Low Socioeconomic Youth’s Nature to Agriculture Perceptions Influencing Homeless Shelter Design

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Title:
Low Socioeconomic Youth’s Nature to Agriculture Perceptions Influencing Homeless Shelter Design
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis
Language:
English
Creator:
Wiener, Aaron
Publisher:
School of Landscape Architecture and Planning, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publication Date:

Notes

Abstract:
The purpose of this Graduate Terminal Project (GTP) was to determine how nature to agriculture connections can be made for homeless mothers and their children for enhancing their immediate and future lives. This is achieved through a literature review on the many issues related to homelessness and nature disconnects, case studies of precedent developments, and surveys of teenagers that aim to measure their perceptions of nature and agricultural food production. Through this process design recommendations were developed for repurposing the Gainesville Correctional Institution facility into a homeless shelter that serves the community of Gainesville, Florida. A conceptual master plan was developed for the entire site. The plan recommends zones for proposed uses and overall operation of the renovated campus while concentrating on bringing youth and women experiencing homelessness closer to their food sources in an interactive and enjoyable manner.
Abstract:
Primary and secondary research was applied to get an in depth understanding of the site, low socioeconomic youth perceptions, the current state of homelessness, and existing facilities that serve the homeless for repurposing the Gainesville Correctional Institute. The key findings lead to general recommendations for the site and nature connectedness recommendations for mothers and their children. The primary research consisted of surveys and a field trip to a co-housing urban agriculture development that were conducted to get a better understanding of teenager appreciation to nature and agricultural food production. Key findings discovered improvements to the study group’s understanding for agricultural production farming and a greater appreciation for nature. Secondary research consisted of an in depth literature review and tours of current repurposed homeless shelters. The secondary research provided an understanding of the growing need and benefits of connecting children to nature, the current state of homelessness, the benefits of well designed play spaces, standards for homeless facilities, and previous measures applied on the perceptions of youth and nature.
Abstract:
Research analysis contributed to the development of design recommendations. Planting shade trees, removal of the chain link fence, turning open spaces into revenue generators, defining user group locations, and disassociating the site from the current operational facility were some of the developed general recommendations for the site. More in depth nature connectedness recommendations were developed for a space serving mothers and their youth. These recommendations consisted of safety, utilizing an existing oak tree, educational gardens, and an active play space that supports the essence of the design.
Abstract:
This study was born from a passion to develop ways landscape architects can serve the people that need them the most. A design was produced with the aim of bringing people closer to nature for the benefit of improved future life choices. It is my intent that this study will serve as a spring board for further idea generation and support for repurposing the Gainesville site and other future developments that are empathetic and beneficial to the people they serve.
General Note:
Landscape Architecture terminal project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Aaron Wiener. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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AA00025615:00001


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Low Socioeconomic Youths Nature to Agriculture Perceptions Influencing Homeless Shelter Design By: Aaron Wiener A Graduate Terminal Project to the Department of Landscape Architecture University of Florida as a Partial Requirement for the degree of Master of Landscape Architecture 2014 University of Florida College of Design, Construction, and Planning Committee Chair : Margaret Peggy Carr Member: Robert Grist FASLA

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When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe. John Muir

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First and foremost, I would like to thank my loving wife for supporting me through this Master of Landscape Architecture journey. Your loving words of support are what carried us through this accomplishment. Then I would like to thank my family for their undying continued support. None of this would have been possible without your influence and advice. Thank you Mary and Jim Hammons for pushing the research design forward and the Buick, may she rest in peace. Thank you to my mother for always keeping me in good spirits with her frequent bursts of encouragement. Thank you to my father for always lending a hand in times that were the most inconvenient. Thank you to my sister for being the best listener in the universe. I would also like to thank Pastor Greg Washington and Pastor Tony Johns and the kids at the City of Refuge, Joe Reynolds at Gaia Gardens and Love is Love Farm, Tildon Wright at Jefferson Place, Fredrick Murry and Kimberly Sweigard with the City of Gainesville, and Steve Everett with Eastside High School. Lastly, I would like to thank all the faculty at the University of Florida. To my thesis chair Professor Peggy Carr thank you for believing in my project and having the confidence in me to see it through to the end, and my committee member Professor Robert Grist for grounding me in reality and keeping me out of worm holes. I would also like to thank Dr. Mary Padua for pushing me to the endless limits of design exploration, and Professor Kevin Thompson for showing me that social awareness is the key to a great landscape architect.

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1 :: page ABSTRACT The purpose of this Graduate Terminal Project (GTP) was to determine how nature to agriculture connections can be made for home less mothers and their children for enhancing their immediate and future lives. This is achieved through a literature review on the many issues related to homelessness and nature disconnects, case studies of precedent developments, and surveys of teenagers that aim to measure their perceptions of nature and agricultural food production. Through this process design recommendations were developed for repurposing the Gainesville Correctional Institution facility into a homeless shelter that serves the community of Gainesville, Flori da. A conceptual master plan was developed for the entire site. The plan recommends zones for proposed uses and overall operation of the renovated campus while concentrating on bringing youth and women experiencing homelessness closer to their food sources in an interactive and enjoyable manner. Primary and secondary research was applied to get an in depth understanding of the site, low socioeconomic youth perceptions, the current state of homelessness, and existing facilities that serve the homeless for repurposing the Gainesville Correctional Institute. The key findings lead to general recommendations for the site and nature connectedness recommendations for mothers and their children. The primary research consisted of surveys and a field trip to a co-housing urban agriculture development that were conducted to get a better understanding of teenager appreciation to nature and agricultural food production. Key findings discovered improvements to the study groups understanding for agricultural production farming and a greater appreciation for nature. Secondary research con sisted of an in depth literature review and tours of current repurposed homeless shelters. The secondary research provided an under standing of the growing need and benefits of connecting children to nature, the current state of homelessness, the benefits of well designed play spaces, standards for homeless facilities, and previous measures applied on the perceptions of youth and nature. Research analysis contributed to the development of design recommendations. Planting shade trees, removal of the chain link fence, turning open spaces into revenue generators, defining user group locations, and disassociating the site from the current operational facility were some of the developed general recommendations for the site. More in depth nature connectedness recommendations were developed for a space serving mothers and their youth. These recommendations consisted of safety, utilizing an existing oak tree, educational gardens, and an active play space that supports the essence of the design. This study was born from a passion to develop ways landscape architects can serve the people that need them the most. A design was produced with the aim of bringing people closer to nature for the benefit of improved future life choices. It is my intent that this study will serve as a spring board for further idea generation and support for repurposing the Gainesville site and other future developments that are empathetic and beneficial to the people they serve.

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2 :: page TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 :: Introduction Chapter 2 :: Literature Review Chapter 3 :: Case Studies Abstract Table of Contents List of Figures 2.1 :: The Importance of a Childs Bond with Nature: Improved Health, Improved Concentration, Creative Play, and Improved Environmental Stewardship 2.2 :: Nature Play and Examples of Play Spaces Designed to Enhance Nature Connections 2.3 :: Homeless Demographics and Safety Issues Regarding The Situations 2.4 :: The Value of Green Spaces to Individuals Experiencing Homelessness 2.5 :: Standards for Design of Homeless Facilities 2.6 :: Previous Measures on Nature Connections 2.7 :: Literature Review Conclusion 1.1 :: Research Question and Purpose 1.2 :: Background 1.3 :: Summary of Issues 3.1 :: City of Refuge 3.1.1 :: Overview 3.1.2 :: Site 3.1.3 :: Facilities 3.1.4 :: Site Photos 3.1.5 :: Resulting Conclusion 3.2 :: Jefferson Place 3.2.1 :: Context 3.2.2 :: Site 3.2.3 :: Services 3.2.4 :: Site Photos 3.2.5 :: Resulting Conclusion 3.3 :: Arbor House 3.3.1 :: Overview 1 2-4 5-7 8-10 8 8-9 9-10 11-53 11-14 14-21 22-36 37-43 43-46 47-51 51-53 54-91 54-69 54 55-57 58-60 61-68 69 70-77 70 71-72 70-71 72-76 77 78-80 78

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3 :: page Chapter 5 :: Hope Village 5.1 :: Background on Gainesvilles Homeless 5.2 :: Purpose 5.3 :: Site Analysis 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations 5.4.1 :: Exploratory & Qualitative Research Process Diagram 5.4.2 :: General Recommendations for the Site 5.4.3 :: Functional Diagram TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 4 :: Research Methodology & Results 4.1 :: Purpose 4.2 :: The Field Trip Experience 4.3 :: Survey Measure 4.3.1 :: Questions and Resulting Changes 4.3.2 :: Short Answers 4.3.3 :: Drawings 4.3.4 :: Conclusion 3.3.2 :: Site 3.3.3 :: Facilities 3.3.4 :: Population Served 3.3.5 :: Resulting Conclusion 3.4 :: Los Angeles Mission 3.4.1 :: Overview 3.4.2 :: Site 3.4.3 :: Facilities 3.4.4 :: Population Served 3.4.5 :: Architectural Plans 3.4.6:: Resulting Conclusion 3.5 :: Dignity Village 3.5.1 :: Overview 3.5.2 :: Basic Rules 3.5.3 :: Site 3.5.4 :: Facilities 3.5.5 :: Population Served 3.5.6 :: Site Photos 3.5.7 :: Resulting Conclusion 3.6 :: Case Study Conclusion 79 79 79 80 81-85 81-83 83 83 83 84 85 85-91 85-86 87 87 87 87 88-90 92-114 92 93-99 100-115 100-111 111-112 113 115 116-146 116 117 118-123 124-146 124 125-126 127 90 91

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4 :: page Chapter 6 :: Conclusion Works Cited 6.1 :: Recap on Youth to Nature Disconnect 6.2 :: Interupting the Cycle of Homelessness 6.3 :: Closing TABLE OF CONTENTS 5.4.4 :: Spatial Use Assignments 5.4.5 :: Conceptual Master Plan, 100scale 5.4.6 :: Conceptual Master Plan, 30scale 5.4.7 :: Recommendations for Enhancing Youth Connections to Nature and Agricultural Food Production 5.4.8 :: Conceptual Master Plan, 8scale 5.4.9 :: Supporting Design Graphics 5.4.0.1 :: Fence Recommendations 5.4.0.2 :: Plant Recommendations 128 129 130 131 132 133-138 139 140-146 147-148 147 147 148 149

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5 :: page LIST OF FIGURES 1.1 Design Process Diagram..........p11,p18 1.2 Funshine Garden Map at Adkins Arboretum Ridgely, MD.........p19 1.3 Paw Paw Playground Adkins arboretum Ridgely, MD.........p20 2.1 Calverton Field Map Huntington, MD.........p21 3.1 & 3.2 Fort Wild at Charlotte Nature Museum North Carolina..........p22 4.1 Google Earth Aerial of the City of Refuge Atlanta, GA.........p57 4.2 City of Refuge, Parcel Profile by Fulton County Geographic Information Systems Atlanta, GA......... p59 4.3 Interior Functions Diagram of the City of Refuge Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener.........p62 4.4 Photo of Street Planting at the City of Refuge Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener.........p63 4.5 Photo of City of Refuge Exterior Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener.........p63 4.6 Photo of City of Refuge Production Area Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p64 4.7 Photo of City of Refuge Production Area Grade Change Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p64 4.8 4.5 Photo of City of Refuge Bioponic System Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p65 4.9 4.5 Photo of City of Refuge Bioponic Tomatoes Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p65 5.1 Photo of City of Refuge Production Area Grade Change Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p66 5.2 Photo of City of Refuge Lettuce Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p66 5.3 Photo of City of Refuge South Production Area Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p67 5.4 Photo of City of Refuge Volunteers Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p67 5.5 Photo of City of Refuge The Peoples Truck Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p68 5.6 Photo of City of Refuge 180 Kitchen Atlanta, GA...........p68 5.8 Photo of City of Refuge Saint Joseph Mercy Care Clinic Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p69 5.9 Photo of City of Refuge Hallway of Bright Futures Academy Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p69 6.1 & 6.2 Photo of City of Refuge Interior Playground Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p70 6.3 Photo of Jefferson Place Bunk beds Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener.............p74 6.4 Photo of Jefferson Place Entry Signage Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener.............p74 6.5 Photo of Jefferson Place Mural Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener.............p75 6.6 Photo of Jefferson Place Interior Landscape Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener.............p75 6.7 Photo of Jefferson Place Class Room Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener.............p76 6.8 Photo of Jefferson Place Group Therapy Room Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener.............p76 6.9 Photo of Jefferson Place Barber Shop Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener.............p77 7.1 Photo of Jefferson Place Weight Room Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener.............p77 7.2 Photo of Jefferson Place Correctional Facility Fence Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener.............p78 7.3 Photo of Jefferson Place Outdoor Courtyard Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener.............p78 7.4 University of Florida Nursing Student at the Arbor House Gainesville, FL..........p82 7.5 L.A. Mission Floor Plan Los Angeles, CA, from Designing for the Homeless: Architecture that Works .........p86 7.6 Google Earth Aerial of Dignity Village Portland, OR.........p90 7.7 Isometric Drawing of Dignity Village Portland, OR by Mark Lakeman.........p91 7.8 Iso-aerial photo of Dignity Village Portland, OR from www.dignityvillage.org.........p91 7.9 Photo of Dignity Village Built Forms from Portland Ground Portland, OR...........p92 8.1 Photo of Joe Reynolds with Study Group at Love is Love Farm Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p95 8.2 Photo of Joe Reynolds beginning guide at Love is Love Farm Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p95 8.3 Photo of Joe Reynolds Drip Irrigation at Love is Love Farm Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p96

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6 :: page 8.4 Photo of Row Crops at Love is Love Farm Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p96 8.5 Photo of Joe Reynolds with Muscadines at Love is Love Farm Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p97 8.6 & 8.7 Photo of Joe Reynolds at Greenhouse at Love is Love Farm Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p98 8.8, 8.9, & 9.1 Photo of Composting at Love is Love Farm Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p99 9.2, 9.3, & 9.4 Photo of Mushroom Farming Irrigation at Love is Love Farm Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p100 9.5 Photo of Study Group Walking Trail at Love is Love Farm Atlanta, GA by Aaron Wiener...........p101 9.6 Q1 Survey Pie Chart Analysis.........p102 9.7 Q2 Survey Pie Chart Analysis.........p103 9.8 Q3 Survey Pie Chart Analysis.........p104 9.9 Q4 Survey Pie Chart Analysis.........p105 10.1 Q5 Survey Pie Chart Analysis.........p106 10.2 Q6 Survey Pie Chart Analysis.........p107 10.3 Q7 Survey Pie Chart Analysis.........p108 10.4 Q8 Survey Pie Chart Analysis.........p109 10.5 Q9 Survey Pie Chart Analysis.........p110 10.6 Q10 Survey Pie Chart Analysis.........p111 10.7 Q11 Survey Pie Chart Analysis.........p112 10.8 Q12 Survey Pie Chart Analysis.........p113 10.9 Drawings from Survey Measure Study Group vs Beta.........p116 11.1 Photo of Front Entrance of GCI Site Gainesville, FL by Kasey Greenhalgh..........p120 11.2 Photo Facing South at Front Entrance of GCI Site Gainesville, FL by Aaron Wiener..........p121 11.3 Photo on Main Road at facing east of GCI Site Gainesville, FL by Aaron Wiener..........p121 11.4 Photo on Main Road at facing north of GCI Site Gainesville, FL by Aaron Wiener..........p122 11.5 Photo on Front Entry from inside GCI Site facing west Gainesville, FL by Aaron Wiener..........p122 11.6 Photo of Education Center Facade at GCI Site Gainesville, FL by Aaron Wiener..........p122 11.7 Photo of Kitchen at GCI Site Gainesville, FL by Aaron Wiener..........p122 11.8 Photo of Dining Area at GCI Site Gainesville, FL by Aaron Wiener..........p123 11.9 Photo showing Forest Land at GCI Site Gainesville, FL by Aaron Wiener..........p123 12.1 Photo showing Lack of Shade at GCI Site Gainesville, FL by Aaron Wiener..........p123 12.2 Photo showing Ball Field at GCI Site Gainesville, FL by Aaron Wiener..........p123 12.3 Photo Inside Dorm at GCI Site Gainesville, FL by Aaron Wiener..........p124 12.4 Photo of Control Room Inside Dorm at GCI Site Gainesville, FL by Aaron Wiener..........p124 12.5 Photo Inside Dorm at GCI Site Gainesville, FL by Aaron Wiener..........p124 12.6 Photo of Common Area Inside Dorm at GCI Site Gainesville, FL by Aaron Wiener..........p124 12.7 SWOT Analysis for GCI site by Aaron Wiener.........p125 12.8 Relation Diagram GCI site..........p126 12.9 Google Earth Image of GCI site..........p126 13.1 Site Analysis Diagram for GCI site by Aaron Wiener.........p126 13.2 Functional Diagram for GCI site by Aaron Wiener.........p130 13.3 Spatial Use Assignment Diagram for GCI site by Aaron Wiener.........p131 13.4 1=100 Conceptual Master Plan for Hope Village by Aaron Wiener.........p132 13.5 1=30 Conceptual Master Plan for Hope Village by Aaron Wiener.........p133 13.6 1=8 Conceptual Master Plan for Hope Village by Aaron Wiener...........p136 LIST OF FIGURES

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7 :: page 13.7 Active Play Space Research Relation by Aaron Wiener.........p137 13.8 Nature Connectedness Section Research Relation by Aaron Wiener..........p138 13.9 Front Elevation for Hope Village by Aaron Wiener..........p139 14.1 Rear Elevation for Hope Village by Aaron Wiener.........p139 14.2 East Elevation for Hope Village by Aaron Wiener.........p140 14.3 West Elevation for Hope Village by Aaron Wiener.........p140 14.4 Photorealistic Image of Play Area Around Existing Oak by Aaron Wiener..........p141 14.5 Photorealistic Image of Active Play Area by Aaron Wiener..........p142 14.6 & 14.7 Photorealistic Image of Future Dorm Area Common Space by Aaron Wiener..........p143 14.8 Entry Gateway Graphic..........p144 14.9 4 Board Horse Fence.........p145 15.1 Non Decorative Pasture Fence.........p145 15.2 Aluminum Decorative Fence..........p145 15.3 4 Strand Barbed Wire Fence..........p146 15.4 Woven Wire Fence.........p146 LIST OF FIGURES

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8 :: page 1 :: INTRODUCTION Does exposure to food production and natural areas enhance teenagers understanding of both, and what sorts of positive results come from this exposure? How can the lessons from these questions be incorporated into the design of a facility for the homeless, and what critical site design considerations are needed when repurposing a correctional facility into a homeless service center? The purpose of this study is to determine how nature to agriculture connections can be made for homeless mothers and their chil dren to enhance their immediate and future lives. To achieve this purpose primary and secondary research that focuses on nature and agricultural food production perceptions of low socioeconomic youth, a literature review on the many issues related to homelessness and nature disconnects, and case studies of precedent developments were applied. This body of research was then used to influence a design that repurposes the Gainesville Correctional Institution facility into a homeless service center that serves the community of Gainesville, Florida. A study group was established from an after school program located in an impoverished neighborhood in Atlan ta, Georgia. They were issued a pre-test measure, taken on field trip to an urban agricultural and co-housing development, and then re-administer a post-field trip experience survey. Then an analysis of the subjects repeated pre-test measure versus the subjects post test measure were analyzed to determine if the field trip experience provided a change in their perceptions. These findings along with a thorough site analysis, attendance to a community visioning session, and an extensive case study involving site visits to other repurposed shelters, and a literature review on nature disconnects, nature programed play spaces, the importance of green spaces, standards of homeless shelter design, and previous nature to youth measures was used to influence a conceptual master plan that supports the overall empathetic function for the repurposed correctional facility into a homeless shelter in Gainesville, Florida. 1.1 :: Research Questions and Purpose 1.2 :: Background This study builds off of experiences I had in the summer of 2013 when I was granted the opportunity to volunteer at the City of Ref uge, which is a campus that primarily serves as a transitional housing facility and homeless shelter for over 300 women and childr en in Atlanta, Georgia. The campus facilitates employment stability and healthy lifestyles for its residents and the surrounding community. One way this is accomplished is through the 180 Kitchen; which is an on site cooking and dining educational facility that provides over 12,000 meals a month, food truck services, and a catering business. Also located on site is St. Josephs Hospital Mercy Care Clinic which is a full service medical care clinic open to the community serving approximately 700 individuals a month. Education is also provided for grades 6 through 12 through an on site charter school called the Bright Futures Academy. The City of Refuge also utilizes their outdoor spaces for an urban farm. While volunteering I made connections with the director of the after school program. He facilitated my interaction with the older youth that he mentors as a study group for my research. From my experiences as a volunteer, many of the shelter youth and tenants per ceived the garden as dirty or a waste of time. Many of the youth where afraid to eat the vegetables and fruit we had growing and dis played a certain level of discomfort when experiencing the natural environment. My hope is that this study will provide an awareness of these perceptions and lead to strategies for shelter design that not only dispel these perceptions, but lead to an understanding and appreciation for natural systems and food production.

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9 :: page Studies show that youth in the United States, and especially youth in low socio economic areas, lack experiences with nature. Single parent families in poorer neighborhoods with higher crime rates limit children from exploring outdoor environments. When the envi ronment outside is unsafe for unstructured play, youth are often forced to stay indoors to watch television or play video games. Ac cording to the United States Department of Agriculture, 85% of the U.S. population is living in metropolitan areas, and populations of rural areas have been in a state of decline. These trends in increased urban populations are predicted for continued growth. Gardens are a practical and effective way to connect urban youth to nature. They can be used to teach hands-on experiences in science and environment related subjects while simultaneously beautifying barren lands (Bundschu-Mooney p. 12). Childhood obesity is a growing epidemic especially in low socio economic groups where easily accessible fresh and healthy foods are limited. According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, over the past 30 years the frequency of U.S. childhood obesity has more than doubled among children between the ages of two to five, has nearly tripled between ages six to eleven, and has more than tripled between the ages twelve to nineteen. This means that 1 in 6 children between the ages two to nineteen are obese, and they also state that the latest data supports that childhood obesity is more likely in minorities (http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/ obesity/wecan/healthy-weight-basics/obesity.htm). Not surprisingly, children in the United States that engaged in the least physical activity tended to be the most overweight (Ebbeling, Pawlak, and Ludwig p. 475). One way landscape architects can address this epidemic is to create places that incorporate interactive gardening experiences that promote physical action. Implementing gardening experiences for youth is an excellent way to increase physical activity and most likely healthier future life choices. Gardening is great exercise. According to Harvard Health Publications, gardening activities burn calories at the following rates: 125 pound person can burn between 120 to 180 calories in a half hour, a 155 pound person can burn between 149 to 223 calories in a half hour, and a 185 pound person can burn 178 to 266 calories per half hour. 1.3 :: Summary of Issues To test the findings of this study and provide a vehicle for development of specific design recommendations a site was selected. The previous Gainesville Correctional Institute is being repurposed into a transitional housing facility called Hope Village. Many of the ser vices to be offered at Hope Village are yet to be determined, and this project will serve as a basis for research supported idea genera tion. The Hope Village site is approximately 38 acres with 15 structures, and over 500 adjacent acres of natural lands owned by the Depart ment of Forestry. Some of the previous uses for the structures were a medical clinic, chapel, commercial kitchen, cafeteria, and dormi tories. The facility was originally built to support 560 individuals. Also on the site is approximately .63 acres of land that was previously used for row crop food production with irrigation in place. The site plan developed as part of this research explores how to provide services for children and their families that promote nature connections and opportunities for engaging food production.

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10 :: page Landscape architects have the opportunity to design places that encourage youth to go outside and engage in physical activity. Lack of exposure to natural experiences creates negative attitudes towards nature, which I experienced this summer during my internship. In 1968, Robert Zajonk reported that repeated exposure of an individual to a stimulus object enhances the individuals attitude towards it (p.23). I believe that providing exposure to gardening experiences has tremendous potential to change perceptions of nature. Diet also plays a significant role in childhood obesity. The Harvard School of Public Health sites studies in the 2011 Nutrition Journal and the U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health. These studies state that, Youth in the United States average 224 calories per day from sugary beverages and in 1999 this added up to 11% of their daily calorie intake, and from 1989 to 2008 cal ories from sugary beverages increased by 60% in children ages 6-11, from 130 to 209 calories per day, and the percentage of children consuming them rose from 79% to 91% (http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/sugary-drinks-fact-sheet/). University of Washingtons Green Cities: Good Health cites that green spaces provide opportunities for physical activity and that ex ercise improves cognitive function, learning, and memory. They also cite that contact with nature helps children develop cognitive, emotional, and behavioral connections to nearby social and biophysical environments and is important for encouraging imagination and creativity, cognitive and intellectual development, and social relationships (http://depts.washington.edu/hhwb/Thm_Mental.html). Nature deficit disorder is a termed coined by journalist and author, Richard Louv. He uses this term to describe the psychological, physical, and cognitive disparities that are associated with distancing humans from nature. He suggests that nature deficit disorder is on the rise amongst youth, partly due to increased technology embedded in every aspect of life. Louv cites studies done in 2006 by the Kaiser Family Foundation that children between the ages of eight and eighteen spent an average of 6.5 hours a day or 45 hours a week plugged into an electronic device, and a quarter of that time they where using more than one medium (p.437). Louv presents considerable evidence to support these theories, and also suggests that increases in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in youth could be correlated to these current life style trends. In many places with blighted areas like Wyoming Street in Detroit, Michigan or Vine City in Atlanta, Georgia landscape architects and city planners have introduced community gardens in barren lands afflicted with urban decay. In many situations members of these communities may not be as accepting of these forward thinking garden implementations as the designers would like. To actually make a difference, landscape architects need improved methods for understanding how to connect with individuals in low socio economic communities. This study aims to address situations where youth have started their young lives in adverse conditions. They deserve a better place to learn about and experience the world around them. It is my hope that this study will be a useful contribution for landscape architects and city planners to use when working to alleviate some of the issues associated with these conditions.

