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! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 4 PROMOTING LITERACY IN THE ART CLASSROOM By CARRIE GRUNNET A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014 ! !
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 5 ! ! ! ! 2014 Carrie Grunnet
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 6 Acknowledgements I want to extend my gratitude towards those who have helped me on my journey in becoming a better artist and art educator. I want to thank my committee members, Dr. Craig Roland and Dr. Michelle Tillander for guiding me along my path in art education. Thank you to Kathy Roberts on for allowing me to opportunity to pursue my research in her classroom. Thank you Rebecca Gilmartin for being my colleague and friend. Thank you to my family, Mom, Dad, Grandma, and Casey. Without you, this journey wouldn't be possible.
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 7 ABSTRACT OF PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE AR T S OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS PROMOTING LITERACY IN THE ART CLASSROOM By CARRIE GRUNNET APRIL 2014 Chair: Dr. Craig Roland Committee Member: Dr. Michelle Tillander Major: Art Education ! Abstract The aim of my Project in Lieu of T hesis was to explore how the language arts can be taught effectively through the visual arts with the goal of developing and implementing a visua l poetry art lesson at P.K. Yon ge Developmental Research School in Gainesville. Through the implementation of art lesson combining imag e and text using iPad technology, I was able to promote literacy skills in a fifth grade art classroom. In this supporting paper, I will describe my project in more detail. First I designed my lesson referencing the Next Generation Standards and Common Cor e Literacy Standards. Next, I arranged to teach my lesson to three groups of fifth graders over the course of t hree weeks at a local elementary school in Gainesville, FL Finally, I share my insights in this paper regarding my visual poetry art lesson with recommendations
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 8 about the inclusion of the language arts in the art classroom as a way of promoting literacy. The end product of my research will be the artworks made by the students which will be shown in a Spring Student Art Exhibition at P.K. Yo nge De velopmental Research School and on a blog at http://carriegrunnet.tumblr.com
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 9 Table of Contents Title Page ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 1 UF Copyright page ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 2 Acknowledgements ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 3 UF Formatted Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 4 Table of Content s ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 6 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 8 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 8 Goal of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 9 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 10 Rationale and Significance !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"" 4: Assumptions and Limitations ....10 Definition o f Terms 11 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 12 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 19 Data Collection Procedures and Instrumentation .. 5: Data Analysis Procedures ..21 Project Implementation ..22 Fin ding s.24 Students Need to Improve their Vocabularies and Spelling ..25 # The Visual Arts Generate En thusiasm For The Language Arts25 Not Enough Time ............................................. ..................................25
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! ; Technology is Tricky but Worthwhile ..26 Collaboration is Key ..27 Summary across all Findin gs.27 Implications of the Study .. 27 Conclusion 28 References.30 Appendix A ....32 Appendix B 36 0<<+(='>!1??????????????????????????????????????????@@@?6; ! List of Figures and Figure Captions . ..38 Biographical Sketch ...39 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! A Introduction ! One afternoon while I volunteering in the children's art area at a Downtown Fe stival and Art Show in Gai nesville, Florida I positioned myself at the bookmaking table with the hopes of helping a few children create storybooks. I had a young boy come to my table with his mother. He sat down and we began to make his book. He paused at the cover. He wanted to s pell the word "the" but couldn't remember how. He became frustrated but his mother broke down the word into sounds. After he thought it over, he proudly announced that he kne w how to spell the word, and wrote each letter in a different color. He said how much fun he was having and that he demanded that he stay till he finished writing and illustrating his book. On that day, I was lucky enough to witness how the arts can be an inspirati on for learning. Not only did the boy learn to spell a new word, he us ed his newly acquired skills to tell a story. Art is what engaged this boy to learn a new word. The boy was so excited to make his book that he struggled though learning a new word so he could continue creating his story. As I watched him create his book, I wondered what other types of connections could I create to join the visual arts and the language arts? Could art be the primary vehicle of an integrated curriculum that takes concepts learned in Language Arts class and reinforce it in an art classroom? Seeing firsthand how art inspires learning coupled with the experiences I have in the education course I took over one summer about teaching reading, inspired me to research how the language arts can be taught through the visual arts. Statement of the Pr oblem Adolescents entering the adult world in the 21 st century will read and write more than any other time in human history. They will need advanced levels of literacy to perform their jobs, run
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! B their households, act as citizens, a d conduct their personal lives (Moore, Bea n, Birdyshaw, & Rycik,1999 ) Literacy is very important our students' lives. It is the key to their happiness and success. "Almost seven thousand students drop out of high schools in the United States every day. Many of these students do so because they lack the necessary literacy skills to be successful in high school. Without strong literacy skills, students are less likely to experience academic success and more likely to drop out o f high school before graduating (Carlson, 2013, p.1) There is a need to improve literacy nationwide as well as locally. In Florida, 20 percent of adults 16 and olde r lack basic literacy skills ( National Center for Education Statistics 2013) Discovering these alarming statistics, I wanted to devote my P roj ect in Lieu of Thesis to studying how to promote literacy in the art room Students should have the most opportunities they can to learn and practice their language arts abilities, and the art room is an ideal place to promote literacy. Goal of the Stud y For my thesis project I create d an art lesson that integrated the use of text and image with the goal of promoting literacy in the art classroom I referenced the Common Core Literacy S tandards and Next Generation Sunshine State Visual A rts S tandards wh en designing my lesson I implemented my lesson at a n elem entary school in Gainesville, Florida The overall aim of this action research project was to investigate ways in which art teachers could promote literacy in their classrooms with the hopes of imp roving the writing and artistic abilities of students. During this study, I documented and reflected on the integration of language arts and visual arts as a process in the art classroom. The students artworks are available on a T umblr blo g at http://carriegrunnet.tumblr.com and will be shown in a spring art exhibit at their school.
