Influences on Expression of Gender in the Art of Children

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Title:
Influences on Expression of Gender in the Art of Children
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Project in lieu of thesis
Language:
English
Creator:
Mitchell, Randilynn
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
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Degree:
Master's ( M.A.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Roland, Craig
Committee Members:
Kushins, Jodi

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Abstract:
This Capstone Project examined how gender stereotypes affected children’s artistic expression. The purpose of this study was to understand what students’ concepts are about gender roles, whether those perceived gender stereotypes unconsciously affect their selfexpression, and if those perceived stereotypes would influence their peers’ artistic expression. I studied eighteen third-grade students once a week for six weeks by observing their behaviors, interactions, and by collecting their writings and drawings. I discovered that these students are well versed in cultural and social stereotypes regarding gender. They also draw stereotypically to their assigned gender, and are influenced by their peers in gender socializing one another in their artistic expression. As I observed this group I posted daily observations and images to a blog at reflectingartist.com/educational-blog.html and posted students’ drawings to a thesis page at reflectingartist.com/thesis.html. My capstone paper describes the research process, findings, and recommendations to further inform on this topic. First I discuss my methodologies of participatory observation and setting the writing prompts and drawing tasks. Then I discuss my analytic process of examining, organizing, qualitative categorizing, thematic analysis, and visual interpretations. Finally I share my observations concerning students’ knowledge of contemporary gender stereotypes and how those discernments will unintentionally affect their artwork, and thus influence their peers to create similar art pieces. My recommendations are for educators to create a gender friendly learning environment that allows for free expression. I conclude my capstone paper with the final insights that art teachers have a responsibility to keep gender stereotypes limited in their classroom in order to create limitless possibilities for students
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Art Education terminal project

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University of Florida
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Copyright Randilynn N. Mitchell. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 1 INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN BY RANDILYNN N. MITCHELL A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UN IVERSITY OF FLORIDA May 2014

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 2 Randilynn N. Mitchell

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 3 Acknowledgements I would like to show appreciation to my husband Matthew Mitchell for his support in my academic and artistic career. I would like to thank Dr. David Midkiff, Profess or and Gima Jansen, for pushing my artistic abilities beyond my own basic understanding. Dr. Steven Harthorn, Dr. Bob Magee, Dr. Christopher Thomson and Mrs. Summer Deprow, thank you for pushing me academically and challenging me to push myself. Furthermor e, Dr. Delacruz and Dr. Jodi Kushins, thank you for the extra time you invested in my academic career. I would also like to acknowledge Dr. Craig Roland for all his insights and challenges that assisted me in completing my degree.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILD REN 4 ABSTRACT OF CAPSTONE P ROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN By Randilynn N. Mitchell May 2014 Chair: Cra ig Roland Committee Member: Jodi Kushins Major: Art Education Abstract This Capstone Project examined h ow gender stereotypes affected child ren 's artistic expressi on. The purpose of this study was to understand what students' concepts are about gender rol es, whether those perceived gender stereotypes unconsciously affect their self expression and if those perceived stereotypes would influence their peer s artistic expression. I studied eighteen third grade students once a week for six weeks by observing their behaviors, intera ctions, and by collecting their writings and drawings. I discovered that these students are well versed in cultural and social stereotypes regarding gender They also draw stereotypically to their assigned gender, and are influenced by their peers in gender socializing one another in their artistic expression. As I observed this group I posted daily observations and images to a blog at reflectingartist.com/educational bl og.html and posted students' drawings to a thesis page at reflectingartist.com/thesis.html My capstone paper describes the research process, f indings, and recommendations to further inform on th is topic. First I discuss my methodologie s of participatory observation and setting the writing prompts and drawing tasks. Then I discuss my

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 5 analytic process of examining, organizing, qualitative categorizing, thematic analysis, and visual interpretations. Finally I share my observations concerning students know ledge of contemporary gender stereotypes and how those discernments will unintentionally affect their artwork, and thus influence their peers to create similar art pieces. My recommendations are for educators to create a gender friendly learning environment that allows for free expression. I conclude my c apstone paper with the final insights that art teachers have a responsibility to keep gender stereotypes limited in their classroom in order to crea te limitless pos sibilities for students

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 6 Table of Contents Title Page ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 1 UF Copyright Page ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 2 Acknowledgements ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 3 UF Formatted Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 4 Table o f Contents Page ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 6 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 8 Statement o f The P roblem ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 8 Purpose o f The Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 9 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 10 Rationale and Significance Of The Study ................................ ................................ .................. 10 Assumptions o f The Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 11 Definition o f Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 11 Study Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 13 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 13 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 18 Subject Se lection, Site, And Description ................................ ................................ ................... 18 Research Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 19 Data Collection Procedures ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 19 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 20 Limit ations ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 21 Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 21 Opinions and Influences o f Gender Stereotypes ................................ ................................ ........ 21 Expressions and Influences o f Gender ................................ ................................ ....................... 23

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 7 Summary Across All Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 37 Discussion a nd Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 4 0 Discussion a nd Interpretation o f Findings ................................ ................................ ................. 40 Implications a nd Recommendations ................................ ................................ .......................... 4 3 Conc lusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 45 References ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 4 7 Appendix A ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 51 Appendix B ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 52 Appendix C ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 53 Appendix D ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 54 Appendix E ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 55 Appendix F ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 56 Appendix G ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 57 Appendix H ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 58 Appendix I ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 59 List of Figures a nd Figure Captions ................................ ................................ ............................... 60 Author Biography ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 62

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 8 It is the twenty first century, so shoul d we be living life similar to the 1962 inspired television show The Jetsons ? Perhaps, bu t wait a minute, the Jetsons are supposed to be the family of the future; existing in a futuristic utopia with elaborate robotic contraptions, holograms, and whimsical inventions. However, George Jetson (the husband) flies to work in his bubble car while Jane stays home to do the cooking or goes out to do some shopping. Although this futuristic family has technologically advanced, their gende r relations and stereotypes remained in the past. Consequently, the futuristic Jet sons might as well be the caveme n from The Flintstones in terms of gender relations and stereotypes. But, hasn't our actual twenty first century culture surpassed these 1962 gender relations and stereot ypes? T oday contemporary men and women are still battling against some of these traditionally set gender stereotypes of the past and passing these traditions on to their children (Fine, 2010). It is social institutions like families and peers that can eas ily affect the behavior patterns of children because these close social interactions are the main influences in a child's life (Bierstedt, 1970; Eliot, 2009; Fine, 2010). Similarly, it is plausible that family and peer s beliefs about gender roles and ster eotypes might influence a chil d's artwork. Studying a student s ideas about gender roles their unconscious expression of gender socialization, and observing whether and how these unconscious expressions affect another child's artwork can help explain how much of the gender behavior is cultural or social and how much is nature. For art teachers such insights can help them develop more gender equitable classrooms for students. Statement of the Problem The initial problem for my study is the fact that there is little research conducted in art education on how family and peer expressions about gender behaviors and stereotypes shape children's artwork. According to Bierstedt (1970), of all the groups that affect our lives the

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 9 family touches it more intimately a nd continuously. There are highly intelligent parents who are unknowingly en couraging children as young as two years old to play with gender specific toys in subtle ways (Robinson, 1986). As a result, by the time children reach school age they are unknowin gly already following social gender roles (Robinson, 1986). Studies show that children as young as three years old are playing with sex segregated groups (Eliot, 2009; Pomerleau, Boldue, Malcuit, & Cossette, 1990). Moreover, the gender socialization proce ss occurring partially in schools can have an affect on children ( Fine, 2010; Rosenburg & Thurber, 2007). Ivashkevich (2006) observes the effects that peer interactions can have on the explicit outcome of a child's art, "With the help of their peers, child ren clarify, questions, and reinvent the experience, cultural concepts, and values that impact their lives" (Ivashkevich, 2006, p. 57). Furthermore, Boyatzis and Albertini (2000) state "during the school years, gender issues related to the peer group becom e intensified, as the peer group becomes an increasing ly important socializing agent" ( Boyatzis & Albertini, 2000, p. 33). However, with little research to explain the verbal and visual descriptions children have about gender roles teachers may not have ad equate knowledge to adapt their curriculum, pedagogy, and content to remedy gender inequities that may be present in their classrooms. With Ivashkevich 's and Boyatzis & Albertini's research in mind, I studied students' behaviors, artistic expressions, and social interactions inside the art classroom to identify how students influence one another in gender specific ways. Purpose of the Study My study examined the gender specific behaviors of students in an art classroom, I observed the peer to peer interac tions of children inside the art classroom, collected written examples of possible gender stereotyping, and examined multiple samplings of each child's