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11 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) EXPLORATORY & QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PRIMARY RESEARCH SURVEYPRE-EXPERIENCE UTILITY R.O.W. JEFFERSON PLACE NEED FOR CONNECTING CHILDREN TO NATURE BENEFITS OF NATURE PLAY GROWING HOMELESS POPULATIONS BENEFITS OF GREEN SPACE STANDARDS FOR HOMELESS FACILITY DESIGN HOMELESS PERCEPTIONS CHILDRENS PERCEPTIONS CITY OF REFUGE L.A. MISSION ARBOR HOUSE DIGNITY VILLAGE NATURE CONNECTIONSSUCCESSFUL ELEMENTS PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT FINAL ANALYSISPROMOTING INDEPENDENCE COMMUNITY SUPPORT SECURITY FIELD TRIP EXPERIENCE COMMUNITY VISION BUILT INVENTORY PROXIMITY ANALYSIS POST-EXPERIENCESITE ANALYSIS LITERATURE REVIEW CASE STUDIESDATA SYNTHESISDESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS SECONDARY RESEARCH 5.4.1 Exploratory & Qualitative Research Process Diagram Figure 1.1 This diagram illustrates the process for research informing design recommendations.

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12 :: page 2.1 :: The Importance of a Childs Bond with Nature: Improved Health, Improved Concentration, Creative Play, and Improved Environmental Stewardship Title :: Louv, Richard. Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficit disorder. Algonquin Books, 2008. Keywords: Nature Deficit Disorder, Restorative Environment, Environment Based Education Abstract Journalist, Richard Louv brings awareness to the increased division between children and the outdoors. He then links this increased di vision to rises in obesity, ADHD, and depression and illustrates a wide variety of research indicating that exposure to nature is essential to early human development and emotional health. Relevance Nature deficit disorder is a term coined by journalist and author Richard Louv in his book, Last Child in the Woods. He uses this defi nition to describe the psychological, physical, and cognitive disparities that are associated with distancing developing humans from nature. He posits that nature deficit disorder is on the rise amongst youth, partly due to the increases of technology embedded in ev ery aspect of life. Louv cites studies done in 2006 by the Kaiser Family Foundation finding that children between the ages of eight and eighteen spent an average of 6.5 hours a day or 45 hours a week plugged into an electronic device, and a quarter of that time they were using more than one medium (p.437). Louv presents considerable evidence to support these theories, and posits that increases in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in youth could be correlated to these current life style trends. Louv refers to the child in nature as an endangered indicator species to the demise of our environment, and he states childrens knowl edge about nature is important but passion is the long distance fuel that will save what is left of our natural heritage (p.584). He refers to the research of Louise Chawla, PhD who is an expert on the benefits of connecting children to nature. She states that some of the positive effects of involvement with nature are improved health, concentration, creative play, and a developing bond with the natural world that can form a foundation for environmental stewardship (p.160). Louv also states that park design that incorporates a more natural environment can make children safer by changing adult behavior and increasing supervision. He refers to a study done in 1998 for the journal, Environment and Behavior, that reported in 64 of the outdoor spaces at a low income SES Chicago housing development with fifty-seven hundred residents, almost twice as many children (ages three through twelve) played in areas that had trees and grass than in barren spaces. According to the research, their play was more creative and childrens access to adult supervision doubled (p.647). In other words, parents had to pay more attention to what their children were doing while they were playing in areas that were unstructured and unrestricted by the conformity of a typical play ground structure. 2 :: LITERATURE REVIEW

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13 :: page Louv also cites the research focused on natural environments and children by North Carolina State University professor Robin Moore. Moore states the positive effects from children interacting with nature and defines free play: Children live through their senses. Sensory experiences link the childs exterior world with their interior, hidden affective world. Since the natural environment is the principal source of sensory stimulation, freedom to explore and play with the out door environment through the senses in their own space and time is essential for healthy development of an interior life... This type of self-activated, autonomous interaction is what we call free play. Individual children test themselves by interacting with their environment, activating their potential and reconstructing human culture. The content of environment is a critical factor in this process. A rich, open environment will continuously present alternative choices for creative engagement. As opposed to a rigid bland environment will limit healthy growth and development of the individual or the group (p.243). According to Louv, research suggests that youth participating in adventure-therapy programs made gains in self esteem, leadership, academics, personality, and interpersonal relations. He also quotes Dene S. Berman and Jennifer Davids-Bermans research for the Clearing House on Rural Education and Small Schools stating that these changes were shown to be more stable over time when com pared to more traditional educational programs. Title :: Bundschu-Mooney, Elizabeth. School Garden Investigation: Environmental Awareness and Education. (2003). Title :: U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2013). Economic Research Service. Briefing Rooms: Population and Migration. May 14, 2013 Youth in the United States, and especially youth in low socio economic areas, lack experiences with nature. Single parent families in poorer neighborhoods with higher crime rates limit children from exploring outdoor environments. According to the United States De partment of Agriculture, 85% of the U.S. population is living in metropolitan areas, and populations of rural areas have been in a state of decline since 2010. These trends in urban densities are predicted to continue to grow. Gardens are a practical and effective way to connect urban youth to nature. They can be used to teach hands-on experiences in science and environment related subjects while simultaneously beautifying barren lands (Bundschu-Mooney p. 12). Title: Why Obesity is a Health Problem. National Heart and Lung Institute. Web. February 13, 2013.
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14 :: page Title: Calories Burned in 30 Minutes for People of 3 Different Weights. Harvard Medical School. Harvard Health Publications. Web. July 2004. Not surprisingly, children in the United States that engaged in the least physical activity tended to be the most overweight (Ebbeling, Pawlak, and Ludwig p. 475). One way landscape architects can address this epidemic is to create places that incorporate interactive gardening experiences that promote physical action. Implementing gardening experiences to youth is an excellent way to increase physical activity and most likely healthier future life choices. Gardening is great exercise. According to Harvard Health Publications, gardening activities burn calories at the following rates: 125 pound person can burn between 120 to 180 calories in a half hour, a 155 pound person can burn between 149 to 223 calories in a half hour, and a 185 pound person can burn 178 to 266 calories per half hour. Title: Zajonc, Robert B. Attitudinal Effects of Mere Exposure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 9.2p2 (1968): 1. Landscape architects have the opportunity to design places that encourage youth to want to go outside and engage in physical activi ty. Lack of exposure to natural experiences creates negative attitudes towards nature. In 1968, Robert Zajonk reported that his research suggests that repeated exposure of an individual to a stimulus object enhances the individuals attitude towards it (p.23). I believe that providing exposure to gardening experiences has a tremendous potential to change perceptions to nature. Title: Sugary Drinks and Obesity Fact Sheet. Harvard School of Public Health. The Nutrition Source. Web. August 9, 2013. Diet also plays a significant role in childhood obesity. The Harvard School of Public Health sites studies in the 2011 Nutrition Journal and the U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health. These studies state that, Youth in the United States average 224 calories per day from sugary beverages and in 1999 this added up to 11% of their daily calorie intake, and from 1989 to 2008 cal ories from sugary beverages increased by 60% in children ages 6-11, from 130 to 209 calories per day, and the percentage of children consuming them rose from 79% to 91% (http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/sugary-drinks-fact-sheet/). Title: Wolf, Kathleen, Katrina Flora, Urban Forestry/Urban Greening Research, Urban and Community Forest Program of the USDA Forest Service, and University of Washington. Green Cities: Good Health. 26 December, 2010. Web. 23 August, 2013. < http://depts.washington.edu/hhwb/Thm_Mental.html> University of Washingtons Green Cities: Good Health cites that green spaces provide opportunities for physical activity and that ex ercise improves cognitive function, learning, and memory. They also cite that contact to nature helps children to develop cognitive, emotional, and behavioral connections to nearby social and biophysical environments and is important for encouraging imagination and creativity, cognitive and intellectual development, and social relationships (http://depts.washington.edu/hhwb/Thm_Mental.html).

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15 :: page Conclusion The provided research by Louv and others makes strong cases for rises in youth distancing themselves from nature and the conse quences associated with this trend. This recent drift, referred to as nature deficit disorder continues to be linked to growing prob lems like ADHD and childhood obesity. Through these findings, more should be done to inspire children to participate in nature in creative and enjoyable ways. The aim of this research is to promote good health, foster self respect, and improve environmental stew ardship by connecting individuals experiencing low socioeconomic circumstance, and even homelessness, to nature. The aforemen tioned research illustrates the importance of this study. As the reviewed literature suggests, many times children in low socioeconomic situations, or even homeless situations, are even at a greater need to connect to nature. Many times, due to the dangers associated with these conditions, there is a lack of safe outdoor places to play near their homes or shelters. In many low socioeconomic area, parks and play spaces become places for drug dealers and gang activity. Conditions like this cause parents to keep their children indoors, which in turn further distances their experiences in the natural world. A well executed landscape design provides an opportunity to provide safe nature connections among these popula tions. Title: Sobel, David. Childhood and Nature: Design Principles for Educators. Stenhouse Publishers, 2008. Abstract: The director for Place-based Education at Antioch University New England, David Sobel, lays out design principles that were devel oped from observing children in natural settings. The focus of his study is connecting children with relationships that are in the human scale, like in their own backyard. He uses his observations to establish a set of principles for designers to use for nature connections in youth of varying demographics. Sobel emphasizes the importance of youth experiences in nature to build appreciation for it later in life. He states that, One transcendent experience in nature is worth a thousand nature facts (p. 13). He then presents ways to pro mote these experiences through family outings, school curriculums, and various environmental learning opportunities. 2.2 :: Nature Play and Examples of Play Spaces Designed to Enhance Nature Connections

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16 :: page David Sobels Childhood in Nature Principles for Educators, Design Principles: Principle 1: Adventure Environmental education needs to be kinesthetic, in body. Children should stalk, balance, jump, and scamper through the natural world. Activities with a physical challenge component speak directly to children via the mind/body link (p.21). Principle 2: Fantasy and Imagination Young children live in their imagination. Stories, plays, puppet shows, and dreams are preferred media for early chilhood. We need to structure programs like dramatic play; we need to create simulations in which students can live the challeng es rather han just study them (p.24). Principle 3: Animal Allies If we aspire to have developmentally appropriate science education, then the first task is to become animals, to under stand them from the inside out, before asking children to study them or save them (p.29). Principle 4: Maps and Paths Finding shortcuts, figuring out whats around the next bend, following a map to a secret event. Children have an inborn desire to explore local geographies. Developing a local sense of place leads organically to a bioregional sense of place and hopefully to biospheric consciousness (p.34). Principle 5: Special Places Almost everyone remembers a fort, den, tree house, or hidden corner in a black closet. Especially between ages eight and eleven, children like to find and create places where they can hide away and retreat into their own found or constructed spaces (p. 38). Principle 6: Small Worlds From boxes to doll houses to model train sets, children love to create miniature worlds that they can play inside of. Through creating miniature representations of ecosystems, or neighborhoods, we help children conceptually grasp the big picture. The creation of small worlds provides a concrete vehicle for understanding abstract ideas (p. 45). Principle 7: Hunting and Gathering From a genetic perspective, we are still hunting and gathering organisms. Gathering and collecting anything compels us; searching for hidden treasure or the Holy Grail is a recurrent mythic form. Look at the success of Wheres Waldo (p.45).

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17 :: page Conclusion David Sobels observational research on youths behavior in nature and design principles is an excellent source for guiding a landscape design that connects children to what he refers to as biospheric consciousness. His study promotes the idea of changing an individ uals behavior not through educational facts, but through emotion and experience. He presides that these early experiences will then later influence improved future life choices pertaining to environmental stewardship and care for the natural world. Title: Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Maryland Partnership for Children in Nature. Natural Play Spaces. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2014. . Abstract The Maryland Department of Natural Resources has made statewide initiatives to connect children with nature by promoting play spaces that are designed to enhance a childs understanding and appreciation for nature. They define a Natural Play Space as a space designed or designated to integrate natural components into a place for structured and unstructured play and learning. Natu ral Play Spaces will provide an important early connection for children with nature and create future environmental stewards, provide opportunities for physical and creative play, and support childrens physical, intellectual, and emotional development (http://www.dnr. state.md.us/cin/nps/). Maryland Department of Natural Resources Elements for Natural Play Spaces (based on David Sobels Play Motifs Design Principles): 1. Adventure physically challenging Climbing Balancing Offers a variety of options ages and abilities 2. Fantasy and Imagination challenge and stimulate the imagination Active Play Creative Play 3. Animal Allies creating bonds and associations with animals Connecting from the animals perspective The opportunity to observe animals or explore their worlds 4. Maps and Paths places to explore Pathways to explore Variety of terrain (hills, bumps)

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18 :: page 5. Special Places found or constructed spaces, bridge b/w safety of home and outside world Hiding places Fort building 6. Small Worlds miniature ecosystem etc. Plants Sand Water 7. Hunting and Gathering connecting to our ancestors and the way we co-existed in nature Loose parts or parts that can be manipulated Pinecones, sticks, and stones Conclusion Marylands Department of Natural Resources Elements for Natural Play Spaces further simplifies Sobels principles, and provides spe cific examples of elements and how they can be incorporated into nature connecting landscape designs. Adkins Arboretum Childrens Funshine Garden and Paw Paw Playground Ridgely, MD (see Figure 1.1) Funshine Garden explores different types of food production through raised bed gardens that are themed around different elements of nature. Elements of the garden include a playhouse surrounded by sunflowers, a xeriscape garden planted with native species, a pollinator garden that attracts bees and butterflies, recycled barrels planted with berries, a bean teepee, a garden called three sisters that celebrates ancient Native American tradition of companion gardening, a rainbow garden that incorporates vegetables of a differ ent colors, a sensory herb garden, the bunny patch is a planted space that attracts small mammals, and a dirt patch (http://www.dnr. state.md.us/cin/NPS/Calverton.asp). Paw Paw Playground was designed and constructed by a local Eagle Scout Troop that celebrates Native American culture using natural materials. It is located on a portion of upland forest and mentioned elements include two wigwams, a turtle shaped tree stump ring, and a snake balance beam (http://www.dnr.state.md.us/cin/NPS/Calverton.asp).

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19 :: page S uno w er House 3 S ist ers C atmint C r anb erries V in e Arb orC hildr en s F unshin e G ar den S ensor y Herb G ar den Xerisc ap e G ar den R ainb o w G ar den Entr an c e P ollinat or G ar den B ean T ee P ee T h e B unny P at ch D ir t P at ch T h e T h r ee S ist e r s G a r denT his gar den c eleb r a t es th e an cient N ativ e Am e r i c an t r adition of c omp anion gar denin g. In a c omp anion gar den, plan ts h elp ea ch oth e r out. T h e thr ee s ist e r s in this gar den a r e c o rn, b eans, a n d sq uash. C o r n p r ovides supp o r t f o r t h e b eans th e b ean s tak e n itr o gen f r om th e air a n d giv e it t o th e soil an d b ig s q uas h leav e s r educ e w eeds an d h elp t o h old in w a t e r .R ainb ow G a r denW ant t o liv e h ealthy? Eat a r ain b ow A r ain b ow of v egg ies th at is. O u r r a i n b ow gar den is ch o c k ed full of c olor ful, n utr itious v e g gies lik e eggpl ant, p epp e r s a n d t omat o es that tast e as g r eat as t h e y l o ok. S e n sor y Herb G a r denIt s tim e t o lo ok, t ouch, s m ell, a n d tas t e! F r om sw eet c h o c olat e p epp ermin t t o s a v o r y s age t o tangy l e m on b alm, t h e h erb gar den is a delight t o th e s e n ses. In addition t o s picin g up f ood h e r b s hav e b een used as m edicin e f o r t h ous a n d s of y ears L e m on b a l m t ea c an s o oth e a sor e thr o at, a n d p epp ermint c an se le an upset st oma ch. C ham omi le an d lav e n der r elax, as d o e s c atnip (un les s y o u r e a c at, of c ours e ) M o s t h e rbs lov e sun a n d ar e p e r e n nials P e r e n nial s ar e plan ts that surviv e thr oug h th e w int e r a n d r eapp ear e v e r y s p r ing pr ovidin g en joym e n t y ear aft e r y ear T h e o n ly h e rb in this g a r den th at is n ot a p e r enn ial is b asil.T h e B u nny P a t c hT his b u n ny p a t c h is a v e r y in vitin g pla c e f o r small mammals w h o en joy cr isp j uicy gr eens W hile y o u r e h e r e, g et in t ouch w ith y our i n n e r b u n n y a n d tr y a l eaf y our self .T h e S unow er HouseLie dow n i n side our s unow er h ouse an d enjo y t h e g i ant sunow e r f a c e s s miling d ow n o n y ou! T his p e r f e c t play h ouse will a r a c t many kin d s of vis i t ors, i n cluding hummin gbir d s zipping i n f or a s ip of n e c tar ; lady bug s w h o lik e t o f eas t on p ollen ; an d small mammals, bir ds, a n d ins e c t s hung r y f or y ummy sunow e r seeds.Xeris c a p e G a r denA xeris c a p e (pr o n oun c ed zeri-s c a p e) g a r den is a w a t e r -sav ing gar den. T h e nativ e plants f oun d h e r e n eed less w a t er than plants that c o m e fr om oth er p a r t s of th e w orld. T hat s b e c ause th e y hav e adapt ed t o gr ow i n g i n t h e c o n ditions t y pic al of th e E ast ern S h o r e. P ollinat or G a r denHav e y ou h ear d th e b uzz? B ees, b u e r ies an d a v ariet y of oth er ins e c t s a r e a g a r den e r s b e s t frien d! A s ins e c t s gath er p ollen, s o m e p ollen fr om th e male p a r t of a ow e r is b rush ed on t o th e f emale p a r t. Onc e t h e ow er is p ollinat ed an d f e r tilized, n e w s eeds b egin t o dev elop deep ins ide th e ow e r T his p ollinat o r gar den i s full of n ativ e plan ts that p ollin a t ors l ov e. By inv iting p ollin a t o r s in t o th e gar den w e ar e plan ting t h e s eeds f o r n ext y ear s ow e r s. B uck ets a n d B arr elsA n y o n e c a n mak e s p a c e f or a gar den! P lant a buck et o r a b arr el or e v en a boot ins t ead! C ontain ers big a n d small mak e gr eat min i-g a r dens as long a s y ou allow f or dr ain age. In t h e F uns hin e G a r den b a r r els a r e h o m e t o str a w b erries, a gr a p e v i n e a clust er of w a t er-loving c r a n b e r r y plants (lin ing t h e b arr el w ith plas tic cr eat es a b o g envir onm ent), a n d an e v er-changing arr a y of seasonal blo omin g ow ers .T h e B ean T eep e eE s c a p e int o th e b ean t eep ee an d enj oy th e s hade pr ovided b y a tan gle of b ean, gour d, a n d h o n e y s uckle v i n es. W hat a g r eat pla c e t o day d r eam! Figure 1.2 Funshine Garden Map Illustration is used to educate young users on the functions of the garden space. http://www.adkinsarboretum.org/file_download/inline/ cd6b489f-9cf2-4bc0-8256-577f0408dd95

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20 :: page Figure 1.3 Paw Paw Playground, constructed of natural materials on the edge of a forest with cut logs used for sitting and balancing. http://carolinetowncrier.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/ Paw-Paw-Playground.jpg

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21 :: page Figure 2.1 Calverton School Huntingtown, MD A private school located on 159 acres of rolling and largely wooded land that serves pre-school to twelfth grade. The school does have conventional playgrounds but also makes use of the woods as playful learning opportunities. The nature play space is used during the school day for recess and play time, and includes a stump jump, sand pit, stage, fort building area and local lighthouse replica. The school grounds also include a vegetable gardening area for classes, and pathways to explore into a wooded area as well as through a constructed habitat area with natural trails (shown in yellow) throughout the campus. (http://www.dnr.state.md.us/cin/ NPS/Calverton.asp). http://www.freestatesoccer.org/imgs/Tournament/Calver ton%20Fields.jpg

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22 :: page Figures 3.1 & 3.2 Fort Wild at the Charlotte Nature Museum in North Carolina encourages imagination through nature play while educating child users on agricultutral food production. Title: A Natural Place To Play. Charlotte Nature Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2014. . Title: Letting Children Go Wild. National Wildlife Federation. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2014. . Charlotte Nature Museum Fort Wild Charlotte, North Carolina Fort Wild incorporates different elements that are targeted to different aged child users. One element called Hop, Jump, Dig is devel oped for toddler users and incorporates growth and development structures like logs for balancing, boulders for climbing, and sand for digging. Another element called Dream, Wiggle, Run is designed for preschool aged users and includes a small village stetting made of tree stumps which includes a teepee and other natural objects for users to construct and move around how they see fit. An other feature is a bird blind, which provides a place for youth to develop their skills in bird watching. Also incorporated in the space is an open lawn, wind chimes, a small stage, and planting beds. Another area designed for the teen and tween users is a private space made of an arrangement of logs and boulder seating to meet with friends. Additionally, there is a vegetable garden cared for by the http://www.charlottenaturemuseum.org/ museum/exhibit/9/Fort-Wild

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23 :: page Demographic Sources Title: Tey Brown, April.The HUDdle. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Developments Official Blog, Dec.-Jan. 2012. Web. 04 Mar. 2014. . Title: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Office of Community Planning and Development. OneCPD Re source Exchange. PIT and HIC Guides, Tools, and Webinars., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014. . Title: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Office of Community Planning and Development. OneCPD Re source Exchange. Welcome to OneCPD. Title 24 Housing and Urban Development Part 91 Consolidated Submissions for Community Planning and Development Programs, n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014. . Title: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Office of Community Planning and Development. OneCPD Re source Exchange. SafeHavenFactSheet_CoCProgram.PDF., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014. . Title: United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. Office of Community Planning and Develop ment.OneCPD Resource Exchange. HUDs Homeless Assistance Programs Supportive Housing Program Desk Guide.PDF., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014. . Title: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Office of Community Planning and Development. OneCPD Re source Exchange. Opening Doors a Publication for the Disability Community. Issue 33. July 2009., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014. . Title: United States. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Office Of Community Planning and Development. The 2013 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR) to Congress Point-in-Time Estimates of Homelessness. By Megan Henry, Al varo Cortes, Dr, and Sean Morris. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2014. . 2.3 :: Homeless Demographics & Safety Issues Regarding Their Situations The following sources provide an understanding of the current state of homeless situations. The scale begins with wide demographic data for the United States, and then attempts to hone in on local issues for the community of Gainesville, Florida. This research just briefly touches on the severity of complications associated with homeless individuals and communities and is provided for future refer ence.