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 4: Research Q uestions The motivation of my research was focused on developing a text and image based lesson that could promote l iteracy in the elementary art room. The questions that informed my research were: (a) How can I promote literacy in the art classroom ? (b) In what ways do students exhibit language art skills that are taught through the visual arts? (c) What types of softw are programs are available that teach or promote the language arts through the visual arts ? Rationale and Significance After interning in the art classroom at Glen Springs Elementary School in Gainesville Florida, I realized although the art teacher did h ave children's literature on art and other subjects in the classroom and regularly introduced new vocabulary words that there might be more powerful ways to integrate reading and writing into the classroom. As I met with my advisors and classroom teacher a t P K Yo nge I realized that I could promote literacy not only with the books in the art room but also with the technology available within it. Assumptions and Limi t at i ons As I began my research, I had an idealistic idea that art s integration can be the qu ick fix to the literacy problems we are facing in schools. I thought that just by integrating the language arts into the art classroom, I could improve reading and wr iting abilities of my students in a very short time. Although my goal is noble and is wort h pursuing I realize it will take more than three days of combined art and language arts instruction to drastically improve the reading and writing abilities of s tudents. I taught my lesson to a select group of 5 th graders at a privileged school that had access to t he newest iPad technology available. Not every school is going to have access to technology but
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 44 the same concepts from my lesson can be appl ied with more traditional media ( e.g., collage, paint, markers). As art teachers, we struggle with not having enough time to teach what we want. The timespa n of my project was limited to three classroom sessi ons in which I was limited to forty minute classes. I had to work within this timeframe to complete my project which at ti mes felt a little rushed. I felt that my project could have used an extra day so that my students could spend more time reviewing and modifying their work. Another limitation to my project is that my cooperating teacher and I did not have any communication with the reading teacher a t the school. Buren (1986) believes that art teachers and reading teachers should pair up to teach the language arts. For example, "An art teacher and an elementary teacher in the same building could plan a unit together on a pa rticular topic such as "Ins ects (Buren, 1986, p.86) By w orking together, all teachers could benefit from seeing their specialized subjects from another perspective. Another limitation is that my research will not prove or disprove using my own statistics the practically or statis tical value (in terms of higher test scores) of teaching the language arts through the visual arts. Thus, I recognize that my conclusions are speculative in addressing the effectiveness of my lesson on teaching the language arts through the visual arts. De finition of Terms Literacy The International Reading Association defined l iteracy as Until quite recently, literacy was generally defined, in a very limited way, as the ability to write one's own name. A much more ambitious definition of literacy today in cludes the capacity to accomplish a wide range of
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 45 reading, writing, speaking, and other language tasks associated with every day life" ( Internatio nal Reading Association and National Council of Teachers of English 1996 ) Multi modal Literacy The National Counci l of Teachers of English defines multi modal literacy as Integration of multiple modes of communication and expression can enhance or transform the meaning of the work be yond illustration or decoration (National Counc il of Teachers of English, n.d. ) Language Arts The International Reading Association defines language arts as "reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and visually representing ( Internatio nal Reading Association and National Council of Teachers of English, 1996 ) Literature Re view Teaching the La nguage Arts through Visual Arts The purpose of my literature review is to investigate ways the language arts can be taught effectively through the visual arts. Combining the language arts and the visual arts is practiced in the 21th c entury art classroom. Haden (2013) believes that one way to connect the arts to 21 st century skills is by integrating art with reading, writing, and arithmetic to "increase creativity t hroughout the entire school day (para.3). Through this approach, stude nts are exposed to the skills the arts provide and through this process students make meaningful connections to reading and writing. My research investigated multiple approaches of incorporating the language arts and the visual arts in the classroom (Yenaw ine, 2013 ; Cowen, 1983 ; Criscuolo,1985) and how the combination improves learning of both art and reading. When researching my sources, I searched key terms such as language arts literacy and arts integration I choose the term arts integrated because I am I interested in the combination of
