Panama Canal treaties (United States Senate debate), 1977-78

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Title:
Panama Canal treaties (United States Senate debate), 1977-78
Physical Description:
3 volumes (xiv, 5964 pages) : ; 23 cm
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on the Judiciary. -- Subcommittee on Separation of Powers
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O. :
For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Panama Canal Treaties   ( lcsh )
Panama Canal Treaties (1977)   ( fast )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate.
General Note:
At head of title: 95th Congress. Committee print.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 08305549
lccn - 81602951
ocm08305549
Classification:
lcc - JX1398.73 .P36
ddc - 341.4/46/02667307287
System ID:
AA00025653:00001

Full Text









Congress COMMITTEE PRINT






PANAMA CANAL TREATIES [UNITE STATES SENAtt DEBATE]






ITREPARAD) BY THE

()1( PARAIONOF POWERS" nd OF THE

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY"
treUNITED STATES SENATE

our PR
JT













ll JANUARY 12 17TIIBU.FEBRUARY 24 1978












Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
29488 OWASHINGTON : 1978
AwSl yteSprnedn fDcmet ..Gvrmn rnigOfc







WmlgoDC 00


























EDWARD M. MqNIM Mu&= BIRCH BAYH, U bvm, ROBERT Q BYRD, W r JMM A )UREM* tk4Wft
JAUZ$ Pi I
-A I
JOSEMA "Iji f
JOHN C. CULVM I"a H AIRD IL OW AM u2m, Vwohio
DENlMDm00NC4qL Arik" PAUL G. oil

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ROBMC ."BYM, ved Villow JAIMM 0. RAMAN








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LETTER OF TRANSMITIVAL

U.S. SENATE,
COMMMEM ON THE JUDICIARY,
SUBCOMM 014 SEPARATION OF POWERS,
Washington, D.C, December 1, 1978.
Hon. JAmw 0. EASTLAND,
Chawnai4 Committee on the Judiciary, UA Senate,
Washington, D.C.
Dwm MR. CHAIRmAN: At the direction of the late c rman of the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers, Senator James B. Allen of Alabama, I respectfally submit on behalf of the subcommittee the following t1hree-volume compilation of Panama Canal Treaty debates and related, -material consolidated from the records of the 95th Congress..
As you particularly through your close hip
late S aat ws our.chairman felt very strongly that the debate of these treat ies was perhaps the most significant national decision fac' our, oun during this decade, and he expended great personal energyan. tbLought during consideration of all aspects of the proposed.cetwon of the Canal Zone to the Republic of Panama. In direeting this consolidation of the Senate debate, Senator Allen hoped to ]provide a single, major source document for future research y historians'and for convenient use by the Congress in the continuing review of this issue-a review which will undoubtedly be resumed in the immediate future in connection with proposed
to authorize and implement the treaties. In my judgment, this, work will well serve that intended purpose and will prove valuable to future generations in enabling an accurate understanding of wbat actually transpired during this important time in the his of the United States and of the U.S. Senate.
ni kindest regard% I am
Very respectfully,
QUENTIN CROMMEIM, Jr.,
Chief Counsel and Staff Director, S -ubcommittee on Separation of Pbu)ers-











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'7C 0 N T E N T S



RESOLUTIONS, AMENDNENT-S, AND RESERVATIONS
Page
1 (b ole) ...... ............................................................................................................... 229
le) .......... ....................................... F ... ..................... ...................................... 229
............................................. ........................... .................... ....................... 229
01 ........................................ ........ ......... I ........ ........................... 230
5 (Dole) ................... ........... ........ ................... ...... k ....................... ..... 230
............ ............... ......... 230
........... ........ pi. .. ..... ........
7 W e ...................................................... .. ............. 0, ... ................................. 532
............................................................................................................ t .......
*Z .............................................................. I ................................. ...................... 760
4 11"W e) ........................................... ........... W-, ..................... 760
;*"4"12 ... ................................................................................................ 760
13 ......... ...... ....... .... . ............................................... 764
14 ............. : ................................................................................................. 765
V, P ole) .................................... 902
.. ..... .........................................
Atth) ............... .............. . ............ .. .................................... 906
.............................. . .................. 912
dt (ff atch) ......................................................................... ............ ........................... 945
-v11'
,19 I[Hatch),.....,,., ........ ................................ .s ............... .................. 975
29 M abert ....................................... 1029
............................................. ....... ...
21 Olbbeft Byrd) ............................................................................................ .......... 1029
"2 tt), ....... o&- ...... ............ ................ .... ............................... 1289
29 tt ............................... ................................................................... ................. 1389
'30 E ve ... I ............ ...... .......... ........... . .......... ....... ..... & ............. 1299
31 (D6Cond niY ................... .... ...................... 1391
.1392
(Allbn) ........... .............................. ................... .... ....................... 1575
........... ....... ......... 7 ........ ................. ? ....... ..... 1660
-C .. .......................... ......
M atch).... .................................................. 0 ........ ........................ 1660'
-37 (fffi t,&h).* ................................................................ ....... ................... ........ 1660.
"38 M atch) ........... ....................................... q? .......... "... .......... -.6. ................ 1660
................. ............ ........ 4 .. ...
39 (1-1atch) ...... ............. 1660 ,
.40 (Allen) ......................................................... ...................... ............................. 1 739
41 e 144* .......... . ; .... . .......................................... ..... 1739
42
(]H[aich): .......................................................................................................
43 (13artlettY ...... ...... P.6 ... ........ ............ o ............ ..
...... % ........ Tt ......... 230
le) ................. ........ ............
-'2 (Dole) ................... .................................................................. 230
01 3 (IN . ......... .............. ..... ..... 1866
4 (Bartlett) .................................. .... ...... ........... ........... 1869
$f,1444, *a bill' to prdvide that the U.S. Canal Zone shall be reprewuW by a .........................
td the House'of RepresehtaWeis...- -4 4
. ...................... .......... . . ... ............
t incotpotaung inartiae rv of the Neutrality Treaty the ri" of..
set forth in CaTtek-To"Uos joint statement ....

J
.... ... ... .. A VIZ
L, 0:: 'K. A



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i i i


A da m sii H on.................................................................2.




Alexanderi~~iiiiiii, ...... Clifod.......ar.o.te.rm................................2.
Aii~lle ,S n t rJ me .............................................I 2 ,M
ArgnMs.Rs MrePnaain omite o umnRihs ...... 7
ias r.Anlflstcntiuioa reieio h)Rpblco Pnra_ 3

Barletta,~ MiitrNcls/ /io.......... T
Baleta D. icla Adto Panin .... 0
Ba tll o er .,Lb rt L bb ........ ........*. ........ 5
Bager etrVicnt i;n 9& ...........................i

BamnHn RbrtE........ .. 4.........
Baxer.McbardR.,HarardUniers
ell, H on efnBAtre eeni|a-m--o-Y
iedteKr omrUdrSceayo h ryadCara
Paam anlCopay..........................4
......*'****"'" ...... **........

Begr Rol poeso cnsiuioa xpr) ..........................i
Beth an o r ,Es o a ........................ .... ,4 T S
BoeiiiilhmKneh on mrcn o ...
Brnes lyM, neraioa esachAsoitin..................... 0
Brw, e. erg .,UAF haran oitChes fStf .......... 6
Br w o a ol S cear f een e.................................
Bu krio .E l w r h..................a.......................
By d en t rRo e tC ..................................................
Ca a on iiznR prsn atv s.......................................... i
Ca e en t rClfo d .................................................... 2
CaeHwr|. euyAssatSceayfrMrtm
Depatmet ............|
Chisohr on arn "3











Io.William J., U'4 masao to Panama ... .................................. .. 287
A ~h- IO ..u ...:<.0 .a....a...... ......................................... ....... 493

Senator Paul e .Se.c.ret.a.r....of............ .. a ....m............................ I-.................. 37
afdWak wa tin div rsiy'.............................................. 793
ob r & ........ ........... ............. ........... ...... ....................... 36
M C smilfofA~p id .,..::.....................L..................... 713
1 ...in 2:>. ::.:s.. ................ ...... ...................... ........ ...... 4 31
.Rene C., Central antSouth, America National Maritime Uion. ..... 506 C aski .(i...d..t i8.1 .....:................................................ 1 6
Deano, Puerto Rico Demoeratic Party .............,:......... 5
BriMratsm, FA Woodft**riso Cafer ................... ....43
IA,Gen. D. P., Commande in Chief, U.S., Ifou r a 1... 262
st W rid aa her ....;.,s..a;....... :.e...... ........................... ... ...... ........: 8
H on. Larry P ..sv.s.... .................................... ...... ......................... 39
Archbishop Marcos, of Panama ... ...................... ....... ................ .... 193.5
.8,,t eadJOhich orbeflathren .t........ .. w..................................... 473
Alad Gn.J., HA Annmy (Reserves), Reserve Offcer Assciaio ......... 549
/Unied!B andsWed..,a........................................................... 4
A daha Nrton, Uiversit of-Vigini ............................................. 1
AlleS~~~~ ThmsHUS ayrtrd......................... ....................... 421, 927
A dm.Tho as ....................................................................... ... .... 87
M sach ts H .....tute ...f.. Technology...... . .................... 79
thtidoge:Fe;'MMA*Rmetseardh G oup cooo ............................... ...... ........... 89
4John M .......d..........G.oup ........ ... ..o...................... ........... ......... 38
pol ~ ~~ ......t. ofPdf~ss ......................:.................... 85
ignieTTAGhirsherf th Canl Zoe ....: ....... .... ... ................... 835
14 ~~~~~~ ~~~ UiestefPn ylai................................................... 919
Iteritai,'A~e~rcan etcuityCounil ....:.......................... .... 51
5 .0n ve s~ e(.. ....i.......... ........ .......... ................... ..... ..... ... 5619
ME r.. 4 ......i'Aii:.......... ........................ ........ 306
Jam s ,.meica.Isttue.o. M rc an Shippin ................... 86
tia n ..J ~ i.:. .... .... .v .. ..; .e>. .... .... ........ .... ... ....................................... 1 4

How ~l O................a t...s... ........ ..... ............................. 86

Joh Free American Constilt f World Fedm............................... 506
*Senaor HadrednH*,alvil..1:..., a.. ....... .............. ................ .... ..........:. 7 5
Sen to W i ik t L~v:..: .:'t.........; .............................. ............... .......... 378
at...o.Wl ..if ofVriaonP am trp......86..
cel.Mohn~. IIsainlAocainfrUione cs............................ .....
th~lvin Andriim Asinhtih d Por Auhortie .. .......................:.... 58
Densis, UA Lab Part..... ...................... 4......................... .. 55
Ite Fhrl-s Amrican ..n..l.....,...rld .....ed.m.... ..........t.................. 541

.v.........v. ....................... ...;....... v:..........:.......... .............. 300
Ga ne l .ti..:. ... J. .......e....................... ...,......... .......... 8
awin prkofsr Ar11 i fta OAMiveriy naa .......................:..... ... 4
T Rihard Ul$ Cnnei.....:....................................... 85
Dr.W imP, NSatiolt Couci of CAmhurghee... .................,...:. 46
S&W Be O~bti Ltfab ..............li ........................ :._1.. 2
T Seneralw~...i................:............................. ........ 31

VH n ,o S at .. ........ ....... ............. ....... ..... .... .. .



Jry, Na (rtird) o, .. ... ...................
1:..... ...... sk.........d .q *:T vil o: ea ..... f L








ARTICIM AND EDITORIAIB
"he Bahauf(anal--Columbian Discuages Its Operation", by ollow A.r i l, Stte, Ciluambia, 8 .......................
"CanGallar~id Ont Is Named ForAryM ineFomS." p.
"Carter hanfiat la Ruled Subjct To Con~ict Qarbe, ter.40blame
W ashington Post ........................................... ..................... .. a..nu gu s
*Iqw Could UptkFM Panama Talks", by Jack Andrso an Ia.EdtaM-a
"Pnm PasIntense Publicity Effort .To P~ush New Treaty" by aen-01814ne dorfer, Washmngton" P s ... .............,.--v--- -,...-wJ ,a
"Panama Canal Vital to US. Iterest",by HasnW. BaldwinWatoowap Sunday Republican .......... ..... ..,..:v........ ....swa s
"becsion on Canal's utratHland", byF Hanson W. 1redwin, WIae"agrnt
Su nday y epu bli can ........... ....,......... .,- ............ .. ,. td&AM
"Britain Once Ruled Se ad o us pprove Panama Transer, Mr B+eanm&anH in
Wettern, London Daily Telegraph ........................................ ..........aJ4.. 4
Ha -a neoeTreaty .................. ..................ak d.,r. A IM
"Panama Reaped Huge Benefits from the anal"1, ,byRe6 rie cuai.
in Media, New York Timesm............ .. .....A.r .........J..w .eM
"Dredging in the Panama Canal" by Maj. RobertL.HrdnOusaf
Eng in eers8, U.S. Army ................. ..............................a..,:e......J
Letter to the Editor, Christian Science Monitor, -from Dontald:-M. Damer, < professor, University of California ............. ............................ ...,.w ..
"Canal Talks: Back To Bargaining", Christian Science Monitor J..d..e.. "Defeanse Department Calls Canal 'Defenibe ", by VirginiaPrewettr Hemiv< oM
sphere Hotline Report ..............................................................ne.m...(efA
"A Panama Summary", by John J. Ke "Panama Canal Giveaway Violates. ConstiutOn", by Orrin G.OC1 Hach, 0r JYfsls q
tive Digest.... ......... ...............................- .......a.........~... "In National Public OpInion Refrenum .S.Public ClaeyDiiddfet10
Panama Treaty; 39 Percent, Approve;, 46 Piercen D isap",bGoe
Gallup ........................................................................ ....................................... .e..
'"The Canal Terms, Argued From Different Premises, by Paidula B,9aAdtr
York Tim es ....................... ........ ....... .... .. .. ... ., ,
"The Case Against the Canal Treatieis", by Philip GrnWAshingtonauk "The Alternative to the Carter Proposals", by Jesse Helms, Washington Poeha,4e "Out on a Limb", by Tom Wicker, New Yor ie...,...............d
"The Paunaa Canal: Soverigns"ty and decuity, by Hianson WBldi;AWE
Defense Review .............................................................................................a I.
"Using the Chiefs", editorial, Army Times ..........................................a
"Guantanamo Surrender Next", by John, Chamberin,4. Jacksoeville~ I10at
Tim es-Union ................................ ............... .......rm .. ....a. . "Communists Welcome Panama Canal Treaty" by Henry 4, TAylo 1..... 4...~ "Conservation Support"', by Emmett B. Ford, Jr. WahntnPe.....s... "Panama Canal Issue", Clervelan Pr-;reponse byReedL IrylQAN ....ase.. "Senate Remains SetclAbout Panama Canal Treaty", Humwaventl-i ..ts

Goehko, Wash'igtion Post .......................... ................................i.2. ..a a R
"Dole Says U.S. Cable Shows Differences With. Panama, on, Treatid~WAlW .4firhd
Graham Hovey, New York Tms................. ,s....a..m..wdTt
Letter from Dale Bell'to Edtor, Lawrence Bev Nation'sCete4aw.co
Buffalo, S. Dak, with response ... I........ .......................... .... ................-----.--am
"Canal Toll Plan Sours Lykes Chief---Support for Pact ropped a usdTln ds
Increase, by Anita Schrodt, Journal. of Commerce.....s-. -.......... vat0$1
'Tanama Canal Treaty", editorial, Day Dispatch, Moline, Ill,.....- .....ddT
"United States Indicted Brother of Torrq-ijeSoreiJuteDpttndsrT
Sa s" Wqehington Star ......................- ..............,..dk
"House Member Charges Narcotics Smugghng' Inquiry TouchesA3FW 1Hgee s t
els' of Panama Government", by Benjamin Wel, New Yoim
"Panama- Torrijoe Returns, Ss Nothing Sind in, Waisingtn"* Freg
Informatio roadcast Service .... .................. ..... ..a....a.. s:.: 5
",Gen. Omar Torri Denies Signig New oaa he" Washingto Pot...A..If "Scare Talk and teCanal", by Roger W. Fontaine, Wall StetJournal....a 1 "Harris Survey- Why Public Rjcsthe Canal Pacte hy Iami Hards, ChicaoWT
Tribune ....................................... . ... ...........c ..d ... O 6 5
"The Panama Canal. Who'll PvThe FreigIbt?", by Jose d S. Helewicz and JameiA.ii.,iin
iiiiiiiiIiiiiCa albyRoind n G ee vll N w 1





ix

P '' YnalTraty' b EdidWarner, Time.Mgzn 2
dod eeft ba fanrs, yLAure So U, e ....... ....................... ........................................................... ....... 62
jr Are Enhanced By- Inomtin"b George GAWsigo
...... ..... ........ ... ................................... ........... ......... ... as
-fra nmPanamna TeAeiasWoOperate America'i Canal", by i Us. ]Industrial Council ................... .... !...........1......... ....................... 636
BiisftPaam",byJacohe, Indianawpolis News _.._... 6 57
tie h~nt rety;by W F. BclyJ. asigo
..... ...., .... ... .... ............. .......................... ... ............... ... ........... ............ 658
TheY'na,"byAnha yHkrigan ....... ..... ................-.................. 65
the Canal "in the. Age ofTerrors" by Arthur S. Colins, Jr.,
Sun.................. ......... ..........5 .,................. .............6 3
thal Treatie@"jb Adry. H oratio Rivero,, San Diego Even. ... ............. ............. .............................. .... 68
Alin egeSull Say 'No'" American Legion .. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~0...... ........ ..... ............ .. ....... .... .. ............ .. .. .. 74
intr Stake idPnmfalPoetb Greg Hageman,
H olstein*R0porter (W is.) ..................................................................................... 767
Canal Treaties ---hould theU.S. Ratify hm' by Senator
The Retired O ie ...... .......... ........................................... 771
for Acceptance",. by Senator Hubert Humphrey, The Retired Officer .773
tim Treaties Pnm'BacsAU.S. -Responsibility r ev
Hew Leador maganine... ..................... ........ ...... ..;.... 783
Gain Support in Siade Bollf, byr Mervin D. iel, Los AngelesC
...... .............ca ........ '.. ........................................... 852
fast Re~ep the Canal", by M: Northrup Buechner, American Security
W ashington Re ot ..i ..... .... .... ........... ............................. 91
ARamparty,Jo Davis odge, New York Times .................. 947
Benevolencei~na ", letter by Martin D. Tullai, Baltimore Sun 1030
Anal Treaties Answrfug Questions on Main Stt Amnerica, .by

Opinice iflto Supprt of PanaaTreaties", try ereGlu 1256
swheiair of the Huntsville Niew 4Al) by Kennth .K.Al ......... 17
a Helping Hands, Time Magazine................ .. ...................... .... ............ 1625
*--PUat-nof Drug Trafikin in Panama", by Nichols Dantloff and
Arvulson (3 parts) .. ............ .. ..... ................. ..................... 1646
SertWar Against Dope ,by Andrewr Tully, (Chapter 104* ok...... 1654
Cuba to Back Panama", Diario Lasw Americas, Miami r Flrd ...... 1661 Panama Bug-Out", by Jenkin Lloyd Jones, Los Angeles Timwes .................. 1872
Invites Probe by OAS Rights Group"', by Lewis H. Diuguid ................. 1937
Should Ratify Treaties", Argus-Leade, Sioux' Falls, S. Dak .. ................ 1988
anamaf W ashngton oet ........... .................................:.... 18
of Human Rights and- Civil Liberties in Panama", by Dr. Gustave
prepared fastthe Council for InternatioalW security :.......... 19
itatonReport and Position Paper by US, Civic Councils, Canal4zone": 2001

CURRWSONDENCEMN MEMORANDUM
to Ptsident Carter from four former Chifs f Naval Operationsan the
vale ot tePanama Catnar ............... ......................... 60
*Pty of Johnay to Seo de Oada, Oct. 24, 1964 ......14
Allent fv o .P ils rhsoia ebon ............... 295
to Predntt Carter from Senator Jesse Belms, prOng Mr. Ecbrt mttees to epan es 414 teaie

agesr pf Panam Land Comissian -, -.... --677


... . .5
tb~c U ofunderlrt6 t

Lete to Seao fro NAAC in response..... to reor of. diciiai. 1027..............








MiBmoran4u;n;1W9,W. w
1311* 1 rWPQ" -1 "FIM4,1A
L*tter 04ht( w ore'emmt, U, qw=
allqgid 1Mb1vtft4hV ba drdig 6al&k6i
"4
latter Hibum- -Speaker 'ani Senate M &;* 6M
Wnauming H. Cm Rom 347
r .......................... ........ ....... 71". r ty
Letter to Senator ClArdh TrO& Apyrual
AJexanderJr About&an6al-vi k r1=1
Exchange'of leader beiiv n-genator'8$ r axid %
.-imbng with the legal authority for +%,a A-- A
-< I ;
sad with conflict
Letter to 86nifbr: Heli6a from aled Litter to Senator Casq fromHer St4t
police duthoft &f the tiWao i W*
to Sen w :%Wkmon *bw:
statimn ......... ........... ......................... .......... ............
latter to the (3omptroller G 4ex* from, Sogtq ,Vqproplolmd tr.6aty, dbi s- not. Aisure ot *-reVenui '
T 1 *qfteg
R
X- A"
Total OxeMmUon.aUtbe Panam
and auxiliary
Compox*tive, surv*yv- of *eoia df iaAfA akii&
App;o -disapprove Panama Canal Treaty, Gallup poll-Major trade route", in Punawa ......
Panama Canal traffic by commodities, 1975 ... .. Effect of 50 percent U419 increase on i-1 W
;) 85 .....
Canal in 19
Rearrangement, of sources DL*ion of commodities frqm Panama Canal tw$OiwqV4Dv* 4490WANI resulting 1 #zn 50-perd*t *dKi ng&
Cargo div&nkft WvOlv*W voyagm of *mmA0d-kijOh;V" of Good Hope .... ...................... %a
Diveroion 9f cargLo to.: Far, F4mst MWAwifte 1g Canal tolls. 1985 ........ 0 ....................................
Distance Yoioh"-,btvNew Ydokon alt,*ater rouW oda'Paja ld jO*l The Pwiam
U.8, opeanborne cwgo thnnWh Panama 1. = AR
Major tra4e routes in earwl ........
Increase in ship size ...... Future traffic. predictims also sugge9t cansl veacbbW&abwft3 1-& .. ........
Transportation altematww, Abokan evacto Sea-level caW-ep mg* U.S. bank claims on Panama ................... ........................................... ........
Intersea
Intersea I of Governors ...................................... ...............................
Preli i PW
Estima=eP ==iilea toll b "en 6in impact of TAA'reomw 094w* pp ,' Panama Cahal 6-o
budgit
stimm....
of
aryj un 0
A coml e
treaties ..................
Effect bf treaty,-=, -raw -Wla
7. ,A t
and ciffi;&- ............. ..........
Com 41-1
W
Va U I ent .................. .....
of major ......
ist conces"
Loans rovied ','A
I J Y, ho
11 ilif oil 1111 1111 "'1 I'll
6 6i e lo p 111111 1111111 111111f oil" 1111 1111 ''111,11
11 111 if oil 11111111 11111111 'I'll 11,111,11
--- 4w V-K V
iT b :W p"-Kypmr oevnet s4 as niz, t Kf -&l 01 -6114 1wwTWICd





XI

Page
val of ssti s tanamare tana ang def cit ................................... 1811
"'" ,of---t t ra ns e re oPanam a byna 2000tin Aei is D............................... 181 8
cost to ntd States for items not covered by Panama Canal tolls
................................................................................................. 1814
costvale o the Panama Canal enterprise ................................................ 13
W= V41weof th anaa Cana* enterpaise .............................................................. 1836
4A~imroementi* 4oeld itary: facilities to be turned over to
Roplac..................l...er ............................................................................. 1887
N oble director t toUnited St ts........................................................................... 1887
q gmentsto Pa a aoutaoftoll increases .................................................................. 1838

MISCELLANEOUS
'dt9fteHnor ble4pl M. Linowits ........................ 9
4V mii0V rth lia loan ...... ............... ................................ 10
an a ............ .................. ............................. 1
stt fthe Panamanian economy and projectosfo t .~~.... ..... ............................................ 12
oa Naember 18, 1"03..,.......................... 75, 1269
bt can a aw at.. .. ............................ .........., .............. 102, 1065
Powe an Cog'6ssib'nal, Pw r in Conflict: Cession of JJ.S.
t~e"abo oneto Panama, research. by Kenneth Merin, legislakn W Divisiah., library of Congress ............. ................. 160
Thklatuid ib eiovrernment of Panama, research by David
&a in baking and capital marketW, Library of Conpgress ......... ...... 254
il, cablgere Panama Cahal Treaty flawed. And cable to
S a e ............ i............................................,...... ,.. ........... ........ ... .341
ato DntistU.S. Right to Intervefition"'(television report

o anditig ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ fo Wht Ho s ......................;1....... ....w..... 51
dersfro GenetrW Jpnns.t......... ..... ..... ........................ 6

1"4-4g "tfPanama Canal trafe, ld ureshw....57
ers n te PaamaCanal treaties plebiscite ............ ............ 6
Li~~n~pemersofthe Committee of Americans for the Canal Treaties, Inc ...680 Se aePepublican policy :ommittee .......... .. .................................... 717
'tio, M x'iationIf of America board of directors .................... ............. 834
r-*t Georgia House ofRepresentatives........................... 48
-of tre~aty, prepared by Sylvia CostelnsSnt sern
ti ..........7........................ ... ...... ............... .......... 861, 1730
nsbtwe treaty amendments, reservations, and undlerstandings,
bYteS nate steering committee ........ .......................... ...... ........ 935
ron provisions of the Panamanian Cosiuin................. .937
utios pasedhy the. National Black: Caucus ....................................... ..... 958
W, M.Whitman, special consultant .to the, House Committee on t Maineand Fisheries, projected deficiencies in the canal operating
s4d i t e n w treaty .......................................... *.......................,.......... 966
d ad fn."ia1 implications of the new Panama Canal treates ecoa -honD partment of State ..........,.................................... 975
ies of Senator Allen ,as t eaepoeuefrcniea
a h a tr i e ..................................... ...... 1025
"thrt oPf teComnitee on Foreign Reltons on the Panamna
....................................... ................. ........... 1 8
.uo Jn 'Paipama for. caalteatiesspleeb6h tt
..., w,., ................ ... ......................... ................ 1189
on ........ ..... ........................... ....... ....... ... .... ... 52
'ad omar-o of.Department of Statp drkftof the6 treaty datedaql

caPiblmin Panama, epertsfrm eort Of Com
'Marine and Fisheries .....,.................. ..6......6-. 1
f 914 .................. ............-.................a ....xeevn s uetctrfcknisus......................1
financial- dIFa- byOiute qAmdSrie...... 1809
Ag1* on AA usdIyGy Vancet ................... 1814







IX

Lit. jr* 4400
A V .... A A
N tw! 74 j 49 .. .. ........
... ..... .. ..
4M44ma

Motirez James ... ..

k -93emocra
Allen, James B. O.Clemocrat of N M r .. .. ... ..... .
126-127,129 138 IS$- IT,

025,1041- 051. lew"im,
"672, 16i -1688,187,R-1880, 1885; .11990-1992,20010
Baker, Howia;dH' Jri. Qlff
1OPT-1058, 1964
A .7
kirtlett, Delwey Ow W
h4h, Birch lof bufigmw' ..
110-ftmon, Henry (Republican of Bentsen, Lloyd (Demacrat dttki" Brooke, Edward'W, (00
,,,
Harr$-F Jr
-17V
1716 7
9*Td, Rob6i C--'R)W6 Q4 I
.202,,225, 233-235 237
959,0 102740
1251-1263 1265-1X, 4
1602-1612; fOO-1666 IM846MM01-107, 94
Cannon, Howard-Wt pm, at- of -N +
Cabe, Clifford P. (Repuffi 4*4
e'ut
iL AIN
ILAA;,tLu

66r* Frank (Democr# of Mako) . .....
1405-1406; -145&-- TiiA I

kq Dldk7i
Alan

C6iver, Johuq11, Q *11
CM r ti a IIC03 6 A AT. -----AT

DOOpncini, Dennis of map
Pq RbbertlRepubficun &,

4 1
t. fit 441






X111

Paw
-Pbte V. (Republican of New Mexico) ................................................ 2011-2013
Voudell H. (Democrat of Kentucky)...... .. ........ ............... ... ...... 648,1716-1717
AA6 (Republican of Utah) .............. ................... 96-979
1670,194i 'iik- 1975-1977,
ION, 1ft 2004
j Ow tiofObde) ................................................................... 951,1517-1518
11 1.
a ican of Arizona) ......... ...... o ...... .............. ................... _. 736,
13% -14W -14
L393 & 1430 8Z 1489,1482,1486,1488-1491,1520,1661, 16% 1799-1906, IM24973 .... 1924-1927
qf M&e (Democrat of Alaska) ........ .... . ..................... .............. ............... IZ78,
1285,1286 134&-1366, 1677-1678, 1889-1890, 1M 1BU-1895,
1894-M 1. IM 192749M
7A p. 9321,
0 b-o' AE..L n) ..........
lican &L ........................................
IM, 1005,1651,1122-1133, lixi-1139,1141-114Z 1307-1308,1326-1328,
R, 1336-1=,,1339,1400-1401,1544,1548-15W, 1552,1555,1611-1618,1623,
6664670, 1674 105, 1892
OU ca -of Wyoming) ........................ .......... 629,636,1841-1846
ifford P. (Re bli Ln
m G. (Republican of Utah .......... ........... . .................................. 5 M,
770-771, 782-78a, 847, 953, 902-906, 915, 944-945, 961-966, 1029-1032, 1176-117 .1263, 2K 1305, 1308-1338, 1406-1407, 1411-1413,
r4 -1784,1905-1919
1419-14 1_14W ,1660.1772
';k"O '(Republicah 6f Oregon) ................... ........................................ 46
S I (Re blican of California) ........ ....... 1769 1773,1775-1776
TZz M Cpublican of vania) ........... i ......................... ....... ...... 1705
J..
(Republican, of North Carolina). ........ 4-8,
esse 20, .24, 28, 30-31, 3647, 41, 11i: li6, 412-414,
6lb-611, 676, 954-957, 1053, 116S-1 174, 1204-1205, 1261-1262, 1321-1322, 1366-1368, 1638-1644, 1696,-1697, 1705, 1711-1712, 1714-1730, 1824,
1904-1905,1922-1924
Hodges, Jr. (Democrat of Arkansas) ............................................... 1599-4602
HollinM Erneot F. (Democrat of South Carolina) ..................................................... 9123,
1161-1163,1738-1739,1748-175Z 1755,1758-1769 luddleston, Walter D. (Democrat of Kentucky) ............................................... w ........ 235P
1053, 1414, 1419, 1445, 1464-1465
Humphrey, Hubert H. Mmocrat of Minnesota) ................................. 662-663,748-754
Humphrey, Muriel (Democrat of Minnesota) .................................................... 1875-1881
Javits, Jacob K. (Republican of New York) ....................................................... 1188-119Z
1296-1297, 1428-1429, 1666, 1670-1671, 1712-1714, 1905 JOhadon J. Bennett (Deamcrat of LouiWana) ................................................... 2005-2011
Ile assa ......................... 736,957-958,1663
Ed M_ 7"= M ......... ............ 105Z
= Vkul Vpubh- r N da) .............................
1142-1149, 1151-1163, 1176-1177, 1196, 1258-1260, 1268, 1277-1278, 1280--1286,1295,1356-1358,1457-1464,1479-1480,1487,1495,1673-1674, 1744-1747, 1754-1756, 1821-1822, 1826, 1856-1857, 1881, 1883--1889s,
1896-1904,1931
Leahy, Patrick J. (Democrat of Vermont) ............................................................. 942-944,
1052., 1670-4672, 1819-1824, 1943-1948 Lugar, Richard G. (Republican of Indiana) ............................................. 1053,1323-1325
Nlathia% Charles McC., Jr. (Republican of Maryland) ......... 291, 101&-1014, 1714-1715
Matsunaga, Spark M. (Democrat of Hawaii) .................................................... 1462-1463,
1590-1597, 1602, 1921-1922, 1924-1926 McClure, James A- (Republican of Idaho) ............................................................... 407-408,
741, 1518-1520, 1666, 1675-1676
McGovern, George (Democrat of South Dakota) ........................................................ 403,
1198, 196Z 1967-1973, 1975, 1977-1988, 1991-1992 McIn" Thomas J. Memocrat of New Hampshire) .............................................. 1052
Melcher, John Memocrat of Montana) ...................................................... .............. 1697
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick (Democrat of New York) ................................................. 902,
1133, 1767-1768, 1771-1774, 1784-1799 Muskie, Edmund S, (Democrat of Maine) ............................................................... 1OZ 1133
Pearson, James B. (Riepublican of Kansas) ............................................................ qw
Pell, Claiborne (Democrat of Rhode idand) ................ ............................................... 56
Percy, Charles H. (Republican Of Illinois) ............................................................. 849-&2,
1265-1266, 1306-1308, 15394540, 1597-1599, 1604-1605 Proxmim William Momocrat Of Vfimonsin) ................... ..................................... 605--607,
708,715-716,766--767
Riqde, Ekmald W, Jr. (Democrat. of Michigan) ....................................... 1956,1963-1967






I1V

Srbanes, Paul 8. (Democrat of Maryland)................q.......................,....
11361187, 11391142, 1174, 1177,'12683 1293-129411 33
1385, 1416-1417, 1482-1488, 1460-1462, 14$9, 14 9 11 1558 11i55,151561.89, 1597, 1612-1618, 1631-1687, ,
17171 4, 1971 7r,828-1881, 1879-tas8,1ss 8-1892 Schmitt, Harrison H. (Republican of New Mexico) ............................7
Scott, Wlliam.L. (Republican ofVir j ia)................:...........'.............................
144-147, 168, 171-113, 58569, 743, 154 1151-12 1 -252, 1254,
1623-1632, 1634-1637, 1696, 1i69,102
Sparkman, John (Democrat of Alabama), ....... ...................... ...........................
240, 259, 276, 296, 326, 358 41-2,46P46 .9,52-3,55
820-821, 868, 975, 1051-1052, 1059-10616A3-1265, 14831-1432 1, Stenis John C. (Democrat of Mississipp i).......... 1805-1809, 1817-1 ,
Stevens Ted (Republican of Alaska) ....................................1-IB
238-29 1047,9- 1305, 17 04, 18 2A-18W Stevenson Adlai E. (Democrat of Illinois) .. ................ ........... .................
ESo e, i 6 rd (Democrat of Florida)........... ............................. ........ 74 4
Talmadge, Rerman E. (Democrat of Georgla) ............... .......... ..............:'...i:
T h r n d s S tr o my ( R e p u b l i c an of S n u t h u ao s na ) .. . . .. . .
16, 18, 90-91, 94-96, 205, 235,j 350 342 400 409410 52,5052,S;
577-578,'586-587, 619, 659, 947, 101-15,12,13,1
Towrer, John (Republican of Texas) .......................................7..
WloMalcolm (Republican of Wyoming) .. ........................ .
WeiperLowell P. Jr. (Republican of Cornecticut) ..l........ ..................... 1i0
iiii! ~iiiiiii~ iiiii~~iiiiii~ iiiiiiiii iiiii !ijiiii~ii~iiiiiiijjj~iiiiiiiiiA 1 :iiiiiiiii




















q~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~. ........................................
iiiilli~iiiiiiiiiii'0
ii]:ii:]iiiiK
iiii iii iii i i .... ... ....................... ... ... ... .... ... ... ...


