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24 :: page Demographic Sources (continued) It has been reported by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the HUDs Office of Community Plan ning and Development (OneCPD) that it is difficult to get an exact measure as to the amount of people that are currently experiencing homelessness. To provide an estimate, they conduct point in time (PIT) count measurements.The PIT count is a count of sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons on a single night. HUD requires that programs conduct an annual count of homeless persons who are sheltered in emergency shelter, transitional housing, and Safe Havens on a single night. HUD programs also conduct a count of un sheltered homeless persons every other year (odd numbered years). Each count is planned, coordinated, and carried out locally. The Housing Inventory Count (HIC) is a point-in-time inventory of provider programs that provide beds and units dedicated to serve per sons who are homeless and are categorized by emergency shelters, transitional housing, rapid re-housing, safe haven, and permanent supportive housing (https://www.onecpd.info/hdx/guides/pit-hic/). HUDs definitions are as follows: Chronically Homeless Person An unaccompanied homeless individual with a disabling condition who has either been continuously homeless for a year or more or has had at least four (4) episodes of homelessness in the past three (3) years. A disabling condition is defined as a diagnosable substance abuse disorder, serious mental illness or disability, including the co-occurrence of two or more of these conditions. In defining the chronically homeless, the term homeless means a person sleeping in a place not meant for human habitation (e.g., living on the streets) or in an emergency homeless shelter (
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25 :: page Rapid Re-housing the provision of housing relocation and stabilization services and shortand/or medium-term rental assistance as necessary to help a homeless individual or family move as quickly as possible into permanent housing and achieve stability in that housing (https://www.onecpd.info/resources/documents/24CFRPart91_11.21.11.pdf). Safe Heaven is a form of supportive housing that serves hard-to-reach homeless persons with severe mental illness who come primarily from the streets and have been unable or unwilling to participate in housing or supportive services. It must be located in a facility meaning a structure or structures, or clearly identifiable portion of a structure of structures. It must allow 24-hour residence for an unspecified duration and have private or semi-private accommodations. It must limit overnight occupancy to no more than 25 persons and prohibit the use of illegal drugs in the facility. It must also provide access to needed services in a low demand facility, but cannot require program participants to utilize them, and may include a drop-in center as part of outreach activities (https://www.onecpd.info/resources/documents/SafeHavenFactSheet_CoCProgram.PDF). Permanent Supportive Housing as of yet no official definition exists, however the most commonly accepted meaning is decent, safe, accessible, and affordable community-based permanent housing intended for people with serious and long-term disabilities that provides consumers with rights of tenancy under landlord/tenant laws; and linked to voluntary and flexible ser vices designed to meet consumers needs and preferences (https:www.onecpd.inforesourcesdocumentsOpeningDoors_ UsingNSPforPermanentSupportiveHousing.pdf). Title: United States Census Bureau. 4 Mar 2014. . The United States Census Bureaus Definition of household consists of all the people who occupy a housing unit. A house, an apart ment or other group of rooms, or a single room, is regarded as a housing unit when it is occupied or intended for occupancy as sepa rate living quarters; that is, when the occupants do not live with any other persons in the structure and there is direct access from the outside or through a common hall. A household includes the related family members and all the unrelated people, if any, such as lodg ers, foster children, wards, or employees who share the housing unit. A person living alone in a housing unit, or a group of unrelated people sharing a housing unit such as partners or roomers, is also counted as a household. The count of households excludes group quarters. There are two major categories of households, family and non-family (http://www.census.gov/cps/about/cpsdef.html). HUDs 2013 Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance Programs Homeless Populations and Subpopulations for the United States and Puerto Rico in Emergency Shelters, Transitional Housing, and Unsheltered (http://blog.hud.gov/index.php/2012/12/10/huds-2012point-in-time-estimates-homelessness/)

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26 :: page Homeless Households Households Without Children = 361,349 Households With At Least One Adult and One Child = 70,960 Households With Only Children = 6,792 Total Homeless Households = 439,101 Persons in Households Without Children Persons Age 18-24 = 40,727 Persons Over Age 24 = 339,484 Total Persons in Households Without Children = 380,211 Persons in Households With Children Children Under 18 = 130,515 Persons Age 18 24 = 20,814 Persons Over Age 24 = 70,868 Total Persons in Household with At Lest One Adult and One Child = 222,197 Total Persons in Households With Only Children = 7,634 Homeless Person Subpopulations Chronically Homeless = 109,132 Chronically Homeless Individuals = 92,593 Chronically Homeless Persons In Families =16,539 Severely Mentally Ill = 124,152 Chronic Substance Abuse = 133,230 Veterans = 58,063 HIV/AIDS =12,018 Victims of Domestic Violence = 63,836 HUDs 2013 Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance Programs Homeless Populations and Subpopulations for the United States and Puerto Rico in Emergency Shelters, Transitional Housing, and Unsheltered (http://blog.hud.gov/index.php/2012/12/10/huds-2012point-in-time-estimates-homelessness/)

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27 :: page The following are some of the key findings compiled by U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Developments Office Of Community Planning and Development for the 2013 Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress for Point-in-Time Estimates of Homeless ness (https://www.onecpd.info/resources/documents/AHAR-2013-Part1.pdf). All Homeless People On a single night in January 2013, there were 610,042 people experiencing homelessness in the United States, including 394,698 people who were homeless in sheltered locations and 215,344 people who were living in unsheltered locations. Out of the 610,042 people most (65 percent) were living in emergency shelters or transitional housing programs, and 35 percent were living in unsheltered locations. Nearly one-quarter (23 percent or 138,149) of them were children, under the age of 18. Ten percent (or 61,541) were between the ages of 18 and 24, and 67 percent (or 410,352) were 25 years or older. Homelessness declined by nearly 4 percent (or 23,740 people) between 2012 and 2013, and by 9 percent (or 61,846) since 2007. Between 2007 and 2013, unsheltered homelessness has declined by 23 percent (or 65,143), and by 7 percent (or 28,283) over the past year. Major city Continuum of Care programs accounted for 45 percent of all homeless people; smaller city, county, and regional Continuum of Care programs accounted for 41 percent, and 14 percent of people experiencing homelessness were counted in Balance of State or statewide Continuum of Care programs. Homeless By Household Type In January 2013, 387,845 people were homeless as individuals (64 percent of all homeless people). Just under half (48 percent or 184,718 individuals) were living in unsheltered locations. The number of homeless individuals declined by nearly 2 percent (or 6,534) since 2012, and by 8 percent (or 35,532) since 2007. There were 222,197 homeless people in families on a single night in January 2013, accounting for 36 percent of all homeless people (and 50 percent of people living in sheltered locations).

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28 :: page Homeless By Household Type (continued) Fifty-eight percent of all homeless people in families were children (or 130,515), 9 percent were between the ages of 18 and 24 (or 20,814), and 32 percent were 25 years or older (or 70,868). Homelessness among persons in families declined by 7 percent (or 17,206) between 2012 and 2013, and by 11 percent (or 26,314) between 2007 and 2013. This decline is entirely composed of unsheltered people in families. Homelessness among Subpopulations On a single night in 2013, 109,132 people were chronically homeless. Nearly 85 percent (or 92,593) were homeless as individuals. Approximately 15 percent (or 16,539) were people in families. Chronic homelessness among individuals declined by 7 percent (or 7,301) over the past year, and by 25 percent (or 31,240) between 2007 and 2013. There were 57,849 homeless veterans on a single night in January 2013. Sixty percent were located in shelters or transitional housing programs, and 40 percent were in unsheltered locations. Just under 8 percent (4,456) were female. Homelessness among veterans has declined each year since 2010. Between 2012 and 2013, veteran homelessness declined by 8 percent (or 4,770). Homelessness among veterans declined by 24 percent (or 17,760) between 2009 and 2013. There were 46,924 unaccompanied homeless children and youth on a single night in 2013. Most (87 percent or 40,727) were youth between the ages of 18 and 24, and 13 percent (or 6,197) were children under the age of 18. Half of unaccompanied children and youth (23,461 or 50 percent) were unsheltered in 2013.

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29 :: page HUDs Point in Time Estimates for 2012 Summary by April Tey Brown (http://blog.hud.gov/index.php/2012/12/10/huds-2012point-in-time-estimates-homelessness/) 633,782 people were homeless. This is largely unchanged (-0.4%) from January 2011, and a represents a reduction of 5.7% since 2007. Most homeless persons (62%) are individuals while 38% of homeless persons are in family households. Veteran homelessness fell by 7.2 percent (or 4,876 persons) since January 2011 and by 17.2 percent since January 2009. On a single night in January 2012, 62,619 veterans were homeless. Persons experiencing long-term or chronic homelessness declined 6.8 percent (or 7,254) from last year and 19.3 percent (or 23,939 persons) since 2007. Homelessness among individuals declined 1.4 percent (or 5,457) from a year ago and 6.8 percent since 2007. Meanwhile, the number of homeless families increased slightly (1.4 %) from last year though declining 3.7 percent since 2007. Street homelessness (the unsheltered homeless population) was unchanged since January 2011 yet declined 13.1 percent (or 36,860 people) since 2007. Five states accounted for nearly half of the nations population in 2012: California (20.7 percent), New York 11.0 percent), Florida (8.7 percent), Texas (5.4 percent), and Georgia (3.2 percent).

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30 :: page Title: Alachua County Coalition for the Homeless and Hungry. Facts About Homelessness in Alachua. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014. . Alachua County Coalition for the Homeless and Hungry Facts About Homelessness in Alachua There are over 1,300 men, women and children in Alachua who face any given night without a home. Just over one-third (500+) are children under the age of 18. Only one in ten homeless people are chronically homeless. For the majority, it is a temporary situation usually referred to as transitional homelessness. Six out of ten have been homeless for less than a year. Alachua County Jail houses more homeless individuals on any given night than any other single institution. Although the majority of homeless people are men, one in four homeless women is homeless because of domestic violence. Men who are homeless are more likely than women or children to report staying overnight in the woods or on the street. One in three homeless people have some form of employment, ranging from full-time work to contract work. Homelessness in Gainesville is due to: unemployment (30%), underemployment, addiction, mental illness, domestic violence, medical problems, divorce, separation or release from an institution with nowhere to go. There are only 350 beds for homeless individuals available on any given night, leaving 650 people (including children) without a place to sleep. One in five homeless persons were born and raised in this area. One in three has lived here for more than 10 years. Just over half the homeless in the Alachua area have spent more than a year without permanent housing. Four out of ten homeless in Alachua County served in the U.S. Military. One in four homeless individuals suffer from some form of mental illness, including depression.

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31 :: page One in four homeless individuals have a physical disability. Four percent of arrests in Alachua County are of homeless individuals. Homelessness is not just a burden for the homeless. Taxpayers bear the cost of last ditch solutions such as nights in jail. 200 local volunteers and professionals from all walks of life contributed to the 10 year plan to end homelessness. Alachua County and Gainesville are one of only 200 cities nationwide to develop a 10 year plan to end homelessness. Title: Alachua County Coalition for the Homeless and Hungry 2012 Update to Homeless Conditions in Gainesville. www. acchh.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014. . Alachua County Coalition for the Homeless and Hungry 2012 Count of Homeless People in Alachua County in Shelters, Unsheltered, and as Students in Public Schools (count taken for the 24 hour period 1/24-1/25/2012 by the ACCHH in accord with the requirements of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development) Sheltered Individuals = 543 Jail = 117 Hospital = 11 School System Count = 316 Unsheltered Individuals = 1235 Street = 1107 Total = 2094

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32 :: page Demographic Conclusion According to the vast amount of data provided, many improvements have been made in recent years to address homelessness. How ever, it still remains a significant problem throughout the United States and even Alachua County whose 2012 population was 2,094 in dividuals. 63% of the homeless people in the United States are families, and 58% of the individuals in those families are children. Only one in ten homeless people in Alachua County are chronically homeless, which means they have been homeless for a year or more or had at least four episodes of homelessness in the past three years. The research suggests that these individuals are under a temporary hardship due to disparities like unemployment, underemployment, addiction, mental illness, domestic violence, medical problems, divorce, separation, or release from an institution. Research suggests that getting an exact count of the homeless poulation has proved to be extremely difficult. Point in time measure ments only give counts for a given day. They provide recommendations on a braod sense, but other factors like severe weather could change these numbers drastically. Eventhough there was a substantial amount of data reviewed in this study, there is a recognition that more data can be done and could be helpful for further studies. The bottom line is that homelessness is a serious problem. It is likely that it will not be going away in the near future. The demographic data attempts at providing accuracies so that attempts can be made to reduce its effects not only for the people that are experience ing it, but for the communitys addressing it. Title: Two Sides of Downtown: Burgeoning Tech World, Homeless on Plaza. Gainesville.com. Gainesville Sun, 21 Apr. 2012. Web. 12 Apr. 2014. . This article interviews individuals experincing homelessness and members of the community surrounding Downtown Gains ville. It provides a sense of the the current situation through the perpectives of people that are dealing with it and trying to address it.

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33 :: page Safety One of the greatest concerns regarding homeless service is safety. This research provides a reference that assists in understanding the adverse conditions that influence shelter design, and some of the measures taken to address these conditions. Success for Hope Village is dependent on providing a safe environment for the staff, the residents, and the surrounding community. Title: Shelter Health. National Health Care for the Homeless Council. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014. . Title: Kraybill, Ken, MSW, and Jeff Olivet, MA. Shelter Health: Essentials of Care for People Living in a Shelter. Http://www. nhchc.org. National Health Care for the Homeless Council, 2006. Web. 4 Mar. 2014. . Common Health Conditions Associated in Homeless Shelters (http://www.nhchc.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/ShelterHealth Guide0506.pdf) Influenza Upper Respiratory Infection Diarrhea Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Tuberculosis HIV/AIDS Vaccinations Lice Scabies Relevance According to the National Healthcare for the Homeless Council, no city in the United States has enough beds to house all the home less men, women, and children. They also state that homelessness and poor health are strongly correlated in three ways; health prob lems can cause homelessness, homelessness can cause health problems, and homelessness complicates efforts to treat health prob lems (http://www.nhchc.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/ShelterHealthGuide0506.pdf).

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34 :: page Shelter Model Examples (http://www.nhchc.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/ShelterHealthGuide0506.pdf): -Staffed Shelter :: This is the traditional shelter, with professional paid staff. It is the most expensive model. Some agencies that will be willing to run a staffed shelter will want a space where they can set up beds, showers, and other amenities. -Volunteer Staff :: Many local shelters run smoothly with a rotating staff of volunteers. Local service agencies send referrals usually with blankets. The church provides space, including bathroom facilities and storage for mats. The volunteers provide light snacks and supervision. The shelter members set up their own mats and clean up after themselves. -Self-managed Shelter :: SHARE, the Seattle Housing and Resource Effort, is a group of homeless and formerly homeless men and women who organize their own self-managed shelters and other survival resources, while doing self-advocacy for the social changes to end homelessness. SHARE has fourteen shelters hosted by churches and other community groups. The key to the shelter space is kept in a central location. Each night, a responsible shelter member picks up the key, the shelter record book, and bus tickets for shelter members. The shelter members go to the shelter, let themselves in, and set up for the night. They govern themselves according to agreed upon rules. At the morning, they clean up after themselves and let themselves out. Shelter supplies are provided by SHARE. Once a week, volunteers from the shelter wash the blankets with transportation and laundry facilities provided by SHARE. -Mixed model :: A number of shelters run on a mixed model, with both staff and volunteers, or self-managed with one staff member or a volunteer present to facilitate. -Day center :: If you have a room available even for only a few hours of the day, just being able to come indoors, sit down, have a cup of coffee, browse the papers and chat is a blessing. Being out on the streets from the time the night shelters close at perhaps 6:30 AM to when they open at perhaps 9 PM is a physical hardship on almost anyone. The isolation of homelessness is as much of a hardship.

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35 :: page Title: Hobbs, Maggie, MSW, Silvia Corral, MD, MPH, Linda Dziobek, RN, BA, Patrice Morhart, MSW, Dan Murphy, BA, and Lin da Ruble, PA/C. Sample Safety Guidelines in Homeless Health Services Programs. Http://homeless.samhsa.gov. Healthcare for the Homeless Clinicians Network. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Mar. 1996. Web. 5 Mar. 2014. . Title: Homelessness Resource Center Resource Sample Safety Guidelines in Homeless Health Services Programs. Http:// homeless.samhsa.gov. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, n.d. Web. 05 Mar. 2014. . Abstract Safety guidelines were developed by agencies to help prevent and reduce violent incidents. The guidelines were compiled by the Healthcare for the Homeless Clinicians Network and made available by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administrations Homeless Resource Center as a reference for others who are developing policies and protocols specific to their own practice setting and model of care. Topics covered include the crisis cycle, etiologies of aggressive behavior, assessment, prevention, de-escalation, intervention strategies, documentation, and a glossary of mental health terms (http://homeless.samhsa.gov/Resource/Sample-SafetyGuidelines-in-Homeless-Health-Services-Programs-20963.aspx). Relevance The Sample of Safety Guidelines in Homeless Health Service Programs provides insight on homeless patient stress due to possible extenuating circumstances. They note that it is important to keep in mind the adverse living conditions and backgrounds patients come from. In many instances, homeless individuals experience stressful living situations that can degrade self-esteem and normal social behavior like patience and courtesy. This situation can sometimes make care providing a challenge. Many homeless patients that seek care are involved with drug abuse, suffer from a mental disorder, and have antisocial backgrounds which can also exacerbate their levels of stress (Hobbs, Corral, Dziobek, Morhart, Murphy, Ruble p.8). The Sample of Safety Guidelines in Homeless Health Service Program also addresses safety issues in regards to a resource centers en vironment. They state that the environment around clients can affect the safety not only of the client, but also the safety of the service providers. Homeless individuals experiencing service will feel less stressed, less nervous, and less confused in environments where care and concern are constant and organized (Hobbs, Corral, Dziobek, Morhart, Murphy, Ruble p.29).

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36 :: page The Sample of Safety Guidelines in Homeless Health Service Program Guidelines for Providing a Safer Environment (Hobbs, Corral, Dziobek, Morhart, Murphy, Ruble p.29). Make change very slowly. Prepare clients for any physical, emotional, personnel, or geographic change. Maintain a routine. It is important to create a dependable world and a structured existence and environment for your clients. Maintain communication through every channel. Provide social stimulation without overload. Assist your clients in avoiding crowds or large spaces without boundaries. Be sure that the environment is designed to avoid sensory overload. Keep instructions short and concrete. Clients may not have a tolerance for complex activities or conversations. Maintain positive input such as reinforcement for any worthy act. This helps maintain the clients self-esteem and encourages participation in healthy activities. Conclusion The material presented by the Healthcare for the Homeless Clinicians Network addresses the type of safety situations present when providing for homeless individuals by providing examples on how furnish an environment that does not exacerbate any mental or physical conditions that may be present in homeless individuals seeking assistance. A landscape that is empathetic to the their needs is the primary focus of the design, and having an understanding of the needs of the user is crucial in this effort. Title: Daiski, Isolde. Perspectives of homeless people on their health and health needs priorities. Journal of Advanced Nurs ing 58.3 (2007): 273-281. Abstract The aim of this study is to report on the perspectives homeless individuals have on their health and healthcare needs. All measures where performed in Canada. The background of this study refers to previous research that shows high incidence and severity of dis eases, physical and mental, amongst the homeless populations, and in order to provide appropriate care the perspectives of the homeless clients need to be made aware to service providers. .A descriptive, exploratory design, using semi-structured interviews and

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37 :: page observational field notes, was chosen for this qualitative study. A convenience sample of 24 participants experiencing homelessness was recruited in one Canadian city in 2005. The study found that participants described their health and healthcare needs in a holistic sense. They reported concerns about physical illnesses, mental health, addictions and stress. The participants also perceived shelter life promoted spread of diseases and lacked privacy where violence was rampant in both the shelters and on the streets, leading to constant fear. The study group also exhibited emotional distress over social exclusion and depersonalization. Participants wanted to work and to be housed, yet felt trapped in a dehumanizing system. The study concluded with the following recommendations: (a) elimination or mitigation of most health problems of the homeless through safe, affordable housing; (b) reintegration into the com munity through job counseling, treatment of addictions and employment. Negative societal attitudes towards these clients need to change and healthcare professionals, particularly community nurses, have opportunities to collaborate respectfully with these clients and work for changes in public policies, such as national housing and addiction treatment policies, and for streamlined, humanized services to smooth the processes of social reintegration. Relevance Homelessness is everywhere, and many of the findings in this research are relevant to people working in all facets services dedicat ed to assisting persons experiencing homelessness (p.274). As reported in the study many of the individuals reported physical health problems being reinforced through homeless lifestyle with older individuals attributing it to age (p. 276). Not surprisingly, the study also states that many of the individuals had great concern for lack of income, and that some of the participants blamed the shelter life for some of the difficulty obtaining and keeping employment (p. 276). The study also states, Lack of privacy and restrictive rules in shelters had an impact on participants feelings and self worth (p. 276). The study also states that all participants expressed a fear of violence, and shelters were generally viewed as the most dangerous accommodation, with one participant reporting being robbed over three times during stays in shelters (p. 277). This study provides awareness that homeless people live in fear and perceive social exclusion and low self esteem as the greatest threats to their health; they also have a desire to work and be respected, and need continued services, employment, housing, and addiction treatment (p. 279). Conclusion The homeless individuals involved in this study viewed their own health as poor, and shelters as dangerous places with no privacy. The landscape design should provide relief from not only these perceptions, but also from elements of danger. The program for the land scape should provide places for personal space and self contemplation in a safe welcoming atmosphere.

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38 :: page Title: Chartered Society of Designers. Value of Greenspace. Rep. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2014. . Cited Titles in Value of Green Space Report: Mitchell, Richard, and Frank Popham. Effect of exposure to natural environment on health inequalities: an observational population study. The Lancet 372.9650 (2008): 1655-1660. Natural England. 2009. An estimate of the economic and health value and cost effectiveness of the expanded WHI scheme. Natural England Technical Information Note TIN055. Peterborough Ulrich, Roger S. Effects on Health Outcomes: Theory and Research. Healing gardens: Therapeutic Benefits and Design Recommendations (1999): Theory and Research. In C.Cooper-Marcus & M. Barnes (Eds.), Healing Gardens: Therapeutic Benefits and Design Recommendations. New York: John Wiley, pp.27-86. Pretty, Jules, Rachel Hine, and Jo Peacock. Green exercise: The benefits of activities in green places. Biologist-London 53.3 (2006): 143-148. Gies, Erica. The Health Benefits of Parks. The Trust for Public Land (2006). Mind. Ecotherapy: The Green Agenda for Mental Health. Executive Summary. Mind, 2007. Bird, W. Natural thinking: Investigating the links between the Natural Environment. Biodiversity and Mental Health (2007). Keywords: Local Food Awareness, Urban Farming, Green Space, Ecotherapy, Healing Garden 2.4 :: The Value of Green Spaces to Individuals Experiencing Homelessness This section references the health benefits of green spaces provided by numerous researchers and social scientists. It illustrates how these health benefits can be of great value to adults and children experiencing homelessness. The types of green spaces are also de fined in this research, and the current health trends amongst this population.

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39 :: page Abstract This document outlines in the broadest sense the wide range of green spaces from parks and gardens to city farms, country parks, woodlands and wildlife sites to play areas, allotments to urban plazas and the range of benefits they bring, whether provided and managed by statutory agencies, local authorities or by community led and managed groups such as community gardens. Parks and green spaces represent the full spectrum of different and diverse green spaces that are available for communities to use and enjoy (p.4). This report cites a study done by Richard Mitchell and Frank Popham titled, Effect of Exposure to Natural Environment on Health Inequalities: An Observational Population Study that states, living near parks, woodland or open spaces helps reduce health inequalities regardless of social class (p.10). Relevance This CSD report cites a study done by Richard Mitchell and Frank Popham titled, Effect of Exposure to Natural Environment on Health Inequalities: An Observational Population Study that states, living near parks, woodland or open spaces helps reduce health inequali ties regardless of social class (p.10). Title: Health Care and Homelessness. National Coalition for the Homeless. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2014. . According to the National Coalition for Homeless, homelessness and health care are intimately interwoven, and poor health is both a cause and a result of homelessness. They state in their report that 70% of Health Care for the Homeless (HCH) clients do not have health insurance, and that approximately 14% of people treated by homeless health care programs are children under the age of 15. Parks and green spaces promote health for everyone that is able to experience them, and this is particularly important in homeless populations that have a greater amount from health disparities. The Value of Green Space Report cites a study done by Natural England, which is an Executive Non-departmental Public Body re sponsible to the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in England. Their studies report on the economic, health value, and cost effectiveness of the WHI (Walking the Way to Health Initiative) whos aim is to get more people active. The study states that, where people have an adequate perception and/or actual access to green space, they are 24% more likely to be physically active (p.12). Relevance Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 27 Feb. 2014. Web. 01 Mar. 2014. . Ogden, C., M. Lamb, M. Carroll, and K. Flegal N.p.. Web. 2 Mar 2014. .

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40 :: page According to the Center of Disease Control and Prevention on Childhood Obesity :: Childhood Obesity has more than doubled in children and quadrupled in adolescents in the past 30 years. The percentage of children aged 6-11 years in the United States who were obese increased from 7% in 1980 to nearly 18% in 2012. Similarly, the percentage of adolescents aged 12-19 years who were obese increased from 5% to 21% over the same period. In 2012, more than one third of children and adolescents were overweight or obese. Overweight and obesity are the result of caloric imbalance too few calories expended for the amount of calories consumed and are affected by various genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors. Another report conducted under the Center of Disease Control and Prevention for the National Center for Health and Statistics conducted from 2005 to 2008 suggests that obesity is greater in the low income population than in higher income individuals and that children and adolescents living in households where the head of household has a college degree are less likely to be obese compared with those living in households where the household head has less education (Ogden, Lamb, Carroll, and Flegal ). Childhood obesity is a growing epidemic, and studies suggest that its more likely to happen to youth in poorer families. Lack of access to safe green spaces in poor communities may contribute to the lack of activity in these youth, which then leads to obesity. Getting children to engage with the outdoors keeps them active, and it has been reported that having access to green space and natural areas promotes activity and health which in turns prevents obesity. Recent research suggests that the importance of green space is even greater to the youth in poorer families with greater chances of obesity. CSD, Value of Green Space Report :: This report cites Roger Ulrichs studies that were quoted from Healing Gardens, which is a book authored by Clair Cooper Marcus and Marni Barnes. They state that clinical evidence suggests that exposure to an outdoor green environment reduces stress faster than anything else, and simply viewing nature can produce significant recovery or restoration from stress within three to five minutes (p. 12). This report also cites another study by Jules Pretty, Rachel Hine, and Jo Peacock titled Green Excercise, which is a study of a variety of horticultural therapy projects. Their research showed that every green environment studied improved both self-esteem and mood and that individuals diagnosed with a mental health condition had one of the greatest self-esteem improvements (p. 13). This report cites further a study by Mind, which is a mental health organization that participates in evidence based ecotherapy tech niques for improved mental health, and states that 94% of those involved in their green exercise ecotherapy program activities com mented that they had experienced relief to their mental health condition.

