Experiments with toxaphene against the Japanese beetle

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Experiments with toxaphene against the Japanese beetle
Physical Description:
9 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Fleming, Walter E ( Walter Ernest ), 1899-
Maines, Warren W., 1911-
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Japanese beetle -- Control   ( lcsh )
Toxaphene -- Testing   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-821."
General Note:
"July 1951."
Statement of Responsibility:
by Walter E. Fleming and Warren W. Maines.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030337425
oclc - 780438264
System ID:
AA00025220:00001

Full Text
STATE PI..AR I.'. D

July 1951 E-821

United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine



EXPERIMENTS WITH TOXAPHENE AGAINST
THE JAPANESE BEETLE

By Walter E. Fleming and Warren W. Maines,
Division of Fruit Insect Investigations


Experiments have been carried on since 1947 to study the effective-
ness of toxaphene in protecting plants from attack by adult Japanese
beetles (Popillia japonica Newm.) and for controlling the larvae in the
soil. In this study toxaphene has been compared with DDT.

Control of Adult Beetles

On July 14, 1947, in a generally infested orchard near Shiloh, N. J.,
five J.H. Hale peach trees were sprayed with toxaphene and five with
DDT for control of adult beetles. The sprays contained 2 pounds of
50-percent wettable powder per 100 gallons of water. The remaining
trees in the orchard were sprayed with other materials or left unsprayed.
On an average 3 gallons of spray per tree was applied, with a small
orchard sprayer.
Shortly after the spraying many dead and dying beetles were found
beneath the trees treated with DDT, but only an occasional sickly beetle
was seen beneath those sprayed with toxaphene. After 4 days no beetles
were seen on the DDT-treated trees, but there were about half as many
beetles on the trees sprayed with toxaphene as on the unsprayed trees.
After 7 days there were no beetles on the trees treated with DDT, but
there were about as many on those sprayed with toxaphene as on the un-
sprayed trees. This preliminary experiment demonstrated that, at the
rate used, toxaphene was of little value in destroying an established
infestation of beetles on peach trees, or in protecting the tree from
subsequent infestation.

Toxicity to Larvae in Soil

A preliminary test was made to determine the relative toxicity of
toxaphene and DDT to third-instar larvae. Each material was used as a
10-percent dust and inimately mixed with Sassafras sandy loam at




-2-


rates of 0.21, 0.42, 1.04, and 2.08 grams of the toxic ingredient per cubic foot,
which was equivalent to mixing 5, 10, 25, and 50 pounds of the toxicants
with the upper 3 inches of an acre of soil. For each treatment 300
third-instar larvae were introduced into six trays and maintained at a
temperature of 80 F. At intervals of 2, 3, and 4 weeks the numbers of
dead and living individuals were recorded. After each examination the
living larvae were returned to the treated soils and the dead were dis-
carded. The results are summarized in table 1.

Table 1. --Comparative toxicity of toxaphene and DDT to
third-instar larvae of the Japanese beetle in Sassafras
sandy loam


Dosage Percent mortality of 300 larvae after--
(pounds Second week Third week Fourth week
per acre) ---------------------
per acre) DDT Toxaphene DDT Toxaphene DDT Toxaphene


None 7 10 16
5 30 29 45 40 55 49
10 54 70 78 88 91 97
25 93 89 99 98 99 100
50 97 99 100 100 100 100


The mortalities obtained with toxaphene and DDT at each rate of
application were compared and analyzed by the chi-square method. In
only one of the 12 comparisons of the two insecticides, 10 pounds during
the second week, was there any significant difference in the mortalities.
The results indicate that, pound for pound, toxaphene was equal to DDT
in toxicity to the larvae.

Effectiveness in Different Soils

Toxaphene and. DDT were applied as 10-percent dusts at the rate of
25 pounds of toxicant per acre and intimately mixed with 71 soils from
Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina,
Ohio, Rhode Island, and Virginia.- One hundred and fifty third-instar
larvae were introduced into each treated soil immediately after the


./ The Agricultural Experiment Stations of Connecticut (New Haven),
Massachusetts, Ohio, and Rhode Island cooperated by selecting and
furnishing representative soils from their respective states.





