ages ranged from 9









months to 22 months, were assessed. Twenty-one of these infants had suffered

intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH); the remaining 12 had not suffered any

trauma. The results showed that both groups of preterm infants were delayed in

all aspects of speech sound development (including the onset of babbling) when

compared with developmental norms. The IVH children showed more serious

delays than did the other preterm infants and the range of delay was much

broader.

Somewhat different results were reported by Menyuk, Liebergott, and

Schultz (1986). They examined data from a longitudinal study of two groups of

infants, full-term and premature. Risk factors examined included low birth weight,

respiratory distress, intraventricular hemorrhaging, and reported otitis media.

Menyuk et al. attempted to determine whether the birth state of the infant was a

good predictor of phonological or lexical production and whether early language

behaviors predicted or correlated with later language behaviors. Their findings

showed no significant differences between the two groups in any of the phonologi-

cal or lexical measures used at any age. They concluded that there was no

evidence to predict that a difficult beginning would lead to difficulties at a later

age.

One of the predominant findings cited above was that the impaired infants

started canonical babbling later than normal infants. This conclusion is clear with

hearing impaired and infants with mental handicaps. It is less clear in infants who

are biologically at risk (Menyuk et al., 1986) and infants who were premature. In









our society today a large percentage of infants live in environments that place

them at risk for early language development. The effects of environmental risk

have not been examined. No studies have looked at the early speech development

of infants who are biologically sound but whose early life experiences-including

maternal and family care, health care, opportunities for expression, and patterns

of physical and social stimulation-are significantly limited. Information has been

reported on the school age child, but little is known about the early development

of these infants.

The purpose of this study was to determine the age of onset of canonical

babbling in infants who are environmentally at risk. A group of 41 environmental-

ly at-risk infants were included in this study to answer the following questions.

1. How many infants began to babble before 10 months, the upper end of the

normal age range for the onset for canonical babbling?

2. Of those infants who did not begin to babble by the expected age, at what

age did the onset of canonical babbling occur?











CHAPTER 2
METHOD

Subjects

Forty-one children, 25 boys and 16 girls, whose ages ranged from 7 months

to 11 months were selected from day care centers, home day care programs,

churches, health departments, and early educational centers in Florida, Georgia,

and South Carolina. All subjects came from homes in which English is the

predominant language. The following section describes characteristics of the

subjects. These characteristics are summarized in Table 2-1, and a more detailed

description of each subject is included in Appendix A.

Medical History

Parent interview, case history reports used by the sites, and medical

records indicated that all subjects were full term babies with no history of acute

or chronic disease. None of the children were reported to have organic or

nonorganic failure to thrive, more than two episodes of otitis media, seizures,

head injury, exposure to toxic agents, or latrogenic disorder (problems caused by

treatment, e.g., damage to the larynx from insertion of tubes).

Socio-Economic Background

All subjects came from the same socio-economic background. They all

qualified as needing public assistance by federal standards for economic groups,

even though some of them were not receiving any assistance.









Brief description of each subject. Taped
untaped subjects are indicated by U.


subjects are indicated by T;


Subject Age in Sex Race T or U
Number Months
1 7 M B T
2 7 F B T
3 7 F W T
4 7 M B T
5 7 M B T
6 7 F B T
7 7 M B T
8 8 M B T
9 8 F B T
10 8 M B T
11 8 F W T
12 8 M B T
13 8 F B T
14 10 M B T
15 10 M B T
16 10 F B T
17 10 F B T
18 10 F B T
19 10 M B T
20 10 M B T
21 10 M B T
22 11 M B T
23 11 F B T
24 11 M B T


Table 2-1.








Table 2-1-continued.


Subject Age in Sex Race T or U
Number Months
25 11 M B T
26 8 M B U
27 8 M B U
28 8 M B U
29 9 M B U
30 9 M B U
31 9 M W U
32 10 M B U
33 10 M W U
34 10 F B U
35 10 M B U
36 10 F B U
37 11 F B U
38 11 M B U
39 11 F B U
40 11 F B U
41 11 M B U









Hearing Status

Several precautions were taken to exclude children with significant hearing

impairment. During the initial interview, the parent was asked if the child had had

any ear infections and if these had been diagnosed as otitis media. Those children

with known hearing loss or more than two documented episodes of otitis media

before 6 months of age were excluded. Studies have indicated that children with

histories of otitis media often evidence phonological disorders that require later

remediation (Paden, Novak, & Kuklinski, 1985). To insure that the infants could

hear environmental sounds, the Hearing Screening Guide for Professional Screening

of Infants' Hearing (Downs, 1979) and the Surgeon General's Checklist for Parents

(Koop, 1986) were administered to screen the infants. Five infants failed two of

four presentations of these screening tools, and a recheck was done to determine

if the failure to respond was a transitory effect of attending to something else.

Two of the infants continued to miss two of four presentations and were re-

checked within one week. One child was referred for hearing examination based

on screening results and was not included in the study.

Vision Status

The Functional Vision Screening Test (Langley, 1980) was used to screen

visual activity of the infants. Twelve categories were scored using a "yes-no" check

list to verify eye movement, reaction, gaze, tracking, and eye preference. In

addition, all subjects had normal vision as determined by their family physicians.









Normal Development

All subjects followed a normal developmental sequence in cognitive and

motor skills. Public Law 99-457 requires that assessment of infants and toddlers

cover five domain areas-cognition, language/communication, motor, psychosocial,

and self help. The Battelle Developmental Inventory (Newborg, Stock, & Wnek,

1984) was used to assess these domains. Subjects were required to successfully

complete two items at age level in all domain levels except communication.

Environmental Risk

All children met the standards for being at risk as stated by Public Law 99-

457. These standards include

biologically sound infants for whom early life experiences including mater-
nal and family care, health care, opportunities for expression of adaptive
behaviors, and patterns of physical and social stimulation are sufficiently
limiting to the extent that, without corrective intervention, they impart high
probability for delayed development. (Tjossem, 1976, p.4)

One of the factors that may place an infant at-risk is the natural social

interaction between infant and caregiver. To examine the type of interaction

between the infant and caregiver the Observation of Communicative Interaction

(Klein & Briggs, 1987) was administered. Interactions were rated as occurring

"optimally," "often," or "rarely/never." Any items rated "rarely/never" placed the

infant at risk for the particular interaction under observation.

