Using Picturebooks to Introduce Art History and Appreciation Concept to Young Children: A Guide for Homeschool Educators

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Title:
Using Picturebooks to Introduce Art History and Appreciation Concept to Young Children: A Guide for Homeschool Educators
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Project in lieu of thesis
Creator:
Pozzo, Kaitlin Gallagher
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
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Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.A.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Roland, Craig
Committee Members:
Kushins, Jodi

Notes

Abstract:
For my capstone project, I examined how picturebooks could be used to teach art history and art appreciation to very young children. I used an action research model to conduct the study with the purpose of discovering which teaching methods and strategies work best with picturebooks and children. After categorizing a collection of art picturebooks, I conducted several in-person studies with my three-year-old daughter and homeschool students ages five, six, and seven in which we discussed images from art picturebooks and completed art projects related to them. During the interviews based on questions from the Visual Thinking Strategies approach, I recorded observations and later evaluated the children’s art projects by examining how well they reflected the big ideas of the lessons. I also researched existing theories and studies about the use of picturebooks as teaching tools. After collecting and analyzing this data, I wrote an online art picturebook guide for parents and homeschool educators found at www.artpicturebooks.com. My capstone paper describes my motivation for conducting this project, plus my research process, teaching methods, findings, and recommendations. The children who participated in this project showed interest in and the ability to discuss the art images they saw from the picturebooks while being guided by questions from me. Recommendations for further study include conducting a picturebook study with a larger number of young children. I conclude the paper with final insights on how parents and educators can look at and talk about art picturebooks with their young children.
General Note:
Art Education terminal project

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University of Florida
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Copyright Kaitlin Gallagher Pozzo. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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PICTUREBOOK S TO TEACH ART HISTORY CONCEPTS 1 USING PICTUREBOOKS TO INTRODUCE ART HISTORY AND APPRECIATION CONCEPTS TO YOUNG CHILDREN: A GUIDE FOR HOMESCHOOL EDUCATORS By KAITLIN GALLAGHER POZZO A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA May 2014

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PICTUREBOOK S TO TEACH ART HISTORY CONCEPTS 2 2014 Kaitlin Gallagher Pozzo

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PICTUREBOOK S TO TEACH ART HISTORY CONCEPTS 3 Acknowledgements I would like to acknowledge and thank those that made this art picturebook Capstone project possible. Thank you to my Committee Chair, Craig Roland for giving me the chance to show that very young children are interested in art history and art appreciation. I appreciate his help, advice, and ideas for making th is project as strong as it could be. Thanks to my Committee member, Jodi Kushins, for additional guidance and support. I also want to acknowledge the help from the Bond family for allowing me to look at art picturebooks with their boys. Finally, I would like to thank my daughter and sidekick Evelyn for participating in all of my lessons and and massive imagination. Your interest and joy in learning about eve rything from art to books, and even history inspires me every moment.

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PICTUREBOOK S TO TEACH ART HISTORY CONCEPTS 4 ABSTRACT OF CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS USING PICTUREBOOKS TO INTRODUCE ART HISTORY AND APPRECIATION CONCEPTS TO YOUNG CHILDREN: A GUIDE FOR HOMESCHOOL EDUCATORS By Kaitlin Gallagher Pozzo May 2014 Chair: Craig Roland Committee Member: Jodi Kushins Major: Art Education Abstract For my capstone project, I examined how picturebooks could be used to teach art history and art appreciation to very young children. I used an action research model to conduct the study with the purpose of discovering which teaching methods and strategies work best with picturebooks and children. After categorizing a collection of art picturebooks, I conducted several in person studies with my three year old daughter and homeschool students ages five, six, and seven in which we discussed images from art p icturebooks and completed art projects related to them. During the interviews based on questions from the Visual Thinking Strategies approach, I reflected the big ideas of the lessons. I also researched existing theories and studies about the use of picturebooks as teaching tools. After collecting and analyzing this data, I wrote an online art picturebook guide for parents and homeschool educators found at www.artpicturebooks.com

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PICTUREBOOK S TO TEACH ART HISTORY CONCEPTS 5 My c apstone paper describes my motivation for conducting this project, plus my research process, teaching methods, findings, and recommendations. The children who participated in this project showed interest in and the ability to discuss the art images they saw from the picturebooks while being guided by questions from me. Recommendations for further study include conducting a picturebook study with a larger number of young children. I conclude the paper with final insights on how parents and educators can look at and talk about art picturebooks with their young children.

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6 Table of Contents Title Page ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 1 UF Copyright page ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 2 Acknowledgements ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 3 UF Formatted Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 4 Table of Contents ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 6 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 8 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 9 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 10 Assumptions of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 12 Study Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 12 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 13 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 15 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 20 Research Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ 2 0 2 1 Subject Selection, Site, and Description ................................ ................................ ...... 21 22 Data Collection Procedures ................................ ................................ ................................ 22 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 23 Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 24 Conne cting Picturebook Images to the Self ................................ ................................ ....... 24 Making Every Moment a Teachable One ................................ ................................ .......... 27 Telling Stories Through Art ................................ ................................ ............................... 28 Development of Art History Understanding ................................ ................................ ...... 31

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7 Summary of Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 32 Discussion and Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 33 Discussion and Interpretation of Findings ................................ ................................ ........ 34 Implications and Recommendations ................................ ................................ .................. 40 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 41 References ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 42 Appendix A ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 46 Appendix B ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 50 Appendix C ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 52 List of Figures and Figure Captions ................................ ................................ ............................... 54 Author Biography ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 64

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8 Some of the first exposure people have to a rt is through picturebooks. A picturebook is an aesthetic object in of itself in which the story cannot exist without the illustrations (Sipe, 2001). T he term picturebook as one word is utilized intentionally in order to emphasize the unity of words and pictures (Sipe, 2001) The best picturebooks become timeless minia ture art galleries for the home a coming together of concept, artwork, design and production that gives pleasure to and stimulates the imagination (Salisbury & Styles, 2012). If storytime and exposure to picturebooks are so beneficial to the development in student visual literacy, narrative, and creativity skills, the n why not use them as tools t o expose them to visual art appreciation and history (Agoglia, 2008; Sipe, 2001)? For my capstone project I examined how homeschool educators can use picturebooks as tools to foster an appreciation for art history in young children. I first chose the picturebooks to use in this study that relate to art, artworks, and artists by categorizing them based on common themes I then conducted several personal studies with my own three year old and three homeschool students ages 5, 6, and 7 using the art picturebooks I chose. After getting an idea of performed all of them with my three year old and parts of two of them with the hom eschool students. I showed images from the picturebooks to the childr en and asked them questions based on the Visual Thinking Strategies method to explore ideas such as using art to tell stories as well as exploring identity, fantasy and time through art (Housen & Yenawine, 2014 ) I also used the picturebooks to introduce the children to art vocabulary, art media, works of art, specific artists of a certain time period Existing studies and research including those conducted by Sipe (2001), and Marantz (1992) also contributed to this study. I used an action research model and gathered

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9 and analyzed my data continuously from my personal study and discovered what strategies and techniques worked best. As an outcome of this project, I created an online guide containing tips on how homeschool teachers (including parents of you ng children) can use picturebooks to teach an appreciation for art history to young children. This online resource also includes a blog in which picturebook s t o help parents and educators decide which books they might find useful, a blog documenting some of my experiences with my daughter and homeschool students during this project, lessons to try at home, a feedback page to help make my lessons stronger, and helpful picturebook references. This is an excellent resource that introduces youngsters to the world of art past and present in a way they will understand and enjoy Statement of the Problem In this study, I develop ed a guide for homeschool educators and parents using picturebooks as tools to teach young children art appreciation and art history. I chose to do this study because t here i s a lack of information on the W eb and in print on how to use picturebooks as a teaching tool for the homeschool teacher and in art history. This problem should be studied because our world is increasingly visual and image based. Developing the ability t o compose, consume, communicate, and think critically in our visually saturated world begins at an early age (Agoglia, 2008). Young children should have visual tools accessible to them like picturebooks to learn about important subjects like art history ( Sipe, 2001). Art history is an important part of everyone should know in order to understand each other and to flourish academically and later professionally. Art hi story is a part of that common cultural literacy, so teaching it to very yo ung children is important (Hirsch, 1987). P reschool is not too early to start by introducing children to

