Preliminary tests of certain phenylhydrazides as insecticides

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Material Information

Title:
Preliminary tests of certain phenylhydrazides as insecticides
Physical Description:
10 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Bottger, G. T
Yerington, Albert P., 1914-
Gertler, S. I
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insecticides -- Testing   ( lcsh )
Phenylhydrazine   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility:
by G.T. Bottger and A.P. Yerington and S.I. Gertler.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-769."
General Note:
"March 1949."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030293547
oclc - 780154114
System ID:
AA00025162:00001

Full Text




United States Departmaxyr ota iutk
Agricultural Research Aiisr~ir
Burteetu of Entomology and Pl;at QuairaxbLi e



PRELIMINARY TLT OF CERTAIN PHNYMYTDRAZLDE3%', A_ SCICD

By Go To Bottger and A. P. Yorington, Division of Coatrol Iirve at iat iors,
and So I* Gertler, Division of Insecticide Investigations


7woty-ive chemically related compounds derived from phenyrlhydraz ine i-ve be tested in the inseoticide-tei-ting laboratory of thi.3
Bur~.iat nahimCalif., or at Sanford, Fla, The oo.iponds tested my brpesented by the general formula



In each case R is an acyl group, derived from an acid. The system of nomenclature used by Chemical Abstracts has been followed in this paper., In mos_-t oases, where there is only one aoyl substituent, the compound is named as a phen~ylhydrazide of the acid. One compound has an acyl sub-s t--tuont oni each nitrogen and is therefore named as a phonyihydrazine. The e)thoxalyl deriva.tives which is derived from an eater, is also navsr as a phenylbydrazine.

These compounds were first tested as 25- or 50-percent dusto
against three or more species of leaf-feeding insects* On the basis of t he results of these tests, the more toxic materials were tested furth-Ier as sprays. Phytotoxicity tests were made of those compounds
-vh- ch were toxic to insects when applied as sprays. Contact tests were mad insome instances,, and a few volatile compounds were tested for possbleft~migatory action. Bottger and Levin (1) have reportea on
results of tests on stearic acid phenylhydrazide and on 11 other comapounds in this group of related materials,

For comparative purposes, tests were made with pure gaimna isomer of beuzene hexachioride, DDT, derris, bis(z-ohlorophenoxy)methaze, nicotine,
and pyrrethrmu.

The insects and mites used in the tests were as follows:

Alder flea beetle (Altica amabiens (Leo*))
A niyworza (a irphis s~pM~ Hw)
California iizFTm (hrgaidia californica Pack*)"
Celery leaf tier (Pleaal (Gugis en*))
Cotton aphid (AL=0szi (Glove))
Cross-striped cbageo Wi 7vergestis rimosalis (Guen.))
Green dook beetle (Gastrophysaor astroldea);cyn Melsh.)
Hawaiian beet webwoii THymea recurFvalis (F.
Large milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasoiatus Dall.)









Melonworm (Diaphania hyalinata (L.)) Pea aphid (Macrosiphs ltb.))
Southern annywor (Prodenia eridania (Cram.))
Southern beet webworm (Pachyzancla bipunotalis (F.))
Spirea aphid (Aphis spiraecola (Patch))
Squash bug (Anasa tristis (Deg.))
Sweetpotato weevil (as formioarius elegantulus (Sum.)) Two-spotted spider mite (Tetranyos bimaoulatus Harvey)
Variegated cutworm (Peridroma margaritosa (Haw.))
Yellow-striped armywo (Prodenia ornithogalli Guen.)

Thirteen of the 19 species were reared in the laboratory. Those collected from field populations were the alder flea beetle, cotton aphid, green dock beetle, spirea aphid, squash bug, and two-spotted spider mite.

In the tests with larvae of the alder flea beetle and the green
dock beetle and with all lepidopterous insects, sections of leaves were dusted in a settling chamber or sprayed with a hand atomaiszer, allowed to dry, and then placed in petri ishes with test insects. The mites and aphids were dusted or sprayed while in contact with their respective hosts. The milkweed bugs and squash bugs were treated while confined ih crystallizing dishes, to which untreated food was afterward added. A minimum of 24 ooleopterous and lepidopterous insects was employed in each test. Much larger numbers of aphids and mites were used in most cases.

The results of the tests with the standard insecticides against
the various test insects are presented in table 1. High kills were obtained with all these materials at concentrations of 5 percent or less. In most oases, however, mortalities were also high when the concentration was only 1 percent or less.

Data on five copounds tested as 50-percent dusts are presented in table 2. These materials were all highly toxic at this concentration. However, with the exception of m-nitrobenzoio acid phenylhydrazide, all of them caused moderate to severe foliage injury. l-Ethoxalyl-2-phenylhydrazine, acetic acid pheny1hydrazide, and butyric acid phenylhydrazide were also effective against the insects tested when applied as sprays.

Data on 10 compounds showing high toxicity to insects when tested
as 25-percent dusts are presented in table 3. Six of these compounds caused moderate to high kills when tested as low-concentration suspension sprays. Two of them--sulfonic and valeric acid phenylhydrazides--were not very toxic to insects but caused serious injury to plant foliage. Isocaproic acid phenylhydrazide sprays caused no kill. No spray test was made of 2-nitrobenzoic acid phenylhydrazide.

Table 4 gives the results of tests with 20 of the phenylhydrazides that killed less than 75 percent of certain test insects.








Acetic acid phenylbydrazide, when employed as a 50-percent dust, showed some toxicity against three of the test insects. The phenylhydrazides of phenylacetic acid and 2-chlorobenzoic acid showed some toxicity against certain insects when tested as 25-percent dusts.


Literature Cited

(1) Bottger, G. T., and Levin, Clemence.
1947. Preliminary tests of synthetic organic compounds as insecticides. U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. E-729 (Part III),
14 pp.







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