To further determine if the social environment of the infant was at risk,

the Mothers'Assessment of Infants (Field, Dempsey, Hallock, & Shuman, 1978)

questionnaire was attempted to examine the caregiver characteristics of positive







32
affect, accurate knowledge of needs and behaviors, and good interactive matching

with developmentally appropriate communication. The mothers were asked to

circle one of the multiple choice responses that explain the infants behaviors. A

summary of the mothers interpretation of the infant's behavior was than recorded.

However, many of the mothers refused to complete this questionnaire. It was not

always clear whether they were threatened by the nature of the questions, had

difficulty completing them, or were simply fatigued.

To verify that the infant's environment was at risk the Home Observation

for Measurement of the Environment Inventory (Caldwell & Bradley, 1984) was

administered. Any score below the middle 50% was considered to indicate risk.

Procedure

Parental consent forms were distributed in all of the sites with flyers asking

for participants and specifying the age range of 6 months through 10 months.

Approximately 162 forms were distributed. Of the forms distributed, 114 were

returned (a return rate of 70%). The returned forms were categorized by sites,

and group and individual appointments were made through the directors of the

centers to speak to parents of children who were within the age range and who

used English as their predominant language. During the initial meeting with the

parents, the purpose of the study and the evaluation procedures were explained.

The parents were asked if their child was babbling, and in all of the meetings all

parents said, "yes." A sample babbling tape was then played for the parents to

verify if this was what they had heard from their babies. Most parents now stated,







33
"no." Those parents who still said, "yes," were asked when the babbling behavior

began, and appointments were made to do the criterion testing at the sites and to

verify that the infant was babbling.

Examiners

Three graduate students were extensively trained in administering all test

items and the protocol for collecting speech samples from the infants. All three

examiners and the author tested the infants to verify that they were following a

normal development and visited day care centers and individual families to verify

sound making productions and collect the speech samples.

Canonical Babbling Status

The parents of children who met all criteria stated above were contacted to

review their child's evaluation results. The original consent form signed by each

parent was redistributed and fully explained to be sure they understood the nature

of the study (Appendix B). They were asked to read a copy of the letter silently

along with the examiner. They were then informed that they could (verbally or in

writing) withdraw from the study at any time.

Those children who were reported to be babbling already were visited by

the examiner to verify their babbling behavior, and the date of onset that was

reported by the parent was recorded. If the children were not babbling, the parent

participated in the following informant training procedure.









Informant Training

Parents listened to a tape with 10 monosyllabic and 10 multiple syllable

types. Each monosyllable was composed of one consonant followed by one vowel,

e.g., [ba]. The multiple syllables ranged from two to five syllables with the same

consonant and vowel pair repeated in the first two syllables. In strings of more

than two syllables the vowel changed after the second syllable sequence, e.g.,

[bababibi]. The 10 monosyllables were played first, and the trainer explained to

the parents that this was one of the types of speech sounds that the child will

make. The key components of these productions, a consonant and a vowel, were

explained. The parents were asked to repeat the sounds that they heard on the

tape to verify that they could hear and interpret the sound productions. The same

procedure was followed for the 10 multiple syllable productions. The key compo-

nent for a multiple syllable was explained as two or more repetitions of the

monosyllables together. A combination of monosyllables and multiple syllables

was played for the parents. They were instructed to say "yes" each time they heard

a monosyllable or multiple syllable. The researcher randomly chose either of the

syllable types. All parents correctly identified 75% or more of the presented

syllable types.

After training, the parents were asked to report to the day care site if they

noticed any of the syllable-like sound productions. Day care workers participated

in the training and assisted the researcher in recording samples. Weekly contact

with day care workers and some individual parents was made by the researcher to









verify syllable-like sound productions or any speech-like sounds made by the

infants.

Data Collection

Once syllable production was reported by parents or day care workers,

home visits or day care site visits were made during the week of the report. One-

to two-hour sessions were set up to record any sound making activity by the

infants. If the infant made no sound activity, and the parent insisted that the

infant had been making syllable productions, a cassette recorder was left with the

parent to record any productions, and the researcher returned within two days.

The researcher listened to the parent's taped samples immediately to determine if

any canonical syllables had occurred. If no syllable-like sound making had

occurred, a new tape was given to the parents and a return visit to that home was

scheduled for the following week. If the researcher determined that the produc-

tions were canonical syllables, another attempt was made to record the infant.

Twenty-five taped samples and 16 parental reports (confirmed but not taped)

were obtained in this way.

Instrumentation

The researcher, two parents, and the graduate student examiners recorded

all speech samples produced by the subjects. A Panasonic 612 stereo and a

Marantz PMD 221 cassette deck and a Realistic PZM tabletop microphone were

used to record all verbalizations. An attempt was made to place the microphone

approximately one foot from the child. This did not remain constant during the









collection of the sample because of the rapid pace of the infants, which resulted

in their sitting on or pulling the microphone closer to them. The infants were

given several low noise age-appropriate toy(s) to manipulate. A parent or day

care worker who might encourage vocalization was asked to engage the infant in a

face-to-face interaction whenever possible. The recording sessions varied from 30

minutes to two hours. The number of recorded sessions varied from one to three

as needed to obtain the minimum of 50 utterances.

Transcription

Prior to transcription of the data tapes, the researcher and supervisor used

a sample tape of canonical babbling and discussed the transcription procedures.

Auditorially, canonical syllables were identified by both listeners as those having

the following properties:

(1) at least one fully resonant nucleus (i.e., vowel of identifiable quality,
high nasalized vowels being excluded by the resonance requirement); (2)
one nonglottal margin (i.e., consonant other than glottal stop or glottal
fricative), (3) duration of syllable and formant transitions that fit within the
range of mature syllable production, and (4) normal phonation and pitch
range. (Oiler & Eilers, 1988, p. 443)

Using the prepared tape, the two listeners practiced listening for consonant and

vowel combinations. They also listened for and identified coughs, sneezes, cries,

squeals, grunts, laughter, quasiresonant productions, yells, whispers, and marginal

syllables. Both listeners compared and discussed their transcriptions.