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10 their own personal art histories that usually start at home by finding and discovering family history through personal artifacts and found objects (Hirsch, 1987 ; Szekely, 1991 ). The information generated from this study will show how to start this undertaking of teaching art history to young kids by using picturebooks. Purpose or Goals of the Study The purpose of this st udy wa s to discover methods for using picturebooks to teach young children about art appreciation and art history. At a time when children are developing emotionally and socially in search of an emerging identity, images, including those from books, can help shape these things in young children (Thompson 2003 ). This is significant for youngsters also while learning art history because learning about artworks from the past and being able to ask questions about them and tell their stories begins to give children the tools to construct and make meaning of their own worlds, past, present, and future (Pazienza, 1986). Learning art history will also give young children the equality of performance they deserve from the start rather than waiting when they are older when it is almost too late to start cultural literacy instruction (Hirsch, 1987). This study result ed in a model that homeschool art educators of preschoolers and early elementary art students can fol low that include specific lessons on how to use picturebooks to teach art history principles and concepts such as using art to tel l stories and to explore the themes of identity, fantasy, and time in art Research Questions The following research questi ons guide d my investigation. I a nswer ed these questions by using qualitative methods including interviews, observations, and assessing art projects 1) How can homeschool educators use picturebooks to teach art appreciation and art history to young children?

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11 2) What teaching and learning strategies can be used to teach art appreciation and art history with picturebooks? Sub questions to my research questi ons are: What picturebooks are available on art history and art appreciation? Which of these picturebooks are appropriate for young readers? What art history themes and concepts are found in picturebooks that can be used to help young children make mean ing of their world? Rationale and Significance of the Study Although there have been numerous studies conducted on the use of picturebooks, there have been very few on using pictu rebooks to teach art appreciation to young children and none actually attempting to use picturebooks to teach these subjects with young children. Yet, there is some evidence to suggest this type of study would benefit children culturally, creatively, and analytically (Hirsch, 1987; Saccardi; 2007, Sipe; 2001). Young kids c ould see what fun it is to learn about the past from a picturebook while telling stories (Sipe, 2001). They would also learn how to discuss, look at, and interpret paintings in simple ways that would give them academic and social skills necessary througho ut school and life (Saccardi, 2007). Finally, there is certain knowledge all people should know to function effectively in society and get ahead, and art history should be used in that epistemology (Hirsch, 1987, Gallas, 1991). Using picturebooks to teach art history is also significant because it would foster young understanding of what it means to be human Dewey (1934) argued that the fine arts have been drastically separated from everyday experience and that this separation has led to an impoverishment of human life. Using picturebooks during commonplace and everyday experiences like storytime to teach art history would be a strong way to break dow n

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12 this separation. Young children would also learn creatively how to construct their own realities through art (Sipe, 2001; Pazienza, 1986). Assumptions Before beginning this study, I assume d that young children have the right to receive help when trying to understand and make meaning of all the images they see including those in picturebooks. I also assume d that children would benefit from learning art history and that ropriately connect that learning to present day circumstances such as how contemporary family photos and fine works of art hanging in museums and galleries. I assume d t hat using picturebooks would make the subject of art history more approachable and relatable to young children. Lastly, I assume d that it is the homeschool art educato picturebooks into the home and use them to have conversatio n s with children about the concepts of art history such as each work of art tells a specific story. Limitations The study is limited in that it only investigates certain instructional strategies used to teach art appreciation and art history on four children ranging in age three to seven with similar backgrounds. The study also took place during a l imited period of time and did not allow for a longitudinal study. It is a lso limited in that it uses an action research approach, and it is difficult to measure change, which is key in action research (Parkin, 2009). Also objectivity comes into question since I evaluated my own tea ching practice. I overcame these limitations by gathering and analyzing data rigorously as well as sharing all of my data for others to evaluate.

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13 Definition of Terms Art history. Art history is also called art historiography. It is the historical study of the visual arts, being concerned with identifying, classifying, describing, evaluating, interpreting, and understanding the art products and historic development of the fields of painting, sculpture, architecture, the decorative arts, drawing, printmaking, photography, interior design, etc. Ar t historical research has two primary concerns. The first is (1) to discover who made a particular art object (attribution), (2) to authenticate an art object, determining whether it was indeed made by the artist to whom it is traditionally attributed, (3) to determine at what stage in a influence of one artist on succeeding ones in the historical past, and (5) to gather biographical data on artists and document ation (provenance) on the previous whereabouts and ownership of particular works of art. The second primary concern of art historical research is to understand the stylistic and formal development of artistic traditions on a large scale and within a broad historical perspective; this chiefly involves the enumeration and analysis of the various artistic styles, periods, movements, and schools of the past. Art history also involves iconography, which is the analysis of symbols, themes, and subject matter in t he visual arts, particularly the meaning of religious symbolism i n Christian art ( The Editors of Encyclopedia Bri tan n ica, 2013). Early childhood education. Early childhood education is dedicated to creating educational programs and strategies specifically for children from birth to age eight. advocate for programs where art experiences are integral to the ed ucation of young children (ECAE, 2012).

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14 Picturebook s. The term picturebooks refers to l iterature with a synergistic combination of words and pictures where both the visual and verbal texts are necessary to tell the story (Sipe, 1998). Visual literacy. A t erm coined by John Debes in the 1960s that refers to t he ability to evaluate, apply, or create co nceptual visual representations (Salisbury & Styles, 2012). Yenawi ne (1997 ) describes visual literacy as : T he ability to find meaning in imagery. It involves a set of skills ranging from simple identification (naming what one sees) to complex interpretation on contextual, metaphoric and philosophical levels. Many aspects of cognition are called upon, such as personal association, questioning, specu lating, analyzing, fact finding, and categorizing. Objective understanding is the premise of much of this literacy, but subjective and affective aspects of knowing are equally i mportant. Visual thinking strategies. The Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) te aching method and school curriculum centers on open ended yet highly structured discussions of visual art, that have been shown to significantly increase students' critical thinking, language and literacy skills. Through the VT S individual and group 'problem solving' process, students cultivate a willingness and ability to present their own ideas, while respecting and learning from the perspectives of their peers. Coined by German born author and psychologist Rudolf Arnheim, whose primary b ook shares the same name, "Visual Thinking" stands paramount in Abigail Housen's "empirical research" and resulting theory of aesthetic development. The application of Housen, Arnheim, Piaget and others constitute the genesis and ongoing theoretical underp innings behind the development of Visual Thinking S trategies methods and curricula ( Housen & Yenawine, 2014 ).

