Preliminary tests on N-substituted m̲-nitrobenzamides as insecticides

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Material Information

Title:
Preliminary tests on N-substituted m̲-nitrobenzamides as insecticides
Physical Description:
9 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Bottger, G. T
Gertler, S. I
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insecticides -- Testing   ( lcsh )
Organic compounds -- Synthesis   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-773."
General Note:
"March 1949."
Statement of Responsibility:
by G.T. Bottger and S.I. Gertler.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030293640
oclc - 780156385
System ID:
AA00025165:00001

Full Text
LIBRARY
STATE PLANT BOARD
March 1949 E-773


United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine


PRELIMINARY TESTS ON N-SUBSTITUTED m-JITIRBBZAMIDES AS INSECTICIDES

By G. T. Bottger, Division of Control Investigations,
and S.I. Gertler, Division of Insecticide Investigations

Nineteen N-substituted m-nitrobenzamides, which were prepared by
reacting m-nitrobenzoyl chloride with amines under suitable conditions,
have been tested in the insecticide-testing laboratories of the Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine at Sanford, Fla and Anaheim, Calif.
All the compounds contain in cmnnon the m-nitrobenzoyl group, shown
graphically as 0
/---?_ "
C--

NO2
These synthetic orgacd compounds were tested as dusts against three or
more leaf-feeding insects* The more promising materials were tested
further to determine their possible utility as stomach and/or contact
poison and their toxicity, as sprays, to tender foliage. Equipment
and certain methods employed have been described by Swingle, Phillips,
and Gahan. (J Most of the tests reported in this paper were run in
triplicate. Results of preliminary tests of some of the materials
were included in a miscellaneous group of synthetic organic compounds
reported by Bottger and Levin in E-729 and Yerington and Gertler in
E-747. The experimental procedures were the same as those followed in
E-729. For comparative purposes tests were also made with some of the
standard insecticides, all of which were known to be toxic to certain
of the test insects*

The insects and mites used in the tests were as follows:

Alder flea beetle (Altica ambiens (Leo.))
Arnyworm (Ciphis unTpunctta(Ha-w))
Black oit-a aphid (Toxoptera aurantii (Fonsco))
California oakworm (Lh ganiU& calilonica (Pack.))
Celery leaf tier (Phlyctaenia rubigalis (Guen.))
Large milkweed bug ( ope tus fasoiatus (Dall.))
Melonworm (Diaphania yalinata )








APR 1


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-2-


Pea aphid (Macrosiphum pisi (Kltb.))
Southern amyworm (Prodenia eridania (Cram.))
Southern beet webwoe (PaYia- bipunctalis (F.))
Sweetpotato weevil (Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Sum.))
Two-spotted spider mite(Tetranyohus bimaoudlatus (Harvey)
Variegated cutworm (Peridrama margaritosa (Haw.))

Nine of these species were reared in the laboratory to insure
their availability when needed and to also provide a more or less stand-
ardized population. The alder flea beetle, the California oakworm, the
black citrus aphid, and the two-spotted spider mite were fibld-oolleotedo

The standard insecticides tested were benzene hexachloride, DDT,
and bis(Z-chlorophenoxy)methane. Two benzene hexachloride dusts were
tested, one containing 1 percent of the gamma isomer and the other 10
percent. The 1-percent dust was made from a sample containing 5 percent
of pure gamma isomer and the 10-percent dust was made from a commercial
product reported to contain 30 to 40 percent of the gamma isomer*. The
results of these tests are shown in table I.

In the tests made to determine whether dusts of the more promising
materials were useful as stomach and/or contact insecticides, all the
materials were tested either as 50- or 25-percent dusts on various kinds
of foliage. Data on 11 compounds that caused mortalities of 75 percent
or greater to one or more species of insects when they were applied as
50-percent dusts are shown in table 2. The most toxic materials tested
at this concentration included N-butyl-m-nitrobenzamide, N-isobutyl--
nitrobenzamide, N-sec-butyl-m-nitrobenzamide, N,N-diisopropyl_-mnitro-
benzamide, and m-nitrobenzoio anid 2-phenylhydrazide, which was the only
compound that was effective against the armyworm.

Data on five of the compounds that caused mortalities of 75 percent
or more to the melonwonrm when tested as 25-percent dusts are shown in
table 3. N-Isopropyl-m-nitrobenzamide was the only material that showed
any appreciable toxicity to any insect other than the melonworm.

Other tests were made with 5-, 3-, and 1-percent dusts of N,N-diiso-
Spropyl-m-n obenr de and with 5- and 4-percent dusts of m-nitrobenzoic
ac 2-p'en -r de'r The results of these tests are shown in table 4.
At 5-percent concentration N,N-diisopropyl-m-nitrobenzamide was effective
against the pea aphid and the black citrus aphid but ineffective against
the celery leaf tier. The 1-percent dust was ineffective against the pea
aphid, and the 3-percent dusts were toxic to all stages of the two-spotted
spider mite. Five-percent dusts of m-nitrobenzoic acid 2-phenylhydrAzide
were effective against the black citrus aphid, but showed no appreciable
toxicity to either the celery leaf tier or the pea aphid. Both of these
materials were much less toxic than the standard insecticides.






-3-


The compounds that killed lesa than 75 percent of certain insects
when tested at concentrations of 25 or 50 percent in pyrophyllite are
presented in table 5. No appreciable toxicity is indicated to the insects
tested, and at comparable concentrations it is not likely that these mat-
erials would compare favorably with standard insecticides against other
species of insects.

For the pbytot6xicity tests the more promising materials were spray-
ed on green foliage. Each compound, 25 or 50 percent in pyrophyllite, was
applied at the rate of 8 pounds per 100 gallons of water with 1/8 pound
of saponin added as a wetting agent. The plants used in these tests
included bean, beet, cabbage, Swiss chard, collard, corn, pea, turnip,
and pumpkin. N-Butyl-p-nitrobenzamide and N-sec-butyl-m-nitrobenzamide,
caused slight injury to pumpkin and turnip, and moderate injury to Swiss
chard. N,N-Diisopropyl-m-nitrobenzamide, N-isopropyl-m-nitrobenzamide,
N-isobutyl-m-nitrobenzamide, and m-nitrobenzoic acid 2-phenylhydrazide
did not cause any noticeable injury to the various kinds of foliage tested.

Literature Cited

(1) Swingle, M. 0., Phillipa, A. M., and Gahan, J. B.
1941. Laboratory testing of natural and synthetic organic
substances as insecticides. Jour. Econ. Ent. 34:
95-99.







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