The two listeners then listened to and transcribed the audiotapes. The

consensus transcription procedure developed by Shriberg, Kwiatkowski, and

Hoffman (1984) was used to phonetically transcribe the utterances using standard









IPA symbols and variations suggested by Oiler and Delgado (1990). The two

independent listeners transcribed each utterance, and the two versions were then

compared. In the case of a disagreement, the utterance in question was replayed a

maximum of three times. After the replay, a consensus was reached on the sound

production using the rules suggested by Shriberg et al. (1984).

Analysis of Data

The Logical International Phonetics Programs (LIPP) (Oiler & Delgado,

1990) was used to encode the utterances from the transcripts. The LIPP is a

software program that includes the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) and an

existing set of sounds, symbols, and analysis rules that have been used in research

with speech and speech-like vocalizations of infants and older children.

Each transcribed sample was divided into utterances. A single utterance

was defined as a "breath-group," with not more than one second of internal

silence (Oiler, 1984). The LIPP counted the number of canonical syllables and

divided this number by the total number of utterances in the sample. This

calculation yielded a ratio of canonical syllables. A sample with a ratio of .2 or

greater is considered to be within the canonical stage (Oiler, 1984). The recom-

mended minimum of 50 utterances was used in most instances to determine the

ratio; however, seven subjects produced less than 50 utterances. Vegetative and/or

presumed involuntary utterances (coughs, sneezes, cries, involuntary grunts, etc.)

were excluded.












CHAPTER 3
RESULTS

The purpose of this study was to determine the age of onset of canonical

babbling in infants who were environmentally at risk. A group of 41 environmen-

tally at-risk infants were included in this study to answer two questions. Two types

of subjects will be presented separately-those whose samples were taped (N =

25) and those whose samples were untaped (N = 16). Speech samples were

collected and taped by an examiner when syllable sound activity was reported to

have occurred by parents or day care workers. The untaped subjects were report-

ed to have already started babbling when first encountered, and the researcher

only verified that the babbling behavior was occurring and recorded the mother's

report as to the age of onset of canonical babbling.

Question 1. How many infants will begin to babble before 10 months, the upper

end of the normal age range for the onset of canonical babbling?

Figure 3-1 illustrates the number of children who began canonical babbling

at each age between 6 and 12 months. Thirteen of the 25 taped subjects (53% of

the taped subject population) began canonical babbling before 10 months of age.

Six of the 16 untaped subjects (38% of the untaped population) were reported to

have begun canonical babbling before 10 months.















N 10
U
9
m8
b 87
e
r 7 6

0 6- 5 5
f
5 4
C
h3
1
d 2
r
e 10 0

6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Age in Months

Taped M Untaped





Figure 3-1. Number of taped and untaped subjects with onset of canonical
babbling at each age.








40
Question 2. Of those infants who did not begin to babble before 10 months, at

what age did the onset of canonical babbling occur?

The age of onset of canonical babbling and the number of subjects at each

age can be seen on Figure 3-1. Eight taped subjects and 6 untaped subjects began

babbling at 10 months; 4 taped subjects and 6 untaped subjects began babbling at

11 months. The ages of onset of canonical babbling ranged from 7 months to 11

months. Slightly more subjects began babbling late (at 10 months or later) than at

the expected age. The mean age at onset of canonical babbling for the 25 taped

subjects was 8.84. This figure is somewhat misleading, however, because the taped

subjects clearly fell into two groups-those below the mean and those above the

mean-with no subjects actually at the mean age of near 9 months. The mean age

at onset for the 16 untaped subjects was 9.75.

Description of the Babbling

A canonical babbling ratio of .2 was used as the criterion for determining if

canonical babbling had occurred (Oiler, 1984). The canonical babbling ratio of all

taped subjects was above .2. The actual canonical babbling ratio of each taped

subject can be seen in Table 3-1. The mean ratio for the 25 taped subjects was

1.052 (well over the .2 required) with a standard deviation of .477. The range of

these ratios was from .485 to 2.140.

The total number of syllables produced by the taped subjects ranged from

30 to 143 (Table 3-2) with a mean of 86.40 and a standard deviation was 28.955.









Canonical and marginal babbling ratio of each taped subject.


Subject Age in Months Canonical Babbling Marginal Babbling
Ratio Ratio
1 7 0.960 0.260
2 7 0.560 0.040
3 7 0.650 0.000
4 7 0.485 0.000
5 7 1.340 0.180
6 7 0.980 0.000
7 7 0.640 0.500
8 8 1.360 0.080
9 8 1.360 0.060
10 8 0.486 0.514
11 8 0.526 0.000
12 8 0.640 0.140
13 8 1.840 0.040
14 10 0.920 0.220
15 10 2.140 0.000
16 10 1.000 0.020
17 10 1.600 0.000
18 10 1.580 0.420
19 10 0.680 0.000
20 10 0.660 0.140
21 10 1.200 0.020
22 11 1.366 0.024
23 11 1.000 0.036
24 11 1.740 0.000
25 11 0.588 0.176


Table 3-1.









Table 3-2. Numbers of utterances, syllables, quasivowels, full vowels, canonical
syllables, and marginal syllables produced by each taped subject.

Subject Age in Number of
Months = = =
______ Utt Syl Q Vow Full Vow Can Syl Mar Syl
1 7 50 105 6 86 48 13
2 7 50 69 8 59 28 2
3 7 20 30 3 27 13 0
4 7 33 65 0 65 16 0
5 7 50 95 0 85 67 9
6 7 50 90 25 65 49 0
7 7 50 111 9 77 32 25
8 8 50 105 0 101 68 4
9 8 50 117 2 112 68 3
10 8 35 77 11 48 17 18
11 8 19 32 0 31 10 0
12 8 50 77 3 67 32 7
13 8 50 120 6 111 92 2
14 10 50 88 3 74 46 11
15 10 50 121 2 119 107 0
16 10 50 91 16 74 50 1
17 10 50 97 0 97 80 0
18 10 50 143 1 121 79 21
19 10 50 98 47 51 34 0
20 10 50 80 0 73 33 7
21 10 50 78 1 76 60 1
22 11 41 180 5 74 56 1
23 11 28 40 2 37 28 1
24 11 50 110 1 106 87 0
25 11 17 41 2 36 10 3









The average number of syllables per utterance was 2.01, indicating that most of

the syllables were not monosyllables. The number of canonical syllables used by

the taped subjects ranged from 10 to 107 with a mean of 48.40 and a standard

deviation of 27.483.