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 46 the language arts and visual arts in a classroom. I searched for schools and communities that were already using this approach to teach the language arts using the visual arts. I also researched the similarities betwee n art and reading and what are the benefits when you combine them. There are many programs that have been created to promote teaching the language arts in the art classroom with the purpose of increasing students reading abilities. The Guggenheim Museum 's Learning through Art program encourages teachers to design art projects that support student learning across the curriculum (Guggenheim Museum n.d.) Also in Chic ago, Chicago Public Schools and Chicago Art Partnerships in Education (or CAPE) partnered in a three year study focusing on the contribution of arts integration to text literacy de velopment in grades 1, 2, and 3 (CAPE, n.d.) Similarities B etween the Language Arts and the Visual Arts There are many similarities between the language arts and the v isual arts. "Communication and self expression are two goals common to both art and reading (Buren, 1986, p. 5 6) When a child writes a story, he or she is writing it from his or her point of view. They make decisions on what characters to include and how the story will end. They may even choose to illustrate the story in which they are communicating their ideas. Writers and artists have similar ways of working. Walsh Pip er (2002) said "writers use words the way an artist uses paint. The words chosen by t heir length, meaning sound, and the way they are combined, create a tone or expressi ve quality for the written work (p.16) Jackson Pollack may use paint to express his ideas on canvas, as Hemingway would use words to communicate a story.
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 47 Cowens (1983) believes that comprehension skills are needed for reading and art. "As we learning to understand and appreciate art, we are at the same time working on processes that are also necessary to full comprehend printed matter (Cowens, 1983, p. 55) When a child reads the words on the page or sees the elements in a painting he or she comprehends and interprets the information in terms of his or her own personal feelings and knowledge. The visual arts and the language arts can promote self reflection and evaluati on. "A child who reads takes in information and evaluates it in terms of his or her own experience. Reading is a learning, evaluative process as in working on an art project (Buren 1986, p.56) Students evaluate both their own writing and artwork. This p rocess is very important in the meaning making process. "And they are also asked to judge their own work and the work of others, a process we refer to as e valuate. Both of these dispositions invo lve the construction of meaning (Hetland, 2007, p. 20) Bein g able to evaluate is essential for any kind of creative endeavor. Benefits of C ombin in g the Language Arts and Visual Arts Throughout my r esearch many authors have mentioned the benefits of combin in g the language arts and the visual arts. Combining the two subjects is beneficial for the student s because language instruction is enriched and deepened when combined with art experiences. "It seems likely that children who experience art along with reading instruction will develop better vocabularies, learn sequencing of events, and even learn to think with more originality and creativity (Buren, 1986, p.56) These benefits will pay off in the long run when students are building upon their prior knowledge. Some teachers start the school year off with the ar ts to emphasize reading skills. "To prepare the young students to be observant, distinguish sounds, look for details, expand vocabulary and comprehension, recognize colors and shapes and enrich critical thinking skills,
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 48 they begi n the school year with the arts (Buren, 1986, p.56) The visual arts can be an effective way to teach the language arts and to promote enthusiasm in the classroom. Not only does art produce excitement about reading and writing, it is also proven to raise test scores in schools and increase student vocabulary. Richards (2003) found that a school in Kentucky used the arts to enhance learning in reading and writing. "At the end of the 1998 1999 academic school year, the results show that approximately 90% of the kindergartners who wer e involved with the arts literacy strate gy read on or above grade level (p.19). Studies suggest that that this program produced positive results in the area of improved reading scores. The arts can improve literacy skills. The Learning Through A rt program at the Guggenheim studied the academic performance of students who completed their program. The museum program stated that "While it is unknown exactly how learning about art helps literacy skills, she said, "the hypothesis is that the use of both talkin g about art and using inquiry to help students tease apart the meaning of paintings helps them learn how to tease apart the meanings of texts, too. The y apply those skills to reading" (Guggenheim M useum 2013) They also conclude d The study found that st udents in the program performed better in six categories of literacy and critical thinking skills including thorough description, hypothesizing and reasoning than did stude nts who were not in the program"(Guggenheim M useum 2013). Started in the sevent ies, the program has been so successful that it has spread to at least ten other states across the country (Ganley, 2003 ) Integrated Art Curriculum An integrated approach to education is a major theme that I see in my research findings when researching th e topic of combining art and reading. John Dewey advocated for an
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 49 integrated curriculum in the late 1800s. He believed an active curriculum should be integrated rather than being divid ed into subject matter segments (Brewer, 2007, p.43). T he Transforming E ducation through the Arts Challenge Project (TETAC) strove to enhance the quality and status of art education and how art can compliment and enhance school reform. "Because the TETAC project was conceived to link the arts to other areas of the school curri culum and "demonstrate the value of the arts as part of the core curriculum," a consideration of integra ted curriculum became essential (Stewart M. G., & Walker, S., 2005, p. 105) The proponents of the TETAC project was interested in how an integrated a rt curriculum could potentially benefit art learning and how the learning of art could enhance other subjects. Tanner (1984) believes that art teachers should incorporate reading skills into their classrooms but they don't have to be experts on the subjec t. Art teachers need not become reading teachers, but they can teach their students how to process print related to what they're doing in art class as an art major would" (p.17). An integrated approach in the classroom promotes enthusiasm for learning in the classroom Crisuolo (1985) believes that reading isn't a subject but a skill that can be integrated with other subjects in many ways. "Combin in g art and readin g doubles student's pleasure ( p.5) An integrated curriculum might be a good choice when te achers are asked to approach teaching read ing in different ways. McDonald and Fisher (2006) think that classroom teachers should be challenged to think of new ways to teach reading, writing, and oral language skills. "Simply put, we know our students need a variety of ways to explore the deeper meaning of the words they hea r, read, and are asked to write (p.38) They suggest that the visual arts may encourage students who are verbally challenged to express their words through the arts. Similar
