Insecticidal action of Heliopsis longipes and Erigeron spp.

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Insecticidal action of Heliopsis longipes and Erigeron spp.
Physical Description:
5 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
McGovran, E. R
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Biological insecticides -- Testing   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 4).
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-735."
General Note:
"September 1947."
Statement of Responsibility:
by E.R. McGovran ... et al..

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030294471
oclc - 780176612
System ID:
AA00025180:00001

Full Text


November 1947


United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Adridliitration
Bureau of Entomology and Plan.t Qurant a .



INSECTICIDAL ACTION OF HELIOPSIS LOIGIPG AIND J. i.; SPP.

By E. R. McGovran,-/G. T. Bottger, W. A. Gvr-dorf', and J. H. FaJle
Division of Control Investlgatijrns

Among the various wild plants tested by the Bureau of Entonology
and Plant Quarantine in the search for new insecticide durinr.g the war
was an herbaceous plant, Heliosis lonpips (A. Gray) Plc.ke, the roots
of which were employed in Mexico in making an insectici.".- for local u:-..
Because of the confusion of this species with a species of D i ,o
the following members of this genus were tested as well! E. be.Ui-
diastru Nutt., canadensis L., cffAu Greene, divaxjcatu5 Mi"chx..,
diverse T. end G., flaellIs A. Gray, linifolius Willd., god'-. tus
(DC) A. Gray, reopens A. Gray, and two unidentified species. Testr were
made on both plant material and extractives of the plants. The
extractives of I. longipes were tested before and after various treat-
ments.

The materials were tested both as sprays and as dusts, except E,
cIdo which was tested as a spray only. The ppiays were prepared
by dissolving the extractive, or one of its fractions, in deodorized
kerosene to the desired strength, and the dusts by dispersing the
powdered plant material or its extractive in talc.

The spray tests were conducted at the Beltsville, Md., lal.orbtory
against house flies and mosquitoes, and the dusts at Sanford, Fla.,
against various lepidopterous larvae and the &quash bug. The toxicity:
of the materials to house flies and mosquitoes was deteir.ined from
the percentage of insects knocked down in 25 and 15 minutes, respec-
tively, and the mortality in 1 day. Mortality of the leaf-feeding
insects %as determined after 3 days.

The samples tested were prepared by F. Acree, Jr., and M. Jacob-o..
of the Division of Insecticide Investigations. The chemical phaccs of
work on &elopsis longi (reported as Erieron finish DC.) have tin.j
discussed by Acree, Jacobson, and Haller (j). In the course of this
work they isolated from the root an active principle which they nameec:
"affinin."

Tests on House Flies

In the tests on house flies (Musca domestic L.), 5-ml. dosr-E; of
spray containing the various extractives of the plantsve:e appli- by


I/Now with the Office of Experiment Stations,





I






-2-


the turntable method to adult flies in screen-covered 6-inch petri dishes.
Aftcr 10 miiv.e' in the settling spray the flies were transferred to
clean recov-,ry cageb and supplied with liquid food. Two to four repli-
c-ticUns were made with each material.

'. results with sprays made from Hipsis snipes are shown in
t&.l I1. They are not precisely comparable because of the use of dif-
fe.enl. populations of flies, but they show that the roots of this plant
-.jiin, a material highly toxic to house flies.

Table 1.-Toxicity to house flies of extractives of HelioppJi longpes
roots in deodorized kerosene



Material Knock-down Mortality
(123 mg. of root per ml. unless in in
otherwise indicated) 25 minutes 1 day
!

POX20= PeriCB
P troleumn ether extractives:
25 mg. per ml. 100 100
Extractive basis 10 100 100
2 100 49
Rcot basis 100 80
Ether-chloroform-cthanol extractives
of residue, extractive basis, 10
mg. per ml. 20 1
Fractions of petroleum ether extractives:
Soluble in nitromethane 80 45
Charcoal-treated, soluble in
nitromethane 100 l
Nonsaponifiable 97 22
Saponifiable 0 2
Insoluble in nitromethane 10 9
First oily separation 100 9
Petroleum ether extractives of first
oily separation 100 22
Second oily separation 100 20
Petroleum ether extractives of second
oily separation 86 0
Distillate of nitromethane-soluble
fraction 100 60
Distillate of roots 100 34
Residue from distillation of roots 1 1
Charcoal-adsorbed extractives 7 1
Pyrethrins I/ (check), extractive basis
1l mg. per ml. 100 51
2 100 75


I/Averages of a-number of tests.








Two sprays from each species of Erigeron were tested, one containing
the petroleum ether extractives at 123 mg. of plant material per milli-
liter of kerosene and the other the combined ether-chloroform-ethaiol
extractives of the residues at 25 mg. per milliliter. None of these
sprays killed more than 2 percent of the flies, whereas pyrethrum extract
(1 to 2 mg. of pyrethrins per milliliter) killed at least half of the flies
in check cages.