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 10 artwork to look for the impact of peers. My analysis i s based on surveys, writing prompts and visual in terpretations. I looked specifically for artistic expressions and attitudes about gender stereotypes in my analysis. My study is built on the analysis of prior research about the influences on children's gender specific behaviors. Research Questions The fa mily is an important part of a child s life and is partially responsible for the gender socialization and stereotyping of their children as they provide gender typed toys and environments 1 (Pomerleau et al., 1990). Therefore, by the age of five children ar e holding gender role stereotypes similar to adults (Weinraub et al. 1984) So as children enter into kindergarten they are already conscious of gender roles. However, what are their understanding s about gender roles? Do they unconsciously transfer their understood gender roles into their self expressions so they are in accord with societal gender stereotypes? Finally, as they transfer these gender roles to gender expressions, will students unknowingly influence their peers to do the same? Rationale and S ignificance of the Study The purpose of this study is to assist art teachers in consider ing methods of gender socialization in young stud ents, recognizing how students express these gender roles in art, and considering how such attitudes and expressi ons m ight influence their peers' artworks. A key goal for art teachers is to create a gender equitable and positive classroom environment where all students can learn comfortably (Chen, 2005; Rosenburg & Thurber, 2007). Therefore, the educational awareness of g ender socialization is critical to achieving such a goal. 1 Environments include toys, bedroom d cor, books, games, and etc.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 11 Assumptions When studying gender it is difficult to not introduce my own biases and stereotypes of how boys and girls should behave, draw, or dress However, with this bias in mind I remained co nfident and neutral during my observations and analysis. In truth I initially believ ed that with today's more female friendly gender stereoty pes that more girls would cross gender in their drawings than boys. I also assumed that a boy would be considered a "sissy" if he cross gende red in his artistic expression since peers have a powerful influence on a child's behavior. Definition of Terms The rationale of this research is to examine gender roles and to look for any evidence of gender socialization in c hildren's peer interactions. It is important to explain the differences between gender and sex. Gender is the achieved status of male or females psychologically with references to social and cultural differences rather that biological ones (Kiefer Boyd, 2 003; McKean, 2005). Gender is how a male or female identity is expressed and is based more on social and cultural expectations than the biological sex of the individual (Rosenburg & Thurber, 2007). Sex according to dictionary.com is the two main categori es that divide males and females according the biological factors such as reproductive functions. The division is among humans and other living things based on their reproductive functions and chromosomes (McKean, 2005; Rosenburg & Thurber, 2007). Gender Socialization is the process by which a growing child attempts to form a sens e of gender identity or self as he/she develops ideas, roles, and expectations associated with each individual gender role or sex and will begin to self identify with one of the t wo sexes so that he/she will play his/her traditional part in society (Chafetz, 2006).

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 12 Social institutions are any structure of a social order governing the behavior of a set of individuals within a given community. This social structure can include the f amily unit, peers, education, media, religion, business, and politics (Rosenburg & Thurber; 2007). Gender Role is the social and behavioral traits considered appropriate to an assigned gender ( i.e. male or female ) based on their culture and historical ti me period ( Murnen & Don 2012). Feminine is a gender role that has the "qualities or appearance traditionally associated with women; esp. delicacy and prettiness" (McKean, 2005, p. 618). Masculine is based on gender and sex of males and "having qualities or appearance traditionally associated with men, esp. strength and aggressiveness" (McKean, 2005, 1042). Cross gender behavior is a process where individuals take all or some of the behavior patterns, gestures, speech patterns, and general personality ch aracteristics typically associated with the opposite gender (Robinson, 1986). Gender Gap according to the New Oxford Dictionary, is "the discrepancy in opportunities, status, attitudes, etc. between men and women" (McKean, 2005, p. 700). Gender Stereotyp es "Are socially shared beliefs that certain characteristics and behaviors can be assigned to individuals based on whether they are male or female" (Rosenburg & Thurber, 2007, p. 4). The gender expectations or stereotypes exist on an inherent level leavin g the individual unaware of their intentions (Fine, 2010; Rosenburg & Thurber, 2007). Sex T yping is the process where individuals come to acquire, value, and ado pt behavior patterns appropriate for their ascribed gender (Robinson, 1986). Furthermore, it i s the stereotypical categorization of people, or their appearance or behavior, according to conventional perceptions of what is typical of each sex (McKean, 2005, p. 1554).

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 13 Gendered is specific to or the biasing toward either the female or ma le sex (McK ean, 2005). It is characteristic of, or specific to one sex or the other. Sexism is a stereotype producing a prejudice or bias with negative cogitation and evaluation based on whether an individual is male or female (Rosenburg & Thurber, 2007). It is a d iscrimination against one sex or the other (McKean, 2005). Gender Neutral is the process of not being able to classify or define a sex or gender by only male or female (McKean, 2005). Gender Detective is the process of distinguishing and categorizing o neself or others into a specific gendered group based on dress, appearance, language, segregation, behavior, and symbols (Fine, 2010). Limitation of the Study Peers are a significant influence in a child's life and during this project I wanted to examine a larger group of students from the 3rd through 10th grade s to see whether peers influence student s at different ages and whether the effects of gender expressions change as c hildren age. However, the time frame for this project would not permit such a s tudy. Therefore, I examine d a smaller sample of child participants in an isolated period of time Literature Review Several scholars have discussed gender and social roles in American society (Bierstadt, 1970; Chen, 2005; Eliot, 2009; Flannery & Watson, 1995; Reeves & Boyette, 1983; Rosenburg & Thurber, 2007; Tuman, 1999). It is no secret that men and women inhabit different social psychological worlds (Fine, 2010; Orenstein, 2012; Reeves & Boyette, 1983) and in fact some researchers agree that males are aggressive, violent, and problem solvers (Flannery & Watson,

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 14 1995; Pomerleau et al., 1990; Reeves & Boyette, 1983; Tuman, 1999) and females are soft, delicate, and nurturing (Kiefer Boyd, 2003; Rosenberg & Thurber, 2007). "Everyone accepts that there are some physiological differences between females and males," (Rosenberg & Thurber, 2007, p. 9). However, gender socialization is not physical but a cultural aspect that children learn firstly from their parents through toys books, and environments (Pomerlea u et al., 1990). As a result, researchers believe that between the ages of 2 5 children's gender roles become solidified, that families affect a child's view of gender roles, and that the majority of boys and girls produce different gender specific artwor ks (Bierstadt, 1970; Boyatzis & Albertini, 2000; Chen, 2005; Fine, 2010; Pomerleau et al., 1990; Reeves & Boyette, 1983; Robinson, 1986; Tuman, 1999; Weinraub et al, 1984). As children produce gender specific artworks it is possible they are also influenci ng their peers' artworks ( Boyatzis & Albertini, 2000; Ivashkevich, 2006; Kolbe, 2005; Wilson & Wilson, 2009). Learning About Gender Stereotypes Today it is impossible to disregard the authorities of popular culture in the lives of our children regardless of the cu lture (Fine, 2010; Toku, 2001). These environments can include the home life ( Paoletti, 2012; Pomerleau, et al. 1990; Reeves & Boyette, 1983; Robinson, 1986; Salkind & Salkind, 1997; and Wagner Ott, 2002), educational institutions and classrooms ( Gurian, 2011; Ivashkevich, 2002; Chen, 2005), various medias ( Chen, 2005; Rosenburg & Thurber, 2007; Wagner Ott, 2002) and artists and artworks (Doss; 2002; Kiefer Boyd; 2003). Robinson (1986) and Pomerleau, et al. (1990) further observe that parents prov ide children with toys and bedroom environments that encourage sex stereotyped activities. While philosophies of education are considered more gender equal, children and infants are still experiencing gender