Each syllable contained one of four types of syllable nucleus: full vowel,

marginal vowel, quasivowel, or syllabic consonant. The numbers of occurrence of

the three types of vowels are included in Table 3-2. Quasivowels are partially

resonant "because the relatively closed vocal posture involved in production of the

sound fails to take advantage of the substantial potential of the vocal tract to

serve as a resonator" (Oller et al., 1985, pp. 52-53). The number of quasivowels

ranged from 0 to 47 with a mean of 6.12. Six subjects produced no syllables that

were perceived in this way, whereas some subjects used quasivowels quite fre-

quently. Marginal vowels are defined as vowels that have the characteristics of full

vowels without the perceptually recognized durations of formant transitions

(Oiler, 1986). Although the definition appears vague, Oiler and his associates

have demonstrated that they can be reliably recognized by listeners (Oller &

Eilers, 1988). Any syllable containing a marginal vowel is by definition a marginal

syllable. In the taped samples the number of marginal syllables ranged from 0 to

25 with a mean of 5.16. These were typically recognized by the transcribers as

being longer in duration than speech vowels or as having unusual slides into and

out of other syllables or silences.









The number of full vowels in the taped samples ranged from 27 to 121

with a mean of 74.88. Table 3-3 includes the inventory of vowels perceived by the

listeners for each taped subject. Note that this table does not indicate the fre-

quency with which each vowel was used. In addition, vowels that were clearly full

vowels but whose quality was not distinct were transcribed merely as Vowel (V).

The number of different vowels used by these subjects ranged from 5 to 11. The

relative frequency of each commonly used vowel can be seen in Figure 3-2.

Clearly, the most common vowel was /a/, 40% of the vowels used. Figure 3-3

indicates that 59% of the vowels were front vowels, 19% were central vowels, and

11% were back vowels.

All taped subjects used at least one or more recognizable consonants in

their speech samples. Table 3-4 includes the inventory of consonants perceived by

the listeners for each taped subject. As with the vowels reported above, this table

does not indicate the frequency with which each consonant was used. In addition,

sounds that were clearly produced by consonant-like constriction or obstruction

but were not distinct were transcribed merely as Consonant (C). Figure 3-4

indicates graphically the most commonly used consonants. The most frequent

consonants were /d/ and /?/, 20% and 18% respectively. In Figure 3-5 the conso-

nants have been categorized by manner of articulation, indicating that approxi-

mately half of the sample was made up of stops. When the consonants were

examined by place of articulation (Figure 3-6), it was seen that glottals were only









Inventory of identifiable vowels used by each taped subject


S Front Vowels Central Vowels Back Vowels Diphthongs
1 J,e,g, A_,_ O,._______
2 ,, UA .9 0U
3 i, ae A U
4 ,,A,a U______

6 A ,e,.A, U a,_____.____






10 te ,. AuD
11 0,e,e,. A,___0_______
12 A,)_ A, U, ., 3, a
13 4', /, e, Aa )u,_ ,a a___

14 ,e,, a,0____1a
15 a,, __O ,.
16 L,t, ge A,q U,)U, o__
17 L ,,e,e & A, 9u, U,O. a!
18 Li,,,A, ____u, 0, a t
19 te,ae. A _____. U, GL
20 -.qe. ,_9^____U ____
21. LS ,, _________ __,e__,,
22 i, e,, _____ U)_ UU, ,0,DOL ,i
23 /,3 L, dO.l ,____
24 ,e,e,g. Aq L uO ___,U
25 I ,e, A ,a LA, 0.


Table 3-3.






























A






Vowel


Other
i


Schwa


Percentage of occurrence of each vowel used by taped subjects.


Figure 3-2.
























Front


Back


Central V


Figure 3-3. Percentage of occurrence of each vowel type used by taped subjects.









Table 3-4. Inventory of identifiable consonants used by each taped subject.

Sub Stops Fricatives/Affricates Nasals Liq/Glides
1 d,? h n w,j
2 b, p, d, g,? h w
3 ? h m j
4 ? ________h wj
5 b, d, t, g, k, ? v,h w_,j___ w
6 p, d, g, k, ? h m,n w, 1,j
7 g, ? h n,r w, j
8 p, d, t, g, ? h n j
9 b, d, t, g, ? f, h m. n w,j
10 b,d,? h n J
11 b,d,? h I__ j
12 b, d, g,? h n w
13 b, p, d, g, k, ? h m,n w, l,j
14 d, t, k, ? h w, 1, j
15 b, p, d, t, g, k, ? h n w, j
16 b, d, g, k, ? 0, x, h n, w, 1, j
17 b, d, t, g, ? 3,, h, J n w,l,j
18 b, d, g, k, ? B, h m,n j
19 g, k, ? h m, n, ) w
20 b, d, t, g, k, ? x,h _____ w,j
21 d, t, g, k, ? h W_,___ wj
22 b, d, t, k, h h m w
23 b, d, g, k, ? h m w
24 b, d, t, g, k, ? h m,n w,j
25 d, g, ? h J
























Consonant


Other


Figure 3-4. Percentage of occurrence of each consonant used by taped subjects.
































Nasals

Glides/Liquids


Consonant


Fricatives


Figure 3-5.


Percentage of occurrence of each consonant manner used by taped
subjects.


Stops

























Dental/Alv.







\Consonant
Consonant


Figure 3-6.


77^ / Bilabial


Palatal/Velars


Percentage of occurrence of each consonant place used by taped
subjects.








52
slightly more common (30%) than the dental/alveolars (25%). It should be noted

that for purposes of determining canonical syllables, syllables with glottal conso-

nants at their margins are not considered to be canonical unless their is a "true

consonant" (place other than glottal) at the other margin (Oiler & Delgado,

1990). For example, /hu/ is not canonical, but /hubu/ would include two canonical

syllables.