Tests on Mosquitoes

Sprays containing extractives of Heliopsis Igonfies and various
fractions of these extractives were tested for toxicity to adult yellow-
fever mosquitoes (Ad_ aegytj (L.)) in a Feet-Grady chamber. One or
two tests, each with 2 ml. of spray applied to approximately 100 mosqui-
toes, were made with each material.

The results, which are summarized in table 2, show that the petroleum
ether extractives are highly toxic to mosquitoes.

Table 2.--Toxicity to yellow-fever mosquitoes of extractives of Heliopsis
longipes roots in deodorized kerosene

IW
Material Knock-down Mortality
(123 mg. of root per ml. unless in in
otherwise indicated) 15 minutes 1 day
Males I Females

Percent Percent
Petroleum ether extractives;
Extractive basis, 25 mg. per ml. High 100
Root basis High 97 79
Fractions of petroleum ether
extractives:
Soluble in nitromethane Medium 57 31
Charcoal-treated, soluble in
nitromethane Medium 94 56
Nonsaponifiable portion High 48
Insoluble in nitromethane Low 50 10
Petroleum ether extractives:
First oily separation Medium 79 33
Second oily separation Medium 31 6
Pyrethrins (check), extractive basis,
0.1 mg. per ml. High 91 61

Tests on Leopidopterous Larvae and Squash Bugs

In tests on lepidopterous larvae dusts made from Heli jQs
lonipe extractives and the various species of Erigeron or their








extractives were applied to leaf sections in the laboratory. The
sections were then infested with fourth instars of the melonworm
(Diahania halinata (L.)), the southern beet webworm (Pachyzancla
biounctalis (F.)), and the southern armyworm, (Prodenia eridania (Cram.))
The results of these tests are given in table 3.

Against the melonworm the petroleum ether extractives of Helioosis
1ojji__j were the most toxic, but the combined ether-chloroform-ethanol
extractives of the residue were not toxic. Erigeron repens was the only
species of plant which showed no toxicity to this insect.

When the dusts were applied to the southern beet webworm, Erigeron
bellidiastu and Heliopsis ngipes were the most toxic.

The southern armyworm was resistant to the samples of Heips
longyijes tested, and only four species of riger showed any toxicity
to this insect and that only moderate.

A contact treatment with petroleum ether extractives of Heliopsis
lon9ipes against fourth-instar nymphs of the squash bug (Anasa tristis
(Deg.)) resulted in 79 percent mortality. The insects were exposed to
dust deposits of 170 micrograms per square centimeter.

Literature Cited

(1) Acree, F., Jr., Jacobson, M., and Haller, H. L.
1945. An amide possessing insecticidal properties from the roots
of Erigeron affinis DC. Jour. Organic Chem. 10: 236-342.








-5-


4-4)


4-
0







04
$43
ta o
Ow

p4
p4

4.)
HP1-
rh

4)


0)




I4

0j








0
4p







04
(Q










0 l
0
p4







C..
















0



E4)
H
2






0 o
Hdr-
CO
0*


o


0

$4-


o
0




4-)




:3
0





0
0






0











,0
H
0










r-
(D


000 1 0U0 "o00
m tO r-4 ONI (14r(N


o NO0O0 ,-o0 I
W\ e-. UN t%. c>- N


HU4 to
f-<


41% 0 UO0ot 0 ,-
cllHiHicfoo NNR ^l Cr,-
Oi ^ \ ( r (YCMc~irQ c\i H


Ci)

*r
w
)10
0Cd


*H Hi-O
$4i $4 (D C
a>W )tO -
0> aoC
HrTr-T
tJ0

cv






0Q
Ck qp4



-H E-4


r-I 1


0 4

$4 0

0
0 T^q
o H

4-I1
C.4)

Oxs
4p
Q


H Cq Cto






0000 UO"00 0,0 ,,0
oN oN rMNO ,oC t oN --*


H 02







0 -P
o 0af-
0$4


a) ;4


(Nr-i1 |0 r4 m0OU-1 -C14N
-< *

0
,l-
H

ri



0
0
0



-H



H


ca


.r4
).
x

0
it




(0
0) )



-0)0


*

'0
ti

a)
CH



0 04





a 4-)
M U







0
cn a<
r-4 0.







02
$4 0~
0 H

ta 43
4.) 0

















0 cc
;4) 0
$4 4
:0 *
4) ^
o H
0
H( C tCfl

H 0


4) )



?* 0

03

0 0-

^ 0

O HP

C cD



QI) 0k

.4P *rj^

U1 i ( <





41 -
-> $r4 -P
o0 9<





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
ill I 12III III U 2111
3 1262 09239 2397