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































NINETY
-FIFTH CONGRESS































































FIRST SESSION






















































































































































































.. .. ... ....

































































































































.. .. .... ...




























































































































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M X .. .. .... ... .. .. .. ... ..
















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.. . ........



















.. ....... j v

Nos








3w

7






















.. .. ... .. .... ... . ..................... ...... ..... .... I ...... ......






-A I
YT w K') H





.. ........ :1 5 ", 1 r-mr

lip


.. ........ . . .....




4
......... q ,
j rg 0 ,j Kj j,
N 47
T
4 W to M-1:
IL U, _AL

w _0
t, OW 19161 JohO
"Ot 44A0 i-Oplumbiat..S.C., wmto a
Sta* very
*0 dn *6 Pgpgnia- Canal
flchell articlc,,provid fbi underAw
WORAWnOwe appelm-Ji. ih:::Q sameL.ammou'ar.til -: stateI
"CMOs P I. I
ntitl Gaillar& Wa iWhr Army- From
Wob A& -0 M' th i i
a 44, ridil Ibwkgrgund of the Gaili9ad I -V cee&*w y. we
OX 1.113 vex cK
AS the mi,0anAl imue lis-One;of the
Jim th *AnjerjeanLVUb&,,The
pig "R lml MOM
ik -*bkh, hilint0ii-vie" M4;h- M. Chlip:111::11=9 A. lox%= q( 74' of, theT m CQMpro pgmyy
MAOR616L -bWtrd cdr; the citizem.: aiic! &mthem, NaUOU4
-1piew w -jIwiqWdODM-'
py, nkthip.SenaO
iii Oido A ..,04 the
t4; sham, h e anama caiii,
as ejlasfhe a San lvmolp ]W=
rMi Inanimous voxwent that they be
9),
U -0
Us were: 0., fted -t6 A 1 3


Jehn; L.. Mitchell).
Ible fidn Or the PmIm9kIM is Iiopera kel'un&r the.
to. Ot Edie;tr. ofibe. cor pirate board of, of tfie b4Wneis iW of -the cank
r not mxreWII be
h AC dii dwirtnan of The Citirafian date forW eA ftAugu
PI_0044 mt OLO the -ArIm, aud "k Rio
d
V -1* rum a bcwtyl the P
Mr _IR ip"ie bogW'fe'pwtq t6ft-ode
I(Abla Zo i Aftn r 44 r IN a' Offim Pr t a P ma ciI4 t
y wvszt &Vywament vi zone
;rots A- "In Ibe, WIM!6 Jj
4WPVA&.%w a. bcg jehiiii kwak
eam v a __:t for-the p@A-Swt
WVS 36 d0vala fiftW
saw AV:
J
CD






2
The company foots the bill for all operations in the Canal Zone, pays N charges on the U.S. investment-$14.8 millon in fiscal 1975-and the U. Treasury the net cost of civil government, including health and mediW se@bc-, $28.55 miion in fiscal 1975. The opration doesn't cost the U.S. taxpayer anything and Chapman says the board wats to keep it that way. There was a toll increased 17cfztane1 andooather is ikey to g into effect soon as a result of toll hearings hedby heboard in August, Chapage
Position to the toll hikds8 4 but "%5 percent

thaer comhe Mitsld rnoc i
bentw persnne, A* Owlem;Ol edP gndWtei

NbovrmCty Adia.hatpafe 6 i-69




sachbr~ imgtttos r
p ty tdhe useaik,l w e badeitr61 if th
now, hapma sid e ,
'Thewana e prnan at 4n thd o
Henr Kiisigersiged W aiveti t satiti
scehpmana said, h a scou d pe~alted;4ghoue setins hapvoigboee

andc thatt ti wOunot tefrtimth193ray


bouht an pad for," he said
Undr he190teayte .S.:guai6-ae Panma hnepneaep(
biaan pai herVM $1 m llo. n 90, the U.S. boh th treciCnlCo''rgt and proetis forl $4nlon n be gd consr tmetd903tioad
ofthe idea ofranat Cal b iidi aktq 1524 a e V7 IM De.Ssepst, $di of ~g tesI Aj t

complte and ifoe baid tonade U.S. Ref en t MS gaate am' iieeddefmCln Since taheor $1 ilon hav 194 th ..buh'hrnc.CnlC.srgt Ind additi tor he mlon of .e~~OftrC6I P

The ienal wfPas'v
madeCtheafrstaofficil oIeanor theA shipeyz13,7 Jo $9l aa t6.1 1 i

mmger ef canlm








!pi!? the 19 P 10, 1 1 wan SW the Soft' and around India to rewb Fw iest
lw vv. v?.L pr i =. In updating a PAn=a a Chan ip*resto must be f he said.
FM TWO, swig-, 1 10
b-sety President Johnson.
ph 6; t realism tSat Ws not a nabnal Chimman said. It takes to WM" it 4WJ6? oat am; tPit Zi -in piloting ddps
SOMOMic )T4 unrest and strife as weUas
Actaw, have
its t 8 d to the
*dorm ddevnm6 but we shaiildn't eve up
L
tw.. its !& and, V*i to have qualified people to run 1, :- ... I
.. ... .. ....

CAXA .% GUARD OW b: NAum Fba Ai iy ENGENtim FRom SA
11 (By qlgo6zq & MilpheW
f ASA9-cGt*iNIW nank6d. tor it South'Onviinion who SUPW6
the, where: the ftnama Canal P
M- M some areS&
7 ma" : ,
I 7v
4116 Culebra Oik this iv on'wAs x6wroed the'Gai1ftard Cut in 1915
'OuftOoGOMLid;iiitho wmboinitSOingGrwo in 1859
PMW TOWA 0( 1jewni
8 by 10 fixt SA4 i 1,200, was erected high.
s IM U%QWI6q"khNIg% in GaiHard's -honor fvii hk' and took the tion
nt, to Week Pcdnt while a: ciwk in the store of J. Fletning Mchbister
wliere. he gWted work at 14.
WW quesum about his KWUJLU it was
he R= Winfid)oko' Clounty). However, SecreWIVar: LUMM& "d6ttloriLlson under 21 was a resident
*$kW Uved OwAer C=W*) and GaiHard gotthe appoint1984 and assigned to the UA Army INIL "P,
was' 12URnbe- Of. the,
And he Railroad in March,
mo engine in charke-stAkidging the harbors, building break"IPftFsZ&W except that which had to do- *M lock and dam construe... ..... .
wao roadip wman enein-eq. bf 'the (;entml Divnion, which AI 2.
maAmply Ckdebra-04 which was plagued by
IMFL.A.&Oxe IoAAmIwct*#wqmqLefz ving di4j3b that Algroold WWWW the. PyUg B the work was bed
by A" ..ind still 6a'a 'Wia:up whm finis
coot of I dbt Was $1.50 a cubic "Od durfigAhe '12, bxOdhs
ft wM Wky biskory W'..=W of, the, gleat hibors of the
-M hi Litora4 hewas-Ifurced tqlabaciae the feet ;f"&
4, -" '7 r ;E,%7m
ONUMMIDO lie it aiid is for'411 fime ": ac6nding to accomits in a book
wr by rbdeii ALMIMMMIM9
7 0 iv.Ole to* as Ua an Gaillard and in quly, 1914 he was sbrk&= with a
--- A-L IIIL----A
Ow"I her 04v *=I. Planomm
W ll ..........
4"1 ililqr WUM the t a 06 on OeL'
i ise ads& Qambdfto Ud" 1-11" Wal 1 0 lorthe A -hft iffib
,164i vW de a fWI cakad by ad of Covg while hit. was ill.-Aisdi, D the
& W.
--- 26*1
7
.0 A- xc4i. :Sk
lab 'Jif*v* 0 .1
.... ... ....... .... ... ')I Tj
JU L..





4


SOL LINOWITE: BAIER AND: T NEGOTIATE

Mr. tHus. Mr. Pre~nt, I am greatly ,con~erned"4 :- ." Linowitz, who is presently i Panama as ache. e I '. proposed new Panama (Canal threiR isa. the a of Marine Midland BAks Inc., and Pan, American Aim i Both of these institutions: have a direct thabida in~ethl support of the Torrijas dictatorship in Panantsbcaoo activities there and their need to cryfavor with a V MI o Government. Indeed, Marine Midland has made risky loas, ie ly to the Republic of Panama..
The proposed treaty, a treaty wilcE ir. Lhin is44,av coated, would give away billions of dofladis-6f the American ers' investment in the Canal Zone, wastlpincrease paypa -1 Republic of Panma and srnte-the Toreg arges Mho
tottering both financially and .oi wi .
There is no indication that M. _Litiewilii,who wes.o
by the Senate, has taken sesto seeid the appearac of ow of interest by resignig his or privte,
ations. Until this :matter its clx dMr.. IA6i aside;, he may already have. irrevocably tainted any treat the product of his negotiations.
Mr. President, allow me to go into abu~il on the@& isue
For the past week, a UI.S. negotiating teamd hasbeen- hl Republic of 'Panama for the purpose of negotiating a -new; regarding the Panama Canal. The conquatiators at -h.qd team are Ambassador-at-Iarge Elaotth 13inker, a aga sador, and Ambassador Sol Linowitz, a busineaeroan and sworn in on February 9 as: special reprisionatiVe af to with the personal rank of ambassador.
The nomination oft Mr. inowitvem was pesented Ioe ean for advise and consent. I am informed by the that it is'not the, custom to. seek aie..,and o'4 on:= ments which are expected to be of less than 6 ot'5x i
The administration is of the opinion that the noa .vlil completed in less thed 6 toonths.
Thus the Semate has, set had the oppAM); uvs
Tinowitz' suitability..-for the post ner' tob inquip into ar&,i would judge to be, on the face of it, a gross unpropiriety aW ..ffd of interest., It is a cas .e which hardly seems, suited. tou Watergate morality. f
According to the best information which I have been abi~t !hL Mr. Linowitz sits.,on. the board. of directors of two large':4onik tions which have ai compelling: financial interest in the. oucmb E events in Panama. There is. no indication that he -hags0in&fi~~ these boards.
Indeed, presaconsfm theprilbfoehwi
quote Mr. Linowitz as saying that he would not take' thew. had to give up his private business associations-. Biographcdt
HHH mished last week by the Department of State thathe is




0



b OCbotklthime ,.bdatdgL Andl both, institutions,

8t
ha.is4wesently.,.amember.of their:. boards. nt, bsk as, opusept.theito the ...,.Phic data
Ie prmpUd Reodrd at the eat. -in the,
of. Jay-'rem
tximz Without oh*tkx9t#.- kis no, ordered.
1 T
:a7) rati 'Pan:
A Ameri
14' A k-wam aWl. Manibe Affidiand.Bm"O Inm.
of vounw, has,:am,,,o(rm -in Panama; and uses Qwyaa a aanv*mient,'n'uOdw*Y::sWP. on its, Car riboan and
Am* Americoa Rights; Ift io of b9tht inter
41" RIM janding- rxghlu in, :w)dch
lot* i
mne or
ftle Marine Aoonnwdon, however, is far mom imme&-.on the board of directors of
-,Rw*o, btAalm on fts exem#ve committee. And ,x has* _mw:,thq Am
M' in
#a
0V dicta
',,g Zm
Zow% %nk m A spch_ information, as
J u abWto,;4oo ppmplete
_p##qn Apd OXPOI
a, oment mthe Wall
0141 Lounew. loan of
cons; Cttober
4 that are such
41
114 W; the expoeii& pard4paffixg = ,,IR'AOt.,: fis; 'd we er.
.is,10e4 a, 111MIS ng fv 11 'Rfinhattan,
11 Ant National E nk of
11 1 mimous COUW4 4 vertisement
irr nal 96 rel3ib i 20,
'6f In
't 4;739
A4 tk ks
;n,
Of renw
IOC SM4, so,..: red,,
&I P d ffie i. he .0idsWace of
Oi6 Uwof Q.
itment. td Goverp Of
wolfla. _to qu"Ontheprqprlety of.,&:: mm who
Rr &tAfaem,,Midland-!-L ioxecative ,oommitteo participating Inthe
is th -'SbnAt6*hA4, no opportunity
ti&O aIEIfit Aefi 6ii6' ili4UireS Int6 i& a '_: fil'Panamafa de
PerqueaUons arim, ijff tfihb Am9ibWi 1 _Ivernibffit b %V. In fITIMAW&M icO&Wt offtA Am.miuma. Imn ink -bbLumAdtY. hb douW *heth&
by, TO can be paid.
Wun'Immi-Lid falkbemuse of itsfin ci 91 Ihw4%&!Offlte baukere pmk(bw chmW AP United ftbwand- otha ba i) mrM III adal Sidi milwwUms out" ,ffie -UnA







To be brief. Mr. Pamidst, whezYitai on todhame
Panamain a military coupe rbeorganized the. h... of country in 1970, "oloig I the advice oftBN community. The new, laws were our Audirat~As daikta9
industry in Panama went through a startling expan em L was then a few banks :with: assets of a::few. r ifibj' of serving only Panama's small economy. Today, only 6 "-t there are 73 banks in Panama, with assets, of $8.16 bIlii in in transactions, throughoutt, the world. In PaRnama, uh tions are free of taxation and, enjoy other -advantag-s A office in -Panama is, like the flag. of convedniee wvi~ offers to the world merchant marine- tl*=
Needless to say, Mfr. President, Marine Midland is thi banks which take advantage of those transaetions wi-hA Panama.
It is inconceivable, Mr. President Atat the lb-iy tw -Nv regime of the dictator who set up this. bankers'* pda s n Of some concern to the executive committee of Mal6 W416 Banks, and to their colleagues inf assadated banikift ist6W
Of course, even _in a paradise',. there: have! been so d 64 The principal drawback'has been thhinsaiable a-(t Torrijos- regime fr tne. heidebtedgee's of te ReA Panama'has risen from some $17mlit-hnTik to an estimated billionn today. Not all of that is 'e 'L cial banks, of course. A great deal is from bilateral nd fn al lending institutions. Again it is diffibult to obtain- acurdtfe ures for the current year. LBut the most theistly avatila st4 from the World Bank sho*-that at the beginninght beT cial banks provided half the lending.
Moreover, a document 'leaked recently fromfi' PiwA
ment of Planning, states that debt servie-aone wi~ltt le 3 9' cent of Panama's budget in 1977-versus 7 peenith .e dw States-that the deficit alonema beas his s1.w .iion"I'd
that to refinance loans fain'g due, combined. ith"ti iii require $324 million this Ier Th key parardp :In-h "=mi r dum states, in translation
We feel. it will be extremely difficult to syndicate lon i banks in the amounts previously m6ntioned, taing into account 'htdurntLpresent fiscal periorl we must ontra~t for a Il nfRB/R2 8 million ($2.6ma
accord has -to be finalized. .Besides, the relation. between servici--. 4Wdebt epA current revenues of bewe&89% -and- 39% suggestadtrc- ,apt service this debt and fthuqwil increase theriskasraie by th6 WO

The financial crisis i at .
mental intervention into the -econom 'WIh con~m v
measures', suchL as mnmmWagsra equtpol an price sup
ports, all of which: hae priced Panama's exports out ofthe a market. A confidential memor A Adum sent to the e ..ment... State. by the U.S. Embassy in Panamka last 41ctorb a ey Economic conditions in Panama worsened sdil urnehe tatha iiiiir'eramfil:a ~ a Wb~~ttX.71*1.MO
ikeyi o ener er or196








PAO I &I I' aMIMM- wop sagw- -A-Mialmansamd
A. 14,1131M. ..
PA Mbb tdbfw--"- Mv_ points otat that
mattem* vwrw not better
CAMtEwl ftandal Pw 8% dr: dlin
-2
M Af UAWa IStAw
Prolow WK O"b" baw womood, each nn.uwmg bmn
AMPWASP*d- 'Of MAW, kWMd:::=U& 4 OW. *Witid imfim of the psot AMIMMied-FAnams!# SCOMOMW by wbefing. ito debt
IOU "I'
ent diii4 M of the
'a WI C&
wisidiuma),freab bw wy, Planti-n of Panama,..,and a copy af n.oet
-00 Omfti M o 269 1976 be
*0or cl
A3MrVWW MME TUrl I !lox
Kb' dts 3 and 4.)
W J reol&nk thaln#w."t f ,,xt4u4e& T4*14periqo afla tpny
-a 1. fivM'.. *e w#FA4wp;w up an=OAM 4A t
regime;
r We,6vorbypronlin haven
*krfli@ 4W_ their inbumaUmd. aperaWns, But the
_001'. i 11,4depen&:uponthe pa-sonal favor afthe ,*hu ftWJ,ctqffJPlOw.v9ntwL Gener,9. ,TdrrVo&:,l ff T"r*18
40164vo 16M Owi! twtwb&t.*i"d d-a winfiffiew"...
lut the banks have just about reached the limit in the amount vf rce04 ftwdh* "the,T govern
if the pi; m"t!beidi6fxijd"in"itbnkn ent.:fw ..the V w The tripaty have.
Antu Paymetit Iftni the 'United Stittea t; 'fttne*AreAty.
IL
a Art rlwi 40 thM' tJis hiembm of the
ty 1-he
bf tj :.L- '* a
S. OdVt;rdgMty' and p- firi the.. CAng: Zone
,.of i up the' Torrtoi and' vidingincritamed
erii b if Z.i* whether the I short
iiWo6w, a l[lu t1hited 19fikes? in4 410 W r$ WAS: d loody
th 6
q4I J and 1. am not
MCOWw" *13 M Situatioxw,
7 t',
tO csi te a
M. -pd* A
A 1:
W t116 lol*
4.wone, i Sy
IML
Jls t aj
OP 4, P narps 10
A t1l 7"
4, pfl#r te, A tbbk wo. can
40i of
an ww
c.ftMftMlft& A-we cum
Via a
KNOW Oeww
of
-0ine
im V grave erm to haw a banker who in in







negotiate the proposed treaty. I1 rgret that ,MI. ,Ibnowit2 AlUn tion bypasse& the. usua path Of, adieand' OSensen thhe*Sethib.
Had Mr.' linowitz'. nominatio come;blr h:eaef~
would have been the opportunity to, questioniM. TamwitsaltM U.S.C. 208,. which says in part: ,, ,,..,,.(
Whoever, being an officer or employee of the executives brandh of the*'lMMI States Government, of' any independetit agency-~ t the, United' Stataq, of of4%e District of Coum icudmng a special goverment employees, garticipata*Oi so ally and substantially, as a government offlue or -emnployee, thanagh decidiened)proval, disapproval, recommendations,,. the rendering of advicehisiga war otherwise, in a judicial or other proceeding, application, request for a or other determination, conti-act, :laim, cot'rovesy, ahange, acendation or other particular matter -i m-which, to his 'knowledge, he, his. spous, partner, organization ,in~which he -is serviLng, as ofie director, trpsea employee, or any Iperso In, or organiation wit' e.,isiegptu 4 or, arrangement concerning pr66cJv vemly %Ul't mnsluire+ Shall be fined not more than $10,000 or: imprisonea d o.mas -than. two'wlh or both. .J .
Had such questioning been -possible,'- perhet h NaiW 4d
have learned what steps Mr. Lnvls neddt aed os
conflict of interest, or the apppearance of ktonfict of flteret, as~wa case- way be., -He certainlyis an employee,.orasseialapl YtedhM is participating personally- and -suibstantially;: -he isakn (I
matter in which an organization of which. he. isf A, divrector Ae
tor. The American people deserve to know how he. wiB..eraQ~nt conflict. J c:.. .t
It is. worth lpointing- out that only a. week ago,14 General Griffin B. Bell. quite properly informed .Chrs, the close friend and confidant of the ,President that heV classified as a -"special employee" of the government weeye gave advice to the President-even.. though he wa!i M compensation from the Government. ,Generail Bell' anpnaon .,Wes that the conflict-of-interest- statutes. prohibited Mr. ThZ.rbo, "special employee", from giving advice.to''the%-Presidient on egy matter in which, he had a financial interest. ...
If this IS true of Mr. Kirbo, who is' not even. officially In by theGovernment, i it not proper to Ask. whether it. pR 1
Mr. Liniowitz, who has been sworn. m as allaibasao cial representative" of the President?
Mr. President, until thesee' Matters are rpeoveiti in, bto i ate for Mr. Linowitz to participate in the negotialtions.because of press reports that substanttive progress has ben during' the -past week toward a treadty.draft, it could well be thk any treaty draft ultimately prdcd vnif Mr.. 'Linowitz resigid,
wl'be fattally .f lawed. A corirovrkia treaty' that. has, the iappearance, of being tainted' by special interests does. not deceive the consideration of the Senate.: Mr Linowitz shp uld' vo7trly &ai aside, and: offer an epanastion: to: the Aierica epIl and kli Congress.
Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that'Mb article from the Washinto Post,' "atrCndatIRldSbect to Cnlc
Curbs," of Feabruary 15, 1977, be jpinted-, in the'Record.L
The V~c PRSI Tr. Withoutobjection, itis goordered.,
(Seeehiit 5..









mou am DATA: T=amxanstan SoL M.,Iaxowns ? 48) TIenton NJ.
f'k~Status: Married; fokur daughters (Mrs. Kenneth Mftersky, Mrs. Gabre Jano Reni.
"Ro;of the iernational law fim of Coudert Brothers One Farau D4C 20006; 200 Park Avenue, New York, N.Y. 107 a *Chirmn) Natioal Urban Coalition. ... enn otfna Foreign Policy Aseociation.
2 Commssionan U.S.-Latin Anherkben Relations.
at te Bard Jewsh heoogical Seminary of America..

oDIOrs Time, inc. (also Chairman of Audit Committee).
of Dirictors, m Pan American 'World Airways (also member: of Executive
Director Marine Milad Banks, Inc (also member of Executive ComatTrstes Mutual Lif nurance Cofa NeW York rg Service C~rps. Commiemon on Critical Choices for Ameias
U~don Graduate Education.


decet o f Artssw~
PREVIOUS POSFHONS
L.A A- asao to the Oraiainof American States (Nov. 1966-May 1969).
*to the IntrAmerian Committee of the Alliance for Proges
the- Board. Xerox Corporation; peiulChrman of Executive
And General Counsel (1955-1966).
Partner, Harris Beach, Wilcox, Dale and Linowits (ochester, New York,
Natinam omite for Internaional D38eelpmnt&Nr" (194-1966).
Chairman J.F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts (1965-1970).
State Department Advisory Committee on Initernational Oraiaos
General Counsel, Office of Picie Admiistration (1942-1944).
U..Naval Resere (1944-1946)
EDUCATIOAL
'A.B Degre (1985): Hamiltion Colleg (Salutatorian); Phi Beta Kappe Delta Sigma
Degree 19 ornell Law School (Editor in Chief, CornellI Law Quarterly;
Emppa Phit Orderof WA) '
IONORARY DOCTORATE DEGREE Q.L.D ANMI.D Aminn College.*




.Anlatatiue








Roosevelt UnWenfity.
St. John Fisher Co
St. Lawrence tJfii"V4fV1zy. NjWAAtfKd1 i A,41, :*r A(T' -,VfkA00* t
Syracuse Universi
Univem'VI Of JW___W*W ff-M$1044 "Atl wma"""'A
University of Michigan,,- CM14
U ty,
W
r College. o, -"t
Yeshiva University.

Cornell Univers ... ... ,
Hamilton College. The Johns Hopkins University. 3
The American Apsembly. 1W Salk
4 ) .....