-3-


toxicants had been applied and again 9 weeks later. The material was
maintained at 80 F. in all of the laboratory tests here reported. Each
type of soil was examined periodically and the numbers of dead and
living individuals were recorded. After adjustment of the mortalities
for the death rate in untreated soil, the number of days required to kill
98 percent of the larvae was determined. The results are summarized
in table 2.

Table 2.--Comparative effectiveness of toxaphene and DDT in different
soils at 80 F. when applied at the rate of 25 pounds per acre against
third-instar larvae of the Japanese beetle

Average days required for
Soil type Source 98 percent mortality
Toxaphene DDT


Sands:
Berrien Ohio 14.0 9.5
Lakewood N.J. 38.5 15.5
St. Johns N.J. 17.5 18.5
Average 23.3 14.5

Gravelly and shale loams:
Berks shale N.J. 19.5 19.5
Lansdale gravelly N.J. 18.5 16.0
Narragansett stony R.I. 16.5 12.0
Penn shale N.J. 11.5 23.0
Average 16.5 17.6

Sandy loams:
Agawam Conn. 19.0 19.0
Appling N.C. 24.0 13.5
Bridgehampton R.I. 19.5 14.0
Cecil N.C. 9.0 10.5
Chenango Ohio 14.5 11.0
Cheshire Conn. 13.5 14.5
Collington N.J. 18.0 18.5
Coloma Mass. 35.5 14.5
Colts Neck N.J. 14.0 16.5
Dover Conn. 11.0 11.0
Dunellen N.J. 31.5 17.0
Durham N.C. 10.5 11.5
Hadley Conn. 8.0 10.0
Helena N.C. 7.0 9.0





-4-


Table 2. --Continued.


Average days required for
SSoil type Source 98 percent mortality
Toxaphene [ T

Sandy loams (continued):
Keyport N.J. 16.5 24.5
Marlboro N.C. 7.0 9.5
Merrimac Conn. 15.5 15.5
N.J. 19.0 23.0
Newfield Conn. 11.0 11.5
Ondawa Conn. 11.5 16.0
Painesville Ohio 10.0 11.5
Penwood Conn. 10.5 9.5
Plymouth Mass. 56. 34.5
Portsmouth N.J. 37.0 26.}
Reynolds N.C. 17.0 12.5
Sassafras N.J. 9.0 16.0
Shrewsbury N.J. 18.5 33.5
Wingdale Conn. 11.0 13.0
Woodstown N.J. 22.5 24.0
Average 17.5 16.4


Bernardston R.I. 20.0 12.5
Brookfield Mass. 14.5 14.5
Canadea Ohio 10.5 11.0
Charlton Conn. 19.0 14.5
Chenango Ohio 12.5 11.0
Chester N.J. 15.0 22.5
Collington N.J. 13.5 25.0
Colts Neck N.J. 8.0 21.5
Essex Mass. 38.0 16.5
Gloucester N.J. 19.0 23.0
Hartford Conn. 14.5 10.5
Iredell N.C. 9.5 10.5
Keyport N.J. 15.0 20.5
Menlo Conn. 56.0 39.5
Paxton Mass. 21.0 16.5
Shrewsbury N.J. 9.0 17.5
Washington N.J. 13.0 18.0
Wcthersfield Conn. 11.0 9.5
Woodbridge Conn. 45.0 18.5
Woodstown N.J. 18.0 23.0
Average 19.1 17.8





-5-


Table 2. --Continued.