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41 :: page Relevance National Coalition for the Homeless. National Coalition for the Homeless. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2014. . A study done by the National Coalition for Homelessness states that 20 to 25% of the homeless population in the United States suf fers from severe mental illness as compared to 6% of the general public. Studies illustrate that spending time in nature reduces mental stress particularly in the mentally ill, and since studies also state that a high percentage of the homeless population is mentally ill, they could benefit greatly from nature related experiences. CSD, Value of Green Space Report: This report cites a study done by Erica Gies on the health benefits of public parks, stating that children with ADHD can concentrate on schoolwork and similar tasks better than usual after taking part in activities in green settings, such as walking through or playing in a park (p.13). Relevance Title: Data & Statistics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 13 Nov. 2013. Web. 28 Feb. 2014. . According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention ADHD diagnosis in children is on the rise in the United States: Approximately 11% of children 4-17 years of age (6.4 million) have been diagnosed with ADHA as 2011. The percentage of children with ADHD diagnosis continues to increase, from 7.8% in 2003 to 9.5% in 2007 and to 11% in 2011. Rates of ADHD diagnosis increased an average of 3% per year from 1997 to 2006 and an average of approximately 5% per year from 2003 to 2011. Boys (13.2%) were more likely than girls (5.6%) to have ever been diagnosed with ADHD. The average age of ADHD diagnosis was 7 years of age, but children reported by their parents as having more severe ADHD were diagnosed earlier.

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42 :: page It is reported that ADHD is an increasingly growing problem in youth. Research suggests that improved connections to nature and nature related experiences improves concentration which subsides the ill effects caused from ADHD. Providing a wider research base is needed for this subject. Title: Elder, Lee Erica. UNCENSORED. Green Thumbs Up. Working with Nature Provides a Fresh Start for Homeless and Once-homeless Families and Adults. ICPHusa.org. Institute for Children Poverty and Homeless, n.d. Web. 07 Mar. 2014. . Abstract This article explains and provides examples of recent trends where horticulture is used as a means of therapy. Elder defines the prac tice by introducing its history and lists definitions made available through The American Horticultural Therapy Association, which hosts an annual Horticultural Therapy Forum to discuss this growing field (http://www.icphusa.org/index.asp?page=20&uncensored=8&sto ry=54&pg=115). Elder then documents some the work of Leigh Anne Sterling, who is a registered horticultural therapist whose service has included the Homeless Gardening Project. They provide sanctuary, job training, transitional employment, and support services to the homeless in Santa Cruz, California. Their program involves a three acre farm that include volunteer and education programs that served ap proximately 1,200 individuals in 2011. Elder then quotes Darrie Ganzhorn, the executive director of the Homeless Gardening Project, who states that the program is at the intersection of urban agriculture and food-justice movements, transitional jobs and job training, homeless services and therapeutic horticulture. They state that the program has provided a place where participants gain self-esteem, self-confidence, self-awareness, and independence along with communication skills, problem solving skills, work skills and behaviors by learning about the process of the farm and its relation to the cycle of life(http://www.icphusa.org/index.asp?page=20&uncen sored=8&story=54&pg=115). Elder then refers to the Gateway Greening project in St. Louis, Missouri, an organization comprised of 220 community and school gardens, and specifically refers to one of their projects called City Seeds Urban Farm who provide therapeutic and vocational horti culture programs in partnership with a local homeless service provider called the St. Patrick Center. Elder states that according to the farm manager Annie Mayrose, the program provides confidence building and leadership experience to the individuals that partici pate by letting them lead volunteers through tasks at the garden (http://www.icphusa.org/index.asp?page=20&uncensored=8&sto ry=54&pg=115).

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43 :: page Elder also refers to statements made by Matthew Wichrowski, MSW and registered horticultural therapist that says horticultural ther apy can benefit individuals experiencing medical and psychological challenges and children by providing fun ways for them to learn about where their food comes from and encourage healthy eating habits by connecting them with food sources and the relation be tween their diet and their health (http://www.icphusa.org/index.asp?page=20&uncensored=8&story=54&pg=115). She then looks at the work of another horticulture program in New York City called, The Bridge Inc. They have partnered with the New York State Department of Healths Hunger Prevention and Nutrition Assistance Program to start productive gardens throughout the city that work with individuals experiencing substance-abuse issues, HIV/AIDS, homelessness, or coming out of psychiatric hospitals, or jail/prison. According to Carole Gordon the director of The Bridge Inc., the program provides participants physical and coordination skills and exercise, along with socialization and cooking skills (http://www.icphusa.org/index. asp?page=20&uncensored=8&story=54&pg=115). Elder explains that one of the biggest challenges involved with horticulture therapy programs is funding. Elder then provides com ments by Mayrose stating that the jobs training program is easier to get funding for because there are definitive numbers illustrating where people received jobs due to their training. However as with other therapy programs, it is more about individual well being, and there is a need for more to be documented on the subject, which in turn could help drum up support and more resources (http://www. icphusa.org/index.asp?page=20&uncensored=8&story=54&pg=115). American Horticultural Therapy Association Definitions Horticultural Therapy is the engagement of a client in horticultural activities facilitated by a trained therapist to achieve specific and documented treatment goals (http://www.icphusa.org/index.asp?page=20&uncensored=8&story=54&pg=115). Therapeutic Horticulture, is a process that uses plants and plant-related activities through which participants strive to improve their well being through active or passive involvement. In a therapeutic horticulture program, goals are not clinically defined and documented but the leader will have training in the use of horticulture as a medium for human well-being (http://www.icphusa.org/ index.asp?page=20&uncensored=8&story=54&pg=115). Vocational Horticulture is often a major component of a horticultural therapy program, and focuses on providing training that enables individuals to work in the horticulture industry professionally, either independently or semi-independently. These individuals may or may not have some type of disability (http://www.icphusa.org/index.asp?page=20&uncensored=8&story=54&pg=115).

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44 :: page Conclusion It is clear to see that through the aforementioned studies that green spaces are a vital tool for improving human health. Homelessness and health are many times the cause and effect of one another. Cost effective green implementations can play a vital role in improving health in many different ways. When children have early exposures to these green implements they are more likely to be active and make better choices regarding diet and their environmental impact which ultimately contributes to them living healthier and more environmentally sustainable lives. Individuals experiencing homelessness and low socioeconomic communities (especially children in these circumstances) are at greater risks and the research suggests they can benefit considerably from having adequate access to green spaces. 2.5 :: Standards for Design of Homeless Facilities This reference of research looks into the most standard elements of design provided by The Center for Universal Design and Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). This reference also focuses on the standards for homeless facility design provid ed through the work of Sam Davis. A look at evidence based therapeutic garden elements is also provided. A design that takes into account this body of research would prove to be beneficial for individuals experiencing homelessness. Title: The Center for Universal Design, The Principles of Universal Design (1997). RERC on Universal Design and the Built Envi ronment [Brochure]. Raleigh, NC: Connell, B.R., Jones, M., Mace, R., Mueller, J., Mullick, A., Ostroff, E., Sanford, J., Steinfeld, E., Story, M., Vanderheiden, G. Keywords: Design Standards, Universal Design The Principles of Universal Design :: Equitable Use the design should be useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities. Flexibility In Use the design should accommodate a wide range of individual preferences and abilities. Simple and Intuitive Use the use of the design should be easy to understand, regardless o the users experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level. Perceptible Information, the design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the users abilities. Tolerance for Error the design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions.

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45 :: page Low Physical Effort the design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue. Size and Space for Approach and Use appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of users body size, posture, or mobility. Relevance The same design standards for everything else should be equally applicable to an appropriate design for a homeless facility. These principles will provide a fundamental base for developing a design that will aim to satisfy the needs for every member of the com munity for the repurposed Gainesville Correctional Facility into a homeless assistance facility. Title: NCDPS Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. NCDPS Crime Prevention Through Environmental De sign. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2014. . Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) is based on the theory that proper design of the built environment can lead to a reduction in crime. The CPTED approach applies the strategic use of landscaping, lighting, signage, traffic calming, moni toring, wayfinding, fencing, and building design to promote safety. CPTED incorporates five principles: Access Control physical guidance for people coming and going from a space Surveillance placement of physical features, people, and activities in a way that promotes visibility Terratoriality the use of physical attributes that express ownership Maintenance on a routine schedule ensures that the property demonstrates territoriality and natural surveillance Activity Support placing of activity where individuals become part of the natural surveillance (https://www.ncdps.gov/index2.cfm?a=000003,000011,001443,001576)

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46 :: page Relevance The safety and walefare of all the individuals involved within a homeless service center should be incorporated into the design stan dards of the facility. CPTED provides easy to follow guidelines that can contribute to a program development strategy that promotes the function and succes of a homeless facility center. Through this body of research it is made evident that proper design must pro mote safe enviroments. Title: Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Programs PD&R Report to Congress January 1995 | HUD USER. Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Programs PD&R Report to Congress January 1995 | HUD USER. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2014. Keywords : Homeless Programs Abstract This report synthesizes the findings of six evaluations of homeless programs administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). The report responds to a congressional mandate that HUD conduct a comprehensive review and evalua tion of each program [it administers] under Title IV of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act. The principal conclusion of the report is that the time is right to consolidate and simplify the McKinney programs (Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Programs PD&R Report to Congress January 1995). According to the report, successful programs focused on the individuals specific needs, required individual responsibility, and were comprehensive. The report also defines the four characteristics that stood out in every successful homeless assistance program, re gardless of the cause of homelessness, and are listed as follows (http://www.huduser.org/portal/publications/homeless/mckin/mckin. html). 1. Treatment of each person is unique and valued. 2. An operating principle that respects individual rights and requires individual responsibility. 3. Availability of stable housing and existence of a comprehensive set of assistance services. 4. A continuing challenge to each individual to be as independent as possible.

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47 :: page Title: Davis, Sam. Designing for the Homeless: Architecture That Works. University of California Press, 2004. Keywords : Designing for Homeless, Abstract Author Sam Davis addresses how architects can provide building structures that are well-designed places for the homeless and reviews innovative and successful building designs that serve diverse communities across the United States. He argues for safe and functional architectural designs and programs that symbolically reintegrate the homeless into society in buildings that offer beauty, security, and hope to those in need (http://www.ucpress.edu/book.php?isbn=9780520235250). Relevance Davis argues that affordable housing should be indistinguishable from nearby housing so that the residents will not be stigmatized and will feel a part of the surrounding community (p. 20). He also states that ultimately compromises have to be made throughout the process of designing for the homeless, but since compromises must made more work must be done by architects and designers for solutions (p. 20). According to Davis, small spaces need to be functional and dignified, and manage modest budgets to create safe and welcoming places (p. 20). He argues that for a shelter to succeed it has to be situated within residential and commercial areas and in close prox imity to public transportation, jobs, social services, and schools. The further a homeless individual has to travel for services, the mor e difficult their life will be (p. 20). He also describes the most difficult duty for an architect designing for the homeless is to restore a sense of dignity to the residents; this should be the first objective for architects (p. 21). According to Davis, having self-determination and the ability to choose are the cornerstones of self dignity. Homeless people have very few options and architects must use their skills to create diversity in spaces providing people with choices that contribute to self-determination (p. 21). Relevance The landscape design for repurposing the Gainesville Correctional Facility into a homeless assistance facility should support its suc cess. This report illustrates some key factors that accompany successful programs. Having some of the successful measures defined, like addressing individual needs and promoting independence, will help determine the goals of landscape design that supports the overall function of the facility.

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48 :: page Keywords : Evidence Based Design, Therapeutic Landscapes, Restorative Outdoor Spaces Relevance According to Cooper Marcus restorative gardens provide places for people suffering from a period of physical or mental illness to par ticipate in quiet contemplation and connect with nature. According to the National Coalition for the Homeless, 26% of the homeless population suffers mental illness while only 5 to 7% of this population is severely mentally ill requiring institutionalization (http://nationalhomeless.org/factsheets/who.html). A landscape design with restorative and therapeutic elements like the landscapes laid out in this book would help alleviate some of the stresses associated with being homeless and better serve some of the population that suffers from mental illness. Conclusion The fundamentals of proper design have been made universal through the reviewed research and should not only be applicable to those who can afford it, but to everyone. Successful homeless assistance programs focus on treating each person as unique and valued, respecting individual rights, requiring individual responsibility, providing stable housing, having assistance services, and pro moting independence; the landscape design should also support this focusing elements. Stigmas of homeless facilities are often felt by the surrounding community of the facility. Homeless individuals are often times aware of these stigmas causing them to avoid the assistance that shelters provide, which in turn can further complicate their already adverse situations. Homeless facilities should try to promote integration with in the surrounding community to the point that they are an indistinguishable part of that community. Not only should the landscape promote the overall functions of the facility, but it should also promote this integration while also support ing the needs of the people it serves by offering a place of therapeutic healing. Title: Marcus, Clare Cooper, and Naomi A. Sachs. Therapeutic Landscapes: An Evidence-based Approach to Designing Healing Gardens and Restorative Outdoor Spaces. John Wiley & Sons, 2013. Abstract Serves as a guide that offers an evidence-based overview of healing gardens and therapeutic landscapes from planning to post-occu pancy evaluation. It provides general guidelines for designers and other stakeholders in a variety of projects, as well as patient-specific guidelines covering twelve categories ranging from burn patients, psychiatric patients, to hospice and Alzheimers patients, among others. Sections on participatory design and funding offer valuable guidance to the entire team, not just designers, while a planting and maintenance chapter gives critical information to ensure that safety, longevity, and budgetary concerns are addressed (http://lib. myilibrary.com/ProductDetail.aspx?id=525197).

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49 :: page Title: Nisbet, Elizabeth K., John M. Zelenski, and Steven A. Murphy. The Nature Relatedness Scale Linking Individuals Con nection with Nature to Environmental Concern and Behavior. Environment and Behavior 41.5 (2009): 715-740. Abstract The Nature Relatedness Scale provides a construct to describe individual connectedness with the natural world from a psychological perspective. The measure is designed to evaluate ones appreciation for and understanding of human kinds interconnectedness to all living things on earth (p. 718). The results of the measure found that nature relatedness was internally consistent, temporally sta ble, and correlated with time spent outdoors in nature (p. 731). Likert scale questions where based on three factors that relate to self, perspective, and experience (p. 731). The questions based on self measure how strongly people identify with the natural environment (p. 731). The questions based on perspective measure how ones personal relationship with the environment is manifested through attitude and behavior, and the questions related to experience measure the physical familiarity and attraction people have with nature (p.731). Results from the surveys support that nature relatedness (emotions, values, attitudes, and self concept that includes the natural world) may provide a motivational force toward nature protection and preservation (p.736). 2.6 :: Previous Measures on Nature Connections This research illustrates that measuring the perceptions of an individual is a difficult and complicated task. How do we measure feel ings of love, art, beauty, or the environment? This section looks at previous measures that attempt to understand the level of con nectedness and the perceptions an individual has towards the natural environment. This study is aimed to improve these connections leading to ethically enriched environmental attitudes and sustainable future life choices.

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50 :: page Nature Relatedness Scale :: Likert Questions: 1 disagree strongly, 2 disagree a little, 3 neither, 4, agree a little, 5 agree strongly 1. I enjoy being outdoors, even in unpleasant weather. 2. Some species are just meant to die out or become extinct. 3. Humans have the right to use natural resources any way we want. 4. My ideal vacation spot would be a remote, wilderness area. 5. I always think about how my actions affect the environment. 6. I enjoy digging in the earth and getting dirt on my hands. 7. My connection to nature and the environment is a part of my spirituality. 8. I am very aware of environmental issues. 9. I take notice of wildlife wherever I am. 10. I dont often go out in nature. 11. Nothing I do will change problems in other places on the planet. 12. I am not separate from nature, but a part of nature. 13. The thought of being deep in the woods, away from civilization, is frightening. 14. My feelings about nature do not affect how I live my life. 15. Animals, birds and plants should have fewer rights than humans. 16. Even in the middle of the city, I notice nature around me. 17. My relationship to nature is an important part of who I am. 18. Conservation is unnecessary because nature is strong enough to recover from any human impact. 19. The state of non-human species is an indicator of the future for humans. 20. I think a lot about the suffering of animals. 21. I feel very connected to all living things and the earth. by: Nisbet, Zelenski, and Murphy

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51 :: page Title: Manoli, Constantinos C., Bruce Johnson, and Riley E. Dunlap. Assessing Childrens Environmental Worldviews: Modify ing and Validating the New Ecological Paradigm Scale for Use with Children. The Journal of Environmental Education 38.4 (2007): 3-13. Abstract The New Ecological Paradigm for Children is a measure that focuses on childrens environmental world views and was edited from a measure that was previously used on adults that has been in use for over twenty-five years. Three factors are the basis for question structure: rights of nature, eco-crisis, and human exemptionalism. The measure consists of 10 items, instead of the original 15 items, and the wording has been made appropriate for use with children. Children are asked to choose the number that best describes how much they agree or disagree with the statements. The items are rated on a 5 point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Items 3, 6, 7, and 9 are reverse scored to obtain a composite score. Total scores range from 15 (low environmental concern) to 75 (high environmental concern) and a score of 45 is the midpoint, which is interpreted as neutral. New Ecological Paradigm for Children Likert Questions: 1 disagree strongly, 2 disagree a little, 3 neither, 4, agree a little, 5 agree strongly 1. Plants and animals have as much right as people to live. 2. There are too many (or almost too many) people on earth. 3. People are clever enough to keep from ruining earth. 4. People must obey the laws of nature. 5. When people mess with nature it has bad results. 6. Nature is strong enough to handle the bad effects of our modern lifestyles. 7. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature. 8. People are treating nature badly. 9. People will someday know enough about how nature works to be able to control it. 10. If things dont change, we will have a big disaster in the environment soon.

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52 :: page Title: Barraza, Laura. Childrens drawings about the environment. Environmental Education Research 5.1 (1999): 49-66. Abstract Laura Barraza PhD developed drawing exercises that were given to Mexican and English children to measure their perceptions on nature and to determine if cultural differences were present in their perceptions. A total of 741 drawing measures were administered from eight different schools, three were in England and five were in Mexico (p.49). The results of the study determined that children have strong environmental concerns with 37% depicting environmental problems, and 54% thought that the world would be worse in 50 years (p.49). It was also reported that, although Mexican children drew places of rural context, there were much more similarities in the drawings than differences (p.49). Drawing Exercise Question 1 : You are approaching Earth in your spaceship. Draw it as your approaching from space, how does it look? Analysis of Question 1 by Barraza: Question 1 was used to set the mood and introduce children into the activity. The question also provides valuable information on childrens familiarity about the planet Earth, while also providing comparative evidence related on possible cultural differences (p53). Question 2 : You have landed in your favorite place, but nobody can see you because you are invisible. Draw how it looks. Question 3 : 50 years have passed since your last visit to Earth. You return to the place you visited before. Draw how it looks after so long. Analysis of Question 2 and 3 by Barraza: These questions were used to evaluate childrens perceptions about the present and their ex pectations and concerns for the future (p.53). These questions are used to determine if the youth depicted any recognizable problems through their drawings, that can or cannot be associated with nature or the environment (p.53). They also illustrate the places that the youth are most interested in, which might also be associated with any environmental problems or accomplishments as well (p.53).

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53 :: page Previous Measure Conclusion The examples of the aforementioned survey measures and the drawing exercise provide a strong outline for developing future study. They provide a sense of the perceptions individuals and children have toward nature through empirically validated measurements. However, more studies can be done regarding childrens perceptions to nature and its relation to agricultural food production. Also, the perception of the children involved with the drawing study pertaining to a natural environment whose future is desolate is particularly interesting. What causes this impression of a bleak future in todays youth? It is clear to see that further studies are needed in this area of research to define this and other questions. More research is also needed for producing educational procedures that address these issues. Trends in youth distancing themselves from nature has a multitude of adverse consequences. Nature deficit disorder is a serious issue, and research suggests linkages to ADHD and childhood obesity. More research and more actions need to be taken to provide the opportunity for children to connect with nature. Improved environmental stewardship, good health, and self respect are some of the benefits made when children connect with nature. Individuals, and particularly youth, experiencing low socioeconomic circumstance and homelessness have even more to gain from strong nature connections. A landscape design that addresses these issues can pro vide safety and establish nature connections in the critically important years of early human development. The research of Richard Louv and David Sobel provide a fundamental ground work to this study. Their observational research on youths behavior in nature and design principles is an excellent source for guiding a landscape design that connects children to bio spheric consciousness. Their concepts ultimately promote the purpose of this study, which is to further the body of knowledge in landscape architecture that promotes changing an individuals behavior not through educational facts or lecture, but through emotion and experience. This contemporary thought will hopefully influence sustainable future life choices pertaining to environmental stew ardship, care for the natural world, and care for themselves. Designing a playground that connects children to nature is relatively easy to accomplish. The array of examples provided give descrip tions on elements used to bring nature connections to youth through the playground experience. Play spaces need to be physically challenging, stimulate imagination, involve animal experiences, provide opportunities for exploration, incorporate special places like forts, contain miniature ecosystems, and provide opportunities to hunt and gather objects like pine cones, sticks, and stones. 2.7 :: Literature Review Conclusion

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54 :: page Although some improvements have been made in recent years, homelessness is a seriously debilitating problem. Locally, in Alachua County there were over 2,000 homeless individuals on a single night in 2012. Unfortunately, these debilitating circumstances more often than not involve children, and in most situations homeless people are not chronically homeless. The latest research suggests that most homelessness is the result of a temporary hardship. These hardships are typically caused by unemployment, underemployment, addiction, mental illness, domestic violence, medical problems, divorce, separation, or release from an institution. Unfortunately, chil dren are all too often involved in these debilitating circumstances. Safety is always a major concern when providing for homeless populations. Designing a landscape that can serve to maintain safety is a crucial element for supporting the overall function of the facility. Extenuating circumstances that homeless people experience caus es stress, and can sometimes cause individuals to act irrationally. A landscape design that provides an environment that is organized and easily comprehended will also encourage a safe environment not only for the homeless individuals seeking service but also for the individuals providing the service. Some research suggests that homeless individuals view their own health as poor, and that shelters even make their health worse. A well executed landscape design should address this issue by providing relief from the institutional reputation that many homeless facilities have. It should provide places of privacy and therapeutic contemplation, while also encouraging community involvement to further enhance integration with the surrounding community. Countless research suggests that green spaces are a vital tool for improving health. Poor health and homelessness go hand in hand. By providing homeless individuals, and particularly youth, with functional green space we improve their health, which is particularly important due the current trends of rising obesity and ADHD and disconnections to nature and food production. Standards for universal design can be applied to every well planned landscape design, and homeless facilities are no exception. The function of a successful homeless facility needs to support treating each person uniquely, individual rights, individual responsibility, stable housing, assistance services, and the promotion of independence. A landscape design should also support this function. The landscape architect has a unique opportunity to address many of the stigmas related to homeless facilities that are often felt by the surrounding community and even the homeless individuals. Landscape architects are able to promote integration of the facilities landscape so it becomes an indistinguishable part of the community, while also providing a place for individuals to feel relief that are experiencing the obstacles of homelessness. Survey measures attempt to provide us with an understanding of individuals opinions. Past surveys have provided insight into per ceptions of nature but have also laid the ground work for further study. In conclusion it is suggested that additional measures could be made by integrating drawing exercises and surveys on nature and agricultural food production perspectives that could be applied to youth.

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55 :: page Through this frame of research, it has been established that further study regarding low socioeconomic circumstance and homeless individuals perceptions of nature and agricultural food production is needed. It could be a useful tool for addressing the many com plex issues related to their situations. Landscape architects are in an unique position to use evidence based theories to address these difficult issues. The quintessential goal of this study is to further advance this body of knowledge by providing evidence to support landscape design recommendations that promote nature connections for those who need it most.

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56 :: page 3 :: CASE STUDIES 3.1 :: City of Refuge 3.1.1 Location :: 1300 Joseph E. Boone Blvd Atlanta, GA 30314 Build Date :: 1950 with major addition in 1960 Repurposed :: 2006 to Church with Transitional Housing Units Lot Size :: 8.35 acres Service Providers :: City of Refuge, St. Josephs Mercy Care Center of Atlanta, 180 Kitchen Overview The City of Refuge started off as a church organization feeding program called Mission Possible in 1970. At that time the organization would enter distressed areas of downtown Atlanta and feed homeless populations. This program grew in scope reaching many needy individuals, and in 1997 was re-incorporated as the City of Refuge. In 2003 the current site was donated by Mimms Enterprises and encompasses approximately 200,000 square feet of converted warehouse on just over 8 acres of land in one of Atlantas most neglect ed and violent neighborhoods. Some of the currently operating programs is a commercial kitchen that trains culinary arts that serves approximately 12,000 to 15,000 meals a month, three different transitional housing units for single women and women with children, a charter school, after school programs, day care for children 8 weeks to 5 years old, and a church. The three transitional housing units serve different needs of the clients and have a capacity of approximately 300 individuals. One unit serves 40 mothers and approximately 90 children with programming measures aimed at employment and permanent housing solu tions. Another unit serves women with mental health issues and illnesses and is able to serve 30 individuals for approximately 90 days; programming measures in this unit aim to assist with claiming disability and locating permanent housing facilities. The third housing unit serves approximately 130 individuals which are pregnant women and mothers with children. Programming measures in this unit focus on issues with new borns, family unification, job placement, and permanent housing solutions. New mothers are unable to work for six to eight weeks and this unit specializes in dealing with these types of issues, and sometimes flexibility can be made in length of stays. Only women and children are allowed to be domiciled on campus, but the City of Refuge also provides services for men; over one thousand people are given assistance every month and many of them are men. Through their resource center homeless individ uals and individuals in need are provided with clothes, hygiene kits, computer stations, and assistance obtaining drivers licenses and birth certificates, referrals are also given to drug and alcohol rehab programs.