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15 Literature Review This literature review explores how picturebooks can be used to teach art appreciation as well as ways to teach art history to young children. The included literature illuminates what research has already been co nducted on picturebook studies and what still needs to be further explored. While researching literature on picturebooks, art, and early childhood education b y scholars that have helped inform my study such as Sipe (2001), Saccardi (2007), Marantz (1992), I found a lot of studies describing the value of using picturebooks to teach subjects such as art, reading, and writing. However, I did not find much researc h on designing an art history curriculum for young children, and virtually no research using picturebooks to teach art history. I want ed to add to the research on picturebook studies by actively researching and designi ng an online guide for homeschool tea chers that specifically describes how picturebooks can be used to teach art appreciation and art histor y to young children. Issues involved in using picturebooks to teach art and issues of teaching art history to young children discussed in the articles I read that seem most pertinent to my study point out why art history should be taught to very young children, indicate that picturebooks can be used to develop visual percepti on in early childhood, and suggest how best to introduce young students to artist s, works of art, and art styles from the past primarily by learning how to make artworks of the past a story th a present stories and lives. I found a few key concepts and stra t egies in the literature I reviewed in this study Mitchell (1990), Sipe (2001), and Saccardi (2007) all discuss reasons why educators can and should teach art history to young children, specifically with the help of literature. Salisbury and Styles (2012) and Marantz (1992) discuss how art educators can use picturebooks as art teaching tools to develop visual perception in very young children. Finally, Sipe (2001), Saccardi (2007),

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16 Pazienza (1986), and Baxter (2012) all discuss how we should approach the idea of introducing artists, works of art, and art styles from the past to very young students mainly by turning Postm odern Early Childhood Art Education: Incorporating Art History Children lead rather complicated lives now where experiences of their everyday lives have a huge impact on their understanding of art. Art history needs to be a part of this understanding and common knowledge, and thus should be integrated into the early childhood art education curriculu m (Hirsch, 1987; Gallas, 1991). Dewey (1934) argued that the fine arts have been drastically separated from everyday experience and that this separation has led to an impoverishment of human life. Using picturebooks during commonplace and everyday experi ences like storytime to teach art history might be an effective way to break down this separation (Sipe, 2001). Using picturebooks to teach art history is also significant because it ateway to a broader and deeper understanding of what it means to be human Some educators may argue that young children, specifically toddlers and preschoolers, are not developmentally prepared for learning art history. Designing a n effective and meaningful curriculum for young children based on their development and stages of learning is something that has been contemplated since acknowledgement of institutionalized education began (Dewey, 1902). However, with the success of sever al elementary and preschool art educators, such as Saccardi (2007), Styles and Arizpe (Salisbury & Styles, 2012), and Baxter (2012), the idea should not be discounted. For example, Styles and Arizpe conducted a study in which they extensively analyzed the reactions of 100 children to picturebooks, and found that many young children were able to formulate clever and perceptive responses to picturebooks far beyond what

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17 might be expected of them developmentally (Salisbury & Styles, 2012). Baxter (2012) found that her students showed a willingness to deepen their understanding of art through the unconventional method of using personal snapshots to connect with fine works of art at museums and galleries. Through the study of past art, students were able to see how art and life is ameliorate a restrictive view of child art and understanding characterized as either pure expression or a movement through stages toward visu al realism (McClure, 2011) By focusing on the traditional view of development, creativity, and individualism to including toddlers, preschoolers, and kindergarteners to comprehend, le ads to an undervaluation out that developmental stages, with their implicit assumptions of deficit, marginalize the child as understanding of art is gaining popularity and builds upon the beginning postmodern views on art education and visual culture largely initiated by Duncum (2001). In contrast, to this view, Low enfeld (1964) believed that the teacher must know the child and his or her creative needs in order to understand him to fully connect and that early childhood art education is linked to developmental stages and Sipe (2001), Saccardi (2007), McClure (2011), and Duncum (2001) are thinking about art education more in terms of our current world. Sipe and Saccardi have taken chances in their thoughts and teaching practices instead of relying on the accepted tradi tional way of teac hing and believe many young child r en should and can developmentally handle learning art history and images from their visual culture of picturebooks.

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18 How Picturebooks Develop Visual Perceptions When used effectively by an adult, picturebooks can be valuable teaching tools that help develop visual perceptions, even in art history, in very young children. According to Styles and Salisbury (2012), the pictures in picturebooks enable children to interpret ideas in a more sophisticate d way than might be expected given their age, and there is a huge potential of learning by looking. In addition, leading proponent of using picturebooks, Marantz (1992), found that parents of five year olds have reported that their children have become ab le to recognize the work of individual picturebook artists and pick them from the works of others after having read and discussed these artists in class. Sipe (2001) also discovered the same findings in a de Paola picturebook even before Sipe began teaching (p. 207). Young students were also had rounder figures and harsher lines, yet they could see illustrator Jerry Pinkey created a ens, and it specific artistic styles and influences in other picturebooks. Months after studying Pointillism and Seurat, one first grader remarked that the gra iny illustrations by Chris Van Allsburg looked and influences in picturebooks much more so than educators previously thoug ht based on developmental stage theory Because of this documented ability in young children, I believe it is possible for them to learn art history by using picturebooks, especially by telling stories.

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19 Introducing Young Children to Art History by Using Art to Tell Stories Young children learn best through dramatic play and interaction with their environment. Sensory motor play, practice play, symbolic play, and games with rules are all various types of play identified by early childhood researcher Piaget (Revenson & Singer, 1996 ). They are ways that young children learn while performing kinesthetic activities. When storytelling is combined with dramatic play to teach art history, young students better retain the information (Saccardi, 2007). Telling stories is one important factor to help people retain information by making information stick ( simulation (knowledge about how to act) and inspiration (motivat Storytelling is also an important activity that helps young kids and everyone in the construction of meaning, culture itself, and the world (Walsh, 1993). Art tells a story and teaching young children how to use art to tell stories is a great way to teach them about the world around them. Teaching art history is a part of that world and can be most effectively taught to young children through telling stories, so it seems natural that picturebooks could aid in that storytelling. One way stories have been used in previous studies to teach art history to young children (Baxter, 2012). Szekely (1991) discovered that children enjoy finding old objects as well as talking and playing with them all while developing their own personal art histories that usually start at home. Other successful methods from elementary educator Saccardi (2007) who has been teaching art history to elementary schoo l children for thirteen years include telling a dramatic story in the point of view of a person or artist from the past and then acting out what was learned and making an art project to reflect that understanding. Young children have the

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20 ability to talk a bout works of art as a story in simple terms that help them see that those stories of the past are relevant to them today. Application to Research From the scholars I have consulted, I have learned about important studies and literature on picturebooks that can be used to t each art. These scholars discussed how young children benefit from looking at and reading picturebooks mainly in the classroom. However, there still needs to be more research specifically addressing how young children understand art history and how they could learn the subject from a teacher using picturebooks. This will help homeschool teachers better utilize materials available to them to teach significant subjects to their children, ultimately setting them up for more academic ach ievement in the future. Methodology I use d a qualitative research method with an action research approach to conduct my study. See the IRB form s in Appendix A, interview questions in Appendix B, and consent form in Appendix C. Expert Maxwell (2004) des cribed qualitative research as offering strengths when a researcher tries to identify causality in particular cases, realiz es the importance of context as integral to causal process and the role of meaning and interpretive understandings in causal explanation I kept these thoughts in mind when conducting and interpreting my research by remembering that certain variables can create cause and effect relationships When analyzing research results in a qualitative study, it is important for the resea rcher to put the results into context. During the Spring 2014 term, I collect ed and categorize d elated to art that I chose based on ubjects section. For two months, I introduce d these picturebooks to my preschooler in lessons I thought would help her understand art appreciation and art history. I also discussed two art picturebooks with three

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21 students that I previously homeschool ed during three online meetings. After activities and questions like the on es described in Appendix B based on the Visual Thinking Strategies I evaluate d my data and change d t he lessons accordingly. I then create d an online resource for homeschool teachers and parents in which I present tips, lessons, art p icturebook reviews, and ongoing experiences of looking at picturebooks during this project They may leave feedback and fill out a questionnaire based on thei r experiences with my lessons Subjects The lessons I create d for my capstone project are centered around picturebooks that I chose based on the following criteria: 1) t h e picturebooks must reference art in some manner trips and traveling to see art; 2) t he picturebooks must be contemporary and published within the past 20 years; 3) t he books must collectively reflect a wide range of time periods and cultures ; and, lastly, 4) t he picturebooks must be fictional narratives. The thirteen books are s Art Museum Adventure by Kathy Kelly Katie Meets the Impressionists by James Mayhew ; Augustine by Mlanie Watt ; Journey by Aaron Becker ; The Cave Painter of Lascaux by Roberta Angeletti Diego Rivera: His World and Ours by Duncan Tonatiuh ; Hadrian, the Dog of Pompeii by Matthew Frederick ; Art and Max by David Wiesner ; by Jeanette Winter ; Dave the Potter: Artist, Poet, Slave by Laban Carrick Hill ; By Lisa Manzione ; ting by Diane Wolkstein; and Dream Something Big: The Story of t he Watts Towers by Dian na Hutts Aston I also studied 1 preschooler (was a toddler when study began), 1 kindergartener, 1 first grader and 1 second grader who I once taught in my home 1 I secure d permission to include these children in this study by speaking to their parents. I ga ve them a detailed description of my 1 I am using pseudo names to protect the confidentiality of my subjects.