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 15 differentiates in their play environments at hom e (Eliot, 2009; Orenstein, 2012; Pomerleau, et al. 1990). Gender Relations Families mostly parents are also encouraging gender stereotypes by unconscious gender relations as th e children observe their parent s interactions and behaviors (Fine, 2010). Tod ay, despite many equal rights and opportunities gender relations inside the home are still quite segregated. Fine (20 10) explains that despite women's introduction into the workforce that the mother still performs domestic duties in addition to he r secular job than her male counterpart. Fine describes this addition as the second shift' that mothers encounter as they end a secular job. Therefore, children who attempt to identify with their own gender as gender detectives' observe th eir parents' behaviors w ill make decisions about specific gender stereotypes. While "both the breadwinner and the caregiver roles of course necessary," (Fine, 2010, p. 79) parents are often not sharing these equally and thus causing gender relations to influenc e continued gender stereotypes. How Young? Reeves & Boyette (1983) believe that toddlers do not show any type of gender differences; however, if children learn that gender is a relevant basis for classifying people (Fine, 2010; Weinraub et al., 1984) then why do children as young as three years prefer to play within sex segregated groups (Eliot, 2009, p. 118; Pomerleau, et al. 1990, p. 360). There is research on children that suggest toddlers are becoming sex typed based on their toy choices (Eliot, 2009; Robinson, 1986; R osenburg & Thurber, 2007; Wagner Ott, 2002; Weinraub et al., 1984). "Gender stereotyped patterns for requested toys suggest that children are quite sex typed in their toy preferences by the time they reach school age" (Robinson, 1986, p. 29) because paren ts are

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 16 encouraging infants to play with gender specific toys (Eliot, 2009). This results in higher percentages of gender stereotyped toy selections once the child is given the choice (Pomerleau, et al. 1990; Weinraub et al., 1984). As a result children as young as 18 months of age have marked stereotyped toy preferences. The children are learning that certain toys are appropriate for their gender based on parental toy selections. I n other words, it is the parent 's choices that are affecting the child's expe riences thus reinforcing certain behaviors in a child (Eliot, 2009; Pomerleau, et al. 1990). Peers Children are sex typed by the time they reach school age (Fine, 2010; Robinson, 1986). As school age children spend substantial amount of time with their friends the opinions of their peers become increasingly important ( Berndt 's work as cited in Boyatzis & Albertini, 2000) Therefore it follows that peers are another social influence in the education setting (Rosenburg & Thurber, 2007). "With the help of their playmates, children clarify questions, and reinvent the experiences, cultural concepts, and values that impact their lives" (Ivashkevich, 2006, p. 57). Consequently, children are observing and learning these gender stereotyped roles from home ( Fine, 2010; Salkind & Salkind, 1997) and expressing them at school inside peer groups. "The child well versed in gender stereotypes is not shy about letting it be known that a peer has crossed the line. Unsurprisingly, this peer feedback seems to influence chil dren's behavior, making it more stereotypical" (Fine, 2010, p. 218). Children are gender detectives and search for interest, talents, and personality characteristics similar to their own in a particular setting (Fine, 2010; Salkind & Salkind, 1997), includ ing inside the art classroom.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 17 Gender Inside the Art Classroom Children's preferences in art are the results of the socialization of gender roles (Tuman, 1999). "There are differences in boys' and girls' socialization experiences due to societal norms d ifferences that are like ly to influence children's art" (Boyazis & Albertini, 2000, p. 32). Several researchers identify male stereotypes to be aggressive, strong, and violent, and girls as compassionate, beautiful, and weak (Tuman, 1999). Also Flannery a nd Watson (1995) share gender examples of children's artwork, such as boys draw ing fantasy and violence and girls draw ing more realistic and tranquil images Salkind and Salkind (1997) add that boys are visually spatial and asymmetrical in their art, while girls demonstrate more painterly and symmetrical qualities in their art pieces. The subject matter boys' draw includes sports, war, vehicles, non domestic imagery and people in profile. Girls generally draw houses, domestic scenes, animals and nature, and people in frontal positions (Reeves & Boyette, 1983; and Tuman, 1999). Some researchers went beyond previous scholars' observational findings. Chen added a semi structured questionnaire that ex plored how students conceptualized gender in writing. In a w riting task "girls were more often than boys described as helpful, well behaved, and able to do housework, and boys were more often than girls said to be daring and athletic, or to do outdoor activities" (Chen, 2005, p. 22). Flannery and Watson (1995) foun d the similarities in male and female artworks; neither males' nor females' artworks were found to be more expressive, artistic, or have more aesthetic appeal, (Tuman, 1999), remarked on the children who had neutral characteristics (Flannery & Watson, 1995 ), or crossed gender roles, Tuman (1999). "Out of 250 students, 16 boys and 17 girls were cross classified for gender on content preferences" (Tuman, 1999, p. 52) and cross classification could be based on the children's artistic

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 18 individuality and less on their gender, thus allowing them to go beyond gender stereotypes. If children are learning to make observations and judgments that correspond with some aspect of the world when they paint (Eisner, 1978) and children learn stereotyping behaviors from reinf orcement and modeling ( Fine, 2010; Weinraub et al. 1984) then what makes this group of children different from the majority? Conclusion Researchers conclude that a child's' environment social interactions, and sex produce gender specific subject matter p references in his/her artworks. Psychologists and sociologists have remarked that the family unit is the most influential and permanent of all social institutions (Fine, 2010; Bierstedt, 1970) but little research has closely examined the process of gender socialization and the effect it can have on a child's artwork. Ivashkevich (2006) found that when children did artwork together they discuss and share ideas but she did not look specifically for gendered behaviors. My research intends to build on these ear lier studies and add new insights. Methodology I used a mixed method approach to study children's' expressions of gender, the effects it can have on a their artwork, and the influence it has on their peers The specific methodologies included participato ry observation, questionnaires, a writing prompt and four drawing tasks. I studied and surveyed a group of 18 third graders once a week for six weeks during the fall of 2013. I collected multiple samples of writing prompts and drawing tasks to analyze. S ubjects The participants for this study are 18 children from eight to nine years of age, enrolled in the third grade. There are eight female and 10 male participants, of which 16 are from the same ho meroom class and the remaining two from anoth er classroo m. There are eleven eight year

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 19 olds, six nine year olds, and one unknown. The students' demographics are culturally, racially, financially and religiously diverse. Research Site The study took place in a charter elementary school for grades k 3 rd grades in Southeast Arkansas The school has an average class size between 16 25 students and has art class once a week from one art teacher. The art class is limited to 50 minutes including seat assignments, instructions, activity, clean up, and leader line up. The classroom consists of seven tables four chairs for each table and each table is represented by a color: red, blue, rainbow, camo, green, purple, and yellow. Data Collection Procedures The methodologies important to this project are participatory obs ervation, surveys, a writing prompt and four drawing tasks. The observations took place inside the art classroom for six non consecutive days and resulted in field notes that were u ploaded to an online blog that maintains student and school privacy. The writing prompt and drawing tasks were done o ver a period of three class session s. The writing prompt was intended to provide written statements and opinion s on how the students in written form perceived the male/female gender. The prompt asked for them to describe what a boy/girl can do and cannot do. The drawing tasks were to draw a boy/girl doing something and to complete a figure drawing (See Appendix A ) to understand the children's view of a gender and observe how they influence their peers. The surv eys (See Appendix B) were briefly completed inside the classroom with the 3rd grade students as part of a descriptive research process (Kell e y, Clark, Brown, & Sitzia, 2003). The surveys were basic, a questionnaire and a drawing prompt (Kell e y et al., 2003 ). The aim of