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 4; to McDonald and Fisher, Buren (1986) believes an art integrated curriculum can help students who have difficultly with reading by adding creativity and originality into the learning mix. Ways to teach reading through the visual arts Art lessons can include importan t vocabulary words. Looking at and talking about paintings can expand student's vocabularies. As students describe their reactions they expand their vocabularies and increase fluency in verbal expression. "Learning and using new descriptive words while dis cussing and writing about art works can enlarge vocabularies as well as give students more ple asure when viewing works of art (Cowen 1983 p. 59) Teaching children versatile words such as "composition" will reinforce their knowledge when they hear this wo rd used in different ways in other classes. Visual Thinking S trategies (VTS) is a simple and time effective way t o increase class particip ation as well as deepen the thinking, language ability, writing skills, and visual literacy of students (Yenawine, 20 13) Visual T hinking Strategies are used in a teacher facilitated discussion in which students discuss an image or work of art By participating in the discussion, students look carefully at works of art, talk about what they observe, back up their ideas w ith evidence, listen to and consider the views of others, a nd discuss a variety of interpret ations. Yenawine (2013) states Helping students become aware of their of their own thinking, as it appears hand in hand written expression, and providing tools fo r rethinking, adding, editing as a integral activity, not an exercise, directly assists the meeting of the Common Core Skills for co llege and work readiness (p.163) VTS allow teachers to meet Common Core Standards (Common Core State Standards In itiative, n.d ) and promote literacy in the classroom.
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 4A Illustrations can promote art and reading appreciation. Children's books about artists or that have strong illustrations are a wonderful way to introduce art to children. "Calling students' attention to the v arious types of illustrations in books can help them to better appreciate both art and literature (Cowen, 1983, p.58) I often read books about art to my students and the students are captivated by the illustrations. Children's illustrations could also he lp struggling readers who might get s t uck on a word. Calkins's (2001) strategy she does is has the student look at the image on the page for clues to the word. For example when one student could not read the word dime, she said, "Think about the story. Wha t might you be giving to that man? Sometimes the pictures can make sens e of the word ( p. 169) Imag es can be used as powerful tools to help students decipher words. Reading can also be tau ght in many other ways. Criscuolo suggested having students draw costumes sketches of their favorite book character, create a face of someone famous out of found materials and write about them, have students match shapes to words, and many more fun artistic activities to include in the classroom. "Teachers who have used these activities report good success with them because they result in enth usiasm for both reading and art (Criscuolo, 1985, p. 5) Multi modal Literacy Technology is changing the way literacy is taught and viewed in the classroom. Students will need to learn more than the written word to be literate in today's world "With multi modal literacy becoming more important as many states push for 21 century learning standards, we are always looking for ways to help students break their concepts of lite racy awa y from the printed page (Graham, Benson, 2010, p.93 ) According to C lary (2013)
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 4B Students need access to the literacy knowledge and skills necessary to infer and make meaning from reading complex texts and to enable them to make informed choices as wri ters or authors of meaning in many of these modes. This is an age where the traditional emphasis on print is expanding to include forms of communication and expression that embrace multimodality. (para.4) Teachers should call attention to different modes of literacies ( e.g. visual, spatial, gestural, audio, and linguistic ) when designing applications for students. By students becoming aware of multi modals forms of communication, it might not only increase their sensitivities and also strengthen their ab ilit ies to produce multi modal texts. Methodology My research project is separated into six different phases. My research sought to answer three questions: How can I promote literacy in the art classroom ? " In what ways do students exhibit language art s kills that are taught through the visual arts? and What types of software programs are available that teach or promote the language arts through the visual arts ? In the first phase, I referenced the Next Generation Sunshine Sta te Standards in Visual Art s and Common Core Literacy Stan dards when designing the lesson plan I taught in this project (See lesson plan in Appendix A) As I expressed my interest in applying my lesson in the field, my Committee Chair, Dr. Craig Roland suggested I contact the elemen tary art teacher at P.K. Yo ng e Ms. Kathy Robertson. As I met with her regarding lesson ideas she suggested that I use the iP ads available in her classroom to teach my lesson Being able to use the iP ads intrigued me. This was a tool that I could use to n ot only teach writing but also teach photography. M y background as a photographer weighed i n on my decision to use the iPad As I met with my chair Dr. Roland he informed me of an application called Visual Poet that allows you to add
