A review of the insecticidal uses of the rotenone-bearing plants, 1938-1944

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Title:
A review of the insecticidal uses of the rotenone-bearing plants, 1938-1944
Physical Description:
201 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
McIndoo, N. E ( Norman Eugene ), 1881-1956
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. -- Division of Insecticide Investigations
Publisher:
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Biological insecticides   ( lcsh )
Rotenone   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p.136-201).
Statement of Responsibility:
by N. E. McIndoo.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-713 ; February 1947."
General Note:
Processed.

Record Information

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030292625
oclc - 63372020
System ID:
AA00025138:00001

Full Text


E-713


February 1947


United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine


A REVIEW OF THE INSECTICIDAL USES
OF THE ROTENONE-BEARING PLANTS, 1938-1944


By N. E. Mclndoo
Division of Insecticide Investigations


CONTENTS


Page


Lepidoptera . .
Aegeriidae . .
Arctiidae .
Bombycidae. .
Coleophoridae
Cosmopterygidae
Crambidae . .
Gelechiidae
Geometridae
Hepialidae . .
Hesperiidae .
Hyponomeutidae .
Lpsiocampidae
Lycaenidae . .
Lymantriidae .
Nymphalidae .
Olethreutidae
Papilionidae .
Phalaenidae .
Phycitidae . .
Pieridae. ..
Pterophoridae
Pyraustidae .
Saturniidae .
Sphingidae.
Tineidae .
Tortricidae .
Zygaenidae
Unidentified Lep
Coleoptera . .* *
Anobiidae . .
Bostrichidae
Bruchidae .
Buprestidae .


Byturidae .


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Page


Coleoptera, contd.
Cantharioae .
Cerambycidae
Chrysomelidae
Coccinellidae
Cucujidae .
Curculionidae
Dermestidae .
Eleteridae *
Meloidae . .
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Aphidae . *
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Chermidae o
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Coccidae . .
Delphacidae.
Derbidae .
Psyllidae . .
Heteroptera .
Cimicidae . .
Coroldae . .
Lygaeidae .
Miridae . .
Pentatomidae
Pyrrhocoridae
Tingitidae .
Diptera *. .
Agromyzidae .
Bibionidae .
Calliphoridae .
Culicidae .
Gasterophilidae
Hippoboscidae .
Hypo dermati dae
Itonididae
Aiscidae


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Diptera, oontd.

Psilida. * *

Syrphidae. . .
Tephritidae .

Anoplura o . o o
Haematopinidae

Pediculidae

Mallophaga .

Philopteridae o
Trichodectidae o

Siphonaptera . o *

Hectopsyllidae

Pulioidae . .

Thysanoptera . .

Thripidae . *.

Orthoptera .

Blattidae o

Gryllidae . .

Looustidae .

Hymenoptera o o

Apidae & *

Argidae. . .

Diprionidae. .

Formioidae e

Tenthredinidae.

Collembola

Entomobryidae o


Dermaptera * .

Forficulidae

Trichoptera .

Thysanura

Lepismatidae

Acarina o .

Acaridae 0

Argasidae .

Demodicidae

Eriophyidae

Ixodidae .

Penthaleidae

Psoroptidae .

Sarcoptidae

Tarsonemidae

Tetranychidae


Trombioulidae 9


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-4-


This is a continuation of the series of pnpers berjn by R. C.
Roark, which reviewed all the Pvailable information on the insecti-
cidel uses of rotenone anr the rotenoids up to 1938. Twelve parts
of his review have been published in E-579; E-581; E-593; E-594; E-
598; E-603; E-625; E-630; E-652; E-654; E-655; anr' E-656. The pres-
ent paper reviews the publications dated 1938 through 1943, and
several dated 1944. Species belonging to Derris, Lonchocarpus, Te-
phrosia, Mndulea, Millettia, Pachyrhizus, and Calopogonium are dTs-
cussed. The continued interest in these plants as sources of insecti-
cides is shown by the publication, during the last 6 years, of more
than 800 articles describing tests upon insects with preparations
containing rotenone or its congeners*

Information on the cultivation and marketing of derris, cube,
and timbo has been assembled by the writer and will be published
separately. Of the authors cited in this compilation Fallon (175)
gives the most information on the economic aspects of the rotenone
plants*

LEPIDOPTERA

Aegeriidae

Melittia cucurbitae (Harr.) (=satyriniformis (Hbn.)), the squash
borer.

In Connecticut the 1940 tests indicated that a 1-percent roten-
one dust was equal, if not superior, to lead arsenate and fish oil.
In 1941 the 1-percent rotenone-treated plots had a significantly
lower infestation than plots treated with a proprietary dust (walnut-
shell flour impregnated with rotenone) but were not significantly
lower than plots treated with lend arsenate. A year letter a 1-per-
cent rotenone dust gave effective control, particularly on early plant-
ings when the borer population was high. The use of a pyrophyllite
diluent instead of the one used (Bancroft clay) might increase its
effectiveness still more.-Beard (40, 41).

In Massachusetts sprays were consistently superior to dusts in
1938. The percentage reduction of injury to squash vines was 88.5
for a spray of 1 percent of summer oil with 0.5 percent of nicotine
sulfate, 81.5 for a wettable cube spray (4 lb. in 100 gal. of water),
and 77.8 for a cube-clay dust (0.6 percent of rotenone).--Bourne and
Ahitconb (73).





-5-


Applied four times in 1940, nicotine sulfate (1:250), nicotine
sulfate (1:500) with 1 percent of summer-oil emulsion, Fnd wettable
derris spray (4 lb. per 100 gal.) with a resin adhesive reduced the
infestation by 74, 77, and 35 percent, respectively. Applied four
times in 1941, dusts of rotenone and talc and sprays of nicotine sul-
fate reduced the number of larvae by at least 79 percent. The most
effective treatments in 1942 were a dust containing 0.75 percent of
rotenone and "copper oxychloride sulfate", and sprays of nicotine
sulfate (1:250) and of white-oil emulsion containing nicotine sulfate
(1:500). Dusts containing 0.75 percent of rotenone in talc or 20
percent of cryolite witn 5 percent of metallic copper were moderately
effective. In 1943 a dust containing 0.75 percent of rotenone and
"copper oxychloride sulfate" was effective.--Whitcomb (676, p.57;
677, p. 62; 678, 681, p. 35).

In tests conducted from 1937 to 1941 in New York, satisfactory
commercial control was given by a 1-percent rotenone dust, and by a
spray of 2 quarts of nicotine sulfate or 4 lb. of powdered derris
(5 percent of rotenone) in 100 gal. of water. When the proportion
of derris was reduced to 1 or 0.5 pound, there were marked reductions
in control. Commercial rotenone extracts in sprays were of little
value.--Horvey (279).

Of the rotenone sprays, only those containing 4 lb. of derris
powder in 100 gal. of water gave commercial control. Sprays contain-
ing nicotine sulfate (1:400) were about as effective as the best
rotenone sprays. Dusts containing 1 percent of rotenone also gave
very good control.--Parrott (457).

Dust mixtures containing derris or cube were recommended for
the control of this insect in 1941.--United States Bureau of Ento-
mology and Plant Quarantine (621).

Arctlidae

(1pantesis) Callorctia phyllira (Drury)

All rotenone insecticides tried in Alabama were ineffective.--
Arant (22, 26).

Diacrisia purpurata (L.)

A cube dust containing 6 percent of rotenone appeared to be in-
effective against this pest on lavender in Basses-Alpes, France.-
Pussard (478).





-6-


Estigmene acrea (Drury), the salt-marsh caterpillar

If this insect becomes numerous in Arizona before fruit harvest,
derris is recommended.--ehrle (668).

Bombycidae

Bonbyx mori (L.), the silkworm

Chemical proof was obtained that dinitro-o-cresol, nicotine,
rotenone, arsenic trioxide, potassium arsenate, and arsenic pent-
oxide pass unchanged through the cuticula from the dorsum of the silk-
worm. Stain reactions demonstrated the presence of permeable areas
in the cuticula, including that of a living silkworm. They occurred
chiefly in the membranes of the pores of the setae but were also dis-
tributed over the whole skin. It is highly probable that permeability
is a purely mechanical process.-Bredenkamp (86).

In the laboratory pulverized seeds of Millettia pachycarpa were
fed to silkworms. It was estimated that the seeds were about one-ninth
as toxic as rotenone, and about three times as toxic as lead arsenate.--
Chiu and coworkers (114).

Insects have been subjected to rotenone toxicity determinations
more extensively than any other group of animals. The fourth-instar
silkworm larva appears to be the most susceptible animal tested, as
far as oral toxicity of rotenone is concerned. The median lethal dose
is 0.003 mg. per gramn. The silkworm appears to be nearly 20 times as
susceptible as the guinea pig, the mammal most easily affected by rote-
none. There is no evidence of any definite correlation between the
position of an animal in classification end its susceptibility to rote-
none. The comparative toxicities by oral administration appear to be
similar for derris and cube samples.--Cutkomp (132).

Seeds of the yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus Urban, [ contains 0.1
percent of rotenone and 25 percent of fatty oil] used as a dust killed
100 percent of silkworms, and various extracts of this dust killed 100
percent or slightly less. An alcoholic extract of the roots of Millettia
pachycarpa killed only 32 percent, the stems used as a dust killed 48
percent, while the seeds used as a dust killed 100 percent. An alco-
holic extract of cube (4 percent of rotenone) killed only 56 percent
of the silkworms tested.--Hansberry and Lee (258); Lee and Hansberry
(360).

The 4,6-dinitro-o-alkylphenols and cycloalkylphenols were more
toxic to silkworms than acid lead arsenate, but less toxic than rote-
none.--Kagy (333).





-7-


Coleophoridae

Coleophora malivorella Riley, the pistol casebearer

In Pennsylvania two early applications of cube powder in usual
spray mixture killed more than 95 percent of the larvae. It was rec-
ommended that a spray containing liquid lime-sulfur for disease con-
trol, 3 pounds of cube powder (5 percent of rotenone), and 3 gallons
of lubricating oil, emulsified with j pound of sulfite lye per 100 gal-
lon1 of spray be applied at the delayed dormant stage, followed at
the pink stage by one of 6 pounds of wettable sulfur, 3 pounds of
cube and ounce of Antifoam per 100 gallons.-Steiner and Worthley
(567).

