United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON SPRAYS TO DESTROY
OVERWINTERING CODLING MOTH LARVAE
By M. A. Others, Division of Fruit Insect Investigations
Treatments applied against the hibernating worms (Thacher ) were
among the earliest measures suggested for control of the codling moth
(Carpocapsa )omonella (L.))s
"All the rough bark should be carefully removed, and the trunk and
large branches should be thoroughly washed with Forsyth's composition or
a strong decoction of tobadco with the addition of a small quantity of
quick lime, which should be applied to every crevice which can afford
shelter for insects or their eggs."
The wash suggested contained urine, soap suds, fresh cow dung, and
lime, in indefinite proportions.
Similar suggestions may have been made subsequently, from time to
time, but the older literature has not been systematically reviewed,
since the control of the codling moth in the hibernating stage does not
appear to have been developed to a practical point until the present
The earliest reference we find in recent literature to this method
of control is Jegen's (2D) recommendation in Switzerland, that apple
trees be scraped, the debris burned, and the trees then sprayed with a
5-percent solution of soft soap. Lehman (24), in Germany, advised
cleaning the dead bark, moss, and so forth, from the trees in winter, and
then painting them with a fairly thick lime wash containing 10 percent of
fruit-tree carbolineum. Maag (j2), in Switzerland, stated that the two
winter sprays of real value to the fruit grower were lime-sulfur and fruit-
tree carbolineum of a reliable brand, which was very effective against
Carpocapsa pomonella. Other materials, he said, were quite as effective,
but more expensive.l/
Hough (22), in the United States, stated that oil sprays applied in
the dormant season were not effective in killing the worms in their
winter cocoons. Worms in their winter cocoons had been sear to survive
I/ Several references, especially from England and Germany, refer
to carbolineum and dinitro-o-creeol winter sprays, but there materials
appear to have been used against insects other than the coding T.th.
100 percent a submergence of 15 hours in an oil spray (Medina oil) diluted
for winter spraying. Chandler (), reporting on work done in the winter
of 1926-27, stated that boiled fish-oil soap emulsion up to 25 percent
of soap failed to kill cocooned overwintering larvae in laboratory tests.
McAlister (26), reporting on laboratory tests made in 1927-28 with 12
formulas, found that undiluted kerosene and undiluted tetrachloroethane
killed 100 percent of the hibernating larvae cocooned between pieces of
bark, and that a 5-percent solution of tetrachloroethane killed 94 percent.
McAlister's work was followed by that of Headlee (17, 18, !%and 20),
in which he made tests on codling moth larvae cocooned on apple trees,
using Pineol- Soluble, one of the fractions obtained by distillation of
pine stumps, roots, and branches, treated with caustic soda to make it
miscible with water. When applied to apple tree trunks 10 inches in
diameter, late in March and early in April, at full strength, or diluted
with equal parts of water, it killed 100 percent of the larvae.
Cory and Sanders (12), in laboratory tests of 26 materials against
larvae cocooned in rolls of corrugated-paper bands dipped in the formu-
lations, found Pineol-Soluble plus paradichlorobenzene 1 to 7.5 and 1
to 2 and undiluted Pineol-Soluble the most effective,killing 87.5, 93.6,
and 99.6 percent, respectively. Paradichlorobenzene added to several
brands of oil emulsions and soluble oils did not increase their effec-
tiveness, but when added to tar washes and pure oils it apparently
increased their kill.
Thompson and Worthley (.), in blocks of orchard trees treated with
a blend of various fractions of steam-distilled pine oils called Hybrex,
which was applied with a brush to the bark of the trees, obtained a kill
of 95.8 percent, with a reduction of 33 to 67 percent of the first-brood
Ginsburg (Ij), in tests of fumigants against overwintering larvae,
found them most sus,-eptible to ethylene chlorohydrin and hydrocyanic
acid and the least to carbon bisulfide and ethyl acetate.
Paillot (31), in France, reported that tar-distillate sprays, applied
just after the buds split in the spring, failed to give satisfactory
control of hibernating codling moth larvae. Spyer (2J) reported that in
Germany codling moth larvae, even when removed from their cocoons, were
very resistant to high concentrations of tar distillates.
Marshall (27) reviewed preliminary unpublished work done by Steiner
of Indiana, in which 24 materials were tested. He described tests of
treatments of cavities containing cocooned larvae, with paraffin, lime,
and alpha-naphthylamine. Miller (29) stated that codling moth larvae
could be controlled with a dormant spray, and that such a spray was
being patented (by him)../
&/ Patent lists do not show grant of such a patent.
lllml i I II IIIII
Brandt (2) reported extensive practical use of steam for destroying
overwintering codling moth larvae on the trunks and crotches of apple
and pear trees in California.