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 5: text and images toge ther He suggest ed the C inquain poem to use as the format. I choose the Cinquain (5 line poem) due to its simplicity and descriptive qualities With the recommendation of Dr. Michelle Tillander, I taught this lesson to two fifth graders prior to starting m y first day of class at P. K. Yo nge. This was extremely beneficial in seeing how the students responded to the lesson. Ms. Roberston allowed me to teach my lesson at P.K.Yo nge, and gave me three classes of fifth graders, which involved at total of 66 stude nts, 30 male s 36 female s Each class time consisted of a 40 minute block I taught for three consecutive weeks with each class meeting once a week. The third phase of the project was conducting action and observational research while the students were en gaged in the lesson. The fo u rth phase was adding the students artworks to T umblr blog at http://carriegrunnet.tumblr.com to display their work (See Figure 1) The students' artwork will be also be printed and displayed in their school. The fifth phase was distributing a survey to students about their experiences in the classroom. (See Appendix B) The final phase involved writing this supporting paper (Figure 1 ) Screen Shot of Blog
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 54 Data Collection Procedures and I n strumentation In my study, I conducted action and observa tional research. According to May (1993), action research is the study and enhancement of one's own practice. The research conducted by the teacher is reflective and is framed by the teachers' own questions of interest. It is not aimed a t solving specific problems or mean t to specifically improve the situation. The research I conducted was mot ivated by my research questions. While I was an intern at another elementary school in Gainesville I commented in my blog weekly regarding my expe riences in the art classroom which included how the art teacher promoted literacy in her classroom For example, she would often read books to the students about artists. The students would become engaged by the color illustrations and wou ld listen intens ely to the stories She would employ Visual Thinking S trategies when showing artwork which really helped the students build their vocabularies. In planning my project, I had conversations with the art teacher at P.K. Yonge and Glen Springs Elementary in G ainesville. about incorporating the language and visua l arts in a lesson. I photographed the project to document the students' progress. I had daily conversations with my cooperating teacher at P K Yo nge about the progress of the lesson. I asked for sugg estions and feedback and modified my lesson based on our conversations. I collect ed my students writing samples th e ir visual poem s they created their written comments reflecting on their peer's projects and survey responses (See Appendix B) This eviden ce provide d me with a timeline of their progress. Data Analysis Procedures I received 48 of the 66 poems that my students created. The others did not get to me due to students not typing my email address correctly or else not hitting the "share" button. S tudents
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 55 submitted their visual poems via the P.K. Yonge School s G oogle D rive and I received them through my email. When assessing the students' artworks using the r ubric I created in my lesson plan (s ee A ppendix A) 34 pr ojects scored at excellent 9 good 3 average and 2 needed more improvement (See figure 2) 88% of students received good or excellent on the results of their artworks. The categories with the lowest scores were the word usage, and grammar and spelling. Some st udents only had 4 lines of te xt with the majority of these missing the synonym. I believe this was the most difficult part of the assignment for the students. Figure 2. Images Rated Excellent, Good, Average, and Needs Improvement From Left to Right Project Implementation My project was conducted over three class periods with each class meeting once a week. On the first day, I in troduced the lesson by showing visual poem examples, and showing students
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 56 how the Cinquain (5 line poem) is similar to the Haiku poem they had previously wri tten in their English Class. I then asked the students to pick one subject that they could see in or near the art room. Students were excited that they could write about any subject they wanted to as long it was in the room or nearby. We picked one object in the class to write about as a class, and wrote a sample C inquain poem. We went ove r each category of the poem, (e.g ., n oun, adjectives, verbs, synonym) and filled in each line with descriptive words. I then instructed students to write a C inquain poem a bout the ir chosen subject s I asked them to be descriptive as possible in their vocabulary words they chose to describe their subjects. For example, one student had difficulty coming up with words for her lizard. I suggested thinking about the object as a real lizard. I asked "What do real lizards do in the wild?" This helped her to come up with some good action words (See F igure 3 ) It was challenging for students to come up with descriptive words for their object, but I think the words ended up driving w hat and how students photographed their objects. One the second day, I explained how to use the camera and use the visual poet application on the iPads. I showed the students how to focus the camera and how to crop the image. We discussed different points of view and how the images we take will be descriptive of the words we use. We discussed text placement. Although they were limited to five lines of text they could place those lines anywhere in the images. I pointed out how they could use the negative sp ace in their photos to place their line of text. On the third and final day, I showed students how to share their poems with me on the school's Google Drive since they couldn't access their emails. This took up a good portion of the class. At the end of class, we conducted a walk around critique where students wrote comments about one another's poems on a sheet of paper in front of their visual poems. The students' enjoyed seeing their peers' work, and wrote very expressive comments.
