Solar project description for Reedy Creek Utilities, Co., Inc. office building

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Material Information

Title:
Solar project description for Reedy Creek Utilities, Co., Inc. office building
Series Title:
SOLAR
Added title page title:
Reedy Creek Utilities Co., Inc. office building
Physical Description:
iv, 44 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
PRC Energy Analysis Company
United States -- Department of Energy. -- Office of Conservation and Solar Applications
International Business Machines Corporation -- Federal Systems Division
Mueller Associates
Ehrenkrantz Group
Publisher:
Dept. of Energy, Office of Conservation and Solar Applications
For sale by the National Technical Information Service
Place of Publication:
Washington
Springfield, Va.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Solar energy -- Florida -- Walt Disney World   ( lcsh )
Office buildings -- Florida -- Walt Disney World   ( lcsh )
Office buildings   ( fast )
Solar energy   ( fast )
Florida -- Walt Disney World   ( fast )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
National solar heating and cooling demonstration program.
General Note:
National solar data program.
General Note:
July 11, 1978.
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Applications, under contract number EG-77-C-01-2522, by PRC Energy Analysis Company, in cooperation with IBM Corporation, Federal Systems Division, Mueller Associates, Incorporated, the Ehrenkrantz Group.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 06017508
ocm06017508
Classification:
lcc - TH7688,O4 P7
System ID:
AA00025513:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    List of Figures
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
    National solar data program reports
        Page iv
    1. Foreword
        Page 1
    2. Executive summary
        Page 2
        Page 3
    3. Site and building description
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    4. Solar system description
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    5. Performance evaluation instrumentation
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Appendix A. Glossary
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Appendix B. Legend for solar system schematics
        Page 44
    Back Cover
        Page 45
        Page 46
Full Text
6


SOLAR /2018-78/50



Solar Project Description



REEDY CREEK UTILITIES CO., INC.
OFFICE BUILDING
Wait Disney World Lake Buena Vista, Florida July 11, 1978












U.S. Department of Energy

National Solar Heating and
Cooling Demonstration Program

National Solar Data Program
























NOTICE

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.



This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy.



Available from the National Technical Information Service, U. S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161.


Price: Paper Copy $4.50
Microfiche $3.00










Solar/ 20 18- 78/ 50 Distribution Category UC-59






SOLAR PROJECT DESCRIPTION FOR
REEDY CREEK UTILITIES CO., INC. OFFICE BUILDING






















Prepared for the Department of Energy
Office of Assistant Secretary for
Conservation and Solar Applications

Under Contract Number
EG-77-C-0 1-2522
H. Jackson Hale, Solar Data Program Manager

By

PRC Energy Analysis Company
Eugene R. Klein, Project Manager

In Cooperation with
IBM Corporation, Federal Systems Division
Mueller Associates, Incorporated
The Ehrenkrantz Group



































Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2012 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation



























http://archive.org/details/solarenergyblakedalel979








TABLE OF CONTENTS



Section E 99f

1. FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . I

11. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . 2

111. SITE AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . 4

IV. SOLAR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . 7

A. General Overview . . . . . . . . . . 8

B. Collector Subsystern . . . . . . . . . . 18

C. Storage Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . 18

D. Energy-to-Load Subsystem . . . . . . . . 22

1. Space Heating . . . . . . . . . . 23

2. Space Cooling . . . . . . . . . . 23

3. Auxiliary Cooling . . . . . . . . . 26

E. Control Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . 27

1. Solar Energy Collection Mode . . . . . . . 27

2. Space Heating Mode . . . . . . . . . 28

3. Domestic Water Heating Mode . . . . . . 28

4. Water Chilling Mode . . . . . . . . . 28

5. Space Cooling Mode . . . . . . . . . 28

V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTATION . . . . 29

A. The National Solar Data Network . . . . . . . 29

B. Onsite Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . 32

VI. APPENDIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

A. Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

B. Legend for Solar System Schematics . . . . . . 44





i










LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Title Page

Ill-I Site Plan. . . . . .... ....... . . 4

IV-A- I Overall System Schematic . ............. 7

IV-B- I Collector Subsystem .................. . 8

IV-B-2 View of Collectors and the Multizone Air-Handling Unit ... 9 IV-B-3 Solar Collector Array ........ . ............. 10

IV-B-4 Side and Top Views of a Typical Reflector .......... . . 12

IV-B-5 Sectional Views of the Absorber. ................ 13

IV-B-6 Tracking Arm Assembly for the Drive Motor-Connecting to the Tie-Rods and Absorbers ............. ...13

IV-B-7 Piping Between the Collector and Manifold. ......... 15

IV-B-8 Piping Connection at Manifold . . . . . . .. 16

IV-C- I Storage Subsystem . . .................. 18

IV-C-2 Hot Water Storage Tank .... . . . .... 19

IV-C-3 Cold Water Storage Tank. .. . ...... 20

IV-D-I Energy-to-Load Subsystem. ............ . 22

IV-E-I Control Subsystem ............. . 27

V-A-I The National Solar Data Network ......... ....... ..30

V-A-2 Data Flow Path for the National Solar Data Network . . 31

V-B-I Collector Subsystem. . . . . . . . . . 37

V-B-2 Storage-to-Load Subsystem. . . . . . . . . 38










ii







LIST OF TABLES


Tab le Title Page

V-B- I Temperature Instrumentation . . . . . . . . 33

V-13-2 Flow Rate Instrumentation . . . . . . . . 34

V-13-3 Power Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . 35

V-13-4 Miscellaneous Instrumentation . . . . . . . 36






NATIONAL SOLAR DATA PROGRAM REPORTS


Reports prepared for the National Solar Data Program are numbered under a specific format. For example, this report for the Reedy Creek project site is designated as SOLAR/ 2018-7 8/50. The elements of this designation are explained in the following illustration:


SOLAR/ 2018-78/50
Prepared for the Report Type
National Solar 4 Designation
Data Program

Demonstration Site
Number -4 10- Year

Demonstration Site Number:
Each project site has its own discrete number 1000 through 1999 for residential sites and 2000 through 2999 for commercial sites.