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 20 the survey is to gather information on the child's gender, age, and a drawing prompt. The drawing prompt was to draw a picture of the child doing some of their favorite things so that I could understand if students drew in stereotypical manne r as stated by Flanner y & Watson (1995) and T uman (1999). Data Analysis Procedures The systematic data analysis procedures for this project are examining, organizing, qualitative categorizing strategy, thematic and narrative analysis (Maxwell, 2004) visua l interpretations (Kelley et al., 2003) inferential and descriptive statistics (Chen, 2005). Maxwell (2004) recommends to continuously analyze the qualitative data rather than letting it accumulate and become overwhelming Thus, I regularly analyzed my fie ld notes, observations, writing prompts, and conversations with the teacher and students The survey and drawing prompts were analyzed differently than the writing prompts. For these I used qualitative categorizing strategy called coding, organization, t hematic analysis, visual interpretations, spreadsheets, and inferential and descriptive statistics. The survey is composed of questionnaires and a one drawing task. The drawing task required multiple methods of analysis, coding, descriptive and inferentia l statistics, thematic analysis, and visual interpretations. I examined and categorized the verbal descriptions on gender roles and use d inferential and descriptive statistics to determine if there are differences among the students responses (Chen, 2005 ). Furthermore, I used thematic and narrative analysis to understand patterns and themes that emerged in my data

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 21 Limitations I conducted my research for a short six week long duration, one day a week for fifty minutes each visit. This short term lim it ed my final analysis to what could be studied during this specific time span. An additional limitation was I remained at one site for my research causing some limitations in my overall analysis. Furthermore, the small sampling of eighteen participants wil l in no way allow me to make generalization s of other populations since I only studied one specific demographic. Findings Does gender matter? More precisely does gender matter inside the art classroom? What are students' concepts about gender roles, do t hese gender stereotypes effect a child's individual expressions, and will a student unknowingly influence their peers to create gender stereotypical art works? Locating this gender socialization process and the effect is has on a child's artwork required t he information of one writing prompt, four drawing task s and my personal observations of students behavior. The research explains that students are sex typing based on gender stereotypes, those stereotypes are influencing their artworks, and students are influencing the ideas and expressions about gender roles to their peers inside the art classroom. Opinions and Influences of Gender Stereotypes The writing prompt for my research was to obtain written opinions about specific gender stereotypes and to reco gnize peer effects on children's gender choices. The writing assignments were all done inside the art classroom. The writing prompt categorized children's perceptions of what a boy can/cannot do and what a girl can/cannot do. The purpose of this task was t o gain and comprehend the written opinions the students have for each gender and to determine what gender

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 22 stereotypes the students posses. The children were instructed to transcribe at least three things for each classification After I collected 16 diff erent list s I compiled a separate list of each observation under either girl can/cannot, or boy can/cannot, removed descriptions that were everyday human actions ( eating, going to school, and etc.), a nd sorted the lis t into three categories: behavior, app earance, and activities. ( see A ppendix C ). When categorizing the list s into behavior, appeara nce, and activities the male category has eight behaviors in what they can d o ( fight, kick, pray) verses three thing they cannot do ( hit girls, fight a girl, be me an) and the female category has 13 can and three cannot (can be calm, kind, hit boys and cannot act like a boy, hit, or fight) behaviors (See Append ix C). The b oys' appearance category is zero can and six cannot wear (not wearing tutus, ski rts, earrings, e tc.) and the female category is six can and two cannot appearances (can wear pink, make up, earrings, and etc. and cannot wear boy stuff or have short hair). In addition, the male activity category has 41 can and 17 cannot (can do sports, deer hunt, ride h orses, and etc. and cannot join cheerleading, do splits, play softball, and etc.) and the female category has 42 can and 17 cannot activities (can do sports, ballet, do splits, and etc. and cannot create lots of art, play hockey, deer hunt, and etc.). Wh en I cross r eferenced just the list wit h the table colors I gained the following information. The purple table (4 students ), three fourths said boys can play football and deer hunt and that girls cannot play football half said boys talk a lot and boys can not hit a gir l ; the green table, three fourth said boys can play football and basketball boys cannot do the splits, girls can do the splits (same students that said boys cannot do the split s said girls can do the splits), all said girls cannot play footba ll, half said girls cannot wear boy clothes; the blue table two thirds said boys can play basketball and can cheer and all said boys can play football; and

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 23 finally the red table (2 students) all agreed that boys cannot paint their nails or cheer, and that girls can cheer and paint their nails. Expressions and Influences of Gender The drawing tasks for my exploration were to assemble and understand if children's' drawing techniques are in accord with gender stereotypes a child's artistic expressions of a specific gender, and to observe peer to peer influences through collaboration Obtaining this information required four separate drawing tasks. The first was the survey drawing prompt. The prompt's purpose was to gather a drawing sample of their specific techniques and subject matters and was also used to determine if students drew according to their gender based on prior research by Tu man (1999) and Flannery & Watson (1995). The classroom layout consists of seven tables with four chairs to each table, t hus allowing students to easily collaborate with their peers. The students were asked to "draw a picture of you doing some of your favorite things" (see Appendix B). While observing the students I noticed a group at the purple table were drawing the exact same image on their paper a pie. (see F igure s 1 3 ). A similar phenomenon occurred at the camo, blue, yellow, and green tables. The students at all five tables used either exact same subject matters (camo and purple tables) or comparable subject matters ( blue, yellow, and green tables). As the students' drew pictures they communicated with their peers and observed others drawing. Once the students finished the drawings, I collected them for analysis. I analyzed and categorized the survey drawings into fiv e categories; extreme male, moderate male, neutral, moderate female, and extreme female, and were also categorized based on Tuman (1999) and Flannery and Watson (1995) findings on male and female drawing

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 24 Figure 1 : Created by a third grade boy. Figure 2 : Created by a third grade girl.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 25 Figure 3 : Created by a 3rd grade boy.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 26 techniques. The six categories used are boys: fantasy, vehicles, profile, sports, war, and violen ce; and for girls: more realistically, tranquil, houses, animals/nature, social scenes, and people in frontal positions. Thus in determining which drawing went into the correct category I used the following systematic system. First I categorized each drawi ng technique into the various seven categories prior to sorting them into male and female drawings (See table 1) Table 1 : Stereotypical Drawing Categorization Male Female Categories Fan t Vio l Veh Prof War Sport Hous e Soc ial Tran q Nat Front Real Gender Female 2 1 5 8 4 7 8 Male 2 4 4 8 1 2 1 6 3 3 8 Total: 2 4 4 8 1 4 1 6 14 7 10 16 Note: Factors are representational of the actual number of students who produced artwork in this categorization. There are 18 s tudents represented in this table, however, students artwork could fall into multiple categories. The drawings are organized as followed: T he male drawings are dominant in fantasy, violence, vehicles, profile, and war and the female drawings dominated in houses, social, tranquil, nature/animals, and frontal position categories. In addition, the males were the only gender categorized in the fantasy, violence, war, vehicles, and profile categories, while the females were the only gender in the house categor y. The only categories having equal amounts of male and female are realistic and sports. After the technique analysis, I organized the drawi ngs using the following system: D rawings containing four or more techniques to a specific gender but more than the other gender are placed in the extreme categories; three or less techniques to a specific gender and more than the other gender fell into the moderate category, and if any of the techniques fell equally among