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22 study and consent forms to approve or deny (Appendix B, C) Participation was absolutely voluntary and results and names of minors will remain anonymous. Research Site The research study was m ainly conducted at my home in Minnesota as we ll as at a local public library We utilized several rooms of my home to conduct lessons including the kitchen while sitting at a t able, in the den, and in two bedrooms. I conducted the lessons with the three homeschool boys online on Skype while I sat at the kitchen table, and they sat on the couch in their living room. Data Collection Procedures and Instrumentation Once I decided how to connect with and teach young children art appreciation and art histo ry by using picturebooks, I was able to better think about which books to choo se in this study. I initially collect ed data by categorizing all the picturebooks that I chose to dec ide which to use in certain lessons. The categories I use d we picturebooks that reference specific works of art, picturebooks that discuss art movements or time periods, picturebooks that describe taking trips to locations to see art such as in museums or back in time, and picturebooks that use works of art for seek and discover activities purposes. I use d existing literature in addition to my own list of books t o help create my lesson guide. I als o observe d my three homeschool children online, my own child at home and at the public library in Minnesota, and took field notes during those observations. I had the five six, and seven year old boys look at picturebooks at home while I watch ed on a webcam. I also had co pies of the same books and ask ed them questions and had them complete activities, which are f ound in Appendix B. I completed this study after IRB (Appendix A) appr oval and after the parents read and signed the Parental Consent form ( Appendix C). I introduce d pic turebooks

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23 intended for young children to my three year old each week during this study and made note s of what she rem embered from them, what she told me she saw, and if she mentioned artistic names, or i f she told short stories while looking at them. I then create d my online guide reference while simultaneously reviewing fictional pictureboo ks about art on a blog. I offer an area of feedback on the online resourc e where homeschool teachers can fill in answers to a questionnaire that I created and I will continue revising my lessons according to the feedback after this project Data Analysis Procedures I developed a teaching guide that discusses how parents and homeschool educators can use picturebooks to teach young children art appreciation and art history after I collected my data and analyzed the results using action research methods The tern a c tion research was coined by social psychologist Kurt Lewin in the mid 1940s and is an approach that teachers and facilitators use to critically evaluate problems encountered on a regular basis while teaching to correct those problems most effectively by developing the strongest teaching techniques (Adel man, 1993). I constantly revised my teaching methods and techniques to what connected best with young children I utilize d action research data analysis strategies where I triangulated my data specifically using data, methodical, an d environmental trian gulation. First, I interpreted the results of my short interviews with students, my observations, and student art work. I used several children subjects of different ages to see if that yielded various results. I also constantly changed the environment and setting of where I taught my lessons including the location, time of day, and activity of when I taught the lessons. I ke p t looking back at the data I collected initially to the data I collected in the end. I look ed for co mments or observations that stoo d out that may go

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24 against common beliefs, especially about young children not understanding a rt history. From there, I create d charts to help c ategorize the data. I develop ed themes from the data and then subgroups of those themes. Finally, I reflect ed on and share d all of my findings on my website ( www.artpicturebooks.com ) Findings My goal for this study was to discover what methods work effectively when using pictu rebooks to teach art appreciation and art history to young childrern I questioned h ow can homeschool educators use picturebooks to teach art appreciation and art his tory to young children? What picturebooks are available on art history and art appreciation? What art history themes and concepts are found in picturebooks that can be used to help young children make meaning of their world? I will discuss my findings in this section in which I talk about how the children of my stu dy consistently made self associations with the images that they saw in the p icturebooks h ow I used every perfect moment t o teach my lessons, how actively telling stories through art where the children were pa rticipants was essential in these lessons, and finally if the children began to develop an understanding of art history Conne cting Picturebook Images to the Self I looked at 13 picturebooks about art with four young children. I examined and discussed all of the picturebooks with my three year old Evelyn, and two of them with a five, six, and seven year old. My observations came from a whole year of looking at picture books with my daughter and then completing the five lessons wi th her from my website www.artpicturebooks.com over the span of two month s. I met with the three boys during three meetings online on Skype The first meeting was unsuccessful because I had the boys meet wit h me together. Then, I successfully discussed Katie M eets the I mpressionists with them separately,

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25 and then a week later we looked at and talked about Journey again separately. While we were looking at the picture books together, I asked the children questions based on the Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) teaching method. I is going on in this After these questions were posed each of the children made meaning of the images they saw in the pictu re books by comparing them to activities and experiences of their own lives. For example, back in May 2013 just after my daughter turned two, I noticed she related t he ch aracters and figures in picture books back to herself or her own relatives. In Dave the Potter: Poet, Artist, S lave outside and Evelyn recently watched in awe as he sawed wood in his backyard Or when she saw the mouse in P ainting standing at his easel painting she compared herself to him and exclaimed Look he has an easel and paints like me! Understanding this poi nt will help when using picture books to teach art history because educators and parents can integrate s tudent experiences in a way to hook the young children Just seeing the little mouse paint at an easel like she does wa s exciting enough for Evelyn to become engaged in the whole book. Young children r elating picturebook images to their personal lives and experiences also led the way for using that characteristic when teaching art history and art appreciation themes. The five lessons I created explore five different themes found in art. They are storytelling in art, expressing identity in art, fantasy and imagination in art, time and history in art, and finally exploring different art media. The c hildren often identi fied with these themes that we explored together by looking at art picture books by thinking about how they related to what they personally l ike d or disliked rt lives.

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26 For example, when I looked at Augustine with Evelyn, she learned about the identity of Augustine first and then related that information back to her own identity. While looking at the images of Augustine coloring during her recess period trying to find a way to express herself to her classmate s about her own interests and experiences Then, i n Journey she exclaimed mine. Her door is like our door. The same shape, but not the same color. I think in just about every book we looked at, Evelyn asked if the main character was her or living in her house A year ago, she would However now, i n just about every art project we completed, Evelyn represented a face somewhere within it that was either supposed to embody her or one of her family member s. Fi gures 1 t hrough 5 all reveal elements of these faces within them (See List of Figures, p. 54 55 ) The few art project e xceptions to the tendency of representing her own face art projects fou nd in Figures 6 and 7 show her favorite colors of pink and purple as well as her favorite personal item of flowers (p. 5 6 ) The two older boys Max (age 7) and Jacob (age 6) never asked if the characters were representations of themselves, but did connect the images to things that they had seen or to things that they like d and did When viewing the image of the girl entering the enchanted forest through her hand Als o whil e viewing the entire picturebook of Journey Max thought that the main year old boy, Jacob a lso became irritated when he noticed that the girl kept using the color red to

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27 They seemed to be focused more Making Every Moment a Teachable One Making every moment a teachable one is what usually made or broke lessons for the day. I had to find or create the perfect moment to teach using the art picturebooks. Environmental factors were integral f or the success of each lesson. The timing had to be just right the setting had to be constan tly varied, and making it a playful activity rather than formal lesson almost always worked. With my daughter who recently turned three, I had to constantly catch and keep her attention. I found that I could never approach the lesson in the same way thre e times in a row. Twice was fine, but after that, Evelyn anticipated what was coming and wanted to do something new. For example, Evelyn enjoyed sitting down and looking at the picturebooks with me at first, but then after a few lessons, she suggested w e should play. So, while she was already role playing, I showed her images from art picturebooks and asked her questions about them in whatever character she was pretending to be (Figure 8, p. 57 ) But after several lessons, this t work as strongly. Therefore, I decided to change the setting, and to ok Evelyn to the library (Figure 9, p. 57 ). This change in scenery s eemed to recharge her enthusiasm for art picturebooks. I also had successful lessons with Evelyn while she was building something like blocks or performing in any play activity already that interested her. In fact, she started playing as a result of viewing the images of some of the picturebooks. In Journey Evelyn saw that the main character found a ring and sh Then, she sauntered off to find her own hula hoop to start hula hooping. The same thing happened when she saw the little