Cube powder (5 percent of rotenone) used at the rate of 3 pounds
per 100 gallons gave good results in the delayed dormant spray.-
Steiner (565)*

In Maryland control can be obtained during the preblossom period
with one application of 4 pounds of derris powder and 8 pounds of
wettable sulfur to 100 gallons of water.*-McConnell (375).

Cosmopterygi dae

Batrachedra perobtusa Meyr.

Larvae of this pest in Brazil feed on pollen of the coconut palm.
As arsenicals scorch the palm flowers, it is preferable to use sprays
of nicotine or rotenone.--Bondar (64).

Crambi dae

Crambus bonifatellus (Hulst), a sod webworm

Crmbus topiarius Zell. (a hortvellus Hbn.), the cranberry girdler

Crambus sperryellus Klots, another sod webworm

Temporary control of the first and third species, which damage
lawns in California, was obtained by the use of sprays containing derris
extract, but as the treatments did not prevent reinfestation after 3 or
4 weeks, it was necessary to repeat them one to three times during the
summer--Bohart (62).




-8-


In lassachusetts nearly all the adults of the cranberry girdler
were killed with ierris dust (4 percent of rotenone), applied at 50
pounds per acre, but it was less effective than pyrethrum.--Franklin
(196).

Diatraea spccharalis (F.), the sugarcane borer

Cryolite killed 90 percent or more of the first generation in
Louisiana. Other dusts tried included derris.--Ingram and Dugas (309).

Gelechiidae

Gnorimoschema operculella (Zell.), the potato tuber moth

After potatoes are harvested in New South Wales, the tubers should
be stored in moth-proof containers or buildings and, if they become in-
fested, they should be dusted with a mixture of derris and kaolin (1:4)
or fumigated with carbon bisulfide.-New South Wales Department of
Agriculture (444).

In preliminary tests in eastern Australia, in which potatoes were
exposed to larvae for a few days, derris afforded complete protection.-
Helson (276).

Derris mixture (1 percent of rotenone) at the rate of 6 ounces per
hundred weight, protected stored potatoes from reinfestation in Queens-
land for at least 2 months after fumigation with carbon bisulfide.-
Veitch (637).

Since derris was difficult to obtain in New South Wales in 1943,
it was recommended that the 25-percent derris dust, usually applied
to protect seed potatoes from this moth during storage, should be re-
placed by one of 5 percent pyridine in kaolin, which is effective and
much cheaper.-Lloyd (369).

Keiferia lycopersicella (Busok), the tomato pinworm

Derris powder containing 2 percent of rotenone and 11.8 percent of
ether extractives, cube powder containing 5 percent of rotenone and 26.4
percent of total extractives, and an extract containing 2 percent of
rotenone were tested in California and found inferior to cryolite, which
was recommended for the control of this pest.-Elmore and Howland (164).

Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.), the pink bollworm

In laboratory tests at Presidio, Tex. in 1933, derris dust caused
72 to 100 percent mortality of larvae that came in contact with it.
Poor control was obtained in the field. In 1941 derris, after exposure
to direct sunlight, did not cause significant reduction, and even after





-9-


exposure in the shade, lost some of its effectiveness.--Chapman and
Lowry (111).

Phthorimaea sp.

Sprays of Coposil (copper ammonium silicate), alone and with 5
percent of rotenone concentrate, or Coposil plus commercial derris,
gave.significant reductions in infested tomatoes in Hawaii in 1937.
--Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station (270).

Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.), the Angoumois grain moth

In laboratory tests rotenone and derris resin were toxic to the
eggs of this insect and at all stages of development.*-Potter and
Tattersfield (471).

The pyrethrins at a concentration of 0.007 percent were much
more toxic to the eggs than nicotine or nicotine sulfate at 0.07 per-
cent or derris extract containing 0.001 percent of rotenone, when
the eggs were in early incubation, but all these were highly effec-
tive against older eggs.-Richardson (503).

Geometridae

Alsophila pometaria (Harr.), the fall cankerworm

In laboratory tests with sprays of derris, nicotine, and pyre-
thrum (0.8 percent of pyrethrins), the last was the most effective,
and the only one of the three that gave 100 percent mortality.-
Balch (33).

In comparative tests in Connecticut with lead arsenate, cryolite,
and derris-rosin residue emulsion applied to large deciduous trees,
rain washed off the cryolite and derris, but the arsenate stuck for
several months. A good initial kill was obtained with all three ma-
terials against the young cankerworms, but lead arsenate gave the most
lasting protection.--Felt and Bromley (177).

Cheimatobia brumata (L.), the winter moth

In Germany control was accomplished by spraying the moth eggs
with preparations of dinitrocresol and nicotine, and the larvae with
derris and pyrethrum preparations.--Thian (589).

Hepialidae

Oxycanus, probably cervinatus (Wlk.), subterranean grass caterpillar

Sprays of arsenicals and derris were inefficient in New Zealand.





-10-


Derris may merit further attention.--Dumbleton and Dick (150).

Hesperiidae

Urbanus proteus (i.), the bean leaf roller

In Florida rotenone is recommended against this pest on beans
in home gardens, after the pods formn.--Watson (657).

Hyponom euti dae

Plutella maculipennis (Curt.), the diamondback moth

Field tests near Norfolk, Va., with rotenone-nicotine dust com-
binations indicated that these materials could be safely combined to
control both aphids and diamondback moth larvae on collards. These
dusts were more effective for the control of the moth than roteaone
alone.--Walker and Anderson (648, 650).

Sprays or dusts containing Derris or Lonchocarpus were recommend-
ed in tIngland in 1942.--Walton (6535.

Derris resin was toxic to the egps in England.--Potter and
Tattersfield (471).

Derrisol may be used for the control of this moth on cole crops
in South Africa.--Schultz (527).

This pest on cabbages in queensland can probably be controlled
by the use of lead arsenate dust before the cabbages head, and a
spray of summer oil afterwards in place of dusts or sprays of derris
which, in 1942, was difficult to obtain.-Teitch (637).

Derris dust or spray can be used against the larvae which attack
turnip tops in New Zealand.--Pritchard (476).

A 0.1-percent nicotine spray, applied at 4-day intervals in
Malaya, gave better control on cabbage than did derris or pyrethrum
sprays.--Corbett and Pagden (121).

In New South W'ales cabbages should be dusted every 7 to 10 days,
with equal quantities of lead arsenate and kaolin during early
growth, and with derris and kaolin (1:8) when the plants are heading.--
New South Wales Departnent of Agriculture (445).

This snecies is further discussed under "Cabbage Caterpillars"
on pages23 to 26.





-11i-


Prays citri (Mill.)

A spray of 120 Frems of derris powder and 300 grams of soap in
5 gallons of water gave promising results against this moth on cit-
rus fruits in the Philippines* It killed both the egrs and pupae
with which it came in contact.--Garcia (216).

Lasiocampidae

Dendrolimus pini (L.), a pine moth caterpillar

In tests against the larvae in Germany chemical proof was obtained
that rotenone can pass through the cuticula.-Bredenkamp (86).

Malacosoma neustria (L.), the lackey moth

For a given insecticide there is no fixed relation between the
quantities necessary to control larvae of insects in different instars.
Even the order of classification, according to insecticidal efficiency,
does not remain the same for larvae of a given species during develop-
ment, as shown in a table giving the minimum lethal doses of pyrethrins
and rotenone per gram of body weight for larvae of M. neustria, Nygmia
phaeorrhoea, and Porthetria dispar (q.v.).--Fransen--(198).

A derris dust (i percent of rotenone) killed over 80 percent of
the larvae on elms in Amsterdam.--van Poeteren (469, p. 51).

Lycaenidae

Zizera labradus Godt., the bean butterfly

The larvae feed on the flowers and pods of bean plants in New South
Wales, and can be controlled by dusts of derris powder (1:8), or pyre-
thrum powder (1:3) in kaolin or talc; or by a spray of 2 ounces of derris
powder and 2 ounces of soap in 4 gallons of water.--New South W'aleaDe-
partment of Agriculture (444).

Lymantrii dae

Lymantri monacha (L.), the nun moth

In tests against the larvae chemical proof was obtained that rote-
none can pass through the cuticula.--Bredenkamp (86).

.Nygmia phaeorrhoea (Donov.), the brown-tail moth

The most economical dust in Holland would be one containing 0.7
percent of rotenone used at the rate of about 3 pounds per acre, but





-12-


for technicp] rps-', 1 wI s nc -r- +o 'se 30 points ot 0.117 per-
cent of roteno' eo t.--rrs ff

Porthetria dispar (L.), the -r's, moth

Unfavorable results were obtain,rd iith derris released from an
autogiro on woodlands. Derris extract mixtures were applied with oil
in proportions that were 9 to 12 times a concentrated, in toxic in-
gredients, as po-;,rdered lerris root.--Potts (472, 473).

In ;.ssachusetts dusting? with derri:, or mixtures of derris and
pyrethrum failed to control lde larger c-terpillars. A spray contain-
in- 15 pounds of drris (4 percent of rotenone) and 2 pounds of soap
per 100 gallonss of at ai- t 400 ;-ail ns per acre, was as ef-
fective as pyrenthrJ -*uss fgair. r.aturing larvae, and was much cheap-
er.--Frnklin (193( 1.5C.

Stilpnoia salicis (L.), the satir -oth

aFull-fed larvae in Holland were very resistant to rotenone but
not to pyrethrum. Tt would be necessary to apply 45 pounds per acre
of po--_ r containing' 16 percent of rotenone.-Fransen (198).

Nymphal i dae

Pareva vesta F. ('Acraea issoria Hbn.), the China-grass butterfly

Aqueous extracts of the seeds nf Yillettia pachycarpa were ef-
fective against the larvae of this insect in China.-Chlu and coworkers
(114).

Vanessa cerdui (L.), the painted lady

The two dinitrocycloalkjlphenols tested were more toxic than acid
lead arsenate to the larvae, and the two nitrated phenols were more
toxic than rotenone.--Kagy (333).

The median lethal dose of rotar is 0.03 mg. per gram of body
weight.--Cutkomp (132).

