Effect of DDT and chlordane applied to control Japanese beetle larvae on the yield of grass, rye, soybeans and corn

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Material Information

Title:
Effect of DDT and chlordane applied to control Japanese beetle larvae on the yield of grass, rye, soybeans and corn
Physical Description:
9 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Fleming, Walter E ( Walter Ernest ), 1899-
Maines, Warren W., 1911-
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Japanese beetle -- Control   ( lcsh )
DDT (Insecticide)   ( lcsh )
Chlordan   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-839."
General Note:
"June 1952."
Statement of Responsibility:
by W.E. Fleming and W.W. Maines.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030338605
oclc - 28297412
System ID:
AA00025242:00001

Full Text
_" i P,'?Z.:-,,C? -y
STA A-i
June 1952 E-839

United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine



EFFECT OF DDT AND CHLORDANE APPLIED TO CONTROL
JAPANESE BEETLE LARVAE ON THE YIELD OF GRASS,
RYE, SOYBEANS, AND CORN

By W. E. Fleming and W. W. Maines1/
Division of Fruit Insect Investigations


DDT at the rate of 25 pounds per acre or chlordane at 10 pounds per
acre, mixed intimately with the upper 3 inches of soil, is authorized for
the treatment of beds and plots in commercial nurseries that are under
quarantine because of the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newm..
These toxicants are recommended also for application to-the surface of
established turf to protect it from damage by this insect.--
Large areas of turf are treated with these toxicants, and rye, soy-
beans, and corn are used by commercial nurseries in rotations for soil
improvement. In 1947 an experiment was undertaken to simulate these
applications of chlordane and DDT to large areas, maintaining them
according to accepted procedure, to determine the effect of the toxicants
on growth of the crops. This experiment was concluded in 1951 after four
growing seasons and the results are presented in this report.

Establishment of Field Plots

A 3-acre field at Moorestown, N.J., that had not been under cultiva-
tion for several years was selected for this experiment. The soil in
this field is sassafras sandy loam, which is used in the production of
general farm crops and nursery stock in southern New Jersey. A light-
brown sandy loam about 6 inches deep, with a scattering of well-rounded
quartz gravel throughout, rests on a sandy clay subsoil. Drainage is well
established. Analysis--of this soil showed that the pH was 5.0 and that it
was relatively low in organic matter, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium.


1/ The writers acknowledge the assistance of L.W. Coles, C. A.
Perkins, H.W. Strabel, and A.R. Whitcraft, of the Japanese Beetle
Laboratory, Moorestown, N.J., in conducting this investigation.
2/ Fleming, W. E. 1950. Protection of turf from damage by
Japanese beetle grubs. U.S. Dept. Agr. Leaflet 290, 8 pp.
3/ Made by the Soil Testing Laboratory, New Jersey Agricultural
t Experiment Station, New Brunswick, N.J.





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During the summer of 1947 an area 330 by 340 feet in this field was
plowed, harrowed, and graded. It was kept relatively free of weeds by
frequent cultivation. In September, in order to have established turf
available for treatment the following spring, a mixture of grasses and
clover was sown at the rate of 190 pounds per acre by means of a 10-foot
tractor-drawn spreader to a strip 330 feet long and 100 feet wide on the
southerly side of the area. This mixture, recommended by the New
Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, contained 45 percent of Kentucky
blue grass, 25 percent of redtop, 10 percent of Colonial bent, 15 percent
of rye grass, and 5 percent of white clover. After the seed was sown,
the ground was rolled lightly to compact the soil and stimulate germina-
tion. A deficiency of rain that fall was not favorable to the new grass,
but by the spring of 1948 the turf was well established and ready for
application of insecticides.
The problem was how to lay out the experimental plots so that the
spreader could be used to apply the insecticides in the same manner as
used in commercial nurseries and on large turf areas. Accordingly,
the field, including both turf and cultivated portion, was divided into
11 strips, each 30 feet wide and extending northward 340 feet.
By trial and error over a distance of 435 feet, the spreader was
adjusted to deliver approximately 250 pounds of 10-percent DDT or 200
pounds of 5-percent chlordane per acre. The DDT dust was applied
once to strips 1 and 7 and twice to strips 2 and 8; the chlordane dust
was applied once to strips 4 and 10 and twice to strips 5 and 11. Strips
3 and 9 were left untreated as checks, and strip 6 was left untreated to
serve as a barrier between the replicated plots. The pattern of each
application was in the form of parallel ribbons of material, about 2
inches apart, across the field. When two applications were made these
ribbons tended to merge. It appeared that a uniform distribution was
obtained with all treatments.
With each application the amount of dust put into the hopper was
recorded, and when the operation was completed the material remaining
in the hopper was removed and weighed. The amount of toxicant applied
in each treatment was calculated and expressed as pounds per acre. It
was found that the equivalent of 25 pounds of DDT per acre had been
applied to strips 1 and 7, and of 60 pounds per acre to strips 2 and 8.
The equivalent of 10 pounds of chlordane per acre had been applied to
strips 4 and 10 and of 19 pounds per acre to strips 5 and 11. The toxi-
cants applied to established turf were left on the surface of the ground;
in the cultivated area the toxicants were mixed immediately by cultiva-
tion with the upper 3 inches of the soil.
The arrangement provided for duplicate plots, each 30 by 100 feet,
on turf and for two pairs of plots, each 30 by 40 feet, for each treat-
ment in the cultivated areas. These plots are referred to as A, B, C,
and D in the tables. It seemed to be the only arrangement possible for





-3-


use with the tractor-drawn equipment, but it had the disadvantage that
without randomization of the treatments proper compensation could not
be made for variations in the soil throughout the plots. It is believed,
however, that from a practical viewpoint this experimental design was
adequate to determine whether these treatments had any serious effect
on the crops.