In orchard experiments conducted by Cnadinger et al. (16), it was
found that a pyrethrum-oil spray killed 100 percent of the overwintering
larvae on the trees after harvest. These investigators proposed
destroying the larvae in the upper two-thirds of the trees by treating
them with pyrethrum-oil applied by means of a hand-operated oiler, and
in the lower third by applying this material as a spray. United States
patent No. 2,267,150 was granted December 23, 1941, covering this method
of control of the overwintering larvae.
Ginsburg (i_) concluded that dichloroethyl ether was highly toxic
to the larvae at concentrations of 0.75 percent or higher under labora-
tory conditions, but that it failed to kill a sufficiently high per-
centage of the larvae in the orchard because of lack of penetration.
Kerosene at 17 percent or higher killed from 93 to 100 percent both in
the laboratory and in the orchard. Injury to the trees occurred only
when the kerosene was applied in the summer---not when it was applied in
Carlson and Yothers (/) described and figured a mechanical timing
device which they developed and used in their laboratory tests of sprays
to kill codling moth larvae cocooned in grooved pupation sticks.
Heriot (21), in an orchard experiment involving 5.5 F--'t: of
unsprayed trees, showed that a single dormant application of an oil
solution of dinitro-o-cresol to trunks and main limbs was highly ef-
fective in reducing codling moth infestation at harvest. The oil carrier
injured. thA trees, h -. r. '.ot also found that dini-'-. i-creso
oil re5idue persisted for at least 210 days to such an .x-tent as !.Z; kill
full-grown larvae entering corrugated paper bands treated with it.
Others et al.(4), in an orchard test with 23 formulations,
obtained a high kill of hibernating larvae on apple trees .ith ni--tine
sulfate, pyrethrum extract, dichloroethyl ether, and 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol.
Each of these materials was prepared in an emulsion with stove oil and a
penetrating material. Owing to the scarcity of all these toxicants
except the dinitro compound during the war, work was concentrated upon
it. Used at 3 or 4 pounds per 100 gallons Lemulsified in 10 -. 15 g-allons
of stove oil (32 sec. Saybolt at 100 F.) with suitable emiultfiers 3rnd
penetrant5, it gave kills of 91 to 100 percent in a number of orch-ri
tests (Yothers et al. Q), This spray was found to be to:,-ic to -.>ple
buds even in the dormant stage, and it was therefore recommended only as
a dormant spray to be used on the trunks and lower sc-iffold branches.
Alexander (1) tested a pyrethrum-kerosene solution l1 r,
rough bar< of the trunk& and lower branches of apple r *
trees were AtMi dormant. The dropped and pick-d fuit ou
trees for the season had more than four times as many worm-i,'jure ;,.Ces
as did trees that had no other codling moth sprays. The Cr7:. c-.'.ed no
- 4 -
apparent injury, and showed no repellent action to the larvae. It was
suggested that the use of this spray should obviate the necessity for
much of the scraping of loose bark from the trees, and that it should be
effective against the larvae hibernating in prop poles.
Newcomer et al. (J0) gave a brief discussion of the work with trunk
sprays to destroy overwintering larvae which was in progress at the
laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine at Yakima,
Robertson (2), reporting on work by Venables and Heriot of British
Columbia, stated that sprays containing kerosene, diesel oil, and
dinitro-o-cresol were successful in destroying overwintering codling moth
larvae on the trunks and rough bark of apple trees. The oils injured the
trees temporarily but they recovered the following season.
Carlson et al. () found that codling moth cocoons, spun without
extraneous materials--wood, bark, and so forth--contained about 25 percent
of wax and fat, while those containing extraneous materials averaged about
12.5 percent of these substances.
In 1944 Carlson and Yothers (5) gave directions for the preparation
and use of the dinitro-o-cresoi concentrated tree-trunk sprays. The
authors stated that at least one manufacturer was preparing a commercial
product based upon their formula.
Others and Carlson (8, .) reported results of 3 years of orchard
tests with dinitro-o-cresol on 2 to 4 acres each year. In the six tests
kills of 84 to 95 percent were obtained, and in small-scale tests (3 to
5 trees each) kills of 85 to 99 percent. They reported that several
hundred acres of apple and pear orchards in the Yakima Valley and else-
where had been sprayed with the dnitro-o-cresol tree-trunk spray.
Carlson and Yothers (6) corroborated the findings of Heriot (21)
that the residue of the dinitro spray is highly persistent on apple
trees, killing considerable numbers of larvae as long as 14 months after
it had been applied.