Report Type Designation:
This number identifies the type of report, e.g-,
Monthly Performance Reports -- designated by the numbers 01 (for
January) through 12 (for December);

Solar Energy System Performance Evaluations -- designated by the
number 14;

0 Solar Project Descriptions designated by the number 50; Solar Project Cost Reports designated by the number 60.

These reports are disseminated through the U.S. Department of Energy, Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830.
















iv







1. FOREWORD


The National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling is being conducted by the Department of Energy as mandated by the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974. The overall goal of the Federal Demonstration Program is to assist in the establishment of a viable solar industry and to achieve a substantial reduction in fossil fuel use through widespread use of solar heating and cooling applications. Analysis and synthesis of the information gathered through this program will be disseminated in site-specific reports and summary documents as products of the National Solar Data Program. These reports will cover such topics as:

0 Solar Project Description

0 Design/Construction Contractor Final Report

0 Project Costs

0 Maintenance and Reliability

0 Operational Experience

0 System Performance Evaluation

0 Monthly Performance Reports

The Solar Project Description is prepared for the purpose of documenting the project description in the "as-built" state. Information contained herein has been extracted from data collected during site visits and from reference documents such as the project proposal, designer specifications, contractor submittals, manufacturer's literature, photographs, "Gs-built" drawings and other project documentation GS available. The remaining reports in this series will rely on the Solar Project Description for specific site details.







11. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


The following is a brief summary of the Reedy Creek Utilities Co., Inc. Office Building solar installation. Highlights of this site include:

0 Collector Type Fixed, horizontal, parabolic trough reflectors with
tracking absorbers

0 Freeze Protection Yes-Wheh ambient air temperature reaches 32 0 F
and absorber temperature reaches 35 0 F, Water f rorn the hot storage tank is pumped 0 through the absorbers until the return water temperature reaches 80 F.

0 Application Heating, cooling, hot water

0 Storage Type Exterior hot water, exterior chilled water, aboveground tanks

0 New or Retrofit New

0 Performance Evaluation Instrumentation Yes

0 Site-Specific Features Chilled water storage tank, modular reflectors replacing conventional roofing

The solar energy system heats, cools, and provides domestic hot Water for approximately 5,625 square feet of office area in this two-story, modern office building at Wait Disney World, Lake Buena Vista, Florida.


The solar collectors consist of 16 parabolic trough reflectors with tracking absorber tubes and provide an effective aperture area of 3,840 square feet. The reflectors, which are 32 feet long and have a chord width of 7.5 feet, are constructed of aluminum with polyisocyanurate foam insulation. Glass mirror strips are glued to the reflectors with mastic. The reflectors are mounted horizontally on saddles in an east-west direction and replace the conventional roof. Stiffeners were attached to the reflectors to support lights, ducts, and sprinklers. These reflectors were installed using modular construction techniques.


The 34-foot-long absorbers are mounted above the reflectors. Copper absorber tubing is mechanically attached to grooved aluminum absorber plates. These plates are coated with black epoxy paint. The glazing is a single sheet of milkywhite selective glass. Poly isocyanu rate foam insulates the absorber tubing and a pointed aluminum cover protects the absorber assembly. The absorbers are supported at both ends by rocker arms and are interconnected horizontally by

2








adjustable tie bars. To keep the absorbers in focus, a silicon optical device and motor drive a linear activator that moves the absorbers in a north-south direction. Overheat protection is provided by defocusing the absorbers. There is a freeze protection system. (See page 2.)


Solar energy is transferred from the absorbers to a hot water storage tank by water. The tank, which is 20 feet high and 9 feet in diameter, holds 10,000 gallons, and is located on a concrete slab adjacent to the solar conditioned building. The tank is protected overhead by the reflectors. The tank is insulated with 5 inches of fiberglass insulation that is covered with canvas and insulating cement.


Space heating is provided by circulating hot water from the hot water storage tank to a duct-coil heat exchanger in an air-handling unit. The air-handling unit is located on the roof of a building adjoining the solar conditioned offices. Hot water is provided by circulating city water through a coil in the hot water storage tank. A thermostatic mixing valve mixes cold and hot water so that the temperature of the hot water supply never exceeds 140 0 F.


Space cooling is provided by chilling water in a 25 ton absorption unit which is operated by hot water from the hot water storage tank. The chilled water is stored in G 10,000-gallon chilled water storage tank which measures 20 feet high and 9 feet in diameter. It is covered with 4 inches of fiberglass insulation, canvas, and insulating cement. Chilled water from this storage tank is piped through a duct-coil heat exchanger in the air-handling unit. The absorption chiller and chilled water storage tank are located outside, next to the hot water storage tank.


The auxiliary energy system provides only chilled water for space cooling requirements. The chilled Water is produced by the Central Energy Plant for Walt Disney World which adjoins the solar conditioned building. There is no auxiliary system for space or domestic water heating.


The solar energy system has been fully operational since February 1978. It has been instrumented for performance evaluation and integrated into the National S Iar Data Network.
3








III. SITE AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION


.. . ..