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 27 genders it was classified as neutral. Eighteen students participated in the activity, eight females and 10 males. There were nine (50%) extreme females; three (16%) moderate females; one (.05%) neutral ; two (11%) moderate m ales ; and three (16%) extreme m ales The total female categories dominated at 1 2 (66%) of the participants falling into either t he extreme or moderate category while the male category contained five (27%) of the participants. Those students in the extreme female category there were seven female s and two male s ; for the moderate female one was female and two were males; neutral had only one male; moderate male had two males and zero females; and finally the extreme males had three males and zero females. When I cross referenced these findings with the students' assigned seats for the d ay I found that the correlation between seating and categories matched exactly in 66% of the students. For example, tables' blue, red, and yellow totaling eight students were all in the extreme female category. Furthermore, five (27%) of the remaining stud ents were in the same gendered categories in relation to seating. For example: T he rainbow table had both the extreme and moderate male categories. The neutral category (.05%) only had one participant in this category, a student who did the tasks alone. T he second drawing task required the students to draw a picture of a boy doing something. This task was used to determine the students' artistic expression and perception of the male gender. I asked the students to draw a picture of a boy doing something an d I gave them no additional information. I challenged myself to stay objective so I would not influence the students' decisions. If a student finished the drawing early, I asked him/her to do another drawing resulting in a total of 27 drawings. When analyz ing this drawing task group I focused on the activity and appearance of the "boy doing something" so I could better understand the gender identification and gender

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 28 expressions the participants have for males. I altered my approach in categorizing this part icular task because I did not want to rely solely on my own gender stereotypes and biases when judging. Therefore, I used outside statistics from NCAA Gender Equity Report for the 2009 2010 (See Appendix D), information on gender stereotypes from healthgui dance.com, and from learned gender stereotypes to compile a list for both sexes. The different categories that the drawin gs could be classified into are: M ale, female, neutral, and unknown. The unknown category was added to this group because of my inabil ity to visual interpret the students drawing. There were 28 drawings collected and out of those 14 (50%) were male; seven (25%) female; six (21%) neutral; and one (.03%) unknown. In addition, those in the male category were seven boys and seven girls; in the female category, two boys and five girls; the neutral category, five boys and one girl, and the unknown category, 1 boy. When looking at appearances, 99% of boys had short hair, 100% were not wearing a dress, 57% wore shorts or pants, and 43% wore no i dentifiable clothing. As I reviewed the students' images I noticed that both images from the yellow table depic ted a male playing football (see Figures 4 & 5). I also noticed that some students depicted the males doing the exact same activity as their pee rs. For example the green table has the males s winging on the playground ( see Appendix E & F ). While other st udents depicted the males doing similar activities like those at the blue table (boys playing sports) other students illustrated boys either more v iolently (boy riding a bike on a school bus doing stunts) or being less active; like reading a book or watching the stars.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 29 Figure 4 A third grade girl seated at the yellow table created this drawing. This is also an image of her dad playing football as a young boy.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 3 0 Figure 5: A third grade girls seated at the yellow table created this drawing

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 31 The third drawing task was for the students to draw a picture of a girl doing something. This task was used to determine the studen ts' artistic expression and perceptions of the female gender. The female drawing task was done on a different day than the previous tasks. I asked the students to draw a picture of a girl doing something and I gave them no additional information. Again, I challenged myself to stay objective so I would not influence the students' decisions. I analyzed this task just as I did the images of the "boy doing something" drawing task. I focused on the activity and the appearances of the female figure, and I used t his task to better understand the gender identification and expressions the participants have for females. I categorized this task by using the outside statistics from NCAA Gender Equity Report for the 2009 2010 (See Appendix D), information on gender ster eotypes from healthguidance.com, and from learned gender stereotypes to compile a list for both sexes. I collected the 17 drawings and sorted them into one of these categories of male, female, neutral, and unknown and out of those drawings, seven (41%) we re female, five (29%) were male, four (24%) were neutral, and one (.06%) was unknown. Also, in each subcategory for female, there are four girls and two boys; males category, two girls and three boys; the neutral category, four boys; and the unknown, one girl. When I observed the ap pearances of the female figures: 100% had long hair, 41% wore dresses, 18% wore shorts/shirts, and 41% wore no identifiable clothing. As I reviewed their drawings I observed that at the blue table (3 male students), all of them drew images of girls playing basketball. Also, two students (see Fi gures 6 & 7 ) at the purple table drew ve ry similar subject matters: a colored arch (blue and green) and purple organic objects hanging off the arch. Again some of the students were drawing the exact same subject matter for this task. The green table did not have the exact same subject matters but similar drawings of the girls; pink dresses, long hair, and bows. However, the red table (3

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 32 Figure 6 This drawing depicts a girl picking grape s from the garden

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 33 Figure 7 This drawing depicts a girl riding her bicycle down a path in a flower garden

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 34 students : 1 male and 2 female ) did not draw similar subject matters but only followed the instructions, for example; there is a baseball player, zoo keeper, and a girl acting crazy (see Appendixes G I) The final drawing task was the figure drawing tasks (see A ppendix A), and it was to help to further understand the influences of peers in gender expressions. I asked the students to take this figure dr awing of a child and dress it. Additionally, I told them they could work collaboratively at their table. There were 14 students who participated in this drawing task. For this task, I sat with different tables as they worked on their drawings and observed conversations. When sitting with the green table with 4 girls, I listened as they discussed their color choices and favorite colors, the style of pants for the figure, a nd shoes to put on the figure (see F igures 8 11 ). As a result all four of the figures have purple shirts, three have black leggings; three have painted fingernails; two have purple boots; two have bows, and all of them have long hair. Sarah 2 (at this table) realized that her image was not exactly like the other girls and wanted to start ove r, and I did not allow her to start another one due to the short class period. I then moved to the rainbow table to observe a group of all boys (3) drawing on t heir figures. I saw that all the figures were drawn as boys. They also all have similar appearan ces; short hair or no hair, pants, gloves, and shoes. I asked them what the figures were wearing and they replied with "it's a track suit". A similar action occurred at the blue table of all boys, the figures were all colored with orange and blue; short ha ir, pants, and shirts. I asked Randal what he and Wilson were drawing and he said, "I am drawing a Green Bay Packer player," and Wilson said, "I am drawing a LSU player." The Green Bay team is actually green and gold, and LSU purple and gold; 2 The students names listed in this research paper are not the real names of the students for this partic ular study. It was important to keep the students privacy, however, the use of names is needed to draw attention to a specific student's interactions with either myself or another individual.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 35 Figures 8 11 : (Starting top left going clockwise). Four 3 rd grade girls completed these drawings while seated at the green table. Sarah completed the top right image.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 36 however, the boys chose to use the colors blue and orange. I analyzed the figure draw ing task a little differently in determining which gender was expressed in the image. This time I used my own gender le arned stereotypes and biases to compile a list: short hair boy, skirts girls and etc. I also organized them according to table colors in order to understand the peer influences. I organized and categorized 14 drawings into male, female, or neutral. From those 14, there were nine (64%) male, five (35%) female, and one (.07%) neutral figures that the students depicted. From this task the sub categories in the male category, nine boys, zero girls; female, five girls, zero boys; and neutral; one boy, zero girls. When organizing the peer influences I look ed at how similar the figures were to each other by looking at color choices, hair, accessori es, make up (or lack of), shirts, pants, and shoes. To better understand this, I calculated the number of similarities (n) for each category, ( color, hair accessories, shirts, pants, shoes, and make up) turned them into percentages based on the number stu dents at the table 3 Then I added those percentages up, and divided the total percentages (T) by the seven categories (T/7) for the average percentages of similar peer influences for each table. The results are; the blue table 86%; green table 85%; rainbo w table 78%; and red table 71% similar to their peers in the figure drawing task. After witnessing these amazing similarities and reviewing the drawings I referred to the art teacher to understand if my observations had validity. She concurred that student s seem to unconsciously and consciously share ideas and lessons with their peers when they are drawing. Also, students tend to influence one another's art either by copying it or making suggestions and 3 Example: 2 out of 4 students at the pink table had the same h air style; 2/4=50%