77, 91417i 'X f 4A'I ;#4440'f
R" Q)
S' Of
(Ton. Year Rujvdollar, Loa*.-ItIti 4nft f401A
Miiknaged 'by Citicorp International Bank Limited, Diflon,'Read A Barney & Co. Incorpoftted, and Banco XfidaRa d e Panama And provided by- --Asia Pacific Corpomtio*JAdf P. "A. *P It ril'$f4 4-4 Banco de Santander Y PanamaL Bank of America NT & San Francisco, California. Bank of Watreal., AThe '40
N =I. of Tokyo, -Lid. BankersTrust Company. Banquet Ameriba& BaaqueNationsI6,46--P. I xi c i I,,vivxi ogl
The Chase '1846k- N.A.
Citicorplnternational-Bank,,Iitdite&, a' I t 17AV b ft
C o m p a g n i OL uxt b i h a a rg e oi s i i,# -j "1! 4 "t4 i hi I A 4 D De B93i*WAj m, 4 Dresdner Bank Grouv.. The First, NatioiW1"kmiSW*m', Panama j3ranch The First National Bank of 02icago. ii1rd National.City:1819a& The Ftw"
The Industrial Bank of Japan LimitedL tie- !'4Wft4)'.i
Lloyds & Bolsa International Bank Linfited. London,& Continental Bankers LimitedL The JA W-T'erMCredit-I]al&.-Of'IJ60"2ti&iitodL *""Rr Marine Midland Bank New YorkThe Mitsui Trust and Banking Company 14aited.' National and Grindlays Bank LimiUKL Republic National Bank- of Dallas.
hitercontintal Sank Limited;, The Roal Bank of Canada Bank.
kus==C
The Tokai Bank Limited.:: Toronto Donilat&n. Baz& Agent: First NaCkmial. City Bank 900"
October 1 60







N.y
H i::.;'1Pm 3
%
& the Republic:

llii *mtlon td the finant .UPC
Ito
air, 1077 WO tting 4m th6 peaetirl this es,$W94.
of 11, Wd betwbOn BY 43.9 ndMon and JB/ ".2
this d income figu thus
vm reaching totak
,W at 13
vwl 11,%T% wff3..&16MV or
A not there on a recupw-,
in o6Didbink*activity durfi* the last six inonths of this Year
.pwrewe m -current revonueg asimmus an economjc.,up$um of 3% and an
_,r d OW6
10P 51 ughout 1976.
am', i Bf 21.0 M1,11i n PMAUW
DAM hwreaspbf taxes which should not
iiftap yinthedeWmedewngmicreculperatiOnproces&
A"*PW -*rOqP uded that the follorvfe
ra&ta, iml7A-#s effect. and
tm 9f, U I i teqdq m'o!k Ao divert: private 'ituie bveitnwmts, us stim 1180ag 0 WPOM*,4WOQPVVnL
tazes by value,
Ja4wt "ties, in e, der Ao z lom _P C _WjUO "ed
A"Osuft1win 4djuOt the4amm" 011" iAMA36, t.altbe hwreased cost o(
Ui dodudift, pezudtW a!'intor*4 pvAd.. loans used tm.b y
kAIM Preirreeld 'tax VktdLLWW, Or'A"IM Anto Oft tax zate in
N64vaW, the uw-,bf Au;nerous Mispied: ;710=79; effective tax Tate.
8 time. pi irelinn d Bre estimated to increAse from between
0' 50.8 uiffion and B/ k7 million'and wM reach totals of B/ 340.6, million or B/
--I_- 6n::.how-...thP edmamir, is during the second
6(tW 0
1,fbia! iftft*sse--*,1w M"Km .wffl be, infbvior to the increase in
IV& Chia, ik bep,no now resourcesto augment theJ,
'Ibb 4dAch now: budiRet. Firill be
S/ &I'Mifflon. willto net rein ]MOMOUexpenditures, while the
W ,,ofsnobH&tory nature.
'OF an- wkturw-cgm te brokeftl do" in -the
'U) From between W -418 =91ion to B/ 417 millian far servicing the foreign debt E*'**F fikr frO6 behoeen AV W-6 -=MW to.'Bf 129.8: million or B/ 130.2
lAk-'_ Ito d the
Swift. AM b6 wl*C ff ot ubt theeconon:,y remperates urlinr
Above-bb*wvatiom while the, ihliwAons will Winertased by B/
V66 WAIk6i Uh *qWred -- to- service the foreWi &K its rado in
to revenue increases from 29.6% fp between 38.2% and 39.0% which-.
deteriorates ofar qCSPQMW.1W
B/ 2.3 million of the ankorUza0m of sakrim are for. Bducatiab-4EI/ 1A million ,
OWth-0.4 millke- j.F

(3) B/ 1.3 nd1H= of current..- dmnances whkh refiectis the in in swbs* to VW Nabonal Uwvemty, tbe: pqment of Belbos notes sdbecribed to BM and the
Of water.
164
(4) B/


arld6ffi IL
is- a I for ywin.0 0, Fog iA lift,
=-Wmg row! 1or t1w PUAlIft
9. . j








M7 B/ O.4milnno ign order to bolster th upybudget of the Health inistry and
W ine frthe abv esnaohre utbe man aine ath
hbidgeled fiscal 1t976 level it isnein toeid the- '-,
all programmed budgting rappective ope-htt'
our analput can ddct the mosnaount of their tm osbet evaluate and ta en pntually their budget by pgram (DA to Govrnen contrbutio towtd M -the PUbli=
we clult that it wil be BI 78.0 millon which emit ask I= /E8. millon~omer the BI 60.0:million .that is estimate will iteein
W s resift the glbldeficit will be between. BIV 13t1MW. m iit i million, depending on how well the economy a during ter.
(1) To finance' this deficit we wil require B/ 15.6 millon fromthe Vn Investment Fund, BI 5.0 million in Internall~onds, and from B/ 111.8 ilo 118.7 million fraon the private banks.
(m) Thus, the amounts that must be financed as well as the amnouto that obtained, create very concrete problems- which in turn reterate theneiedto hm
eesad raaetonyi those area of an' obligatory eatestW agtW
d the maist of time possible to the conscientious elaboration o.'f
programs in order to execute the largest possible amount of services requiedi society with the acarce resources thatare avaiable.
(i) On the- one side, thereuir~ed refinancing of between B/ 131.9v mieAd B/ 188.7 million inqlies thtteewill be pressure o& the liquidity andsoimy the National Bank which, must Iprovide the Cent~ral Governmnt" th1a"dt resburcas while te M3previously metoe inniloeroscn be fataalt all of which shoul take at least four months. ]During thispenind ,& theaind R will av to re te 9* No of e 11d as *ma to g ,n booanp

deficit of BI 99.8 million which in turn- is. ewmB M f~~u-k,3t million less than what has been estimatedfo
(a) On the other hand, we feel it will be diflipaln M
with the commercial banks in the amounts peosyt n o
count that during the prehent.-odsal prdwe mast: anat cfpr- oo fY million with those sources, who in turn have beo eae that an accod has to be finald Beid, the relation bwm. andcurrent reenues between 8.9,% and 89% A gesta asrvice this debt and thswill hereasethesiisk
() In shot, L97 lines. up as ashosel delicat e ** ntol o urp
nore ha current reesnes, as weBfa to the ow the new cigthat musd be contract which reachesIlim
baio an meeb



(Setymne ttes Embas i Panma to that Deateto4c
2 th, 1978)a
Tais:iECONiEFIN.


















1Tis tomessagei g ar of aoting seie fm mission, onomicL of" Stae fof obc the Paaaapcomy and projectios fo its futuri. meo
2.v Sury Panamao s roesmion, hic t dee ened t.J he oW
eith cylials nor f a of ecaonnccniidePng.
omc
E*iKWT

iiii~iiiiiiiii~kv
(Sn b nte taeimbsyinPnaat teIsae MQL
sif 1"6
Tags:iiOiEFEN
Via -2i-,
Sujctiaam'iRcsioisihcuriiiRslio ow acvt
i. Ths msewis art f aconinung erie. O -eomimi,
SttioihePnaaiaiiiiiadpr~ ......
1. ) itwiiii* iiiiike
2 .iiiiiieii
reeqiwih uigh



competitiveinitheiOff" i
invsmn.Tistbihabssii eee idanbegothwl eqir








PF ip- yo Mow4ps" include easing the
,4OMxWWqWv*JF% and-&recting resume MRctor Wh":,PA"xM has natural wv, M* P*kwO=& wbvI4 10A. beck so"- benefits granted to 41- and.. inigU- mW be, poli,
UMAUWIY
110000 t not beengettint. 4-3t
"Oglt WMWAOW.. of amess to reie4ni vc;ia
odf infraskm Which I is ---qWmits to sevviiam,*W[ushms by tho Pana
-J
0660k 00"fioui i9r. PUBMW aboadil irst, haff.
y during the 1976 11
-"No"We h-A @Moog- construe.
&Ujl 4i6&4i"1U" K (hwhmseY ,and: iorm to the Canal Zone (we
ftoth* 'to W near: zero for 1916.
vtj-- Otimpla indicates that the
ni"41UMULLIOU
-t. CAWfthaa remained. rdati pi tiit -,A*Ji4IfthIP the wiiiviiknn I tent.-forb6th avicultuil.
s. nmwo- an tax subsidimfor new and tfid benefits
Md bkoic-cMInge6,bav9'been made L"Z m of the game" bdo t such 8101the labor cocu ortak laws,since before the
Wt Oa in sought by various
nt months has actively *
tbit bu-4-- dimate. A hirge boost in:1975 #ublk.sector 04,00er privaft'in or a$p"mte
prQb W do not seem to be caused
--*P- _y
'PrJ1.16ildIO&I. %, Pontrant tq FMfIrds Y10, hime' riencing a. qu c
so f1mi Ifils year in response to rapid'r6oovery by the
PW i qWfq *'on of, Mrq*U-4 *W*Men* I= e - 16W
as a pad d iho first half
9 ;Oa,
10 Puma Wb"*- value of Panamanian exports remained at its
im-1 Mluftlxmvmal Oieumproducw
-0-A A-w-A Jodi; 'LL' exportsy,,-K
Aw vorldwi4evattern both during,
'A=hmUtely preceding4t. 'Despite sharp 01":Intfies. gOrWO
Mang. IMICS' gross
ODP) 15.5-percent..in AOU and.4.7,- percent in 19M
197I...whereas, during 1971-73 the rot of thevorld i Won W bomm,
RWv"tJW in I Growth in inanufacturto 'Off, WIWI v*b ther::numbsr of attractive import
xdtuv-,* W hn A66*1MIW taken mi- the volume
-4F' and interE"Afte
-n46 IM. omwtruction aefivW b"" do
be** 1dediaing! 1974. I*podtitm of rmt controls in i in.: JW.144 hbuWng: to, a stan&M" :Onthe d&er '00i of Ob", 90"N" I seckw remained near 8 percent annually
V 1, 19xt bi MI dim pad, to the major eXP&Mon Of the
ftgii %Ilturai output hai'remamed
beeii 6co li our:: view reason behin&:
*Wmaw ana the
All
in the world market-a: structure coupled, with a IvA of
for 111*3maniAft -in
at is, in Ih nf
A
4 J;ae= ,y MOWits Ingo
or q iondAm, labor coos are
_61 po' uWk
lu d tO' t leaft dodhi the xate
PAX

rim and cry 1 and is fbAbir eveloildiv my
U I fiW vadous leffiew by the small domestic market in IA 10 1 fivests ]Wm been cut over and there is little potential
Iw ingot expw wbfie nowes to tim UA nuu*st is icted. PAnames suW
is Mcewise non-e five due W high comb of both cane productim and








8As wth kniture, PTaana's maufacuiginutfufnl
exotor overly growth potntialbeas of high produtton otb6u W
derhof natural resources pe deptogto ha4not yed...det economically expliitifle. Hunmmil"wages ad eaiind ture in: Panama are estimated to be thlesetr Avneblean ,highest in All LAi America. Higher wages s~asiad benefits in, the Quaa8! upward pressure on wages in teepbe as.epoescmeeIrta
beterquaifedWorkers'.attracted byZn ags h diansseo*tg
aetrin, Paniama's central urban, -area *ith tk ihr kl tvl
ward pressure on the entire wage and benefit:srcue l~poe Panama a labor code.,-add to direct employment: costs. The coeeateridied pressures on costs -throughosbiissc sfrigretitoe. ers and, by steghng the. trade union movement balaera r
costlier contract settlmns Hihabor costs, encourage the substipti 9 for labor, thus boosting structural unemploymeq .througheat1'thk4:
reltie cpial costa'-mostl foreign ere.-hpp likelyt is-a, ready high debt sevc bre oens and the econeeeotg
1mroves relatvs ofnm.*. *<. .
Establishin thebasis fo rrenee growth admpovidoda that can be austined 'Will require. action's that. lead to a lower ti widely d iscussed .possibil ity is- an easing, of the, labor, code, lhug # on costs remains uncertain (it did not brn onrceso in the way of. needed private sector adjusrens. Change induce an mmediate suge of private @estment di
has made clear its cocth that cange are esseiiiial, te

economic plight.. *
10. Approprie ei tightening also dowtif- include lower i i iE the. winebnftsrauetA-dc relative production costs, and sonal taxes to curb consumption (particularly importsart& expand doiia These effects. are uudll achid iditey by currecydvalain Sibes ma's currency-is the U.S. dollar, such Actins spAt be taketdiredlypiss? resources may need to be mioreo~heavily concentrate-in the *4 services sector where Panama has more 'natural. advantage, with less in agriculture and the non-productive soial dener..* -1>: 11L. Comments: -.:- 3.41* 4
(A) Panama's high wages,:subsidles, an& eassumertimporta -tgehe 'WAiadm erate. tax burden and, little pblic eavig permiit a stnarof l~-iMii*dtsto' longr appears to be suppotal by Panazma's ineffiient domesticpadtiw<
()Increased external financial flows per se, segwardles of co o' Panama to defer grappling with-the core probleof-o~w prod. civi date..when .the problem, will, probably have,, worend untenal.aut s cally on some aspect of costs. Indeed,, much: Othe capitalongge t years has aggravated Panamas- economic mli exeaterb sis p
service burden 'without enhancing overall -productiv. .ton gty excpeded the current account deficity of Panm'vs p~l f~p resulting in large' -neative errors s and omissin' (run 10 most of which probably represented oudo ws Of doesicll-one0 c
(C) The types of actions mentioned above' for addesnPa structure run hedogit the "revolution-h s)cial, andecnug
gran1LtedW to the urban and 'rural. working' classes over.the past eight years would need tobe 'reversed in party' ishot the .."revolution"' has .pfildd Growth and on rthe othermust yield wtero not actions ofsuffiden be economically meanin'gful along the abovb ie are polticll A
present government is questionable ..
(D) Panamas best econotwig prospects lUe in t~,dbvelopmbuit of itif 'dm sbfrservicing internatina cmee ,.apectso'eroa
essential part of the picturee. Thild, the'O hos 'A vald t to relevatcana zone'sites needed to devo the infrktruct6k ond v various trnprstorage in ther tmkrilgp.3
7 ... . .
1%:,kU::..1iU1~i
ii.6
.. . . .






45
NMI r
ME= do washtnow P401,

IL* "'r "An

4L 6--A GO *MIlL Bksaid today,. that p A
qV*V; Av federal -66aftict-d-intereit igm beewase
,0,,V
"'Special employee" of the guyernment time he a4viw the Proddento"-Boll told a 118W., .". t*MF Winter Aaeoda 9
adv a ftbW M mid; in this
d under the:: sitatuie that Xirlx a partnering
the Atlanta law firm Bell bowme Attorney Ceuer4 is
6
jrv Carter.
h*" 4* INKITe Ili idift-6PwW-emO1oYk*Afttus,'whkh
bim from advising Carter or anyone elm in government about any ma#w
us dft
.Ago
-n of4r 1prow t ;6 INaw mxm LkWd dvice
IF ,
i1mwb )=*O*Ps6 wA*t ftrtbe
1963, d the Kennedy -----WOW
90 Cot klent #on,
=ope
In=
Ja Atlanta, Kirbo confirmed to repoirtem that he is in specWM*01se status, feenor
li'& Wines to W"lin
Wbw be- conoes to the House, he wK he tries to help airter carry out his
COMUNdfim IV nitmimts 1 4 RM m Umwbe simply listens to the
go
The p =*mry restraint of his speculd-employee is that "You can't
xi" any advwe on anyt "e4l&e-aw B4 iveponding to F q said that to avoid any Possible conflict
r
1"Urmaplimillim and Se wft*ithin a
48,17% wide Justice U1PP-W&w-M# off9Cbflz1j -A-Iist'of of Ahe: lww firm's large
alv* or Wft jrppebe",4 v4mfakbw briefly to, the ABA% Boom of Dele.
00MVd11 imm-an-AwoutbYWOrder crewtWgIcommissiew th on: Abeblwof, MOM6. for vamidw on UA courts of appeal NMI alk"Ibe, co-n-disdow.10,0repo, their. aw 4and-hibm
-'Ib bound to &mum submitted by senators from affected state&
of, yage wooes Owtis W-d I :Mm* Wx.,. For(awA wwa cc will wb@ WMIAMW one hr fina
*fb .. to the
Oak VWIX.F Re nit! on i ... ... L% emb, of wbi&
.1 F .
be Wme 1"-Ow 44. tbe-dftftlWta, How 4wdw does i4aw OF,*W Waxpmp bot he4w n't knowfif CArber.wffl
aql'uff= 40(14'-' 'tbaf wow a ',#ke AAA MnW*y Over IW
4" WT 0. n
go the SOW 48A Far- WGd
49 W#Olft P- MON 1 P%-p4w 4i, a
es NJD.,

r i =1
convert
MT M, ww,bq4wMM ,
tw lip
02t
u .1 u L 11, k J '.) t [10.
arib It) eW9-:311*! Uf%-XA 1. a. ,G* i e144 -0,11 1 off I zuml bix.ulf, aft- ton iw.:W1[#,Jj adg .. Jl-k -f FS? 110S MtOl zq izUbKJ Id I






16

PANAMA CANAL NEGOTIATIONS
Mr. THvaxOND. Mr. President, a column apae February 19,'1977, in the WaV igo Post veitsm
son and Lee Whitten entitled ."Report Could UpeetP
The column refers to a report prepared by Reipreet M. Murphy, Democrat, of New York, about torture:. opponents in Panama of -the current military:
AsI have warned in the pastthe nie 8G
serious mistake by attempting to ngttea treatyaea with a government which was--not frely hosenb
Panama. ...
Furthr, this* particular government has denie A-6
of the basic political and- human rights promoted .by Carter.*.
By negotiating a treaty. with Torrios the QCarter is givingmr power .'to the current. Panam' in;
which Congressman Murphy's report claims hee frtured dered up to 32 political op)ponentb. .. -.v
Mr. President, I ask unanutnous consent ttti ed in the Record. -':..sAt
There being no objection, the article was ordered to be, the Record, as follows:
Rarowr COULD Ursa9r PANAMA TALKS q

(By Jac Anderson and LeDs Whittem)j 2*Pi ne*a
The United States must soon decide whether to give up the Panma a. colonial strip that is offensive to all Latin America.. :. le We warned on, Nov. 20, citing secret intelligence reports, that the %Q=e a "ticking time bomb" about to explode. President Carter gave it to~p priority after he took charge of fonent dispatched a: crack negotiating team, headed by the veterandila Bunker, -to Panama this week. Its secret -instructions are to tel A formula that will permit the United States to relinquish sovereignty40V, of Panamanian territory.
But there are 'some flies in the diplomatic ointment. Ominousit peared, for example, in the Panamanian economy. Dictators habitual a public attention from their domestic faiures by stirring up emioa is concern that Panara's military digctto, Omar Torrggs,,,agght -f alble settlement and use the canal as a political Issue. kH
Carter, for his part, has pledged to restore morality to U.S:- forwigntake a stand against nations that abuse human rights. H# ps confidential report from-' Rep. John, M. Murphy (D-N.Y.) about true jo. urh' pointedly reh President not to surdpr thePnq4 the allegations have bencleared up. The disturbing report, written and tasae nPnm ne
was smuggled out of the counztty. Bomne of' its egain hve diplomatic sources.
The report Charges that Torri liicl6 ents haviebe beaten, sexually abused and electrical shocki If dashes 32peop have been murdere by the Torrijo government. For example, a Roman Catholic priet, Hectoir Gallegoe nw Panamanian National Guard in June, 1971. He 'hild beeiin cooperatives in his impoverished parish. Apparently he found working against the interests of some local relatives of the Panamanian, dictator. Dpoai sources cofirm that Gallegos has not been heard from since.






17
is re ease* at *ra*ue iding o r totr or
metie nting more is heard about the victim."
-VI saolice eldom allow relatives to claim: the victims' abused bodies. But
a~gsthat four bodie--those of student Mlarlene Medisabal, student lawyerr I Euben.A Mir1 -and: Eduardo: White--were recovered and
it&vi r to ananma, where6, the report alleges "the unwarof .omes by the Mnilitary police is an every ha pening.:" The
lsaffidavits anid details about tetorture that is .
Aeg s. a we.-reported in 1978, that members of Torrijoe' family are
ANbwinteaio nal narcotics smuggling.
anacpldupset the delicate neoitosfor a ziew Panama Canal
AfPanamanian embassy spkeinnan said the charges were fabricated by
He, invited, us to visit Pamae to see whether there is torture, an
a ilbe hapy to accept if we cnbe guaranteed access,.unannounced,
4 to to inspet, without government eseart. Only proven terrorlift
.............. .. ............ .. ... .iiiiii



iiiii- 9








[From the ompmsumal anood-sems Mar. 24 19M

NEW PANAM CALI",' TilBATNA
Mr. TaVaMoxo. Mr. President the. Mareh 1,91,
Wahigtn Potcnandan article by Don(ak "Panama Plans Intense Publicitfot TO bd1.
This article points out tht aama a de
public relations firm to mount a drive within the -back a new Panama Canal Treat.
I am deeply concerned that thKere is a strongmin b -,
American people to support any newtreaty witly- i i .
whether or not it is in the best interest othscountry.
Mr. President I ask unnmu sent that this antce
ed in the Record.
There being, -no objection, the article wasi ordee tobei IMI the Record, as follows:PAxAxA PrAms Iraws Punicarr E~onar To Pun Neow Tant
(By Don Obeniorfer)
Pansima has bired former proeial campaign aides of Sen. Bar Goldwe (R-Aris.) and Sen. Hubert H.Huphe (D-Mina.) to plan and exeuem 1 public relations drive kbairing a new Panama, Canal treaty. The contract bet ween Panama's United Nations Mission and Pnbli Afa lysta, a New York frbecame effective in Januay F. Ginl WW h o architect of God ae 1964 bid for the White Hosis president the firm. Joseph Napolitan, who was the Hamphrey campaign's media diredo 1968 and has worked on many other political drives, is chef executive anw. -bme Dm cratic National Chairman Lawrence F. O'Bries le an owner at the irm though not active on a da-odybasis.
Napolitan, mna tlpoeinterview, estimated that Pubie Affairs A alyt wold charge Panana $15,0 to $200,000 for its service over the first sxmtie. He said the firm will send pro-treaty ifralnto same 6,000 infnil- fibo journalists, academicians and bnsinesspepl as well as monitor -h ataides of
a cna treaty. He said tefirm will not nage iar
4prepganda agctites

tyb rou on all sides of the canal issue, which may well become o e W
negntations with Pana on a new treaty by this summer, hoi- f Semale ratification before 17,a congressional election year in which verscoizal
treaty could becomean isue
Senate Thcaticw~ Whp Almn Cranstnn It'aMF1) has heen usi.*n
talk with Iegislators before leuuainDay. Cranston amd&ee--&2 to 25 senators are "apt to be negative" to a new treaty, 38 senators are --yfor a sensible treaty" and ulp to 20 more senators apea amndaoble to-n40 new treaty, with the postinso the rest unknown. Sen. Strom Thurmond (R".C.) last year mustered 38 senators on a ni-reaty resolution. This is more than the one-third of the Senate, which can blcbati~ontion of a treaty by a two-thirds vote. Cranston's figures sho improved leaves for treaty ratification, but a tough political battle likely, is still likely. Congressional sides report cotnigheavy mail on the P~way C aga issue, meetly from gro oposn what thymai.ntain is a U.S. y Some.
of the mail is generatedb conservative pbiaonsuch as beade. articesag the current issues of Liberty Lobys "Sotigtand NatioDnld State Parhty's Thunderbolt"atahn a new canal treaty. The Coni fteAmericas, mad up of 220 major: U.S. m '-awM
investments in Latin America, asked each senator in a Jan. 28 le"O to ejct s resolution that would block neo-' in for a new canal treaty. lte, by council president Henry R.Gyln said succeesful coltio of IT anemanian differences would have "a very positive impnet" an U.S, rebntions wit Ltin Amaer-








(council: has ata" ae a'"wor ofof seni= ,or executives from 45 corporacounter oppostian to a cnftreaty. Officials said. an initial, budget of
$)~ O'r adka been far exceede by actual operations, ine .in
a. rgte to 6,W0 people of a S6page pamphleqt on the arguments
asv x arm bas come a ito organizations that have taken
*wfkm, ftom the Aimrcan Lgon and Veterans of Foreign
at c we tMitetLo re
on the Pa Ca al-i projct of the: American Council for World
if n eonserature gru.In a fund-raising letter for the
council presuMln Pe chal claimed his organization in ap ts ne 1000louty h nrnder of the Panama dCakaL"
an etin American Poliy a piousl indepenW-dent conservative
last year becanse a"autonomos division Of the John Birch jSocie t
outa tor faurn a five-page pamphlet titled 'Who
tht Ael Non-Profit P Information Corp. whose director of pbic informaPt.;Up 1-arnm, a tireess ianti-treaty figue who calls himself "the grandsonof the foundataof the Republic of Panama." Harman. in 1953 married a
of Jose Aranga, a, member of, the. junta that etbihdthe first
expect periaips' the' most: important salesi campaign of all to be
4tia naonth or two, if etAtin wit Panama proceed favorably.
ba omitted himself a private toamjrdrivbcknthne
t evflSia "Alfisichat" eVoe tothissue.








U.S. CANAL'ZN*ADPN M CANALte
W IOUT: SOVEREIGNTY IS 9 1 l
Mr. HEms. Mr.. President, as MeMbes obi increasinglyv aware, the question 'of the 'ontinae bythe Umited States of the U.S. -owned CaaW u Canal has become a matter -of 'both, national and interest. One- feature of this iteest has been "the.a perceptive articles by.,eminent authorities, among tem. Baldwin, a military hisan, t and former military editor of the New: York TimedO. 'T
In the first of a recent series Vf two.,artheles i SL Conn., newspaper, he stresses. the strategic, value o Canal, emphszsteCrbenGlofMxc as :our belly," and refutes some of the current criticisms .of "continuing and far-reaching importance" 'toth
In the second article of this series, Mr.. Baldwini
1974 Kisigr-Tack "agreement of, principles under W4
current diplomatic negotiations: for a new Pnna
human rights by "neo-Marxist dictatorship" of Panama, dsrt Panamanian threats of violence as "overdrawn," asks wehr]L1A more important to avoid "confrontation and condemnation to "retain control of the canal," and concludes that "if we refeedeo defend highly important or vital interests merely to! aveld' tW blackmail threat of violence we are finished beore: the d' erupts.
Mr. President, the Uni Saes -is a gr.at ad p......s., ass and Panama is small and weak. What is needed in the stth
Isthinnsituation is a combination of courage and cauti4' cause surrender of U.S. sovereignty over the Canal Zone m
trol without sovereignty double-speak."
Mr. President, as the two indicated articles by Mr. 1aW should be of unusual interest to all Members of Congreess and. Nation at large, T ak unanimous consent to have them printed ai the Record.
There being no objection, the articles were ordered to be print & in the Record, as foos
trhe Waterbury Sunday Republican, Feb& 6, 1977]
PANMAu CAN VrrAL To U.S. herEREST (By Hanson W9. Baldwin)
The future of what should be America's "Mare Nostrum"-the Caribben SetGulf of Mexico-will be profoundly affected by one of the first crucial foreign politr decisions of the Carter Administration.A That issue is the Panama Canal-its security and conbtl and its:8so gtjy. Not since Fidel Castro took over Cuba and established a Rusia-suppore and Russian-armed Communist bastion within 60 miles of our shores has there been any" foreign policy issue so close to home and so important to, basic: American Political and strategic positions as the current and long-continuing negotain with the.. Republic ofPanama about a new Canal treaty. The terms of such a treaty will have significance that willB extend. flar beya& the operation of the canal, the status of the narrow striD of land around it-th Canal








uIl no consdered:: U.S.sveeg territory), or its effects upon Panama
or other Latin-American nations. 'Tevtmt sae oliell be control of
,sea, area--aBr of that:%vast,. island-dotted watery space to our south ak-ross
lmos of the main north-south,eastewest air and sea trade routes of the
Hemisphere flow.
'Oheatheltanroe: Doctrine was first enunciated 150 years ago has there been
Waha Major threat to its validity as there is today. Ever since Castro came to
the Doctrine-has been maoe honored in the breach than in the observance.
MIeflying from Cuban-field, oviet submrines calling at Russian-built
baes, Cuban troops armed, wit Russia weapons, transported by Russian to African Angola, and Russian-trained Cuban guerrillas, infiltrators, agents
and "training" and "aid." missions in various Latin-American counlinstuding Panama;, Guyana, Jamaica and Puerto Rico are all signs of a
infection.
a2es that Alfred Thayer Mahani and all succeeding generations- of strategists L idered, in the vital interest of :the United States to, control is now often
td the -vapor trails of Russian jets or the unseen passage of Soviet submarines.
.....IMPORTANT FOR TRADE
as no doubt about it; the Monroe Doctrine today is in considerable peril.
Caribbean Sea-Gulf of Mexico is an are of tremendous geographical and eqaspaic, and hence of strategi, importance to the United States. Across its waters 4tqllarogh its skies flows a very sizable'portion of theiffeblood of U.S. industry and
coeaeee-cfee and magnsefrmBaibnasndtoclfutsrm
('atalAmercan the sand; copperfromPeru n= hl;buiefo aac
and Surinam; oil from Venezuela.
$pme 13 major global trade routes funnel~through the.Canal. About 16.8 per cent
TJLtrade passes through the Cana and it has been: estimated that of all cargoes
Paiisma in ships of all flags, some 70 per- cent is bound to or -from U.S.
pafCaribbean-Gulf Wrea provides access .by sea and air to our vital Gulf
Mattthe ni-rAsigy important to-shore oil and, gas fields in the Gulf, to
tMisiissippigjugalar vein of the nation, and to the "soft underbelly"-the
afhAderbelly-of the United States,
nt-day militY importance of the Canal is too -often dismissed. Two
criticisms of its alleged lack -of utility are made: It could, it is, said, be destroyed In a nuclear war, and its locks are not wide enough- to accommo
odrn vessels.
Itemehti are fagje, irrelevant or over-signpled- In a nuclear wair, the adfor that' matter, msAy other areas -in the. United States and overseas ilyhave no relevance, either as targets or as positive military assets. But
doshave major and continued importance in non-nuclear conflicts or
afaioswhich are, by far, the most likely contingencies of tomorrow.
the ubanmissile crisis' sIaines and supplies from the West *Coast -were
thrughthe Canal to the Cpribbean; if they- had had toplass around Cape
th would never have arrived in time to influence t~he outcome. During the
Warone-third of all sea-borne cargoes- bound, for Vietnam transited the
after loading at Gulf or Atlantic ports.
ADEQUATE FOR NAVY
Today, with our Navy greatly reduced in n umbe rs, we face the same situation we did before -World War II--a oneocean fleet with tw*ocan responsibilities. a Cottrry to impression, every vseofthe United.States Navy, except.for 13 Oiae aircraft carriers, ca rsi the. Canaincluding All our missle-firing and
*acksubmarinee, all our antisumine: and escort forces, our amphibiousvessels and eqr~ support and supply craf-a factor Of: greatimportance when a, crisis, is

withith te waon*e athin; dt-of locks (or a sea-level Canalk wider than. the 1 10hfoot width of the present locks and -possibly of greater depth, which would massondate, avxses tuture time.. when and if trafi needs ,demand it, not only
-the world's largest naval vessels, but some of the huge ore carriers-and supewteak00nta thrfore, te'orpuar ipesothe CanAoes have cootinuins and












pteitwal staemicaned psalgcl he igh s upor ntr aibenS8, Mia and pneroise iitrein th soaerin mria slus oeafb thteerie bys im ic the Repnbli Caa:ws iitte ol pvrt or thi ty byUS"nienadwt ..mnyadteOtlZr a

gther t8. Sanpt ad Cour an toPnmvntebges gv-w!i u
hsthogthrpovsosyfte.rg
The mayc tmesalys-t Itheia aneas oento f1 Sepiityed mit, otri of tenitedy acstesbu o na RpbktPnmati1



St[tm wte ateu Sondand
possess iiiii and..........................eign of.th..err.toy..-1.......s
pDecarr or authority.


stns although owteahed, becasen of the orgaff rayhvebe eisdo w ftned onc iessionsy at point-of-ns e turnicntxa~ n frt
beneit, or af thne ttbto Panama.Cnlldet

erom ttbtuneie perbod ofuda time han (eb0,1VM

5.~ ~ ~~~B svrinyadcnrloetHe annWBalin

veicnegotiations with ne Panama h on ray imgragedta h of -weit thuframeworkmofteean, lim iitttte' e rat hQ' after a virtualy hitsms4f6atya e int soerecgti on to ofe the Canad isueinodt the Zoe
ndert the fasieor of ee dmitratiors

nae radical demagogic dicttr who has ruld s5 Pat eight years.
Omar Torrijos seized power in a coup and hsrtie tb re oc sport of the Panaanian National Guard,thonymlar-liepwrn moutryn by the bland promises of pie-in-th-1 -liaesieegt v~' Cnal and the Zone. He has not hesitated to naaa "Vietnam"), and we shall also fact h-nte fa f
Itin-American nations.,
Both threats ar, in my view,, overdrawn-patclryte]tK u hW tin still remains:
Is it more important to avoid confrontation adta ti orti cotrol of the Caa, a security asset of tremenos ipracifitOw4Mbu ofeven greater sinfcneto the, future of-tha-vtlreth.wban qf
ofMexico?