Reliability

All tapes were transcribed by two trained observers, both of whom were

familiar with the transcription of children's speech. One of the transcribers had

experience with transcriptions of disordered speech and of other languages,

whereas the other transcriber was familiar with the speech of families such as

those included. One transcriber was involved with the recording of the samples

and coded some of the mouth movements of the infants, such as lip closure,

tongue position, and place of articulation during sound making. The relatively

speech-like utterances were narrowly transcribed using a modified version of the

International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), with modifications developed for tran-

scription of infant speech (Oiler & Delgado, 1990). The LIPP program (Oiler &

Delgado, 1990) used to input the transcriptions has been widely used for input

and analysis of infant speech. The transcribers worked independently and then

attempted to resolve differences. They were in agreement point to point on

approximately 80% of the utterances on the vocalic and consonantal parameters








53
of the infant vocalizations. The agreement level on reduplication sequences was

higher, surpassing the 90% level.












CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

The purpose of the present study was to examine the age of onset of

canonical babbling in infants who were environmentally at risk. Forty-one infants

in two groups, taped subjects and untaped subjects, were followed to determine

the number of children who began canonical babbling at each age between 6 and

12 months. About half of the 25 taped subjects began canonical babbling before

10 months of age, whereas the other half began canonical babbling after 10

months. About one-third of the 16 untaped subject were reported to have begun

canonical babbling before 10 months and about two-thirds after 10 months.

Comparison with Literature

Both Stark (1980) and Oiler (1980) agreed that the onset of canonical

babbling is clear and salient even to the unsophisticated listener. Infants seem to

say "bababa" or "dadada," and parents sometimes mistakenly think the baby has

actually learned to communicate with words. The infants in the current study were

clearly producing this type of utterance. The following examples illustrate

utterances produced by two of the subjects:

Subject 1, [wawaewawae], [dadaeda], and [hAhAhA];

Subject 8, [naenaena], [gAgAgA], and [dididi].







55
The listeners had little difficulty with the transcription after the initial orientation.

Although not all consonants and vowels could be put into clearly defined adult

phoneme categories, there was little disagreement as to whether a sound was a C

or V and whether these sounds composed a syllable.

Oiler (1980) and Stark (1980) also agreed that canonical or reduplicated

babbling, characterized by a series of consonant-vowel (CV) syllables with each

syllable perceived as being similar to every other, begins between the ages of 6

and 10 months. It resembles speech much more closely in its timing than the

vocal behaviors found in any previous stage of vocal development. Some instances

of quasiresonant nuclei-probably less than 10% (Oiler, 1980)-and marginal

vowels continue even after the onset of canonical babbling, however. This was

seen clearly in the following subjects:

Subject 14, [dQdQ] and [QCae];

Subject 16, [Qgugaga] and [Qqe].

Investigators have concluded that the onset of canonical babbling is

delayed in several populations. Oiler et al. (1985) and Oller and Eilers (1988)

have shown that deaf infants reach the onset of canonical babbling much later

than hearing infants. Smith and Oiler (1981) found a similar delay in the onset of

canonical babbling in Down syndrome children. Infants born preterm also appear

to be delayed in the onset of canonical babbling (Brown et al., 1986), although

the delay has not been consistently demonstrated in all studies of this population

(Menyuk et al., 1986). The infants in the current study were clearly delayed when









compared with the normally developing child. Well over half of them began to

babble after the expected age of 10 months.

One reason for undertaking this study of infants who were environmentally

at risk was that researchers have agreed that the later functioning of the

individual child is determined both by the child's constitution and by the specific

characteristics of the environment to which the child is exposed. The overall

predictive power of the environmental variables alone has been shown to be

considerably stronger than that of constitutional variables (Broman et al., 1975;

Caputo et al., 1981; Sameroff & Chandler, 1975; Sameroff, 1981). In fact, many of

the studies cited agreed that environmental variables are likely to constitute by far

the strongest influence on development from the early childhood years.

The Polk County, Oregon, program (Johnson, 1989) addressed the need

for monitoring the development of infants and young children designated as at-

risk, either biologically or environmentally. In Polk County the environmental

factors that created the greatest need for monitoring infants included: a high rate

of poverty, single parenthood, teen parents, suspect caregiver interaction,

parenting abilities, and unemployment. Families of the subjects in the current

study were found to have many of the same designated risk factors. Fifty-one

percent of the mothers were single parents, 62% were suspected to have a lack of

caregiver interaction, 77% were in parenting classes at their center and were

suspected to need improvement in parenting skills, and 80% of the families had a

fluctuating employment status.








57
Because of the current national statistics that indicate that one-quarter of

all babies born in the United States are born into poverty and one-fifth are born

to single parents, and because of the increasing number of unmarried teenagers

and women in the labor force (Walkins & Melnick, 1985), there is a need for

careful monitoring of speech and language development in various environments.

A large percentage of the infants in this study spend at least five days a week in

out-of-home care by non-relatives. In the present day care facilities for families,

19% of the day care providers have an eighth grade education or less and know

little about stimulating speech and language development of children (Walkins &

Melnick, 1985).

In this study the range of ages for canonical babbling was from 7 to 11

months. When looking at speech samples of these children and noting that the

normal onset of canonical babbling reported by researchers ranged from 6 to 10

months (Oiler, 1980; Stark, 1980), one sees a similar, but slightly older, range and

a tendency for the infants to fall at the upper end of this range. The possibility

that the older children in this study might have really begun babbling before

observations and that they might, in fact, be at a later stage of prespeech activity,

was explored. If this had been the case, it was assumed that their canonical

babbling ratios would have been higher than those of the children who were

found to begin babbling earlier. To confirm this a Pearson Product Moment

correlation coefficient was used to determine the strength of the relationship

between age in months and the canonical babbling ratio. It was found that there







58
was little relationship between these two measures-r = .33-indicating that the

canonical babbling ratio was only very weakly related to age. The older subjects

were not likely to have higher ratios than the younger subjects.

The actual samples of the infants in this study were examined to compare

them with those seen by other researchers. If they were more varied or included a

higher level of vocalization than those described in the literature as being typical

of the onset of babbling, it might be suspected that they had passed this point

prior to observation. In fact, these infants from 7 to 11 months of age produced

samples of vocalization that were very similar to those described for children from

6 to 9 months of age. These characteristics included a predominance of full vowel

nuclei with approximately 10% of syllables still containing quasivowels, a frequent

use of front and back vowel, and the use of strings of similar CV(s). Previous

research would predict that a normal 11-month-old would use complex babbling

strings with varied consonants and full vowels for almost all syllables (variegated

babbling). This was not the case for even the oldest children in this study (11

months). Their sample had the timing, intonation, vowel nuclei, more frequent

use of quasivowels, and the frequent use of the glottal stop and [h] expected in a

normal child within the range of 6 to 10 months. These infants were capable of

considerable variation in vocalization and various sound types, however. The

consonants were identified as stops, fricatives, nasals, and glides. The vowels used

were primarily the front and central vowels with some back vowels also included.