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28 girl from Journey bicycling with her new friend. Evelyn had to immediately go and ride her bike. Playing while looking at picturebooks even worked well on Skype with the older boys. One of the boy s engaged in constructive play while we were discussing images and built a structure for me similar to one that he saw built in Journey ( Figure 10, p. 58 ). Acting out the book helped him make meaning from the story while calming his nerves, which I will discuss next in the Telling Stories through Art section. Making the lessons something fantastical also helped. When I s aw Evelyn was making a fort constructed of blankets, I brought the art picturebooks in side and starting showing her images informally. She made looking at the picturebooks that day a literal adventure by pretending to be sitting around a campfire then flying on a magic carpet ride a ll while we discussed images from the picturebooks (Figure 11 p. 58 ). Then after all of this role playing and pretendi ng during lessons, I tried having a sit down That worked like a charm the first time in which Evelyn C onstantly improvi sing to approach t he lessons seemed to be a n effective teaching method. I even l earned a few things by chance. While I was busy writin g something, I noticed Evelyn sa t down and start ed looking through the art picture books for future lessons that I had le ft out. She was intrigued and started aski ng me questions about all of the pages and story so simply leaving the materials out for young children to find can creat e the perfect teachable moment. Telling Stories t hrough Art Focusing on telling stories through art also proved t o be beneficial in this study. Dramatically telling a story about the artists and artwork shown in the picturebooks while getting the children to participate in the story was a consistently effective method to use (Figure 12 p.

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29 5 9 ) Including personal items from around the house also helped tell and bring these stories to life visually In fact, Evelyn just so happened to be pretending to be the kitten Marie from the Aristocats movie while she found a ball of yarn. We were looking at the picturebook, Jelly dventure together when Evelyn placed the yarn on top of the pages to show wh at yarn Jelly Bean could have been chasing at the museum (Figure 13 p. 59 ) She even held the yarn in her hands the whole ti me we discussed images and pulled the strings as if soothing herself Every lit tle nuance aided in telling enticing stories such as enthusiasm, costumes, and role playing. Each item found at home used as a prop helped the children to make meaning of the s tory that we had read together, but they also began to use those o bjects to tell their own story and personal art history similar to what Szekely (1991) found in his artroom when teaching art history to young children. Telling stories through art ended up being such an integral component of several classes that I dedicated a whole lesson to the topic in my online teaching resource that could take about three to four weeks to complete. I again asked children questions based on the VTS teaching me thod durin g the Storytelling in Art L esson. I found that all the children naturally told a short story of their own to explain the images that they saw in the picturebooks. Although Lowenfeld (1964) discovered that at beginning stages of childhood development usu ally ages two to four, young children make an inventory and list items they see in images and then begin telling stories as they get older, I obser ved that all the children in my study listed and told stories to an extent In fact, the oldest child who is seven years old was the one out of the four who listed items he saw t he most frequently and my three year old told the most stories. During this part of the s tudy, our second meeting, and more

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30 we met the first time, the atmosphere was chaotic, and none of us could really hear each other as everyone was talking at once. Therefore, I suggested that during the second and third mee tings, I should talk to each boy separately. We had long and excellent discussions. I discovered that Max was the realist of the group that liked to point out facts. Jacob was fascinated by the characters in the images and tried to look at the pictures closely to figure out what they were doing. Finally, Henry was reserved and shy being the youngest but related what he saw in the images to things that made more sense to him. For example, when Katie in Katie M eets the Impressionists was kneeling and picking up flowers, he made sense of what she was doing by thinking of her position related to an animal he liked, a horse. However, when i t came time to creati ng the art projects, the youngest boy dis cussions about the images, and he said he wanted to complete the art projects alone without me watchi ng. In the end, only the older two boys co mpleted the tory drawing because the youngest said that he had forgotten what he had seen. I asked the children to create an image of the story Katie Meets the Impressionists I wanted to see what image details and information from the story they retained. I also wanted to see how they would interpret the images that they had just viewed into their own art. Who would reproduce what they had seen or who would make the images their own? Evelyn and Jacob depicted the same image in varying ways. They both chose to create the scene where Katie is kneeling and picking flowers while the mother scolds Katie for destroying her garden. Jacob drew a compos ition with the mother and Katie, but he replaced the Girl with a Watering Can with a boy, Jean Monet (Figure 14 p. 60 ) Jean was Claude about his father, the artist. Evelyn attemp ted to depict a hill with so il and flowers in purple (Figure 15, p. 60 ) However, she continued the story

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31 and made it her own by also drawing stars in the sky because she wanted the story to take place at night. In comparison to Evelyn, the oldest boy Max tried to render his drawin g exactly the same as from what he remembered from the story. He depicted the tea party scene outside with the wild flowers surrounding the characters. Max was satisfied with the story and his drawing y in his opinion although Katie did magically enter the paintings Over a month after our Skype lessons, Max also d rew an image on his own from Journey when the young girl enters the enchanted forest through a magical door in a tree that she had just drawn (Figure 16, p. 61) His memory of each detail was impeccable. However, he too added something to his drawing. Between the massive trees adorned wit h Development of Art History Understanding At the end of this project, I saw understanding form from the children that could show the beginnings of art history learning develop. As per Minnesota Public Schools Academic Standards in the Arts, students in Kindergarten through Grade 3 should be able to i dentify the char acteristics of visual artworks from a variety of cultures in history ( Minnesota Department of Education, 2008 ) I introduced this concept to the children while looking at the picturebooks together during our lessons so that they could have the opportunity to develop an appreciation for and knowledge of art history. During our third meeting, t he t wo older boys were able to identify the style of painting in Katie Meets the Impressionists as Impressionism when we reviewed the images from the picture book and they were also able to identify the artist of The Luncheon as Claude Monet. Although Evelyn that the colors of the paintings in the book were light. A few weeks after I looked at the ancient ruins of Pompeii in the book Hadrian, the Dog of Pompeii with Evelyn, she was able to recall what I

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32 had taught her about the scene where Hadrian was sleeping in the Villa of the Mysteries. She dancing and singing in Almost a month after we looked at The Cave Painter of Lascaux Evelyn found he r c ave art project (Figure 2, p. 54 ) ike the Summary Across F indings Looking across al l of my findings, I see several commonalities and differences among the students. All the students related what they saw to themselves, although at varying degrees. Max enjoy ed listing items, while Evelyn preferred telling stories. H omeschool educators can use picturebooks to teach art appreciation and art his tory to young children by integrating lessons a teachable one, and using the picturebooks to show how we can tell stories through art. Finally, I began seeing the children recognize styles of painting in history and the different types of ways people painted in the past. A pl ethora of picture books o n art history and art appreciation exist. However, most of the books available present the life of an artist just in a biographical format. I wanted to find books with fictional narratives where the characters interacted with artmaking in a more organic and everyday way. I found books like those that are all included in my lessons on www.artpicturebooks.com and many of which can be found in the o ok Review Blog (Figure 17, p. 61 )

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33 Numerous important art history themes and concepts are found in picturebooks that can be used to help young child ren make meaning of their world. Not all of the themes are as obvious as others. Picturebooks as teaching tools are what the adult makes of t hem and parents can tailor lessons to fit their needs and illustrate theme ideas The art picturebooks that I used in my lessons can be used in a specialized way. According to Sipe (2001), these books can be used to introduce children to specific artists of the past, particular artistic styles, or schools of art because they contain references to the history of art in their d esign and illustration content. Knowing that some illustrations refer to specific works of art enhances our appreciation of the story and also invites us to explore the art of specific artists. Some themes I explored with the art picturebooks that I consulted in my research are storytelling in art, identity, fantasy and imagination, time, and using different art media, yet man y more themes exist. Discussion and Conclusion In pursuing this capstone project, I first and foremost wanted to discover if it was possible to teach art history to ve ry young children using picture books. I believe anything is possible with persistence and teaching methods designed specifically for the creative needs o f each individual child. I also wanted to explore what teaching methods work ed well to achieve this goal and to revise those methods constantly to make my lessons as strong as possible. The scholarly literature I consulted suggested that picturebooks could be used as teaching tools, and that very young children have demonstrated an interest in learning about art history. Therefore, I chose to combine these two concepts by looking at art picturebooks with very young children while asking them questions about what they saw. We then completed art projects based on the themes we explored in the picturebooks to further discover if the chi ldren understood the big ideas of the lessons. I found that very young children were interested in learning about art