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57 :: page 3.1 :: City of Refuge (continued) 3.1.2 Site 1. Food Production: .38 Acres 2. Passive Recreation: 2 Exterior Picnic Tables (limited shade), 4 Exterior Benches (limited shade), 6 Interior Picnic Benches with sky lights and potted ficus trees 3. Active Recreation: Interior Childs Playground: Ship, and Modular Tube 4. Context: Urban with high vacancy rate, high crime rate, and low income, Repurposed Industrial Warehouse 200,000sqft totaling 8 acres. Figure 4.1 Aerial of City of Refuge provided by Google Earth.

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58 :: page 3.1 :: City of Refuge (continued) 3.1.2 Site (contined) The site is located two miles west of the Georgia Dome and lies in the English Avenue and Vine City neighborhoods. These neighbor hoods have been reported to have some of the most crime in Atlanta. According to the website www.neighborhoodscout.com the real estate in this area is less expensive than 73.7% of any other Georgia neighborhood and 82.1% less than all of the United States with a vacancy rate of 38.2% which is higher than approximately 97% of the vacancies in the United States. The occupants of this neighbor hood also have an income lower than 89.8% of U.S. neighborhoods with 46.7% of the children below the federal poverty line (http:// www.neighborhoodscout.com/ga/atlanta/joseph-e-lowery-blvd/#desc). The parcel consists of a total of 8.35 acres with approximately 200,000 square feet of built structures, approximately .38 acres of agri cultural food production areas, and approximately 2.35 acres of parking. The parcel is located with in the Atlanta Beltline Tax Alloca tion District, however the Beltline in this area has yet to be constructed. The main entry way is at the north side of the property and is shared by vehicle and pedestrians off of Joseph E. Boone Blvd. The south side of the parcel is bordered by Andrews Street which has no entry into the property and consists of residential land uses. Andrews Street is at a much higher elevation than the parcel below. There is a steep 65% slope change from the center line of Andrews Street to the bottom of the south side of the parcel. Since a major area of agricultural food production is located at the south side problems occur with erosion, flooding, and soil contamination. The site also previously functioned as an industrial yard, with the south portion of the site being used to store and dispose of old machin ery leading to greater contamination of the soils. These issues are addressed through the importation of uncontaminated soil in raised planting beds for food production and the planning of a retention wall to be built in the near future. The west side of the parcel is neighbored by a rail line and the east side of the property is neighbored by residential. The east side building and the north side of the west building back up right to the property line. The property is surrounded by fencing. At the main gate entry way from Joseph E Boone Blvd. an architectural fence is utilized and is staffed by a 24 hour security guard. The east buildings interior functions are transitional housing for single women, a commercial kitchen, a gym, and an after school educational facility for youth. The west buildings interior functions are transitional housing for women with children, an indoor play ground, a charter school for adolescents, a sanctuary, a childrens day care center, administration al resource offices, and a health care clinic. The west buildings main hall way has been repurposed to provide the user with an outdoor feel. The natural illumination of sky lights, along with picnic benches, and potted ficus trees against a background of painted murals infused with dreamy green landscapes and urban elements on the walls exhibit an airy and almost natural urban street-scape/park like experience. Exteriorly, twelve red maple trees are located in vegetative islands of the parking lot. Unfortunately, much of the outdoor environment is designated to parking lot. It was expressed by staff that this seems like an unnecessary allocation of resources since the majority of the population of users do not own vehicles. However certain local coding authorities require a certain amount of parking. The City of Atlanta requires that one parking space for each 600 square feet of floor area shall be provided on the site for nonresiden

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59 :: page 3.1 :: City of Refuge (continued) 3.1.2 Site (contined) uses. The built structures comprise of approximately 200,000 square feet requiring a minimum of 333 parking spaces. During the summer of 2013 approximately .38 acres is used for agricultural food production for supplying some of the commercial kitchens needs. Sixty 8 by 4 raised planters where used for growing tomatoes, peppers, strawberries, corn, lettuce, broccoli, turnip greens, and squash. The raised beds where made from donated lumber and where not pressure treated. This posed an instability problem due to rotting of the lumber over time. New materials are currently being resourced to construct new raised beds. Also in the food production areas is a 24 by 36 green house incorporating a bio-ponic system developed by David Epstein D.O. and Kenneth Lovell P.E. of Bioponica. This is a soiless farming system implementing three levels of food production, tilapia are bred at the bottom level, craw fish are bred at the middle level and their waste is used to feed vegetative growth at the top level. This on site technology is still being perfected and production rates are unconfirmed at this time. The bioponic project was funded by the Kaiser Health Foun dation of Georgia. Figure 4.2 City of Refuge, Parcel Profile provided by Fulton County Geographic Information Systems Vicinity Map Property Map

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60 :: page 3.1 :: City of Refuge (continued) 3.1.3 Facilities 1. Residents: 300 total capacity, 40 women with approximately 90 children, 30 single women,130 women that are pregnant or with infants 2. Dining: 12,000 to 15,000 meals per month, serves community and staff, culinary training program, catering company, food truck and banquet hall (400 person capacity) 3. Medical : Saint Josephs Mercy Care, full service health care clinic 4. Social Services: Resource Referral, Supportive Services, Case Management, and Mental Health Assessment, Education Programs (prenatal care, parenting, and child education), Family Unification 5. Administration Offices: 18 Offices, totaling 5,000sqft Located in West Building, a. 4 Executives: Chief Executive Officer, Chief Development Officer, Chief Logistics Officer, Chief Operating Officer b.15 Administrative employees: Child Care Adult Food Program Manager, Volunteer Manager, Grants Manager, Director of Resources, Resident Service Manager, Office Manager, Food Truck Manager, Director of Youth Programming, Director of Food Services, Director of Maintenance, Garden Manager, Childrens Programming Manager, Director of Residential Programs, Controller, Website Manager 6. Education: Bright Futures Academy (charter school), 40 students, 5 teachers, 1 principal, totaling 10,000sq ft in West Building 7. Childcare: Child Care is offered to children 8 weeks to 5 years old 8. Population Served: Over 1000 individuals per month, Only women and Children reside on Site, but all services are offered to any individuals Three transitional housing units serve approximately 300 individuals at any given time. One unit serves 40 mothers and approximate ly 90 children through forty individual hotel style units. Programming measures within this unit are aimed at finding employment and developing skills. Also provided in this unit is case management, food services, daycare/preschool, after school tutoring for children, GED preparation, primary medical care, mental health treatment, job readiness training, job placement, and transition into permanent housing solutions. Individuals served in this unit are provided with up to 120 days of intensive support. Another unit serves women with mental health issues and illnesses and is able to serve 30 individuals for approximately 90 days. The programming measures in this unit aim to assist with claiming disability, reuniting individuals with lost family members, and locating permanent housing facilities. Many of the individuals with in this unit lack the mental capacity for self support, and finding them a per manent healthy housing solution is this units objective.

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61 :: page 3.1 :: City of Refuge (continued) 3.1.3 Facilities (continued) The third housing unit serves approximately 130 individuals which are pregnant women and mothers with children. Programming mea sures in this unit focus on issues with new borns, family unification, job placement, and permanent housing solutions. New mothers are unable to work for six to eight weeks, and this unit specializes in keeping the new borns with their mothers. Sometimes individuals with in this unit need more than 120 days of support. This unit provides the most flexibility in the length of a clients stay. The commercial kitchen is the most profitable service with in the City of Refuge and is called the 180 Kitchen. It is a fully operation al cooking, dining, and culinary educational facility. They feed people throughout the community and provide meals to residents and staff. Residents are provided three meals a day and staff members are provided meals when they work. They also run a catering company and food truck called the Peoples Truck out of the 180 Kitchen. The menu for the Peoples Truck was developed by world renowned chef Ford Fry. The catering program is a social enterprise that gives students of the 180 Kitchen Culinary Arts School and opportunity for real world experience and a chance to earn income. These programs serve as a means to generate revenue to cover the expenses of the 180 Kitchen. Catering services are offered for events of all sizes and different occasions. The 180 Kitchen dining hall also has a seating capacity of 400 individuals and is available to rent for special events. The City of Refuge also provides programming for children through their CORE Academy, which is co-funded with the After-School All-Stars of America. This is an after school program that serves elementary and middle school children and includes physical and emotional education into their curriculum. This program is also collaboratively supported by students, teachers, school administrators, parents, mentors, coaches, clergy, and community leaders. Their focus is on academic support, social development, health and well ness education, and the arts. The City of Refuge also provides an after school program for teens called Level Up Youth. Here students from grades 9 to12 are pro vided with homework assistance, online resources, and various enrichment activities. This program is a collaboration of volunteer tutors, mentors, and other professionals involved in promoting scholastic success, guidance, knowledge, and experience to the stu dents. SAT preparation is done through the Elite Women of Excellence group, and college application assistance, health education, exposure to the arts, and career counseling are also available through different volunteer programs. Also on site is a full service health care clinic with services provided by Saint Josephs Mercy Care. This clinic provides services to the uninsured, under-insured, persons of low income, the homeless, and HIV-positive individuals on a sliding-fee scale according to the patients ability to pay. They offer resource referral, supportive services, case management, and mental health assessment. They also provide health education programs on a variety of topics including prenatal care, parenting, and child education. Personal Conclusion

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62 :: page INTERIOR FUNCTIONS ANDREWS STREET NW JOSEPH E. BOONE BLVD. NWRAIL ROADRESIDENTIAL RAIL ROAD PROPERTY WEST BUILDING EAST BUILDINGWEST BUILDING EAST BUILDING Eden Village I Playground Charter School Sanctuary Safe House Community Hallway Warehouse/Undeveloped Mercy Care Health Clinic Childrens Center Administration Resource Center Eden Village II Overflow 180 Kitchen Gym CORE AcademyN N 3.1 :: City of Refuge (continued) 3.1.3 Facilities (continued) Figure 4.3 Illustrates the Interior Functions of the built structures at the City of Refuge in Atlanta, Georgia

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63 :: page 3.1 :: City of Refuge (continued) 3.1.4 Site Photos Figure 4.4 Photo of street planting amenity City of Refuge in Atlanta, Georgia Figure 4.5 Photo illustrating east building on left and the west building on the right, facing south. City of Refuge in Atlanta, Georgia

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64 :: page 3.1 :: City of Refuge (continued) 3.1.4 Site Photos Figure 4.6 South side of property consists of main food production area, also serves as a popular place for residents to relax. City of Refuge in Atlanta, Georgia Figure 4.7 South side view of grade change to Andrews Street above. City of Refuge in Atlanta, Georgia

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65 :: page 3.1 :: City of Refuge (continued) 3.1.4 Site Photos Figure 4.8 Main green house with Bioponic System. City of Refuge in Atlanta, Georgia Figure 4.9 Soiless medium growing tomatoes. City of Refuge in Atlanta, Georgia

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66 :: page Figure 5.1 View of grade change to Andrews Street and raised planting beds. City of Refuge in Atlanta, Georgia Figure 5.2 Lettuce growing in raised planter. City of Refuge in Atlanta, Georgia 3.1 :: City of Refuge (continued) 3.1.4 Site Photos

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67 :: page 3.1 :: City of Refuge (continued) 3.1.4 Site Photos Figure 5.3 View of food production area on south west side of property between the west building & the rail City of Refuge in Atlanta, Georgia Figure 5.4 Flooding occurring outside of west building after a heavy rain City of Refuge in Atlanta, Georgia

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68 :: page Figure 5.5 Volunteers play a major role in the accomplishments made every day. City of Refuge in Atlanta, Georgia Figure 5.6 The Peoples Truck is used as a revenue generator to operate the services and promote the facility. City of Refuge in Atlanta, Georgia 3.1 :: City of Refuge (continued) 3.1.4 Site Photos

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69 :: page 3.1 :: City of Refuge (continued) 3.1.4 Site Photos Figure 5.7 The 180 Kitchen is another tool in revenue generating and facility operations. City of Refuge in Atlanta, Georgia Figure 5.8 St Joseph Mercy Care Medical Facility waiting room. City of Refuge in Atlanta, Georgia

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70 :: page 3.1 :: City of Refuge (continued) 3.1.4 Site Photos Figure 5.9 The hallway outside of the Bright Futures Academy charter school in the west building. City of Refuge in Atlanta, Georgia Figures 6.1 & 6.2 An interior playground is used due to the lack of exterior green space and the dangers of the surrounding neighborhood. City of Refuge in Atlanta, Georgia

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71 :: page 3.1 :: City of Refuge (continued) 3.1.5 Resulting Conclusion During the summer I did an internship in Atlanta and volunteered at the City of Refuge. While I was their it was inspirational to see and be involved in some of the inventive ways to utilize the sites landscape and limited green spaces. Although, I believe improvements can still be made especially pertaining to the large un-utilized parking lot serving a homeless population without cars. It was also interesting to witness the landscape functioning to serve a population in need. This experience also gave me an in depth understand ing of the behavior of the residents in the outdoor environments. They typically gathered under the only seating where shade was provided by trees at the south east corner of the property. It was clear how important shade is when providing a comfortable outdoor environment especially in a hot and humid climate like Atlanta during the summer months. It was also interesting to experience the perceptions the residents had of the garden. When children where asked if they wanted to eat some of the strawberries growing in the production areas they said, No, they are dirty their growing in dirt. This was representative of the attitudes the resident youth have towards agricultural food production and their disconnect from nature. The interior hall of the west building is an incredible improvement for bringing natural elements into interior spaces, and seems like an attempt to bring the residents closer to nature. The architects who designed this space must have recognized the need for a safe natural experiences for this user group, and the feel of walking down an exterior pedestrian corridor environment is achieved. Even though improvements can be made, the City of Refuge can serve as a great model for what can be done through the services they provide and their will to produce a working and produc tive landscape. The dedication and organization of the staff and volunteers along with the undying support of the community is what makes the City of Refuge a success. Their efforts offer life saving resources and tools to individuals and families that are in dire need of resources. It was clear to see that their efforts are making a difference to the surrounding populations.

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72 :: page 3.2 :: Jefferson Place 3.2.1 Location: 1135 Jefferson Street, NW Atlanta, GA 30318 Build Date: Late 1940s Repurposed: 1991 to Transitional Housing originally Fulton County Jail Lot Size: Approximately 5.2acres Service Provider: Fulton County Georgia Context Jefferson Place is one of the largest shelters in the metro Atlanta area serving only men. It provides night shelter for 125 adult home less males, and its transition housing offers structured living for 50 adult homeless males. The facility provides medical treatment and counseling for drug and alcohol dependence, and it also provides job skill training programs. 3.2.2 Site Jefferson Place is on Jefferson Street with Joseph Lowery Blvd to the west and Marietta Blvd to the east. The site was previously used as a county jail and was repurposed to a transitional housing facility in the early 1990s. The surrounding area is primarily industrial and has been under financial hardship although recently some improvements are being made with a nearby once closed Sears Distribution Center being repurposed for growing technology enterprises. The site still exhibits some of the institutional qualities that was there from the previous county jail, however many improvements have been made. Most of the large security fences and razor wire have been removed and a lower architectural steel fence has replaced it. Large crape myrtles were planted along the main entrance way, and an outdoor courtyard with bench seating was placed at the north point of entrance into the site. Most of the bikes on site where chained near the courtyard. Also a naturalistic mural was painted on an interior wall of the main sleeping facility along with the some of the air conditioning duct work. Security is a major focus and metal detectors are in place at check in points along with posted guards during check in and check out hours. It was reported that crowd control techniques must be implemented particularly in the afternoons when there are higher popu lations due to check in. In the general population living quarters a wall mural representing nature along with planted pothos vine aids

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73 :: page 3.2 :: Jefferson Place (continued) in softening the harshness of the past institutional setting. Cleanliness is also a key focus where checks are routinely made by staff to implement order. There is also an ultra violet light located at the main entrance waiting room used to aid in the prevention of airborne pathogens that might be present with clients arriving to the facility. Jefferson Place was reported to be the cleanest mens transitional housing facility in Atlanta, Georgia. Some indoor recreational activities are made available for the clients. Two pool tables are provided along with a weight room. Televi sion rooms and seating areas are also located in different wings throughout the facility. Also on site is a mens barber space, which is facilitated by local volunteer barbers. A laundry facility is also on site for mainly washing sheets and bedding provided for the clients. However it was reported that only with special permission can a client use the laundry facilities with staff present during use. 3.2.3 Services Jefferson Place provides four different levels of service: vocational development, substance rehabilitation, resettlement, and general population. Services are primarily funded through U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. The different services are divided spatially into different wings of the facility. The largest population of clients are within the general population level of service. General population is a term of service referred to if a client arrives at the shelter and just needs a place to sleep and a meal. Most of this client group do not want to participate in any of the other services provided. 3pm to 9pm are the times available for check in, 5am is wake up, and 6am is check out. Large locker room type bathrooms are also provided for clients in general population. The lockers serve as a place to store the clients belongings, and clothing irons are also provided in these locations. Clients involved with the vocational development service are able to consult with an employment counselor. The vocational develop ment wing also provides a computer lab and classrooms large enough for about 15 individuals. Classes typically focus on job search ing techniques, employee conduct improvements, and career development. Job success rates have been reported to be up to 60%. However the months from October to December are reported to be slower than the rest of the year. Clients involved with the substance rehabilitation services are able to consult with a substance abuse counselor. A traditional 12 step program is taught in conjunction with the experience of the substance abuse counselor to provide ways for clients to rehabilitate themselves from the negative impacts of chemical dependence. This is done in a class room atmosphere where the chairs are formed

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74 :: page 3.2 :: Jefferson Place (continued) in a circle to improve the socialization of the rehabilitation process. Clients involved with the resettlement services are provided with a room shared with one other individual also in the resettlement service program. This gives the clients more privacy and feels more like a small apartment. Clients involved in the resettlement service program are typically involved in the other services except general population services. 25 rooms are available allowing for 50 clients in transitional housing. The kitchen provides breakfast, lunch and dinner, and has provided over 700 meals in one day. It is equipped with a walk in freezer and cooler refrigeration unit, commercial ovens, and a large dry storage area. Two chefs work full time to prepare the meals, and clients in the transitional housing facility are also given chores with in the kitchen during their stay. The chores could include cleaning pots and pans to serving meals. Some of the food is provided from donations and food banks throughout Atlanta. Figure 6.3 Bunk beds aligned in general population sleeping area. Jefferson Place Atlanta, Georgia Figure 6.4 Entry Signage. Jefferson Place Atlanta, Georgia 3.2.4 Site Photos

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75 :: page 3.2.4 Site Photos 3.2 :: Jefferson Place (continued) Figure 6.5 Mural wall and painted air conditioning ducts in General Population Area sleeping area. Jefferson Place Atlanta, Georgia Figure 6.6 Interior landscaping in general population area brings nature into interior space. Jefferson Place Atlanta, Georgia

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76 :: page 3.2.4 Site Photos 3.2 :: Jefferson Place (continued) Figure 6.7 Class room. Jefferson Place Atlanta, Georgia Figure 6.8 Substance abuse group therapy room. Jefferson Place Atlanta, Georgia

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77 :: page 3.2.4 Site Photos 3.2 :: Jefferson Place (continued) Figure 6.9 Barber Shop. Jefferson Place Atlanta, Georgia Figure 7.1 Weight Room. Jefferson Place Atlanta, Georgia

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78 :: page 3.2.4 Site Photos 3.2 :: Jefferson Place (continued) Figure 7.2 Some of the fence left over from the previous correctional facility use. Jefferson Place Atlanta, Georgia Figure 7.3 Outdoor courtyard with bikes. Jefferson Place Atlanta, Georgia

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79 :: page 3.2 :: Jefferson Place (continued) 3.2.5 Resulting Conclusion The level of service provided at Jefferson Place is a great model for how correctional facilities can be repurposed for transitional hous ing. Safety is clearly a major concern, and the motto reported to me during our visit was, Its not as if something is going to happen, its when. It was clear to me that the experience of the staff is key to making the facility function in a way that is beneficial for its cli ents and the surrounding community. Reports by the staff also stated that the majority of clients preferred to not participate in any other services than what the general pop ulation service provided. In other words most of the individuals that arrived at the shelter for services only wanted a place to sleep for the night. I found this to be interesting. Maybe their perception of services being offered are perceived as being too institutional, or maybe there is a certain level of freedom associated with a transient life style? This attitude was not expressed by the staff at the City of Refuge, and maybe this could be due to an all male population. This suggests that maybe this lifestyle is more conducive to a male without children under his supervision than to a female with children under her supervision. This is an important topic that raises many questions for further research. Nature connectedness was not openly promoted within the standard curriculum of the shelters program. However early development attempts where made to humanize the general population living area by bringing nature into the space through indoor plantings and nature inspired murals.

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80 :: page 3.3 :: Arbor House 3.3.1 Location: 2618 NW 6th St. Gainesville, FL 32609 Repurposed: Turned into an orphanage in 2005, recently taken over by the Saint Francis House in May 2013 Year Built: 1954 Built Structure: 5,236sqft, heated 4,423sqft, on .71acre lot, 3 stories Land Use: Orphanage/Non Profit Sources: Emily Walter. Telephone interview. 15 Feb. 2014. St Francis House Gainesville Florida | Arbor House. St Francis House Gainesville Florida. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2014. . Arbor House Report. St Francis House Gainesville Florida. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2014. . Alachua County Property Appraiser Ed Crapo. Alachua County Property Appraiser Ed Crapo. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar.2014. . Overview The Arbor House is a transitional housing facility serving women and children that are experiencing severe poverty. They have 30 beds available for individuals in need. Background checks are required for all adults seeking services. Once accepted residents are granted one year stays. Staff is available 24 hours a day. Some of the services provided by staff are case management, life skills classes, and counseling. Clients also are required to pay 30% of their income while employed.

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81 :: page 3.3 :: Arbor House (continued) All residents are required to meet with a case manager weekly, were goals are set for independence and permanent housing. Records are kept on the individuals progress throughout their stay. Unemployed residents are required to fill out twenty job applications per week. Tutors visit weekly offering assistance to the youth, and a volunteer from the Early Learning Coalition gives monthly classes to mothers. Also volunteers from the University of Florida College of Nursing visit regularly as part of a community rotation program offered with in the college curriculum. Daily and weekly chores are required by the residents and room inspections are administered weekly by Arbor House staff. 3.3.2 Site 1. Food production: garden plot for food production but not currently in production (un-maintained) 2. Passive Recreation: Picnic tables outside used as a smoking area 3. Active recreation: playground for youth, no encouragement through staff mothers discretion 4. Context: Residential 3.3.3 Facilities 1. Residents: Current 9 women, 9 children 2. Dining: meals are not offered the residents cook for themselves, one fridge for every two rooms 3. Medical: Referral basis not on site 4. Social Services: U.F. College of Nursing and a tutor 5. Administration: 1 case manager and 5 support staff 6. Education: Santa Fe College assists in GED preparation, and Arbor House helps fund the cost of the test 7. Childcare: Not provided on site done through Early Learning Coalition 8. Maintenance: Done through St. Francis House 3.3.4 Population Served 1. Residents: low socioeconomic women and women with children, Currently 9 women and 9 children, childrens age range 2 11, maximum of 30 people 2. Daily visitors: no one served outside of residents 3. 1 year program

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82 :: page 3.3 :: Arbor House (continued) 3.3.5 Resulting Conclusion It has been reported that the Arbor House provides a way for women with children to break the effects of severe poverty by means of counsel and affordable transitional housing. Strict rules are adhered by residents and enforced by staff to ensure that the residents suc ceed in their efforts. Volunteers and joint ventures with some of the University of Floridas programs play a crucial part in the providing the residents the skills they need for sustained independence. It was reported that implementations of vegetable gardens encouraged nature connections, but providing continued maintenance for the gardens fell short. This lack of continued maintenance caused the gardens to fail in the long term. Figure 7.4 Student from the University of Floridas College of Nursing working at the Arbor House as part of her community clinical training. Arbor House Gainesville, Florida Photo provided by Gator Nurse

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83 :: page 3.4 :: Los Angeles Mission 3.4.1 Location: 303 East 5th Street Los Angeles, CA 90013 Build Date: 1992 Lot Size: Approximately 1.36 acres Facility Structure: 4 Story with chapel being the prominent structure, 156,000sqft Service Providers: Non Profit Privately Supported Faith Based Organization, Belmont Community Adult School Sources: About. Los Angeles Mission Providing Help Hope and Opportunity to Men Women and Children in Need. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2014. . Davis, Sam. Designing for the Homeless: Architecture That Works. University of California Press, 2004. (p.28-33). Overview The Los Angeles Mission is a Christian non profit organization incorporated in California and has been in existence since 1936 with the objective of providing for homeless men, women and children. The have been at their current location since 1992, which was designed by architect Scott MacGillivray and completed by Virginia Tanzmann. The facility built structure is a four story building with a chapel. The chapel serves as the dominant form of the architecture, and various users are served at each floor. The Mission uses the process of education to rehabilitate the individuals it serves (Davis p. 28-32). Some of the amenities used for rehabilitation are computer classrooms, a full size gymnasium, a health clinic, a barbershop, and a weight room. Davis also reports that the facility is highly formalized and that structure is figuratively and literally defines the building. Clear points of entry are incorporated in the design progressing from the most public areas to those with the most restricted access. This intent is purposefully planned to rehabilitate homeless individuals that were previously in an environment with very little structure. The thought is if they are to return to a productive life abiding by the rules must be understood (Davis p.29).