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,I 0 'i-I








Site Description
0 Special topographic or climatic conditions Daily afternoon thunderstorms during the summer

Latitude 280 N

Annual degree days (650 F base)

o Heating 720

o Cooling 3,219

o Data location Orlando, Florida

o Data reference Local Climatological Data Annual Summaries
for 1976, Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration





4







Average horizontal insolation

January 1,204 Btu/ft2/day

July 1,963 Btu/ft 2/day

Data location Tampa, Florida

Data reference Solar Heating Design by the F-Chart Method,
Beckman, Klein, Dufffie, Wiley-lnterscience Publication, 1977.

Site topographic description Flat

Shading None Building Description

Occupancy Office building

Total area Approximately 6,400 ft2

Solar conditioned area 5,625 ft2

Number of stories 2

0 Roof slope Flat

Special features Entire roof area acts as a collector Structure

Walls (Solar conditioned space)

o Frame Concrete block has rebar reinforcement and cores are
poured solid.

o Exterior finish Paint

o Insulation

Wall exposed to outside -2-in. semirigid insulation (R-8) between 2 1/2-in. metal studs with 1/2-in. gypsum board surface that is attached to interior of concrete block wall

Wall adjoining existing building -2-in. semirigid insulation (R-8) between 4 in. metal studs with 1/2-in. gypsum board surface

o Interior finish Paint

o Windows Double-glazed, less than 5% of surface area


5







0 Doors Solid core

0 Roof (integral part of collector)

0 Structural frame Sandwich panel collector spans between
concrete walls.

0 Exterior finish Factory and field pointed

0 Insulation 3 in. isocyanurate foom (R-12) located in the
collector

0 Interior finish Factory and field pointed

0 Protection for roofing Not applicable for solar conditioned
space because collectors cover entire space. Asphalt roofing
strips placed on access roof of adjoining building

0 Floor Reinforced concrete slab on ground floor and ribbed metal
deck and concrete on steel joists (4 ft 0 in. on centers) on second
f loor

Mechanical System

Heating

0 Solar Hot air system

0 Auxiliary None, due to mild climate. However, during extremely cold weather in the winter of 1977-78, heaters were introduced to heat the building by heating the water in the storage tank. This lasted for 2 days and was considered abnormal. Occupancy of the building was given before the solar
system was put into operation.

0 Distribution Zone system with ducts in ceilings

Cooling

0 Description 25-ton chiller operated by water from the storage
tank. Chilled water (42 0 F) is stored in a 10,000 gal cold water
storage tank and circulated to an air-handler unit as needed.

0 Distribution Some as system used for heating

0 Auxiliary Chilled water supplied by the 19,000 ton/hr central
chiller plant

0 Domestic hot water

0 Daily water demand Very small (sinks only)

0 Solar Water is heated by a coil heat exchanger in the hot water
storage tank.

0 Auxiliary None
6







IV. SOLAR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION


A. General Overview

The Reedy Creek Utilities solar energy commercial demonstration project is represented in figure IV-A-I. The major components of the solar system include 3,800 square feet of modular, parabolic, concentrating collectors, 16 movable absorber tubes with a linear actuator, a 10,000-gallon hot water storage tank, a 25-ton water absorption chiller, a 10,000-gallon chilled water storage tank, and pumps.


Subsequent sections describe the collector, storage, storage-to-load, auxiliary energy, and control subsystems. Figures V-B-I and V-B-2 show detailed system schematics. Appendices A and B present a glossary and a legend of symbols.






MUiLTIZOklG
AIR
co ICTroR6NI






XTK V EERY-TO-LAD <1
vsF4V CooLING


COLLCTO STOAG ECOGOT-LADINGat


SUBSYSTEM SUESYSTEM SUBSYSTEM i


Figtu' 1 1-\-I. Ov()c all S\ptrm Sc hcmin tic









7








B. Collector Subsystem



COLLF&TCOR56











COLCTR ___ _____________->

;COLLECTOR


I SUBSYSTEM I






Sixteen parabolic trough reflectors are mounted on the solar conditioned building. Each reflector is 32 feet long and 8 feet wide (7.5-foot chord length). The 0.06 aluminum top and bottom surfaces are insulated with 3 inches of polyisocyanurate foam and have glass mirror strips glued in place with mastic. Saddles support the reflectors which are placed horizontally in an east-west direction. These reflectors replace the conventional roofing and have stiffeners attached to them so that lights, ducts, and sprinklers can be hung in the offices.


The aluminum absorbers are mounted above the reflectors. There is a slight pitch in the reflectors to allow the rain to drain off. The grooved aluminum absorber plate, painted with black epoxy paint, is mechanically attached to the copper absorber tubing. A single glazing of milky-white selective glass covers the absorber plate. Polyisocyanurate foam insulates the copper absorber tubing.





8








The absorbers are supported at both ends by rocker arms and are interconnected horizontally by adjustable tie bars. These tie bars are used to keep the absorbers intact. Consequently, the electric-eye sensor and the linear actuator, which drive the absorbers in a north-south direction, can keep the absorbers in focus. The complete collector assembly, including reflectors, saddles, absorbers, and tracking system, were installed as modular units. Collectors (see figure IV-B-2)

o Type Tracking and concentrating

o Manufacturer AAI Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland

o Number 16

o Collector orientation Collectors run east west

o Angle 00 from horizontal

o Array configuration I row (see figure IV-B-3)
























Figure IV-B-2. View of Collectors and the Mulizone Air-Handling Unit




9








Xmi w ME m M., -W.


pp.-W, 4 '"A m 40t6i








IL












'4+W














C.