Implications

Some of the infants in this study were clearly babbling at the normal age,

whereas some of them were delayed. It was interesting that the samples of the

taped infants appeared to fall into two age groups with little or no overlap

between the groups. Some children babbled within the age range in which they

would have been expected to start babbling, and some children did not. It is

possible that there were, in fact, two different types of infants included, separated

by some unknown variable that might have predicted the late onset of babbling in

over half of them. If this factor were lacking in the younger group, it would be

important to isolate it to allow prediction in other populations. The use of parent

and caregiver reports to cue the examiner to come and observe the babbling

might be suspected as a source of variation. Possibly some parents and caregivers

are better judges and make more accurate listeners. Oiler (1980), however,

reported that an evaluation of parental opinions about babbling behavior was

relatively accurate even though the names of the babbling behaviors would differ.

In fact, most of the reported studies of the onset of babbling have relied on such

reports. Subjects whose parents indicated that they were not babbling at the initial

phase of the study were followed by the examiner to confirm their mothers'

opinions, and in no case was babbling actually observed by the examiner. It was

also possible to reliably confirm the other case, in which mothers might have

reported babbling when none was occurring. If babbling could not be confirmed

by the examiner, it was not credited.









Two other factors were also explored to determine if the younger groups

appeared to be different than the older group. Because one risk factor cited by

other research is the number of persons in the home, a Pearson's Product

Moment correlation coefficient was computed to examine the relationship

between age and number in the home. The r of -.04 indicates no relationship

between these two measures at all. Clearly the number of persons in the home

did not distinguish between the older and younger subjects. The percentage of

single mothers within each group was computed and was found to be 42% in the

younger group as compared with 77% in the older group. This factor might have

been responsible for some of the difference in age of canonical babbling of the

older group of children.

If, as indicated by these results, some at-risk infants (possibly those with

single parents) do begin babbling later than would be expected in normal

children, and if, as indicated in the literature, such a delay in babbling has an

effect on later speech and language development, identification and intervention

with this group is imperative. Those infants who are clearly at risk on one or

more factors should be enrolled in programs including early stimulation of vocal

play. Language stimulation training for day care workers and for the parents of

such infants should also be included. Several of the parents in this study were

already enrolled in parenting classes. However, scores on two of the risk measures

indicated showed needs in this area. The Observation of Communicative

Interaction-OCI (Klein & Briggs, 1986) results (Appendix A) indicated that








61
about one-quarter of the parents were rated as Sometimes on one or more of the

three questions pertaining to encouraging communication:

7. Encourages "conversation,"

9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues from infant, and

10. Uses communication to teach language and concepts.

In addition, 15% scored in the lower 25% on the Home Inventory (Birth to 3)

subscale of maternal involvement with child.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Study

Several factors were considered to be strengths of this study. Although

multiple risk factors were considered, there were families in all of the risk

categories rather than in just one or two. The examiners were familiar with the

kinds of programs in which the infants were enrolled, and had the opportunity to

follow the taped subjects very closely, taping several sessions with the babies when

needed. Very good tape recorders and microphones were used, yielding samples

that were generally very clear and easy to transcribe. However, the sensitivity of

the microphones sometimes caused difficulty because other extraneous noises

were also picked up. The same protocol was closely followed for all taped subjects

to control for factors such as time between identification and taping.

After listening to the canonical babbling tape the mothers really started to listen

to their babies and reported almost daily to the day care workers what was

happening. The day care workers also developed a keen ear for babbling.









Some weaknesses were also identified. The testing environments were in

home and day care centers, and sometimes the tapes were noisy. The low noise

toys sometimes created more noise than expected for some babies, depending on

their level of activity. Families, including other children, sometimes talked or

competed for attention with the babies during testing, and mothers sometimes

tried to force babies to babble. On some occasions, the examiner talked while the

infant was babbling which made some portions of the transcription difficult to

transcribe.

At risk families often relocate, and many of the babies dropped out of the

study before tapings could be done. Families implied cooperation but were not

always cooperative. With the child abuse issues being highly publicized, many

families would not let a stranger test and follow their babies. And finally, because

an African American woman was doing the study many Caucasian families would

not participate.

Need for Further Research

There is a need for further research with larger numbers of subjects,

especially among the 11-month-olds. More taped sample would confirm that

canonical babbling really begins at this age in children such as these. This

population is a fast growing population and needs the early stimulation. Further

studies might validate the effect of such stimulation on the age of onset of

babbling. This type of research would help decide what areas of concentration

would be needed in such early stimulation. Assessment teams are now more









transdisciplinary, and speech-language pathologist working with the younger

population often is asked to determine whether or not an infant is at risk. Further

studies such as this, will help to pinpoint some of the possible factors to consider

in determining the communication risk of infants. For example, the age of onset

of reduplicated babbling may be an indicator for word production.

Conclusions

In summary, the results of this study indicate include several conclusions

about the onset of canonical babbling.

1. The range of age at onset of canonical babbling for environmentally at-risk

infants range was higher than the normal range.

2. More than half of the infants (54%) began to babble at 10 months or later,

even though normal infants typically begin before 10 months.

3. Almost half of the infants (46%), however, were with the normal range of

onset.

4. The sounds produced by these children follow the patterns reported for

children who babble in the normal range.

5. There appear to be more single mothers among the group of children who

begin to babble late than among the group who babble early.

