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84 :: page 3.4 :: Los Angeles Mission (continued) The emergency shelter component of the facility offers beds to anyone that is homeless and is served on a first come basis. Once they are accepted, they are assigned a number, which gives them access to a bed granting them a stay for five nights. The first assignment is to attend a chapel service, then they are given a meal, allowed to shower in a communal bathroom on the third floor, and then is sued clean pajamas and a bed. The sleeping area dormitory is standard filled with bunk beds and clear views of each area by the staff (Davis p.29). During the served individuals five night stay they are encouraged to in-list in the Missions two year rehabilitation program titled the Urban Training Institute. This program was developed through a partnership with the Belmont Community Adult School and Angelus Bible Institute, and implements online learning systems. The Urban Training Institute incorporates a phasing system to the individuals it serves. The first phase is titled Jump Start, which is a month course that helps the individuals get familiar with the system and begins rehabilitation. The second phase is titled, Fresh Start which continues rehabilitation and individuals are required to participate in vocational training and academic study. The third phase is titled, Work Start which initiates the individuals back into society during their second year into the program, and provides counsel through their Career Services Department (http://losangelesmission.org/learn/about/). The learning center is open to the community, and is equipped with 45 computer lab work stations. Classes offered through the cen ter are adult basic education, computer and non computer education, GED readiness classes (English and Spanish), computer literacy classes, standardized test preparation, computer fundamentals, customer service, keyboarding, tutoring, English communication skills, independent studies, and Bible classes. Also taught are life skills classes, such as anger management, domestic violence, smoking ces sation, and parenting. Physical education and intramural sports are also a part of the program and takes place in the weight room and gymnasium (http://losangelesmission.org/learn/about/). Individuals are also assigned a job in some component of the facility like food service, security, or maintenance. Rewards to individuals in the program are provided through increased private facility use. When the first arrive they are given a bed in an open communal dormitory, after their first year they are given a room to share with one other person, and after that they are provided with transitional housing. Also, through the course of the Urban Training Institute program individuals are also awarded clothes, and business suits as the need for them develop through job interviews and various other opportunities. (Davis p.30). Another amenity on the facility is a bank. This was developed to address the problem with individuals having to pay increased fees at local check cashing places that charge a fee of about 10% of the checks value. Most of these checks are public assistance or disability funds provided by welfare. Also carrying cash on the street exposes many of these individuals to greater risk of theft (Davis p.31).

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85 :: page 3.4 :: Los Angeles Mission (continued) The facility has an institutional aesthetic with enforced security and exterior amenities that include two heavily planted courtyards at ground level surrounded by a security fence. The courtyard serves to hide the line that forms from individuals seeking service. This provides assimilation of the institutional structure to the surrounding neighborhood, where the lines of homeless people go unnoticed by people passing by. 3.4.2 Site 1. Food Production: None 2. Passive Recreation: Planted Courtyards 3. Active Recreation: Indoor Gym and Weight room 4. Context: Urban 3.4.3 Facilities 1. Residents: Approximately 300 2. Dining: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner, 2,500 meals a day 3. Medical: Medical Clinic on site 4. Social Services: Offered on site 5. Administration: About 100 employees 6. Education: Offered through Urban Training Institute 7. Childcare: Offered through Anne Douglas Center 8. Maintenance: Staffed by residents and Admin 9. Chapel 3.4.4 Population Served 1. Residents: Anyone in need 2. Daily visitors: meals provided to public 2,500 served daily

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86 :: page 3.4 :: Los Angeles Mission (continued) 3.4.5 Architectural Plans Figure 7.5 Architectural Plans for the L.A. Mission provided by Sam Davis book, Designing for the Homeless: Architecture That Works

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87 :: page 3.4 :: Los Angeles Mission (continued) 3.4.6 Resulting Conclusion The Los Angeles Mission has a structured curriculum that is used to rehabilitate individuals that chose to adhere to it. The functions of their curriculum are supported through the architecture of the campus and the surrounding landscape. Residents are offered suc cessionally more freedoms as they successfully proceed through the program. This is a very busy campus and the courtyard serves to encapsulate the individuals waiting for services from passers by on the street, which serves to seamlessly connect the campus with the surrounding community. Nature connections are not provided for on site. 3.5 :: Dignity Village 3.5.1 Location: 33rd Drive and NE Sunderland Rd. Portland, Oregon Build Date: Winter 2001 Lot Size: Approximately 1.5 acres Facility Structure: Encampment Service Providers: Self Sustained Non-Profit City Granted Land Sources: Inside Dignity Village About Dignity Village. Inside Dignity Village About Dignity Village. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2014. . Davis, Sam. Designing for the Homeless: Architecture That Works. University of California Press, 2004. (p.50-52).

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88 :: page Overview Dignity Village is self managed shelter model designed by architect, Mark Lakeman. It was designed to provide a place where home less and formerly homeless men and women organize their own facility and resources. The population varies between 60 to 70 in dividuals. This project was developed in an attempt to restore the served populations sense of self-worth and free will by offering a place for collaborative governance and community. The facility was developed after several attempts were made by the city to move or dissipate a nomadic camping homeless community that started off under a bridge, and later was provided with a city owned, paved lot just outside of the town (Davis p.50). The site consists of a prominent structure used as a community space, that also provides a visual symbol to people passing by. The designers believed that by providing a place for individuals to self govern they are also promoting empowerment. Inhabitants of the community were able to work with the architect on the lay out of the plan and even disputed some of his recommendations causing alterations to the final design (Davis p.51). Living units are grouped into pods that share an open space and kitchen. According to Davis, these pods function similarly to small neighborhoods, and several make up the village structure. Davis also states, that the organization of the village is very similar to con ventional town planning and that many of the same principles were used to implement the design (p.51). Although much success has been made through this development it still has substantial issues. The paved site has inadequate drain age and flooding has posed a problem, all units must be raised off the ground to also avoid pest problems. According to Davis, even though community is the primary aspiration, units have been burned in retaliation from disputes within the community, which has caused further skepticism by critics. 3.5 :: Dignity Village (continued)

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89 :: page 3.5 :: Dignity Village (continued) 3.5.2 5 Basic Rules: 1. No violence 2. No theft 3. No alcohol/drugs 4. No constant disruptive behavior 5. Everyone must contribute at least 10 hours per week to better the Village (i.e.picking up garbage, chopping wood) Additional Rules: No one under 18 years of age It costs a rental fee of $20 a month 3.5.3 Site 1. Food production: some garden plots, no exact number on size 2. Passive Recreation: Center Community Space 3. Active recreation: no 4. Context: Industrial, outskirts of town 3.5.4 Facilities 1. Residents: 60 adults 2. Dining: meals are not offered 3. Medical: not offered 4. Social Services: not offered 5. Administration: a leader is voted in by residents 6. Education: not offered 7. Childcare: not offered 8. Maintenance: Done by residents 9. Community Center with free wireless internet to anyone, heat, and television 3.5.5 Population Served 1. Residents: anyone who signs up provided their is room 2. Daily visitors: open to the public between 8am and 10pm

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90 :: page 3.5 :: Dignity Village (continued) Figure 7.6 Aerial of Dignity Village provided by Google Earth. 3.5.6 Site Photos

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91 :: page 3.5 :: Dignity Village (continued) 3.5.6 Site Photos Figure 7.7 Dignity Village isometric drawing and design by activist-architect Mark Lakeman of Communitecture, provides similarities to neighborhood planning design. Dignity Village Portland, Oregon Figure 7.8 Iso-aerial photograph. Dignity Village Portland, Oregon provided by dignityvillage.org

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92 :: page 3.5 :: Dignity Village (continued) 3.5.6 Site Photos Figure 7.9 Photograph of the built struc tures with in the encampment. Dignity Village Portland, Oregon provided by Portland Ground 3.5.7 Resulting Conclusion Dignity Village has an interesting approach for providing its residents with independence. Some problems have occurred due to op positions with in the self sustaining facility. However, the concept undoubtedly provides a place of dignity by empowering the user to control their environment. The design incorporates the fundamentals of a neighborhood plan, and is a quality precedent for providing elements for an encampment within the program of this study. Nature connections on site are left up to the individual. http://www.portlandground.com/archives/2004/05/dignity_village.php

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93 :: page 3.6 :: Case Study Conclusion Experiencing the structure and success of the City of Refuge was truly an inspiration. Seeing how the landscape can function to serve a community and understanding the behavior of the residents provides new insight to the abilities and duties of well planned landscape design. This study made it clear to see that the support of the community and hard work of its staff is needed for a shelter to be suc cessful. Jefferson Place provided a model for a correctional facility that was repurposed into successful transitional housing. Safety is always a concern there, and many of the residents at this male facility preferred a transient life style. Successful attempts were made to bring nature into general population sleeping areas through planted planters. Maybe more could be done to provide residents with greater feelings of self independence. The Arbor House study provides a local model that serves women and children. Like many of the case studies strict rules are in place to promote success. Their achievements are supported by outside providers in the community like the University of Florida. A vegeta ble garden with in the landscape once functioned to serve its residents but has fallen into disrepair due to lack of maintenance. Sup port, like continued maintenance and funding, is needed to keep food production gardens functioning. This needs to be planned for in the beginning phases of the design. The Los Angeles Mission is a bustling facility with in an urban context that has proved to be successful by rehabilitating its residents through adhering to structure. This structure and the ability to integrate into the community is supported through its architecture. A well designed shelters landscape should be able to integrate the shelter seamlessly into its surroundings, while also providing relief and support to its residents and staff. Dignity Village provides its residents with their own place to govern. It has also been reported that problems have occurred. Through this design it is suggested that for an individual to feel normal and independent they need the ability to have some control of their environment. Thoughtfully designed encampments, like Dignity Village, are similar to neighborhoods, and many of the same basic principles of design are applicable. Examples for how to provide for the needs of Hope Village in Gainesville, Florida through landscape design is the purpose of this case study research. A well planned landscape can produce food, offer aesthetic appeal, support function, promote independence, and give relief. Providing a design that offers these capabilities is the objective of this research. The aforementioned sites in this case study have provided excellent representations on how the varying elements have previously been implemented.

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94 :: page 4 :: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY & RESULTS 4.1 :: Purpose The purpose of this portion of the study was to determine the degree to which low socioeconomic teens appreciate the role of na ture and agricultural food production for human well being. The City of Refuge, which is a homeless shelter for women and children is scheduled a field trip for some of the teens involved with their after school mentoring program. The trip took the youth to a co-hous ing and urban agriculture facility called East Lake Commons, which incorporates an urban farm and natural areas in Decatur, Georgia; a part of metro Atlanta. The City of Refuge welcomed the idea of measuring the trips success in providing the youth with a greater appreciation for nature and agricultural food production. This study will help them improve the way trips are facilitated in the future. The study groups size included 24 participants ranging in ages from 13 -19, with all of the participants being of African American descent. In Phase I of the study, the youth were administered a survey before participating in the field trip. They were asked to write their names on the surveys for matching purposes, and the results of the surveys have been shown in the form of group data. Approxi mately 63% of the original participants took part in Phase II and Phase III of the study. Phase II of the study consisted of the actual field trip experience, and Phase III consisted of a post field trip survey. For Phase IV, the responses to the surveys were analyzed and results expressed in pie charts. To provide a control measure, the same survey was administered to 18 high school students enrolled in an IB Environmental Systems and Society class and 16 students registered in an AP Environmental Science class. Both classes are at Eastside High School in Gaines ville, Florida instructed by Mr. Steve Everett. All students in the IB Environmental Systems and Society class are in the 11th grade ages 16 to 17 years, and all students in the AP Environmental Science class are a mix of 9th through 12th grade with age ranges from 14 to 17 years. The results from these students, who have been exposed to core concepts of environmental science, provided a suitable control for comparison of the data gathered from the low socioeconomic teens.

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95 :: page 4.2 :: Field Trip Experience We arrived at East Lake Commons to begin our tour of Love is Love Farm at Gaia Gardens and were met by a scruffy, long bearded, and friendly man named Joe Reynolds wearing tall rubber boots scuffed with Georgia clay. He is one of the managing farmers on site and the leader of the tour. Reynolds informed the group of his passion for growing things and quickly got everyone involved in discussing the topic of organic farming. He also defined the purpose for the co-housing community. He described East Lake Commons as an intentional community that places emphasis on resource sharing, community involvement, sustainable living, and diversity. The dwelling units, referred to as The Commons, comprises 67 town-homes and a community center used for community meals, meetings, and social events along with a green open space and trails throughout the property. He also described his involvement with Love is Love Farm at Gaia Gardens, which comprises approximately 5 acres and includes organically grown row crops, an orchard, greenhouse, and a pond. The farm land is not owned by him but by the members of the community,. Reynolds leases the land to grow crops for the community and to sell for a profit through a community supported agriculture program and retail distribution at a local farmers market. Figure 8.1 Joe Reynolds pictured with the tour group upon arrival. Love is Love Farm at Gaia Gardens Atlanta, Georgia Figure 8.2 Reynolds informing the group of his passion for farming. Love is Love Farm at Gaia Gardens Atlanta, Georgia

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96 :: page 4.2 :: Field Trip Experience (continued) He then led the group to the growing field, and as we walked, he initiated a discussion about the weather and how the weather this year continues to get more variable. He told the group that much of the current research attributes these variable climate occurrences with global warming and the increases of green house gases. The group was interested in the discussion, but you could also sense their discomfort when walking through the unplanned, worn dirt path on the edge of an open field. Many of them where afraid of get ting their shoes dirty or stepping on something like an ant pile, but a few of them had camera phones and were quickly taking pictures of their experience. As we arrived to the row crop plot, we could see small struggling greens about 9 inches tall popping out of the perfectly aligned row. At this point, one of the youth pointed out the drip irrigation lines running parallel with the crops. Reynolds then used this opportu nity of interest to discuss some of the fundamentals of irrigation. He showed the youth the tiny holes in the sides of the black flexible plastic pipe and how they water the growing plants. One of the youth said, The holes are so small, hardly anything can come out of there?. He related this to when a person runs a mile and is out of breath. They are really thirsty, and when they gulp down a bunch of water they usually dont feel so good afterwards; kind of bloated and uncomfortable. Reynolds then explained that plants are the same way. When a plant is thirsty and needs water, its best to give them just a little at time just like humans. This was an excellent compari son that addresses anthropocentric ideologies in an easy and comprehendible manner. Figure 8.3 Reynolds teaching the group about drip irrigation. Love is Love Farm at Gaia Gardens Atlanta, Georgia Figure 8.4 Row crop greens. Love is Love Farm at Gaia Gardens Atlanta, Georgia

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97 :: page Figure 8.5 Reynolds teaches the group proper planting techniques, through these 17 year old muscadines growing on a typicaly unfavorable ridge. Love is Love Farm at Gaia Gardens Atlanta, Georgia 4.2 :: Field Trip Experience (continued) Reynolds then guided the group to the adjacent seemingly unmaintained and weedy growth plot. He used this opportunity to explain crop rotation to the group. He told them that on the farm they have 12 different plots that they continually rotate through each grow ing cycle. So nothing in each of the plots is growing the same crop consecutively. He then asked the group, What is soil made of?. One of the young men in the group replied in a less than confident manner, Rocks?. He then said, Yes, some of it is made of rocks, which are composed of minerals, and then Reynolds asked, What else?. The group looked slightly perplexed. He gave them a moment to ponder and then quick wittily replied, Dead stuff. The youth seemed captivated by this pronouncement. Reynolds told them that the weeds growing in this plot were not weeds at all, but purposefully seeded oats. He grows the oats to about waist height then mows them down. This process supplies the soil with a bonus of added dead stuff, which produces a healthier soil required for healthy plants to thrive. The group then walked between the various row crop plots to another section of the farm. Reynolds points out the sloping topogra phy of the farm as we approach a ridge. Along the ridge are growing muscadine grape vines. Reynolds tells the group the reason for planting the vines at this location is because of the existing steep ridge, and vines are one of the optimal types of plants that are able to thrive in these types of conditions. He also asked who the oldest person in crowd was, and a young woman replied Im 19. Reyn olds then said, These muscadines are almost as old as you. They are about seventeen years old, and one of the original specimens planted on the farm. This comment gave the youth a sense of the years of work that went into making and keeping the farm in pro duction.

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98 :: page 4.2 :: Field Trip Experience (continued) The group was then escorted down to the greenhouse where there was an abundance of greens and broccoli growing. The sides of the greenhouse were partially rolled up, and one of the youth asked what was the reason for rolling up the sides. Reynolds explained that the sides were rolled up to help moderate the temperature inside the greenhouse. He then explained that greenhouses are used to provide optimal growing environments especially in winter climatic conditions. He said that the temperature at night during this time of year (early February) is much cooler, even freezing, which can kill plants and reduce crop production. He stated that the green house keeps the plants warm at night, and during warmer days its too warm so to prevent an unwanted raise in temperature during the day they roll up the sides. The group was then guided to the pond area. At this point Reynolds gathered everyone closely and made them all get very quiet. He then told them to listen and asked, What do you hear, well besides the traffic in the distance?. No one replied. He then said, Can you hear the crickets, and sometimes... a frog slightly croaked in the distance. Reynolds replied, Did you hear that? a frog. The youth nodded to confirm they heard the sounds not so far away. He then stated that, even though we are in an urban environment, nature is still around us and can be experienced and even celebrated through places like parks and especially farms. Figures 8.6 & 8.7 Reynolds teaches the group how greenhouses keep the farm productive by regulating temperatures in the winter months. Love is Love Farm at Gaia Gardens Atlanta, Georgia

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99 :: page Figures 8.8, 8.9, & 9.1 The group learning the somewhat unpleasant process of composting. Love is Love Farm at Gaia Gardens Atlanta, Georgia 4.2 :: Field Trip Experience (continued) The group was then led over to an area that smelled not so pleasant. Some of the youth expressed the look of disgust in their adverse facial expressions while grabbing their noses with their thumbs and forefingers. We approached several piles of decomposing food comprised of discarded fruits, vegetables, and what appeared to be coffee grounds or other unidentifiable organic kitchen scraps. Each pile succeeded to be more unidentifiable until looking like a rich organic matter soil amendment. Reynolds explained the process of composting, and how it is a key process in organic farming. He added that its more dead stuff that is used to further condition the soil that reduces landfill and kitchen waste. He grabbed a hand full from the fully decomposed pile and brought it close to the faces of some of the youth, and said, Look, what do you see in here?. As he slightly separated the hand full of organic matter, one of the youth replied, Worms?. He said, Yes!. He then told the group the importance of worms and how they break down food scraps by eating them. He told the group that through their digestion they aid in the production of the nutrient rich organic soil, like the one present in the pile he pulled from.

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100 :: page 4.2 :: Field Trip Experience (continued) After that, Reynolds led the group to a shaded spot of the property, where piles of logs were systematically placed in propped angu lar positions. He asked the group if anyone knew what a fungus was. One of the youth replied, Like a disease?. He said, Yes, some fungus can be diseases especially in plants, but fungus are also the mushrooms we eat. He told the group that this is where they produce shiitake mushrooms. He stated that the term shiitake comes from Japan. That, shii means hard wood or oak, like the types of logs they have here, and take means mushroom. He showed some of the youth different mushrooms that were growing inside drilled holes on the logs that were kept in place with a light wax which holds the spores of the mushroom in place and allows the mushroom to grow. He also stated that the climate this year had been particularly harsh on their production, but in the past by having these piles, which take little effort, he has harvested over $3,000 at a single harvest. Figures 9.2, 9.3, & 9.4 The group seeing first hand how growing shiitake mushrooms can be lucrative. Love is Love Farm at Gaia Gardens Atlanta, Georgia

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101 :: page 4.2 :: Field Trip Experience (continued) This concluded the tour, and Reynolds asked the youth if anyone had any further questions. One young woman raised her hand and asked, If there was anything you would do differently at the farm, what would it be? Reynolds looked at her a bit confounded then looked down scratching his long beard. He then said, That is an excellent question that no one has really asked me before, and I think if I had to do one thing differently it would have been to run it like a business from the beginning. He said that he never really thought of the farm like that at first, that he could make a living making food. He said that some harvests produce over 700 pounds of vegetables and that they are always trying to improve their production, which is at its core the fundamentals of a business. He also stated that you dont have to be out here getting dirty to be involved with agriculture, and that there is a whole business side to tracking and marketing the food they produce. This conversation led to the youths awareness of the varying parts within the world of agriculture in the context of an urban environment experience. The after school programming director was surprised at how enriching this experience was for the youth and himself. Joe Reynolds also commented to me, after the youth had left, on the vast amount of unexpected questions and intrigue exhibited by the youth. I myself was surprised how much the study group enjoyed the experience of the trip. They were also very grateful and considerate to the tour guide leader, Joe Reynolds. When I was planning this study, I really didnt think they would enjoy this experience as much as they did. Quite frankly, I expected many of them to be miserable. Their interest and enjoyment of the tour could possibly be due to the context of the farm being in close proximity to their neighborhoods. This could have made the experience not seem so foreign. Further analysis could be done by taking this study group further outside of their comfort zone and deeper into rural and less devel oped contexts. Figure 9.5 The group making their way back on a nature trail with Reynolds. Love is Love Farm at Gaia Gardens Atlanta, Georgia

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102 :: page 4.3 :: Survey Measure & Resulting Changes 4.3.1 Questions and Resulting Changes The information provided is the results of the surveys illustrated as group data. The pre-test is before the field trip experience, the post test is immediately after the field trip experience, and the beta test is the results of the control group also expressed as group data. Through this illustration it is clear to see the changes due to the field trip experience. 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. This statement was developed from the New Ecological Paradigm Scale for Children developed by Constantinos Manoli PhD, Bruce Johnson PhD, and Riley Dunlap PhD. According to the authors, this statement is part of a series of sub-scale questions that relate to experience and familiarity with the natural world and the level of comfort with and desire to be out in nature. According to the mea sure within this study group, we saw a 26% increase from the pre-test to the post test that strongly agreed with this statement as com pared to 50% of the beta test group strongly agreeing with this statement. 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 Figure 9.6 Q1: Survey Pie Chart Analysis

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103 :: page 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. The beef of a cheese burger from a McDonalds fast food restaurant comes from a cow that eats corn, or soy, or grass growing in a field. This question is directly related to agricultural food production. 42% of the study group neither agreed or disagreed with this statement for the pre-test measure. However 87% strongly agreed with this statement for the post test measure. This illustrates that there was a beneficial change the way the study group understood the importance plants have to the existence of human life. 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 4.3 :: Survey Measure & Resulting Changes (continued) 4.3.1 Questions and Resulting Changes 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 Figure 9.7 Q2: Survey Pie Chart Analysis

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104 :: page 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. This statement relates to soil science. A healthy soil provides plants with the nutrition needed for them to grow. We saw a 10% in crease from the pre-test to the post test measure that strongly agreed with this statement, suggesting a positive improvement be tween the two measures. 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 4.3 :: Survey Measure & Resulting Changes (continued) 4.3.1 Questions and Resulting Changes 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 Figure 9.8 Q3: Survey Pie Chart Analysis

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105 :: page 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. This statement was developed from the New Ecological Paradigm Scale for Children developed by Constantinos Manoli PhD, Bruce Johnson PhD, and Riley Dunlap PhD. According to the authors, this statement is part of a series of sub-scale questions that relate to perspective, and measures an external nature-related worldview while illustrating the sense of urgency concerning individual human actions and their impact on living things. We saw a 32% increase from the pre-test to the post test that strongly agreed with this state ment. This suggests that, after the field trip experience, the majority of the study group felt that humans are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. However, the beta group felt quite differently with only 9% of the group strongly agreeing with this statement, and 56% of them either disagreeing or strongly disagreeing with this statement. More research could be done to better understand these differences with in the two groups. 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 4.3 :: Survey Measure & Resulting Changes (continued) 4.3.1 Questions and Resulting Changes 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 Figure 9.9 Q4: Survey Pie Chart Analysis

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106 :: page 5. Chemicals used to increase agricultural food production can be harmful to people and other animals. This statement relates to the possibilities of the importance of organic food production. Chemicals that have been used in the past for agriculture have caused problems to the environment, and having an understanding of this is useful when developing the relationships the study group have with nature. We saw a 22% increase from the pre-test to the post test that strongly agree with this statement. However, we saw a 7% increase from pre-test to post test that strongly disagree with this statement, while none of the beta test nei ther disagree or strongly disagree with this statement. 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 4.3 :: Survey Measure & Resulting Changes (continued) 4.3.1 Questions and Resulting Changes 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 Figure 10.1 Q5: Survey Pie Chart Analysis