.,:aileand 11olitical coneanences of the abandonment ofsoeint
Sttsin the Zoine-in the face of repeated treated by a mmor
booked by Castro and Rueeian comu im--to our naval base at
CuOba, to other U.& base rah ooverseas and to our strategc
in the coud b diasrous. Teqestin that would inevitaly
miU Stkera paper tiger
after Vietan ad Angja and now. Panama, would we draw the line, i tiAatouaow backdor
cetany true thit rioting mobs tomorrow, as in the past, are an ever pee
in Panama; L&an voility andCommuist prvcaers id
kminfstratom, -insure that. Sabotage and terrisf supported andor ussa.could become serious; som26 bombinkginciet involving
*f Zone residents who apps the transfer of sovereignty have already 4 -. u serious sabotage of the na itself, even if it could be accomplise. 4"111 anTrrational act. For Phama, it would kill the goose that laid the golden
guerrilla war,. another Vietnamn, is highly unlikely. We want no aVM .4m a;Mn -nit surely Panama does not want a Central American Vietnam en thue great p mart of Panamanians are not the dedicated and disciplined
wefacd i th jugles of Southeast Asia.
-a*ni we are toaodcnrnainall over the world by concession and
we refuse to defend. highly important or vital interests merely to avoid
i--I% threat of violence we are finished before the crisis erupts.

we.mus r is xeah Bs itwllbxrrfto


hkiaspected strength. Man of them are highly dependent on the waterway, a noe ofthem, quite safe d with the low rates and efficiency of American
f the Canal, sistut the probable instability and uncertainty of Pana-1 ikde iro, con siderable uneasiness about Communist influence in Panamai ap,,ti1sp 3 '\rro has etbihdwith Castro The memories of Angola and
-f abueman imperiaaham within the Western -I are vivid.
-1drV Set' Fall' poiical campaign, both President and Jimmy Carter t he real inu nthe Panama negotiations which is the question of U.S.
I Ia he s t of our "st unebel. Nei9the of *referred to t~o,,ablem of the Canal issue-the im ortance of the Caribbean,
talini sid they wolild maintain I"conftI of time Canal.
-71 eexactwd of now Pihiet Carter, which are today most germane, were: "I woldMneer gile up cmplitW control or practical control of the Panama Canal
A. oher ordshare your cake and eat it, too. Give up sovereignty, perhaps, but
-v i ecrt a dioitrl it's a nice trick, if you can do it
6,0, or gea aified in L~ibya anid our entire militarjy investment there after
ha of regime. We were denied ovrlgtor **amurig bases during the last
ageh b ou aeies. Aftar the .risi both Tukyand Greae
to 2 i9A operations at our bases inC countries or cloe them down.
Saverei p =eans control. Control without sovereignty is doubleepelak







4. IVM
PANAUA Ja
G'NVFA

Mr. HEL3". B6. dt6ft lhe lsif
bers of the Co have repeatedly, *rooo&
a :
treittim1:11FIMer d the qWatjoi tf
gmer- owl
Pr"n"10 Hay-Paqncef9te Tregity with
the 1 -41 qe Lt
Ow rules for the tuet CAWd W eV
The projected mum, wae r of
is an obvious disregard of,, this, tresty;,thep Ibwoen: by i ai -td
acm oft,
S as cap be
secure approval 6f
largest ui*rs. of the Panama CbhaI-'wRfi ar of 13,786 o(*'*a-' inj
Wo tra=*.W dt in'
finely recent efforts by senew 3r
obtain. in&rmuAtion. fi-tun Stge I t
its reqmnsibloroffkiab W -. "Is- 11
Treaty untifaler W,"
t In the United- th6 ft iB (fifterent, A= anA
4mt: LMCIM uFMILOCiVAIr Alert
di"tod M,the,'QWW American plans, to tM=8fiW sOWeig0ty Of will: have t4D be approvedby th& British Gommmetd,..
Mr. Preddent, the failure "ot tho'StAie
this matter "with the M"tish Governnont-asa. Pauncefbte Treaty is, indoeddiqi Canal and its protedive'fiai-6 "O: I I
center convement for use' aq a di greatestworks of man thatservei ffie of
The surrender of ita, sovereign# coAtrot, probably, be followed byvotidwide 6WO 4CO,
ter, especially for TWAU ii4Uoi ,Jdeppi*ut'
Mr. President, in.,,order that Congraw. may be fully infibrindd4 I ask from the Daily I ph u
7elegra
M e .0
_4 prinW in thi
!Thire'being, no objection, in the ltecqTA, as, follows.:
T tli- ; r
.[Fr=tibe..London:Dai]yTelograpkMw.,%Itln
BRUAMOMM RIIAW .&A. A"So Mum Arpwvz PAN*u* T*&xqvw,,t,
_.p, 141*
11 Desmongt Wettern)
American plans to.trpnorer sovereignty Of the Panama 01ndl Ab the Cirter Adminis ation intends to effect soon to rid Ameries of blit Of "Colonialism," win have to b appnyvvd by the larWA d6vernmtnk This results from Britannia having once ruled the waves-ot at Iowa b the world's largest merdbant. navy. The matter was Ided 100ir. The Hay-Pauncdote Treaty of that yeor requires tl t 1 W befa there is a'change in the control 9f the ConAL f9ft, 'A6. !L
The treaty w signed on Nov, 18, YtheIIBAfl6 ton, Lord Pauncefote, and the American S&Tkar






4QU
dledlke Owfin-eWbon4kiwer. OU Ow lina Provi" for UidlinOrof-Abe ww con~ -JW.::the vh*qfimg: bf all


14wUnt"ekthes IN%! "elsdusiM rtht fbr fl* regubdion
Ofthwitwge'ibra A*6wfio QM& "DQ chunp, of, tertitarw Samncanjd sbAR aMB& the-gemn*1 principk of neububsefien.or &e W OW rPskfi&ASrAa:iwmdAnwrkn)un&wth&

741i" fiW the to trow6v
to =WIMZ
powerthe reign and OmmmweeM Offi.m.'

P" of vim the British Government is unhWy to ob*t W my ttbo" a& jellst the sty.
-A- Whashaws
UM ProviSIOns,
Imsed am twi A- bfind eye rather than- a elm
Rinvol-P F derives 4he days whm it. ww Govern'Im A- A-T
nuvN; around the wbd&*w the bmeM.of the British
Ammicans alone am entWed to maintainn such miktw7 police along the
M benecessarytID t _tit-agabwt essness and disorder."
Mwnd to thA of America in the use of the CanaL year 11or ai* wmilab*, Bribsh. mmvhaa
VMt ON q k 19 Q Md MTYM 130000 long tons of cargo coinpared to
Amwrican shi fiv 1
=C&rry1U 0.5*Q(* 10mg tom Met I eM 1AJerh4with 1,798 and Japan with. 1". Russian
11 OU lhow.'k '7
Abou ILI
C aal by, BritIsh warship is now innall In 1976 a -task fivm a nineinimth series of 6zereless ibbl* n o rifigh warship- bbs navh*ed the canal
J understancL
JqLett political cond&nmtioiw the Cirter Administration- is aim believed to
A60698ft bankmW intawts-A tw- hmd, the avar to
. ..... A 0 MM TO 14DPM

im-mlifili- lifithig".1he LmAm branch of Chow Manbeb6ved ID ham k9dt, the Left-wing regime of Preddftt Ton*s of
-Iffitell- Abd areidmods to obtain merest on their loans. R is felt that '*01imt viRb& *Wmble oidy, if Thhazis ha6 docew to pvfib fitm cowl 16 -IN
IWOW befieket 1466MIUChuU"the Orka:%nk WHIiam
Ibb da gj ld Beba jr,
7 777


UArmzsa*iR w ttw, Memp ift&mw AjkDQmT BmAm- va-'Fmam zm,
OV'A 'SMOPI: IrUx"

FULawd at November 18, M ; rafirwation adviwd tb#'Uuftod
lilvl 1&0, IN
10 1 Is US 0 by ale Prom K MI;
M,?= L14LITI' + -' ;I t I ga
'KaMMKM
Febrnkz r 190tT
$S

.. .. ......

6-TMIOD 40. Aim. X
ISL'W" W.A& w, a 4'r:'d'j A:.:..L::






26


V. Raiiaion.]
The United Staths of America and His. Magesty ldiaM th1 8 6n, of teusk Kingdom of Great Britain and Irelad, sad of the BritishDndds SasKin and Emperor of ladia, en dealmB A to &Utitt lb aap a,
abip c to connect the Atlantan Paciicb em brb watevernet
consldered expedient, and to that and to remove any d~tonv i
ot thme Convention of the 19th AprilJl G, oomn hdMleJ2tthe Uted States, without impairing the "general principle" of neutral lashd in Article VII of that Convention, have for thaluros aggontmh I hi
Plhe Prsdn of the United States, John Hay, Sceayo tto
Sa ofAmerica;
And His Majesty Edward the Seventh, of the Uaited D') ra"
ad Ireland, and of the British beannistyond the Besand
India, the Right Honourable Lord Pauncefut:e:GCB., Q6 -.0 RY4
Whhaving commuicated. to each other thei 4olpwesl
be in due and proper form, have agreed apon the follmi ril





Iis agreed that the canal may be conseructe d under the auspic es o h'0V ment of the United States, either directly at its-own cost or by gift orlonf"o 'eto individuals or Corporations, or through subedription to or prchsfst r saare, and that, subject to the provisions of the present Treaty, the.si n ment shall have and enjo9y all the. rights incident to such cnstruton A the exclusive right of providing for the regugtion 8 and gule-otj

The TUpited States aotas the basis of the neuthralization -of such:epflom' Rules, susat as embodied in the Convention of dOW M #
algned te 28th of October, 1 9, for the free navigation of the Suez CimM- ha st
1The canal shall be free and open to the vessel of commerce 'and~o a fh nations observing these Rules, on term of entire equality,. so that. thereshli
'iato against any such nation, or its citizesea arsub voc OfJa
conitinsor charges of traffic, or otherwise. Sudh condition and clgsh o rfi
s. Th al hhl ee e blockaded, nor shall Anly Th fwar. beeeaMota any act of' hostility be committed within it- The United -oowww.Aiae hiberty to maintain such military police along th -canml as 'may be nissa o protect it against lawlessness and disorder.
8. Vessels of war of a bellgrn absall ast revictual nor take any atosbth
canal except so far as may strictly necessary; and the transit of sur vses
the Regulatonsein fo.ce J ..dwih ..1 J. i..ntermi...si. as may rset ...m the
Prizes shall be in all respects subject to the same Rules as vessels of wrof the belligerents.
4. No belligerent shal embark or. disembark topmninsof war,o materials in the canal., except in case of oacdenta hndrance o h r such case the transit shall be resumed within all, possible ditch.
5. The provisions of this Article shall apply to wat .ers adjacent to the caal with 3 marine miles of either end. Vessel. of war of a belligerent shall not .emin in such waters longer than twenty-fouir hours at any one time, except ca of distress, and in such case shall depart as soon as possible; but a vessel,. of r of one belligerent shall not depart within twenty-four houral from the depatur f 'nw, of war of the other bel rent. '
6. The plant, estali ents, buildings, and all works necessary to the -trueme
tinminennean peaio o hecaa sal e eme tb prttemfor
th upsso hs ray n ntmeoiaa nUe f'ecsaf








e~t immunity from atak riquy by belligernts, aind from acts calculated
their ushfulnee as. part of the canal.

J& ared that no change o6f territorilsveegt or Of the international
the country or countries traversed bytebfre-mhentioned canal shall
eneral principle bf neutralization or th obligation of the High Contractalnder the present Treaty.


t10 Tradalb ratified by tePresident of the United States, by and
adviceconsent of ,the Senate thereof, and by His Britannie. Majest I~itherifications shal be ehanged. at Washngo or at London at the-earliest pletime within six months from the dateheof
7 wwhereof the respective Plenpotentiares have signed this Treaty and
---affixed tkeir seals,
in dmlienfe at Wankin on, the 18th day of Novershei in the year, of Or Lod n thousand nine hunde and one.
JON HAY.
PAUNCEFOTE.





uhm] ........ M" &... Ar rfIMt


ACCURACY IN MRDTA CORRECT NEW YORK TIB O PANAMA CANAL
Mr. Han~s. Mr. President, there is a great da fri 6
tion gom4 around about the role of the Unitd. States M and developing the Panama Canal. There appeal tobeMam nized effort to convince the Amearican people thatthr" 4
thing abmfland ihonoid$16 abu ouriacu"10:m: 6 W
to remedy today by surrendering our rights pNVW eignty in the Canal Zone.
Tyical of such deliberate misinformation is the ant in a New York Times editorial which. ad ,in canal:
We stole it and removed the incriminating evidence frni the hik&
Nothing could be further from the truth, as the abiasedOf many distinguished historians can attest. The New York Ti-e a no right to make such a demagogic assertion if it wishes tqlai, tin itself as a respectable purveyor of journalismn.
Mr. Reed Irvine, chimnof Accuracy in Media, Inc., ha ae the Times to task in a letter published on its editorial pagetdy Mr. Irvine patiently recounts the basic international etum ,ta. supported our role in creating the anal, and effectively rebuste absurd contention at the, Times. Mr. Irvine is to be congrt te for once again forcing the media to correct its inaccuracies, atcr larly when such inaccuracies can have a pernicious effect ona u~ opinion and puli policy.
Mr. Prsdet I ask unoan consent that Mr. Irvine'slte
from the New York Times of April 5, 1977, be printed in tereod at the conclusion oftmy remaerks.
There being no objection, the letter was ordered to be printdi the Record, as follows:
PAtted I[s Rause Hoom Bmmr Faeas T= CAnAr.
To Tan Emr: In dinauesing the Panama Canal, a recent Times editra Si: "We stole it and removed the ineriinating evidence from the history a~ The Panama Camal was built by the U.S. at a cost of $875 million. ft =bio* was not stolen. Prasyour editorial writer mamont to say that the 1^-lmie strip of territory truhwhich the canal was built was stolen. But that tis e. From whom was it stoen .naa? Conlomhia? Individual andowners? The U.S. paid Panam $10 million for the rights to the sone. We paidmillion to individual landowners for title to theie property bahe mone. We million to Colomain hi sfwnn ofts aim hInn tion ntlnwenpi 4A eddli the French canal c.mpany for its cnession and 4en. Somse theft The U.S. has been charged with hvn e Pamagali, indpndne from Colombia. If true, would that be thft? Parinma had leitmate di t independence. Paniama, had revolted and won its complt indepedr ai o 1840. It was induced to join the Coinfederation of New. Gmnnly 1 constitution provided that Panama would retain its sovereignty and to eee This right was taken away when a new constitution was proclakimedinM Panama contended that it was still a sovereign state temporarily underante government under durees.
Panama's declaration of independence in 1908 hre that Colombia ha --aie the isthmus as a coloy milking it of revenue adnot building a single bigA
single~ ~ t rodM snl olege or any public building.
Iit is alleged tha th -..moe the Hay-Buztn-Varill treaty on Pwn agis h ilo h eolY Vet eiv ha h epeo ta e
no ae ohv hecnlbittrug hmtrtr itottecnl h






29

would ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~-it hav bereeaetotesauoferaetiiiwater. Tim deal that the canal woubd go to Niaau.A bl paeda both
1982 :for thecostcio a to the: canalthoh
necasr o eotined for- the Watinn canal. Was
to insist an termseie fo the security of the hug investmt
to Make? The Wx"v was to out. the reurmnts Of
Acoad to"Pel build the canlNiaaga That would
th@anaaninsand kne hw it
basseapd hugefmwh canal Paymet by-the Canal np
ctihnsare around $10 mlion a year. Planaman aso
$800milionin aid frm the U.S i the pt22 yeeas All this has
it Oo of the highest per capita incomes in ffnAmerica.
It.. Iwnom
AiChairan Accuney in f Mei, n
WAssumwo, March S9, 19f7





0. oft AM ABMMAD SIRM ,, U~llf
Amrias oems tha'furdeiiAitm

Prv t e'do I 1;f!;Ik*# more than
neighbhrii.
State
As .ll,
Assistantlfo
AmasadrtoAre ad u_"'a
may apciie-e asgane Lai Aeia.H kosth eolthi idhertags, he ssus tatunie 'he=-- *el tl t
Hehs eotae wt te. i eoswih#
thtedd h hc Wri el aa oda"ll HekosLtnAmrc nalofiadvriy nes, ad is ptenial KnwngAbmao Bae'sbc~gcuII,4IW
inteestMe nite SttesLuti Amricn reeationm,
ed t red recent hi spech o te, BlaI







ta~t~g heisuem into a proper perspective Ambasador Braden

we neteaethat Chile and Argentinam are battlegrounds
M nd est4, between the force of co.mmnim ad freedom.
Me Az doris correct, of course. Too often, I am afraid, we
the simple but irrefutable facet.
Braden names:Cuba anid the Panama Canal as two do* ies of Hemispheric concern. "Cuba as. a full-fledged Soviet ASoviet-occuped fortress, is a mordanger to the
Stats,"he says, pointing also to. Cuba's intervention in Arsas a blatant act against the itrssof the free world.
the~~~ PaaaCnl masdo Braden reminds us

oregt an wnershUip of the Canal Zone in perpetuity tWice has been
by U.S. Supreme Court deisions, by many leadingPanama-nian states1Ab ~d Midnisters as weBl as by low U.S. Courts&
Peient, there is much more important information in this
ptaemntof Ambassador Braden. So that Senators may
benefit of Ambsao Braden's years of experience, I ask
=I-'1nnMconsent' ta Is speech before the Belair Council of the WWYAeque, entitled "Soviet Threat to the Panama Canal," be

being no objection, te pec was ordered to be printed in
follows:
Sovnr Tniay To "am PANwrA CANAzL

(Address by Ambassdo Spruille Braden)
on honor .to be invited by Mr. Datvid Gill Evans, President of the Belair Of the lf(qvy League of U.S.A. to addes thia ditnuished and knowledgepgdienc. I am grteful indeed, just as. I am. proud of lif membership in the
ouclof the Navy League of the U.S.A.
appyyear of anL active life throughout the Americas,: I have accumulated valonsand I hope- persicaity, in keeping with the old Spanish sayignosmore by reaso of Is age, than beauehe is a demon"
et strongest eBUiosis that the greatest threat to "our civilian is
brakdwn in morality. This we witness in and out of government
every strijaa f ociiiety.
AW baeee that the most widely detutve Of Allimrltensta amiradin and eanating from Mae16cow.Vie (1 unendin1181g and outrgeu cruelties perpetrated on the Russian people, as
by nihniteyn
the enae1lbrto"mvmet0rpgtdeeyhr by Soviet agents,
Commuist and mieuide& dupes;
IRuseian ambitions fohol egemonyv
I* viet already is po reeigby srdes in -its plants to convert the American
inoa cogoeain =fetlieand slave states.
1sun ...re. only the four most criical aras in the we.tern unmiArgentinaar exmlfeshwaeucated, wealthy -gnd religious
poeR*n vitu a get W.'mlphysical aseaor over three
bussuferd de'gI o evils ash her govenment sank inotedetso
MW I coupIo4n, repalit and 'IresPnsiiliy Murdertarture kdapping tqortu and guerrill wasftae ensuesL
-'Sh ofe at, all thia the bedonin moraity and Communistinltao.
-&#








Simultaneulyl he, hilamitress, later wife, vita, .atl hi ben sati&ed themselves on a vast sae
When Peron died, his third wife and heir, Isabelit (a former bar g )
found herself the nominal head of: a government which had Ifulfilld'a programlaid down by Karl Marx ad Priedrich Engel., Pret) alar ivipMti for staigpublic funds,
As Aretina was about to fall, completely into CommunMI rnd forces, amder General Jorge Rafatel Videla (a man of hgetcansa power- hay enlistled in their government soe'patriotic andexrane such as the new Miniter of Economy, Mlartines De Ikns. Asareutoth firmess and courage, Communism, terrorism and corruption, = A en eradicated. Argentina at tong last now may hope evnuj'ttee IW- a
recapture Argentina's idealism. ... .e... A ....
I -A Ii






From 1922 through 1988 I knew Argentina at the apexce4its and social well-being. But in 1945, when I returned as beginnings of the decomposition, Communism and its twin, teroimlar leading that pitiable nation into the jaws of destruction,:,.. What I saw beginning 30 years ago in Argentina, I1 now observe U.S.A.-traditionally cherished ideals are attacked, while dsnertn is tolerated and exotic ideologies are circulated through our achoos h pretty much everywhere. '
Second: The collapse of Chile into Cm nimwas more. '*osO t
plete than Argenina's; First came the election to. power of' 'o (actually Socialists); four years later they helped the I farlxist, Allende, to, dency, with only a 35 percent constitutional vote. ?
'This accession to power with hisSocialistC*'mmunist 0ohorts, was poto .0 ed and aided by the Soviet Union. Moscow was anxious to create another A nist satellite in Latin America, and in so doing, to obtain a naval beef at haa on Chile's SBouth Pacific coast, just as it -bad acquired its -naval underground submarine pens, missile sites, encampments and other.1aHM Cuba.
Unfortunately the C'hilans, overly confident in their dedication to democracy, credulously did not awaken to the threatening cmunization and loss-of freedeelif until their backs were against the wall. For more than a year the populace, deceived and helpless, allowed matter to drift. Finally, they were awakened with a bang by the killings and tortures, onments and property. confiscations, plus the influx of trained misr= guerrillas from the Soviet Union, Cuba and elsewhere, along with shiploild&b and munitions for the Allendistas,6 fierce fighting broke out between M both national and foreign, and patriotic Chileans. Thet first mass protest was staged by women from all walks of: lifetwl .EWIU in thei streets and surroundmg' thqrsdnilplc, bangmg~ .pans att4l-,6 ware. Some were arrested;,others physically abused. There followed a strike by truck drivers.
In the nick of time, the military intelligence discovered that: AllenA ab&IW coosirators had developed a so-called "-Z plan" to asasiat within d6 w-eld~ top military officers and lenang ciizns.
Immeiatecounter-action was imperative. It was taken and thousands of, nists, guerrillas and criminals were arrested; Allende committed suicide. The new military government had to fight fire with fire. Soime ill-treatment ev&iof innocent people, was unavoidable if Chile were to be saved from _Mdecow-onftrolled communism.
Please believe me when I assert that:
(1) The only thing the Communists respect or fear is physical forcegreater twan their own.
(2) A Communist comtet or pledge'is very'rarely fulfilled.
Chile is the only nation, with scant aid from abroad, which has been able, by tbt courage and sacrifice of its citizenry, to overthrow a firmly established Commnifist dictatorship which had seized power nefariously and by trickery,. Child stil ha@ to defend her independence from armed Communist bloc attacks frbmh within' *"t without her borders; it also must clear away the lies -and-*deceit diseminato& throughout the world, by Comnssand too often believed by: the
Despite the catastrophic ecorkomic and social resultsof the arid
Chilean people have tightened their belts and: are repaig thedamage. Their record on "human. rightss' is now better than the majority-of icountries int the Unitedi Nations who accuse them. .A








tow the O&J. Wid al* i 1. lil:oi Mffilll grounds
gdd :a
ACOInman dispatched 15,ODO or more troops 'to fight for,
A Au
Iq e and AWWhoft 14 Africa'. -The'USSR maintain. hifighti, KGR *nd'intelliOnce servim in Cuba., It direct$
*dV*AIOurs-and- espiofia& knTices.. 'in -and out of Cuba. It
-tAyal and'sW ine %isibi I hav4i metitionoa.:
Aotice as,* gangster and murderer. Under' his: regime, andJkMed;, 90,M to 40,OODPolitied are
in p rimoitis .... ... ..... ... .
horrorsan the threat to the U.S.A. from only:90 miles off are-tilose high, in govehiment *we* budne*, vho advocate renewMol"Im ow ',Nha. How mHoub. they get?
IWO blind can
io",,Mjr'about Pananih that our' sovereignty, a d iership of the
ih wpetuity twice has been peaffirmed by U. pr eme Cou
ki lfimflem, othteath6h, Presid6ritiand nifii as welfas
VX.Iftrts. 4&*ntly as Dowinbor-17, 1976 District Judge -Guthri6 F.
tbit hii, believes the U.S.A. owns the Canal' Zone. 'I think theUnited
%6,*Wher of this property by reason of the tree" with P&MMa'and
to the, French-fCanW- Cd.) drid the creationof the tand IM
Irp*wple from Panama ahdthe, United States functioned so a eourtwith'
f eu, dv;aots. CM hkrid) wailidid for with United States m6ney."
I "rooertr, bit w se legally territorial acquisitions from
Okooo, Denm Md R
fveg ih Pkiut is estird-ated at nearly $7 billi6ln.
by our tate Department and'ita r6presentativos as to why we
a new tr*;ity ceding our full rights to the-Cana1and the Zone are
in
6Dhstkuteid dictalor, to :.:,threatons that unless we deliver the Zone and operations of the canal to his gove ent within a limited
"Willi to wage another Vietnam warin: thai 9ii.ai
haff-severAlth6deand troops: now in,,Pwiama, and, of course,
ba4Mis armies from Africa, already trained in Angola. The'State
ournegodEktore sa noy gqr0e:ftt TbrxI**' win. precipitate guer.
and sabotaie. .... ... ... ..
Tbrxt(* fe*rs if, we do not sip Ow now mty he Will: be thrawn, out of
event he kno*s, Mosww' nd Castr6 ootdd not rescue him. On the
ki with thie. help of the,"latter two heleft" Mi the caned, even
U, the,*mtintt)rn, he will &4 assured of his job: for IM, just as -is Castm
defended the canal, for 70 odd ough'two world wars, countless
we '= id, tbat, vre must hdw- Ikun
Wwtage. Ar 6 iko d thni
-,9A&CMtWS SDVi i" 6 and
Awde R the U36A. wh uot Vb4a-vi# Panan* but the U.S.&R.
tWftti Canal, Zoe to the &h-ie* even'inditwfly, this humiliation
ft ousAnde6d Jtdilght well cauj!ie our friends and allies, especially in
IMLILOL!" IN! iiioidall, r'sopbef for and xxmfidencoe: ih us, abd. abandon our leader
01* to play', with 'Ote Soviet. Evftlbody' *aIritt fob t* witb 'the winner.
A. Phillip H of Spain dmW*d that whoo*&bbiziftols; thd CaAbbehn wffl: dominate ppressed the same thoughiL Admired Zbbbf 6&,*gre esV'stratftOt6, war)e& thatan.y Of the U.S.&
t6l Cdrffibeah'"M,4nv&& bur gulf coast and: so 1 the N!Wuiup
wwthe hdkM"nd of th&Vhited State&;.e, '
B. Lenin listed in sequence t4 follo "Musts" for the Soviets W zkalke:xefr&-U4 00 ugh Of MOBC
Secure U.RS.R.'s western border* o 11p rturi
)"d-tdoftmd the rai F4mK eaO&4&lIr Southeaffterti.Asia; .. .... ...
livjkf A _T:
... .. ...... .
thilf '*buld*
AA-I--* k A IL i*baffd 'th6ir-;navsdfl5ir to avor*M aa,=ed. by widely dispersed and fully equipped bases. Their
qua! hik, -k4of, IM g" 6* them
Canal is paramount






84

Self-evidently the aforementioned six points are well on the. way to ageenagal
friton. The security of Buesla's western fmaxtier, including Lat i4u tonia, the TUkrainhe, and Eastern European. Countries abeen ratified tda Hrelsinki agreement signed August 1, 1975, by the United States: ad other wee governments.
Moecow and Havana jointly hare vintated the Belsinki Agreement in Anpgel, 'Moammbique and elsewhere, Comunists bave, ignored conceepions vbtained br the fEe; world at Helsinki stipulating greater freedom at movement for wesernijerantists and promises to insure human rights throughout the Warsaw Pact Natippy
The Sawlet Union's hankering to control the Panamal Canal Zonewevml
stated by Major Sergei Yuworov in an article published in the Soviet mltary ages
"Bd, reproduced by the Cuban magazine, "Bohemia" on March 17, 1wrespect of the canal: 1.r$
"Due to its privileged location at the juncture between South-America: n W rest of the continent, including the Canal, which permits U.S.A. warships tov~a almultaneously in the Atlantic and Pacific, must for the Soviet Union be~w~ o as a 'priority zone'."
He adds that Panama can be attacked from Central ,America, Colombia or spea. Cuba, Punto.n Rio and other Caribhhan islands. He inthnate that wome nr WH of; ths can aerve as Soviet naval bases. i
It is easential for us to remember that for over a quarter of a century, we JItS@ been beset by one humiliation after another, each of them contrived, usualy A namel, militarily aided and equipped by Mqecow.
Our major blunders or defeats in policy and/or action were:F
-MacArthur prohibited from crossing the Yalu or bombing the bridge;..*
T'he inconclusive falsely labeled U.N. action in Korea;...
Failure to lend help by air to the Hnainuprising against uIaN't= ge
Non-resistence to the Berlin Wall,;
1No aerial help at-the Bay of Pigs; ,.
The Ouban misil crisis-tearing up the Monroe Doctrine;,.. .
Our shameful commitment to Khrushchev neither to invade Cuba nor pent others to do so;..:
The "no-win" war in Vietnam; and -.The so-called "Paris Peace Treaty with honor," with which North Vietnam, never
Thi seres of surrenders only become explicable when one reaida Nattiona l '' ty Council Report No. 68 (NSO-68) of April 14, 1950, drafted after Pvqi* man's orders as a statement of our basi poiciswt epc to the U$
The study, opinions and conclusions oNSO-68were bae reports frma,414 Secetaiesof State and Defense; they also were considered in at least one owmall meeigb the Secretary. of Treasury and the heads of the other three top ecanamiq agences of the Government. -*
The anntpnt and portent of this super "stop secret" 65-page. documenitha base kept completely unknown to the public, Congress, and even senior Army, Navy andt Air Crsofficers commanding at the time of the aforelisted humiliation..
The 9t secure" classification, pursuant to law,. terminated n April, 1975. On Septmber30, 1976, a brilliant, Journalist, Alice Widener, began publishing her. espee6 and analysis of NSC-68. She sums up its principal aimed as follows:- .
1. "'on avaid nuclear w ar but to accept a Soviet nuclear first strike against us if, necessary, hoping to ward it off by building up our own and our allies' miliaoy, economic, and social strength as a deterrent.
2. 'To confine U.S. military action to strictly limited counter-,actions.
8. "To seek co-existence with the Soviet Union in the hope that democracy il win omt eventually against dictatorship, that time would be on our sideand .that:. the U.S.S.R. would undergo changes eventually leading to andmetOf its goal.: of world domination.
4. "To try to contain the expansion of the Soviet Union beyond: its terrtory, bt not to do anything directly chlegn Soviet, prestige.
"In conceding Soviet prestige as untouchable, NSC-468 seeks to protect the Soriets from any kind of effective attack-be it military, ideological or peychologicaL"'
NSC-68 is a self-contradictory, document, at times dove-ish and weak at:others hawkish and vigilant. On the one hand, it accurately sets forth the objetives of the U.S.A. for peace and freedom, as laid down by the Constitution and the Founding Fathers.
Onteohr -n tdecie headbeprga.o
theU..S.. s-fllws








e 8"PlAe 9W*irsi6ii or forcible destruction of went and, qtg of society in the c9untrigs of non.
tt 'an an ap"mfts anditfucture subsarviftt to Is that opd, Sovi ortsare pow directed
land m The' United States, as the
in the xxonZoviet world 9,nd thw bulwark of opposition to
*fik IiAniv Whose 'iiid Ateft be
WOU6 meww, th" aaather'iif Jw to.. achieve its

W thii" 96669, ifie XkmdWs "tepic and
WhAe &at *e are ndt,?nly the greatest Wme& .#,wQrld '. I"
it I A are also, the, only
ces g t1*,Jree and Simnet, worlds. which could destroy WOM is pecui ai vituient
lo C Arok"***, Ow. (Wils of towiw
L to doaditiata: COd,on1y-ji;iuted by-ex"Pedi*
ti 0 ** frbin 1950) the V SR
4! ii5ri vital ddnt6rs of st*at*m4
W' ed -further that theblow Iff oppmed by iv* than wemow have pwaomoseries as possible
atodfid 'and prbve tlw C theft- ideals are on drytium
NSG-a wasno: owner of Ods .4ogooding timism
_Zod d inhem anob- j a stra
gnd:, a sbre*d depmvi,'ty T now-tim
M wrote
to swy"rs: lbefm-A rErm w the
A* then AM 901h I Aubvert 1 kiM, attack
W;W 1 0* Irr"* ikiw.: ili dibctitdamo
91 0 ne
t bhn.p _.4hl i6
f W" 'Wow, f *x ,has purmed an& is dmwhng
are. 1111.1r'lliw. Itki lt I ini Yet there lai'been no A -Wbb*n giW ra
pkWe inclination by either Demoeftti,6,i*.1.jL nist tiolm to get
717- 77t11,D "which so ofoon hwm iraperilled.and still sftM an appafe tl a as hain: of hpmffi7
60 jniikt*,1dA&" of Oirl we
OW X14XV,
OROMOM
surfeadet of our and sovereignty,
V h 'Afiea hideed the Caribb"n adjoinmg wa
I;CApzjmi iiart "d pikftl Of a uge Viet. w4m.
we then mayAmm-thrveLopfiom


N06 albEiriNdUties.