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 37 they will often try to copy one another even though sh e tries to redirect them to more free expression. Summary Across All Findings Weinraub, Clemens, Sockloff, Ethridge, Gracely, & Myers (1984) and Fine (2010) state that by the time children have reached kindergarten they have become gender detectives and are gender socialized similar to adults. Thus it was clear in this research that these groups of 3rd grade students are mindful of the differences in the male and female gender. In addition, students not only know the differences between genders but also hold gender stereotypes similar to adults. For example, in the writing prompts a student wrote that a girl couldn't play football ; another student wrote that girls couldn't have short hair. In contrast some student s wrote that girls can wear earrings but b oys cannot wear them. The same type of gender expressions occurred in all four of the drawing tasks. The majority of students depicted a specified gender performing stereotypical activities and/or drawing the figures with stereotypical appearances (clothin g, accessories, etc.): F or example, boys playing football and having short hair or girls socializing wearing dresses with long hair. T he second drawing assignments demonstrated that 14 out of 27 students drew males in a stereotypical activity and in the t hird task six out of 16 students drew females in a stereotypical activity Furthermore, all 16 students for this task drew girls with long hair. And finally the same examples were prevalent in the figure drawing task; boys with short hair and wearing pant s and girls with long hair, wearing skirts. Also, during the figure drawings all the students depict ed their own spec ified gender resulting in no students drawing the opposite gender. It was during the first drawing task that Flannery & Watson (1995), R eeves & Boyette (1983), and Tu man's (1999) theories that boys and girls draw stereotypically based on gender

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 38 were validated in this research. When examining the first drawings I concluded that 10 of the 12 classifications were dominated by a specific gende r; five for boys war, vehicles, people in profile, fantasy, and violence five dominated by girls tranquil, animals/nature, social, houses, and people in frontal positions. I discovered that the boys crossed subject matter /techniques into the female categor ies but still did not dominate those categories. Ho wever, the girls did not depict five of the six male categories war, vehicles, people in profile, fantasy, or violence. In addition the other drawing tasks also showed simil ar techniques from the students with them drawing in stereotypical ways despite the change in subject matter. For example, the majority of boys drew people in profile while the majority of girls drew people in frontal positions. Another phenomenon that occurred was when the girls were dr awing boys (as the topic) none of them did any violent scenes while the boys did illustrate violence. For example there were two boys at the green table who drew a boy engulfed in flames and the girls at the yellow table showing boys in football uniforms b ut it was not a violent scene (s ee F igure 8). Boyatzis & Albertini (2000) state that when students collaborate in art they share ideas, compare drawings imagery and techniques, which can trigger artistic changes in children's art thus encouraging them to alter or improve their drawings to be more in line with local norms of style (p. 33). This is what occurred with these third grade participants. They were sharing ideas and influencing their peers to create similar gender expressions. The main task to val idate this theory was the figure drawings, but peer collaboration was also prevalent in every task I asked them to complete. As I witnessed the students creating their images for the figure task, the students discussed what the figures should wear. The gir ls at the green table discussed the desire to have their figures wearing purple shirts, skirts, leggings, boots, bows, and nail polish and as they collaborated they compared drawings with one another. The boys also discussed and

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 39 compared drawings, as they desired to have figures with short hair, sports gear or dress, super heroes, and no make up. The same instances were also recorded with the other previous drawing task. For example in the second drawing assignment, the girls at the yellow table both depict ed males playing football (see F igures 4 & 5 ), the boys at the green table (s ee F igures 6 & 7 ), and in the third drawing task, the girls dressed in pink dresses and bows Furthermore, the students not only shared ideas when they were drawing but also when completing the writing prompts. For example three fourth of the students at the purple table stated that boys can play football and deer hunt but cannot do the splits and that girls cannot play football but girls can do the splits. Did everyone fall int o these generalizations? There were some participants who did not follow some of the gender stereotypes, some did not fully draw in stereotypical ways and others were not influences by their peers. For example during the writing prompt some participants st ated that girls could play footba ll and boys can dance. While some participants wrote down non stereotypical ideas each student listed at least one gender stereotype that fits our culture and society The same instance transpired in the drawing task; some girls drew cross gender into one boy category of sports, but never dominated any male techniques or subject matter. Furthermore, some students' drawings did not show peer influences in the drawing tasks (see Figures 10 12), however, during the figure task I concluded that everyone was completely influenced by their peers. Therefore, after these reflections it was apparent that the participants knew the cultural and social gender stereotypes, their artistic expressions are gender expressions in accord with s ocietal gender stereotypes, and they tend to influence other students to create similar gender expressions

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 40 Discussion and Conclusion My research examines students' perceptions of gender roles, whether students gender stereotype are unknowingly commun icated to their self expression, and how peer collaboration and interactions can influences other students' gender expressions. Through the use of writing and drawing tasks, substantial evidence was obtained to clarify and support the appearance of gender socialization in art education. Previous research concluded that environment, social interactions, and children's sex influence children and produce gender specific subject matter in their artworks. Furthermore, peers will discuss ideas, compare drawing im agery and techniques, and clarify questions as they create art together. The gender socialization of children, their perceptions of gender roles, how these gender roles alter their artwork, and the influence it has on their peers' expressions are critical to understanding gender in art education. To understand the idea of gender socialization I observed a group of 18 third grade students for six days, analyzed their drawing and writing and used narrative analysis to understand my observations. I determined that students are conscious of gender ster eotypes and are implementing them in their drawing techniques and expressions Furthermore, the peer influences are extensive in gender expressions in their drawing s and writing s. In the following section s I shar e my insights, discussions, interpretations, implications, recommendations, and a final conclusion on the gender socialization of children in the art classroom. Discussion and Interpretation of Findings Children are gender socialized by the time they are school aged and they have become gender detectives as they swim through our culturally and socially accepted and unaccept ed gender stereotypes. Also the gender socialization process influences children's individual expressions and they are sharing conscio usly an d unconsciously with their classmates about

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 41 those gender roles, and influence their peers to also express them on paper. Therefore, it is the known gender roles stereotypical expressions of student's techniques and the peer to peer influences that are prevalent and extremely important inside art education. The students in my study all shared gendered stereotypes as they worked on the writing tasks. They have become gender detectives in understanding our cultural and social gender stereotypes and a re also aware of gender gaps. For example, boys can play football but girls cannot; and the NCAA Gender Equity Report for 2009 2010 also backs this stereotype and gender gap up on paper. This gender detective concept is also expressed in drawing task II an d III draw a girl/boy doing something. When students were asked to draw a girl, the majority of the drawings depicted the female doing feminine things based on our social stereotypes and the same for the drawing of a boy. For example, all the drawings coll ected for the girl doing something task, depicted the girls with long hair a social stereotype for women. And all of the drawings collected for the boys doing something task, did not depict the boys wearing a skirt a socially unacceptable rule for the male gender. While some students cross gendered in male and female activities, 40% or more still depicted the specific gender activities based on social and cultural stereotypes. Therefore revealing that students are fully aware of the gender stereotypes, role s, and gaps that are present in today's society. There were four drawing tasks and in all them the students drew in gender stereotypical methods, however the principal task to illustrate this concept was the first drawing task. The initial drawing assignm ent was organized into technique categories and judged based on whether students drew like boys or girls. The drawing technique produced a startling outcome: none of the girls drew any subject matter that was fantasy, violent, vehicles, war, or figures in profile. This conclusion is that five out of the six male categories were left untouched by the female