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 57 ( Figure 3 ) Visua l Poem by a 5 th grade student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mpl ications of the Study The implic a ti ons of my study suggest that art teacher s could promote literacy in their classroom s by teaching lessons that combine image and text in meaningful ways. My project
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 5A could be of interest to art teachers who are looking for innovative way s to teach reading. Richards (2003) believe that "being literate in the arts affords students a greater advantage in learning to read" (p.21). I hope that by sharing my project on my T umblr site, it will inspire art teachers to incorporat e t he language arts into their lessons with the result of improving the reading and art istic abilities of the ir students. Every teacher should have the opportunity to provide meaningful art experiences for students. The arts shouldn't be only seen as a rewar d or a rainy day activity. C-$58*'#-$ V/+(!O!H+),(!%.!#+3+,#-/!O!3&,#&+=!G'&/!&/+!RF+3&'$(!$D!IU$G!-,(!.$F!&+,-/!&/+! 2,()F,)+!,#&3!&/#$F)/!&/+!K'3F,2!,#&3!G'&/$F&!2$3'()!&/+!'(&+)#'&.!$D!,#&!'(3F-&'$(`J! 0D&+#! #+D2+-&'()!$(! %.!2+33$(L!O!#+,2'N+=!&/,&!O!G ,3!<#$%$&'()!2'&+#,-.!%$#+!&/,(!&+,-/'()!&/+! 2,()F,)+!,#&3@!WF+!&$!&/+!2'%'&+=!,%$F(&! $D!&'%+!&/,&! O!/,=L!O!-$F2=!($&!)$!'(&$!'( Y =+<&/! '(! &+,-/'()!&/+!2,()F,)+!,#&3!^ <$+%!D$#%,& L!,(=!3$%+!3&F=+(&3!-$%%+(&+=!'(!&/+'#!3F#K+.3! &/,&!&/+.!G$F2=!/,K+!2'T+=!%$#+ =+&,'2+=!'(3F-&'$(!'(!&/,&!#+),#=@! 0D&+#!&/+!2+33$(!G,3! -$%<2+&+=L!O!-/,()+=!%.!#+3+,#-/!RF+3&'$(!&$!IU$G!-,(!O!<#$%$&+!2'&+#,-.!'(!&/+ ,#&! -2,33#$$%`J!! O!H+2'+K+!O!<#$%$&+=!2'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!,#&!-2,33#$$%!G/+(!'%<2+%+(&'()!%.!2+33$(@! a+RF'#'()!&/+!F3+!$ D!&+>&!G'&/!'%,)+3!'(!%.!<# $E+-&L!+(),)+=!3&F=+(&3!'(!G#'&'()!,(=!H+'()! =+3-#'<&'K+!$D!G/,&!&/+.!3,G@!C/+.!G+#+!+>-'&+=!&$!G#'&+!&/+! <$+%3!F3'()!&/+'#!'" ,=3@!O! H+2'+K+!&/,&!F3'()!&/+!K'3F,2!,#&3!&$!<#$%$&+!&/+!2,()F,)+!,#&3!'3!+DD+-&'K+!'(!+(),)'()! 3&F=+(& 3!,(=!%++&'()!1$%%$(!1$#+!*'&+#,-.!3&,(=,#=3@!C/'3!'(&+)#,&+=!,<<#$,-/!&$! 2+,#('()!'3!,!G$#&/.!