Olethreutidae

Ancylis comptana fragariae (Walsh & Riley), the strawberry leaf roller

Dusts were more effective thar snrayv in 'issouri. Four dusts
were recommended, one being derris (5 percent of rotenone) mixed with




-13-


pyrophyllite or cheap flour at the rpte of 1 part of derris to 4 parts
of diluent,-Smith (555).

(Argyroploce) Badebecia urticana (Hbn.)

Deorris dust, if applied promptly, was effective against this in-
sect on strawberries in England.--Massee (398).

Caeoapsa pomonella (L.), the codling moth

In laboratory tests a dust containing 0.1 percent of pyrethrins,
applied to adult moths, killed 91 percent in 6 hours, while a cube
dust containing 0.96 percent of rotenone and 4.3 percent of ether ex-
tractive killed only 19 percent. When mature larvae were dusted with
pyrethrum (0.2 percent of pyreth. ins), 100 percent died in 24 hours,
but the cube dust killed only 71 percent.--Gnadinger and coworkers
(233).

In Washington the substitution of 1 pound of 4-percent rotenone-
bearing material for 1 pound of lead arsenate failed to show better
control than lead arsenate at 3 pounds per lOu gallons.--'ebster and
O'Neill (666).

A lead arsenate schedule, in which nicotine bentonite was re-
placed by a spray of rotenone powder and derris extract, gave excel-
lent results on two varieties of apple, but wes not effective on the
third.--New Mexico Agricu;tural Experiment Station (438).

An orchard of several thousand trees was spreyedr with a mixture
of lead arsenate and D-X (a proprietary product containing rotenone
and pyrethru,.m). The crop was from 95 to 98 percent free of codling
moth larvae. On the check block, where the straight lead ersenate
schedule was followed, only 50 to 75 percent of the fruit was clean.
--Pratt (474).

Previous attempts to use retmenme against the codling moth
were unsuccessful, but in tests begun in 1938 in New York sprays made
with rotemone-bearing roots gave promising results and, with the ad-
dition of a spreader and adhesive, were more effective than sprays
of nicotine or lead arsemate. Rotaenone extracts were inferior to the
powdered root. In 1938 cube (4 percent of rotenone), applied to
apple trees at 4 pounds per 100 gallons, gave only 54 percent control.
A roteenone extract gave 76 percent control, but powdered derris (5
percent of rotenone) used at 5 pounds per 100 gallons in 1 quart of
summer oil gave 82.5 percent. In 1941 2.5 pounds of powdered derris





-14-


t8 ce-t of rotenone) plus 1 quart of oil gave 95.5 percent, Black
J f 4 in oil 9.5 recent, and lead arsecate 97.4 percent control.
co binat-ion .pray of derris with a small amount of lead arsenate and
oil *r-..cided effective control. In 1942 both nicotine and rotenone
S. ys again proved highly effective when applied every week or 10 days
rc.nr the period of codling coth activity. The three most effective
l.'res were 3 pounds of Black Leaf 155 plus 1 quart of oil, 2,5 pounds
derrls (5 recent of rotenone) plus 1 quart of oil, and 3 pounds of
ead arsonate plus 3 pounds of lime per lO0 gallons of spray, each with
H coTiiTneoia1 -1-1 eadoro'-.-Finan (261-264)0

., .s, cube, and pyrethrun in 1942 gave promise as substitutes
f.asenicals.-Parrott (457).

In D2 '.;oe tests to determine the value of substitutes for ar-
s nils a6 inst the seoc-.d-brood codling moth included a spray con-
tr. 1.l5 pounds of Black Leaf 155 and 1.5 pints of D-X (a rotenone
d *, ethruj r*duct) in 100 gallons of water. This spray gave
53b6 per ent of clean fruit while a lead arsenate spray gave 55.1 per-
iti--3t(earns ('14).

Tests for substitutes for lead arsenate, conducted in Pennsylvania
in I. 1", included three treatments in which rotenone products replaced
twi-thirds of the lead arsenate. None of these treatments were so ef-
f-tive as lead arsenate on the two varieties of apples sprayed.--
Sorth. ( "!).

In Massachusetts a modified schedule, employing a commercial py-
r thj.Loi-rctenone combination containing lead arsenate at reduced
str ci4-g, practically eliiuinnted codling moth damage.--Bourne (72, p. 36).

In Germany two poison baits were tested, one a derris prepara-
at a concentration of 1 percent with 0.15 percent of soft soap and
t ri sugar, and the other containing 0.4 percent of lead
. enate with 4 percent of sugar. Moths confined with the poison died
within 9 days in the laboratory and 11 days in the field. In an apple
or1hard sections of 83, 317, and 36 trees were sprayed 3 times, with
tha arsenici-l bait, the derris bait, and the normal arsenical spray di-
Sc ,ed ninat the larvae. The percentages of uninfested apples from
tho -.ee sections were E, 67, and 49, respectively, while only 11
p cet of the apples from an .-nsprayed orchard were uninfested. No
d.. er is likely, to accrue to honeybees from the use of derris bait sprays.
-Dremstedt (63) .

(tI o el ) Eilciara uddcaimiana (L.) (=Eucosma (N.)u. L.), the bramble
hL t 0.-Ll r


., es berries in England. No control was obtained by


T.li i. moth




-1 _.


lead arsenate spray or by two applications of a spray of derris ex-
tract and soap. Atomized pyrethruir pvc excellent results on a
small scale.--Dicker (142).

Grapholitha molest (Busck), the oriental fruit moth

In Connecticut when monthly applications of lead arsenate spray
and dry line-sulfur were followed by six applications of a spray con-
taining derris and skim-milk powder, 80 percent of the fruits were
uninjured by this pest.-Garman (218).

Grapholitha packardi Zell., the cherry fruitworm

In western Washington, infestation was reduced for the second
year by sprays containing lead arsenate, calcium arsenate, derris,
or phenothiazine.--Breakey and Webster (84).

Polychrosis botrana (Schiff.), a European vine moth

In Germany complete mortality of the winter pupae was obtained
with suitable 2-percent oil emulsions containing 0.5 percent of rote-
none.--Stellwaag (568).

Polychrosis viteana (Clem.), the grape berry moth

Since table grnpes cannot be washed without severe cre aing,
two types of spray schedules were d in New York in 1V 2- 1) the
"split schedule" in which calcium enate was used in he .rst two
applications and plant-product insc ,icides, such as nicotine or rote-
none, for the later treatments; an( '2) the"full scheduled in which
plant-product insecticides were used in all the applications.--Parrott
(457).

In a schedule of sprays that would avoid excessive arsenical
residues, two formulas were used-on& containing calcium are nate and
the other Black Leaf 155 Concentrate (fixed nicotine). The Fubsti-
tution of derris (4 percent of rotenone) at the rate of 4 pounds per
100 gallons for the nicotine gave 79.1 percent control.--Taschenberg
and Hartzell (581).

Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.), the European pine shoot moth

Two applications of a spray containing 4 pounds of derris or
cube and 3 pounds of fish oil in 100 gallons of water gave good con-
trol. This sprsy was more effective than one containing 3 pounds of




-16-


lead arsenate and fish oil.--Connecticut Agricultural Experiment
Station (120).

Rhopobota naevrtne (Hbn.), the black-headed fireworm

In Washington rotenone preparations were tested from 1939 to
1942. A 1-percent rotenone dust gave good control of the larvae but
had little effect on the adults, whereas a pyrethrum dust (0.I percent
of pyrethrins) destroyed both stages. A proprietary sprny material
(Visco) containing pyrethrum and rotenone was also satisfactory. In
field experiments a higher kill was obtained when the rotenone was in
solution than when it was in suspension. A combination of rotenone
and pyrethrum gave better control of both the fireworm and cranberry
fruitworm than either material alone. Cryolite and lead arsenate,
both with oil, were more effective in combination with rotenone than
when used alone. None of the materials tested were so effective as
a spray of pyrethrun and rotenone combinedo--Crowley (127-129)o

The second generation was controlled with derris dust (4 percent
of rotenone) without an activator, applied at 50 pounds per acre.
Dusting with pyrethrum or rotenone material was very effective against
this pest on cranberry plants in Massachusetts.--Franklin (193, 194).

Papilionidae

Papilio ajax L., the black swallowtail

Nicotine is ineffective, whereas rotenone is effective against
the larvae on vegetables.--Mclndoo (385).

Phalaenidae

Triphaena pronuba (L.) (=Agrotis T. p. L.), yellow underwing moth

The larvae on carnations in England were killed by derris powder.
--Speyer (558).

Agrotis ypsilon (Rotte), the black cutworm

Derris dusts were not very effective against this species and
other Agrotinae on cabbage in the field in South Carolina.--Reld and
coworkers (499)_

Anticarsia gemnatilis (Hbn.), the velvetbean caterpillar

Rotenone-containing insecticides were almost entirely ineffective
against half-grown larvae on vegetables in Alabama.--Arant (22, 26).





-17-


Trichoglusia ni (Hbn.) (-Autographa brassicae (Riley)), the cabbage
looper

Rotenone dusts were less effective than pyrethrum dusts for
checking infestations on Long Island. Powders of derris, cube, and
timbo having nearly equal extractive content did not significantly
differ in protective values. Dust mixtures of 0.5 to 1 percent rote-
none content were of nearly equal value for control purposes.--
Huckett (296).

Rotenone dusts were much less efficient than lead arsenate spray.
Syntone (2.8 percent of rotenone), NNOR (I percent of rotenone), and
Special Agicide Concentrate (a derris suspension) were decreasingly
effective in the order named. Derris powder (4 pounds to 100 gallons)
was superior to all the other treatments because it contained four
times as much rotenone. The imported cabbage worm was much more sus-
ceptible to rotenone than was the cabbage looper. There was little or
no difference between derris and cube; small but consistent differences
in control between 1, 0.6, and 0.25 percent rotenone dusts at 20 to
25 pounds per acre; and none between dusts of 1 and 0.5 percent rote-
none content when the rate was higher. In 1939, four, three, and two
applications of a 0.75-percent rotenone dust increased the yield by
22.9, 16.5, and 12.6 percent, respectively. It was concluded that a
0.5-percent rotenone dust is as effective as a more concentrated one
if it is applied at 36 to 40 pounds per acre, and that the best dust
for use on cabbage consists of a mixture of rotenone-bearing root and
a carrier such as talc.-Hevey (278, 280, 281).