OL CL \IV 10








Description of Collector

Reflector (integral with roof) (see figure lV-B-4)

General description Strips of mirrored glass are attached to .060 gage aluminum bowed sandwich panel, shells reinforced with foamed insulation. Reflectors focus light onto absorber plate surface.

Total area of reflector surfaces 3,840 ft 2 Total roof area 3,840 f t2 (32 f t X 120 f t)

Number 16 curved surf aces

Size Each mirrored glass piece is approximately 2 in. X 63 in.
There are six rows of 46 pieces each, per collector.

0 Angle Varies from 0 0 horizontal to approximately 400 from the horizontal
Material Mirrored glass, manufactured by AAI Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland

Adhesive-Mirror Mastic, manufactured by Palmer

Support material .060 aluminum top and bottom bowed panel insulated with 3-in. isocyanurate foam (R-18)

0 Installation Integral with roof

Tracking Arm (Absorber) (see figures IV-B3-4 and IV-B3-5)

General Description The tracking arms are extruded aluminum sections with glazed bottom enclosing absorber-plate copper tubing. Voids are filled with foam insulation. Sixteen absorbers are moved horizontally by a structural metal support mounted above the arms.

Gl azi ng

Number Single pane

Material Selective milk-white glass

Manufacturer ASG Industries, Inc.

Thickness 1/8 in.
















'TIE BAR-2", SQUARE TUBING













FLANGE ON PANEL SUPPORT AA


BUILDING STIFFENERS FOR LIGHTS, BUILDING
WALL DUCTS, AND SPRINKLERS WALL
ANCHOR
EYE PLATE
BOLT A COVER
AA






Figtur I\-B-1,. Sidc and1 Top Vicws of l)pical Rcflector











12





IWOCYAN UKATE IN5ULATI10t




ex mm 1JJ5U4 MILK 4TE- CLA'3S















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Figuire IV-B-5. Sectionial View~s (A the Absorber































Figure IV-B-6. Tracking Arm Assembly for the Drive Motor Connecting 1o the ,i-C
Rods and Absorb~ers
13







Transmittance 9 1%

Reflectance 9% o Absorber plate

Type Crenolated flat-plate

Material Aluminum extrusion

Thickness Varies between 1/4 in. and 3/8 in.

Coating and application Black paint

Absorptance No data available

Emittance No data available o Fluid passage

Material Hand-drawn copper tubing

Bond to absorber Swaged

Manifold location Exterior



o Insulation

Material Isocyanurate foam filling tracking arm voids

R Value 5 1/2 per in. thickness Collector Piping (above roof)

0 Piping between collector to manifold (see figure IV-B-7)

o Material Glass-fiber reinforced plastic hose

o Manufacturer Aeroquip

o Diameter 1/2 in.

o Approximate length per collector 5 ft

o Installation technique Screw lockwasher at connection to collector. Pipe couplings at connection to manifold. Waterproofing clamped top and bottom. (see figure IV-B-8) o Insulation 3/4 in. Wall Armaflex, 1-5/8 in. inside diameter over both supply and return pipe, manufactured by Armstrong



14










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'---- -..ARMAPLEX lM5UL-A-nOlQ FL.6XL.IWF..PI Pe COJPLl M Gr VI.b. .4"DIA. CIRCLJ IT 5F-TMK


OLL.E;tK AMD 64JPPOKT pipe DRACKE-;T





IV-11-7- Piping liciv"cell IIIc Collcc(or and Mallifold 15





0 Waterproofing Weather-protector hose (weatherproof plastic
on a spiral wire)

* Manifold and branch piping

0 Piping configuration Direct return

0 Material Carbon steel

0 Size Varies from 2 in. to 3 in.

0 Approximate total length 240 f t

0 Insulation 1 1/2 in. fiberglass batt (R-6), 3 lb/ft3 density with
vapor carrier and Kraft paper jacket

0 Waterproofing .016 in. aluminum jacket

0 Supply piping support Pipe rests on rollers and supports that
are held up by a metal angle f rame

0 Return piping support Same as supply-piping support

* Air venting piping Integral within tracking receiver






























Figure I B-8. Piping Connection mt Manifold 16






" Vents

0 Manual Simple petcock on each collector. Located in
collector (Note: requires use of a cherry-picker for maintenance or adjustment.)

" Valves

0 Balance Type Crane (USA) OS and Y (outside stem and
yoke) gate valves and Bell and Gossett "Circuit Setters"

0 Shutoff Type Honeywell spring-loaded automatic control
valve, Demco, pneumatic valves, and Rockwell plug valves










































17






C. Storage Subsystem

















i i STORAGE1

I SUBSYSTEM'I





General Description
Two 10,000-gallon storage tanks are located on a concrete slab next to the main entrance for the solar conditioned offices and are protected overhead by the reflectors. The tanks have a 9-foot diameter and are 20 feet high. The hot water storage tank is covered with 5 inches of fiberglass insulation. The cold water storage tank is covered with 4 inches of fiberglass insulation. Both tanks are protected'with canvas and insulating cement.