In the Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Slarantine for 1944 (27), reference is made to experiments against the
dling moth on apples in Washington as follows: "Field tests with a
dinitro-o-cresol spray to destroy hibernating codling moth larvae...
killed 86 to 94 percent of the larvae and reduced the subsequent infes-
tation in fruit 25 to 50 percent." Chandler (10)J, in tests of dinitro-
o-cresol and either fIel oil and fish-oil soap or Dendrol (a miscible oil
or dormant sprays), obtained a maximum kill of 71 percent of hibernating
larvae. Gardner (I), in his report on work of Venables and Heriot in
British Columbia, stated that a light petroleum emulsion of dinitro-g-
cresol or dinitro-o-cyclohexylphenol applied to trees in early spring
killed up to 80 percent of the hibernating larvae and reduced the infesta-
tion at harvest by 50 percent. The treatment was recommended to supple-
ment summer sprays. Robertson (M), also summarizing Venable's and
Heriot's work in British Columbia, stated that 80 to 86 percent of over-
wintering larvae were destroyed by spraying with a mixture of 15 gallons
of diesel oil and 3 pounds of dinitro-o-cresol per 100 gallons.
Others and Carlson (AQ), in laboratory experiments, found that
codling moths developing from larvae that had survived sublethal con-
centrations of 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol sprays deposited fewer eggs than did
moths developing from untreated larvae, and also that the eggs deposited
by these surviving moths were less viable than are normal eggs.
Carlson and Yothers (2) reported on preliminary te.ts for destroy-
ing full-grown codling moth larvae with trunk sprays on :pple trees in
the summer. The regular (penetrant) formula of dinitr-_. cresol killed
82 percent, and DDT killed 85 percent of the naked lar.ae plac-1. on
recently sprayed trees, 68 and 28 percent, respectively, after 31 days,
and 79 and 20 percent 61 days after treatment.
Carlson and Yothers (8) reported the use of a penetraat aid, Celite
209 (a finely divided diatomaceous earth), which apparently -r1-ved as a
deposit to faciliate penetration of the dinitro spray through the waxy
Marshall (23) reported that DDYT-oil in a trunk spray was cornirier-
able less effective than dinitro-j-cresol-oil against mature hibernating
codling moth larvae.
Chandler (11) reported a test on 30 acres in 1946 using dinitro-o-
cresol and a proprietary oil emulsion. The final percentage of wormy
fruit was 0.5 in the "eradicant"-sprayed plot and 2.6 in the check. The
heavy spray schedule in both plots "might have controlled the insects
regardless of dormant spT-ays. f
In 1947 Yothers and Carlson () prepared instructions for the
preparation and use of their tree-trunk spray. The authors stated that
in several seasons' tests in large-scale orchard plots this spray gave
80 to 95 percent kill of all overwintering worms on the sprayed parts of
the trees. However, even when the trunk spray is applied, regular summer
sprays will be necessary, but the continued use of trunk sprays should
reduce the number of summer sprays.
(1) Alexander, C. P.
1943. Department of Entomology. Mass. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rpt.
1942, Bul. 398: 34-40.
(2) Brandt, R. 0.
1938. Lake County pest control. Calif. Dept. Agr. (Mo.) Bul. 27:
(3) Carlson, F. W., Cassil, C. C., and Yothers, MI. A.
1944. Ether extract content of codling moth cocoons. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 37: 711.
(4) and others, M. A.
1941. A mechanical timing device for laboratory spraying tests.
U. S. Bur. )t. and Plant Quar. ET-179, 2 pp., illus.
(5) _____ and Yothers, M. A.
1944. Methods of making a concentrated trunk spray for destroying
codling moth larvae. U. Bur. aEnt. and Plant Quar.
E-629, 2 pp. mProessedd/
(6) -_____ and Zothers, M. A.
1945. The persistence of toxicity to codling moth larvae of
4,6-dinitro-o-cresol applied as a tree trunk spray. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 381 723.
(7) and Yothers, M. A.
1946. Dinitro-o-cresol and DDT to control full-grown codling moth
larvae. Jour. Econ. fnt. 39t 408-409.
(8) and Yothers,, U. A.
1946. A penetrant aid for codling moth trunk Sprays. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 39: 409-410.
(9) Chandler, S. C.
1928. Codling moth hibernation studies. Jour. Econ. Ent. 21t
1945. Codling moth studies in 1944. Trans. Ill. Hort. Soc. (1944)
1947. Codling moth, mites and leaf rollers. Trans. Ill. State
Hort. Soc. (1946) 80: 179-189.
(12) Cory, E. N., and Sanders, P. D.
1932. Tests against the overwintering stage of the codling moth.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 25: 566-568.
(13) Gardner, J. G.
1945. Fruit Insect Investgations. Report of the Minister of
Agriculture fT -,z' Do'inion of Canada, 1944-459 58.
(14) Ginsburg, J. M.