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34 history from picturebooks if the adult made the lessons engaging, fun, and personal to the students. In this section, I will discuss and interpret my main findings discovered during my study. Discussion and Interpretation of Findings Based on my findings, using art picture books to provide an opportunity for chi ldren to discover and foster an appreciation for art history can be a success with a moti vated teacher. A homeschool educator has to try to engage with a young child while that child is free to roam around and explore. I believe if you set up a comfortable learning environment, then the children will naturally want t o come learn and create. As the facilitator in learning, you have to adapt to what the children are doing in real time to fit the purposes of your lesson. Forcing a very young child t work well because very young child ren like to think of doing an activity as if it were their own idea. Proponents of play such as Froebel, Dewey, and Dr. Stuart Brown have influenced contemporary educators such as Alice Meckley Vivian Paley, Sharna Olfman, and Kathy Hirsch Pasek that hav e long been practicing and advocating the importance of play in education and in life ( Brown, 2006 ) When students have fun at learning, they continue to pursue it for its own sake Constantly improvising and changing the way to approach introducing art picturebooks to young children each lesson was important because the ch ildren needed to feel like every lesson was something new and exciting that would hold their short attention spans. Another key component to add in your lesson of using art pictureboo ks is play. This idea of understanding by pl ayin g dates as far back to the early 19 th Century theories of Froebel (1895) and they still can be viewed in practice today. Young children learn so much while pla ying, which my project helps suggest Evelyn retained more information during the lessons

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35 where she was actively playing and doing something while listening and looking at the picturebooks. For example, she spontaneously started playing musical instruments at times when we looked at pictur ebooks and even sang a few songs about the books (Figure 18 p. 62 ). She also was free to take breaks while looking at picturebooks and playe d while blowing bubbles and then returned to looking at the images (Figure 19, p. 62 ). I believe this happened be cause she was engag ed in hands on learning, which has been documented to have positive effects on For example, hands the Kindergarten classroo m of teacher, LaChance. LaChance had a young student that struggled with language skills, but was a talented artist. Through art projects and play, LaChance saw the student's language skills improve as he answered questions about his creations and illustrations (Cleav er 2014). That act of doing solidifies information and process es it in your mind. When you combine activities and different senses that require play, movement, music, talking, and listening, it activat es multiple areas of the brain. Differentiating ins truction expert and former educator, Dodge (2009), believes that t he more hands on the better because children are more likely to retain information if they use more parts of the brain. Evelyn also often scribbled or drew while looking at the art picture b ooks (Figure 20 p. 63 ) A recent research report in the Applied Cognitive Psychology journal stated that volunteers who dood led during a verbal message were 29 percent better at recalling details from the message so this doodling could have helped Evelyn remain engaged and retain information she heard and saw from the images in the picture books (Andrade, 2009) I also think play is not only interesting and fun for young kids, but that they use it to learn a bout the world around them while acting things out rather than expressing themselves always with words which can still be challenging and limiting for them For example, Bodr ova and

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36 Leong (1996) studied a preschool in Denver for four years and discovered that the children displayed the Vygotskian Approach to play while learning Vygotsky described the emotional aspects of play of how young children acted out scenarios from the real world to better cope and understand it as well as to fulfill wishful fant asies (Bodrova & Leong, 1996) Play allows a child to separate thoughts from actions in objects with the use of symbolic props in gestures. Children also practice self regulation by remaining in their role, which I also witnessed with Evelyn on numerous occasions while she acted out scenes from the picturebooks we analyzed and felt as though she had to stay in character and her role. As discovered in the Telling Stories through Art finding, the youngest child, Evelyn, told the most stories after viewing the images, and the oldest child, Max, made a visual inventory and listed the most items. I interpret this finding as displaying the fact that there are always exceptions to early childhood development models. According to DeSantis and House n (1996 ) and the VTS Aesthetic Development Sta ges Evelyn would fall into Stage One: Accountive where viewers are storytellers and use their senses, memories, and personal associations to make concrete observations about a work of art that are woven into a narrative. Max did not make m any comments and observations that fall into this stage, and he was displaying observations that fell into a pre Stage One. Then all of a sudden, he jumped to Stage Two: Constructive when he commented on the young girl in Journey In this stage, viewers set about building a framework for looking at works of art using the most logical and accessible tools such as their own perceptions and knowledge of the natural world ( DeSantis & Housen, 1996 ). If some thing in a work of art does not look the way it is supposed to as it appears f no value and even weird. M odels like these generalize groups, but as a parent or homeschool educator, you should really

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37 look at the development and personality of each individual child. Max likes facts, computers, and math. Perhaps his personality and interests played more of a role than anything in the fact lists very much like counting items. and older age probably were also the reason s fantasy too much and thought the main character of Journey did weird magical things that he could never envision happening in reality. This is probably also why Max labeled the girl as of the images and story are what stuck with him. However, it would be interest ing to see if he This gender issue may also be the reason why Jacob chose to substitute the female character for Jean Monet. Evelyn on the other hand has alway s been more interested in creative activities such as painting, playing music, and pretending. She is still in that stage where anything is possible, which is suggested in her drawing of Katie Meets the Impressionists where she chose to change the scenery by envisioning stars and a night sky because that is what she preferred. Evelyn also has had more practice at looking at the images in art picturebooks with me which could influence the results I also believe that the youngest boy Henry refu sed to complete the art project because I forgot a few key elements during my instruction that I will revise in the future. I should have made su re he still h ad a copy of the book while he created his illustration like Evelyn did so that he could h ave gone back and seen what he had just learned and view ed. I also should have had him do the art project right away after our discussions so tha t the images were fresh in his mind. Henry also viewed me more of a teaching authority than his mom who tried to implement my instruct ions but failed because Henry claimed that he had forgotten elements of the story and

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38 hen. However, with me he never exhibited a lackadaisical attitude and always too k instructions well. The older boy s were probably a ble to create their drawing s regardless because of their age and ability to memorize things. As I stated before, I found that all children related images in the picture books back to themselves. Evelyn did th is by far the most frequently and Max did this t he least frequently. T his finding is probably related more to age than anything else Evelyn recently turned three yet Max will soon be eight. She is in the egocentric phase of development often described by Lowenfeld (1964). Evelyn wants to know how all of the characters from picture books relay to her or if they are actually representations of her Drawings by young children are typically egocentric. Art activities not only reflect a child's inner self: th ey help form it. I children make self associations, but it is one major component. It could apply to all aspects of what they might not completely comprehend in images by picking out what elements they have seen before or experienced. Therefore, being aware of this will help homeschool educators and parents connect with very young children while showing images of pictu rebooks by attempting to pick out aspects of the images that relate to the personal lives of the children. The children in my study were exposed to introductory art history themes, concepts, and factual information through art picturebooks. All the chil dren became interested in looking at art w ith me and continued to want to do so even a fter this project was completed This could suggest that the children have fostered an appreciation for art history. The older boys also could recall a style of art and specific artist. Perhaps I cannot definitively declare that they understood art history, but I could see an understanding develop that can grow with time. These lessons are

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39 meant to lay the foundatio n for very young children to learn art history by expo sing them to a subject they probably would not normally study at such a young age The homeschool boys could correctly identify the style of art as I mpressionism even when I showed them another picturebook about ancient Roman art and architecture side by side They commented that the I believe they could remember the information about Impressionism because they identified well w ith the characters of Katie Mee ts the Impressionists especially the young boy Jean Monet. Jacob even mentioned that Jean Monet messed up a room like he did once by taking all the paintings off of the wall and Jean was looking to see if anyone noticed. The scene is actually depicting Jean and Katie peeking in to against the walls. Perhaps Jacob drew this conclusion because he identified with Jean. Through the young boy, Jean, the boys were introduced to the art of Claude Monet and could recall this information. Evelyn was able to understand that people from the past a long time ago created art, which is a promising start to curating art appreciation. Before completing the art picturebook lessons with me, Evelyn understood the concept of new and old, but she always referred to things in the past as happening yesterday. She started saying that people created art a long time ago even longer ago than yesterday by painting on cave walls and frescos on architec tural structures. These were the two scenes that displayed painting techniques that Evelyn said she really wanted to try herself at her home. This is probably the main reason why this information stuck with her. The images of a caveman and fossils in th e picturebook The Cave Painter of Lascaux also helped Evelyn begin to visualize the perception of time and how things are really old and happened in the past.