A dust containing 0.6 percent of rotenone and 3 percent of
Lethane 384, and also dust containing 0.4 percent of rotenone and 2
percent of Lethane gave very promising results near Norfolk, Va., as
compared with the other derris dusts.-Walker and Anderson (647).

(Autographa) Anagrapha falcifera (Kby.), the celery looper

In 1942 it was recommended that a 0.75-percent rotenone dust be
substituted for the 1-percent dust formerly used against celery and
lettuce loopers.--United States Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaran-
tine (626).
Rotenone was recommended against loopers (*greenworms*) on
lettuce in North Carolina in 1943.--Yaxwell (407).

Brotolomia metriculosa (L.), the angle-shades moth

Derris dust prevented the feeding of larvae on roses in England
up to 4 days but did not kill them.-Speyer (558, p. 73).





-18-


Busseola fusca (Fuller), a maize stelkborer

Under the intensive system of farming in South Africa two of
the control measures consist in top dressing of the plants with
Derrisol and cutting of the infested plants.--Union of South Africa
Department of Agriculture (609).

Callopistria floridensis (Guenee), the Florida fern caterpillar

An outbreak on ferns occurred in nursery greenhouses in Los Angeles.
Treatment with a 2-percent Rhotonon ( ? rotenone) solution, 1 ounce
to 4 gallons of water, and use of light traps for several months re-
sulted in complete control.--Comstock (119).

Nicotine is ineffective, whereas, rotenone is effective against
this pest on vegetables.-McIndoo (383).

Ceramioa picta (Harr*), the zebra caterpillar

Rotenone dusts were not effective on Long Island.-Huokett (295).

Charaeas graninis (L.), the "antler" in England

In Germany when mature larvae dusted with pyrethrum or derris
preparations were transferred to untreated grass sod, 50 percent died
in 9 days; but when larvae on the sods were dusted with a derris prepa-
ration or calcium cyansamide, 74 and 78 percent died.--Maerck (387).

Feltia subterranean (Fe), the granulate'cutworm

Derris dusts were not very effective in South Carolina.-Reid and
coworkers (499).

In Alabama all rotenone insecticides tried were ineffective.--
Arant (26).

Heliothis armigera (Hbn.), the bollworm, corn earworm, tomato fruitworm

On Cotton: Calcium arsenate alone gave a yield of 673 pounds of
seed cotton per acre while a mixture of this arsenate and cube (80 to
20) gave only 635 pounds.--Moreland (4235).

In tests made in Texas calcium-zinc arsenate gave a little better
control than either calcium arsenate alone or a calcium arsenate-rote-
none mixture, but the difference was not significant.--Gaines (210).





-19-


On sweet corn: The use of mineral oil plus 3 percent of dichoro-
etnyl ether appeared to be a practical method of controlling this pest
on sweet corn for market in Maryland. The addition of 0.1 percent of
pyrethrins to the oil iaoreaAed its effectiveness, buat the addition of
derris extract or nicotine',4-WQ! and coworkers (147).

The mineral-oil injection method was tried in Hawaii. Oil was
applied alone, and with the addition of a derris extract (5 percent of
rotenone in a total of 20 percent of extractives dissolved in camphor
oil) which was used at the rate of 36 cc. per gallon of oil, giving 0.05
percent of rotenone in the mixture. 0.8 oc. of oil was ejected at a
time on silks as near the tip as possible. Two weeks later the percent-
age of tips damaged by larvae was 10.6 when oil was used alone, 6.2 when
derris extract was added, and 60.8 on untreated plants. A single treat-
ment of the field may be sufficient.--Sohmidt (522).

A dust of derris and talo (1:3) was effective in some oases in
Puerto Rico.-App (20).

On Tomatoes: In Hawaii sprays of copper ammonium silicate used
alone, or with a 5-percent rotenone concentrate, or witn a commercial
derris added, gave significant reductions in percentage of infested
fruit.-Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station (270).

Of 30 cnemioals tested against third-instar larvae, derris (5 per-
cent of rotenone) and basic copper arsenate had the most delayed effect
but killed at least 90 percent.-Sherman and workers (537).

Cube (6 percent of rotenone), mixed with 4 percent of cottonseed
oil and kaolin, and used as a dust, gave no control in South Carolina.-
Watts (660).

Rotenone and oopper-rotenone were called poor for this pest in
victory gardens in Indiana in 1943.--Reed (496).

On Other Plants: Rotenone was of little value against this insect
on lima beans in Tennessee.--Marcovitch (394).

Rotenone dusts were ineffective on snap and lima beans in Maryland.
-Ditman (143); Graham and Ditman (240).

Derris dust apparently did not affect it on broccoli.-Walker and
Anderson (645).

Derris dusts were ineffective on oeabbage.-Reid and coworkers (499).





-20-


The corn earworm and cutworms are not satisfactorily controlled
by either rutenone or pyrethrua, but mut be oombatd wizn araemaial
ad fluoij compounds.-Reid (497, p. 3).

(amue-straj BIfrattira bravot (L.), a cabbage moth

In Scotland the larvae can be controlled by dusting the plants
with nicotine, pyrethrum, or derria.-Caameron (99).

Sprays or dusts containing Derris or Lonohocarpuerwere suggest-
ed for control in nglsnd.--WaltonT60).

A derris mixture (0.75 percent of reteunae) was applied success-
fully in Holland against Hw larvwe of Manestra (probably M. brassicae)
on toBmateoes-van Poeteren (470, p. 73).

Papaipema purpurifasoia (G. & Re.), oolumbine borer

Dusets of derris mixed with talo were effective if applied, during
tne hatcning period, to cultivated aquilegia plants and soil around
them.*-Matthewman (404).

Plusia sigmata (F.)

In New ea the larvae on tobacco can be controlled with derris
dust.--Froggat- ('04).

Polia oleracea (L.), tomato moth

Young larvae on tomatoes in England were killed by the addition
of derris extract (0.002 percent of rotenone) to a 1-percent petroleum
emulsion, and all except some mature larvae by a spry contain,
0.0045 percent of rotenone; but 0.007 percent was necessary to give a
complete kill.-Read (495).

Prodenia eridania (Cram.), the southern armyworm

The ingestion of rotenone was followed by no changes in the epi-
thelium or muscle fibres, but the ingestion of arsenicals was follow-
ed by disintegration of the midgut epithelial cells and damage to the
midgut muscle fibres. Silkworms died within 2 hours after ingesting
minute quantities of rotenone, whereas southern armyworms readily
ingested 59 to 10 mg. in sandwiches without showing any ill effects.--
Woke (699).

Feeding rotenone, nicotine, pyrethrumn, and phenotniazine in sand-
wiones caused little or no change in tne blood cells and no significant





121l


difference in the glycogen index between the fore and hind ends of
the larvae The arsenicals caused marked changes in the blood
cells.--Yeager and Minson (705).

Prodenia litura (F.), the grey-streaked moth

In New Guinea the larvae on tobacco can be controlled with derris
dust.--Froggatt (204).

Phycitidae

Acrobasis juglandis (LeB), the pecan leaf casebearer

A pyrethrum-rotenone spray, applied in early spring when 95 per-
cent of the larvae had become active, gave good control in Florida.--
Phillips and Bratley (466, p. 72).

Ephestia kuehniella Zell., the MediterraneAn flour moth

In one instance the pyrethrins were 2.66 + 0.26 times as toxic
as a Derris ellitiea resin (rotenone content "7 to 40 percent) to the
eggs.*-Potter and T'attersfield (471).

Etiella zinekenella (Treit.), lime been pod borer

Wusts and sprays containing rotenone gave inferior results, py-
rethrum gave moderately effective results, and cryolite reduced the
population by over 90 percent in Puerto Rico.-Scott (5_33).

Mineola vaocinii (Riley), the cranberry fruitworm

In field experiments in Washington a higher kill was obtained
when the rotenone was in solution than in suspension. A combination
of rotenone and pyrethrum gave better control than either material
alone. Cryolite and lead arsenate, both with oil, were each more ef-
fective in combination with rotenone than when used alone.--Crowley
(128, 129).

Good control in Massachusetts was obtained with sprays contain-
ing 8 pounds of derris or 10 pounds of cube (both 4 percent of rote-
none) and 2 pounds of soap in 100 gallons of water. A 2-percent rote-
none dust with an activator and wetter, applied twice at the rate of
100 pounds per acre, was highly effective. A derris dust (4 percent
of rotenone) without an activator vws satisfactory at 50 pounds per
acre. A sprgy of lead arsenate gave good control on experimental plots
when applied at 400 gallons per acre, 'hough it was less effective
than derris or cryolite.--Franklin (192, 193, 196).




-22-


In New Prunswick a derris spray gave significant control,but a
derris dust and a spray of nicotine sulfate did not.--!axwell (406).

Pieridae

Pieris brassicae (L.), tne cabbage white butterfly

In England a 0.1-perceat rotenone dust gav satisfactory control
of this pest on Brassica crops under field conditions. The follow-
ing formula was used: Lnohoc!Ms nicou (4 percent of rotenone) 2.5
pounds, gypsum seconds mineral 92.5 pounds, and amorphous silica dust
5 pounds. About 70 pounds of the dust per acre were required to dust
a crop in autunn--Kearns (338).

Derris resin and rotenone were toxic to tne eggs in laboratory
tests.--Potter and Tattersfield (471).

Sprays or dusts containing Derris or Lonchooarpus were suggest-
ed in 1942 for control of the caterpillars on garden crops in England.
--Walton (653)

Derris, in either dust or spray form, can be used in New Zealand
to protect the tops of turnips.--Pritohard (476).

Pieris canidia (Sparrm.)

Derris sprays gave promising results against tnis species on
cabbage in China.--Chan (110).

Pieris napi (L.)

Rotenone sprays and dusts were suggested in 1942 for control of
this species on garden crops in England.--Walton (653).

Pieris rapae (L.), the imported cabbage worm

Rotenone dusts were very effective in most oases in New York.
Syntone, NNOR, and Special Agicide Concentrate were decreasingly ef-
fective in the order named. Derris (4 pounds to 100 gallons) was
superior because it contained four times as much rotenone. The addition
of 3 percent of Lethane 60, crude soybean oil, and sodium oleyl sul-
fate did not increase the toxicity of the retenone dusts.--Hervey
(278, 280, 281).