APPENDIX A
SUBJECT PROFILES







Subject # 1, CA: 7 months, Sex: M
Mother: 26, 2 years of college, married
Father: 29, high school
CA of Brothers: 3
CA of Sisters: none
People in Home: 4
Site: Day Care Center
Number of Ear Infections: none

Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Optimally
Optimally
Often
Optimally
Often
Sometimes
Often

Sometimes
Often


Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Upper 10%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory

Raw Score Age Equivalent in Months
26 7
24 9









Subject # 2, CA: 7 months, Sex: F
Mother: 30, 2 years of college, married
Father: 33, 1 year of college
CA of Brothers: none
CA of Sisters: 3
People in Home: 4
Site: Home day care program
Number of Ear Infections: none

Test Name: Observation of Communicati

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


'e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Often
Often
Often
Optimally
Often
Often
Often

Sometimes
Often


Subscales
Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
Maternal Involvement with Child
Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Upper 25%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
25
24
34
14
16
113


Age Equivalent
6
9
8
6
8
8









Subject # 3, CA: 7 months, Sex: F
Mother: 28, high school education, married
Father: 26, high school education
CA of Brothers: none
CA of Sisters: none
People in Home: 3
Site: Day care
Number of Ear Infections: none


Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Optimally
Often
Optimally
Often
Often
Sometimes
Often

Sometimes
Sometimes


Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Upper 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Middle 50
Lower 25%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
26
24
33
14
16
113


Age Equivalent
7
9
8
6
8
8









Subject # 4, CA: 7 months, Sex: M
Mother: 23, high school education, single
Father: 36, high school education
CA of Brothers: 4
CA of Sisters: 2
People in Home: 4
Site: Family home
Number of Ear Infections: none


Test Name: Observation of Communica\

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues


from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)

Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


tive Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Often
Sometimes
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often

Often
Sometimes


Percentile
Upper 10%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
28
19
35
12
14
108


Age Equivalent
8
7
9
5
7
7









Subject # 5, CA: 7 months, Sex: M
Mother: 21, 9th Grade, single
Father: 19, education unknown
CA of Brothers: none
CA of Sisters: none
People in Home: 3
Site: Family home
Number of Ear Infections: none

Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Often
Often
Sometimes
Often
Sometimes
Sometimes
Often
Often

Sometimes
Sometimes


Subscales
Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
Maternal Involvement with Child
Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Middle 50%
Lower 10%
Middle 50%
Lower 10%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
25
18
35
12
16
106


Age Equivalent
6
6
9
5
8
7









Subject # 6, CA: 7 months, Sex: F
Mother: 19, high school education, single
Father: 19, high school education
CA of Brothers: none
CA of Sisters: none
People in Home: 6
Site: Family home
Number of Ear Infections: none

Test Name: Observation of Communica

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant


tive Interaction (OCI)


10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)

Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Scores
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Sometimes
Often
Often

Sometimes
Often


Percentile
Upper 10%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
24
20
29
14
14
101


Age Equivalent
6
7
7
6
7
7









Subject # 7, CA: 7 months, Sex: M
Mother: 25, some college, married
Father: 26, some college
CA of Brothers: 1, 2
CA of Sisters: none
People in Home: 4
Site: Day care center
Number of Ear Infections: 1


Test Name: Observation of Communica

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant


10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)

Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


tive Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Sometimes
Often

Often
Often


Percentile
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Lower 10%


Battelle Developmental Inventory

Raw Score Age Equivalent
25 6
19 7









Subject # 8, CA: 8 months, Sex: M
Mother: 41, high school education, married
Father: 41, high school education
CA of Brothers: 13
CA of Sisters: 12, 5
People in Home: 6
Site: Church day care
Number of Ear Infections: none

Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often

Optimally
Often


Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory

Raw Score Age Equivalent
25 6
24 9
41 10
17 8
16 8
123 9









Subject # 9, CA: 8 months, Sex: F
Mother: 32, college, married
Father: 41, technical School
CA of Brothers: 3 (only talking in single words)
CA of Sisters: none
People in Home: 4
Site: Day care
Number of Ear Infections: none

Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Optimally
Optimally
Optimally
Often
Often
Often
Often

Optimally
Optimally


Subscales
Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
Maternal Involvement with Child
Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Upper 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
26
20
46
16
18
126


Age Equivalent
7
7
11
7
10
9









Subject # 10 CA: 8 months, Sex: M
Mother: 25, high school education, single
Father: 28, education unknown
CA of Brothers: 6
CA of Sisters: none
People in Home: 3
Site: Family home
Number of Ear Infections: none


Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Often
Often
Often
Often
Sometimes
Often
Often
Often

Sometimes
Often


Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Middle 50%
Lower 10%
Lower 10%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
24
22
31
15
16
108


Age Equivalent
6
8
7
6
8
7









Subject # 11, CA: 8 months, Sex: F
Mother: 29, high school education, married
Father: 35, high school education
CA of Brothers: 14, 13, 6
CA of Sisters: 15, 14, 9
People in Home: 9
Site: Family Services Center
Number of Ear Infections: none


Test Name:


Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)

Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Scores
Optimally
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often


Often
Often


Percentile
Upper 25%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
25
22
30
15
16
108


Age Equivalent
6
8
7
6
8
7


Observation of Communicative Interaction (OCI)









Subject # 12 CA: 8 months, Sex: M
Mother: 26, high school education, married
Father: 27, high school education
CA of Brothers: none
CA of Sisters: 8, 4
People in Home: 5
Site: Family home
Number of Ear Infections: 1

Test Name: Observation of Communica

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant


10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)

Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


tive Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often

Often
Often


Percentile
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
26
19
29
17
15
106


Age Equivalent
7
7
7
8
8
7









Subject # 13 CA: 8 months, Sex: F
Mother: 41, 10th grade, single
Father: 41, unknown education
CA of Brothers: 14, 13, 9, 7, 5, 3
CA of Sisters: 17, 11
People in Home: 10
Site: Family Services Center
Number of Ear Infections: none


Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Sometimes
Often

Optimally
Sometimes


Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Middle 50%
Lower 10%
Lower 25%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory

Raw Score Age Equivalent
26 7
21 8
30 7
16 7
15 8
108 7









Subject # 14 CA: 10 months, Sex: M
Mother: 19, 11th grade, single
Father: 21, 11th grade
CA of Brothers: none
CA of Sisters: 4
People in Home: 4
Site: Family home
Number of Ear Infections: none
------. .. ------ ------------
Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often

Optimally
Often


Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
28
26
35
17
17
123


Age Equivalent
8
10
9
8
9
9









Subject # 15 CA: 10 months, Sex: M
Mother: 31, some college, married
Father: 32, high school education
CA of Brothers: none
CA of Sisters: 5
People in Home: 6
Site: Home day care
Number of Ear Infections: none

Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Often
Often
Often
Optimally
Often
Often
Optimally