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 5B <#$%$&'()!2'&+#,-.!'(!%.!-2,33#$$%@!O!'(&+(=!$(!-$(&'(F'()!&$!#+3+,#-/!/$G!&$!'( &+)#,&+! #+ ,='()!,(=!G#'&'()!'( %.!,#&!#$$%L!,(=!2+,#(!D#$%!+><+#'+(-+=!&+,-/+#3!,#$F(=!%+@! S+K+#,2!,=='&'$(,2 RF+3&'$(3!,#$3+!,D&+# -$%<2+&'()!%.!<#$E+-& '(-2F='() b ^,_!V/,&! #$2+!3/$F2=! ,#&!&+,-/+#3!<2,.!'(!&+,-/'()!2'&+#,-.`!^H_!U$G!%F-/!H,-T)#$F(=!'(!#+,='()!,(=! G#'&'()!3/$F2=!,(!,#&!&+,-/+#!/,K+!&$!&+,-/!&/+!2,()F,)+!,#&3`J!,(=!^-_IU$G!=$!,#&!&+,-/+#3! H,2,(-+!2,()F,)+!,#&3!,(=!K'3F,2!,#&3!'(3F-&'$(!G'&/$F&!)'K'()!$(+!%$#+!I,&&+(&'$(J!&/,(! &/+!$&/+#` J ! O!G'22!3+,#-/!D$#!,(3G+#3!&$!&/+3+!RF+3&'$(3! ,3!O!
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 6: References Brewer, J. A. (1992). Introductio n to early childhood education: Preschool through primary grades (Instructor's ed.) Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Buren, B. V. (1986). Improving reading skil ls through elementary art experiences. Art Education, 39 (1), 56;59; 61. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3192943 Carlson, C. (2013). Adolescent literacy, dropout factories, and the economy: The relationship between literacy, graduation rates, and economic development in the United States Journal of Education and Human Development 2 (1), pp.01 08. Calkins, L. M., & Cunningham, P. (2001). The art of teaching reading (1st ed. ed.). New York: Long man. Chicago Arts Partnership in Education (2013) Arts i ntegration, Retrieved from http://www.capeweb.org/our program methodology. Clary, D., Kigotho, M. & Barros Torning, M. (20 13). Harnessing mobile technologies to enrich adolescents' multimodal liter acy practices in middle years classrooms. Literacy Learning: The Middle Years 21 (3) Retrieved from http://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1 348874526/harnessing mobile technologies to enrich adolescents Common Core State Standards Initiative (n.d.) En glis h Language Arts Standards. Retr i e ved from http://www.corestandards.org/ELA Literacy/. Cowen, J. E., & International Reading Association Reading Through the,Arts Committee. (1983). Teaching reading through the arts Newark, DE : International Reading As sociation. Cri scuolo. N. P. (1985). Creative approaches to teaching reading through a rt. Art E ducation 38 (6) 13 16. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3192871 Graham, M. S., & Benson, S. (2010). A springboard rather than a bridge: Diving into mu ltimodal literacy. The English Journal, 100 (2), 93 97. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25790041 Guggenheim Museum (n.d) Learning through art. Retrieved from http://www.guggenheim.org/new york/education/school educator programs/learning through art Haden, R. (2013). Five ways to connect to 21 st century skills. Artsedge. Retreived from ht tp://artsedge.kennedy center.org/educators/how to/take five/arts in the 21st century.aspx. Hetland, L., & Teachers College (New York, N.Y.). (2007). Studio thinking : The real benefits of arts education New York: Teachers College Press. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/catdir/toc/ecip0717/2007019062.html
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 64 Internatio nal Reading Association and t he National Council of Teachers of English ( 1996 ) Standard s for the english language arts. Newark, DE. Kennedy, R. (2006, July 27). Guggenheim study suggests arts education benefits literacy s kills. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www. nytimes.com/2006/07/27/books/27gugg.html?_r=0 May, W. (1993). "Teachers as re searchers" or action research: W hat is it, and what good is it for art education? Studies in Art Education 34 (2), 114 126. Moore, D. W., Bean, T. W., Birdyshaw, D., & Rycik, J. A. (1999). Adolescent literacy: A position statement Newark, DE: Commission on Adolescent Literacy of the International Reading Association. McDonald, N. (. L., & Fisher, D. (2006). Teaching literacy through the arts New York : Guilford Press. Retriev ed from http://www.loc.gov.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/catdir/enhancements/fy0629/2005031506 b.html National Council of Teachers of English. (n.d) Multi modal literacies a nd t echnology. Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org/governance/literacies National Center for Educat ion Statistics, (2013) State & county estimates of low l iteracy. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/naal/estimates/StateEstimates.aspx. Richards, A. G. (200 3). Arts and academic achievement in reading: Functions and implications. Art Education, 56 (6), 19 23. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/stable/3194069 Stewart, M. G., & Walker, S. (2005). Rethinking curriculum in art Worcester, MA: Davis Publications, Inc. Tanner, M. (1984). Artistic reading: Comprehension with a flair. Art Education, 37 (1), 17 23. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.or g/stable/3192789 Walsh Piper, K. (2002). Image to word : Art and creative writing Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press. Yenawine, P. (2013). Visual thinking strategies: Using art to deepen learning across school d isciplines. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Pres s.