An analysis was made of derris residues on marketable heads of
cabbage which had been dusted at 7-day intervals with 5 applications of





-23-


a erris-clay mixtire containing 1I percent of rotenone. Stntij-ical
clcu.p1tions shvewe th-t, amorxr 11,600 heads from a single acre, one
U. S. No. 1 had night be encountered that would contain 73 ports per
million of derris (0.525 grain per puund).*-Cassil (107).

In 1941 one recommendation for the control of the imported cab-
bage worm in New York was +he use of 4 pounds of derris (4 percent of
rotenone) to 100 gallons of water plus a suitable spreader and stick-
er. Experiment showed that derris sprays of one-fourtn tnis strength
compared favorably with the derris and pyrethruin dusts which are also
recommended.--Pyenson and Roth (481).

Because of difference in toxicity between the yam bean and cube
(4 percent of rotenone) in tests with the imported cabbage worm and
codling moth, it is probable that the toxicity of the ynm bean is not
primarily rotenone.*-Hansberry and Lee (258).

In 1941 the safest and one of the most effective methods of con-
trol for this pest was the use of derris or cube dust mixture contain-
ing 0.75 to 1 percent of rotenone.--U. S. Bureau of Entomology and
Plant quarantine \620).

Sprays or dusts containing Derris or Lonchocarpus were suggested
or control of P. rapae in England. Dusts containing 0.1 percent of
-otenone were effective.--Walton (653).

This species caused no damage in market gardens in Victoria where
dusts containing derris or arsenates were employed.-Anonymous (3).

In West Australia, nicotine sulfate, lead arsenate, and derris
were recommended against this pest.--Jenkins (322).

An alcoholic extract of the seeds of Millettia pachycarpa was ef-
fective in Chinae--Chiu and coworkers (ll4j .

Cabbage Caterpillars

All three species of caterpillars commonly found on cabbage in
the United States, namely, the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni), the
imported cabbage worm (Pieris rapae), and the diamondback motW_(Plutella
maculipennis), are either inferred or named in the following abstracts:

In tests in Ohio with dusts applied to cabbage, the percentages
of heads free from injury at harvest were 67 for paris green, 64 for
lead arsenate, and 23 for derris.-Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station
(448).





-24-


In 3-year trials in Wisconsin it was possible to control both
the cabbage worm and the cabbage aphid with a mixture containing
rotenone (0.76 percent) nicotine (2.5 percent), and sulfur (20 per-
cent). Derris was superior to lead arsenate for control of the im-
ported cabbage worm and diamondback moth, but the arsenicals were
better for control of the cabbage looper.--[Allen] (15); Wisconsin
Agricultural Experiment Station (695).

In Alabama Derris and Tephrosia were more effective than
Lonchocarpum of the same guaranteed rotenone content against a mixed
infestation of cabbage worms in the field.--Arant (26).

A survey of various commercial cabbage fields in South Carolina,
in which several insecticides, including derris and cube dusts, were
used, showed that there was need for more adequate control measures.
--Bare (34).

A derris-nicotine dust with sulfur and hydrated lime added as
diluents gave excellent control of cabbage worms, as well as fair re-
sults against the pea aphid.-Brooks and Allen (91).

In Ohio in 1938 the greatest yield of cabbage was obtained by
treatment with a mixture of 1 pound of derris dust (4 percent of rote-
none) and 7 pounds of talc.--Gui (246).

The more important uses of rotenone include the control of cab-
bage caterpillars.--Howard and coworkers (294).

Rotenone dusts in 1939 on Long Island were almost replaced on
a commercial scale by pyrethrum dusts. The former were not effective
against the older larvae of the cabbage looper on cruciferous crops.
-Huckett (295).

In Michigan cabbage worms are controlled with arsenical sprays
and dusts, and by rotenone (derris), or with pyrethrun dusts and
sprays. The diamondback moth is controlled with derris or pyrethrum.
-Hutson (303).

The standard recommendations in New York in 1942 for cabbage
insects--cabbage aphid and the three species of cabbage caterpillars-
included a 0.75 to 1-percent rotenone dust or a spray containing 4
pounds of derris or cube powder (4 to 5 percent of rotenone).-
Parrott (457).

A 0.5-percent rotenone dust was recommended in North Carolina
in 1943 against cabbage worms on cabbage after the head is half
grown.-Maxwell (407).




-25-


Rotenone and copper-rotenone were called good for cabbage worms
in victory gardens in Indiana in 1943.-Reed (496).

The only satisfactory substitute for rotenone insecticides for
use on cabbage after the heads begin to form is pyrethrum.--Reid (497).

As arsenicals cannot be safely used on cabbages after the head
begins to torn, dusts of derris end pyrethrum were tested in South
Carolina in 1939 and found effective against larvae of some of the
three species, but derris was more effective against the population as
a whole and could be used at greater dilutions.-Reid and Bare (498).

Of the materials tested derris dust gave the most uniform re-
sults in 1941. From field experiments it was concluded that a derris
dust containing 1 percent of rotenone should be most effective against
the cabbage looper and diamondback moth, and a 0.6 percent dust should
be sufficient where the imported cabbage worm predominates. In 1942
investigations were conducted on the number and schedule of applica-
tions of derris-China clay dust containing 0.5 percent of rotenone
to protect cabbage from damage by these three species. The following
treatments resulted in a considerable increase in marketable cabbage:
three applications of this dust between the time the first heads be-
gin to form and the beginning of harvest; or three applications of
paris green and lime before formation of the first heads, followed by
two of derris dust during the heading period.-Reid and coworkers (499,
500). -

In Louisiana in 1938 three applications of a derris dust (0.5
percent of rotenone) failed to give satisfactory protection*-Smith
and Brubaker (547).

In field tests in Connecticut in 1943 against a light infesta-
tion of the imported cabbage worm and diamondback moth, and a severe
infestation of the cabbage looper, 1 part of derris suitably diluted
with pyrophyllite was as effective as 2.5 to 5 parts of derris diluted
with clay. If the control obtained by 1 percent of rotenone and clay
is accepted as the desirable standard, not more than 0.4 percent of
rotenone with pyrophyllite produced the same degree of control. Not
more than 0.3 percent of rotenone with pyrophyllite would be required
to equal the control following use of 0.75 percent of rotenone with
clay.--Turner (602).

In order to conserve rotenone, pyrethrum can be substituted for
it. It is better to apply an insecticide at reduced concentration
to the entire crop rather than the full concentration to only part of
it.--Turner and Horsfall (606).




-26-


Either a 1-percent rotenone dust or a 0.3-peroent pyrethrins
dust, applied at the rate of 15 o 25 pounds per acre, was formerly
recommended for the control of mixed populations of these three
species of cabbage caterpillars. In order to conserve rotenone it
was recommended in February 1942 (1) to use a 0.75-percent rote-
none dust at the same rate, with the provision that if one applica-
tion is not effective a second application be given, or (2) when-
ever possible to use a 0.3 percent pyrethrins mixture. Other
substitutes, such as paris green, cryolite, and calcium arsenate,
can be used on cabbage only prior to the heading of the plants, but
for other cole crops they are not recommended at any time after
thinning or transplanting.--U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine (626).

Nicotine is ineffective against cabbage caterpillars. A dust
containing 0.375 percent of rotenone, 1.7 percent of nicotine, and
10 percent of sulfur was also ineffective.--UT. S. Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine (628, p. 135).

Rotenone was reomBended against cabbage caterpillars in victory
gardens.*-Watson (657); White and Doolittle (683).

Pterophoridae

Platyptilia antirrhina Lange, the snapdragon plume moth

Retenone did not give adequate control in California.-Lange (352).

Ptptilia carduidactyla (Riley), the artichoke plume moth

Cube powder, nicotine sulfate, and fixed nicotines, applied as
sprays, gave limited degrees of control.-Lange (351).

Tlascala finitella (Wlk.), hill fireworm

Heavy spraying and dusting with materials containing rotenone
controlled this pest on cranberry plants in Massachusetts.-Franklin
(196).

Pyraustidae

Diaphania h!yalinata (L.), the melon worm

Derris dusts containing 0.5 percent of rotenone were less effective
than 1-percent dusts in Alabama. Cube appeared to be less effective
than derris and timbo. A derris dust containing 25 percent of sulfur





-27-


was effective but severely burned cantaloupe foliage.-Arant (21, 26).

Nicotine is ineffective, whereas rotenone is effective.-Molndoo
(585).

Rotenone was recommended for use in home and victory gardens.--
Watson (657); Thite and Doolittle (683).

Pyrethrum is inferior to rotenone but can be used with clay or
talc and sulfur to protect fall-grown squash.-U. $. Department of
Agriculture (6S33, p. 15).

Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll), the pickleworm

In Alabama cube appeared to be less effective than derris and
tiubo in 1940 and 1942. Nine applications of a derris-talc-flour
dust, containing 1 percent of rotenone, were effective in controlling
this pest on late cantaloupes in 1941. Applications at the rate of
54.2 pounds per acre were not significantly more effective than those
at 14.7 pounds per acre. A mixture of derris, talc, flour, and
Cuprocide (25:64:5:6) was no more effective than the preceding mix-
ture. On an average of 3,200 edible melons per acre were produced on
5 plots dusted with derris and talc, as compared with 96 edible melons
per acre on the 5 check plots. In 1942 derris and cube dusts contain-
ing 1 perooat ef rotenone did not materially reduce infestation of
the pickleworm until the dosage was increased to 20 pounds per acre
per application. Twelve dustings at 17.5 pounds per acre did not give
practical control, although worm-free melons were matured at the rate
of 750 to 2,080 per acre on the dusted plots as compared with none on
the chocks. Ten applications of 1-percent rotenone dust, applied at
5-day intervals at 12.5 pounds per acre, gave satisfactory control on
oucmbers during a period of favorable weather. Derris gave 93 per-
cent control and cube 79 percent.--Arant (21, 23-26).

In Louisiana rotenone did not give as efficient control of the
piekleworm as did cryolite.*-Floyd and coworkers (189).