Tanks (see figures IV-C-2 and IV-C-3)

o Location Outside building under roof of main entrance; on concrete grade slab
o Capacity 10,000 gal for each tank



18




















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3 3


F~ nsul Pum PColanvaor 3ra1'

-6k




74








Domestic Hot
Water tube
bundle 7 1 TI



-\ x ,3 ft from chiller
0 ) md chilled
water coil e MAHLE00 2 C VSto Punop P1
T203 3





Steel2t Concrete CIloor





lig Lir IX'-(:-2. I lot Watci St()Idgc Tank 19







1" VENT




FROM TO
A.H.U. P4
T204 *o 5T6


2-1/2" 3"
9'-0"




6'-9"

4"
fiberglass 22'-6"
wrapped in T205 canvas








7 '-9"
TO FROM
A.H.U. MANHOLE CHILLER
MANHOLE


2-1/2" 18 3"
0 T7
*o --
T206
4''



2 DRAIN





Figmy IV-C-. Co l \\a r Stonig-( Tnk



20







Size 9-f t diameter x 21.5 f t high

Construction 1/2 in. steel by Plant City Steel Co.

0 Rated working pressure 125 psi at 6250 F

0 Insulation

Hot water storage tank 5 in. of fiberglass (R-21) wrapped by
canvas and covered with insulating cement

Cold water storage tank 4 in. of fiberglass (R-17) wrapped by
canvas and covered with insulating cement

0 Waterproofing Enamel point

0 Installation Resting vertically with four steel legs on concrete grade
f loor

0 Immersed coils Domestic water heater

0 Piping connections Threaded pipe toppings welded to tank

9 Sensor probe installation Set in plastic pipe fittings






























21







D. Energy-to-Load Subsystem

MAULTIZONS
AIR
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I Ji SLBSYSTEMi


lFigmyr -D)-1. Enelrgy-to)-Lo(ad Sublsyste'm

General Description
Domestic hot water is provided by passing city water through a coil heat exchanger in the hot water storage tank. A thermostatic mixing valve mixes cold water with the hot water so that the supply hot water temperature does not exceed 1400 F.


Space heating is provided by circulating hot water from the hot water storage tank to a duct-coil heat exchanger in an air-handling unit. Space cooling is supplied by circulating chilled water through a separate coil in the air-handling unit. The two story office building has two zones, one for each floor so that each floor is conditioned separately. The air-handling unit also can exhaust the return air from the building and bring in outdoor air via an energy-efficient enthalpy cycle in the space cooling mode.






22









The auxiliary energy system only provides space cooling. Chilled water from the Central Energy Plant is piped to the duct coil in the air-handling unit.

1. Space Heating

General Description Solar space heating is accomplished by
circulating hot water from the hot storage tank through a coil in the Trane multizone air-handling unit. The fan of the Trane unit blows room-return air through the coil and to the spaces. Valve V-7 regulates the amount of hot water flowing through the coil. Pump P-2 is an in-line circulator, mounted in the exposed piping above the
roof.

Piping (interior and exterior) Steel

0 Water-to-air heating coil

0 Manuf act urer /ModelI No. Trane/Series 15, I-row

0 Rating 40,600 Btu/hr

o Inlet water temperature 225o 0p

0 Water flow 5.6 gal/mmn

Automatic Valve (V-7)

0 Type Pneumatic, two-way modulating

0 Manufacturer Honeywell

Pump (P-2)

0 Type Centrifugal in-line

0 Manufacturer /ModelI No. Bell & Gossett/60-l IS/I l/4AA

0 Horsepower 1/3 hp

0 Head -25 ft

2. Space Cooling

9 General Description Solar space cooling is provided by an Arkla 25
ton, lithium-bromide absorption chiller. Condenser water for the Arkla chiller is provided from the cooling tower system in the Central Energy Plant for the Reedy Creek Utilities Company, Inc.
Hot water at temperatures ranging from 1600 F to 2 10 F is circulated between the hot storage tank and the chiller generator by pump P-3. Temperature regulating valve V-5 is set to keep the water supply to the chiller at 180' F for optimum coefficient of


23








performance. The chilled water is circulated by pump P-4 between the chiller evaporator and a 10,000 gallon cold storage tank. The solar collection system operates 7 days per week and this tank enables chilled water to be stored during weekends and holidays when there is little demand for cooling. Chilled water is circulated between the cold storage tank and a coil in the Trane multizone air handler by pump P-5, and valve V-8 regulates the amount of water flowing through the coil. Pump P-6 circulates tower header and the chiller absorber. Valve V-6 maintains the entering condenser water
temperature at 850 F.

* Piping (interior and exterior) Steel

0 Water-to-air cooling coil

o Manufacturer/Model No. Trane/Series 15, 6-row

o Rating 173,200 Btu/hr

o Inlet water temperature 450 F

o Water flow 35 gal/min

* Pump (P-3)

o Type Centrifugal, base mounted

o Manufacturer/Model No. Worthington/D812

o Horsepower 3 hp

o Flow rate 90 gal/min

o Head 70 ft

* Pump (P-4)

o Type- Centrifugal, base mounted

o Manufacturer/Model No. Worthington/D812

o Horsepower I 1/2 hp o Flow rate 60 gal/min

o Head 40 ft

0 Pump (P-5)

o Type Centrifugal, in-line

o Manufacturer/Model No. Worthington/D 1130




24









Horsepower I hp

o Flow rate 35 gal/min

Head 35ft

* Pump (P-6)

0 Type Centrifugal, base mounted

0 Manufacturer /ModelI No. Worth ington/D812

0 Horsepower 5 hp

0 Flow rate 90 gal/min

0 Head-I120f t

0 Automatic Valves (V-1, V-2, V-3, and V-4)

0 Type Pneumatic, two-way

0 Manufacturer Demco

Automatic Valve (V-5)

o Type Pneumatic, three-way, modulating

0 Manufacturer Honeywell

* Automatic Valves (V-6, V-8)