1933. Lab3ratoji- t3ts wiuLi. iriou.- f'mlgants on codling moth
larvae. Jour. Agr. Re. 46: 1131-1136.
1941. Experiments with chemicals or codling moth larvae in the
dormant season. Joaur. Ecorin. Ent. %Ib 263-268.
(16) Gnadinger, C. B., Moore J, B., and CoulteE, R. Wo
1940. Experiments with pyrethrum for the control of the codling
moth (Carpocapsa poaonella L.). Jour. Econ. Ent. 33:
Codling moth. N. J. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Spt. 19281 139-
CGaj.u5 iMothG N. J. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rpt. 1929t 143-
Stu-y of -, ent3 for destroying overwinter!'nz- codling moth
larvae., N. J. Agr. Expt. St:. Ann. Rpt.. 1930: 142-145.
a. I-~ P J. '-r
(21) Heriot, A. D.
1942. Rece-ot v presss codin- moth control in British- Columbia.
I. ii-.^ na -r larvae. Sci. Agr. 22: 571 -576.
(22) Hough, W. S.
1927. The co. :i-: f'w and i',
31. : 31: i:-130.
n r- ,. Va. State "1,.-t.. Soc.
(23) Jegen, G.
(24) Leh.n" ., 9.
S -~.- -''.' in -'ter
bau ..?? "i:1'3,
(25) Maag, '-.
1941. 3. r Q aud :-e "t it-. ttel.
-- 7- ""'. f C, pi ,,;, r2: 57-54.
Rpt. i93 -19.73s .-,.
(26) McAlister, L. C., Jr.
1929. Preliminary report on control of hibernating codling moth
larvae. Jour. Econ. Ent. 22: 424-425.
(27) Marshall, G. E.
1935. Preventing spring emergence of codling moth from inaccessi-
ble places on trees. Jour. Econ. Ent. 28: 120-122.
(28) Marshall, J. W.
1946. DDTi investigations in control of orchard pests in British
Columbia. Wash. State Hort. Assoc. Proc. 42: 66-70.
(29) Miller, I. M.
1936. History of the codling moth. Better Fruit 31: 15.
(30) Newcomer, E. J., Yothers, M. A.,p Dean, F. P., Alexander, C. C.,
and Carlson, F. W.
1943. Controlling the codling moth with non-arsenicals. Wash.
State Hort. Assoc. Proc. 39: 107-110.
(31) Paillot, A.
1934. Nouvelles observations sur le traitement d'hiver des
arbres fruitiers par lee emulsions d'huile d'anthracene.
Acad. d'Agr. de France Compt. Rend. 20: 815-821.
(32) Robertson, W. H.
1943. (Codling moth control.) Brit. Columbia Dept. Agr. Rpts.
35 (1940): 39-41; 36 (1941)t 33-34; 37 (1942): 42-43.
1945. (Codling moth b: trol.) Brit. Columbia Dept. Agr. Ann.
Rpt. 39 (1944): 43-44.
(34) Spyer, W.
1934. Obstbaum Karbolineum als Schadlingsbekampfungsmittel.
Ztschr. f. Angew. Ent. 20: 565-589.
(35) Thacher, James
1825. The American orchardist, Ed. 2, 235 pp. Plymouth, Mass.
036) Thompson, F. M., Jr., and Worthley, H. N.
1933. Field studies with pine oils as destroyers of overwintering
codling moth larvae. Jour. Econ. Ent. 26: 1112-1117.
(37) United States ireau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
1945. Other insecticides tested on the codling moth. U. S. Bur.
Ent. and Plant Quar. Ann. Rpt. 1944: 2.
(38) others, M. A., and Carlson, F. W.
1944. Dinitro-o-cresol trunk spray against overwintering codling
moth larvae. Wash. State Hort. Assoc. Proc. 40: 57-60.
(39) others, M. A., and Carlson, F. W.
1945. Three years' of orchard tests of 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol
against overwintering codling moth larvae. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 38: 723-724.
(40) ___ and Carlson, F. W.
1946. Effect of sublethal concentrations of dinitro-o-cresol on
the codling moth. Jour. Econ. Ent. 39: 407-408.
(41) _____ and Carlson, F. W.
1947. A spray for destroying overwintering larvae of the codling
moth on apple tree trunks. U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plunt
Quar. E-712, 8 pp. jProcessedj.
(42) __ Carlson, F. W., and Cassil, C. C.
1942. Sprays to kill overwintering codling moth larvae. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 35t 450-451.
(43) Carlson, F. W., and Cassil, C. C.
1943. Tests of 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol emulsion against overwintering
codling moth larvae. Jour. Eeon. Eat. 361 882-884.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111
3 1262 09239 2157