In Mississippi derris dust reduced infestations of the pickle-
worm on cucumbers in 1940, but it was not determined whether the con-
trol obtained justified the expense.--Lyle (372).

Nicotine is ineffective while rotenone is effective against the
pickleworm.--McIndoo (383).






-28-


In South Carolina some control was given in 1939 on field plots
by three applications of a cube dust (1.25 percent of rotenone),
but in cage tests with insecticides, including cube, the only one to
give any mortality of the larvae was a dust of 10 percent lead arse-
nate which killed only 51 percent.--Watts (658).

Rotenone has been recommended against the pickleworn on cucum-
bers, squashes, and cantaloupes in home and victory gardens.--,iatson
(657)j White and Doolittle (683).

Evergestis rimosalis (Guen.), cross-striped cabbage worm

Derris and Tephrosia were more effective than Lonchocarpus of
the same guaranteed rotenone content.--Arant (26).

Hymenia (recurvalis (F.)(mfascieli s (Cram.)), the Hawaiian beet webworm

Derris and other rotenone-bearing dusts were of no value in con-
trol of this pest on spinach in Virginia.--Walker and Anderson (642).

In New South Wales, laboratory tests indicated that weekly ap-
plications of a dust of 1 pound of derris and 7 pounds of kaolin or
talo at 50 pounds per acre would be effective against larvae on the
silver beet.-New South Wales Department of Agriculture (440).

Loxostege stictioalis (Lo), the beet webworm

In laboratory tests there was no significant difference in ef-
feotiveness between dusts containing 0.75 percent of rotenone and 1.6
percent of resins from cube root. Paris green is the standard con-
trol in Montana. Small webworms, however, may be killed by pyrethrum,
rotenone, or nicotine sprays.--Pepper and Hastings (462, 463).

Varuca testulalis (Geyer), beman pod borer

Dusts and sprays containing rotenone gave inferior results in
Puerto Rico in 1940.-Scott (533).

PJhlyctaenia rubigalis (Guen.), the celery leaf tier, greenhouse leaf tier

Rotenone was recommended against this pest on celery in Florida.
-Watson (657).

Pionea forficalis (L.), Fgrden pebble moth

In England sprays or dusts containing Perris or Lonchocarpus
were suggested for the control of this insect on gardJen crops in 1942.
-Walton (653).





-29-


Pyrausta nubilalis (Hbn.), the European corn borer

In field plots in Massachusetts treated, respectively, with a
dual-fixed nicotine dust and a derris spray, 6 and 5 percent of the
plants showed stalk infestation as compared with 36 and 12 percent
in the controls. In plots sprayed with dual-fixed nicotine, nico-
tine tannate, and derris,uninfested ears formed 92.8, 97.6, and 98.3
percent of the total yield, respectively, compared with 70, 94.4,
and 94.7 percent in control plots.-Bourne (68).

In Connecticut dahlias were treated with sprays of nicotine,
and cube. Both treatments were satisfactory but the cube spray was
the least effective. On early and late corn, however, cube and derris
sprays were slightly more effective than the nicotine dust.--Britton
and coworkers (89).

Sufficient control to enable dahlias to blossom normally was
given by a dual-fixed nicotine dust, a derris or cube dust, and a
spray of 1 pound of derris or cube (4 percent of rotenone) in 25 gallons
of water with a suitable spreader. The rotenone dust was not effec-
tive against this insect on sweet corn.-Turner (596).

In New York powdered derris root (5 percent of rotenone), used
at the rate of 4 pounds to 100 gallons of water with a suitable spread-
er, gave good control, 4 or 5 treatments having been necessary to
protect the rapidly growing corn plants during the egg-laying seasons.
--Hervey and Carruth (282).

In Massachusetts in 1940 percentages of uninfested ears were 81
and 84 for sprays of derris and cube (both 4 percent of rotenone), re-
spectively; 72 and 65 for commercial sprays (4 and 2.5 percent of
rotenone); 77, 71, and 76 for a dust of dual-fixed nicotine and two
ommeroial .rotenone dusts; and 40 percent for no treatment.--Bourne
(69, p. 69).

In 1941 sprays sjnd dusts of denrris or dual-fixed nicotine proved
of considerable value against the first generation of the corn
borer--Bourne and Whitcomb (74).

Sprays of a proprietary derris preparation did not prevent ovi-
position of the European corn borer in Japan.--Koo (344),

A mixture of 4 pounds of derris or cube (4 percent of rotenone),
100 gallons of water, and a spreader provided protection for sweet
eorn.-Caffrey and Baker (98, p. 36).





-50-


While four of the many organic compounds tested in 1941 gave the
highest reductions in corn borer populations, none of them provided
such satisfactory protection to the corn plants as did derris.--Cuestel
and coworkers (485)

Derris (4 percent of rotenone) and synthetic cryolite, each used
with a spreader, increased the percentage of uninfested ears in Ontario.
The cryolite sprays considerably reduced the number of ears, and caused
foliage injury, while derris did not. Five applications of derris were
the most profitable of all, and two applications of derris were more
profitable than five of cryolite.-Stirrett (572); Stirrett and Thompson
(573).

In Connecticut a 1-percent rotenone dust produced about 50 per-
cent of borer-free ears, and dual-fixed nicotine (3.75 percent of nico-
tine) 66 to 75 percent. The use of derris, cube, or timbo (4 percent of
rotenone) in sprays provided control as satisfactory as that of dual-fixed
nicotine dust. The cost of spraying was somewhat less than that of dust-
ing. A knapsack bellows duster was better than machine treatment of
sweet corn. Encouraging results were given by spraying the ears alone
with 1 pound of derris (4.7 percent of rotenone) and 2 ounces of Ultra-
wet spreader in 25 gallons of water when young shoots had formed just
prior to silking, and later when the ears were in full silk. In spite
of the lower cost per acre for rotenone dust, the dual-fixed nicotine
dust was distinctly preferable.-Turner (598, 600).

Good control of the corn borer can be obtained with 0.5 percent
rotenone dusts, if carefully and thoroughly mixed and applied at the
rate of 45 to 50 pounds per acre per application.-Baker and coworkers
(32)o

Comparisons of pure ground derris and cube roots suspended in water
and applied with and without spreading agents showed no consistent dif-
ferences. Dual-fixed nicotine dust (4 percent of nicotine) was con-
sistently more effective than 1 percent rotenone dusts. Dusts made by
impregnating inert materials with extracts of derris were not significant-
ly less effective than dusts made by diluting ground derris root.-
Beard and Turner (42); Turner (601).

In Massachusetts the percentages of uninjured ears in untreated plots,
and in plots treated with sprays of derris or fixed nicotine and dusts of
derris or dual-fixed nicotine, were 92.9, 99.4, 97.1, 99.4, and 98.8, re-
spectively.-Bourne and Whitcomb (76).

In New York the most satisfactory control measure available for the
European corn borer in 1942 was four applications, at 5-day intervals, of







a dual-fixed nicotine dust or a 1-percent rotenone dust, which yield-
ed 86.5 and 81.6 percent uninfested ears, respectively, when applied
with a wheelbarrow duster, and 90.3 and 89.2 percent respectively,
when applied with a tractor duster.--Carruth (104).

Because it appeared probable that rotenone would not be avail-
able for use on sweet OoM-L, and the manufacture of dual-fixed nico-
tine dust was discontinued. A spray of derris (5 percent of rote-
none) with Grasselli spreader-ricker was superior to Black Leaf
155, but the latter could be us,; during the war emergency in situ-
ations where spraying was a practical means of borer control.-Carruth
(105).

Of the various dust materials tested, dual-fixed nicotine Oust
(4 percent of nicotine) and 1-percent rotenone dust were the most
consistently effective and did not differ greatly in their perform-
ances under New York conditions.-Parrott (457).

Nicotine was not entirely satisfactory. Rotenone was more ef-
fective against the European corn borer on sweet corn.-U. S. Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (628).

In 1943 the most satisfactory insecticide for use against this
pest in dahlias contained derris, cube, or nicotine.-Batchelder and
colrorkers (37).

Spray treatments of market sweet corn with high-clearance boom
equipment provided greater numbers of borer-free ears, with 40 per-
cent less derris per acre, than did the dust treatments.-Questel
and Irons (486).

Differences in tenacity determined in the laboratory indicated
that derris dust resisted about six times as much washing as did
dual-fixed nicotine dust and it should therefore perform relative-
ly better in seasons of a high amount of rainfall.--Turner (605).

In commercial-scale trials of a derris spray at Toledo, Ohio,
and of a derris spray and dual-fixed nicotine dust at New Haven,
Conn., at costs of $19 to $24 per acre, these treatments showed a
new profit of about $400 per acre from increased yield and reduc-
tion in corn borer infestation of early sweet corn.-U. S. Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (628, p. 133).

In 1944 the conclusions drawn from commercial insecticide tests
follow: (1) Derris spray was considerably more effective in corn





-32-


borer control than any. of the dusts used; (2) derris dusts were more
effective than nicotine dusts; (3) none of the dusts tested were
satisfactory when dealing with high borer populations; and (4) very
heavy infestations cpn be controlled satisfactorily and profitably
in early market sweet corn with derriaso--Questel (484).

Rotenone was r-conmmenaed in 1944 against the corn borer on sweet
corn in victory *.=rdene.--White and Doolittle (683 ).

Rotenone-bearing materials, during the emergency, were permitted
to be used against this pest only on sweet corn in home gardens, or
for marketing, green. The substihiutt6 were sprays of nicotine ben-
tonite and nicotine tamnate, and dual-fixed nicotine dust.--U. S.
Department of Agriculture (63, p. 14).

Saturnii dae

Nudaurelia 5rtherea capensia (Stoll), pine tree emperor moth

Pyrethrum derr.s, and dinitro-o-oresol were very promising a-
gainst larvae of the third, fourth, and fifth instars in South Africa.
--Naude (437).

Derris and pyrethrum dusts in South Africa were effective against
larvae in the third instar but were considerably less toxic against
later instars.--Tooke and Hubbard (594).

Sphingidae

Celerio lineata (F.), the white-lined sphinx

In Arizona this pest can be controlled by hand collection and
by derris sprays.-Wehrle (668).