0 Type Pneumatic, two-way, modulating

o Manufacturer Honeywell

Chiller

0 Type Absorption, lithium bromide packaged water cooler

0 Manuf ac turer /ModelI No. Arkla

0 Dimensions 69 in. H x 45 in. D x 114 in. W

0 Weight 3420 lbs

0 Operating conditions

-Delivered capacity 306,000 Btu/hr (25.5 tons)

Inlet hot water temperature 160 0 to 200 0 F




25








Hot water flow 90 gal/min Hot water A P 20.7 f t Heat rejection 447,000 Btu/hr Condensing entering water temperature 85 0 to 90' F Condensing leaving water temperature 95 0 to 1000 F Condensing water A P 22.9 ft, at 90 gal/min Chilled entering water temperature 55 0 F Chilled leaving water temperature 45 0 F Chilled water flow rate 60 gal/min Chilled water A P- 9.8ft

0 Cooling Tower

0 Type Forced draft

0 Manufacturer Ceramic Cooling Towers

0 Capacity 19,000 tons

3. Auxiliary Cooling

0 General Description Auxiliary cooling is necessary only during long
periods of overcast sky when the hot water storage temperature drops below 160 0 F. Automatic valves V- I and V-2 close, valves V-3 and V-4 open, and chilled water from the central chilling plant, is
pumped to the air-handling unit cooling coil.




















26








E. Control Subsystem


DTC = Differential Temp.
Control ler S PACE
HEATING
CR =Controlling Receiver rrJ" ZLT THERMOSTAT
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SUBSYSTEM SUSYTEM SUBSYSTEM






Iw Solar Energy Collection Mode

General Description The absorber tubes are focused only after silicon optical devices determine that the insulation is greater than a certain threshold level. This threshold level is determined as the minic th tensity needed so that the solar energy transferred to the heat transfer medium exceeds the electricity used in bringing the absorbers in focus. When the absorber plate temperature is 10asF warmer than the bottom of the hot water storage tank, pump P-s is activated. After in initial 10-minute interval, the system
will remain in the solar energy collection mode until the temperature differential between the water at the collector outlet and the water at the collector inlet is less than 1 F. The overheat protection system starts whenever the sensors on the absorber indicate that the absorber temperature is above 2400 F. The absorbers will be driven to their southernmost limit. When the absorber temperature has dropped below 2400 F, the absorbers are sent back into a focusing position, of ter the alarm is shut off with a
manual reset.



27







2. Space Heating Mode

0 General Description Water from the hot water storage tank is
circulated through the heating duct-coil in the air handier whenever (1) a differential pressure switch across the air handier indicates that the fan is on; and (2) the temperature in either of the two zones (first floor or second floor) is below 70 0 F. The fan is programmed to operate daily from 7:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday. The building is occupied daily from 7:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday. Thus, space heating is provided only when
the building is occupied. There is no backup heating system.

3. Domestic Water Heating Mode

0 General Description Domestic hot water is heated by passing city
water through a coil in the hot water storage tank. A thermostatic mixing valve is placed after the coil to mix cold water with the hot water so that the domestic hot water temperature does not exceed
140 0 F. There is no backup system.

4. Water Chilling Mode

General Description Water from the chilled water storage tank is chilled by an absorption chiller. The chiller is started when the temperature at the bottom of the chilled water storage tank is above 570 F and the temperature of the hot water storage tank is above 180 0 F. Hot water is passed through the generator in the chiller and chilled water is circulated through the evaporator.
Condenser water is piped to the main cooling towers in the Central Energy Plant adjoining the solar conditioned building. The chiller shuts off when either the hot water temperature is below 1600 F or
the chilled water storage tank temperature is below 45 0 F.

5. Space Cooling Mode

General Description Space cooling is supplied by circulating water from the bottom of the chilled water storage tank through the cooling duct coil in the air-handler unit. This mode operates whenever the chilled water storage tank temperature is below 57 0 F and the room temperature is above 76 0 F. Furthermore, the differential pressure switch must show that the air-handling fan is on. The auxiliary cooling system is actuated if the room temperature is above 800 F and the chilled water temperature is above 57 0 F. Chilled water from the Central Energy Plant is passed through the cooling duct coil for 30 minutes and is automatically turned off. This time delay allows the solar system to lower the chilled water temperature to below 57 0 F. If this does not occur and the room temperature rises above 80 0 F, the auxiliary cooling
system cycles for another 30 minute interval.






28









V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTATION


A. The National Solar Data Network


The National Solar Data Network (see figure V-A- I) has been developed for the Department of Energy to process data collected from specific commercial demonstration sites which were selected for thermal performance evaluation. The data flow in the Network is shown in figure V-A-2. Products from the Network include monthly and seasonal system-per formaonce reports describing the thermal performance of the solar energy system and subsystems.


The performance evaluation instrumentation at each selected demonstration site is part Of a comprehensive data collection system that allows for valid analyses of the solar system performance. Collected data are both applicable and practical in calculating thermal performance factors that describe the behavior of the solar system (see NBSIR 76-1137, National Bureau of Standards). Additional instrumentation may also be included as a result of site-specific requirements. Typically, the instrumentation includes sensors that monitor the following:

Total insolation in the plane of the collector array

'Ambient temperature

Collector subsystem flow rate and temperatures

Storage inlet flow rate and temperatures

0 Storage outlet flow rate and temperatures

Storage temperature

Storage-to-load subsystem flow rate and temperatures

Auxiliary fuel flow rates

Site data are recorded automatically at prescribed intervals by the Site Data Acquisition System (SDAS). The recorded data are transmitted daily to the Communications Processor in the Central Data Processing System (CDPS). The communications link between every SDAS and the CDPS consists of voice-grade telephone lines and telephone data couplers. A reading is transmitted from the




29











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31







SDAS internal timer with every data sample to ensure that the data are timetagged correctly.