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40 Significance, Implications and Recommendatio ns My findings in this study are significant in that they reveal that young children have the poten tial of fostering an appreciation for art history while looking at and discussing images of picturebooks with an adult. My findings suggest t hat picturebooks should be brought into the home and even schools and used as significant teach ing tools that hold substance and artistic merit. If used educationally and critically by a parent or homeschool educator, students will encounter endless learning benefits from looking at the illustrations f rom them. These findings are of value to every parent with a very young child and to all homeschool educators. I would recommend homeschool educ ators and parents using picturebooks to teach at home informally or formally even more so than they already do Instead of leaving picturebooks out to be found perhaps by a young child to look at alone parents and homeschool educators should confidently take those picturebooks and teach with them. Look at the images closely a nd critically with students while gu iding a discussion. For further research, I would recommend conducting a longer study of at least a year with a higher number of suggest for researchers to revisit those students in the future several years from now to see if looking critically at the images of art picturebooks had any effect on their current desire to learn homeschool educators practice the lessons found o n my website with their students to see wha t challenges and successes various educators encountered. Lastly, examining more picturebooks as works of art themselves, rather than solely looking at picturebooks about art would be a fascinating way to expand this project in the future.

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41 Conclusion This project has far exceeded my expectations. I now see that young children have an unpreceden ted enthusiasm for learning about art history and art appreciation using familiar objects like picturebooks. If used wisely and creatively with the help of an adult, I believe picturebooks hold the potential to teach just about ev ery important subject and theme not only in art but also in everyday life. I feel that activities like these are much more than fun. They lay the groundwork for young chil dren to continue to be inspired and interested in learning and talking about art all throughout their lives. This project will continue to shape my professional practice as a homeschool educator and my personal practice as a mother. I wil l always try out new methods of teaching that incorporate what young children naturally do to help them achieve what they are capable of doing I will also continue to introduce picture books to my students and daughter about art and all subjects, continue finding techniques that work and modifying those update and expand my teaching methods and techniques found on www.artpicturebooks.com.

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42 References Adelman, C. (1993 ). Kurt Lewin and the origins of action research. Educational Action Research, 1 (1), 7 24. Agoglia, R. (2008, Jan/Feb.). Learning to look and looking to learn: Visual thinking strategies at the Eric Carle Musuem. Retrieved May 7, 2013, from http://www.ala.org/aasl/aaslpubsandjournals/knowledgequest/kqwebarchives/v36/363/36 3agoglia Andrade, J. (2009). What does doodling do? Applied Cogniti ve Psychology 24 (1), 100 106. Baxter, K. (2012). The role of family snapshots of teaching art history within a dialogic pedagogy. Art Education 65 (1), 11 18. Brittain, W. Lambert (1979). Creativity, a r t, and the young c hild. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. Brown, S. (2006 ). The National Institute for Play: Education Retrieved from http://www.nifplay.org/what_opp_education_md.html Canella, G. (1997). Deconstructing early childhood education: Social justice and revolution New York: Peter Lang. Cleaver, S. (2014). Hands on is minds on. Scholastic Retrieved from http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3751901 DeSantis, K., & Housen, A. (1996 ). Visual thinking s trategies: A brief guide to d ev elopmental theory and aesthetic d evelopment Retrieved from http://www.vtshome.org/research/aesthetic development Dewey, J. (1934). Art as experience New York: Minton, Balch, & Company.

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43 Dodge, J. (2009). 25 quick formative assessments for a differentiated classroom: Easy, low prep a ssessments t hat help you p inpoint students' needs and reach all l earners New York, Scholastic Teaching Resources Duncum, P. (2001). Visual culture: Developments, definitions, and directions for art education. Studies in Art Education, 42 (2), 101 112. Early Childhood Art Educators (ECAE) Issues Group (2012). Art: Essential for early l earning. In National Art Education Association position paper Retrieved from http://www.arteducators.org/community/committees issues groups/ECAE_Position_Statement.pdf The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. (2013). Art history. In E ncyclop edia Britannica Online Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/36552/art history Froebel, Friedrick. (1895). Pedagogics of the Kindergarten New York: D. Appleton and Company. Gallas, K. (1991). Arts as epistemology: Enabling children to know what they know. Harvard Educational Review, 61 40 50. Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2008). Made to stick New York: Random House, Inc. Hirsch, E. (1987). Cultural literacy: What every American needs to know New York: Random House, Inc. Housen, A., & Yenawine, P. (2014). Visual thinking strategies: Method and curriculum. Retrieved from http://www.vtshome.org/ Lowenfeld, V. (1964). Creati ve and mental growth (4 th ed.). New York: The Macmillan Group. Marantz, S. (1992). Picture books for looking and learning: Awakening visual perceptions Phoenix: Greenwood.

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44 Maxwell, J. A. (2004). Casual explanation, qu alitative research, and scientific inquiry in education. Educational Researcher, 33 (2), 3 11. McClure, M. (2011). Child as totem: Redressing the myth of inherent creativity in early childhood. Studies in Art Education, 52 (2), 127 141. Minnesota Department of Education. (2008). Arts k 12. Minnesota Academic Standards, 2008 1 18. Retrieved from http://www.education.state.mn.us/MDE/EdExc/StanCurri/K 12AcademicStandards/Arts/index.html Mitchell, F. (1990). Introducing art history through children's literature. Language Arts 67 839 846. Parkin, P. (2009). Managing change in healthcare: Using action research London: Sage Publications. Pazienza, J. (1986). Teaching art history to childre n: A philosophical basis. Marilyn Zurmuehlen Working Papers in Art Education, 5 (1), 53 61. Revenson, T., & Singer, D. (1996). A Piaget primer: How a child thinks New York: The Penguin Group. Saccardi, M. (2007). Art in story: Teaching art history to elementary school children Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited/Teacher Ideas Press. Salisbury, M., & Styles, M. (2012). London: Laurence King Publishing. Sipe, L. (2001). Picturebooks as aesthetic objects. Literacy Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Reading and Writing 6 (1) 23 42. Szekely, G. (1991). Discovery experiences in art history for young children. Art Education, 44 (5), 41 49.

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45 Thompson, C. M. Kinderculture in the art classroom: Early childhood art and the mediation of culture. Studies in Art Education, 44 (2), 135 146. Walsh, D. (1993). Art as socially constructed narrative: Implications for early childhood education. Arts Education Policy Review, 94 (6), 18 24. Yenawine, P. (1997). Thoughts on visual literacy. In J. Flood, S. B. Heath & D. Lapp (Eds.) Handbook of research on teaching literacy through the communicative and visual arts (pp. 1 3). New York, NY: Macmillan Library Reference.