Average days required for
Soil type Source 98 percent mortality
Toxaphene DDT

Silt loams:
Croton N.J. 14.5 27.5
Elkton N.J. 19.0 24.5
Georgeville N.C. 12.0 14.5
Hagerstown N.J. 16.0 16.5
Lansdale N.J. 13.5 17.0
Mentor Ohio 9.0 10.0
Painesville Ohio 12.5 8.5
Penn N.J. 17.5 23.0
Pittsfield N.Y. 23.0 14.5
Whippany Conn. 7.5 10.0
Wooster Ohio 9.0 12.0
Average 14.0 16.2

Silty clay loams:
Lorrain Ohio 31.0 15.0
Mahoning Ohio 9.0 9.5
Average 20.0 12.3

Davidson clay loam N.C. 10.5 11.0
Muck Va. 40.5 30.0

General average 17.9 16.7

Least significant difference between toxaphene and DDT treatments:
In all soils 1.7 In all loams 3.2
In all sands 8.2 In all silt loans 4.3
In all gravelly and shale loams 7.1 In all silty clay loams 10.0
In all sandy loams 2.6 In individual soils 14.2


The analysis of the variance in mortality showed that there were highly
significant differences between soils in the speed of insecticidal action,
but the average speed of toxaphene was not significantly different from that
of DDT. The differences required for significance between the treatments
in various soil types and in individual soils were determined from the
pooled standard deviation obtained in the analysis of the variance.





-6-


The average rates of insecticidal action were not significantly different
in the sands, gravelly and shale loams, sandy loams, loams, silt loams,
silty clay loams, and clay loams, but there was definitely more variation
in the speed of insecticidal action in the individual soils with toxaphene
than with DDT. The standard deviation with toxaphene was 12.0 days,
but it was only 7.4 days with DDT. The rate of insecticidal action with
toxaphene appeared to be significantly slower than that with DDT in 8
of the soils--Lakewood sand, Coloma sandy loam, Dunellen sandy loam,
Plymouth sandy loam, Essex loam, Menlo loam, Woodbridge loam, and
Lorrain silty clay loam; significantly faster in 1 soil--Shrewsbury sandy
loam; and not significantly different in 62 soils.

Effect of Organic Matter and Fertilizers

The speed of insecticidal action was definitely slower in soils relatively
high in organic matter, as in Menlo loam and muck, an indication that the
organic matter was an important factor. In a further study of the influence
of organic matter, toxaphene at the rate of 25 pounds per acre was applied
to mixtures of Sassafras sandy loam and finely divided peat. One hundred
and fifty larvae were introduced into each mixture immediately after it
had been treated (test 1) and again 9 weeks later (test 2). The results
of these tests are summarized in table 3. An analysis of variance showed
that the addition of the peat modified very significantly the speed of the
insecticidal action. The retardation in this speed increased progressively
with the increment in the amount of organic matter.

Table 3. --Effect of organic matter (peat) in Sassafras sandy
loam on the speed of insecticidal action of toxaphene against
third-instar larvae of the Japanese beetle


Percent (by volume) Days required for 98 percent mortality
of peat Test 1 Test 2 Average


0 7 8 7.5
25 7 23 15.0
50 11 24 17.5
75 11 29 20.0
100 12 41 31.5


Tests were also made to determine the effect of various fertilizers
and soil conditioners on the speed of insecticidal action with toxaphene
There was no indication that applying 4,000 pounds of hydrated lime per
acre, or 1,000 pounds of aluminum sulfate, ammonium phosphate.





-7-


calcium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, potassium phosphate, potassium
nitrate, or sulfur, had any effect on the toxaphene. Three commercial
mixed fertilizers applied at the rate of 2,000 pounds per acre also had
no effect on the toxicant.

Control of Larvae in Turf

In the spring of 1947 toxaphene and DDT were applied at the rate of
25 pounds per acre to 1/4-acre plots of turf at Blairstown, N.J., and at
Orange and New London, Conn., for control of larvae. Both materials
were applied as 10-percent dusts by means of a 3-foot fertilizer spreader.
The grass on the golf course at Blairstown was relatively fine and closely
mowed, but on the parkways at Orange and New London it was coarse and
not closely mowed. At New London particularly, the grass tended to form
a mat at the soil surface.
Surveys were made periodically to determine the effect of the treat-
ments on the larvae. Fifteen 1-square-foot diggings were made at
random in each plot, and an equal number were made in untreated turf
in the vicinity of each plot. These surveys were omitted in Connecticut
during the fall of 1948 and of 1949, because the dry weather had reduced
the population of larvae to such a low level that a valid appraisal of the
treatments could not be made. The results obtained with these treatments
are summarized in table 4.