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 42 gender. The boys, however, did draw subject matters and techniques in five of the six female categories leaving only houses to the girls. In addition, t he girls and boys only dominated their gender specific subject matters and technique with only two techniques as neutral: sports and realistic drawings. A similar categorization also happened when determining whether students drew like boys or girls: there were no females in the extreme or moderate male categories but there were boys in the female categories. Thus leading to the conclusion that the majority of students will create gender appropriate content in drawings that are in accordance with societal g ender stereotypes. Furthermore, this outcome possibly suggests that girls feel as though they cannot expand into the boy's categories. Perhaps this restriction is due to gender restrictions, peer influences, or even possibly adult expectations on girl draw ings. Peer influences existed in every task presented to the students and the figure drawing task proved to be the most extraordinary in showing peer to peer inspirations. There were 14 drawings collected from nine boys and five girls and out of those nu mbers there were nine boys in the male category and five girls in the female category. As participants collaborated together they combined ideas, and compared drawing techniques that manifested a prominent correspondence to gender stereotypes. Furthermore, the drawings not only fit into these categories in gender stereotypical ways but so did the appearances of the figures. The blue, green, rainbow, and red tables all had 71% or more similarities in appearances to their peers. Therefore, revealing that stu dents gender stereotypes are not only established in their own artworks but in their peers artworks and the students are influencing each other in gender specific ways.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 43 Significance, Implications, and Recommendations The main influences of families and peers are responsible for the gender socialization of children, their gender expressions, and a child's desire to influence others who are outside those societal rules. For example, a parent searching for a child's drawing book could come across The Gi rls Doodle Book: Amazing Pictures to Complete and Create and purchase it. The book includes drawing prompts just for girls' including; draw a fairy gardens, draw a dog designer outfit, and give the fish a fabulous home. Whereas The Boys Doodle Book includ es drawing prompts like; make shields scary (for war), invent a robot, and drawing an alien invasion. In addition, parents are also providing gender segregated home environments and toys. Thus resulting in students becoming gender socialized by the time th ey enter school. As school aged children begin to spend more time with their peers, ideas, opinions, and behaviors become more solidified in clarifying ideas, including gender stereotypes. Gender socialization remains a part of art education because chil dren are influenced by the social structures that surround them the most: their peers. It is these underlying social structures that are instigating, sharing, and helping to perpetuate the gender socialization in artistic expression of themselves and other s; thus, altering how students will define art, artists, and ultimately their roles as artists. Students will define art based on their educational information and experiences taught to them inside an art classroom from peers and instructors. However, when their educational experience is limited due to biases, restrictions, and gender stereotypes in can result in a one dimensional view of art, artist, and limit the possibilities for individual expression. Students observe instructors and peers to confirm their own roles as artists. However, when peers are gendered early and instructors could have biases then this gender socialization

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 44 could limit students potential for a personalized expression. For example, during the first drawing assignment the girls di d not cross over into five of the boy classifications and for the majority the girls stayed with stereotypical drawing expressions and thus possibly limiting their subject matter, expression, and creativity. Also, the majority of students also demonstrated a similar correspondence to gender stereotypes confirming the different gender expressions revealed in prior research. It is this conformity to stereotypical drawing techniques that suggests students are expressing this way so they fit the socially except ed gender expressions. Thus leading students to create restricted expressions, artworks, techniques and concepts and encouraging their peers to follow suit. It is this potential limitation that is restricting a child's artistic possibilities and their role s as artists. This study confirms that g ender expressions are manifest inside the art classroom. The art teacher has the expertise to direct a st udent's path, by using a gender friendly art curriculum: an art curriculum that represents both male and fema le artists. For example, a teacher could add more female artists, other art forms such as; weaving, furniture, and quilting, and help students understand whom the work is trying to appeal to (ex: multiple female nudes in art could appeal more toward a male audience). When children/students who identify with their own gender see their own gender represented more equally they will develop a more profound correspondence to art They will become encouraged, challenged, and possibly express more freely, thus cre ating a more firm attachment to becoming an artists themselves (Rosenburg & Thurber, 2007) Another useful technique to help art teacher s create gender friendly curriculum is to look through current art books to understand the gender gaps in art and artist This new insight about what is omitted may help create a more gender balanced art curriculum including varying subject matters and techniques often represented by a specified gender (e.g., social

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 45 scenes by girls and violence by boys). In addition, a teac her could put to the best of his/her ability equal amounts of male and female students at one table (or location) so that many ideas, values, expressions, subject matters, and creativity can be shared more equally This may not always be as effective as th e teacher predicts since students are not always aware of their own gender stereotypes, thus a teacher should be mindful of student interactions and interject when those biases cause problems. Students need to feel encouraged by their teachers and peers to excel further outside of their comfort zones and this cannot be done if the student is or feels discriminated against based on his/her own gender. Conclusion The participants in my study shared ideas, compared drawings and techniques, themes, and create d substantial amount of artistic expressions that reveals a strong conformity to comprehensive gender stereotypes in art. These findings are consistent with previous research on gender expressions and differences that are in unity with todays gender stereo types. Furthermore, during drawing sessions, students internalized peer opinions and altered their artwork so it would fit with their local norm as signified at their table. Students do collaborate in groups and influence one another; however, further rese arch should systematically assess children's drawings (in different age ranges) without peer influences as well as with them to determine the extent of gender expressions. Although this study was limited by time, location, and students' age, there were man y drawings collected and are available to review online at reflecingartist.com under the Academic W ork tab. Artists, students, and teachers are all individuals; however, as individuals there is this desire to find commonalities with others, share ideas, a nd opinions. We collaborate together to fa ce societal rules simultaneously conforming to them in public and breaking them often in

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 46 secret. Students conform to expected artistic expressions when collaborating with their peers and often leaving their origina lity hidden away. Nonetheless, despite the desire to conform to a culture or society this does not mean we should leave our individuality at our front door. People are different and as art teachers we celebrate the weirdness and individuality in everyone. Art educators inspire, challenge, and dir ect students to become well rounded individual s in their artistic expressions. Perhaps by encouraging students to be individuals they will challenge others to become individuals in their roles as artists.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 47 Referenc es Bierstedt, R. (1970). The social order (3rd ed., pp. 64 408). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Book Company. Boyatzis, C. J., & Albertini, G. (2000). A naturalistic observation of children drawing: peer collaboration processes and influences in children's art New Directions For Child And Adolescent Development 31 48. Chafetz, J. S. (2006). Handbook of the sociology of gender (p. 215). New York, NY: Springer Sciences Business Media. Chen, J. (2005). Students' conceptualizations of gender in Taiwan and the U. S. Visual Arts Research 31 (2), 10 25. Doss, E. (2002). The gilded age. In Doss, E, Twentieth century American art (pp. 19 34). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Eisner, E. W. (1978). What do children learn when they paint? Art Education 31 (3), 6 10 Eliot, L. (2009). Pink brain, blue brain (pp. 1 315). New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Fine, C. (2010). Delusions of gender : how our minds, society, and neurosexism create difference (pp. 3 239). New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. Flann ery, K. A., & Watson, M. W. (1995). Sex differences and gender role differences in children's drawings. Studies in Art Education 36 (2), 114 122. Freedman, K. (2004). Becoming a researcher in art education: developing research skills. Studies in Art Educa tion 45 (3), 187 189. Gurian, M. (2011). Boys and girls Learn Differently! A Guide for Teachers and Parents San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 48 Kelley, K., Clark, B., Brown, V., & Sitzia, J. (2003). Good practice in the conduct and reporting of survey researc h. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 15 (3), 261 266. Kiefer Boyd, K. (2003). A pedagogy to expose and critique gendered stereotypes embedded in art interpretations. Studies in Art Education 44 (4), 315 334. Ivashkevich, O. (2006). Drawin g in children's lives. In J. Fineberg (Ed.), When we were young: Perspectives on the art of the child (pp. 45 59). Los Angeles: University of California Press. Kolbe, U. (2005). It's not a bird yet: the drama of drawing Byron Bay, Australia: Peppinot Pres s. Maxwell, J. A. (2004). Methods: What will you actually do? In J. A. Maxwell, Qualitative Research Design: An Interactive Approach (pp. 95 99). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. McKean, E. (2005). New oxford American dictionary (Second ed.). Murnen, S. K., & Don B. P. (2012). Body image and gender roles. Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance 1 128 134. Orenstein, P. (2011). Cinderella at my daughter: dispatches from the front lines of the new girlie girl culture New York, NY: Harpter Collins Publish er. Paoletti, J. (2012). Pink and blue: Telling the boys from the girls in America Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. Pomerleau, A., Boldue, D., Malcuit, G., & Cossette, L. (1990). Pink or blue: environmental gender stereotypes in the first two ye ars of life. Sex Roles 22 (5/6), 359 367. Reeves, J. B., & Boyette, N. (1983). What does children's artwork tell us about gender? Qualitative Sociology 6 (4), 322 333.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 49 Robinson, C. C. (1986). The gender stereotyped nature of Christmas toys received by 36, 48, and 60 month old children: a comparison between non requested vs. requested toys. Sex Roles 15 (1/2), 21 32 Rosenburg, M., & Thurber, F. (2007). Gender matters in art education (pp. 1 25). Worcester, NY: Davis Publication, Inc. Salkind, L., & Salkind, N. J. (1997). Gender and age differences in preference for work of art. Studies in Art Education 38 (4), 246 256. Schwartz, M. S., & Green Schwartz, C. (1955). Problems in participant observation. American Journal of Sociology 60 (4), 343 353. Sex (2013 ). In Dictionary.com Retrieved April 5, 2013, from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/sex?s=t Stankiewicz, M. A. (2001). Roots of art education practice (pp. 1 65). Worcester, NY: Dover Pu blications Inc. Toku, M. (2001). What is manga? The influences of pop culture in adolescent art. Art Education 54 (2), 11 17. Tuman, D. M. (1999). Gender style as a form and content: an examination of gender stereotypes in the subject preferences of chil dren's drawing. Studies in Art Education 1 (1), 40 60. Wagner Ott, A. (2002). Analysis of gender identity through doll and action figure politics in art education. Studies in Art Education 43 (3), 246 263. Weinraub, M., Clemens, L. P., Sockloff, A., Ethr idge, T., Gracely, E., & Myers, B. (1984, August). The development of sex role stereotypes in third year relationships to gender labeling, gender identity, sex typed toy preferences, and family characteristics. Child Development 55 (4), 1493 1503.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 50 Wilson, M., & Wilson, B. (2009). Teaching children to draw (2nd ed., pp. 6 178). Worcester, MA: Davis Publications, Inc.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 51 Appendix A