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107 :: page 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature. This statement was developed from the New Ecological Paradigm Scale for Children developed by Constantinos Manoli PhD, Bruce Johnson PhD, and Riley Dunlap PhD. According to the authors, this statement is part of a series of sub-scale questions that relate to self, and measures an anthropocentric internalized identification with nature, reflecting feelings and thoughts about ones personal connection to nature. For the pre-test and post test study we saw a 23% decrease that strongly disagreed with this statement and a 5% increase that strongly agreed with this statement. While 85% of the beta group either strongly disagreed or disagreed with this statement. This suggests that the field trip experience increased anthropocentric perceptions with in the study group. This could be due to the whole experience of being in contact with a human intervened agriculture project. More research is needed to determine a stronger possibility for this change, but maybe more emphasis should have been placed on weather patterns and the farmers submis sion to the hand that nature deals throughout a growing cycle and how this affects production. 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 4.3 :: Survey Measure & Resulting Changes (continued) 4.3.1 Questions and Resulting Changes 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 Figure 10.2 Q6: Survey Pie Chart Analysis

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108 :: page 7. People are dependent on nature and natural systems for their survival. 4.3 :: Survey Measure & Resulting Changes (continued) 4.3.1 Questions and Resulting Changes 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 This statement relates to the opposition of anthropocentrism and measures the understanding of the human races reliance on nature. We saw a 21% decrease from pre-test to post test that strongly disagreed or disagreed with this statement, along with 51% increase from pre-test to post test that strongly agreed or agreed with this statement. 97% of the beta test either strongly agreed or agreed with this statement. This suggests that the field trip experience had a positive outcome on providing the study group with an under standing that humans are dependent on nature. 7. People are dependent on nature and natural systems for their survival. 8. Certain plants like to be exposed fully to the sun, while other plants prefer shade. 9. Gardens and farms take a lot of work and planning to make them productive. 10. Birds can assist farmers by eating insects. 11. Soil rich in organic matter is generally good for plants. 12. Food you eat every day comes from different parts of the world. PRE-TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST 4% 3%POST TEST 7% 33% 60% 20%POST TEST 20% 80%POST TEST 7% 13% 80% 80% 4% 3% 4% 9% 4% 3% 4% 6% 4% POST TEST93% 7% 4% 4% 3% 17% 18% 38% 79% 21% 21% 13% 12% 13% 26% 59% 13% 33% 21% 74% 21% 29% 71% 68% 17% 3% 3%POST TEST 87% 13% 29% 12% 54% 82% 46% 70% 29% 56% 32% 42% 21% 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREE2 Figure 10.3 Q7: Survey Pie Chart Analysis

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109 :: page 8. Certain plants like to be exposed to full sun, while other plants prefer shade. 4.3 :: Survey Measure & Resulting Changes (continued) 4.3.1 Questions and Resulting Changes 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 This statement pertains to growing conditions in regards to sun and shade exposure. Diligent planning for these elements is crucial to the success of a garden. We saw an 8% decrease from pre-test to post test that strongly disagreed or disagreed with this statement. There was also a 38% increase from pre-test to post test that strongly agreed with this statement placing the post test results 24% above the beta tests strongly agrees. This suggests that there was an improvement to the understanding with in the group of the re quirements needed to grow certain plant types. 7. People are dependent on nature and natural systems for their survival. 8. Certain plants like to be exposed fully to the sun, while other plants prefer shade. 9. Gardens and farms take a lot of work and planning to make them productive. 10. Birds can assist farmers by eating insects. 11. Soil rich in organic matter is generally good for plants. 12. Food you eat every day comes from different parts of the world.PRE-TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST 4% 3%POST TEST 7% 33% 60% 20%POST TEST 20% 80% POST TEST 7% 13% 80% 80% 4% 3% 4% 9% 4% 3% 4% 6% 4% POST TEST93% 7% 4% 4% 3% 17% 18% 38% 79% 21% 21% 13% 12% 13% 26% 59% 13% 33% 21% 74% 21% 29% 71% 68% 17% 3% 3%POST TEST 87% 13% 29% 12% 54% 82% 46% 70% 29% 56% 32% 42% 21%1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREE2 Figure 10.4 Q8: Survey Pie Chart Analysis

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110 :: page 9. Gardens and farms take a lot of work and planning to make them productive. 4.3 :: Survey Measure & Resulting Changes (continued) 4.3.1 Questions and Resulting Changes 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 This statement pertains to the processes needed to develop and maintain an agricultural food production system. Having an under standing of the work that it takes to keep an agricultural project producing is a crucial part of the planning and implementation of its success. The study illustrates a 17% decrease in the combined strongly disagree and neither disagree or agree categories from the pre test to the post test. The post test total results where 100% either strongly agreed or agreed placing them 15% above the beta test. This suggests that the study group has developed an improved understanding of agricultural food production process. 7. People are dependent on nature and natural systems for their survival. 8. Certain plants like to be exposed fully to the sun, while other plants prefer shade. 9. Gardens and farms take a lot of work and planning to make them productive. 10. Birds can assist farmers by eating insects. 11. Soil rich in organic matter is generally good for plants. 12. Food you eat every day comes from different parts of the world.PRE-TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST 4% 3%POST TEST 7% 33% 60% 20% POST TEST 20% 80%POST TEST 7% 13% 80% 80% 4% 3% 4% 9% 4% 3% 4% 6% 4% POST TEST93% 7% 4% 4% 3% 17% 18% 38% 79% 21% 21% 13% 12% 13% 26% 59% 13% 33% 21% 74% 21% 29% 71% 68% 17% 3% 3%POST TEST 87% 13% 29% 12% 54% 82% 46% 70% 29% 56% 32% 42% 21%1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREE2 Figure 10.5 Q9: Survey Pie Chart Analysis

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111 :: page 10. Birds can assist farmers by eating insects. 4.3 :: Survey Measure & Resulting Changes (continued) 4.3.1 Questions and Resulting Changes 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 This statement pertains to beneficial relationships and organic pest inhibiting techniques for efficient plant production. Having an understanding that the presence of certain insects can have damaging effects on the production and growth of certain plants and ways to control them through natural techniques is critical to the success of a sustainable agricultural project. 41% of the study group either strongly disagreed, disagreed, or neither agreed or disagreed with this statement during the pre-test survey, while 100% either strongly agreed or agreed with this statement at the time of the post test survey. The results of this statement suggest that there was an improved understanding of agricultural food production from pre-test to post test with in the study group. 7. People are dependent on nature and natural systems for their survival. 8. Certain plants like to be exposed fully to the sun, while other plants prefer shade. 9. Gardens and farms take a lot of work and planning to make them productive. 10. Birds can assist farmers by eating insects. 11. Soil rich in organic matter is generally good for plants. 12. Food you eat every day comes from different parts of the world.PRE-TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST 4% 3%POST TEST 7% 33% 60% 20%POST TEST 20% 80%POST TEST 7% 13% 80% 80% 4% 3% 4% 9% 4% 3% 4% 6% 4% POST TEST93% 7% 4% 4% 3% 17% 18% 38% 79% 21% 21% 13% 12% 13% 26% 59% 13% 33% 21% 74% 21% 29% 71% 68% 17% 3% 3%POST TEST 87% 13% 29% 12% 54% 82% 46% 70% 29% 56% 32% 42% 21%1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREE2 Figure 10.6 Q10: Survey Pie Chart Analysis

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112 :: page 11. Soil rich in organic matter is generally good for plants. 4.3 :: Survey Measure & Resulting Changes (continued) 4.3.1 Questions and Resulting Changes 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 This statement relates to soil science, and the understanding of soil composition. The pre-test study illustrates that 8% either strong ly disagreed or neither agreed or disagreed with this statement, while 100% either strongly agreed or agreed with this statement for the post test. The results from this statement suggest an improved understanding in regards to soil composition for agricultural food production. 7. People are dependent on nature and natural systems for their survival. 8. Certain plants like to be exposed fully to the sun, while other plants prefer shade. 9. Gardens and farms take a lot of work and planning to make them productive. 10. Birds can assist farmers by eating insects. 11. Soil rich in organic matter is generally good for plants. 12. Food you eat every day comes from different parts of the world.PRE-TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST 4% 3%POST TEST 7% 33% 60% 20% POST TEST 20% 80% POST TEST 7% 13% 80% 80% 4% 3% 4% 9% 4% 3% 4% 6% 4% POST TEST93% 7% 4% 4% 3% 17% 18% 38% 79% 21% 21% 13% 12% 13% 26% 59% 13% 33% 21% 74% 21% 29% 71% 68% 17% 3% 3%POST TEST 87% 13% 29% 12% 54% 82% 46% 70% 29% 56% 32% 42% 21%1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREE2 Figure 10.7 Q11: Survey Pie Chart Analysis

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113 :: page 12. Food you eat every day comes from different parts of the world. 4.3 :: Survey Measure & Resulting Changes (continued) 4.3.1 Questions and Resulting Changes 1. Plants and animals have as much right to live as people. 2. All the food that humans eat is the direct or indirect result of plant growth. 3. Plants need healthy soil to survive. 4. People are clever enough to keep from ruining the earth. 5. Chemicals used to increase agriculture production can be harmful to people and other animals. 6. People are supposed to rule over the rest of nature.67% 21% 21% 29% 18% 50% 7% 3% 3% 3% 13% 87% 76% 47% 50% 93% 7% 7% 9% 7% 9% 3% 3% 27% 35% 21% 13% 15% 13% 53% 93% 8% 4% 4% 8% 13% 13% 17% 40% 47% 38% 20% 20% 21% 21% 4% 6% 21% 29% 25% 58% 63% 13% 8% 8% 8% 13% 13% 32% 62% 17% 21% 42% 83%PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST 7% 13% 80%POST TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST 1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREEMEASURE COMPARATIVES1 This statement relates to where food originates from. A vast amount of the food in the United States comes from different parts of the world. Having an understanding of this is critical to knowing the importance of local agricultural projects. Understanding some of the factors involved (like fuel consumption for instance) is an important concept for an improved comprehension of the importance of sourcing food locally. The results from pre-test to post test illustrated a 17% decrease in the neither disagree or the agree category, providing the group with a 100% either strongly agree or agree for this statement in the post test. The results of this statement sug gest an improved understanding with in the group of the distances their food travels before being consumed. 7. People are dependent on nature and natural systems for their survival. 8. Certain plants like to be exposed fully to the sun, while other plants prefer shade. 9. Gardens and farms take a lot of work and planning to make them productive. 10. Birds can assist farmers by eating insects. 11. Soil rich in organic matter is generally good for plants. 12. Food you eat every day comes from different parts of the world.PRE-TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST BETA TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST POST TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST PRE-TEST 4% 3%POST TEST 7% 33% 60% 20%POST TEST 20% 80%POST TEST 7% 13% 80% 80% 4% 3% 4% 9% 4% 3% 4% 6% 4% POST TEST93% 7% 4% 4% 3% 17% 18% 38% 79% 21% 21% 13% 12% 13% 26% 59% 13% 33% 21% 74% 21% 29% 71% 68% 17% 3% 3%POST TEST 87% 13% 29% 12% 54% 82% 46% 70% 29% 56% 32% 42% 21%1 2 3 4STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE NEITHER AGREE5STRONGLY AGREE2 Figure 10.8 Q12: Survey Pie Chart Analysis

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114 :: page 4.3 :: Survey Measure & Resulting Changes (continued) 4.3.2 Short Answers In your own words describe nature. Many of the respondents answers stayed the same for pretest to post test. However, from the pre-test to the post test 13% of the participants, or two individuals, exhibited an improved nature connectedness. The beta test answers origins were much more scientifi cally thought out. One study group member with improved change wrote. Pre-test: Nature is something that is well known to be beautiful. Nature is our outside surroundings. Nature is something that isnt man made. Post Test: Nature is where a diverse setting of life is. Its not just plants, but our food grows there. Which means nature is where most resources start. The other study group member with improved change wrote. Pre-test: Nature is beautiful place, with cars, trees. Post Test: Nature environment. One of the respondents to the beta test answers. Beta Test: It is a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic components.

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115 :: page 4.3 :: Survey Measure & Resulting Changes (continued) 4.3.3 Drawings Draw your favorite place. Most of the study group respondents to this exercise stayed the same. However, one respondent changed from what appears to be a graveyard with some trees and flowers for the pre-test to a human bed for the post test. The results from this exercise are difficult to conclude, and more research could be done in this area. For the beta test, two respondents drew places that where inside a bedroom and a classroom, with the remaining beta test respondents (94%) drawing places outside. Out of all the beta test outside exhibited drawings three of them where sports related, a basketball court, a baseball field, and a football field. Draw where a cheese burger with all your favorite toppings and a side of French fries comes from. For the pre-test 3 total individuals, or 21% of the group, emphasized farms as the source of where their cheese burger and toppings came from at the time of the pre-test, with an increase of 5 total individuals, or 36% of the group, emphasizing farms as the source at the time of the post test. This illustrates some improvement between the pre-test and post test measures. 76% of the drawings for the pre-test measure were of fast food restaurants, and 62% of the drawings were of fast food restaurants for the post test measure. 32 individuals or 94% of the beta test group drew farms as the source of where their cheese burger and toppings came from with 2 indi viduals, or 6% of the group, drawing fast food restaurants as the source at the time of the beta test. The majority of the drawings exhibited lettering and words to describe their images. The beta test group exhibited improved visual imagery when compared to the pre-test and post test group. The pre-test and post test study group deficit in visual imagery could be due to a number of reasons, like lack of exposure to the arts and drawing exercises exhibited in other projects or at their learning in stitutions. Improvements to these drawings might have been possible by stating in the exercise that the participants where not to use any words in describing their answers.

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116 :: page Examples are provided of submitted drawings. The drawing on the left was submitted by a participant in the study group and the drawing on the right was submitted by a member of the beta test group. This example illustrates the differences between the groups. The study group showed poor visual imagery, while the beta group portrayed nature and the process of a cheese burgers origin. Figure 10.9 Drawing examples from survey measure, study group vs beta test.

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117 :: page 4.3 :: Survey Measure & Resulting Changes (continued) 4.3.4 Conclusion More research can be done to provide a more comprehensive and empirically supported measure. However, for the purpose of this thesis the field trip proved to be a success. Improvements to the study groups overall understanding for agricultural production farm ing and an appreciation for nature was made clear through the pre-test and post test survey due to the experience of the field trip. The theory was made evident that when underexposed youth experience nature and agricultural food production their personal per ceptions change for the better. It is hopeful to think that through these changed perceptions improved future life choices will be made within the study group when choosing sustainable life practices. The drawings proved to be the least scientific; however they also unveiled interesting possibilities from their results. The beta group had a much more developed visual imagery process for expressing their answers. They were able to draw water falls, and cows, trees, and even slaughter houses, while the study group used a lot of words to describe their answers. This could be due to a number of reasons, like lack of contact to nature, less exposure to art programs, or even differences in IQ capabilities. More research is required to provide a more conclusive determination for this fascinating result. As a researcher this was an eye opening experience. It was amazing to see the youth light up when exposed to the different process es of the functioning farm. Humans have an instinct curiosity towards nature, and this research has led me to believe that this instinct is even more abundant and less restricted in youth. The survey proved to be a useful tool in illustrating the changes from before and after the field trip. It is my hope to bring this experience into concept by applying nature based exposure remediation through applied design.

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118 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) EXPLORATORY & QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PRIMARY RESEARCH SURVEYPRE-EXPERIENCE UTILITY R.O.W. JEFFERSON PLACE NEED FOR CONNECTING CHILDREN TO NATURE BENEFITS OF NATURE PLAY GROWING HOMELESS POPULATIONS BENEFITS OF GREEN SPACE STANDARDS FOR HOMELESS FACILITY DESIGN HOMELESS PERCEPTIONS CHILDRENS PERCEPTIONS CITY OF REFUGE L.A. MISSION ARBOR HOUSE DIGNITY VILLAGE NATURE CONNECTIONSSUCCESSFUL ELEMENTS PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT FINAL ANALYSISPROMOTING INDEPENDENCE COMMUNITY SUPPORT SECURITY FIELD TRIP EXPERIENCE COMMUNITY VISION BUILT INVENTORY PROXIMITY ANALYSIS POST-EXPERIENCESITE ANALYSIS LITERATURE REVIEW CASE STUDIESDATA SYNTHESISDESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS SECONDARY RESEARCH 5.4.1 Exploratory & Qualitative Research Process Diagram Figure 1.1 This diagram illustrates the process for research informing design recommendations.

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119 :: page 5 :: HOPE VILLAGE 5.1 :: Background on Gainesvilles Homeless Homelessness is a serious problem that the City of Gainesville, Florida is not immune to. Gainesvilles typical place for homeless individuals to gather is Bo Diddly Plaza which is located in the heart of downtown. Recently, the city commissioner Randy Wells reported to the local paper, the Gainesville Sun that, the impact on Gainesvilles downtown is devastating to the well being and the image of the reputation of the downtown community and to the people living outdoors experiencing homelessness (http://www. gainesville.com/article/20120421/ARTICLES/120429938). Redevelopment has begun to occur in the area with the development of Innovation Square, which consists of about five million square feet of office, research, and hi-tech space with residences, retail, hotel and open space that will connect the University of Florida with downtown. Local business anticipate the potential from this development, and would like to see the situation and density of homeless individuals gathering in the downtown area addressed. To recap on the Literature Review, according to the Alachua County Coalition for the Homeless and Hungry (ACCHH) there are over 1,300 men, women and children experiencing homelessness on a single night in the area, and only 1 in 10 of these individuals are chronically homeless (http://www.alachuahomeless.com/acchh/facts.html). Housing and Urban development defines chronically homeless as an unaccompanied homeless individual with a disabling condition who has either been continuously homeless for a year or more or has had at least four episodes of homelessness in the past three years. They define disabling conditions as a diagnosable substance abuse disorder, serious mental illness or disability, including the co-occurrence of two or more of these conditions (
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120 :: page 5.2 :: Purpose The purpose for this project is to use the aforementioned research to develop a conceptual design that addresses the discovered issues associated with the users for the repurposed GCI site. Landscape architecture needs to be initiated through an evidence based approach, particularly when dealing with the complicated issues associated with homelessness, and a site that was previously a correc tional facility. Situations like these are in the greatest need for well planned design advocacy, and many times they are not, due to lack of funding and public interest. It is my hope to bring recommendations that will provide a safe place for the individuals seeking ser vice, but also provide suggestions for enterprise and rehabilitation that continues to spark the interests of the community. Figure 11.1 Front Entrance to GCI Site, still has the look and feel of a correctional facility. Photo by Kasey Greenhalgh

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121 :: page 5.3 :: Site Analysis The existing conditions provide approximately 30 acres of harsh institutional living environment. On the site there is an abundance of chain link fence left over from the previous correctional facility use. There is also a severe lack of shade. When the site was used as a correctional facility individual privacy had to be regulated, with this regulation shade trees were limited. These factors make the site still feel like a correctional facility, and in fact it neighbors a current correctional facility operation that is still in use and in direct view with most of the site. It has also been reported by the city managers that funding is extremely limited. There is always a threat that stigmas associated with densifying homeless populations to one location could detract outsiders from visiting the site, homeless or local community members. Political support is here for the site now, it is always in flux. The support may not be here in years to come. As we have seen in recent years the economy is always in flux too, redirecting funds and increasing homeless populations when it takes a downturn. Climate change can also play a part in rising food costs and spiking homeless populations. The rise in health car e may also cause withdraw support of an established facility. However there are also some strengths with in the site. There is plenty of open space that could be used for public gatherings or en terprise generation. There are existing row crop plots with irrigation available. The community is in support of the repurposing of the site. The site was built within a communal form plan with the following features: a commercial kitchen that was used to provide meals for 560 inmates and staff, a medical clinic, open air pavilions, 4 dorms that can accommodate 140 individuals, a library, classrooms, a visitors center, a chapel, and a laundry facility. The site is also in close proximity to RTS bus stops and state forest land, and located in a community with a wealth of local knowledge due to the University of Florida, Shands Hospital, North Florida Hospital, and the local U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The repurposing of this site also provides an increased awareness of the local homeless circum stance, if proved to be successful it could provide a precedent for further studies and implementations. Figure 11.2 Front Entrance to GCI Site, facing south. Figure 11.3 Main Access Road GCI Site, facing east.

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122 :: page 5.3 :: Site Analysis (continued) Figure 11.4 Main Road GCI Site, facing north. Figure 11.5 Front Entry from inside GCI Site, facing west. Figure 11.6 Building facade of Education Center GCI Site. Figure 11.7 Commercial Kitchen GCI Site.

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123 :: page 5.3 :: Site Analysis (continued) Figure 11.8 Dining Area GCI Site. Figure 12.1 Lack of shade trees and view of dorms GCI Site, facing north. Figure 11.9 View of Forest Land GCI Site. Figure 12.2 View of ball field GCI Site, facing north east.

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124 :: page 5.3 :: Site Analysis (continued) Figure 12.3 View inside dorm GCI Site. Figure 12.5 View inside dorm GCI Site. Figure 12.4 Control room inside dorm GCI Site. Figure 12.6 Inside dorm common area GCI Site.

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125 :: page 5.3 :: Site Analysis (continued) S W O TPOSITIVENEGATIVEINTERNAL EXTERNALStrength ThreatWeakness OpportunityOPEN SPACE EXISTING ROW CROP PLOTS EXISTING IRRIGATION COMMUNITY ADVOCACY BUILT COMMUNAL STRUCTURE COMMERCIAL KITCHEN BUILT DORMITORIES INCREASED AWARENESS CITY LEADERSHIP CITYS CONTINUED SUPPORT ACCHHSERVICE PROVIDER RTSTRANSPORT SERVICE LAND ASSETINCOME POTENTIAL PROXIMITY TO FOREST LAND WEALTH OF LOCAL KNOWLEDGE UF, SHANDS, VA STIGMAS ASSOCIATED WITH DENSIFYING HOMELESS POPULATION TO ONE LOCATION CHANGE IN POLITICAL SUPPORT SECURITY CHANGES IN ECONOMY INCREASING POPULATION HOMELESS POP 14% CLIMATE CHANGE RISING FOOD COSTS RISING HEALTH CARE COSTS INSTITUTIONAL SETTING CHAIN LINK FENCING LACK OF SHADE STIGMAS FROM PREVIOUS SITE FUNCTIONS LIMITED FUNDING VIEW TO CORRECTIONAL FACILITY DISCONNECTIONS TO NATURE AND AGRICULTURAL FOOD PRODUCTION Figure 12.7 SWOT analysis listing Strengths, Weaknesses Opportunities,and Threats for the GCI Site.

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126 :: page 5.3 :: Site Analysis (continued) Figure 12.8 Relation Diagram of GCI Site. Depicts site in relation to Waldo Rd and 39th Avenue Figure 12.9 Google Earth Aerial of GCI Site thumb tacked Empowerment Center. Image depicts perimeter lines and unshaded open space. Figure 13.1 Site Analysis Diagram for the GCI Site. Expresses opportunities and constraints spatially.

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127 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.2 General Recommendations for the Site 1. Remove all chain link fence. There are several local companies that focus on the reuse of products like these for profit. Partnering with one of these companies could provide a source for needed revenue. 2. Plant shade trees. Trees will improve the over all function of the site by providing micro-climates of cool shade in warmer summer months for the outdoors and the buildings which reduces energy costs. They also can provide food for enterprise generation and habitat for wildlife. 3. Use the open space as an enterprise generator. Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) projects generate revenue and require less maintenance responsibility to the owner of the land. In the general sense, a CSA farmer leases the land from the owner to produce agricultural crops for consumers that by in for a monthly or yearly fee. The farmer is responsible for maintaining the land and producing for profit. Recently there is a growing trend to purchase local food sources by communities, it is likely that this trend will continue as food prices rise and humans begin to further realize that limiting their dependence on oil is beneficial and less cost prohibitive. When people are part of a CSA they use less oil related to shipping and many CSAs implement organic growing methods limiting further dependence on petroleum based industrial fertilizers. 4. Soften the forms of the buildings with plant material and let nature into the buildings. This will blur the stigmas associated with the previous institutional correction facility by softening the rigidness of the built forms, and also provide further habitat for wild life and further food production areas. Also, adding windowed doors to the common areas of the dorms we can bring the nature from outside in. 5. Define user group locations. Women and children have different needs than single men versus single women. Provide for this through security points and limited access areas.