I ..J 'It.. t-a
Ap; ri TV'__ I** I L"
)U qrt0 *w
Zjq ik::: 0
4



O"bi T4 V A..
117
ko r 0 o, f at, O
.... ....





86


PANAMA CANAL: EXCAVATION..,84AB54F11!%6
MAGNITUE OF MAINTENANCE 7W112
Mr. IHaan. Mr. President, the splendid reeo&o hePh&Canal Company in-keeping the Panama Canal openadsaef traffic has caused many Americans to underrate the- cmk ~, the operations involved. Just because the canal hbe= smoothly, some advocates of the,-giveaway of the paana kh tend to miiiz-the skills necessary to keeping the cta
Such skills include-.both maagement skils-141 .
They involve questions of Judgnment of experience-, I'a exercise they require independence and, freedom from pltctn reference. The Panama Canal C6minny organizattoi as,-vi years, created a unique cadre of sklilled workers, States and- Pan mn Fn who, have functioned as a team-fr h proper operation of the canal.
T hus, in attempting_ to solve the iplomatic issuesivl4n icy treaty negotiations, some critics downplay the feet1 t h organization is an organic unity that could be mortally rod14the present management is disrtupted. Indeed, the attiudhf8h State Departme.,nt has already grievously affected the thiWaf, h Canal Comparny employees. If the mere threat of a gieaa had- a deleterious effect, how much -more so weud a new, ap ment sitatin, sunject to enutside politicnt influence. and o~up tion, affect the canal's operation? Only -a-mqjew-power,aa-gum,' teef that the canal will continue to fiination efficiently?The problem of maintenance,. for example, illustrates 1My e facet of the complexity of operations.
When testifying before a congressional: committee,&rn
evonstruction ern of the Panama anni, Chief Pngnar l
Goethals, in response to a Member'st question as. to ahe Panama Canal would be completed, replied "The enalwldn* iefcompleted." By this he meant that the -t woudW when more work would not be necessary for its Rfioi% nance, operation, sanitation and: protection
The truth of Goethat's .statement is well illustrated Iyte rcr of the canal's wet excavation. More thn twice. as nmh has been dredged from the canal sine 1915 than wason during the. entire U.S. construction period.
Among the problensAtat require continuous dredging aresit ing, bank sloughing, erosion, and land slides, all of mBicr duc channel depths. Siltation is increasing as a result of the otheda tion of parts of the Gatun Lake watershed.
In regard to the protection of the crucially important waerh
of Gatun Lake, it is interesting that this danger was apparently forseen long ago by Gen. Clarence Edwards, while in comm .and. Of the U.S. Army on the Isthmus. He actually made the recommendation that the boundaries of the Canal Zone be extended to include that entire watershed of the Chagres River. In the light of later
evns ti nfruaeta isrcmedton eentfl
lo w ed.i'''iiiiiiii i i







Ide t is stil possible fo uc an iturbances to close
Repingthis daier requre eternal. vigilance on the
engeersan golgits and tieypreventive meascompletion in 190o the enargement of Gaillard Cut
zrm800 to 500 feet.,the summit lee channels have a minimum
W t Thsiprovennu a an important step toward
mdernization of the existig canal as provided in mneasbefore. the Cogesunder existing treaty provisions and
ovr$171,000,0 has already been exeded,
& e rcent;rticeMaj. Robert L. Herndon, Corpe fEgnes
suntinarises the history. -of excavation in the Panama
1!fi, boh d and wet. A reading g of his article shows
bi hemanitude "of the "mitnneproblem"
.44gratand powerful -nation can support. It also serves to
at Of ropnet of the giveaway of the Panama
to a small, weak country on the verge of A. fiancial collapse. 9,Jast a predicted by Colonel Goethals, Major Herndon concludes IKAINthe fture the edid will require increased excavation to
Jt as one of thelworld's safest waterways and to increase
I I re sident, as the -article by Major Herndon is timely as well it should be: of interest to all Members of Congress
e L information on the problem of maintenance of the
lana, an I -ak nmnimous consent that it be printed in

ing b on, the article was ordered to be printed in

DREDGIG IN THE PANAMA CANAL


compltio of the Panam Canalby the United States stands as a
engineerigg~~,i achievement. Yet, te UnitedStee 'erdino
dfeam' of':an interoceani canal nor did they t=oh first shovel to 4onsrucionThe French, under Comte Ferdinandde Lesseps, were the Rails alng tletuth of the present canaL. in the 22 years the French
P~naa, heyexciittal over 78 milion cubic yards of earth: and rock As a
adnor aIgaet changes and the, required rehandling of much of the
et 69rdtion material, ony 0millon -cabifyards- excavated by the French
leuseful, to the construction of the present canal. It was estimated that's
edic'fardsof thi were removed byFrench dr edges.
j;' o cf diddges -used by the rrnhwere the ladder, or endleeechain IM~h the the soctondeg.O the 51 pieces of drdgn equipment !%'p from the French Company, only seven were rebuilt and mse service fbrchk All of, the reuit rench drde 'ri the American
pbd wt tbezetin of- a ladder drdewhich sank I1.


egpmentA wahiie ewe the Atlantic and pacific divisions dredgwws prorrmed prior to idle. Old ,Ot Dober 10, .1913, President Woodrow
ema button installed on his desk at the White House and sent a signal alld O b sef~ahmite *hi*t breacjhedthe Gambon Dam and flooded
M0*ntetOI divide. The dredgesthen entered the tat Mr the
P& 194Wiater139,000 cobic yards at miatrial had been esca-








,mate bWn dr4xW= ,]
rial
the ensm VA., Fp "'90
p- 06 I
dredging roquhlod *to'* Plague the

e!g I iThe P nama Canal
Siltation, bahk--sloz ",,,
aveme of 2.25 milffin current bottom eloOkft6n., provides the ghBaket,,bulk -ofAheigme1w ewa of cbanheis, harbors, and
quare Miles a) aoi.aol
f et of silt mutation T"r. One, 44 Of
mfllion cubic yards of i&.
ind'arbanizes the' erosion is also a ma* e
vessels and the, increased 80 WaSIX
ver these vessels safely. M 06 ir.
the future to maint ffie curr, t de$h

E, ITOTAL DUVMMGF THE PM(MM WK OWKMMWU
Wq ij
.. ....... ......... .......
k nerioan carial ...... ......................... ......................... .
DO ... v ............................ ....... *,-"*,* ...... .............
Total 6"t(Octim'"
.................. .......
Cutwdening- (300 ft to 500 ft) ... ................ WIN
Maintenaft e dredging . ........... 11- ..... .......... ............................. .... 1915-75
4
........... ............. ........... ............
Excavation times 1011 yd3.'
bwatim jdredgWg) times IVOR:.

Much of this maintenanft'dv hiig'" nAl fAfed 6massive slides in the. daillard Cut. DurbW rincipAl co of-caital offi6als. Thet* wtre,
of the- Gaillard Cut ran n
to over 9 miffion eubi n
cubic yards, Or 25 pe 0OW
cut were exca:vatid, broin, them $iMM.Gaillard Cut 3;t" 4aie g-ower.
in the 1914-1915 FAO seven months.
suction dted were
apt= ted this -PrOblepi-, 4 P1439M t-4D 6xca, ate'fk6. r OIW te
_7 means of r6joa 1r)
Slides event(x Y co 10, 1974, in Webra earth and rock *ere over
The Painama Canal dredg"wAeet,
AAL
weeks remov, 183 )0
prii&'to a id
ils ffi iffl ici* wiatti,


"Won
million Iroci gin
1.%.AV*aUOn- Alter 'W'Mod WAW-W it,






89

952 tosf 190, enav tio ontractors and the Drdm'Division removed 35
Adn~ le-ardsof material In widening'the 8.5-miile-long Gaillard Cut from 300
Thofa l program fr~ 11 o1970 included removal of 50.7 million Cainl Copanyis presently -involved in a channel-deepenmgi po 194he Drdig Divimon officialy reache elvtion 4fet (PLD) within the center 300 feet of the channel in the Gaillard "Lts A& -which, mean shis have 45 feet, of water with the lake at
BS eetPLD, 'he Dredgmng" Dvso then initiated A, major dredging
vfioil lower the inhamiel to elevation. 87 feet PLID. This additional 8 Will allow for Milt accumlation and dredging or survepying inaccuracies
ipt abs at minteanc dredging, It -will increase the, possibility of
p deper drfor transitg vessels thaq. has been previously cetbe
'depth will also provide 0 4xtra'water during the annual dry season for
drthe, generatfionn of hiydroelectric power by pemitigGatun Lake
dawn to elevation: 80 feet PLD without further restricting drafts on
6 f: large Panama class ships (so classifed because their dimen'axialin the Panama Canal's locks, can accept on routine transits: 10feet by 40 feet) ha" accentuated a manbeulverabiity problem as these
ahthe restricted, channels. To, increase the safety of these ships, a
been initiated to improve the conditions which contribute to difficult involves widening certain -confined reaches of the canal and relieving
4' thereby increasing the level of safet for vessels negtiating these
^j it f the widening lhp rovements wil involve dredging.
teenwideIning effbi-t was to improve the San Pablo-1abernilla Curve.
'C "urveite largest change-of-course turn in the canal. The work moi th aeial from the inside, a4eM of the Icurve by both suction Ardgwhich w dened the turint ,0 feet at the point of intersecwas completed ini Febra"n-y1975.
presen i0feet wide, was the second project in Ithe canalfty Ext Rach, at thenorth end of the Gaillard Cut, Is a
f fo 'pe requiring a, "clear-cut" transit A "clear-cut" vessel is of it&and'limited manienverability to rqieone-way traffic through the .]Because of the queiig of'these vessels -to enter Gaillard Cut and the
W44 1at this factur, h 3.-ile-long'reachis to be flared at.bt
fetand the channel widened to 650 feet. Te -initial phase of this
for0'd acopismn inlate 1976 ,and the completion of the
ect ic~ded inti etyoriented pormare the widening and
14[14azhei and Bohio Curves. These two areas form the only reverse
a hi Gitun Lake prtion "of the canal Maneuverability through these
or encumbere by the6 presence of several small islands adjacent to
eOj'ism whigh create, complicated hydrodynamic forces on transiting b cn cause a vessel to uncontrbllably shear across the channel. A study trsimulation at this confined channel phenomenon are being conducted
canal!5 en~gneers and consultants from, the Swedish State ShiplihpermenM Tnkin Goteborg Sweden. Based on the preliminary findpgtatv ha Ipe pepafo r alleiatig th major maneuverability
Deco 1 Curve. Improvements on this curve are scheduled for 1979.
DRDED MATERIAL DISPOSL
'A Agmtiial. is dredged from the canal it must be Asposed of rapidly, and efficientthrughutthe lengthof the canlw are dump areas for the. deposition
material. Many of these dumps are located in Gatun Lake, sufficient
disanchfrm the. canal prism: to preclude. resilting of. the canal. Several dredge Stmps are located on the banks of the caAis .in diked areas. Due todthe accumulaetam of 4 ateria im these land, dumps over the years the freeboard on the JAM ha *ks gradually. diappar As a result th~e Panama Canal Company
*Wk ~an maintain the dksso that- the ipudeak of the- dredged
will bef an icient tme to allow the solid to-precipiat pro tAhe
I'l ,06 CrmamxCanal waters is unontenainated by industrial KAMM M We, the disposal of the material in land and
audadiatps a aitgaerated the advere environmenal impact speoetin







JAk
indicated that the eOim*: of. so* OW tb%
are benigiL

In 19A the Pamms, Caftre *edxingfieet waw emdrifive& ill ,and head .. at Parai"13 .-Viedro 115"a-l' !Locks. ft, ISM-L
Dredg* bivis relocated to Ganhoe. at the east bank of: GEdun lake- i order to hm the xwerve so so] that mijib ocew in the GaMardOut0gank-tow To the of the canal and thus the logical center for dmighm dumps used in dipper dredge opera i as kmaked m tW L Aj
ModrW.. at Parais6. such equipment w*4K ha" edAraffietbr*uxhtheaA4
The pwent Pan Canal dredging Oeek onwisW of 440
shell &vdge, and a drill boat. 7be U.& Oindi kta Of moving 1,200 cubic yards of earth hour. Isba, is months each year in ynnintenam Cz tal impro t
ejnploy d prinzar* in the Gatun Lake &od anchovW areas, but ]i xasiaw4ly used to NiFele IS- 95 feet long, 50 fixt in beam, and can dig to a 72-foot 1942 and is scliiduled to be repowered *kh, the addition of a in IW8.
The U.S is a 15-cubie-yard
produgtim expectation of 500 -cublic VW& per Uawaow
and, despite her age, remains a. ie and prod ve. U r fleet. She is operated an average Of four Moothli, ea& year I in, A mjO W and earth, from GW11W Cut. of them dreft
Per day 7 per week when they are in Aervmui
A contrwt was, warded in 1976 for a new 15'qmIrkyard I-P 1 1 dredge to replaceC inoperable and Mmiew d44w
which has been out of service sin 1971. When the new dredo' it will greqUy increased the efficiency of '4"afiops and e with added dredguy capabil.4 which is clitical fn providIe a be -up dipW dredge for'slide cleArance, which is reotO_ .17MOr5w dredge is out of service during a mq* maintenium iodL
dI
ng
D per dredges are dependent upm scovre to bmbsport the drew. Ole site to the dump area Mw Dredging Miskm
c g scows,
W-YiEtinL battom-durnmin A new Series'af
scows 'I's x to begin re0king the oI&
5W-cu yard
Ie crane barge/clamshell dredge Ua GaImtk wbuh Ja Tibr-yard damshell lxwkiet, was built jin 190 and is the most dredg qgfle& She- is primarily used kg kup boulders
in theGaillard Cut and also provides a fibatin hm, "
The drill boat U.S. Thor is a Arm
mounting up to four drill tumem tw4mm"M va
blasting. Such blast fiacturing is required m ro(*- i33L dredge to excavate the maWriaL Ie exp1qdive curre blasting operations 1*8 60 ricent nArate 64*0ft
to if the Me-to *e, I
cKplosives are bem' y are adapta
kb"* operafions m the most tfficifint
ffie Gaillard Cut is adhknred by &Ctor of 1.5 Pounds Cubic
Suppmting this 4= is -a variety WM*
lightlEwbazges. The hequmt movemikits of this WOW
ous opmmtims of the dredges and. AM boat ing vessels.

AL-A
In the futurei the PanwnnA Cand wffi reqMwe increased: W
channel deptlL Additional dredging Will, be- W the projects ftece8s"7 to Minkkin' Ahb aw aw of the i"Ist
walmm-Wa7la and to inassm Vw aftWon- IS dr!t&"'
remd of r vy- pleting such Projects, W-40PL ja *Mvw
&vdk% the new a6d a 401W
in 1978, the 6redging fleet inmease :4maintaining one of the most ecmomk*ft ways in the Wasbern





41
4:* sw, Errm thecneeoa Record-Senate Apr. 26k I1]
040WAOUAL, ZONE SOVEltEIGMTY: CHMITAN SCIENCE R'EDTORI L NUSO CLAIMFED
117r. Presidebt one of the' feature in the current cImAig -to win the support of the American to: accp the surrender of U.S. sovteeg VA~iq ana 'and. its protectve stri o theCal
haphIn 04c4ne of our, leading newspapers based
us iformation. A recent example, was published in the
'lS .1TTismde of the: 'Christian Science: Monitor, which the StteDepartmeat's program fo givin up the canal
a.srous error of fact on-the legatatus of the
eas an unincorporated territory of the United-States. As
r~aalcanotbe surrendered without the Authorization of
(U.S., Constitution., Article IV, section 3, clause 2). Efforts
dr without such authorization are attempted usurpaAx'ecutive Authority, which must not be permitted.
thtey, such editorials as that cited are subject to the scruabenyI authorities: well., informed on cana matters. One of
oatabandin is Ik ,Donald: M. Dozer, professor of history
tiftheUnverityofCalifornia, Santa: Barbara, and an
oriyoPAti America hose numerous writings are
< ecette tothe editor, of the Christian Science Monitor on
16,197; h srases one majo error: in the editorial as
( atkssaof heUnited .States. as sovereign over the Canal
to, such status, it 'should be noted that there was no doubt in
of eineh conempoary observers of the early 20th
events. TeBishAbassador, Lord James
sttdthat, the 1903. Treaty "ceded gerpetuit.y" the
sdoh to -the United States-James Bryce,, The American
," irised edition, page 408.'
eat,.bea...ethe letter of Dr.1 Dozer should be of interto 1 mbers of teSenate at this time when the, time for Won of aKnewi canal, treaty -seems approaching I ask unanit or it and the Mdonitor's editorial towihi eers to

'bengno obwecti' on, the matter was-ordered to be printed
enrd a follow*
SANTA BARBARA, CAMP.,
49 February 1, 197.

a&,,kttenton to a serious horror of fact about. the legtatus" of the UVnite
Qertc, of the.K'eAl zone in your editorial, "Cana talks back to bargain-tha~agerof February 16.
meapro*,t 4 eccssi~esource materials would have shown your
waier b~i-Ariats I and III of the Hay-Bunjan-arlla~t of 1903
.arde a -septit" o rahtsove the, cmaa oe "In pe 'tthe
'frteprice of $10 million to the enir usion t exercMi of ftifge shOvereIgn right by the Republic of Panama. ce the purchase was a cleomil Wao sale, the trety contained no provision for a. later renegotiation. So








thatii; ....... ha coe.heC nl..eto U iedSa es......
reit e U i e t t s C n r s n h u re e C i t a e r c m m
trnfro.te.aa.on.s...io fsvreg.rgt t h nW-, ttsi
i t.TelaigcsisWlo v.Sa 10 U..2(10)i whc th
Mei ae ur or edta ih h xhneo aiiaip-tO pucas rat ceig teCadZneftl-t i ase o h Uie
Stts!hsdcso a efimda e~ya 17 hnteSpeeCfi
diedcetorr i tecaeofUntd tteiv usad R)46 iSi95 17 nirmd heruig f heUntd taesCicitCortofApelsii te icitihciuldta heCnlZnei n'Froaeiertr o h' Sttsinii-uhiisujcttiieliiii uh fth onrs. itdce cion 11(2)oftheCosttuton s ciicalygivi& $powr o' anitimkiiliiifuiulsind rguaton es ecin heterioyian ot e
irprt elnig othinteitae.
Th ttso teUie tae ssvreg vrte aa oehaIo'~
alteed i navothprvsososusqettetebewe hdcd dw Sii i ncerelyii i
DONALIDMPDO!WL
..........a cin e o itr F b 1,197
CAA Ax:BCKT AGDN

A eemne n-co mnaleefr t okou e tet it:Ow* ceiiiii n g h aa oeadteme~enwtranwi etn ne a
TisrpeetthCatramnsrto'fisvetrinoteshrofitA40
ionlngoitosadte e reietnaual i niost fti 1
Thi US.temihaddiyveerniipoatElswrh uner hsbeni ag byWsigtnlweiSlMiiiwtama ieie eiae t ci" agremeniwit Paama
Intritetysnc 94 teqet o nagemn hsdage n ut,0 Mr ate shoiga e ret anb omjtd ytisJn.. hs ay prv piitc nhsprcnsdrn h ifiute tl btttla h ni onn f u tre dt edssiulsad norgeettotedeeai

ti ogto h ak
Paaa enhiehs nete iii funetin no h alsb",rd
reoigiscifngtaoFrig!iitrAuln od n e
ithNclsGnae eilteyugPnmna.t h~







OTT O*..... .. .. ..
!N DUCEP,113au, A N JOINT
P M-IjUTIONS
p 6t
16 U.0. Canal, Zone AM] be
Pe] i to! thelt u i of Represen6itives; to the
Servi'jea*
wnt one kesulf'of the Panama Canal. nego'ivtiug is. the deteriosow, U0 have been long P1,0-1
d 66 V$ workforce; In'the Caual Zone. We a le_ qn4 wMLiag':tofiiUW the key positions ca
EhupLsWrety'and practical.. p6nitional. 2" bi Oxategic, 4nd,, coii4niprcial. maritime tr : c. It to"'ha vel tbe: icw6aa if
aty over do no
oo i7te =ilgal we.
is', y t.o'the United,,States.
s that' 'Ong ar
ay e beco true. At a
Of t4w, *W i=pl M on.tW analv
ne, Zone Har6ldk,. reported as

,It* Phnanw Canal workforce has always bow .haracberiwd. hj ahigh degree. of
but in 1976 the resignation rate was 30 e average for the
9 yean and 57 percent over.!::-*eAveraie for the ;hree
aployees wary in, seeking employment Ztrmth:wanama
Arw"gr the futumspeuxity. and., tenure of their positions. and the
def"' $reaty'
un a n",
h WOU14 wllt
biq, utictlo, ahope.Ad atmosphere in the
anti a greater feeling ot security, would be to p. ide
a nonvoting delegate, to. tb*, V,$. 1Jop", of Representatives from
Zone, At the Present' tfine, tJ.S.*: citizens 1:iV*9 *in the yo v ere, Wlt; lives-7--bave
90*471*, Iiied-th
Congia*A4 4 ibey c6i turn for a prompt Zdwproble0s. The..- MR, which- I amIntroducing
a
The t" 'Idfio hd'the::-6anal 'are
tay and p of the'United States. Congress has always
it as -made -all neeldEtil: rules and regulations for
section 411 vf t1w CDnAftution.
*ppi or
pyed ne e dbag. Me.
nfl- tfin
POU Th'.
11 1 ess a U#% A. .10
down through. the,
is ho "wm therdbr*j- CDngrem:'by1wislation, canfift
d,., ale to ouw,, just as it has done with
t og j -4 ft"AM .1 . .....
bf bfi Guaih and the Viijin Is
At the present time, Co i has provided that the bo vernmo t
the Canal, Zone is h='W Uie Governors appointedd by the 114AUoic b; Wh, Smded a
dwAct judge for the Canil Z&6'6 ffi: 1=8 LAW biftch 'Lfhle
This gov 1SV~ vp0ft to perform many duties
State, city, m M im = I buCUw no:
Atativein
pop
ci oontraat tb#
thobid Oro' olumMMAN Yk4)t*1,*Ynx6 a9m anfi&>P '







tion of 756,510; the Virgin Islandsiiive an area f 12i equa i and a. population. of, 62,468; (Aum. has an area of.209 sqar i
and a population of 84,996. Only the Canal Zike- oe 6,Lhvs
noe ot na 1Zane has a stratei mprac far.
either the Virgin Islands or.Gaa or even Alako which for many years before' becoming State had de Congress. Citizens living in the zone pay U.B~ ncomecreating a situation of taxation without representation.
The Congress as the legislature for the Candi EZoneace
problems, some of them intricate. Arriving at wisely ireason' sions requires the continuous presence of an'elecid, delqit '*Y,,
the zone territory, familiar with the problems of itas citizens. *1.
The bill which I am introducing today is virtually identcl& wt8. 2570 which I introduced in the 94th Gongress. It io ideniea ) H.R. 1588, introduced in the House by Congressman j~fIM k 1W'
of Pennsylvania, who has long been a chainpio of the rihtlt*
United States and of U.S. citizens in the zone.'o
Mr. President, I ask unanimos consent tha the takt fhe a be printed in the Record.
There being no objection, the bill was ordered to. be prine i
the Record, as follows:
S. 1444
A bi to provide that the United States Canal Zone shall be rby, n Delegate to the House of Representatives
-Be it. enacted by the Senate and House of BRepresentatives of the UniteSan ,1 Amteries in Congress assembled
DELEGATE FROM THE CANAL ZONE h
Saanow 1. 'The first section of the Act entitled "An Act to prod l~tt utainorporathid territories of Guam and their Virgin Islands shall e hrjeP in Congress by a Delegate to the House of Re resentatives", approede197 (48 U.B.C. 111 hereinafter in this Act reerdto ass the "Act", is aeddy str~ngout "and the, territory of the Virgin Islapde" and inserting in liuthro the following, the territory of 'the Virgin auds,.and the Canal 7,ike".
ELECTON
Sea 2. Sectten 2(a) of the Act (48 U.S.C. 1712(a)) is amended- ....
(1) in the first sentence thereof, by- inserting "from Guam and the 941pgfri the Virgin Islands" immediately after "The Delegate";
(2) by inserting immediately after the first sentence thereof the folo11g+e sentence: "The Delegate from the Canal Zone shall be elected by the citiesM ft United State resdingr in the Canal Zone at agnrleeto edM oebr 1978, paranant to regulations established under section 4(b), and~a a atWO election evgry second year thereafter."; and 0.
(8) in the second sentence thereof, by striking out 'The Delegate an ut OIng lieu thereof "Each Delegate".