Table 4. --Comparative
rate of 25 pounds per
established turf


effectiveness of toxaphene and DDT applied at the
acre for the control of Japanese beetle larvae in


S Population Apparent reduction
Location Weeks after Brood of per square foot (percent)
of plots treatment popilla in untreated area Toxaphene I DDT

Blairstown 4 1946-47 15 68 78
17 1947-48 .19 97 99
55 1947-48 6 100 100
72 1948-49 5 100 100
121 1949-50 5 100 100
173 1950-51 14 100 100

Orange 4 1946-47 8 69 75
17 1947-48 24 98 99
54 1947-48 16 100 100
173 1950-51 7 98 100

New London 4 1946-47 11 30 10
17 1947-48 7 48 55
54 1947-48 6 98 79
173 1950-51 4 100 100





-8-


Neither treatment had much effect on the 1946-47 brood at New
London. Both treatments caused only a partial reduction of the 1947-48
brood before pupation, but eliminated the 1950-51 brood by mid-September.
It is possible that the coarse, tough turf in this locality delayed the
penetration of the toxicants into the soil to such an extent that more than
a year elapsed before satisfactory control was obtained.

Growth of Plants in Soils Containing Toxaphene

Since 1947, when toxaphene was applied to turf on the golf course at
Blairstown, N. J., and to the coarser grasses in the plots in Connecticut,
there has been no gross indication that the treatment has affected the
growth of the grasses.
To obtain some more definite information on the reaction of plants to
toxaphene in the soil, seeds of some common vegetables were sown in the
greenhouse in soil treated with toxaphene at rates of 10, 25, and 50 pounds
per acre, and also in untreated soil. There was no indication that the
toxaphene modified the germination. After the seedlings were a few
inches high, they were thinned to 10 plants of each variety in each
treated soil and in the untreated soil. When the plants had grown 2 to 3
months, they were cut at the surface of the ground and the green weight
of each plant was determined.
As these tests were preliminary and not replicated, only a gross
effect on the plants would have any significance. No serious deleterious
effect was observed on Bountiful bean, Calabrese broccoli, Chinese
cabbage (Chihli), Globe cabbage, Old Hickory corn, Scotch Dwarf Blue
kale, Big Boston lettuce, Early Red radish, Long Cocozelle squash,
or Purple-top White Globe turnip. Cucumbers of the A. and C. variety
failed to grow in soil treated with toxaphene at the rate of 25 or 50
pounds per acre. Black Beauty egg plant) New Jersey Worldbeater
peppers, and Garden State, Marglobe, and Rutgers tomatoes were
retarded by the application of 50 pounds of toxaphene per acre.

Summary and Conclusions

In experiments begun in 1947 for the control of adult Japanese beetles
(Popillia japonica Newm.) and for controlling larvae in the soil, toxaphene
appeared to be of little value for destroying an infestation of adult
Japanese beetles on peaches at Shiloh, N. J., or in protecting the trees
from subsequent infestation.
In laboratory tests toxaphene and DDT were of the same order of
toxicity to the third-instar larvae when mixed with 71 representative
soils from Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, North
Carolina, Ohio, Rhode Island, and Virginia. The insecticidal action
was retarded by organic matter in the soil, but was not affected by
applications of the common fertilizers.




-9-


Since 1947 equally good results have been obtained with toxaphene
and DDT in controlling infestations of larvae in turf in Connecticut and
New Jersey, when the toxicants were used at the rate of 25 pounds per
acre.
Toxaphene caused no damage to established turf. Preliminary tests
with some of the vegetables indicated that the growth of eggplant, peppers,
and tomatoes was retarded by an application of 50 pounds of toxaphene
per acre. Cucumbers failed to grow in soils containing 25 or 50 pounds
per acre.
In conclusion, the preliminary tests with toxaphene indicate that it
is of little value in protecting plants from attack by the adult Japanese
beetle, but it may have a place in the control of the larvae in the soil.




UNIVERSITY OF FLOR DA
111 111111 1 I I1611,II
3 1262 09239 6034