The Communications Processor scans the receiving data to identify any apparent transmission errors and verifies correct site contact by checking the address code transmitted by the SDAS. Data are stored temporarily in the Communications Processor and processed by the Host Computer. The processing includes measurement checking to ensure that the data are reasonable; that is, that they are not beyond the known instrument limits and they they are not erratic. Data which appear questionable are discarded and are not used in the solar system performance analyses.


Appropriate equations were formulated and programmed to define desired performance factors for the solar energy systems at each selected demonstration site. A performance factor is a number that describes either the efficiency or the quantity of energy lost, gained, or converted by a solar energy system or by a component. All valid data are processed using these performance factor equations to generate hourly performance factors. Hourly performance factors are integrated into daily and monthly performance factors. These hourly, daily, and monthly performance factors are stored in data files in the CDPS. These data files also include measurement data, expressed in engineering units; numerical and textual site identification; and specific site data used in generating the performance factors.


B. Onsite Instrumentation


The onside instrumentation includes sensors to monitor the various parameters of the solar energy system, a junction box, and a Site Data Acquisition System that stores and transmits data to the Host Computer (see figure V-A-I and V-A-2). Specific information for temperature, flow, power, and miscellaneous sensors is presented in tables V-B- I through V-13-4, respectively. Sensor locations are shown in figures V-B- I and V-13-2.








32








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38









IV. APPENDIX


A. Glossary


ABSORBER PLATE The surface in a flat-plate collector that absorbs incident solar radiation and transfers the absorbed energy to a heat transfer fluid. ABSORPTANCE The ratio of absorbed radiation by a surface to the total incident radiation on that surface.
ABSORPTION SUBSYSTEM The mechanical equipment that conditions indoor air by on absorption process.
ACTIVE SOLAR SYSTEM An integrated solar energy system, consisting of collector, storage, solar energy-to-lood subsystems, that can condition indoor air or preheat domestic hot water in a controlled manner. AIR-BASED SOLAR COLLECTOR SYSTEM A solar energy system in which air is the heat transfer fluid.
AIR CONDITIONING The process of treating indoor air by controlling the temperature, humidity, and distribution to specified comfort settings as set by the occupants in the conditioned space.
AMBIENT AIR A term for outdoor air, which May be brought into G building to be conditioned or circulated.
'ANTIFREEZE FREEZE PROTECTION SYSTEM A freeze protection system that uses a solution of water and glycol. This solution depresses its freezing point sufficiently to prevent possible water freeze in Solar collectors and exterior piping.
AUXILIARY ENERGY SUBSYSTEM The equipment which uses conventional energy sources to supplement the output provided by a solar energy system and to provide a full backup system when the solar system is inoperable. BACKFLOW The unintentional reversal of flow in G potable water distribution system by foreign or toxic substances that may contaminate the potable water. BACKFLOW PREVENTER A device or means to stop backf low. BEAM RADIATION Solar radiation which is not scattered and may be concentrated.
BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (Btu) A unit of energy that is required to heat one pound of water from 590 F to 600 F.




39







BUILDING ENVELOPE The exterior surface of a building that encloses the conditioned space.
CLIMATE The prevailing or average weather conditions of a specific geographic region as described by temperature and other meteorological data. COLLECTOR MANIFOLD The piping that connects the absorber tubes in a collector plate.
COLLECTOR PLATE A term used for an absorber Plate. COLLECTOR SUBSYSTEM The assembly that absorbs incident solar radiation and transfers the absorbed thermal energy to a heat transfer fluid. COMBINED COLLECTORS An assembly that both collects incident solar radiation and stores the thermal energy in the same unit. CONCENTRATING SOLAR COLLECTOR A solar collector which focuses beam radiation onto an absorber to obtain higher energy fluxes than can normally be achieved by flat-plate Solar collectors.
CONCENTRATOR A reflective surface or refracting lens used in directing insulation onto an absorber.
CONDITIONED SPACE The space in a building that has the air conditioned for heating and cooling.
CONTROL SUBSYSTEM The assembly of electric, pneumatic, and hydraulic actuated sensing devices used in regulating the solar energy system and the auxiliary energy subsystem.
COOLING TOWER A heat exchanger that transfers waste heat from an absorption cooling system to ambient air.
DIFFUSE RADIATION Solar radiation which is scattered by air molecules, dust, or water droplets and cannot be focused.
DRAIN-DOWN FREEZE PROTECTION SYSTEM A freeze protection system that prevents potential water freeze problems by automatically opening a valve to drain the solar collectors and exterior piping. Air is used for some systems, nitrogen for others.
DUCT HEATING COIL A liquid-to-air heat exchanger in the duct distribution system used to heat air by passing a hot fluid into a coil in the airstream. EMITTANCE The ratio of energy radiated by a body to the energy radiated by a blGckbody at the some temperature.
EQUIVALENT FULL LOAD COOLING HOURS The seasonal cooling load for G building described as the total number of hours that the air conditioning system will operate under full load conditions to meet the required cooling load.