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 65 Appendix A Lesson Plan: Visual Poetry (Poems that have Pictures) GRADE LEVEL OF STUDENTS: 5 th grade Characteristics of the Learners: Fifth graders work hard on projects and tasks that require them to draw on the skills and strategies they hav e been learning in elementary school. Fifth graders are asked to read a lot in a variety of subject areas. As in reading, they should be encouraged to explore writing for personal expression, putting their often intense feelings onto paper through poetry, stories, and song writing. Rationale: This lesson was designed to allow students the opportunity to combine text and image together to create an artwork. Historical/Cultural: Cinquain Poetry was invented by a n American poet Adelaide Crapsey who was insp ired by Japanese haiku. It has a strict structure that is meant to communicate a mood or feeling. C-//-$!C-1+!=$&8#'3!>6$&*6&+! ;1)'! ()6$%61%'E CCSS.ELA Literacy.W.4.2d Use precise languag e and domain specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. New Generation Sunshine Standards: Explore and use media, technology, and other art resources to express ideas visually. (VA.4.S.1.2) Objectives: Students will: (1) c reate an original visual poem; (2) u se descriptive words t o tell a story about one theme; (3) m ake connect ions between words and pictures; and (4) t ake pictures to illustrate words (picture as a metaphor) Introduction: Step 1: Show students an a teacher made example of t he poem and explain personal story behind the poem. Explain to the students the format of Cinquain Poetry. Complete a Cinquain poem as a group by choosing a subject in the room. Pa ss out handout (See attachment B ) to students. (5 line poetry) Line 1: on e word (subject or noun) Line 2: two words (Adjectives) that describe line 1 Line 3: three words (action verbs) that relate to line 1 Line 4: four words
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 66 (feelings or a complete sentence) that relates to line 1 *'(+!8c!$(+!G$#= (synonym of line 1 or a word that sums it up) Procedures: Step 2: Students will write a Cinquain (5 line poem) about a one topic that they can see in the room. (about themselves best friend, favorite thing, etc.) Step 3: Student will take photographs on the iPad that illustrate t he words in their poem. We will use the APP Visual Poet on the iPad (Free app that will have to be downloaded from the Apple Store ) Located at https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/visual poet/id375207524?mt=8. Step 4: Students will add words and pictures. Whe n completed, the poems will have to be e mailed to someone to print out, or they can be uploaded to the Tumblr blog. Distribution and Clean Up: 5 min ute s before class ends have students save their poems and upload them to the T umblr blog. Closure: Once the poems are completed we will view the poems on the blog. The following questions below are suggested discussion questions. 1. How does it feel to have your photographs in an online blog and have an audience respond to them? 2. After reading these stories, is there something else that you wish you would have added to your story? 3. How can reading someone else's story or writing make you a better writer? Assessment : Use the rubric in A ttachment A to evaluate the poems. Resources: Cinquain Poetry http://teams.lacoe.edu/documentation/classrooms/amy/algebra/5 6/activities/poetry/cinquain.html Student Samples: See http://carriegrunnet.tumblr.com
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 67 At tachment A: Excellent 4 Good 3 Average 2 Needs Improvement 1 Use of Pictures: Do the pictures describe the words? The pictures are highly descriptive of the words. The words and pictures describe one another. Some thought was put into connecting the p ictures with the words. There was no connection between the words and pictures. Word Usage: Are the correct nouns, adjectives, synonyms in the correct categories? All 5 lines are filled in with the correct words. All five lines are filled in but some wo rds were incorrect. 4 lines of text with mostly correct word usage. 3 line or less of text and mostly incorrect of all words. Creativity: (Use of Metaphor) Are the pictures always literal? All the pictures are different and fill the frame differently. 2 of the pictures are different in filling the frame. All pictures fill the frame in the same way. Missing pictures. Grammar and Spelling: Are the words spelled correctly? All the words are correctly spelled. 1 misspelling 2 or more misspelling 3 or mo re misspelling
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 68 Attachment B : Cinquain Poem Worksheet ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! SFHE+-&! ^d$F(_ 4!V$#= 0=E+-&'K+3 5!W+3-#'H'()! V$#=3 ]+#H3 6!0-&'$(! V$#=3 ! V#'&+!,!7!G$#=! 3+(&+(-+@ S.($(.% ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
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! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 6; Appendix C ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
! !!!!!!!!!! "#$%$&'()!*'&+#,-.!'(!&/+!0#&!12,33#$$% ! 6A >#')!-I!"#&*1+' ! Figure 1 Screen Shot of Blog 20 Figure 2 Images Rated Excellent, Good, Average, and Needs Improvement ............................... 22 Figure 3 Visual Poem by a 5 th grade student .... 23
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