Optimally
Often


Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory

Raw Score Age Equivalent
35 10
25 10
36 9
18 9
18 10
132 10









Subject # 16 CA: 10 months, Sex: F
Mother: 23, high school, single
Father: 24 high school education
CA of Brothers: none
CA of Sisters: none
People in Home: 3
Site: Home day care
Number of Ear Infections: none


Test Name: Observation of Communica

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant


10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)

Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


tive Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Sometimes
Often

Often
Often


Percentile
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
33
27
36
17
19
132


Age Equivalent
10
10
10
8
11
10









Subject # 17 CA: 10 months, Sex: F
Mother: 21, high school, single
Father: 26, high school education
CA of Brothers: none
CA of Sisters: 4
People in Home: 4
Site: Day care center
Number of Ear Infections: none


Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Often
Often
Often
Optimally
Often
Often
Optimally

Optimally
Often


Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
35
25
36
18
18
132


Age Equivalent
10
10
9
9
10
10









Subject # 18 CA: 10 months, Sex: F
Mother: 16, 11th. grade, single
Father: 19, 12th grade
CA of Brothers: none
CA of Sisters: none
People in Home: 6
Site: Family service center
Number of Ear Infections: 1

Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Often
Often
Optimally
Optimally
Often
Often
Optimally

Optimally
Often


Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%


Battelle Developmental Inventory

Raw Score Age Equivalent
37 11


a









Subject # 19 CA: 10 months, Sex: M
Mother: 26, some college, single
Father: 26 high school education
CA of Brothers: 4
CA of Sisters: none
People in Home: 4
Site: Family home
Number of Ear Infections: 1

Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Often
Often
Often
Often
Sometimes
Often
Ofen

Often
Often


Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Middle 50%
Lower 10%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
33
25
38
18
18
132


Age Equivalent
10
10
10
9
10
10









Subject # 20 CA: 10 months, Sex: M
Mother: 27, working on GED, single
Father: 24, education unknown
CA of Brothers: 1, 6
CA of Sisters: none
People in Home: 3
Site: Family services center
Number of Ear Infections: none

Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Often
Often
Often
Optimally
Often
Often
Often

Sometimes
Often


Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Middle 50%
Lower 10%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
34
24
37
18
19
132


Age Equivalent
10
9
9
9
11
10









Subject # 21: 10 months, Sex: M
Mother: 28, high school, married
Father: 27, high school education
CA of Brothers: 10, 2
CA of Sisters: none
People in Home: 5
Site: Home day care
Number of Ear Infections: none

Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Often
Often
Often
Optimally
Optimally
Optimally
Optimally

Optimally
Often


Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
36
25
40
19
19
139


Age Equivalent
11
10
10
10
11
10









Subject # 22 CA: 11 months, Sex: M
Mother: 29, high school, married
Father: 33, high school education
CA of Brothers: 4
CA of Sisters: 11 months (twin with Down syndrome), 9
People in Home: 6
Site: Home day care
Number of Ear Infections: 1


Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often

Optimally
Often


Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
35
25
44
19
18
141


Age Equivalent
10
10
11
10
10
10









Subject # 23 CA: 11 months, Sex: F
Mother: 26, some college, married
Father: unknown, education unknown
CA of Brothers: none
CA of Sisters: none
People in Home: 4
Site: Day care center
Number of Ear Infections: 1

Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Often
Often
Sometimes
Often
Often
Sometimes
Often

Often
rarely/never


Subscales
Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
Maternal Involvement with Child
Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Middle 50%
Lower 10%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
35
25
45
18
18
141


Age Equivalent
10
10
11
9
10
10









Subject # 24 CA: 11 months, Sex: M
Mother: 21, high school, single
Father: 23, high school education
CA of Brothers: none
CA of Sisters: none
People in Home: 5
Site: Family home
Number of Ear Infections: none

Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Optimally
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often

Sometimes
Sometimes


Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
35
25
40
18
18
136


Age Equivalent
10
10
10
9
10
10









Subject # 25 CA: 11 months, Sex: M
Mother: 27, some college, single
Father: age and education unknown
CA of Brothers: none
CA of Sisters: 3
People in Home:
Site: Family home
Number of Ear Infections: none


Test Name:


Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)

Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Scores
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often


Sometimes
Often


Percentile
Middle 50%
Lower 10%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
35
29
42
18
19
143


Age Equivalent
10
11
10
9
11
11


Observation of Communicative Interaction (OCI)









Subject # 26 CA: 8 months, Sex: M
Mother: 25, working on GED, married
Father: 59, education unknown
CA of Brothers: 1
CA of Sisters: 5
People in Home: 4
Site: Family services center
Number of Ear Infections: 2

Test Name: Observation of Communicativ

Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)


e Interaction (OCI)


Scores
Often
Often
Often
Often
Optimally
Often
Often
Optimally

Often
Sometimes


Subscales
Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
Maternal Involvement with Child
Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Percentile
Middle 50%
Lower 10%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
25
24
41
17
16
123


Age Equivalent
6
9
10
8
8
9









Subject # 27 CA: 8 months, Sex: M
Mother: 23, some college, single
Father: 25, high school education
CA of Brothers: none
CA of Sisters: 5
People in Home: 2
Site: Home day care
Number of Ear Infections: none


Test Name:


Question
1. Appropriate tactile/kinesthetic stimulation
2. Pleasure during mother/infant interaction
3. Responds to child's distress
4. Positions self to allow eye contact
5. Smiles contingently at infant
6. Varies prosodic features
7. Encourages "conversation"
8. Responds contingently to infant
9. Modifies interaction in response to negative cues
from infant
10. Uses communication to teach language & concepts

Test Name: Home Inventory (Birth to 3)

Subscales
I. Emotional & Verbal Responsivity of Mother
II. Avoidance of Restriction & Punishment
III. Organization of Physical & Temporal Environment
IV. Provision of Appropriate Play Materials
V. Maternal Involvement with Child
VI. Opportunities for Variety in Daily Stimulation


Test Name:

Domain
Personal-Social
Adaptive
Motor
Communication
Cognitive
BDI Total Score


Scores
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often
Often

Often
Often


Percentile
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%
Lower 25%
Lower 25%
Middle 50%


Battelle Developmental Inventory


Raw Score
26
19
29
17
15
106


Age Equivalent
7
7
7
8
8
7


Observation of Communicative Interaction (OCI)