Tests of certain synthetic organic compounds against the two-spotted and related mites

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Tests of certain synthetic organic compounds against the two-spotted and related mites
Physical Description:
5 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Yerington, Albert P., 1914-
Gertler, S. I
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Two-spotted spider mite -- Control   ( lcsh )
Mites -- Control   ( lcsh )
Biological insecticides   ( lcsh )
Organic compounds -- Synthesis   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-747."
General Note:
"April 1948."
Statement of Responsibility:
A.P. Yerington and S.I. Gertler.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030297942
oclc - 780430154
System ID:
AA00025205:00001

Full Text


April f94 '8 F-747


United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine



TESTS OF CERTAIN SYNTHETIC ORGANIC COPPOUWDS
AGAINST THE TWO-SPOTTED UIl) RELATED MITES

A. P. Yerington, Division of Control Investigations, .
and S. I. Gertler, Division of Insecticide Investigations/


At the insecticide-testing laboratory of this Bureau at Anaheim,
Calif., all compounds that had shown promise against any species of in-
sects in previous screening tests were subjected to further tests to de-
termine their value as miticides. The mites used in these tests were
the two-spotted mite (Tetranychus biaoulatus Harvey) and Tetrayohus
spp* They were collected front populations occurring naturally on castor
bean and snap bean in the vicinity of Anaheim*

Infested bean leaves as needed were taken to the laboratory, where
they were kept succulent by placing their stems in 125-mi. flasks filled
with water. The top surface of each leaf was brushed free of mites, so
that populations to be dusted were concentrated only on the lower surface.
A dusting tower was used as described by Swingle, Phillips, and Gahano, /
The procedure was modified to permit treatment of entire leaf and stem*
With this apparatus between 200 and 300 micrograms of material were de-
posited per square centimeter, the actual amount being determined by
weighing an aluminum plate dusted at the same time. ? > dusted leaf (stem
in flask of water) was confined in a battery jar, and mortality counts of
the nymphs and adults were made at the end of 3 days. For the ovicide
tests all of the leaf was removed except an area containing a fairly large
number of eggs, which was subjected to an air blast that removed most of
the mites. Any remaining young and adult mites were removed under a binoc-
ular microscope with a dissecting needle. The leaf section containing
the eggs was then dusted, placed in a battery jar, and kept in a thermostat-
ically controlled box at a constant temperature of 85F. and a relative
humidity of 40 to 50 percent. A 3-day test period was allowed prior to
making mortality counts*

Of 1,370 synthetic organic compounds tested previously at this labora-
tory 126 were found to be toxic to one or more insects. Of these compounds
85 were tested as dusts against young and adult mites at a concentration of


/ The writers are indebted to G. T. Bottger, under whose supervision
this work was conducted.

/ Swingle, M. C., Phillips, A. M., and Gahan, J. B. Laboratory
testing of natural and synthetic organic Eubstances as insecticides. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 34: 95-99. 1941.






- 2


25 percent in pyrophyllite. Two standards were used throughout the tests,
benzene hexachloride (5-percent ganmma isomer) and bisp-chlorophenoxy)-
methane (1-percent) Treatments with 22 of the compounds caused mortali-
ties of 75 percent or more. Compounds nontoxic to mites in these tests
were as follows

2-Aminoazobenzene hydro chloride 6-Ethyl-l-phenyl semioxamazide
2,2-Di-p-anisyl-l,1,1-trichloro- alpha,alpha-Hexaohloro-o-xylene
ethanie alpha, alpha-Hexachloro--m-xylene
Arsenico ethyl xanthate Bis(2-hydroxy-3,6,6-trichlorophenyl)-
l-Benzoyl-2-phenylhydrazine methane
4-B romoacetophenone Indole
p-Bromobenzenesulfonamiide o-Iodoaniline
j-Bromobenzonitrile 1-I socaproyl-2-phenylhydrazine
-Bromo-N-isobutylbenzenesulfonamide N-Isopropyl-m-nitrobenzamide
-Bromo-N-propylbenzenesulfonamide 4- (p-Methyl-alpha-thiotoluyl) mor-
2, 2-Bis( -bremophenyl) 1,1,l-trichloro- pholine
ethane 2-Methyl cyclohexaaone semicarbazoae
N-sec-Butyl-m-nitrobeazamide 4-Methylcyc lohexanone semi oarbazone
l-Is:obutyryl-2-phenylhydraziae Methyl 2-naphthyl ether
o-Chloroacetanilide 5-Methyl-l-phenylsemioxamazide
j.-Chlorobenzenesulfonamide i-Nitroacetanilide
5- (4-Chlo robeazylidene)-2-thio-4- T-(m-Ni trobeazoyl)-2-phenylhydrazine
thiazolidone l- (-Nitrobenzoyl)-2-phemylhydraziame
Chlorobis(E-chlorophenyl)methane -Nitrophenyl eater of acetic soid
Chloromethyl phenyl sulfone alpha,alpha,alpha,2,4-Pentaohloro-
beta-C hlo ronaphthalene toluene
2-Chloro-6-nitrotoluene Pentaerythrityl b romide
4-Chloro-2-nitrotoluene Phenazine
2,2-Bis (j-ohlorophenyl) 1,1-di chloro- l-Phenyl-2-phenylsulfonylhydrazine
ethane l-Phenyl-l, 2-p ropanedione-2-monoxime
Copper sulfoleoarsenite l-Phenylsemioxamazide
Cyolopentanone s emicarbazone l-Phenyl-2-(jp-tolysulfonyl)hydrazine
l,4-Dichloro-2-nit robenzene Phthalonitrile
3,4-Diohlo ro-N-methylbenzamide 4-(alpha-Thiotoluyl)morpholine
N,N-Diisopropyl-p-nitrobenzamide 1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(5-ohloro-2-hydroxy-
5,5-Dimethylacridan phenyl) ethane
Dimethylglyexime l-Trichloro-2,2-bis (j-cliEorophenyl)-
2,4-Dimethyl-2-pentanone semicoar- ethane
bazone l-Trichloro-2,2-bis(3,5-diohloro-2-
4,6-Dinitro-m-oresol methyl ether hydroxyphenyl)ethane
1,4-Dinitrosopiperazine 2,4-Trichloromethyl-s-trioxane
1,4-Diphenylsemicarbazide Zino mercury thiocyanate