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128 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 6. Designate active, passive, open access, and production areas that break free from the confines of the previous correctional facility uses. Provide places for open access and community engagement through active areas, like the current basketball courts, and create passive areas that are used for quiet contemplation and rejuvenation. This can be done through the built communal structure that is already in place. Define the areas that are used for production by assessing the areas that are already in place and looking to provide greater efficiency and user support. 7. Mask views and disconnect the site from the neighboring operational correctional facility to the north. This can be done through a new point of entry from Waldo Road to west. Also located on the sites periphery is a 100 foot utility corridor that passes to the east and south. It is predicted that this corridor may be used for unsolicited foot traffic coming from the west and south. Also a new entry way will further assist in segregating the facility from its previous institutional functions by implementing new welcoming entry gateways and signage. 8. Take advantage of connections to forest lands in relation to open space. Camping provides shelter for many of the individuals experiencing homelessness, particularly in Gainesville. Creating a place to camp that connects to the forest land may bridge the gap between the freedom of the natural environment and the services provided at the campus. 5.4.2 General Recommendations for the Site (continued)

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129 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 1. Remove all chain link fence. 2. Plant shade trees. 3. Use the open space as an enterprise generator. 4. Soften the forms of the buildings with plant material and let nature into the buildings. 5. Define user group locations. 6. Designate active, passive, open access, and production areas that break free from the confines of the previous correctional facility uses. 7. Mask views and disconnect the site from the neighboring operational correctional facility to the north. 8. Take advantage of connections to forest lands in relation to open space. Institutional Setting User Comfort Resource Stability Institutional Setting, Nature Connectedness Safety, User Comfort Institutional Setting, User Comfort Institutional Setting, Stigmas Independence Site Analysis + Lit Review Site Analysis + Lit Review Site Analysis + Case Study Site Analysis + Case Study Lit Review + Case Study Site Analysis + Lit Review + Case Study Site Analysis + Lit Review Site Analysis + Lit Review + Case Study Section 2.5 Section 2.5 Section 3.1 Sections 3.1, 3.2, 3.4 Sections 2.3, 2.5 Sections 2.3, 2.5, 3.1, 3.2, 3.4, 3.5 Section 2.5 Sections 2.5, 3.5RECOMMENDATION ISSUE ADDRESSED RESULTED FROM REFERENCE LOCATION 5.4.2 General Recommendations for the Site (continued)

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130 :: page FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM SINGLE WOMEN SINGLE MEN REST ROOMS DORMS/CAMPING REST ROOMS DORMS/CAMPING DAY CARE NATURE PLAY AG LINKS DORMS REST ROOMSENTRY CHECK INASSESSMENT SERVICES COMMON FACILITIESFOOD PRODUCTION VOCATIONAL SERVICES CAFETERIA MEDICAL SERVICES WORSHIP SERVICES FARMERS MARKET ADMIN OFFICESWOMEN W/ CHILDREN SECURITY CHECK SECURITY CHECK 5.4.3 Functional Diagram 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) Figure 13.2 This diagram illustrates the process for function development.

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131 :: page 5.4.4 Spatial Use Assignments 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) Figure 13.3 This diagram illustrates the functions associated within the assigned spaces. To repurpose the site different uses must be assigned in realtion to space. The following uses organized for this study are produc tion areas, public access areas, and open access areas. Further analysis led to dorm assignments by user group, listed as women with children, single women, men, and coed. It is also recommeded that the women and children dorm and single women dorm be restricted access, with the coed dorm and mens dorm providing for no acess by minors. Through this analysis the following spatial assignments were achieved: Public Access: ~7.16 acres Production Areas: ~14.47 acres Open Access: ~7.32 acres Restricted Access: ~1.52 acres

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132 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.5 Conceptual Master Plan 1 = 100 scale This conceptual master plan addresses the issue of separating the site from the current correctional facility to the north by providing for a new entry way and signage gateway from the west off Waldo Road and planting trees at the north and west sides of the property. Pasture lands to the north and south were implemented to take advantage of some of the open space for enterprise generation, along with row crops to the north, north-east and south. An encampment is implemented on the east side of the site providing camp parcels at approximately 400 square feet each with accessible community areas. Facilities are available in the east pavilion and it is recommended that electricity be provided to the plots for a minimal fee. Access to the utility corridor is also made available from the encampment to the east and native trees are planted to further assimilate the property line into the native forest lands. Public access provides for active recreation through the use of the existing basketball courts and passive recreation to a water featured courtyard. Shade trees are planted throughout the property and all chain link fence is removed. Figure 13.4

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133 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.6 Conceptual Master Plan 1 = 30 scale At the 1=30 scale further detail is illustrated of the active and passive areas, the com munal structure of the dorms, and the locations for security entry points. At this scale the nature play area is also depicted to the west of the women with childrens dorm taking ad vantage of public access views and an existing oak tree. Paver decks are strategicly placed around dorms to provide places for human comfort outdoors under shade trees. Figure 13.5

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134 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 1. Create a safe place for youth to interact with nature in active and passive ways. To create a place that is safe it must be visible to their parents. Parental accommodations must be considered in this process. Providing a designated area for active play, an area for learning, and an area for exploration that is challenging is the goal of this recommendation. Limited access must be implemented to these areas to only the youth and mothers experiencing homelessness. 2. Take advantage of the existing north oak tree. This can be used as the home base for the design implementation. It will provide shade and a place to explore and climb, while also providing refuge for wildlife that youth can interact with. 3. Use plantings that educate on the diversity of wildlife and natures relation to food production. Pollinator gardens planted with wild flowers and interactive signage will teach the youth to explore the variety of wildlife that assist plants in the reproduction process. A companion garden will implement techniques perfected by Native Americans by planting corn to support beans, while providing some shade for squash to thrive. A small citrus grove will also be planted to remind the youth of the deep history citrus has had on the local agricultural communities in Florida. Raised vegetable beds will also be planted through out the space further connecting the youth of a variety of ability levels to agricultural food production. A large growing pecan tree will also be planted in this area to provide further shade, food production, and wild life refuge. A Teepee made of natural materials that is used by bean vines as a trellis support system will be implemented for children to interact with and hide inside for secret get aways that connect them to the way their food can grow. 4. An active play area will be designated in the space that supports the natural essence of the design. The company Landscape Structures is a company that specializes in play ground equipment that has a devoted line to nature inspired play grounds. This design incorporates their AdventureScapes (registered trademark) Design 3, which incorporates a rock climber that is constructed of glass fiber reinforced concrete, and rock to ground outrigger nets for climbing (http://www.playlsi.com/Explore-Products/Product-Lines/Freestanding-Components/Playground-Climbers/Natural-Climb ing-System/Design-3/Pages/Childrens-Climber.aspx). The benefit of using pre-manufactured equipment is that the company assumes liability and specializes in playground equipment regulation and inspection. Playgrounds can become very complicated projects if the regulation processes are not looked at closely during the early stages of the design. 5.4.7 Recommendations for Enhancing Youth Connections to Nature and Agricultural Food Production.

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135 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.7 Recommendations for Enhancing Youth Connections to Nature and Agricultural Food Production. 1. Create a safe place for youth to interact with nature in active and passive ways. 2. Take advantage of the existing north oak tree. 3. Use plantings that educate on the diversity of wildlife and natures relation to food production. 4. An active play area should be designated in the space that supports the natural essence of the design. Safety, Nature Connectedness Nature Connectedness, User Comfort Nature Connectedness Nature Connectedness Lit Review + Exposure Analysis Site Analysis + Lit Review + Exposure Analysis Lit Review + Exposure Analysis Lit Review + Exposure Analysis Sections 2.1, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 Sections 2.1, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 Sections 2.1, 4.1, 4.2 4.3 Sections 2.1, 4.1, 4.2 4.3 RECOMMENDATION ISSUE ADDRESSED RESULTED FROM REFERENCE LOCATION

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136 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.8 Conceptual Master Plan 1 = 8 scale At the 1/8th scale further detail is illustrated of the nature play area. Using the existing oak tree as a link to the natural world it is purpose fully kept accessible from the lawn and partially under-planted with blueberry shrubs. To the east a sensory herb garden and pollinator garden encapsulate a green been trellis tee-pee feature encouraging the users to interact with the garden. Neighboring the pollinator garden is a companion garden planted with corn, beans, and squash. The corn provides support for the beans, which provides shade for the squash providing the users awareness to the interdependencies of nature. The Adventurescapes Design 3 is implemented into the active play area while a citrus grove provides shade. Raised vegetable beds are implemented along the paver deck for a clear view to the play area. Side walks are removed to the south front entry of the dorm securing access, while new door ways are implemented in the dorms common areas. Figure 13.6

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137 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.9 Supporting Graphics Figure 13.7 Isometric Illustration of Active Play Area ACTIVE PLAY AREA MINI ECOSYSTEM PRODUCTIVE LANDSCAPE -Landscape Structures Adventurescape Design 3 -Sobel Principles 1 & 2 -Dig Pit -Stump Jumpers -Sobel Principles 1 & 2 -Citrus Grove -User Comfort (shade)

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138 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.9 Supporting Graphics Figure 13.8 Elevation with evidence based concepts HOPE NATURE CONNECTEDNESS -through Existing Oak Tree PRODUCTIVE LANDSCAPE -Blueberrys SOBEL PRINCIPLES -1, 2, 5, & 7 PRODUCTIVE LANDSCAPE Blueberrys Pecan Tree SOBEL PRINCIPLE 6 NATIVE LANDSCAPE Cabbage Palm Coontie WILD LIFE ATTRACTANT SECURE ENTRY SENSORY HERB GARDEN PRODUCTIVE LANDSCAPE SOBEL PRINCIPLE 6 SIDE WALK POLLINATOR GARDEN BEAN TRELLIS TEEPEE SOBEL PRINCIPLES 2,3,5, & 6 COMPANION GARDEN -Corn -Green Beans -Squash SOBEL PRINCIPLE 6 4 8 12 16

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139 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.9 Supporting Graphics S S E W N NPASTURE FENCE FENCE WALK TO EAST DOOR LAWN w/ RAISED BEDS RAISED BEDS PAVED DECK PAVED DECK PAVED PATH WALK WEST DOOR PAVED DECK W/ NEW GARDEN DOORS W EWILDFLOWERSFRONT ELEVATION1=16REAR ELEVATION1=16 EAST ELEVATION1=16WEST ELEVATION1=16 COMPANION GARDEN BLUEBERRY W/ PECAN SECURE ENTRY CONSOLIDATED SINGLE ENTRY HOPE 0 4 8 12 16 0 4 8 12 16 0 4 8 12 16 0 4 8 12 16 12 8 4 12 8 4 12 8 4 12 8 4 Figure 13.9 Figure 14.1

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140 :: page S S E W N N PASTURE FENCE FENCE WALK TO EAST DOOR LAWN w/ RAISED BEDS RAISED BEDS PAVED DECK PAVED DECK PAVED PATH WALK WEST DOOR PAVED DECK W/ NEW GARDEN DOORS W EWILDFLOWERSFRONT ELEVATION1=16REAR ELEVATION1=16 EAST ELEVATION1=16WEST ELEVATION1=16 COMPANION GARDEN BLUEBERRY W/ PECAN SECURE ENTRY CONSOLIDATED SINGLE ENTRY HOPE 0 4 8 12 16 0 4 8 12 16 0 4 8 12 16 0 4 8 12 16 12 8 4 12 8 4 12 8 4 12 8 4 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.9 Supporting Graphics Figure 14.2 Figure 14.3

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141 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.9 Supporting Graphics Figure 14.4 This image depicts the design vision for the play area space around the existing oak tree, with the pollinator garden, bean trellis tee-pee, the underplanted blueberrys, and stump jumpers. EXISTING OAK TREE SENSORY HERB GARDEN BEAN TRELLIS TEE PEE POLLINATOR GARDEN STUMP JUMPERS

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142 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.9 Supporting Graphics Figure 14.5 This image futher depicts the design vision for the active play area surrounded by the citrus groves in view of the raised vegtable beds., with the wildflower bed, dig pit, and more stump jumpers. CITRUS GROVE ACTIVE PLAY STRUCTURE RAISED VEG BED

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143 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.9 Supporting Graphics Figures 14.6 and 14.7 BEFORE Existing condition to interior of dorm common space. AFTER Projected vision of future dorm interior common space

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144 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.9 Supporting Graphics HOPE VILLAGE HOPE VILLAGE Figure 14.8 Entry Gateway with Signage

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145 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.0.1 Fence Recommendations h t t p: / / www ba r r e t t e o u t do o r livin g. c o m/ in de x. ph p/ pr o du c t s/ vie w/ c a t e go r y / fe n c e s/ a lu min u mfe n c e / 24/ 4 Board Horse Fence:: used as a decorative agricultural fence for bordering pasture areas that are in contact with user groups. Approximately 1200 linear feet needed Non Decorative Pasture Fence Approximately 2,044 linear feet needed Aluminum 72x36 Decorative Fence :: used for areas around Single Women, and Women w/ Children Dorms Approximately 824 linear feet needed A A B B C C Figures 14.9,15.1, & 15.2 http://www.penrodfence.com/upload/photos/preview/4BoardYellow.jpg http://alpinefencing.com/about/barbed-wire/

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146 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.0.1 Fence Recommendations SELECTION CRITERIA FOR PERMENANT WIRE FENCING Fence TypeCattle Barbed wire with 2 point barbs on 4 centers of 4 point barbs on 5 centers Woven Wire (Heavy Weight), 9gage top and bottom wires, 11gage filler wires, 12 Stay spacing Hogs Deer Humans Combo Upkeep Goats & Sheep Horses & MulesAnimal Control Effectiveness All information provided by the United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resource Connservation Center, (http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/nrcs141p2_024509.pdf) 3strand 12.5 ga Fair Fair Fair Fair Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor High High High High Low Low Low Low Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Good Poor Poor Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Excel Excel Excel Excel Excel Excel 4strand 12.5 ga 5strand 12.5 ga 3strand 14 ga 26 32 39 47 Figures 15.3 4 strand barbed wire on 4 centers for Non Decorative Pasture Fence Figures 15.4 Woven Wire Fence for Non Decorative Pasture Fence http://www.fencetraders.com/chain-link-fence/chain-link-fabric-andwire/farm-and-field-fence.html http://alpinefencing.com/about/barbed-wire/

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147 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.0.2 Plant Recommendations FRUIT PRODUCING TREES & SHRUBS Plant Type/Spread Fruit Ripe Date Large Tree/75 Large Tree/75 Med Tree/35 Med Tree/35 nut nut citrus Sep-Oct Nov Nov Apr Chestnut, Castanea spp Dunstan American x Chinese Pecan, Cold Hardy Citrus, Caraya illinoensis Citrus, spp.Med Tree/35 baccate Nov Apr Avocado, Persea americana var LilaSmall Tree/20 stone Apr May Peach, Prunus persicaSmall Tree/20 stone May Nectarine, Prunus persica var. nucipersicaSmall Tree/20 stone May Plum, Prunus spp.Small Tree/20 pome June Apple, Malus domesticaSmall Tree/20 pome July Oct Pear, Pyrus sppberry July Oct Persimmon, Diospyros sppSmall Tree/20 syconium July Oct Fig, Ficus carica var. Brown Turkey Small Tree/10 baccate Sep Oct Banana, Musa spp. Raja PuriLarge Bush/8 berry Apr Jul Blueberry, Vaccinium cyanococcus var.Large Bush/8 berry Jun Jul Blackberry, Rubus fruticosus sppLarge Bush/8 Vine/trellis berry grape Jun Jul Aug Sep Pomegranate, Punica granatum sppMuscadine, Vitis rotundifolia spp* All information provided the Electronic Data Information Source of UF/IFAS Extension, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu

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148 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.0.2 Plant Recommendations NATIVE TREES & SHRUBS Plant Type/Spread/Height Shape Characteristics Large Tree/75/100 Med Tree/35/50 Large Tree/35/100 Large Tree/35/100 Spreading Oval Oval Oval Oval Oval Evergreen Evergreen Evergreen Large Tree/35/100 Oval Evergreen Evergreen Evergreen Palm Palm Deciduous Live Oak, Quercus virginiana Large Tree/75/100 Evergreen Laurel oak,Quercus laurifoliaRed maple, Southern magnolia, Acer rubrum Magnolia grandiflora Pinus palustris Pinus taedaMed Tree/35/50 Dahoon holly, Ilex cassineRound Deciduous/Spring flowers Sm Tree/25/20 Flowering dogwood, Cornus floridaRound Deciduous/Spring flowers Sm Tree/20/20 Flatwoods plumb,Prunus umbellataRound Lg Shrub/10/25 Wax myrtle,Myrica ceriferaLg Shrub/5/7 Blue stem palmetto,Sabal minor Evergreen/Fragrent fall flowers Upright Lg Shrub/10/25 Tea olive,Osmanthus fragransMassing plant Round Med Shrub/5/5 Coontie,Zamia floridanaMassing plant Mound Ornment. Grass/3/4 Muhly grass,Muhlenbergia capillarisMassing plant Mound Ornment. Grass/2/2 Purple love grass,Eragrostic curvulaTall Tree/20/60 Cabbage palm,Sabal palmettoLongleaf pine, Loblolly pine,* All information provided the Electronic Data Information Source of UF/IFAS Extension, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu

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149 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.0.2 Plant Recommendations Beans, bush Mar-Apr Aug-Sep 50-60 50-60/2-3 Beans, pole Mar-Apr Aug-Sep 55-70 40-48/3-6 Beans, lima Mar-Aug 24-36 24-36/3-4 Beets Sep-Mar 50-65 14-24/3-5 Broccoli Aug-Feb 75-90 30-36/12-18 Cabbage Sep-Feb 90-110 24-36/12-24 Cantaloupes Mar-Apr 75-90 60-72/24-36 Carrots Sep-Mar 65-80 16-24/1-3 Cauliflower Jan-Feb Aug-Oct 65-80 16-24/1-3 Celery Jan-Mar 115-125 24-36/6-10 PLANTING GUIDE FOR NORTH FLORIDA VEGTABLES Crop Planting Date Days to Harvest Spacing (inches)Rows/Plants* All information provided the Electronic Data Information Source of UF/IFAS Extension, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu

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150 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.0.2 Plant Recommendations Chinese cabbage Oct-Feb 70-90 24-36/12-24 Collards Feb-Apr Aug-Nov 70-90 24-36/12-24 Corn, sweet Mar-Apr Aug 60-95 24-36/12-18 Cucumbers Feb-Apr Aug-Sep 50-65 36-60/12-24 Eggplant Feb-July 90-110 36-42/24-36 Endive Feb-Mar Sep 85-90 18-24/8-12 Kale Sep-Feb 70-80 24-30/12-18 Kohlrabi Sep-Mar 70-80 24-30/3-5 Lettuce Feb-Mar Sep-Oct 50-90 12-24/8-12 Mustard Sep-May 40-60 14-24/1-6 PLANTING GUIDE FOR NORTH FLORIDA VEGTABLES Crop Planting Date Days to Harvest Spacing (inches)Rows/Plants* All information provided the Electronic Data Information Source of UF/IFAS Extension, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu

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151 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.0.2 Plant Recommendations Okra Mar-July 50-75 24-40/6-12 Onions, Bulbing Sep-Dec 120-160 12-24/4-6 Green onions Aug-Mar 50-75 12-24/1-2 Peas, English Jan-Mar 50-70 24-36/2-3 30-36/2-3 Peas, southern Mar-Aug 60-90 Peppers Feb-Apr July-Aug 80-100 20-36/12-24 Potatoes Jan-Mar 85-110 36-42/8-12 Potatoes, sweet Mar-Jun 120-140 48-54/12-14 Pumpkin Mar-Apr Aug 90-120 60-84/36-60 Radish Sep-Mar 20-30 12-18/1-2 PLANTING GUIDE FOR NORTH FLORIDA VEGTABLES Crop Planting Date Days to Harvest Spacing (inches)Rows/Plants* All information provided the Electronic Data Information Source of UF/IFAS Extension, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu

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152 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.0.2 Plant Recommendations Spinach Oct-Nov 45-60 14-18/3-5 Squash, Summer Mar-Apr Aug-Sep 40-55 36-48/24-36 Squash, Winter Mar Aug 80-110 60-90/36-48 Strawberry Oct-Nov 90-110 36-40/10-14 36-48/18-24 Tomatoes Feb-Apr Aug 90-110 Turnips Jan-Apr Aug-Oct 40-60 12-20/4-6 Watermelon, Mar-Apr July-Aug 85-95 84-108/48-60 PLANTING GUIDE FOR NORTH FLORIDA VEGTABLES Crop Planting Date Days to Harvest Spacing (inches)Rows/Plants* All information provided the Electronic Data Information Source of UF/IFAS Extension, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu

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153 :: page 5.4 :: Landscape Recommendations (continued) 5.4.0.2 Plant Recommendations WILD FLOWERS Plant Plant Type Flower Season Flower Color Sun Exposure Indian Blankey Flower, Gaillardia pulchella Narrow Leaved Sunflower, Black Eyed Susan, Helianthus angustifolius Rudbeckia hirta Salvia, Salvia lyrata Purple Cone Flower, Echinacea purpurea annual perennial perennial perennial perennial orange multi yellow yellow purple purple full sun full sun full sun sun or shade part shade, part sun May Oct March Oct May Oct Sep Oct Feb May; Oct* All information provided the Electronic Data Information Source of UF/IFAS Extension, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu

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154 :: page Recent trends have shown that youth are at great disadvantages due to their increased disconnections from nature. It has be shown that this has a multitude of negative consequences. Landscape design creates an opportunity for this issue to be addressed by pro viding places that encourages youth to intwine with nature through harmonious play and interactive curiosity. It is suggested that the nature and agricultural food production playground can assist in influencing sustainable future life choices pertaining to environmental stewardship, care for the natural world, and care for the individual. Studies with in this body of research illustrate that youth experienc ing homelessness are even at a greater need for nature connections that assist in improved future life choices. Landscape architects are at the forefront of creating designs that address these trends, and more research on assisting the field to understanding this demo graphic is necessary to address the issue. It was reported that on a single night in Alachua County that there where over 2,000 homeless individuals, with many of these detri mental situations involving children. Many of their hardships where due to a temporary life set backs combining with a lack of social support systems. In many cases this becomes an endless cycle, repeating with children. More implementations need to be done to prevent this cycle from continuing. This study provides suggestions on ways to alleviate the struggles associated with the homeless ness cycle through nature appreciation and self respect that also directs toward youth interventions. Homelessness is a growing prob lem that adversly effects entire communities, and many times gets overlooked with very limited resources provided. Safety is a crucial key to the function of the campus. The landscape concepts provided in this study pay special attention to the needs and safety recommendations for the different users of the site. Individuals experiencing homelessness and individuals providing ser vices need to feel that they are in a safe and welcoming environment for the site to be successful. A well planned landscape can produce food, offer aesthetic appeal, support function, promote independence, and give relief. The concepts proposed for Hope Village attempt to offer these capabilities. Through the case study research a variety of sites provided excellent representations on how the varying elements have previously been successfully and not so successfully implemented. It is my hope that these precedents will be used to offer guidance through the implementation of a landscape design and the overall function of the campus. It is suggested that when underexposed youth experience nature and agricultural food production their personal perceptions change for the better. These changed perceptions can lead to better future life choices. We, as a society, need further study in the field of landscape architecture that brings underexposed youth to these experiences. This study provides recommendations to improve de sign techniques used by landscape architects by providing increased nature connections and user site relationships through evidence based techniques and precedents. 6 :: CONCLUSION 6.1 :: Recap on Youth to Nature Disconnect 6.2 :: Interupting the Cycle of Homelessness

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155 :: page It was refreshing to witness the way the youth involved in this study gravitated toward the experience of interacting with the food pro duction experience. They were truly intrigued by the process of growing food, and the information that the farmer shared. Comparing their experience with other demographics is a future goal for further study. Landscape architects have a strong role in the creation and design of green spaces and productive landscapes. More increasingly studies prove that green spaces assist in providing healthy environments. Homelessness is often times an indicator for poor health. By improving the green space experiences through evidence based design techniques we improve the health of the users of the site. Homeless individuals are at greater need of improved green spaces than most, thus creating even greater opportunities for the needs of well versed landscape architects. Landscape architecture is not just for the rich residential estate owners and high density business developers, but for the people who experience life outdoors. Who greater experiences life outdoors than the homeless individual? 6.3 :: Closing

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156 :: page Works Cited Bundschu-Mooney, Elizabeth. School Garden Investigation: Environmental Awareness and Education. (2003). Calories Burned in 30 Minutes for People of 3 Different Weights. Harvard Medical School. Harvard Health Publications. Web. July 2004. Ebbeling, Cara B., Dorota B. Pawlak, and David S. Ludwig. Childhood Obesity: Public-Health Crisis, Common Sense Cure. The Lancet 360.9331 (2002): 473-82. Web. Louv, Richard. Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficit disorder Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 2006. Manoli, Constantinos C., Bruce Johnson, and Riley E. Dunlap. Assessing Childrens Environmental Worldviews: Modifying and Validat ing the New Ecological Paradigm Scale for Use with Children. The Journal of Environmental Education 38.4 (2007): 3-13. Nisbet, Elizabeth K., John M. Zelenski, and Steven A. Murphy. The Nature Relatedness Scale Linking Individuals Connection with Nature to Environmental Concern and Behavior. Environment and Behavior 41.5 (2009): 715-740. Passi, Gouri Rao. NATURE DEFICIT DISORDER. (2009): 821-821 Sugary Drinks and Obesity Fact Sheet. Harvard School of Public Health. The Nutrition Source Web. August 9, 2013. U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2013). Economic Research Service. Briefing Rooms: Population and Migration. May 14, 2013 Why Obesity is a Health Problem. National Heart and Lung Institute. Web. February 13, 2013. Zajonc, Robert B. Attitudinal Effects of Mere Exposure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 9.2p2 (1968): 1.