Szc. 3. Section 3(c) of the Act (4 U.S.C. 1713(c)) is.,amended byin possession" immediately after "eterritory"
ELECTION PROCEDURE
Smc. 4. Section 4 of the Act (48 U.S.C. 1714) is. amended,(1) by inserting "(a)" immediately after "Sac. 4."
(2)by trkmg 'out "The legislature of each territory" andinemgnli
the following. '"I'e Legislature Of Guam3 and the Legislature of the Virgih n ds
an
(3 yadn tteedtro h olwn e uscin






.1,45

250 he Governorof he Canal: Zone shall prescribe togdas for conducting
eletinsfor the office of Delegae from the Canal Zone, and shall submit a 'tp -pach Housp of the Congrees not later than January 1, tion shlf ake effect on March 1, 1978 unless either House of the
Mem Vwutio bprsuchdateTwhichw specifically disapproves of all or

PSIVILEGESO ELGT
5 of-the Act (48 U.,C 1715) is emndd
'adthe Delegate fr-om the Vin* Isande and insertingi f. the Delegate from 'the Virgin. Islands, and the Delegate
Out Dfrom each territory and Inerting in lieu thereof

8PECAL ELECHON
14doernor of the 6 aalZoe: hall conduct' a 1 section for the
of Deegate from the Canal Zone not later than dairys after the date of
t of this. Act Such Delegate shall be elece by the citizens of the
TdaStates presiding in the Canal Zone on the date of such spca election. The
W iuch delegat shall commerce, not later than. ten days atr. the date of such
andU C shft end uon tecommoencement of the term of the person
hrthbnea leto in 1978f.



athertk 0.



lkoriudir **









i4

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e iiiiiiiiappirii ii i seo ajrisueib igiiiiCo g esiiiil
developed a series of background statements which attempt .................
obetvl!eiwec oi isoedti.Rcnl' v,_bv
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V902, gi lente debe begani in: the U.Se Senate over the rsetv PlanAtna, and Nxiargua v~otes. Thanib in patto the: leilaos
volcanic activity in Nicabigua and n agE ies to: the
of Bunau-Varilla and his supporters, the Senate approved the
,The action directed President Theodore. Roosevelt-a strong advocate
0aalo seek A gtret wihClma for "Perpetual. contid er- own' 6ngtitn .position. Among other demands, she
fesethe zone to the U.S.'for one hundred years and to keep a specific
pfher, ovqreigty in the area. Moreover, she wanted the canal
pinhrlwith Colombia teepossible for -its dee (the U.S. would only be ggtroope at Colombia's nest). Finally, a e sought separate Colombicourts todea with CoJmins& the zone who violated American

.17. 1903, the Anate ratfied the Hayflerrin Treaty which encom(but*4y sto means,all) o f the, ClMa demands. The Treaty was idtaiesin the ClminCongress as a sellout of Colombian interests.
__ k9=aA more money as an initial payment and more rights in the zone.
Robevelt zeepanded in e-iheated note to Secretary Hay in., the. summer of
ias clear as you can to B eaup6 (U.S. Minister of Colombia). Those
little cretures in'Begeta sought to. understand how much they are
thing and edngering their Own future."
nate was unintimidatd Caling it a shameful sellout, 'the Raythe rec on of th&Treaty -infuriated Roosevelt, Bunau-Varilla was ,that, the prospects, for a Panamanian route be kept alive. For.-the next
eintwith various Amiericin leaders, including Roosevelt and Hay.
yf 9eti a-s"revot" was necessary to break the thin political cord
Pandmaand Colombia-and set out to create one.
pbign Soldiers 4ta 'oned on the Isthmus had not been paid in
oftesm $100.000( per soldier), Bunau-arla persuaded the
to V alng the ladned u 6sh. On the designated day-Novenber
tand a diers the revolution in Panama City. While not
aale coup, of.S.1 had been fbowarned. U.S. vessels had
bea3dsptce t teharbor of C1nVith the guns of the U.S.S. Nashville
tandon them from the habor, the remaining loyal Colombian troops withdrew
A ~revolt ended wit scarcely a shiot beig fired..
rfans believe that the U.S. cooperation with Bunau-Varilla in initiatsucceeda eso n qf Paaafo Clmi a in clear and direct
of the 1846 compact btenthe U.S. and Colombia. While Roosevelt's
ththe revolt is not entirely clear, he later took credit for the coup, asserting
Mtape a necessary step, toward bui...Wlding th-aa.The Panamanian flag of
(ag tgetersome eksbefore by Mme.- Bunau-Varilla inHih
Pala, N.Y, with silk purchased at Macy's) was raised in Panama City.Th
'ttiAof Panama was promptly reognid by the U.S. Immediately thereafter tVrlla (stil in the U.:1rsed the title of: Envoy Extraoridinary, and then
eris4 -arila proceeded to: daift the treaty which govrnsthe Panama Canal to this day. The terms were eeeentially those -of
_Treqty, which had been -flatly rejected by Colombia four mnonths
affreneswere, much, more. benicial. to thie U.S. Under the H
orilaTratyoflhei size.o. h anlZn was, !ireased: by
"JAL W t The U.S. was allwed to station armed fores where
s' i the Zone,- Sugan-Varilla drafted a elepl formu104 meto deUnkited Stae all the Egtpor and
'te ugM tO ne which the United Statee would psern
ish ~ ~ o Ooeig pl h territoy. to the entire etelsio of teeecs
at onanse such sorvereign rihs oe rauthorit."
ClocatneatW W~r h co nryofwaam i e a a por ti n o








The energetic Fenchman Ba- van.la ha nuaid-W sh a jAm .
between the oceans would, ber finished at. last.. But the..anannerin ab gained rights to the Panama Cana underth treatgy emea. o!ne,
cnrvri--addaa--fU.S. history. .,!
Negotations LI .Given the questionable circumstances sronding the establish i
Zone, it is not surprising that the Panamanians have bbed seeking a AV*, 1936 and agai-n in 1955 the U.S. agreed to revise the agreement ma's annual fee and relinquishing theright of the U.S. to'intervene in affairs of Panama. V
These revisions, however, did not remove Panama's- moet tnmeA the 1908 treaty-its allowance for the U.S. to. exercise. power as "if it. M eign" over some 500 sqaemiles of Panamanian territory.Dia present situation erptdin demonstrations -in 1969. Agam in: 1904'%$- o in Panama in which three United States servicemen ad21 Panaman-a killed.
Negotiations toward a new Panamns te in January 1985$,
ctine une Presi*ens Johson NiT* Tor 11d fteM& I Ete I&
thus far. Tn Fehrnaryr 197A, Saertaryr of State TKisniner and PowahgmIt.W! rk

negotiations. A
REASONS POR NEGORATIONSO
Panama's interets
Panamanians view the 1908 treaty as an anachtronism---one of',.the. U.S. "gunboat diplomacy" and colonaim Their main ^objectioni 'to 6 th 19 are as follows:'
The U.S. exercises power as "if it were sovereign" over, the most valb t_#ian of Panamanian territory.
The U.S. maintains a full-fledged in the Zone includingit~
force, courts and jails to.efoc U.. 0 laws on Panamanian .as..well as S, The Zone divides the country ini:77 Lexualy hindering.Panapiu economic growth.
Panama. has noi voice in the operation: of the. Canal" and does not equitable share of the economic benefits from the'CAnal operations. T'rhe U.S. continues to maintain a formidable military presence: itt .~e The U.S. controls all facilities servicing Panama's 'deep waterpat Panamanian participation in commercial enterprises in the 7pne.. ....
US interest
The goals of the U.S. in the negotiations are to develop a new: trety reldt iwp with Panama which would:
Provide a long-rangasunc of a secure, efficient eanal that is~oe o k shipping without discrimination.
Reduce sources of friction between the U.S. and Panama over pas6t P "I Clearly show to the rest of Latin America U.S. interest in coprtion ttet~ confrontation in solving differences of opinion which affect .S.-Latin relations.
STATUS OF NEGOTIATIONS
The U.S. and Panamanian negotiations have reached agreeMent oaL thre points. As described by AmasdrEllsworth Bunker, the chief U.S. n th
provisions-agreed upon are:
(1) Jurisdiction over the Canal Zone- will as to Panama. through an a transition, with the United- Statee returning tergtt s hepaesncmr for the operation, mitnceand: defense ofthiCnal;
(2) Operation of the Canal during the duration of the treaty W ill be riryife responsibility of the United States-with growing particiption by"aam ni t all levels in the day-to-day operations of the Canal mn order to prepare for Panamd's assumption of this responsibility at the time the traty terminaites;
(3) Defense of the Canal will beprimarily thevreponsibility of the UAL daring Ahe life of the treaty, with Panama granting "use:: rights"' for thi purpose and wih Panamanian participation in accordance with it capabilities., Details have yet to be worked out on numerous unireeolved iasees*..
(1) The duiration of the treaty, which the Painamanians av been unwillngwto extend beyond the year 2000:









bleconomnhenefit t bedrved by PanamaqI6 th .S oexpand the ese of. the Canal in the future if it ishes
acetabl to both Panam ad the U.S. concerning the ongoing
thechatafterthe treaty ends; and
and, location of the land and, wae 'areas needed for. defense and


tsties could have been resolved easily, a new treaty would have been 8gago. But strong arguments, can be mad on both sides on a number of


Chag-hAs Wo9 been -of great value to U.S. commerce and is a vital rd$ &1t61I recentyeits about 17% of all U.S. export and import tiiese' have used he'aa. Of the total cargo tonnage transiting the
,about 35% goes to, or comes from, ports in the U.S.
"even more ingstantto the commerce of Panama and other Latin 9tW(. More than 809-franamas foe9, ex e, earnings and 13%
Products are a riuted tdyto te .More than 50% of
Micarain a Elvador and Ecaor moves through the Canal.
howave, the share of Panama's GNP attributable directly or
has lightly diiihdas other sectors of Panama's econo#n e ttiefr example, over one-hrofPnmsGN wa

pAu an important avenue of i nternational trade,- two
enattdr6ignportanced6fthe Canal for world trade. First, tolls for
m4s4 beliceap ia the future for the waterway, to continue
\ e.Tolls were little changed until 1974 when they, were
I isexpetedthey will have to be increased again in the. years
s .mkingthe Canal 'less compeitive with other international trading
Wuas trmnscontinental railra snpments..
gatheting the, future economic importance. of the Canal is the
.Neither eanor large container ships car present.s a result, the Nmay become less important. in recent years
ipgr Abippingvcontinues.mIt is clear -for the present,'however, that diaptin, in Canal raffic would cause serious disruption in world
lbea-seious economics blow to Panama.,

8,re claty h that the Wei way toD insur the continued: economic
sforteUS omiti its control oer the aterway.
eho egi a mderizaion rogam t exandthe Canal, thus mecreasototo ot" out that the'Canial is a highy:sophisticated operation
U.S. tehological expertise. It: can rever be adequatelymatie
4Aedevoed country, with, few technical exprts and, inadequate .4,,gc o MT anama undertake the takof moderniging the appaeaks WAkto controI theGankl, Painaa would' probably be forced Wotlla, thus driring away'earriers by inakme' altbrnative: world rout Alee fanibe.BankraVlptayi andpltaa unrest would follow, According to Oopy
a Canal closure -would have serious rep'O~ons on various sectors ofth
agnoysuch as the coal industry inWshVrii or the. grain elt in the


ste aidrre~y point to- a recentnrport idctn htol
t ppgadeV through the-Canal. Moreover, aLbrrofonee









Aeutrobw
pA of, the, iigp6m"fl the
+
pwtly
re MA
*M We t6
By being oil
purtnerabip betwocm neutrsdCamd for P" Y'V -I

E"r since the in' ing of the 19M tr"t 4 ai
YP
the 'U.S. Jis entitlW to exercm withm! compare U.S. intareStIS kJhO' ZOne 1muWana. Purehak

OPPOwnft
Qi&6 (if 'pkewnt, tidl* ii

.1 treatydibA the' WV w ifoviftvign in
I 6Aa "I, I
-A Moreomr 40'poheola t t tg4 ik,
ftlawnn6
::OC)Mpsw ible tlD ibfiU ftft W"ft i's ii!
Indeed, U.S. cou
'A : e wt on,
InAlw
"TrAory
-,U-S.'sai& Alt, it,, ftmol -14M
q?8rfw* akid--that
-Canal Zonw is- bft WX=
mation because -a the pi *)We4".
41 4- *
pmpownts



tbAV4& wpW*.m *-.them the conveyance of the lmiisima, 0
Conal Zone the US. a6ts under the treaty only so were
If the U.S. wen ormeWn, advocates pmt, wA Ofi*iL Or id
PMQwbGM in the ZQMwtQfj%=Mww*M-_fq be
Ammican flam a ne M the abd t-,-Zone a'
Aq *wlegsl UP
t*uF
swaMA1 &F&*M* IRON"
UPCOW A M
-JAWT


The Nn Cangd bai b6i
NT
important to the U.S.IsOmulie oir
it b"








i1041", to defed the, Canal. The actual combat and supor.t force total about V Fr %be use of 14 military bases in the Zone, th US. pays Panama $1.9
annal. comparison, we pay $20 million annually for three bases in

opopd o nw ret-believe. strongly that the only way to insure that
remas opn international trafic is for the U.S. to retain responsibilidefens of&teCnal They argue that the continuing importance of the lTS. interests is too..vital to be left in the hands of the Panamanians.
W1 ~has shown time and again, they point. out, the importance of fleibility in
alamenverer and he'anal provides such versatility. In addition to such
conideatanethe US Apresence in the Canal serves as a strategic deteracesng omuns influeane in Iatin America and as a stabi factor
.8. governments in: the region. Moreover, opponents add, Panama s small
P .rurd s olyincapable of defending the. Canal from attack.
opponents also assert that the Present Panamanian regime of General Thaton, is a Conunnstoriented, government dominated. by leftist radicals
_ii~iedby,,Castro's Cuba. Panama is a land of endless political intrigue and
lfi~aiiTO.convey rights and defense of the strategic Canal-the "jugular vein of
'--to a4 unstable, undemocratic government would be the height of
06mn to treaty critices.

'advidenting a newtray dismiss theseauet as holdovers of the
bo ltiwy" methycli h clearly not as strategically
as-It..-nc wa. ccrding to thesis, three, factors remain the key to
the Canal's diminish I
xreel *uhnerable nto atrnrot only by the sophisticated power of
eff ~ a few skilled sbtusas wel
now m ele less on naval mobility and more on fleets operating
in M the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
i* l yof large aircraft carriers and nuclear submarines-the backbone 0our dene,.qtransit the Canal.
Proponents point to Defense Department estimates that 100,000 U.S. troops and logistical support would be necessary to defend the 50-mile lon Canal from
attack. This commitment would have to be continuous-and would cost many hiions of dollars. They add that because of the Canal's vulnerability to attack, altoiestive military routes have long since been established in the event of hostilA for'the political leanings of the Tois government, proponents disagree that lit. pgent government is Comnmunistic. Tey point to the fact that no responsible 11tzlcial either. in the Department of State or the Department of Defense have said that Torrigos is a Communist. The -present government is strongly nationalistic iml Comprises a number of political elements of both the left and the right. Indeed, Ptopontents point out, Panama encourages a thriving private sector in the local
sponmy.Advocates believe that the Canal issue transcends the ideologies of Panaanian governments. All past governmets, be they military or civilian, have made dear their'dissatisfaction with thUray A new treaty with Panama, epasizingsaaed responsibilities over defense of the Canal, is the surest way of removn the majr issue being -exploited by the Communists, proponents argue, thus strengthening if.S-liatin American relations generally.
ONCLUSION
In. cent yerthe Panama, Canal issue has unfortunately been a victim of dversimplified logic-. Op onents of the present negotiations decryte"i-ay"o the Panama: Canal 'e others in Latin America threaten violence to destroy this litA vestige" of American imeralim. Nationalistic emotions on both sides have beeb overheated and exploiedfor political reasons. The resulting delay in negotiations has seriously thraee)h shaping of a workable compromise which would protect interests 'of both the U.S. and Panama.. IThe choice for the U.S. is not between a new treaty and the status quo. The choice is-,between brign the concessions extracted from Panama ini 1903 into line with Modern realitfies, or facing some unetigand possibly violent alternatives. Those who oposa new treaty =must ten be asked to be held accountable for the radcazat" onof Panamanian .and indeed other Latin American nations&
Toeopposed to a new treat mut -ewilling to commit potentialy 100,000 trop and tens of billions: Of dollars to'Panama indefinitely, in order to Drotect the DR






12

from hostile elements, in that region of the wold Thoee,t must be preae todealvwith the sragmnti
from an mtransigent U.S encourar phge n-at 4Io-al
the one hand =andyet s bol refuses to -foster such in i the
Panama. Those who oppose the new treaMty mu1st ask unwilling to conskler coprnum 'with on of America's in Latin Ameriea and, they must be, held eif that l
our inability to deal fairly with a form.erfr We live in a far different -world than that of Teddy Roosetet sn-el"fO Varilla cAs we approach the final decades, of the 20th tentuiry the last" colonia empiree-that -of Portugal in Afica-has now been industrial base has expanded,, we have become: more If5ependent, des MM fromn other nations of the world and'on constuctive weld'" peace and guarantee the free flow, of -trade We have becnde bibre alliances, and-in: a nuclear ag-esable to use the threat of ies? 'In age the 1903 treaty is an anachroirelic. fn a s vastly more simple, age.' 4 ,
But a new treaty, properly drafted, wilnot exclude the -7.S.-fitx defense of the Canal. On the cotay I1eiv it will helplboidvl* '
neutral Canal for many years, into the fte.Both the US. anidPaau
retdeal at stake in the negotiations which: are now bigcnutdi haean essential interest in keeping the Canal open.Btmate idi hurt if the Canal were closed.
The present negotiations are a test of whether two nations can we ka4 in an enterprise of great importance to each of them. If-we. th for cooperative change, or if we .simply oppose a new tet facts, our future relations with Pandmna ill become Vastly M'0 1 complex. But if we grasp this o for cosr ctive m
protect our vital interests in the anstrengthenx our D influence with the emrignations. of ILOti America ford
iiiiiiiiiii~ iiiiiiiii~i. ... ...... nN N i










.i ...... .






.. .i.i.. ..








At
US: Department of State has andit 3-Mpaign asserting that All e. purpose of this campaign is
ih 90006rtipg the surrenderof oror soverl'Of _thd# ftte INPO tMent' are, deplorable, dop6cially
ah. the canal has 'heiii Isume6ffilly defended throughout TPbr',ek during World Wi& H,. the N92i governmW W spread its influence in many counttlOs inIatin'Ameri*
and eperaUves tmdvodfivoly. throughout the hemiprppe Orecautions were taken in the Canal Zone, and
i mbotake were thwarted-w doOt toda.7 'ong -the with. whom I
can be defended: appceisfully if the
*k*n. The -canal is protected : 1366rainat nuclim mltl oar wArelia ffiai protects. our entire rioti' only certain
A#= 0 -e
,w -4 k Ag, require pre-cau
6i4tkkmofwhich, we aiv fuIly mpable..
A:)e IDejt*tr evt: has' confiruted what has been 7%6 ICA" b6.Aefended. In..- A... Statement -to
row6ft one, olf lhi mop ISVIIA experienced
Oim ,h4ve reporting on' the Latin :American. -soene, the 00ftfirmed notohly, that we:could defen&:the we, ait, Utter preparedto do 'so today thaji we eomlii inspired riots broke out..'
$,4.11emisphere Hotline" released, today, Aft 271, Alim
-A
A~,
P bmt week
99EUS'' teww, formAUY asW the Defiaw
,or deny a report that UA f6rces: them by IA=
can indeed defend theZo d Waterway'' bvin iuerrinis' 'the Zomm-7 After -due. consultati4m: with.'the'.p(Ywei* t4DId PreWP4,that Giep, Me Efcommand indeed
,ak the, PontWu Oiftcanwvben Ote. McAuliff -, in a- recent interview m the C&wl's Omoibility. He replied that his 193id BAgade gxMne IAOO, aT better t6fimed and equipped than U4. forces there
#Me at' t -, An i he
qu tburaWintheareq, 4 that they: cpa defend t Z=e:Aud
*ny jmtt a vvl
fidbfi V FIrdwed Also Ooil* out in her (Wotiihepl
-,r dubious tre#y m
"k tionale, put forward by:'U.S. 'o dictw
4ea eued-t &'" ti 63i.:*Ahe Pansimamlan
0, Xie-eral T6xv,- "j--himself, The n8bata.PDepartment has, beed
"ming that the new treaty is needed because "aR vfLnUn AmetLl Us" is 41etnandin thattbe canal be banded over to Panama.
JAP!DVI fr P 100TOW4, r4sorialtexperience in TaUn pa. it &4ta andfio n
ministers of sofii6496 t1w mwt M be DMIOM"
of j OV%,
V I
APO# -10 4416,i6
J-k
'A A 4t,






low

But n1m, jw IVIlk" P"i
tw he mom
is Un WAKIN
Eaenta thnt' thin
hinL.,Inde4 he d, qW
and
cRent statm bkaqwa to got Is if
W0- I
Mr. President,,Wnce Ww
interesting deW s, abmd the =a
c*nftat that it-beThere being no jecOon. ihe 'W"
the 4"rd 4"IfqUOW& q

..... ... .. .. ... ..
Dzinam. CA 13NOX04
WABWNGO0*;AXG--"T& W
the Cartw White House t6 do so is ire argurAent for a now PMMOM CARid
fense AOWa&Y& is qmedy EaYing tho t4e Ila and Zfte a ind vaa*
gm MY
Apparently, it has Occurred to saftfgoodyim tfid gets a new 6vaV.indudby the tj.&- r*hWb**04 p*A.;it should xa$ be saMU-&,&vqw are, Kissinger in 1975 got the Ford White Voasi't6' with the State Deiartmenfg*owiiiie cion Acting on a leaki Virenia Rrc Veek,
meat to =nfirza or Aeny a report that Ua fiwem-ijuirip ian"
.t--.
Denn AU&dM, cm Weed men Zone,4pof
or. voterss erupting into the Zone. the offieW told Pmweft Gem 8
rill &J, I
411A t
4
VI
fihit the"Am A Aawwwhen Geo, &Aulft tW
Mexico, was asked about the Canal's lefennbility. He replW that in the.. Zone, some 7,000 men, are beUw trained and 0 ad than in ION at the timeof outbursW in the arW And IhM Ue# 6ih ddiffid V May from my attack Torrijos' personal Canal Vreatir ranaziii6 Roinwe
sailed Cren. McAulift ase Chairman Gen.- George S. Brown. 16 Hill ieWwony thiai, perils from guerrMw or m" Butlast week, etclud"IyP the DOD 4xdpes m-an, J* McAuliffVs statement does'not "n cquftbW xTem' produ4* the DOD destroys StaWfs mai 'rii 16 Ibill Panama 9%,L--np=n OJ32w Tbrti* hm -,L -!A V
M MUU
occawnna that ff he doesn't the he "nte.
(which be himeWf m lox i . . . ... Z
recently in h Is Wei 'M#s
in own in*Mew in
Kisdnger put jit on, the, IVhiter '00066'. W, higl UR tn to PwAVAa ifi; S k i kd Irs- tw dkikiAw
T=Tv-m Fran: tbam: -a qkVandj
PentsSmconcFren M r .....
j 'fit
L
Prewett m: aW;
Tbrrbw is heavily *yin*'4;e p&Ue*&6* ;tzNNW UL giveaL n4or priv le-sw m as s n t *r tko Almhow-0, Thrrijao6 A is 10 M"-b&"
impmtant Pq lpm
Oxpbsed in Panama A
with some moniy in sk if Torrijw will ogn the kind of bmaty he is mv








t teayit has been understood froth the time Carter took office, must allow 'to play a Ontnun defense role in Panama-to "guarantee the Canal's
'.Srd aeEthe waterwiqr has a useful life.'
named.. V. So .LnW1tz energetic spokesman for the New York
tof viw, as negotiator on a rIsmige"r- treaty. After he began It was pointed out that Linowitz held two h 2pst with the Marine
6'N~ Y~kwhich ha made loans to the Toso regime. Under
Widrdticke iterests. Linowit resigned thei bankpt. But the New York
oti ffo bas in Linowitz a representative of their viewpoint on
,Avihrge made, by thie camp is* that the old treaty, made in
a;90' wA tdo strongly inflenced -EyUPS financial interests.
ANOTHER TREATY ATIONAL WEAKENS
oft-heard rationale for-concessi os to Torrijoe has been materially weakinth seve reign women youtrnalss Torrijos, af-a n d
confeesad that only four Latin American preidents are, eili go to
areh thope of Mexico, Costa Rica.. Colombia and Veneular)H
Sourtth American governments think the U.S. is giving away too
that'under* their psurhe will allow the U.S. a -continuing(Iihttevee fbidefense "against third nations". He said, however, hewol
di~r~s"wittn"agreement to'idlw U.S. intervention, "in Poanma-pesum
ritrs or a uerrillas, his repeated thrat
t frantically- tried, without success, to deny be. ever made the
Ax li0t has reported for some ten months that Torrijos was losing, and agebas -1ast, meet 'of.satin America'support. TheState Department, i jiferene to Torrijoe' admission that ,he slow..has real support from only four
auh6r regimes,eadd that all I-atin _American godvernents are,'"o the record" as
tenew treaty-at least "publicly".
fbr the secod rationate or the Kisngrtpe Caltrty
thdidetions to 'the lady' re rtra is ofea piece wit other private
'an btas isgroup a de on infbrtmal'ocsos such as cocktail
h~li *R Robeirt Dornan -(R, CGal.), was in- Panamha with 'a House Subcomearlier this year, a Terrijoe official at a party boasted that when they get the N 'can 4tmake a bigprft with' perntial toll charges. If Japan ship
'New (rleans, the -ship carrying them may pay veyhigh, wsthe
adCubt ight6i ge Amuch better rates.
4lberisArItrlAee broached'in the U.S. national prees, though Wash0416 eidiit now admit that 48t "hard" votes, in the -Senate oppose the
re*at legilators and their staff members are concerned.
re.J. W."Clark old the Institnip on Foreign rainand
Iin Nfew Orlitans May 6 -that "omnist shipping eom
toI'S. fla4lse an& our Wri tradmg" partners.'
prie zhretseems to, be tlurative U.S. trades. Insidious rate-cuttmg' on a non.6dmmercial, hasr ptd even the-chairman of the 'U.S.
thhe*Comm-ission t45 "eidis :. giving the Communists rate
<4alaIl evil to 'confronta'o between governmentta :..Private
Iesaoe can hardly stand up tsteowdpoliiel motiated4ta
mmuistChina4 each have 100 sisader Paananreistry,

idr







[From th Coyeeoa pod(lpgJa 2

REMARKS OF THE: HONORABL,,EANGIER
ON.THE :PAlNAMA.:CANAE:TRIEA"'Mr. PER, ...r..Prien O -o.-Jue. ....er
Biddle Dukte delivered :the commencement _addressw than,
graduates of the Ravenscroft :School iRaleig Duke chose as his subject. the,Panama CaridA expres sed. his hope, that, .just as young people sarte W s on*W out of Vietnam, so also: would, today's young pole help national opinion mn favor of a new Panama Canltreaty.
Ambasao Duke correc0tly rectgnizes the Patad
as a hemisphere-wide, issue, not aimply sa ila tea aa
small nation., Ambassador Duke, who served as .Consedin na and as Amibassador to El Sladkoe nifAS
tremely 'well 'and has. done a. great servitie in p issue mn its proper perspective commiendtto c
ask unanimous consent that the full text of. a address be printed in the Record.:
There 'being no, objetion, te. conunecemet ad
dered to be printed in the Record,: as follow s:RWuRKS OF T IONRA AwNGER B D uEE
Thank you very much for dthtwarm and. friendyitoutoI
back in North Carolina. where. my roots are and, from, whenfe,;mnky, have derived. When I was a boy every summerg-asvaent with ay. Durham. and I ..stil have so manv friends a5k eatra n-t, wonderful occasion is less*.like a visit than ahousecoming.
Now. as to. memories, I can clearly recollect MY own gri aduataonA Paul's Sichool in Concord, New Hampshire I~eebrthe dresa the fact that I had on a white stif collar and te cae tp but $ cannot recall who th comecement sekr, was, nor a otla
sySoI am comnfortabe width you, ime ra of the BaveiacroS
the sure knowledge that both the, speaker 'aud his message ar a forgettable part of the background noises as the gears, of y~dar ale'
Will try to keep o awake, and with that oject in with you a concern of mine that witldn a matter- of' days our Congress and Presfident to debate and decide. The o'u 'w41 FuIrthermore, the involvement of your generatiozi may we4diii0t in whteovsftwsteyug pe who started us on road
Iam hopeful. that the young y& wil _ep crystalg natout sub'ect of the Panama Canal.
oRw, tha the negotiations for 'a -reasonable tre~aty *it Panadid emef the Canal, are on the thyhldd of: ussful conclusio we arb critical period of Congressionalconsideratio and decison.It wouldj* this very moment of breakthrough in achieving an equital solutionthis ous problem, there would be miscalculation as to where our true natioxiliteeW lie.
As one who has been, stationed in two hatin American poets ,m asrotsuplia
by Alan Reedy's Ma 22nd dispatch to the New York Times from Mexico City when he wrote that guerrila wars in Central America owe much "to the anw' af ultraconservative and military oh'acisto conitemplate event pat social' reform." Similarly, there is danger heein the United Stte that wema sightedly permit our own ultraconservatives to determine ,btat our piya thus foreclosing the goden opportunity for a fresh startin'relatins with ouit* and Caribbean negbrs. Upon this resolution of the Panamanian issue binpth fate of our inter-American policy.
.Virtually every nation in the Americans and in the OAS jxhis thel helamian governments' position. In Vetoing the U.N. Security Coi reotio2qp ingPnmteUie tteitoiln nteIm~ee lt~iii t
appreciiae atte-aewyi ul oi 1rtegu'D*a








4510Lrsee ieLtnntosdpn more heavil fort their oencrotrans*Ir 'heCanal than we do: El Salvador, Nicaragua, Ecuador, PrChile,
I alasPanama and Costa Rica
ftate that most; if not *All us. co esta~o business in, Latin
KMAOWPW vto see theCaal hisue resolved. 11yrealize that their trade and
infastactreal over the Southern bantinent would be seriously menMiurfa mr to coeto terms on this issue. Henr Geyein President of the
Americas, bakei in New York, has stated t renegotiation of the
th~rway to create a more favorable investment blimate .'
ohalmA we odgt not to exgeaethe economic imoraneof Canal
thnit directly afcsleas than oneprcent of the U.S grees national
8onp44ath of all our eagerts and sports transit the fathmaus. Lees
permext of thp tanisg carried in, U.S interoastaltrade goe through the
pedwith, .50 percent,,in 1924. More and more world trf= c has been the hfadi whorbae looks can acmoteneitheri supertankers nor
taier bisL Canafa 1976 defii Was,$ million. it has been loin
1 ,".I the Ight of theeI e facs it' wN'ould doijr oorlre
wenarrowed our*plc to comsiderations of Canal revenues.
stndpont o proessinalmilitary people, those who are responsible for
knqw 'what is involved- On a recent visit to the Canal Zone, General Chaimanof -the Joint Chesmphaie the Defens Dpart-to working out'a new treaty. In -this era of missiles and
our.,atrateg must reckon with worstt case tie based on
"a nonavailability. Te Pentagon recognizes that the alis vulnerable to ira sanl aerrilla with a few sticks of dynamite. Loss of one sluiceway
Gaetae" toYears to -refill i.
*Rstart. of World a'we have manandvirtually twoseparate navies
ani anyl the Pacific. 4 U.S. aica}carriers are too big to go through
1%cilr spbmaie an Use it, but us surface when doing so.
e no have learned from Vietnam that we can.-protect the Canal only if
y' pepple accept ou4r presence there? They would if the issue is
an agreement'that both nations can. feel is. acceptable to their interaptet heCanAr's operations against a hostle,,countlrys ie,according to
w fthe Overseas Development Council, "Iwoul call for a fortres
a woulditself rapidly become untenable.
pWA is that thef* is more: liklihood of continuing pasg na friendly
t than under conditions ofavgowing state of siege.
quethat the visceral oppositionato an7 chang in. Canal Zone arneet
milithry political and econounc realities of American sel-interesta ovro
peeition has been that we own the Canal: "We. bou13ght it, we paid for it, w
ad -we intend to: keepit. These views convey the hard line advanced by
'Who reside* i Zone. Their lobby *rot -37: Senators (enough to prevent of, any tra80ee thuhsM are no longer in the Senate) to oA994 rsltoand win passage by 264 members of the House, for an
thtwould have withel funds, from An official ngtaigteam in
Canal &one citizen hawe amer right to be heard, but at this impasse in our
splatique, they are our colonialswho must- not be allowed power of
over the fortunes of the entire ation..
thefirst time in a de&&af drift, a, solution is at hand. As l eee it, thes of us
Presden Carter amnd believe tha through this hard-won treaty he can
demnstateto all Latin American countries that mutually beneficial parnen i phpesible, should do what we personally can to .assure chances for rtiicton.
liope you in North Carolina will do -what you can to supportA ratification; and I sure you that it will make a difference if you le=orSntore know how you
jt j s in the kind of comitment to such issues as this that detrie the t ofr a generation. How will Yours be classified?
AI'l out over OHos of you gathered here to rauate, I wonder how many o
eswould call yourselves cynice-how many idealists, and how many acofsn
mixureof both.) Iay conftung mitrbut for all I know that may. descib the realists 0mon yea4A you, p learned-there Is a tim for both
attituder a thie to guestind, unc challenge idee-I trust you will do thif 'the Canal isue--wadheeis a tim to believe tak that leap offith and trust others.








transformed into apple 'Amtitudes, to .the
community service work u I adu
simply shown the, udtol YOu ilb
a new world ore utas soon as you g"0
are. engaged rihtnow. You. have.1pe .te
Problems, but, more importantly, YOUL have, .t unagine solutions; to.dare.to change;" to a open your eyes; application and discilino I what you believe- imgntont dWgItyuropsM
hunor to Put it a: into Perspective. it is now when you feel most keeoly and, taiik~ have an imac on problems that you se;to doing sm meaningfid with Culife. On
you fee the miost Overwhelmed theinagiin pd,
problems and resort to. withirawa a no apathIt it aow ment, r~einforcemenit and enlightenment asth confusing age in, which you are an aadreoni
ment.. if you Value yourself a4believeYou 'aiieti others, then you wilnernt and stfength6'fi bdlh ts m So much emphasis =asbeeni placed an " id ewq has7 had the effect of vrulycelebratin lon &eiie anct
gosout- "I don't t to ge idvolve o resn of dre
annj have opted not toor com mit then phiveir aid 'to t S what may come their w 'nor ng .*sa
"Not getting involved" ma sleteproblem fiisel will do little to enrich the (tthfit y of your contribute to a, betterworl arotmdd YrII Vfbloa
in many wx.Jngyj ft
when the liberal arts phenomenon grpdtj edilege8 student involvement in Politics -and' the, ruit n their 0 The. ingredients were creative c*hcibe radical, outbursts, free love and free pot- Wa&O ate8 Tig had isomuethinpg to saY. Camposee buzzed With talk ideas; eon s. hour upon hour sharing copts, teeftg ensh diof~e' Viefa and it was nonsense. Some of it meniingits The iberal at-xaisd the campus greeneeven more -than inthe actual Artdi themselves. The more traditional arfl s -of I pil
smacked. of -the, "war-mangesa toEnlh, eg,
Religion weethe. majors of the, day. H Tmky, the secure professions are Once =ore in damgateml know. thei-r first semester what the want to dand hearth
Surly heUncertainty of changing world abonomies3Vk fa a odP well, as a slight perspective on the casualtiek of -the o "t the ployed the communal disastes; the erment drugglee; the-w an ay ***You are indeed the I would- makg on
baace. Set Your sights for *c achievement goals btdo not wellapent sharing iea,1 learning 'about othersietening~to *haina as the click afth computer,. -Do not be tempted to mmaume hna~p but by the quality and sincerity of your triing W a anadte or ympe comes -to pat ideas. and'learning- by imitatiosh Be theal~iat* I 1-7 mysterious -act of fathin, the, nunan spirit willbt a en tuo wi again and. again in the fw:aca ejcif 4