The 22 oxio compounds were then tested as ovioides. Compounds that
were effective as ovicides or miticides at the 25mercent concentration
were then tested at a 3-percent concentration against nymphs and adults,
and also against the eggs. Nine compounds caused over 75 percent mortality
in one or both cases. Compounds nontoxic to mites in all stages at this
concentration were as follows:






W ds


3-Aminodibenzofuran
p-B romo-N-ethylbenzene sul fonamide
C entralite
1- (g-Chlorobenzoyl)pipe ridiae
Chloromethyl 4-ohlorophenyl sulfone
alpha,beta-Dib rcmo-beta-ait ro ethylbenzeae
2-(Diethylaaino)ethyl pentachlorophenyl ether
N, N-Diisopropyl-m-nitrobentzaaimido
9-Fluorenone
alpha, alpha' -Hexachloro-p-xyleae
N-Nitrosodiphenylaniue
alpha-Thiocyanoacetophenone
alpha, alpha, beta-Tri ohi o robutyramide

The nine compounds that were found to be effective as 3-peroent
dusts were further tested at 1-percent strength, which is the cenoeMtra-
tion recommended for most mitioides sow in oomaercial uses Only one
compound, the 2-chloroethyl ester of p-nitrobenelo avoid, failed to show
toxloty at 1 peroeat. Results of the test with the ether eight omn-
pounds are presented in table 1.


Green foliage of five or more kinds of plants was treated with
niticidal compounds to determine whether they would injure leaf tissue.
The materials were applied as sprays at one or more concentrations. The
results of these phytotoxicity tests are presented in table 2. Of the
eight compounds tested, only three--4,6 dinitro-o-cresyl ethyl ether,
isopropyl ester of 2-nitrobenzoic acid, and 2,4-dinitrophenyl ester of
propionic acid-caused no foliage injury. Two other compounds, azo-
benzene and benzylphenylnitrosoamine, caused slight foliage injury.






S-4-


Table 1, Mortality ef various stages of mites caused by compounds used
as 1-percent dusts


Nymphs and adults Eggs
Compound Deposit per Mortility Deposit per Mortality
square ia square ix
centimeter 3 days Centimeter 3 days

Mioregrams Percent Microgrea Percaat


2,4-Dinitrophenol 265 100 265 100

4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol 200 100 200 100

Propionio acid, 2,4-dinitro- 200 100 230 100
pheryl ester

Propionic acid., 4,6-dinitro- 280 97 310 100
o-tolyl ester

Azobenzene 215 95 250 100

BeMzylphenylnitroseamixe 215 97 520 95

4,6-Dinitro-o-cresyl ethyl 200 90 200 77
ether

-Nitrobenzoic acid., 215 82 250 0
isopropyl ester

bis(z-Chlorophenoxy)methaae I/ 235 48 270 88

Benzene hexachloride 215 95 185 66
(gamsa isomer SW.) I/


I/ Used as a standard, average of 5 tests.







a do,


0
-A










0




0
t





44
0
0
-P
0














.0




04


0



04




A





40
'r4


3
0
cg
0


f-I
.0

0
6-


p'eqo 8e8ps



























40a



0

0
0p0d4n^





-OU
*3ioeJQ















Irf


3"



'a



y~0



03



'3


I C4 | N


8


1 0-4


I r4



I I



CMJ0



03



I I


I
4)


cg
.*rl
.94O
04
'U
0t

04f.0
*04


I0



I0


IO I
60 1



I0



I I



tQ I


0 0



0 0



I I



00







00
I I



I I


I I



00



00


10



t 0






to









)00
t o














0r4
es
q*
at
f)
0 o


46 0)

.rl +
0 01
04


I0



I0



I I



e-40



0 I



I I


I I 0



r-1 0 0



r-4 0 1



- I I





I 0 0
0 0 0


I I


I 0






1.0



0
S


I 0 I



#-. 1 0


I I


*

4.-
0





ft
0




4>
-S




r4)
4h

0





t0
trl

'-4

*-4f

S
0
0
0

0




>11




UNIVERSITY OF FLOR DA
3 1262 9239 I I 20r 4 ril
3I 126 09239 2041