Laboratory tests of new compounds as insecticides against the sweetpotato weevil

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Material Information

Title:
Laboratory tests of new compounds as insecticides against the sweetpotato weevil
Physical Description:
5 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Harrison, P. K ( Perry Kips ), b. 1891
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insecticides -- Testing   ( lcsh )
Cylas formicarius -- Control   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-770."
General Note:
"March 1949."
Statement of Responsibility:
by P.K. Harrison.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030293562
oclc - 780154611
System ID:
AA00025163:00001

Full Text

F !3NAI',.. "
A7'1" ""Marc:hb.)A4. E-770

United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine



LABORATORY TESTS OF NEW COc POU.' .S
AS INSECTICIDES AGAINST THE
SWEETPOTATO WEEVIL


By P. K. Harrison,
Division of Truck Crop and Garden Insect Inv,- f+i -r.tions /'



During the years 1945, 1946, and 1947, compounds that had show,'
promise against other species of insects were used in poisoned baits and
on sweetpotato plants in the laboratory at Baton Rouge, La., against the
adult of the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers).
The test insects were reared in screen-wire cages .,:,roximately 14 by
14 by 16 inches, either in a greenhouse or in an open insectary according
to the location of the tests to be conducted. All bait tests were replicated
as many as four times, and some were replicated five times. The tests
on the plants were replicated a minimum of four times, except a few in
which the supply of chemicals was sufficient for only two or three
replications.
In the poisoned-bait tests ground sweetpotato was used as the carrier
and was mixed with the insecticides at the ratio of 40 parts to 1 part by
weight of an insecticide, regardless of the concentration or dilution in
which it was received. In each cage for each replication 31 grams of the
poisoned bait and 10 weevils were used. The cages used in the bait test
were constructed of 18-mesh wire and were approximately 10 inches in
diameter and 9 inches high. The open end of each cage was embedded in
sand on a bench. Daily observations were made for 7 days, and the mor-
talities recorded. The materials tested and the strengths before mixing
with ground sweetpotato, together with the weevil mortalities are tab-
ulated below.
Percent
Compound Strength and diluent mortality
Acetanilide, 3,a,a,2,5-pentachloro-, Undiluted 10
Acetone semicarbazone 25%, pyrophyllite 70
Acetophenone, p-chloro-,
eemicarbazone do 30

J/ In cooperation with the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station
and the Louisiana State Department of Agriculture and Immigration.






-2-


Compounds


Strength and diluent


Percent
mortality


Aniline, p-phenylazo-,
Benzamide, N-isopropyl-,
Benzamide, N,N-diisopropyl
Benzamide, N-(l-methylamyl)-,
Benzamide, N-sec-butyl-,
o-Benzanisidide
Benzene, diazoamino-,
Benzene hexachloride
(technical)
Chlordane


Chlorinated biphenyl
Chlorinated camphene
Ethane, l,l-dichloro-2,2-bis-
(p-chlorophenyl)-,
Ethane, l,l,l-trichloro-2,2-bis-
(p chlorophenyl) -,


25%, pyrophyllite
Undiluted
do.
do.
do.
do.
25%, pyrophyllite

5.75% gamma, pyrophyllite
50%, diluent unknown
Undiluted
48% emulsion
Undiluted
50%, diluent unknown

Undiluted

2.6% in benzene
3.0% in benzene
48%, diluent unknown
3.0%, pyrophyllite


Ethane, l,l,1-trichloro-2-
(p- chlorophenyl) -2 -phenyl-, Undiluted
Ethane, l,l,l-trichloro-2,2-bis-
(p-methoxyphenyl)-, do.
Ether, 4,6-dinitro-m-tolyl methyl, do.
Fluorene, 2-acetamido-, do.
Fluorene, 2-chloro-, 10%, diluent unknown
Hexaethyl tetraphosphate Undiluted
Hydrazine, 1-benzoyl-2-phenyl-, do.
Hydrazine, 1-isobutyryl-2-phenyl-, 50%, pyrophyllite
Naphthenic acid, butyl ester, Undiluted
Paris green do.
Phenazine do.
Phenol, 2,2'-(2-chloroethylidene)bis-
(4-chloro-, do.
Phenol, 2,4-dinitro-, 25%, pyrophyllite
Phenol, hexachloro-, 50%7, kaolin clay
Phenol, 2,2'-methylenebis(4-chloro-, Undiluted
do.