Planting and Rotation of Crops

The rye, soybeans, and corn were each planted in two adjacent strips,
each 40 feet wide, extending across the strips of the treatments described
previously. The adjacent strips of a crop were separated by a noncount
row, or swath. The seed bed was prepared for each crop by disking to
a depth of 3 inches to avoid distributing the toxicants mechanically to a
lower level.
Spring rye, a grain-producing type not so tall or so plump as the
common winter rye, was broadcast at the rate of 100 pounds per acre
on April 19, 1948, April 12, 1949, and May 11, 1950. In 1948 and 1949
good stands were obtained, but in 1950 the planting was so delayed by the
cold wet spring that the crop was a failure. It was decided to use the
common winter rye in 1951. This seed was sown on October 10, 1950,
and a good stand was obtained.
Soybeans of the Black Wilson type were broadcast at the rate of 2
bushels per acre on May 10, 1948. A good Stand was obtained, but so
many weeds developed that the crop could not be harvested in a satis-
factory manner. Thereafter the soybeans were sown in rows 36 inches
apart, the seed about 3 inches apart in the rows, so that the plants could
be cultivated. Twenty-five rows, including the middle barrier row, were
sown on May 12, 1949, June 6, 1950, and June 4, 1951.
The hybrid field corn, Funk G-94, was planted in rows 42 inches
apart, the seed about 15 inches apart in the rows. Twenty-one rows,
including the middle barrier row, were sown on May 10, 1948, May 13,
1949, June 6, 1950, and June 4, 1951.
The rotation of these field crops was rye, soybeans, corn, and rye,
so that, except for the first and the fourth years, each crop was planted
in a different strip across the treated plots.

Soil-Fertility Program

Although sassafras sandy loam is one of the important agricultural
soils, it is necessary to add organic matter, lime, and commercial
fertilizers to grow crops or grass in a satisfactory manner. The organic
matter in the cultivated area has been built up gradually during the 4
years by shredding and disking the crops into the soil and by incorpo-
rating a cover crop into the soil in the spring. Rye grass was used as
the cover crop over the winter of 1948-49, but because of the difficulty





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of killing this crop and mixing it with the upper 3 inches of soil by disking,
the use of rye grass was discontinued. Winter wheat was found to be more
satisfactory under these conditions.
Each spring lime was applied to the established turf and to the culti-
vated area. In 1948 hydrated lime was used at the rate of 800 pounds per
acre. In subsequent years ground limestone was used, 500 pounds per
acre in 1949, 1,000 pounds in 1950, and 800 pounds in 1951. With this
program of liming, the pH of the soil was maintained between 6.0 and 6.5.
A commercial 5-10-10 fertilizer was applied twice each year, the
first treatment in the spring to the turf and cultivated area, and the
second later in the season as a side-dressing to the corn and soybeans
in the following amounts:
Pounds per acre
Spring Later in season
1948 1,000 500 (corn only)
1949 600 250
1950 and 1951 500 250

Harvesting of Crops

When the rye had made full growth and the heads were maturing, the
plants were cut at the surface of the ground in 4-foot swaths with a
tractor-powered sickle bar. The swaths in each plot were collected and
weighed. Then the cuttings were spread over the plot and disked into the
soil.
The soybeans were cut at the surface of the ground when they had
made good growth and the pods had formed. Each 30-foot row in each
plot was cut and weighed. These cuttings were then spread over the
plot and incorporated into the soil.
The weight of the husked ears of corn was used for comparison between
plots. When the corn matured, late in September or early in October, the
ears were removed, husked, counted, and weighed. The stalks were then
shredded and incorporated into the soil.
Periodically as required the grass on the turf plots was mowed with
a power mower and the clippings were left on the ground. During June
of each year, when the turf was in its best condition, the grass was cut
and the clippings were collected by means of an 18-inch hand mower
equipped with a grass catcher. The clippings were then weighed.

Discussion of Results

The green weights of the rye, soybeans, grass, and of the mature
ears of husked corn in the plots to which the different treatments had
been applied are summarized in tables 1 and 2.