40








EXPANSION TANK A tank which will permit water to expand whenever it is heated to prevent excessive pressures on the other system components. FIXED COLLECTOR A solar collector permanently oriented toward the sun which cannot track the sun nor be adjusted for seasonal variations. FLAT-PLATE COLLECTOR A basic heat collection device used in solar heating systems, which consists of an absorber plate, with insulated bottom and sides, and is covered by one or more transparent covers. There are no concentrators or focusing aids in a flat-plate collector.
FOCUSING COLLECTOR A solar collector which uses a parabolic mirror, Fresnel lens or other type of focusing device to concentrate solar radiation onto an absorber.
FRESNEL COLLECTOR A concentrating solar collector which uses a Fresnel lens to focus beam radiation onto an absorber. GLAZING The transparent cover(s) on a solar collector used to reduce the energy losses from the top of the collector. HEAT TRANSFER FLUID The fluid that transfers solar energy from the solar collector to the storage subsystem or to the load. INCIDENCE ANGLE The angle at which the insolation strikes a surface and the normal for that surface.
INSOLATION The total amount of solar radiation on a surface in a given unit of time.
LAMINATED GLASS A glazing consisting of multiple glass sheets bonded together by intervening layer or layers of plastic. LANGLEY The standard unit of insolation defined as I langley = I cal/cm 2(1 langley = 3.69 Btu/ft 2).
LIQUID-BASED SOLAR COLLECTOR SYSTEM A solar energy system in which either water or an antifreeze solution is the heat transfer fluid. LOAD The total space conditioning or domestic water heating requirements that are supplied by both the solar energy system and the auxiliary energy subsystem. NOCTURNAL RADIATION The loss of thermal energy by the solar collectors to the sky at night.
NO-FLOW CONDITION The condition obtained when the heat transfer fluid is not flowing through the collector array due to shutdown or malfunction. OPAQUE A surface that is not transparent, thus solar radiation is either reflected or absorbed.




41








OUTGASSING The emission of gases by materials and components, usually during exposure to elevated temperature or reduced pressure. PACKAGE AIR-CONDITIONING UNIT A factory-made assembly consisting of an indoor coil, a compressor, an outdoor coil, and other components needed for space cooling operations. Unit may also include additional components to heat the conditioned space.
PARABOLIC FOCUSING COLLECTOR A concentrating collector which focuses beam radiation by a parabolic reflector.
PASSIVE SOLAR SYSTEM An integrated solar energy system that can provide for space heating needs without use of an energy source other than the sun. PEBBLE BED A storage tank using uniform-sized pebbles to store solar energy in air-based solar collector systems.
REFLECTANCE The ratio of radiation reflected by a surface to the total incident radiation on the surface.
REFLECTED RADIATION Insolation which is reflected from a surface, such as the ground, and is incident on the solar collector. SELECTIVE SURFACE A surface which has a high absorptance for solar radiation and a low emittance for thermal radiation. SOLAR CONDITIONED SPACE The area in a building that depends on solar energy to provide a fraction of its heating and cooling needs. SOLAR HEATING SYSTEM An integrated assembly- of collector, storage, solar energy-to-load, and control subsystems required to convert solar energy into thermal energy for space heating requirements--also includes an auxiliary backup system.
SOLAR RETROFIT The addition of a solar energy system to an existing structure.
STORAGE SUBSYSTEM The components used to store solar energy for use in heating or cooling air, or heating water during period of low insolation. STRATIFICATION The horizontal layering by a fluid due to temperature differentials, commonly noticed in storage tanks filled with Water. THERMOSTAT A temperature dependent sensor which controls either the heating and cooling systems for space conditioning or the hot Water heater. TON OF REFRIGERATION A unit of refrigeration equivalent to 12,000 Btu/hr. TRACKING COLLECTOR A solar energy collector that constantly moves to follow the path of the sun.




42







VAPOR BARRIER A material which is used to reduce the transmission of water vapor.
ZONE Portions of a conditioned space which use a common control because of their similar heating and cooling requirements.
















































43






B. Legend for Wakr System Schematics

VALVES PIPING SPECIALITIES

GATE VALVE AUTOMATIC AIR VENT
-N- CHECK VALVE MANUAL AIR VENT
-C)---- BALANCING VALVE ALIGNMENT GUIDE
-~--- GLOBE VALVE -(-- ANCHOR
BALL VALVE BALL JOINT
PLUG VALVE ~ EXPANSION JOINT
BACKFLOW PREVENTER EXPANSION LOOP
VACUUM BREAKER -- FLEXIBLE CONNECTION
-k~2- RELIEF OR SAFETY -If- FLOWMETER FITTING
-~-- PRESSURE REDUCING FS FLOW SWITCH
...2....PS.. PRESSURE SWITCH ANGLE GATE VALVE PRESSURE GAUGE
-rb--PUMP
41NGLE GLOVE VALVE PIPE SLOPE

o -+~1- STRAINER
CONTROL VALVE, 2 WAY STRAINER, W/BLOW OFF

o -a----TRAP
CONTROL VALVE, 3WAY *C CONTROL SENSOR
INSTRUMENTATION SENSOR
BUTTERFLY VALVEIf

4 WAY VALVE THERMOMETER

FITTINGS -I THERMOMETER WELL ONLY

DIRECTION OF FLOW CW>- COLD WATER SUPPLY
31 CAP
-*------ REDUCER, CONCENTRIC
REDUCER, ECCENTRIC AS AIR SEPARATOR
TEE EXP TK EXPANSION TANK
-41--- UNION SWTRSFER
~ ~. FLANGED CONNECTIONWSATROFER
CONNECTION, BOTTOM HED HOSE END DRAIN
CONNECTION, TOP
-v ELBOW, TURNED UP
ELBOW, TURNED DOWN
-..-~.--.. TEE, OUTLET UP
-6-- TEE, OUTLET DOWN

44




UNIVI WATY OF I I 01i I



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