Phenol, 2,2'-(2,2,2-trichloro-
ethylidene)bis(4,6-dichloro-,
p- Phenylenediamine


do.
50%, kaolin clay


18
94
78
74
74
70
48

63
90
76
88
54
48

64

88
74
80
62

35

22
22
60
30
90
90
30
40
100
76

8
99
53
0
5


60
45






-3-


Compound


Strength and diluent


Percent
mortality


Phthalonitrile
Piperazine, 1,4-dinitroso-,
Propionamide, trichloro-,
Pyrethrins + piperonyl cyclonene
Ryania

Sabadilla
Semicarbazide, 1,4-diphenyl-,
Sodium fluoroacetate i
Sodium fluosilicate





Sulfone, chloromethyl 4-chloro-
phenyl,
Tartar emetic


Thiocoumarin
Xanthydrol


Undiluted
25%, pyrophyllite
Undiluted
0.2% + 2.5%, diluent unknown
Undiluted
50%, pyrophyllite
10% diluent unknown
Undiluted
do.
do.
25%, pyrophyllite
50%, pyrophyllite
5%, pyrophyllite
10%, pyrophyllite

Undiluted


50%,
25%,
25%,


do.
pyrophyllite
pyro phyllite
pyrophyllite


In the dust tests sweetpotato plants were grown in 8-inch flower pots
and were dusted while being revolved on a turntable in order to obtain an
even distribution of the insecticides. The dusts were applied with small,
plunger-type dusters. The compounds were diluted to the percentages of
the technical materials shown in the following tabulation. Sifted sand was
used around the plants in the pots so that the weevils could be more readily
found during observations. Large glass globes, 6 inches in diameter at the
base and 11 inches high, were used as cages. Closely-woven cheesecloth,
held in place by rubber bands, closed the top end of the cages. Ten weevils
were used in each cage, observations made daily for a period of 7 days,
and the mortalities recorded. Pyrophyllite was the diluent used in all
mixtures unless otherwise indicated. The dust mixtures tested and the
resulting mortalities were as follows:


2/ Sodium fluoroacetate is a rodenticide that is extremely toxic to
warm-blooded animals.


86
10
24
43
71
35
30
82
94
100
100
98
84
82

30
94
70
30
13







-4-


Percent
Compound and dilution mortality

Acetanilide, o-,a, ,2,5-pentachloro-, 50% 12
Benzene hexachloride (gamma isomer):
From technical benzt.-e hexachloride 5% 100
4% 100
3% 100
2% 80
1% 80
From essentially pure product 4% 100
1% 88
Chlordane 2%, diluent unknown 97
Chlordane (technical) 25% 100
Chlorinated camphene 25% 100
15% 100
10% 100
5% 100
1% 100
3% 95
Ethane, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-, 50% 100
25% 96
3% 88
Ethane, l,1,1-trichloro-2-(p-chlorophenyl-2-phenyl-, 50% 70
Ethane, l,l,l-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)-,
(known as rnethoxychlor) 25% 92
50% 53
Ether, 4,6-dinitro-m-tolyl methyl, 50% 26
Hydrazine, acetylphenyl-, 3% 40
Hydrazine, l-isobutyryl-2-phenyl-, 50% 100
Parathion 1 ', 100
0.5% 100
0.25% 60
PI,-hnol, 2,2'-(2-chloroethylidene)bis(4-chloro-, 50% 2
Phenol, 2,2'-methylenebis(4-chloro-, (technical) 50% 10
(pure) 50% 5
Phenol, 2,2'-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene)bis(4,6-'dichloro-, 50% 90
Propionamide, trichloro-, 50% 56
Ryania undiluted 80
5% 0
1% 0
Sabadilla 10%, diluent unknown 0
Sulfone, chloromethyl 4-chlorophenyl, 50% 92

In the spray tests, the methods were essentially the same as in the dust
tests, except that the mixtures were applied with small, bulb-type applica-
tors. The spray mixtures tested and the resulting mortalities were as
follows:






-5-


Percent
compoundd and dilution mortality

Chloi-lare (emulsion) 24% 100
Chlorinated biphenyl (aqueous solution) 50% 100
DDT (emulsion) 5%c 100
3% 100
1% 10C'
0.75% 100
0.5% 100
Hexaethliyl tetraphosphate (aqueous solution) 0.5% 1 ..
0.25% 10C
0.06% 20
Naphthenic acid, b. 'yl ester (aqiue':ous solution) 50% 98
Pipr-ronyl butoxide l0%, pyrethrins 1%, and a prcp.'- y
emulsifier 0.5%, all in oil, with water 1-99 0
Piperon;l butoxide 5% and pyrethrins 0.5%, with water 1-400 0
Piperonyl cyclonene 5% and pyrethrins 0.5%, with water 1-390 0
Tetraethyl pyrophosphate, with water 1-1600 20

In many c.,ses, in both the poisuiJedi-bait tests and the tests uii plants,
all of the weevils were dead within 48 to 72 hours after treatment. A
benzene hexachloride dust containing a minimum of 3 percent of the gamma
isomer, a 50-percent trichloropropionamide dust, and emulsion containing
a minimum of 0.5 percent of DDT, a chlordane emulsion, and butyl
naphthenate and chlorinated biphenyl sprays all caused slight to severe
foliage injury when applied to plants in the greenhouse.





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


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