Ceratomia catalpae (Bvd.), the catalpa sphinx

The median lethal doses of various insecticides fed in leaf sand-
wiches to last-instar larvae were expressed as milligrams of a 1-per-
cent rotenone powder as follow: Derris 0.07, Tephrosia 0.07, timbo
0.11, and cube 0.17; and expressed as inilligrams of principal toxins
(Goodhue rotenone-deguelin values), the doses were 0.0016, 0.0015,
00018, and 0.0019, respectively. The data indicated the inadequacy
of rotenone content alone to express the insecticidal value of a rote-
none-bearing product and emphasized the importance of the Goodhue rote-
none-deguelin value as a supplementary expression.--Arant (22, 26).





-33-


Pholus achemon (Drury), the achemom sphinx

It can be controlled by hand collection and by derris spreys.--
Wehrle (668).

Protoparce quinquermaculata (Hew.), the tomato hornworm

Protoparce sexta (Johan.), the tobacco hornworm

A sweetened liquid bait containing 0.04 percent of rotenone (from
aqueous extract of derris or cube) or 5 percent of tartar emetic was
taken readily by the moths and was moderately toxic to them. Moths
attracted by isoazyl salicylate may be poisoned or trapped in large
numbers. Rotenone bait is preferable to one containing tartar emetic
because the former is less toxic to humans and livestock.--Scott and
Milan (534).

Tineidae

Tinea secalella Zacher

A pyrethrum powder (Pyretin) of high quality was by far the best
insecticide tested in Sweden. Derris powder was inferior.-Mathlein
(403).

Tineola bisselliella (H&m.), webbing clothes moth

Wollen fabric treated with derris resin was eaten only slight-
ly by the larvae.--IHeal (275).

Tortri ci dae

Argyrotoxa semipurpurana (Kearf.), pin oak leaf roller

A derris-rosin residue emulsion gave little control.--Felt and
Bromley (177).

Platynota stultana (Wilsm.)

In California pyrethrum-rotenone spray for the control of tnis
insect destroyed the natural bloom of field-grown carnations.--Bohart
(63).

Sparganothis pilleriana (Schiff.)

In Germany a spray containing 3 percent of Selinon caused a re-
duction of 74 percent while one containing 5 percent of Abolin and 1
percent of derris reduced tne population only 51 percent.--Jancke
(31).





-34-


.pirgpnothis sulfureana (Clem.), sulfur leaf roller

An airplane application of 15 pounds of derris duat (4 percent
of rotenone) to the acre was not effective in killing the larvae in
New Jersey.--Beokwith (44).

Tortrix pronubana Hbn., carnation tortrix moth

In Scotland the ldj--'e should be s._-yed with 'erris us one of
the control measaurs.--Cameron (9w).

Zyga .aai d e

Artona catoxantha (lmps.), coconut zygaeaid

In central Java damage in a number of outbreak Lenter& wa6 p
vented by a single application of derris, but two treatment we. e
necessary to suppress some of the outbreaks. Spraying was regularly
practiced, and a suspension containing 0.3 percent of -otenone and
1.5 percent of talc was usually satisfactory. In laboratory tests
100 percent mortality of fourth-instar larvae was obtained with a
derris spray containing 0.005 percent of rotenone, and of full grgwn
larvae, with one of twice the strength.--Van der Veacht (6536).

Harrisina brilliant B. & MoD., the western grape skeletonizer

If fruit is present, derris dusts or sprays should be used,.--
Wehrle (668).

Unidentified Lepidoptera

Derride is a normal constituent of derris root. It has a de-
cided killing effect on caterpillars comparable to that of rotenone.
A dusting experiment, conducted by Van der Veeht against caterpillars,
with derris powder from which the derride had been extracted, indi-
cated that tne powder had abbut the same toxic value as an ordinary
sample of derris root with 3 percent of rotenone and 8.1 percent of
ether extract.-Meijer and Koolhaas (410).

Due to wartime conditions in Java talc became unavailable foir
use as a diluent in rotenone insecticides. Three local commoeruial
powders, mixed with sufficient derris to yield mixrture6 o3nCaiiia
075 percent of rotenone, were fcuna to lba adequate .ip, ;titutes foi
talc in laboratory tests against cabbage caterpillars. "Beta* (a fine
powder similar to pumice) and *Te Be Bee* (a clay powder) were more
efficient than talc and suffioietly inexpensive.--Verbeek (658).





-35-


COLEOPTERA

Anobiidae

Lasioderma serricorne (F.), the cigarette beetle

Derris powder (3.6 percent of rotenone) was highly toxic to the
adults in Mauritius.-Jepson (323).

Bostrichidae

Dinoderus bifoveolatus (Woll.)

Three samples of cube root which had been attacked by this beetle
were analyzed. The average rotenone content of the whole root was 3.9
percent, while that of the portion of the root changed into powder by
the insects was only 1.6 percent*-Jones (326).

Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), the lesser grain borer or Australian wheat
weevil

In India lime and cresosote mixed with stored grain gave better
results than pyrethrum or derris.--Anonymous (4).

Bruchidae

Bruchus brachialis Fahraeus, the vetch bruchid

Good control of this insect in western Oregon and southwestern
Washington was Riven in field tests by a dust containing rotenone and
sulfur.--TJ. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (624, p. 27;
628, p. 131).

Bruchus pisorum (L.), the pea weevil

In Oregon a 0.75-percent rotenone dust, applied before the pea
weevil oviposited, killed nearly 100 percent of the weevils. This
led to the construction of large, hooded dusters mounted on trucks
which made possible nearly complete control.--Mote and Thompson (432).

Dusts containing 1 percent of rotencone were more effective than
those containing 0.75 and 0.5 percent, but the difference in toxicity
between the first and second was less than that between the second and
third. A cube dust gave lower mortalities with diatomaceous earth
as a carrier than with talc. The toxicity of a cube dust (0.5 percent
of rotenone) was increased by the addition of 0.225 percent of pyrethrins.
-U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (524, p. 62).





-36-


This pest can be controlled in green peas and dried peas by use
of derris dust mixtures (0.5 to 1 percent of rotenone). Large-scale
field tests in 1940 showed that dust mixtures of derris, cube, or
timbo (0.75 to 1 percent of rotenone) applied at rates ranpin., from
25 to 40 pounds per acre gave satisfactory control. A hood or a
short trailing canvas on the dusting machine increased the efficiency
of the treatment by preventing excessive wind drift.-Brindley and
coworkers (88).

Satisfactory control in 1941 was obtained by dusts of derris, cube,
or timbo mixed with talc or diatomaceous earth to contain 1 percent of
rotenone, and applied at the rate of 20 pounds per scord. As many as
three applications may be necessary.--Brindley (87), end Knowlton (343).

The pea weevil can be readily controlled by the application of a
0.75- to 1-percent rotenone dust.--Glasgow (228, 229).

Rotenone dusts were effective, but their successful use requires
mechanized dusters and efficient operation. Observations on 13 dust-
ing machines were taken near Moscow, Idaho. In the Palouse area
200,000 pounds of dust were applied, and the weevil dockage on the
treated fields was less than 5 percent while on the untreated fields
it was 15 percent*--Humphrey (301). *

Precautions taken in one district in Utah to prevent infestation
by the pea weevil of peas intended for canning included careful exam-
ination of the fields by sweeping, dusting with a 1-percent mixture of
rotenone and talc at 20 pounds per acre, and removal of chance infested
plants just before harvest.--Moss (450).

Tests of different materials as substitutes for derris, cube, or
timbo against the pea weevil were unsuccessful although pyrethrum, as
well as certain dinitro compounds, might be useful.-U. S. Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine (624, p. 35).

Rotenone dusts applied to peas, for drying, when they came into
flower, did not give complete control of the pea bruchid in Washington,
and fumigation of the harvested crop was therefore necessary. The
use of rotenone on Austrian peas grown for seed was prohibited in 1942
in order to conserve the supplies of rotenone for crops used as human
food, and fumigation was compulsory.--Webster and Richmnanu (665).

In 1942 rotenone was the standard insecticide for the pea weevil.
Nicotine was ineffective.-U. S. Bureau of EBitoology an0 Plant Quaran-
tine (628'; Molndoo (383).





-37-


Instructions in 1943 to victory gardeners stated that rote-
none was scarce, and restricted to use on peas for the pea weevil,
and for a few other insects. A spray of sodium fluosilioRte and
sugar might supplement rotenone duet to control the pea weevil on
Austrian peas.-U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
(6301 62-8, p. 135).

One of the most lIipai tant uses for rotenone is to control the
pea weevil.--Howard and c-rworkers (294, p. 30).

In 1944 rotenne was still re-omiended against the pea weevil
in victory g-rdena.--White and DoojAittle (683).

Ther6 is no comparable substitute for rotenone for control of
the pea weevil,-'U. 8. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
(633).

Callosobruohus uaoulatus (F.), the oowpea weevil

Rotenone was reoomnended against this pest on oowpeas in Florida
in 1943.-Watson (657).

Bupreatidae

Agrilua ribioola Abeille, the bronze cane borer

Agrilus rufioollis (Fa), tho red-necked cane borer

In New York in 1941 dermis dusts gave promise of satisfactory
control, and in 1942 a derris spray was effeotive.-Mandinger (434,
.413b).e-

In New York State the following sprays are recornnmended: (1) lead
arsenate 5 pounds, and pound of soybean meal or skinmilk powder to
serve as a spreader and sticker; (2) powdered derrij or cube (4 to 5
percent of rotenone) 5 pounds, with the preceding spreader and stick-
er, per 100 gallons.--Slate and coworkers (544, p. 54).

Sometimes a single, well-timed application of rotenone will give
good repression, oat usually two spray applications of lead arsenate
or of derrick (5 pounds per 100 gallons) are necessary for the best
rsults.-Parrott (457) in 1942*





-58-


Byturidae

Byturus tomentosus (Deg.), a raspberry and loganberry beetle

Bnrus rubi Barber or bakeri Barber (-unicolor Say), a raspberry
fruitworm

Three applications of derris, cube, or timbo, either as a dust
or spray, were recommended as a control of the raspberry or logan-
berry fruitworm (B. unicolor) in Washington. The dust should con-
tain not less than 0.5 percent of rotenone mixed with talc or
diatonaceous earth as a carrier. If a spray was to be used, 34 ounces
of derris, cube, or timbo (4 percent of rotenone) were required for
each 100 gallons. Rotenone was the only remedy recommended.-Henson
and Webster (260).