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46 Appendix A UFIRB 02 Social & Behavioral Research Protocol Submission Form This form must be typed. Send this form and the supporting documents to IRB02, PO Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611. Should you have questions about completing this form, call 352 392 0433. Title of Protocol: Homeschool Early Childhood Education Picturebook Exercise and Interview Principal Investigator: Kaitlin Gallagher Pozzo Degree / Title: Master of Arts in Art Education Email: kait.gall@ufl.edu Department: School of Art and Art History, College of Fine Arts Co Investigator(s): UFID#: Email: Supervisor (If PI is student) : Craig Roland UFID#: Degree / Title: Associate Professor Mailing Address: ( If on campus include PO Box address ): 101 FAC P.O. Box 115801 Gainesville, Fl 32611 5801 Email : rolandc@ufl.edu Department: School of Art and Art History Telephone #: (352) 392 9165 Date of Proposed Research: January to March 2014 Source of Funding (A copy of the grant proposal must be submitted with this protocol if funding is involved): N/A Scientific Purpose of the Study: The scientific purpose of this study is to learn how picturebooks can be used to teach art appreciation and art history to very young children. Describe the Research Methodology in Non Technical Language: ( Explain what will be done with or to the

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47 research participant. ) I will show and discuss picturebooks that are related to art through storytelling with my three former homeschooled students (males ages 4, 6, and 7) and my own toddler (female age 2.5) each week for several months. I will tell dram atic stories that go along with the picturebooks to get the kids used to hearing and then telling stories when looking at art. I will then ask the following interview questions to the elementary school boys: tration? What do you see that makes you say that? What more can you find? What do you see in this picture that reminds you of our present world? How does this remind you of your life? they learn that day and if they have any additional questions. Each lesson, I will begin by asking the children, what do you remember from the story from yesterday or the last lesson? After we have studied a specific artist, I will have the children complete activities like dramatically acting out what they learned, and then have them make an art project associated with that learning. On an additional day, I will read them a passage from a picturebook without showing them the illustrations. I will have the children illustrate what they see when listening to the story. I will then show them the actual illustrations. We will then compare What differences do you notice between your drawings and the illustrations from the book? What similarities do you notice between both? Do these illustrations (yours and those from the book) remind you of anything we have previously studied? For the toddler interview with my own child, I will show her several picturebooks about art each week. I will ask: What do you see that makes you say that? Have you seen this before? What more do you see? I will also leave a section on my online curriculum resource where homeschool educators can leave feedback and answer a short questionnaire after trying my lessons. Questionnaire: Which lessons were most ef fective and why?

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48 Were your students able to talk about works of art, especially through stories, after using this curriculum? After you asked students what they remembered from the story from the previous lesson, were they able to tell you something from what you said and taught? Have your students continued their enthusiasm for studying pi cturebooks with your help? Describe Potential Benefits: The potential benefit of this study is to understand how children look at picturebooks and absorb simple art history knowledge and concepts. We live an extremely visual world, so visual literacy is significant and can be improved by looking at picturebooks in critical thinking ways. This will benefit parents who want to go beyond reading picturebooks with their children as well as homeschool teachers. Describe Potential Risks: ( If risk of physical psychological or economic harm may be involved, describe the steps taken to protect participant.) anonymous. Only those children along with parenta l permission, that want to participate may. No one will be their parents watching in order to allow children to feel safe and assured. Describe How Participant(s) Will Be Recruited: I already know all participants and they have agreed to do this study. The two year old is my own child, and the other participants are past students I homeschooled as well as the children of my personal fr iend. I will present the Informed Consent document as well as the Parental Consent form to their parents. Maximum Number of Participants (to be approached with consent) 4 Age Range of Participants: 2 7 years old Amount of Compensation/ course credit: None Describe the Informed Consent Process. (Attach a Copy of the Informed Consent Document. See http://irb.ufl.edu/irb02/samples.html for examples of consent.) (SIGNATURE SECTION) Principal Investigator(s) Signature: Date: 06/10/2013 Co Investigator(s) Signature(s): Date: Date: Department Chair Signature: Date:

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50 Appendix B I show ed and discuss ed picturebooks that are related to art with my three former hom eschooled students (males ages 5 6, and 7) an d my own toddler (female now age 3 ) each week for several months. I told dramatic stories that went along with the picturebooks to get the kids use d to hearing and then telling stories when looking at art. I then ask ed the following interview questions to the elementary school boys: What do you see that makes you say that? What more do you see? What do you see in this picture that reminds you of our present world? How does this remind you of your life? Each lesson, I bega n by asking the children, what do you remember from the story from yesterday or the last lesson? Then I went back and t aught s pecifically about the illustrations and works of art we viewed as well as discuss ed them in their original historical context in simple language. After we studied a specific artist or theme in art by looking at images from picturebooks, I had the ki ds mainly my three year old daughter, complete activities like dramatically acting out what they learned, and making an art project associated with that learning. For the toddler and preschooler interview with my own child, I will show her several ask her: In your opinion, w hat do you think is going on in this picture? What do you see that makes you say that? Have you seen this before? What more can w e find ? I created a section on my online website where homeschool educators can leave feedback and answer a short questionnaire after trying my lessons.

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51 Questionnaire: Which lessons were most effective and why? ith students and could be revised? Were your students able to talk about works of art, especially through stories, after using this curriculum? After you asked stude nts what they remembered from the story from the previous lesson, were they able to tell you something from what you said and taught? Have your students continued their enthusiasm for studying picturebooks with your help?

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52 Appendix C

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53

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54 List of Figures Figure 1 Altered book project from Lesson Three on Fantasy in A rt the bot tom and her interest in animals Figure 2. Cave art project from Lesson Four on Time and H istory representing the p resent with Evelyn and me painted inside.

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55 Figure 3. Identity image from Lesson Two Art Picturebooks and M e. Figure 5. Ceramic mask from Lesson F ive on Exploring Art M edia representing Evelyn's f ace.

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56 Figure 6. Assemblage project from L ess on F ive on Exploring Art M edia representing the color pink and favorite items like f lowers. Figure 7. Monoprint activity from Lesson Five depicting favorite colors of pink and purple.

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57 Figure 8 Pretending to bake as Minnie Mouse while we discussed picturebooks. Figure 9 Conducting our picturebook lessons at the library while playing dress up.

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58 Figure 10 Looking at picturebooks on Skype while building and participating in constructive play as described by Piaget ( Re venson & Singer, 1996) Figure 11 Discussing picturebooks inside a blanket fort pretending to be at a campfire that turned into a magic carpet ride while throwing a ball on the fort.

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59 Figure 12. Dressing up and acting out a scene from Katie Meets the Impressionists Figure 13 Finding and holding everyday objects related to an art picturbook while discussing what we see in the images.

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60 Figure 14 Katie Meets the Impressionists garden scene by Jacob, 6 displaying Girl with a Watering Can replaced by Jean Monet. Figure 15 Illustr ating a Story art project from Lesson O ne depicting the scene where Katie picks flowers from the garden, but Evelyn chose to represent it at night and included stars as well as flowers

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61 Figure 16 Journey describing the protagonist. Figure 17 Children's Art Picturebook Reviews blog from my guide and tips on www.artpicturebooks.com.

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62 Figure 18 Spontaneously taking breaks in between looking at picturebooks to play music. Figure 19 Playing and blowing bubbles while looking at a Buddhist art picturebook.

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63 Figure 20 Evelyn and I discussing Hadrian, The Dog of Pompeii at bedtime while she colors simultaneously.

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64 Author Biography Kaitlin Gallagher Pozzo has recently completed the Master of Arts in Art Education graduate student program at the University of Florida. She currently teaches art and Italian to homeschooled toddler and preschoolers in the Minneapol is, Minnesota metropolitan area and is a The knowledge and experience gained from her studies will help her realize her future plans of creating a non profit arts based preschool. She has a B achelor of Arts degree in Art History and Italian from the University of Virginia. While studying fresco restoration in Florence, Italy, her passion for education and teaching began while tutoring and teaching English to children and adult Italian citizen s. She has been teaching homeschooled toddlers for five years and her great interest in early childhood education has flourishe d since teaching her own preschooler Kaitlin Gallagher Pozzo hopes to add vital research to the topic of early childhood art e ducation.