F'NAVAL OER-M -NS, ASK ET TORETAIN0 ,OER=lGNW IN PANAA

Mr. Preidentthe poet ofC Mf of Naval::Operations
mos eitialin -our Defenise 15-,- .hment. Those who
tw r~~estmust -be deopensible for the cotbiad operations of 7fi They musit'be m'en of ethn-- ---owledge,% both in
opetatioad, i they must h- :ide experience i
In ecethisor, tatpoet-i b .a held by men of ad eelsive judgment100Brmdf )qoN4arOperations is, indebthe. highest naval
service. ro tvaagp, the CNO must face
problizes of strategy-h 10qi -f o moving fleet and sthe problems of ime adsn : and the strategic
insand ndrirrow waterways. isha whyh advice
(D lbng articular yalue when it' corns. the Panama
four ditnuse -former oifs -of Naval Operribn to the President offering thir combined judgeatthe strategic value of the Panama Canal In a period when
aghirdiplomats and. guilt-burdened jour-nalit are, pronouncing
undfedable and of no strategic value, the voices of
public servants, who haveven their lives and
defnseof our Nationa, rise toge-er. to attest to the
Athe, everdo1oreasing value-of the-nd to, the defense
and the free world.,.
dituihed ndaval-men are the wingo-J Adm. Robert
Ada eoge Andiprson, Adm Ars Buirke, and'Adm.
Morr. The~ir term of service ce- the years 1953-55,
00fi1-4%44 and 1967-49. Admirl M. ,o course, -also
as -Chairm~an, of the Joit Chiefs, of Stf from 1970 to194
isa prestth director of the Cente for Strategic and SPSe ional:Studies of Georgetown Univer-i 0deW service lasting over 20 y oesoeo h
tin, aii history, icldn w=are and times of
le have no reservior of experience judgment concernat naval strategy more valuable to us tha thio group of men. ,E~kawhat they say about the canal: Contary to what we read about the declining stratewan economic rlue 6 the Canal, the truth is that this initeroceanic waterway is -ast i f n44iot more so, to, the United States than ever.
he''#tisTe dsre he the Iubtht ofuhei
aWa Mar IL Korea Vietnm teCua m
ci mI Moreover, they point out the -nport e.Lof-.rtann
oa~esongosabi over the Geal zone adC"offer tbe tpp ry
(euedewatesway -ndr d0eny its use to Other sk -ata "BiTtO -rityUwas bspalepsblpabernr.World War I spd& also wenw ne tie control, of4 potentul adversary, the Panama Canal would becoioa, 'crucial problera








The CNO's conclusion is especially important:
The Panama Canal represents a vitp potiop of-our U..r
assets, all of: which are absolutely essent Uial for 'free wbid E-lecurlt OW ered individual and. combined: judgmn tayoshuditrtct
00


retain full sovereign control for the, United States over- both the Panama its protective fr-ame, the U.S. Canal Zodne as provided in the existing treaty.,
Mr. President, this letter by the, former. CNO's- was to the President by four members Of thi disiiaed have also given their wholehearted .endorpementto it. Th from North Carolina had the honor of Joining with theo ble and distinuished chimno the Appropriations-&
Mr. McClellan, with the distinguished ramg'_J, m oriiy
the Judiciary Committee,.: Mr. Thurm ,
guished colleague on the Armed Service Conuitee, r
Virginia. The letters have been brought: to the proa of the President.
Mr. President, I ask.uaimu consentn that tele,
former CNO's to the President, and the tr ansmittaW ets
aforementioned Member~s of this body be printedirth
There being no objections, the letters were ordered to 0be ti
in the Record, as follows:

The PRE~Mmff,
7Te White House, 1 Washington, D.C.
DEAR Msa. PREmmer: We are enclosing at avset important lettr from4 Chiefs of Naval. Operations who give their combined Judgmeoth of the Panama Canal- to the United States. We think you will agree that these four men are among thd greatest strategists today, both in terms of Iexperience and judgment Their lettts
"It is our considered individual and combine juget that you ahu our negotiators to retain full Sovereign cntrol for theUnited''Statepor Panama Canal and its protective frae te US. Canal. Zone aspry existing treaty.". We concur in their judgment and trust. youwill find such, acton hiy with our national interest and will act accordingly.
Sincerely
Srno Tiuamna

iJoixiL.iMciun L














th rF. Bran,6 Jr'.P



The PRESM]ENF,
The White House, 1w
Washington, D.C
DEAR MR. PRxswxmer: As former Chiefs0 of. Naval Opertions, fleet.o.r and Naval Advisers to prviu Prsdns ebeve we #av on obiain to
and the nation to offer our -combined Jdgment oh. ithe stAtiegi *alue 6Wh, Panama Canal to the United States.
Contrary to what we read about the delnn strategic and economic value att Canal, the truth is that this inter-oenc waterway is as important if not nmore so, to the United States than ever. The Pganma Canal enDablestheKUited States- to transfer its naval -forces and commercial units: :from, ocean. -to ocean as the need arises. This capability is increasingly important now in view of the reduced size of the U.S. Atlantic=adPaii fleets.I :%
Wercgieta.te ay- a.wt.:hmLcni -AdOwj0A,,ow

suetnkriniiiidiotrni teCna si








hat 4, MWO wmmtagwof the: w6M stommereW fleets, F)rom a strategic ]MVe Navy's largest carriers can be wisely Positioned as pressures and of, a abort-nuige, limited situatiomMitanwhile, the trom xbnuuin" to cruisers, can be funneled through the can'the vital Best I needed -to.sustain the combatants. In the years
im carriers become smaller or as the Conal is this problemwill
.. .. ... ..
lj i been that as eachCTWS our active service
V JAL a and'the Cuban e crime- value of the Canal oiohislzed bi'emVISWU transit of our naval units and massive ftw the. Armed, Fbftes- t= edl =operational flexibility
Umbility., In addition, there are the es of We power
Am %MAnder4n-CbI0f, youwill. AT: -the ownewWp and.sovereign conispensable during -ocb xn and coinflict.
as most of the world's combatant and commercial tonnage can transit
01&111, it offers inestimable strategic advantages to- the United ates, at iddamium cosL Moreover, sovereignty and
.4 Canal offer the opportunity to'use..the waorway or to i wartime. This authority wt. especially- helOW during IM Art& also Vietnam. Under the, contiol-of a potential adversary, the
w"ld bedome saj crucial and prove a serious
,Ahe d"r-p4 UA defease.,Vapability, wM marmous, potential conseym hive rde our leader at a time when the adequacy or 'our
006 ]B being seriously challenged. The.existing maritime threat to us
oded, WA10 Possibility that the Canal under Panamanian sovereignty
Aeutrofize&or, look depending 9n that government's relationship with other
note that 6e6eat Panamanian government has close 6m with the
6 AAAMPM gWVV-rUWU ILI, ch in turn is closely fied to the Soviet Union. Loss of
-Canal, which would be a serious wWmck in war, wo u-Id contriibute to
Otol-k- 0 exxtv( the U.S.-by hastik, naval fdrce% and threaten our ability to .. ... .. . ... ..
iWe sitwtion, you have the well-known precedent of former
of 'State -(latcir Chief Jugtice Charles Evans Iffughes, who with situation in IM,: declared to the *Pinamanian
was an "absolute futi for, it 'to ez',-pect an.jAkinerwim admin=Kwuon, no matter what it was, any President or any Secretary of State, over to
,,,Mgart of (the) rights which the United States bad icqWred uimder the
(I1. Doe- No. 4T4, 89th Cong p. 150.
that a certain amount of, social unrestis gene"ted. by the contrast
dard between Zonians and Panamani lildiv 33LII aAy.. llilatelw
upgrade Pa .. yarea& Canal modern.8. 9overeiptV w kuamntee n htp t entire Pansunani
*nd Ospeciah th J7 2
-ythoseareasnear OU Zope.
-represeniAr a vital I)Orfion Of olif U.S. navia and maritime ,of wluch are eBSential fDr free world-security. it -is our coosi&.
and con: inDIUVjuqY "tted that you shoul instmcteur agotiatore to
-Mj &.4' In A311 sovereign control for the United States over both the Panama Canal and ift votective. frame, the:U,& Canal, 7A*w As providOOM the existing treatY.
VIP
. ... .... ROBNRT R CARNKY,..
Git6gaz AwJDIOWW .
Tnows H. Mooma...
Al r7i. 1 V .. ...
... .. .. ..
_O:n
.. .... .. ..


I-A 4

J mrL *..i keA, i i,

4 j ill 4-j v I I 44V





62


ARTICLE IV, SECTON 8, RESTRAIN$ US9.
ON PANAMA ,CANAL
Mr. HELMS. Mr. President, the issue of the Panm -~u of great complexity., Factors involved include it tions, defense, commerce, and both international an tegic goals. But the fudaesaufee. lathe whether the dimemberment of the integrity or U. be initiated by the executive branch'-without *a Fnet" gress.
The friamers of the Constitution wisely gave "th the "power to dispose of and make all nepthibii and-, tions respecting the teritory. or. -other prtn woUnited States," in article IV, sOection 3. I say si.I there is no issue more sacred and important totepepe nation than the tverritory of the nation itself.W k... idea of a nation is not necessarily' defined by m-,; concept of the freedom and independence of~m n -s one identified with specific houndaries that can be ind. attacks of violence and other derogations of int-s v.it
Such is the doctrine of national havereignty, ta is, 01tb Sion of supreme and independent political an itys upon a nation's sovereignty, whether it is a miiary atac, merely an erosion of authority, is an attack un the .T7''W tence of the nation to whatever degfte. Thoreal ...*h posals arise.,I to alter national booundaries, the P -ple g must be involved to the mxum degree provide by h tional processes.
If a nation is conquered in battle, then bounaryc and have been imposed without the ,consent,.: .0f h nation that is free and. independent cannot permit suh tion either by -force or threat of force. The people -. 2l' attempts with suspicion and hostility. I. thing''lt t significant that, in the case of the Canal Zonie, theproportion of the American people are steadfasI gppose up ownership and control of the Panama Canal .....
AMERCAN PEOPLE OPPOSED
Moreover, the opposition is steadily 0 The "pcdplln organization, Opimion Research Com, of N awareness of the proposed giveaway as indicated inthe sm ol
This is not to say that national boundaries a.re
ceivably, there are times when. the boundaries -a'eetne, diminishfed in the national. interest. Yet the isu iss imoran that one man, the President of the United Stats shul notk upnhmefth e bl t f0itain t tispriual
iiiiii.i..... ft
iiiiimotn thttedsoiino 41PI







Aot;;twlkwfl implib-i"i of-a-tllw Sitates
The checks and balances- 7hich an hffit into the oxnpmmise: b6hvem of
t-diDn Of PWX&ti the ""i n term of
mtabW ffie ]Urkterp1a:r,.qtpofificgd parties serve to lnxit that 'a national
*Od *g&-- Proper CPMWOMMM., a" effected Omar
THE CONGRMS HAS..:,POWM
,W]v _A. sgys.tlhat he lCmigress" shall
of torrit to the'ViAtedStatm
go" F.:
greft needlewto say, koludes both. Ekases. Thisis not a
tb& !E26iCUUVW A0 inidatO IOUID. decide,, or even for the
wi4i the consent40ftheSemate:-alone.
Pumud= of, 40 zm iand kMIW.WVty belonging to the
JL
m fiindament&Uy A: estic: xnattor, notprimarily a
Oforeip ielafion& Ina, W.;PCondarysense, it is obvious that
ory- ,vphen-disposed of# wHI devolve upon a foreign -nation.
thAfia-llis_ fisposed Vf9 it remains :t6rAtqry4j,- 'and ConIhe p6wee t6:(%Vom-of -it, but also the poww W aR immdfid ruke an& r I ing its In
111:1111M
In 11 and:.praetiw as Matuwe
vair Congrem. has
awthe" O"Wre tile: Q6W Zone.
4 *npbrtant. when viewed in the. Ifght of airticIe
Ai Ih first hieh. nediately precedes the
states
we have bem that
of my other gtatm
W. "rts Of states,

.....pro, the integMity of 6mries by forbidding Chanp6g:::rWith6ut the consent of the'Involved. Ih the next sentence, whith is the basis of
e appHed the same principloi'by analpery, to
a MUd LOULUX The. -'bb of such territUrim
idterrM ordiplipieNA or the itAttmate dispxied of
-the com*nt of the inmilvedt that is to
Tbete is an ob*iqus Ile] ism between, the Lzbix tW to tM 4eci& condi tions of each.
6.0
aAwJe Wpeectim.3 to a limitation.on the -Az m
It *. of Cputae t a SOCU ,
rue 1001, SUN=
the Preddwt at htme po er, byand with:.the..
4MOMOBt, OftheSenate' to make txftVmmi&...
Rkmatm prawatamear.." But.Ahat be.
Xp.am itnmmr m for exammde tbot tbe-premi-I. Amt hmow powm to enter into a treaty,_ even, with the eaftent: Ad.
vewd, wkmw of sjx*eb6,,Avedeft:. of
A -ALOWO BM df jughw Xis AOL. sum
the, hmaimaiAm-W has: a
Wfiodmbplb bf its, JISAW Ift d"
'AbOA9,60ate to'so akmg.







NEGOTIATIONS ABRIDGE CONGRESIDNAL POWER Pr :1 arg
iiiii~~i_ ...4i m iii .........
In the same manner, Presiden not eM
tions that abridge the were. ofteCngress.. It outcome that abridges, the perof COnges itist.,e entering into negotiations on mattrs within .thegress that is an *iigement on congressional. a tempt to initiate the disposition of U.S. territory and, the executive branch, without prior authorization, is a of power. .r
Why is it a usurpation? It is a usurpation, because the extentitme branch is acting on a domestic matter -without :congressinld~athorization. It is a usurpation,- ber~use theC tertrkeelfamsW sovereignty over it would necessarily devolve- upon the.sua of the treaty itself without the, concurrence Hof thmiHote House may be called upon to pass enabling-I~" lgs atoaffwAce treaty is ratified; but the House would be cons&raine& d- tfMja asume i't ngatin is 4 t 9 abr9 << 1of S WO *ge
with its grant of, sovereign powers. IBit- sovriny islae proert *iht an fa llswtb th poe of IT &#"9 *if PWt4 section '3. If' a treaty were ratified by the Senatebeforetthe-Alamse acd th ous worl hav 1o 1po-t to .. an A. a-.

And even if the question were put to the: House behe qthe tengt were ratified by the Senate, the House would stillbey W by the overhanging treaty queston.: And indeedthe House~~ very well turn down the enbinwegsatn, or poto e I
to find their action. overridden bytepassage, of the treaty, Senate.
Treaties ordinarily contain portions-which are s-exec
to act on any item that is self-executing and some of .the fm&mental issues might be considered. self-executing.. The House ly would have its arti'cle.IV, section. 3 powem ridgdcourse if one House suffers,- the. Whole Congress suMu In tiger and authority. The Senate cannot singly stand on fts tion power and ianethat its overall authority will notb gated.
TREATY RATIFCATION' DIFER FROM LEGILATIVE
Moreover, even the Senate itself will have the fallness-bfr, article IV, section 3 powers abigd -if -it choosestof rely solelmw its article II, section! ratification power. For the ratification.UftI is fundaentally different from the legislativek poWwei It should be obvious that raii I is afe the fact; hetam6 have been established; no fnaetlcngsaepsie:item4 practical sense. Slight modifications, suchas,- reservai6tioe owAndn sandingIs, May be attachedi, but the ieffect of thesepd initen.inl law is dubious.. The, onrly real alternative: is complete ,VRejeoiahr which could have severe- ineraionl& eeeasos.Te could very well find itself -debat to eerieth epe d eviiiiiilsnihroiwih eeti&.Ns: 1 .

States.!! ......... k .





WU
treated
SMIA as
11i3aftwObderk aiddelivg then.. 'Ibledf-86ts1he
Vul OWN 009-IMM, tfie lbrecuttve guid6lineg as
It F thWIMUMU of the negotiators,
Partioa w*ul& kw*'Oe Iiititsof 'the
'the ftftOd&t*gWWIwv lo-jj & 4 de 1 agreeA" vAthin the terms laid down, then they can return to Congress to adarp their mandate. owtofog the M pIV of the *,co'mjmAM6e system can be brought
I-- ARvaty ',be ennOderedt only the Committee sitinno, has juriWk, Wn,.: While 1: am sure that the
0 A"abers-, of, Abat qommittet are e3q)erts Jn foreign
,-iVWW Of *Oir the: %MAF&&Of as
...a matter,,
Pointed
f 0M. JUIII A i n the Otnal
-.between the Oo&men* 10oramittee emd the Amed, Irim thia".. comm iottees would not
ktorbeawl. owthem
to*,brift-tWir specWeapu" I.- blip and:
L4 1 -- a, disposiThe Mnt danbems afflicting the
&0.&: ptylberty euM be thdfie eorkeerns -to foreign
-fbr the,:.:.
A Werel v 6UMb -x n;6 fbrum ....domestic.
viid toaffect the 1bal prodto the floor. 7 low..
"clear,44MLMU L't process is no substitute
eg" Ve proe tVtn So far as the powem of the Senate
nowerno"L The is,. arubberstamp
]process is the fiffi-b.offi..,SiEmat& and Houm to a"::: IWfiw, vMs 'an shaping and developingg a -of W. L -JEAL
V
Q&NA OMMIUA
I Mi a64 diiem* iii no doufit bU the Omnal Zone in
rrtwry 4: Ote UuiW Statm. 0& instruments
0 '- A 4. 4j*
auunnit law, bave UO th& rights
91 a sovereign;
Our-410JR3beedde: I&W.4". always U"Ud the CanAl Zone
A
I~ I N= 07 wfaO the U.S. Supreme Court as
many times, as recentlY as
be bixrt Id st*nd lower. oeurt dKWon: based oii. the
OMAW to wa lin
tMy affect, CpW 7AMOo.::VS IbWgh-- W.. Way, Ahe
than: Ua erdtary 1W.:.
i4l the author,140 than, Incam...-for
Wx"ke, All, iwadfW- rulew-AW... wodr Mro* IV,
aam iii aA(I aWays, has ban.. a UA Government rvkfiemil
4apecial, tanaw,.A*i* The f8et:AhaCzertsiw.dfi
ILI
erv
fuHnwim 4DU Mw -Atticto W






qb
Ait is em A...IL
Statware: lowd by. ArWe VL *"M-.s Actbw
tion handle laws (if the, land- An edby lbii
Court. Itshould be emma to 04ch .4%
12 yews the executive bramh ScUng so
to 6m.mfuct .. .. .. ... .. HU FT COW its
law
W! 14 A4WOVW AR
0, -0 U$L
1906, ftnt jbhftaawl An
Tbalaty of 1903 vould be Al- and,
be min mew treatim, That in ftseffi wasaxt la A 16tion. of poww. Cbngress had ih no- u'vidol mwtz.__44 7
nation or by U -,,Wow& glowtassume artWe IV. LaL fim*, justthe- 0 W1.1
Numerom adjons :. p tumbuly; in, -the Ofhad indicated.that --AL- __ -I,-- be was aoingthe claumag of, the Im T"Mwi;; hdeA. the that the treatieoAW 10.
suant to 0- t
PreeidenVs annour
sentiment il both H lp q 0 tothe ezelcutivw branch. felt thafthe treaties were not eien sent tip io the 8 .'
... .. ...
[TiGER-TACK
Nevertlhielesi on Februar7 evretatrtf
Kisein signed a so-cOed emA (w Sask
Panamianiah Fbreign lmnW;er. T AdL
....N(yw theselasic les':'wem 'even- niare ift"ms
I--- d fi)rwamd. announcement by Im JE _31woufd seek to abrogate the 190 treaty. For the bad = *4 without saying'so kwificaulY9 -that the
TI"! ft,
--eas either tory or powem. JV I
mmmplmLp be&sO _AL
The Panam ia" ter iu dtmOed
juwWidio L lo(Ahe Repuh& of llidlepubgc 1 M16iI
wriat D"Mmign, don g to the: I faster of
.. .... ... ..
The freemen put the 'rept*e a
bran& behind is Ulu
uncmwtitu-tkwiA -and 'an illibg TV ImIlcmw
Johnson announcement imphed,.Per w tha the- United, and, thmttho4fiould-: W'AmidChr dodied'INIOAhe
909 powem -and hmm theie nolaie 1w
tiomTh* wmwawAtbempt to end rtm the 4kws N mt I
of the Unt":-.
3.1rited: to:. a:: un., lof lhe nlq* 4 "iftt born*
,gon.
The.. reaction: ill l;IhOlSIW3LfiAJO.-Ww mmy iftbmvg vw) oil
Rxim IwAhe aw Adim#w
tL -Art. r
39. can; MC. ml Im I

401







andlatd n te Cna Zoe..Asa vryfreshman Senator at that time, I was proud to be aogthat didinuihe group of

'i aprocs whiCh seems to blind the usresto the
asf their actions. Now the'very set of basic principles, 100"as ,they were, 'were exactly the sort osf thing which should tieik rouht o Cngres orApproval- before they were
I AFAI ~dhrshad chosen-to adop *one principles as guidedea under article IV, then the negotiators could have safely asthat they,.would get a-treate cepal to the Senate and
re.BtiteScretry f S ate mithe Presidentwere not willing to
ikofeuittzsc basic pr3incPipes ito i th ICongreIDss for thywould prcptt intense debate resulting in anienet. They chose, the refore,, to:igor article IV,
ap & t negotiations, despite the fact, that a group of Senators 10 'Y 'to block the-treaty had declared themselves opposed
or.They had set-themselves up6n a course that may
int ftrgedy and Mdisstr.
Mar -- GI 1975 1 COCETAL AGEEENTS
'of, the. nepitosso eame evident. In Decemanthr ocmen wt -emerged--so: called ."conceptual agreeampifyngthe Kissinger-Tack principles. These went into
sugouetai,, Atconfrmedthe worst fears Of those opposed to the
1 00-of sovereignty. For:, although the Amrcnpeople had
'MIMM' "practical control": in lieu of sovereignty, it was
phas~ evn"rctclcntrol" would vanish almostimdae
lphptatiatin, leaving.. only: mixed: control for approximate1)dipets.More recent news amounts confirm the extent to which Maceacktual agemethas bee cried out in the present

enWon Decembe k4, 195,in a statement on the S6etfo, mvade an etensive analysis of the hitherto "secret"
Abptua agremns Itp -will. m!nakevery: interest reading, I 90MM"W, wheht final draft ofthe. new:: treaty: become available.
AMBSSAD R NOIT AND ARTICL II
hokver seme to-deerthe Department of State, not
CamoOf adiministrations, in the eginin of this year.
Ambassamdor Sol 11nowt as czeoitri
Aitbaskto Uowit itis. not an imapartial and profes
r. lie hee long been an advocate ofmsurendern
to Panama, and his business interests coniewith ita
voccy.Unfortunately, the administration once again chose to av~t Scatein Ithe Senate .by appointing him only to a 6-month sprotMsubte which enabled him to, bypa the confirD)epartment ha! ealbe initerested incosltn
_hqije they would have used the opportunity to put their







II, a great embarrapament-was created to the; U.&.Gvmeta to the State Department itself..
For after a Senate speech in which I pointed out. that,
dor Linowitz was on the board of directors of, pan. AmsoAirways, and on the board of directors of the-Marine lMdlandand on, its executive committee-both- of which, had extensive Ako ests in Panama and' needed to curyfvor with the as a11' maintain those interests-the AmbassadorM was forced to from at least one of theni., L
ENCROACMENTf AND USURPATION :1
What all this shows, Mr. President, is that encroachment faillke upon eneroachmeist. The failure of -the. Executive -to abide by a** cle IV, section 3 leads to the failure of: the Executive to 'abulev the spirit of article II, section 2. What kind of a.. ratiicaion is it, when the Executive !yassan eseta atOf it;
the advice and consent to ambasdr about to. undertake, negotiation? This is the only opportunity the Senate gets e~e. negotiation to officially instruct a negotiator -on its vieWs befo" treaty is locked in; yet the State Department bypassed even that .1 nominating a candidate who proved .to be. unsuitable for that particular post. ,
As I indimce before, uisurpation- and irreponsibMily la
seizure of power and tragedy. For 12 years the State Depinment
nians, acting wantonly andi without authority. If this treaty faiths and there are good reasons why it should-the blame idB-lip etrel it 1 th excuiv br*n1, whc ha constantly..-P e,#d
ahide by its constitutional authority a nd has failed to ite* (Congress into is cnsfiemsn aou atins which: amwsletly h. 46 field of congressional prerogative anyway. Unfortunately, it-vill'bo the Nation, and the American people who have to suffertecsa quences. .sn
I would like to close, therefore, with the very blunt, wansoa George Washington in the, Farewell Address: ..n*
It is important, likewise, that the habits of ithinkrin in a &e one-lb inspire caution in those intrusted. with its adinistration tocoaetmaag within their respective constitutional spheres, avoiding in the exercise of the pwrig of one department to encroach upon another. The.spirit. of encroachment tends, to consolidate the powers of all the departments in .one, anhd th u s to create, whatever the form of government a real despotism. If in the opinion of the, 4, 44 distribution or modif ication of the constitution powers be in ay wd let it be, corrected by an aedntin the way which the Constitution But let there be no change by usurpation; for th is in one nsemagry the instrument of good, it is the customary weapo ny whi chf ree gyaai destroyed. The precedent must always greatly abin prmaen evil aipp' partial or transient benefit which the use at any time yiekl
..i.ii...i
iliiiil~iiJii iiiiii


ii.....i ........
Vii.ii....iiiiiiiii







Am& 44 LYM

044 .... .. .... .. .. ..... TRW To
-2- AL Is a report to the
UAW TAMPIL today 11 EM
ent Ailiv"i on a recent tdp to Pa ama,
_IE ArgentiChi to Mrtmjn I Ifir rm2m on for the r, a
W the CkkrW Zdft filing of Ow peo& in the
'Fame trans&r of fitle, of jurimficU 66 country of Nnadw-najdbxm comment Mr..Pr- kut. a coo of the
14 I I I aw" prj:jAj3d
tontubm3d i
be in t&b
3my.rMarks,
Drown. WAh": in so ordered.
IA
With
4bdD 'in the- Recwdv and
W6 valumhuft to indU& cam on AmW
in emmad sermon *Wch wouM not be 4w ate to be
ii of the Senate wM on P 1 transwwi
.1egard to the PKW
comt in addition twkwhat mW be hum
.. .. .... .. .. ...
.Xl2EAIKLJUMXV PC to indof the- of IMDW 'MM of the 190
i1i paper-1puteente by the.: am Councils of several
OOMMImni wieft, the arm dw ComW Zomp and a
Thanum'11. who ndired fiam the
44i C hie& of Staff for a 4as (lab=88 af the..
al;eaMftt by a g an who was our top
19" to 1914 UAPK S - -_ m P n n P P. JU that rm, Umme thmim 100 a both a -and forale, 4urml91 he )64:.wwth ........ ... ...
md= of Pbwm of the Senate Judicih11311BIkN 0 - -,As MOM CKIANEW1, viv F pwjn3uxmy
"IMFNLHWM mum the (anal the
-to the statm., of
of 00 ni to aim
-Mffoltiate for
JOUVRU In, view of sectim 3 of article IV Of the & is

Make ... .. mc ralm mmd 'MA" tar*" 4w Qww PWIPPE's b&wvww. . ....... . .. ..... .
t 11--mmm U
Pum of T606rs abb dhK7j

DOW Oft"
Utee, film 0
MI
bi& A i mid
I Under affmo to I* 4Wpinat thebm* 'fai mcfl&mi and
MWAWV" beW-"
Nil , 1. _i








appeals has held that it ii the: inine 62rft ten
United States. Therefore, unless the Congs -- 0#tnig
people can prevail upon- the White'Hbu6 or th State not to enter into a treaty to ive ** Abu *5- --ty
recourse is for the Senate to r-efuse to -rtiyth n.et
Congress to refuse to approriate fund& smcfe
treaty.