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 52 Appendix B A Survey Conducted for Art Education Purposes Grade: 3 rd Name: _________________________________________ A ge: ____________________ Are you a Boy or Girl? (Circle one) Boy Girl What is your teacher's name? _________________________________________________ Do you like art? Yes No What are your favorite colors? ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ What is your favorite thing to do in art class? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Below I would like you to draw a picture of you doing some of your favorite things.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 53 Appendix C Table 2: Written Expressions of Gender Stereotypes Girls Can Girls Can NOT Boys Can Boys Can NOT Behavior Leaders Calm Mean Kind Hit Hit boys Win Fight boys Act like a boy Hit Fight Slap Kick Talk a lot Fight Pray Kick Kick a chair Hit girls Fight a girl Be mean Appearances Paint nails Wear pink Wear makeup Comb hair Dress up Wear earrings Wear boy stuff Have short hair Wear tutu's Wear skirts Paint nails Wear earrings Wear makeup Be in beauty pageants Activities Splits Backflips Basketball Cartwheels Ice skate Color Jog better Write Football Deer hunt So ccer Score Swim Cheer Ballet Shop Draw Dance Paint Volleyball Flexible Ride bikes Do chores Hide and seek Gymnastics Create lots of art Football Hockey Make buildings Smoke Baseball Basketball Deer hunt Run inside Jump off stuff Front flip Ride horses Ride motorcycles Skateboard Scary stuff Ride a bike Boys basketball Soccer Football Basketball Run faster Roping better Baseball Ride bikes Deer hunt Sports Dance Play games Ride horses Ride motorcycles Skate Draw Color Good artistic Write Coach Pray Ch eer Sing Play video games Boy Scout Do splits Join cheerleading Cartwheel Handstands Cook Kill a deer at night Cheer Softball Girls basketball Babysit Dance good Ballet Climb a tree Chase a horse Soccer Baseball Put foot over the head Balance on a rope

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 54 Appendix D *To properly calcul ate whether a sport was male or female due to possible fluctuations per year I wanted to average it out 10% either way. Thus, I averaged out the numbers of the male and female participants by taking 10% male participants + 10% female participants = x (actual percentages). I took the 100% number (N) which ever number was greater then subtracted X from it to give me the actual amount to use in this research study. If this final number (A) was lower than the lowest number it was neutral, if higher than the lowest it was considered male or female depending on which gender was the highest number. For example, basketball: 518+476=994; 5184 994=4,190. The 4,190 number is lower than the existing 4,764 number for the female partici pants, concluding basketball as a neutral sport.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 55 Appendix E A third grade boy completed this image of a boy swinging on the playground

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 56 Appendix F A third grade boy completed this image of two boys swinging on the playground

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 57 Appendix G A third grade girl completed this image of a girl playing baseball.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 58 Appendix H A third grade girl completed this image of a girl as a zookeeper.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 59 Appendix I A third grade boy drew this image of a girl acting crazy.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 60 List of Figures with Figure Captions Fig ure 1 : First drawing prompt completed by a 3 rd grade boy seat ed at the purple table. He drew a horse, a football, an S, and an apple pie. Figure 2: First drawing prompt completed by a 3 rd grade boy seated at the purple table. He drew a picture of him rid ing his horse and an apple pie. Figure 3: First drawing prompt completed by a 3 rd grade girl seated together with two boys at the purple table. She drew herself painting, doing cheerleading, and what appears to be an apple pie much like the two boys seat ed with her. Figure 4: Draw a Boy doing something task was completed by a 3 rd grade girl seated at the yellow table. She drew a boy standing in a football uniform, holding a football to illustrate a boy playing football. Figure 5: Draw a Boy doing some thing task was completed by a 3 rd grade girl seated at the yellow table with another girl. She drew a picture of her dad in a football uniform, jumping for the touchdown. Her dad was a football player when he was in high school. Figure 6 : Draw a Girl do ing something task was completed by a 3 rd grade boy seated at the purple table with another boy. The artwork depicts a girl walking under an arch in the garden picking grapes. There is also a pond and a pathway in the center. Figure 7 : Draw a Girl doing s omething task was completed by a 3 rd grade boy seated at the purple table with another boy. The artwork is of a girl riding her bicycle on a concrete path toward an arch in the garden. The arch is growing flowers on it and there is a fence or gate on the o ther side. Figure 8 : A 3rd grade girl named "Sarah" completed Figure Drawing. She colored in the image with a purple shirt, red skirt and shoes, black leggings and feminine accessories.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 61 Figure 9 : A 3 rd grade girl completed the Figure Drawing task by co loring a purple shirt, black leggings, boots, and feminine accessories. Figure 1 0 : A 3 rd grade girl completed the Figure Drawing task by coloring a purple shirt over a black shirt, blue leggings/jeans, and purple boots on the figure. She also added long hair and makeup. Figure 11 : A 3 rd grade girl completed the Figure Drawing task by coloring a purple shirt, black leggings, boots, and she added a pony tail to her figure.

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INFLUENCES ON EXPRESSION OF GENDER IN THE ART OF CHILDREN 62 Author Biography I graduated Magna Cum Laude from Williams Baptist College May 2011 with a B.A. in Studio Art and a minor in music and am currently pursuing a master's degree in art education at the University of Florida. I hope to become an art teacher at an elementary school or a private college after completing my degree at the U niversity of Florida. I was a professor's assistant in the art department and counseling department at Williams, assisting professors with various art jobs and tutoring students. I was also a substitute teacher for the Southeastern Arkansas area but now I am currently the administrativ e assistant to the B artholomew Baptist Association. Furthermore, I volunteer doing some local missions; a food pantry, a crisis pregnancy center, and other various mission jobs. I have a great passion for music, am a member of Mu Phi Epsilon International Professional Music Fraternity and in 2010 2011 school year held the officer position titled "Historian". Furthermore, I received a second place award in a juried student art show for "Water In The Pool" dry point on paper. While in my undergraduate program I assisted younger students in my advance studio classes understand the processes of printmaking. It was during this time I developed a love for teaching art. Since I was already on a Studio Art Degree track I decide d to continue on this path so that I could get my graduate degree in art education. I have a great desire to become a teacher so that I may share the joy of art with other people, whether in a community outreach program, at a college, or in a public school I am a passionate, strong person who loves life and all types of art and artists.