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In 1948 the rye in all plots germinated normally but the seedlings in
the plots treated with DDT had an abnormal purple color. Although this
color gradually disappeared, the growth of the rye was visibly retarded.
At harvest it was evident that the application of DDT to the soil had
definitely reduced the green weight of the crop. In 1949 and 1951, although
some discoloration and retardation of the seedlings were evident, there
was nothing to indicate that the application of DDT up to 60 pounds per
acre had modified the green weight at harvest. During the 4 years there
was nothing to indicate that applications of chlordane up to 19 pounds per
acre had any detrimental effect on the growth of the rye.
The application of DDT at rates up to 60 pounds per acre and of
chlordane at rates up to 19 pounds per acre appeared to have no signifi-
cant effect on the growth of soybeans, corn, or mixed grasses.
This experiment should not be considered as a study of the phyto-
toxicity of ehese insecticides to these plants. As the chemical analyses
of the soil- showed that practically all the DDT and chlordane had re-
mained within the upper 3 inches during the 4 years following the appli-
cation, it would be expected that when the roots penetrated below this
layer the plants would grow fairly normally.

Summary

DDT or chlordane mixed with the upper 3 inches of soil is authorized
for the treatment of beds and plots in commercial nurseries that are
quarantined because of the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newm.).
Applied to the surface, these toxicants are recommended also for the
protection of turf from damage by this insect.
A 4-year study was made of the effect of these toxicants applied in
this manner on growth of grass, rye, soybeans, and corn. The green
weights of the crops in the treated plots were compared with the weights
in the untreated plots. It was found that, except for a retardation in the
growth of rye with DDT the first year, the application of DDT up to 60
pounds per acre, or of chlordane up to 19 pounds per acre, had no detri-
mental effect on these crops. Since the roots of these plants penetrated
below the treated layer of soil, this experiment should be considered as
a study of the reactions of crops under this special condition rather than
a general study of the phytotoxicity of DDT and chlordane to these crops.



4/ These analyses were made by R. D. Chisholm and L. Koblitsky,
of the Division of Insecticide Investigations.






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Table 1. --Effect of applying DDT for control of Japanese beetle larvae
on green weight of rye, soybeans, corn, and grass


Rye 1948 25 42 40 42 40 41.0
60 24 29 34 29 29.0
None 85 72 84 68 77.3


1949



1951


Soybeans


1949


1950



1951


Corn
(ears)


1948


1949



1950



1951


25
60
None

25
60
None
25
60
None

25
60
None

25
60
None

25
60
None

25
60
None
25
60
None

25
60
None


173
223
210

146
130
124
262
281
291

194
205
223

135
125
113

225
252
230

139
124
111
185
195
191

129
183
208


223
221
229

91
85
121
297
297
295

217
194
221

180
156
177

232
245
226

138
143
124
168
184
189

189
200
207


167
165
191

106
76
91
237
234
260

194
200
210

164
109
130

199
219
185

136
117
124
169
169
180

128
140
130


152
150
172

97
81
91
254
207
251

197
202
202

192
164
177

222
221
236

152
153
142
168
156
160

132
145
172


178.8
189.8
200.5

110.0
93.0
106.8
262.5
254.8
274.3

200.5
200.3
214.0

167.8
138.5
149.3

219.5
234.3
219.3

141.3
134.3
125.3
172.5
176.0
180.0

144.5
167.0
179.3





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Table 1. --(Continued)


Pounds Green weight in pounds per plot
Crop Year DDT
per acre Plot A Plot B Plot C Plot D Average


Grass


1948


1949



1950



1951


60
None

25
60
None

25
60
None

25
60
None


85.5
88.0
69.0

74.0
81.5
60.0

35.0
38.5
31.5

77.0
73.0
79.5






-8-


Table 2. --Effect of applying chlordane for control of Japanese beetle
larvae on green weight of rye, soybeans, corn, and grass


Rye 1948 11 74 79 82 62 74.3
19 69 64 74 64 67.8
None 85 72 84 68 77.3


1949



1951


Soybeans


1949


1950



1951


Corn
(ears)


1948


1949



1950



1951


11
19
None

11
19
None

11
19
None

11
19
None

11
19
None
11
19
None

11
19
None
11
19
None
11
19
None


207
172
210

103
147
124

285
312
291

236
205
223

133
164
113
216
208
230

126
132
111
192
198
191
141
130
208


211
175
229

147
140
121

306
345
295

199
211
221

137
175
177
238
237
226

106
116
124
193
206
189
173
137
207


173
178
191

96
92
91

280
269
260

198
211
210

144
155
130
173
185
185

149
149
124
184
190
180
110
120
130


163
181
172

103
118
91

276
312
251

196
210
202

165
168
177
246
233
236

142
144
142
170
194
160
153
174
172


188.5
176.5
200.5

112.3
124.3
106.8

286.8
309.5
274.3

207.3
209.3
214.0

144.8
165.5
149.3
218.3
215.8
219.3

130.8
135.3
125.3
184.8
197.0
180.0
144.3
140.3
179.3





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Table 2. --(Continued)


Grass 1948 11 66 86 76.0
19 74 93 83.5
None 60 78 69.0


- 47.5
- 43.5
- 60.0


35.0
32.5
31.5


- 81.5
- 73.0
- 79.5


1949




1950




1951


11
19
None

11
19
None

11
19
None






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