REPORT oF SzAwon WnjtAx IL Scr or. thro13M O
Mr. Connedly and I left Dulles airport neaw midaight n 4M Panama early the following Xmorning in order to. IS= 1
provided with a helicopter flight over. tlha entire CanaZoe i4z 4 Dennis McAuliffe accompanying us and explaining vatriou visited a' set of locks on the ground and were providd *hamI history and the operation of the canal. Then we visited tAmrv m William J. Jorden who discussed -the proposed tretyv t': Governor of the CanalZone. Governor Earfitt se !ajo unr ali has general supervisory juiediction ovet the njaintenaiekn canal, as well as executive oversight of the 56=@> andth Paam
...7.....
Wye arranged to have a detailed discussion with GeneraMcuifan tincluding a number of colonels. and naval, captains at, me it ti~ most cooperative iUt sharing their thoughts ani-rod fely t
with the. committee and possibly, with. the, full Senate. Eaho the vtt N was asked his personal views on the future of the. cae -weiw~ operated efficiently if turned over to the. fnamanisms ether t danger of Commuist inthuence, and whetherther vbld b any lk
regarding the use of the canal or the fees charged fo'r i11ue. Similar questions were put to Americans empidged in -m'0paiw 0644 and later to businessmen, intelligence officials and staffs of th-. -mria in both Argentina and Chile. Argentine. officials includeth miniif undersecretary. of foreign afaini, and asistant to the sde-( l"

the views of morph. than 100 individuals some, American # a an. oe i" nationals.
Our Ambassador to Panam3A and a'forine Fb eigii Of P -x
the proposed treaty. Others had a differat point'of ..w'h eerl6id&
the best interests of all countriendof the world without tfkadi AM only to cover the cost of operations. Infcwtaas suggest tlaith~enae*AUM Canal" should never have been used but it couldY bete -av -en n "Americanc International Canal." Year was expressed, t the Pa-anot have the necessary skills or expertise to -Operate: the.-vnl alhogrth waged a very successful propaganda, effort in favor of obtaiig cntiL We were also told that there were Comnsswith -4 -tan
the Panamanian -Government and regardless of thw er ofatayVa might be natioalizedby theO Panamnisms and.mightcoeunr.t ,
Communists dominated by Cub and Rsi.The committee h t oAt
the views of Admiral Turner and the CyA nthsrgr There was a common belef that tlswudb rie
were cited that 70 percent of. tships usfing Ibthe nd SA
destined for American ports.
In Argentina we were told that the. canal was not as 1.tt ~
Atlantic nations as it was to countries onl th Pacfi th rrihIAj%continent or nations closer to, the canal, Chilean officials stated dtat although they iead,,g '~ keBM= easily than more. northern countries, it was mr their ships to utilize the canal and: 95 percet of tlhei = --tb'u~
canal.








intwwt, ich ffwwx AN 'Stewhad,404, I QP8nwwM They
A46 A_' IJaitod, Obabo hrA AhMs 6jA_& canq in, ywy good
kil MW iftelhat it *0 t *to U the Pan that
AbMAMA and it IWOUIA md* be 140biddle-im the' OrAffio,
INIM andrel: Of the cw2aL Ae. be
w & -9. Wei
dqxww-tDAq Jay
Mfl)
th9tanat
0 tin might beiJ ewj if. t.11w 'ILjjjjjjW LPROW'y *hk& timAnA -df tbqim" *oidd be gi k to
*ObM kOMMY hom fe bodrd'sh4w as. tbw
-2L I
10" Tarkwo lodw aAd n6guarantee VeOWW xt w4er'4 dseknew.k and Jungle OkkKA e*p1wivft At'viW'Spots ;whkh N:'W" Im6f beflovea, bowevet, Ibat vmuM
I
brA the Pan Ie

OVANIMPAUggs tM'P4Ij *iW-__LL- 11-1 VU. -the
-of American people sideming oppo"on in the
Vers tcdd that P Manm. rcmxxw sizength and and
ar IJVwAidMWftO4 Asotha-little, Annaim and even, enco
and othe"lo, borW" that we, intended to give up ouwights
Novas told -it tiaAaaim the swurity tbecangiby
Wril i lit! I Man ftwqWd*be to parantee its secuudty in the event it.ww
_="i"o or twftt9A ccktr4 *&we it was to offiws.
*Drkb* In the C4mdd Zone wme infly bitter about the
t 0 gftiw 161 1. W. --,.A
if; 46,01MORM to Ptinarm -Thetr awt 4H of our mffitary
0 d- the culah Absk 3w material-OAU kin& coWd transit of anAiwaflost throughout the "Ir6ft*,eQ*A6ift 4md 9u& Ahe &M lmi& iW Ab4s of my Nation dkKwiMinafiw-=d in fime of pews 0
*ftM AM PerMitbOt *W4tftli the U=d
0*6*q &kkrMs(*WAh#tbe Panamanian Government was
ve j MW h ture, hesfed by a dictator,
or VdMw'tiVA liberUum Ift was indicated Umt Ivberwjs -to the I-cowitry of Inom not only w1w 069 19 jft' 4o Vsmuna -Aimeficin
-Zdbb vv b *%x0tylbat had
"*Y our, Gum=umt as, am re fwy Jw01% bxqdtaliand
4w
a short
hd .GfAlw oanW tbeAmbriewmAe in the establish=4 com-of tlw4 XM U*o4y. it is
-Oweask of a.cenW.. _ObMt
.. Jigs 80141
V mfles *r=m*,tbpn
ft-foww sv4bbb wmw id given, to us bo for
a* ba** MkIa I* madewparL of the Ptecord. TWmakmid wo Ao
NUNN cfail UWU *66- shotdd be moA famil
Z 06 -4 PORWOM P"" to M, W
0 IN imii "WwwrAhm 914* what
0*
wt *0 commmUes, ond
WON if, *e
Of
PdVajO'QO8L
tu 'of
mid
46


44






'72

o t aespecialy.'Wbm th: Uited:Statehe da
temted to cultivate 'a contrary view I believe 4it would be. against that our Government to transfer control of the. canal; that there as evidemcof nist influence and that a transfer would haive.'an adverseeffect at ludl commerce, and defense posture. Since our govrInment did pay thes ~ the right to -construct the canal, operate, it in -perpetaityo Axrey.tbo sovereignty, paid the French and Colombian Governments for their purchased title to the property from ]private owners .-and even-squatta=GOTe property, the claims of. the Panamanians do not appear. easonable. ...o
There is also the question the effect the transfer of the control of the have upon the. size and composition of our -navy and the committee 'i make inquiry in this regard of the Chief of Naval Operations or Casa Joint Chiefs. A former chairman of the Jaint Chief Adm. Tfomas H. recent testimony before the Subcommittee on. Sep aration of Powers of pUr 1 Judiciary Committee spoke out very strongly against tho transfer'and i questions expressed the opinion thait transferring the control of thhx P5anama could very well result in Cmuitcontrol of the, canal I insert a copy of his direct testimony at this point in the record....
I would -ask for a short closed ssinthat would take. only a .few.s over some. sensitive information identify its sources.





*--- (By John J. Kern):g

When a new planet swims into his ken;,Or like stout Cortez. when witheal eyeis He star'd at the Pacific,-Mand allehis men 7I amr'r at eh other with a wiMd anrmis-Silent, upon a peak in Darien.
(John Keats, "On First Loong Intoh
In this sonnet Keats :ascribes the discovery of the Pacific, O~ean, t though. his -sone is a matrpiece, Kaewshsoial ncuaeso
acualyVasco Nufiez de Balboa who dicvrdtePacific Oca I.(8
atpa mountain pekin the Drepovneof esrnPanama. J .
EARLY EXPLORERS

Surprisingly, within 50 years of the discovery of:vPoanma, all of ,thel 0
'icse posil caa .o*t1. acos Cen.tr. .m.. [ al: American ha ensen Is
*1 2 .3An a n...n". n wnw nerarons Aleveran don SOatn e onsul sai lMtw Cortez, drafted the first plan for a transisfthmian Oanal in 15.29. i;54 of Spain directed that a survey be made, for a abip canal--between..the.4Chaguew, awnd the Dacific Ocean.
EARLY WHISOY OF REGION
The Camino Real was in use by 1535 and over it, millions of deln a of
Peruvian -and Mexican gold was transported for ocean shipent, to Spain. '(The Panama area was subsequently incorporate into the, vice-roat of :New Granada of Spain's western empire. A preliminary Spanish attempt to onstruct a ea in 1814 was interrupted by a L revolt of her colonies.: Panama severed rlatian with Spain in 1821 and Joined with Colombia in the.Republic of r Clmia In 1831, New Granada: became an independent republic inorporatn Paamaras4 a state. Ten years later Panama seceded from NeW. Graaa admitie~ independence for thirteen months.

The 1846 Treaty, between the United States, and- New Grhnada gave the, Untd States a transportation concession across the Isthmus in return for a guarantep, to
A hesveegny..oiNwGrndaiOeYer..iiihiivno A~m
M roiiitiiiii
iiii!! wa raid nm 84 odw ts e









Omia the arduous *vwkk*d:vvat& MeMS lin" fivm NOW
"*We =bipm Amomw C MW _tA) COISOMMS 60d OrOM. POOM it -an 41 nation viis bitinnin tobe: 6k owlhp
tema
t4o U= s Marim Isaded: to protwt the
Willioto0ou tftiHt*rY*m dvemont of the UnIU4
the and Cokmbta (Wbikh
1861Y pmvided fbr the construction of 'a b t -Th% same yi*r the opening of
on'A. sim0a caing 'k Pinkma. Th6 r4 of v"y such todoterwine rM m4* actic4 the padfw ft Moort amended

PKMMT
Ile i61 i Canalt "Qied i Intftta6onal dd Cadat Interooeanique 1 tomak Mrv orations. The negotiations in 1878
W ji Ut ; Government of Colombia for. a vpbdils vt de J epfi*y for a lock June 26, 197% the United f Ora to e" ah a ship o"
an unfriendly dispoffi!, 'Th**,p6HfiOp and ftAowacyj ined pftvious V1410SUM IbIr 6100" in
hN&ifthe no year, the Com- Qm"Oe Untwefteft'do tvml
Wnh de as joreiddept: IU: iw pany
COPacific
days though it VOW-146bbt MWt AMM6 biunbeirs at Atench tru n
m6hths tba fird, deaths from yellow bver 6acurred

M OOKIr 40. .. . ..... ..
'the canig railroad and _huild-.. 6 Ma 1M. Coon was bdr46d:Ikr 10 a of Panama *W' Mints to 0 appointk&
W e. Philipo Bunaur "eved one Wet
to y"r
t OM4 canol

AM 1 z,



b!


41- -4t'
t




KA ARM
4ff








French company te&xbd Lited %Stles attoftfift ajdaw 46ttbd .00111 wnft"4ft! bg



;4 iL Yr "T
Y
11 lst hate
construction r*bt;gM a zone in payment M
and an annuitV VC 4W Oft -Thm*, t!oat y, I
I I V 1W
M and on 904imimi-3 the fil;a 11 1 a n IM
4 declaration of We Thre O'daye"14* #ie 4was Lecoadzed imd with an
Ounau-Varilla waA signed ai 1
occupa#on of the Cuial Zm Xpe 114 izi
nally offered to Colonoia. Re OW
t =.i -,* 'J
thui initiated, and assumed m
In 1904 the French canal properties were to
and in Nmember of that year the firA.Amgricnwwnsftwqti*qn was steadily pushed ahead for the nq# decade and on I
An& z timidW the,.c nalThe 1929 S udy.-S veral yeari aftor the' iftj
that bmflic demindo would eventually.expee&,quagd' J104 Sto direct, a survey in Panama =4 N -to d 0).
additional.locks. tq .. the existing canal or f location. The lini7ted states Arm uaevocea4 'O a .OJ
ated =d its reportoubinitted, m set of locks for the existing caxial;vonverWoln e construction cif a. new*jock4qanMI.ia IQ JO
The Third Locks Pr je6i 'study. (1W
the Panama '0 duoY the POSSI 1_1 *"0*
The,= report reviwdt i c=c*,#wWqhmz the. I and further re*vd in the !M *0*, apd separated fivEft M& outhe eKWVMg lock& k-imconstruction, but the. was suspended in 1SU and hw
The 1947. Ppo --Congrem anin directed the Governor,, in
methods of increasing can al -capacity and de" :as.'4*4 so, tia, alternative routes . .... Thirty possible rou" from M 0 and humbo The report xvqc fimeni t
converted t6 a'sea-level canal by,,d'.' mint along a'!nO* route cWW P.6uto 14.
the Panama Canal Qbloib4py ilitboriz Aws 04VA VhL in clouded the fire$ mention of xiuclea e e*m for cousbructionOf a api4eiel canal %WAg Ww7etw of the Cafii3, Z;%e* "'ff. i" 6),W w a
to 11, 06''
1910's, the dalig Was ;WeAM U a'1957-19W of Consultants AudiRL___9T9 Mzt LY, W4
UN-W study, COMEdff4e 6 i MOATWO' e..a4d
EWard of ConsWtant$ to e, sho*p' A
t Jhat, i
the- near ft"m t th4t new'studies 4 661d' itmUe on 0 izo
1WA'Istbmian_ CaxW S
PanaMA C" I COROPWAY 46ffi the Corps of En& eem and c OMMM emu, 11 t -a 11 canal traffic Prokctions and
a detitilod analyak of tbe,
CA" Tez 0,11an,
zone.- TIHs, report,
atr*0out 2& L
nucleak excayati, 66, Amtwvd bigiL
-A" A"IL
L14 89-M bf _60




111111116M.


75

could ec-ft the Adentic and Pacific
oft was in AprH 1966 and pressufat. its tD
Daceloikbw 19M CWxWr" nockw Id.
not be available because its tw1mical: not beemi UWAK cook.
is, physicaft feadUe sod the most adtable ode in BqpaMw' amm- Clonsuvictiob eM was estimated at $2M A aidt" treaty should be with Panama pnwidCoMMI on 11913te 40) to
Inhad, A' 1 -and Punamis CWnstruction 'Otarted no Ister V
gram
0 1617 To Copgress and would authmise
Beyond there is no legislation pmding which would
the canal or romly cting another canal in
Thus. defin 'action. wM anna-r danml an an
enti 20%M
dw on- P MMUY, ic amd dliplamea"W1 which.
n to result in cumv I of the pnowt conal.

refflamo"M C&MAL vwwxx mi. Nbvn6mm, 18, IM

4t bduw* the United Skaft and the Ripub& of Penanw for Me con% =nd to emnwt the waft.m of Am Athnfic and Padfic oceanL
the Senate, Pebrux"fieO by da Prqdd=4.. February a Mkk ngh anama,
A ratd.,... mehowed at Wadunghm February IML pro
IP
'f PREMIMM" w-ma.Ujurp Sumis cor Ammw& .. .. .... .. ..... ...
A.
ION
0 between the united'states (or Ameem and the Republic of
Ettbe --trud5on, of a ship canal across the Isduum of Panama to SiMa POCift OWaad6 wft concluded their respecon the day of CM
-d three, the Canvmtian, being in the
shki'hunared an
111a"M W% 30 word for word as feMkyvm . ... .. .....
wrinum CANAL CONVENTION
*W 'of and the Repubb, of Panama
am desirow to
O"m of a Oip canal
',Omm*uc __&_U76q" of-Panama to connect the
-jq a Pwifie oceans and the Congress afthe Unfied ShAes. of Anxwica aw ad approved Juxm K 190k in fi, t! e of that object by wbich. ,vfQ&UWWd,$hdwis 11 I i edleac within.
of Ow BvubWe of Cohnnhia. and the mveraffta vested in dw BqmWw of Panama- the bi& fili that 46 ionchWle a comVERIODIR
I I 16f John EL" Searetary of State and
AL i
Pmama Philippe Bunumarills, Envoy Rx,, of the RepUlft 40f In*=a, thMVUM": with M& COW
vA..apW::"d dw..fi 7mm 19 i i tv
.... .. .. .. ..
. .. .. .....
4i
ARM I
"a" WiR mahatsift dw I I to of the Bepublit
.... .. ...
AKIN= N
M f
g I to, the Ukiftd, Mates ia: mad am d of am* of lmd anct hwd underwvftr*r M I
at amid, CWad of ths. width df a im JI6-e"*W4hW'dWWwO-*ft ARNII'm Oak ddko' Ofthe line Of aw
ILAWto, __ ALA1116111111; ___ __ it"








three marine miles from mean low water makand ex~tending to and Isithnus of Panamas into the Pacific cean to -a distance of tlree marine man low water mark with the proviso that the citles.of? asm and hmrbors Adinant tn aid cities, which we inchuded within the brnmdarinehni4n7
further grants to the, United States in perpetuity the, use, cmpation. and, condingh any other lands and waters outside of the Zone,-above describede: which shop-Jlef necessa d convenient for the construction, maintenance, and otcto of the said Canal or of anv auxilary canals or oerMrks amd cnvanient for the construction, waintenance, annotationi sndiainn meet tien of the said enterprise. .,a-,;w.
The Republic of Panama further grants in like manner to the United, Stati a
perpetuity 'all islands within the limits, of the zone above described and -in adBiki thereto the group of small islands in the Bay. of PnmnmdF Culebra and Flamenco.
ARTIC 111
TeRepublic of Panama grants to the United States all the rights auhrt within the zone mentioned and described in Article B9 of ,this
and withi the limits of all auxiliary lands and waters mentioned. and 1 said Article II which the United States would possess and exercise if it were the sovereign of the territory within which said. lands. and waters are located to Tbe entire exclusion -of the exercise by the Republic of Panama of any-such envereign rights, power or authority. -6

As rights subsidiary to the above' grants -the Republic' of Pananma grants, perpetuity to the United States the right -to use the rivers, otreams lakerand dhi Doisof water within' its lmnits for navigation, the supy fwae or
or other purposes, sn far as the ne of saidnrvers, streams, lae and hrisa ae and the waters thereof may be necessary and convenient for the~ const racto maintenance, operation, sanitation and protection of the said Canal.

The Republic of Panama grants to the United States in perpetuity gi-moSh's11 the construction, mainteace and operation'of any system of coabnctq', means of canal or railroad acres its territory between the Caribbean Sea- ni tw Pacilic ocean. ---'*A~Rric= VI
The grants herein contained shall in- no manner invalidate the titles or rights of private land holders or owners of private prpryi the said zone. or fir or to' at-a thie lands or waters granted to theite States by the provision of any Attlteit this treaty, nor shall- they interfere with the rights of way over this pubik tacu
psigthrough the said-sone or -over any of the: said land: or waters'aie
of wy o prvat rihtsshall, conflict with r' hts herein grantb& ib
UntdStates in which case the rights of the -United States shall be enperior dilaages caused to the owners of private lands or private property -of Any reason of the grants contained in this ret or by reason ,of- the, opeftftine 411 United States, its agents or employees, orby reason of 'thecosrtin state, operation, sanitation and protection of the said Canal or of the oi sanitation and protection herein provided for, shall: be appraised: %md settled ,r
jontComission appointed by -the Governments of the UVnited Staes ta&~ Republic oPamwhos decisions as to such damages shiall be, fmnal iand Whebt awards as to such damages shall be paid solely by the United States. No part of tht? work on said Canal or the Panama radroad or on any auxiliary works:eltf thereto and authorized by the term of this treaty shall be prevented, delayed o impeded by or pending such proceedings to ascertain such damages. The appraisal of said private lands and private property and, the asesmnof damage to thkn shall be based upon their value before the date of this convention.
ARTICU VU
The Republic of Panama grants to th United States withi the limitsf the cWtes of Panama and Colon and their ajacent harbors7 adwithin the territory adjcet, thereto the right to aqieby prhsorbyteeecs fth ih feie
di nayladbi ae rgt, roheirprteiecsayadi
ii ntforth








F" so the-edIwOon 4nd- ffiRmition of wwage and the A, aqAJO#w Panama mW Colou, which; in the Aiscre= rp, poces"ar and o6mveimmt fbr the Ik .- i Y I eenebruction,
an4, -of theMid Cmd and:rafiromi
tiopm and, of eawageand distrOution of
L mind (30 4 at the e0ense of the-United
Of" OW Vnited. WatW its agents or nominees shall be water a nd sewerage rates which shall : be
harthe -----of interest and the amortization of the princiof said works peewdaf fift years and upon the ezpiration of
0-4 m and water works shall wyert tp and
-of Pana Et and Colo -velyand the use of
i1sixbo a n %CWTenC,.ULiexc6pt 6D. the extent on anq of said system
Of a.grees the-cities of Pomma and Colon shall comply
M whether of a preventive Or. curative
the States and in cam, the Governmen t of Panama -is
this ( cppfiqr m. of thi tities'of Painamsk and of the -Unked 'States the Ri publk a Pan#m Otland authority to enA)roe the same.
t64 fhe United States At the maintedki cf"W Pa6amil and Colm and the territories and thereto in cam t1w, Hepub!Ac of Panama should not be in the United S ates able to maintain such order.
..... .. .. ... .
p; ANMR VM
tf.Panawa to to the ftt" all rights which it now has
Canalofthe N6wTana '"d
-f the transfer of soveremimly the
.40 a-r6giult
t6 -of Panama trvtr the Isthmus91.P fisma and
Od cow to
PhAy sell and.Umnsfer to the Uifted PtOer, ek and concessions as well the Panama or of the shares of thaf com'pany-, but thp
tlio'zo pairt ,
_4 desor:ibed in Article Wof treaty now inc uded tobdth add enterprises and not required Mi the construction or Canal shall revert to thp Republic of 'Panama ezoept any IW Y or k the poswesion 6f'said comuanies within Panama or 9XUOr Xe
.. ..... .. ...
iO AR71MIK:
-bes that *WtIW it ei*&: entr=ce of the Qwaland: the A R Ik of flanaina agrees that tI
M 1 , W tvirns of Panama and
fbr arthilb so that timme, uot'be imposed or collected vvharf, pilot, or puu=tine dues jazes 6f any M an-V VeOWL orr pasming through
t y United States, &Wecd or Wurectl Operation, t and proteoiioft or upon the cargo, officers, crew,, or Ot Sin- K except such tolls and charges as may-lbe im by
UMMed States for the use of the jCand =d other workS6 and except tolls and the Aqmblj ofP a 'upon, erch W deodned to be
it 4 $he, MW
1jej 4 qpon
of A59on and wbkh dd agit
7 Ir %* '' I I Ow.
III Woolkvftw bf 12 b*4 the rW to edaW" in
-41 Ma and 7 As it W#Y
*bn dof
aLt I
=,t to
41W 1116t ODIft of -.3.g...
17
"i M 0 1 _-,
hi UwAft or deatined. for the of the conal and for otber

f4
jhnW














Atuxillwy va*kme-. 7, 7 7

IN6 Udwd "kaof



rl k 4 1 A
Iree'13MM


a nd

TheUnited States may izit s aby free of amstom dud*M any and all vopel*


e*
ofithe



As the pric&'qi 44" Powm
convention by the Republic of Vnited
United Statewss to to the
dollm (410,( J i 'af
rAfi&"6h t4of, Itw I I


the oft
But Y
this bmimk"O r
in- an btbwlfocisio








I






049

W didiVwY*Wwut--add zone tok the
0.- __ .Of erfines,
*w awA *4x*du.wy lwd.&:..
.... ... ... ..

4rM I 1 fiLat4g&&O ofan the pwu:,d:the

hr all vessels paw or bound pm :*ron&. the Cam]
,,in &tzmw and be driven to i9sk reftw in said pa-s. Such vessels
from: and.wftw:0WU.*m*ns& dues on.the part of the. Republic of
4 .....
%
T 4 .... .....
be ueutrg in
jW
i= igidl t n the'term Oovided for by 4petion I of Artide
lbrk Ux au thostipulations Of, the Uvaty entered into by
of the 10nited ffiotwf.a04 Grea Britain on Novenibw 18, L901.

. .. ........
4,nw ojn AWA, 1" tb6 A t6 bm=pot over
and ir tfohs of war i vessels at A ti k1fid:, The exemfgidn is to be extended to the in the-service of the Republic of thepreseirvatibii-of publiewder out"
'of war and!
txwiip ttt x 7, 1 -tq -I-, lit.,
A d*"of any e=* tnety in relafim to the temtory of the bffihius of
"md be assumed by the Republic of
'the"Obligadma stuffiA CW
This be myp or =cession in favor of the Goven=ent or
P"W -ftlft6ft tun ji i ineans
%hud-, to I ad Of
insarctitwt* mW be incompatilAs, wft the tftms 4 the
to,6avicel'or1601do AWM AAA
**,f*xvew*isbaH 9'M to, the -ad& th" Vower the rSqMzMW
t"M 4Qf fOW ZWOdW fMftthe date of the convention,
treaty contains no dauge pftvakWwfts modificafions.or of Panma a0ees to procum its mo&fication or annulthere shan a*-esdattasy muffict with the Of the
Of
J
mull* ig,
Ilkrip Orranams W the Un.kqd-&ntes terier &bts. fieMkS. trust%
*_ MrS14 Mw
UUTF
ah&M Ofioe gkny dainm onapci 1Ek1W Privileges or otherwise, the claimants shan rewrt to of Panama and not to the United Ste for any may be requiredL

V
AL
to .11&e *,te _f6bdes I~ a* Cabld AzUde
L X! BM, Z Ympet MW Owe& the New
my, INWO&W IWAS11 Of'! a-, VDWBW7
Uft(W nalunder4or ag to




may
7- ]HIMPI)PICIM7 AMWA lb
A-Adow-1c AMA
Az
M the Ntat I'Viftr Of dMiN
of Pmam any contnmft or







'90
vim -AmIlke afmwald
present or V inurcot in
States thereto upon constommAt States ftM the Now 'PangnOL 40MM* Cb*PAM
AM- -Lthe, Rqmblk of Pmumw, exceptbw" securedun4er trea* 1: e.L' A
Vn) 4q
X:
If it WbmxM: beemenecessaryat my titne to ejqAW agow AictOMP
and auOiary the United At
discreftm, to um Ma PoNce and i" fiW 0" e "WPOOM

No chmw either in the
Panama shA without the.,gongept TTnOwA RfAh*A-,
United States undW tfie tween the two ic tjdles I matter of this convention,
-pubjic', ,
If the Ite of loll mok OWU l4re ft" fa 04
ilG'jj:)j6r=ent L or W6 ILM4
n 7 _'_"
or lepen&nce lk s6ch doAl
of the United &fttes mder this oomientiamw tug OW J d b6' =ijulvaired,


Forte beUer t1k
of the eal'at Imn dogic L Of the I
Ir of if
and
western Qwg)bem cosa of, dive Re"" At, cartait Po&W the Preoi&nt of the United states, .. .... .. C T ,
ARTMA XM
Tbb conventimm when dWked by the Mm#wLentiarieei of L qspen and the,
AhaH be ratified by the respective, to
ew-banged at Wakhingt4Dn 4$ the li fifthh whereof tho, tion indUpficate and 'Ofte Olt the, -ch
iimdoen)n diied


And whereas the amd Convention hasjb duly ratified on both paxtk
of the two government weii in the
the twenky jiYlQ("VW-Ajb__"P%@_.rq b
Now, Abatefimr% lmit knopmAhatAk
Statesof Azim have,, tfii 101 b -i iltOA0,
that the. mmie and t ftay arlW with good &M bvtW Ah4W Eftfiggo lu tesummy
Mited, 4Amai firbi6jolw
Done, at U*'O-W Vt
our L(*d oneI _W W









0 OUNCUSTO TM HOUM

donilmxv Amftibom
'and IW w, 1-amfe ndng a
A tho woman of the worid. in
to thit Uhibed'Stateil and the area which w once consid*hot would look hke today had
LHOWN6 Phums. Ov"ii its pf
*,d So Omid, Une Imt just fiam the annad nfflkced amindAy, but IWVW t6 OW"ft in the Cnaw am% hum pmdmm
'Cmg kafte- and -fixft the millions of owl to 40mut of U.&
in_ of Maw
who have left their -7i DA for aft
but twIltho Owtice lef the UAAW states
At, Xaft"'Matims Thear 0 aNIM&OW Tom of amm-4bod 1 11 -1 dobaddy and effidently has been due hiVefy th themik
oft -pbcmb of kumW to the United Stshm, md tbeik
11009i" 405NNIrtft 4jdIkbj4i* 4W witbout a Cmml:Zme of tho UNdw U.S law% OxUt% postal
1 wt, S".0 I wM, UA cmviml and U& dtimm
befieft the'UR goverminmat ow a: go vaidmond
1161 Aill '1 11 W I &- kWA thek *6 '1 thdw Firm, tbeiir
Aw'"M4 at V same, the Ilk the:" t
. ...... Canel
IMW%, **-UK Qvk Counefis in the ChmA &ne ba" been
I = h hifte"*64 f*mW ---- of ity Opbdm for
Owkink of AauW epnepni-ativin,
---q3Iv.OffiCbd8 'We hMm tried to maintain an A I&--- a" an file sabiat of a nm
J-4 the of of the mmy i A to we
fbi no nm& m that me 6el Mm "brokm record: is that Wr about Hving the
nowta fwm in tto oeo
71
do Rqpubfic Of all rer lone We use ow eyes and
&w an and we we mm* naive enough to beUm thid
miebwAs feffimPavowumialm -wM arbUrwy beatings Is o give madid beelment to tbdm
wim Ime -t&iir i (This
ammed mW &v&ped by Ow The actWmmof the Pammnanian goveirw how &m =ding to mn the U.& empi"m in W r M. IA us citea
of A and waS asimmis weve
111 11" mo fw timer n1pli ned"an to the Tom*os y in 11 db Mm WWO Cbmum
*"Ia AD" ftwom m by
-26W*04,60 nua* W &e A 1; i 14 cmihmed abaoA Amily Ew a
idw A --Al- 'Im 1*411441.
Inm Iffib e md me bow IN to mmmbm of *9 to appia
jiv -IW Wk "Coo likm&
11 1



A- th I


ilkt






82

6. William Drummond, while passig, through '1'cumen Air-port on11 1977, en route to Washington oni labor union business, wsi de ^ W"bi and questioned for about three 'hours in the -downtown -PanamaOM*oflce. tried to board another plane.the following day, hewsdetained-fy n" the foot of the boarding rlamp, and seven friends whomx' airpr ere also detained and questioned because one of themap*sc Drmod being. stopped by --2 agents. 'The film was, ct J
It seems inconsistent with the stated refusal of our goverpmen. countries who have violated human, rights. that any negotiations on with a government which is in power .illegally and wich )aw a frequent violation of human rights- Thie Torrije: dictatorship ha repression against political, professional, business,, student and law expatriation of what is estimated to be about 1800 Panapmanias ad some 500 persons in a country of only .1,700,600 inhabitata 168,000 expatriations and 65,000 murderaxin theUnited States.. tative figures on expatriations and Political murders are' ta Panama because of Government secrecy..and suppreenion of informaion% Government does not want its people to have.) .. .0
What exists now in the Canal Zone, after many- attemppts Qn ougr p.te warning signals and indications of problems to come,7 is. a "seigfe crisis atmosphere. Now that one of the Civic Coni peietwhoa6 appears at the conclusion of tis paper (Aarold Green of Gambon hexperience with arbitrary detention, Isrrest, interrogation and search ktlpp lic, we are having real difficulty in maintaining an attitude ofeampagage rationality.i.:i w.ia
In short, our people have told. us that they are more rigidly appsed44 living under. Paaana jurisdiction. The list of 15: assurances,* by Governor Harold R. Parfitt, spelled out for them.". the 'dco kai Panamanian law would go into effect when the treaty was inaugur ad ay many of our people now tell us that "the day that, the Canal Zone ai~cego and also, more alarmingly, "When the U.S. workers see the day.gnngha jurisdiction will be handed to Panama, yu can expect: to seeth anadlslnt
Last year Dr. Richard Cheville addressedyour..ommittee: .notln
March sick-out, and he explained in his teakimony some of the factors Most the closing of the Panama Canal. Morale at that time was extremely lt we have to say honestly that our people are so demoralized .that, the. Are' give up and quit-a shutdown of the Canal, iff it occurs,. will not hmppenaet
physical security, will simply leave their jobsites, go home and pack thir gg1ae for repatriation. We do not say this lightly; we: do-not..say it as a threo bAk a must make the honest observation that our people final -so thoroughly.4a"o
much to look forward to), that it would not take much to get soarseofm tham"14a job action. -:Mn TO
In contrast to our position at year-round -residents and oas-eleted repreadl
State Department official have little at stake themselves personally, othe ban tbv o successfully negotiate a, treaty which wiH, :in their nda' eshmspri iaone and get rid of chronic problems: in our relations with :Panama,:. When eheP Sillih their assignment, they will move on to other missions, leaving us to lve w-i*gp they have arranged -in treaty -form. Generally, the treatyegoitr CiIt Panama for short periods of time, followed by journalists who became expath Wsier a three~lay tour that includes standard .briefings by the Panmin anld Bse Zone governments.
These negotiators for: the most part stay in isolation on the, island of O
and when they have consented to meet with Canal Zone labor and civic repraedithtives, they have said relatively nothing of Any significance on, the trety: feene We sincerely resent the fact that our services and the future security of our natiod are being negotiated:Aunder::a cloak and dagger atmosphere,. partical Ancera the sqe cy is unilateral. Secrecy, :in recent years, -has been closely- ine with dishoh, illegal or shady dealings. Wen ine Canal. Zone aire hard. pfbased -to an PitatdlY define the secrecy attached tot the" Phaiama Cba angotiationis. (Imagmofe our chagrin to daily read in, the Panama papers that aPanamanian govehenest sdpmgi briefing Paamanidn student, prfeenional, binessw or, labr t-dr othe'ro griiiiiiiiofiiithe i iiitiatok JAri s:fOf4Kc,.,Cbmla!-Vtz
semdtib ree, eualyb:Gnraidt'