Rotenone is the standard or preferred insecticide for the rasp-
berry fruitwormo Nicotine is ineffective.--U. S. Bureau of Ettomology
and Plant Quarantine (628).

Derris is particularly suitable for the control of the rasp-
berry beetles--Freak (199).

Powdered derris or cube (4 to 5 percent of rotenone) used at the
rate of 3 to 5 pounds in 100 gallons of water with j to 1 pound of
soybean meal or other neutral spreader, may be substituted for lead
arsenate spray. A 1-percent rotenone dust was also effective against
raspberry beetles in New York.--Slate and coworkers (644, p. 49).

The raspberry fruit worm has been controlled fairly well by the
use of rotenone.-U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
(62i, p. 802).

There is no comparable substitute for rotenone. Lead arsenate
is of some value for early treatments but should not be used after
the berry blossoms open.--U. S. Department of Agriculture (633, p. 15).

Cantharidae

Cantharis obscure L.

In France tests against this insect on fruit trees with sprays of
nicotine, rotenone, or pyrethrum, and dusts of tale containing 0.75
percent of rotenone from Derris elliptioa, and of a mixture of sulfur
and lime, demonstrated that the best results were given by the rote-
none dust.-Feytaud and Chaboussou (183).





-59-


Cerab ycidae

Oberea bimaculata (('iv,), the raspberry cane borer

In New York best results were obtained with a as.ay 4, rL
ing 5 pounds of derrls (4*8 pyroant of rotenone) and j pound of s-y-
bean meal per 100 gallons of water, 1 application of -which gave 90.8
percent ccatro e or 2 ..catio.33 of a 1-porcent roteonc dust,
and 2 applio.a' a spray containing 1 pl-it of a commercial rote-
none extract (o5 -- t o. .r.t2.n.=5) in 100 gallons of ;s cer were
lose effective,.-.-!.t 'j.er (.55); Slate and coworkers (544, p. 54).

This bcr'. ; c .'.=-.".lled ..'.t by rotenone Qprsys, and ipL.-'erate-
ly well by roir-.'., i..t, *.=-Parrott (457).
Saperda oanda F,
In New Yi..)& J-.ee.ticides were injected into larval tunnels in
apple trees* Ce adi five-trithe p-'roent of rotanont #-'xtra. '. withh
ethyl alcohol (lt4), caused ?1 poroent mortu.lity, while 5 percent
rotenone exs-rtt in a&toei, ceased 100 percent mortalty of the
laOrvae.*--E<- (2&^,, p. l)

Unidentified &=e -ds

Longioorni- ure important posts of fig trees in JDan. In tests
lead arsenate, pyr'etru- u, and derris were injected into the nines of
these insects in the stems and branches of fig trees. The best re-
sults were given by the arsenate and pyrethrun, which killed 96 and
83 percent of the larvae, respectively.--Kusunome and Umetsu (346)0

Chrysomelidae

Agelastioa alni (Le), an elder beetle

This insect, attai'klug fruit trees in France in 1939, was con-
trolled by arsenical sprays. Preparations containing rotenone and py-
rethrum also gave good results.--Feytaud (181).

(Ceratia) Aulaeophora hilarie (Boisd.)

In New South Wales cucurbit plants can be dusted with derris, or
a mixture of pyrTthrumA and flour (1I4), both of which destroy cvFny of
these beetles and prevent reinfestation for 1 or 2 days.--New South
Wales Department of Agrioultura (441).

In South Wales plants way be dusted with a mixture of pyrethrum
ad kaolin or flour (1:4), Derris dust may also be used.--New South
Wales Department of Agriculture (444).










ea a tr-ewl -e -s0n e5 oeetle





3 ::'". & "'j -ti __ a"i-,': i ?ti vt *
Z r -- r /









nv!e iS 0-7 mtnr r-. c tin C1, i e riv --m. in



a c neT 5..- re -i :e: as".at iei:& (ee.5 Ts breast ram
__ __ __ __ I e IL~ e6' e:1





.r-zi ant T.:rosie were morte lo effect ste S.iSvet thisof













o~i. i. rrLnx (~aly), a ).arge cab'. 4e leeaf bseetle
az. 2 testa L "'i2,.a2ieticSdeB zee he root barks
Weaia eir :-B 1, T-






















a n c l'r7e"lijsi 33*. reitale, ki1eld 19'0 pereit of the ia it
s~ t wirt. le; E-r'3 7ic CAR A. :1r r-z:-- wl5' &&lail* &r s e, 'out s zee










&be a si a a. .* "2 i .* twere u7S atitaoto a- s a a cotact

iQroC-. r-6--.2r._.i (Ia,,- se aoat. Itc'r(betls e

C In i fratina ae tet wth st iicated at undilutedteetl
Sartesmte isw a s1'..f aperior to a O7-perc.ffeent roti-s-on duSt
:.ytsaan, wfe larvae, c e';oteiaie whs auere- t e o be& t, &n-- on
:ldpeo-s <-? her Po-i re to be eat-an xr&e-em--)&Bxwe'I (4-07) | White




Dgr~a aad T^^Zosia were =,Dre effeii~ .6 nIniicrao
t,e same- -r&"c r-.-semoma ootwt*Eb-)Arsmat (26)o*

a: 7- .^^_3 '-ra 17Tjg ( B aIy) a & Ur v -aels aabbI, le,,i beaetlIe

lz -.eze testa iz '-ZI imaec~ticide8, ?rvpBLred frou thae root bi~rl
aka4 Irs~e f !illat-tia gtpla killed 1X percent of the adult
b'tl~ * i B vtamp-te lu.?* iB^,but w-.re uas ati *factory as a (sontset
polism mtim.xt metuare Lara*--vjp.jrlcultstral Researcrti Bureau (112)"



In c^& arolinA& cage ten-ts with dusts iriasicated thaat undil-uted
*;Aciia&rsflcate ir&.a Bllhti s'Frior to & 0. 7o-perc-:nt rotenone dus~t
&iOl.g n3 t tn e I P-ZrrBLe, 's.t t~re rtAenoze wa< superior for the &dult&*--ffattf
(659r





-41-


In Weshington commercial rotenone dusts (0.5 to 1I percent of
rotenone) and pyrethrum dusts (0.1 to 0.2 percent of pyrethrins)
gave practically complete mortality of this pest on asparagus 3
days after treatment. A dust of 10-peroent calcium arsenate in
pyrophyllite was cheap and effective, but comparable results were
given by dusts containing 0.5, 0.75, or 1 percent of rotenone.--
Webster and Eiohnaann (662).

In WiscoLsin a 0l"-prceatit rotenone dust was effective.--
Wilson and J aes (689).

In order to conserve the supply of rotenone it was recommend-
ed that a 0.;?' percent rotenone dust be substituted for the 1-percent
dust used for the control of asparagus beetles.--U. S. Bureau of
Entomology and Pisnt Quarantine (6 ).

One of the more important uses of rotenone is to control the
asparagus beetle.-Howard and coworkers (294, p. 31).

There is no adequate substitute for rotenone in the control of
the asparagus beetle. Arsenicals are unsatisfactory on edible shoots
because of the residue hazard.--U. S. Department of Agriculture (633).

Diabrotica duodecimpunctata (F.), the spotted cucumber beetle, southern
corn rootworm

Rotenone was recommended against this species in North Carolina
in 1943.--Maxwell (407).

Diabrotica undecimpunctata Mann. (-soror Leo.), the western spotted
cucumber beetle

In California a dust containing 0.5 percent of rotenone ard 2
percent of Lethane in talc gave inconclusive results, chiefly because
many of the beetles flew from the fruit trees as soon as the dust was
applied.-Michelbacher and ooworkers (417).

The western spotted cucumber beetle can be destroyed with a 1-
percent rotenone dust.--Reockwood and Chamberlin (510).

Diabrotica spp., cucumber beetles

In Louisiana a 1-percent rotenone dust did not give so efficient
control as did cryolite.--Floyd and coworkers (189).

In California derris was applied by airplane -to curcurbit plants,
with considerable success.--Lookwood (370).





-42-


One of the more important uses of rotenone is to control ou-
cumb:ir beetles.--Howard and coworkers (294, p. 31).

Rotenone and copker-rotenone are considered fair for cuoumber
beetles in victory gardens.--Reed k4 .

Pyrethrum can be substituted for rotenone to control cucumber
beetles.--Turner and Horsfall (606).

Rotenone was recorinended against cucumber beetles en beans,
cantaloupes, cucumbers, and squashes in victory gardens in 1944.-
FWhite end Doolittle (683).

Diabrotica vittata (F.), the striped cucumber beetle

A derris dust containing 0.6 percent of rotenone is recommend-
ed over other treatments, for it serves not only as a repellent but
as a stomach and contact poison as well.--Beard (39).

In Massachusetts a spray of 4 pounds of wettable cube powder
(3.65 percent of rotenone) in 100 gallons of water reduced the
beetles 90 percent, end a cube-clay dust (0.6 percent of rotenone)
reduced them 85 percent.--Bourne and Whitcomb (73).

In Wisconsin a derris dust (0.6 percent of rotenone) was the
most effective insecticide in controlling the striped cucumber
beetle. Fluosilicates, arsenicals, and nicotine dusts were less
effective in the order named.--Brooks and Allen (92).

A combination of insoluble copper, heat flour, and pyrophyllite,
in which rotenone was the active ingredient, gave some promise. The
use of a fungicidal and insecticidal combination dust is desirable
in Maine.--Hawkins (272).

Rotenone dusts and derris sprays were effective in New York.-
Hervey (279).

When calcium arsenate and rotenone were used separately, each
brought about a marked increase in yield of ecucmbers.--rarrott (457).

Derris dusts (0.5 to 0.75 percent of rotenone) were the most
effective insecticide tested against this pest in Mississippi.--Lyle
(372).

In all tests the mortality following use of 0.25 percent of rote-
none with pyrophyllite was higher than from 2 percent of rotenone
with fibrous talc or clay. In regard to flaky talc and slate dust,





-43-


1 percent of rotenone was required to equal 0.25 percent of rotenone
with pyrophyllites T-e dosega for qual control of the striped cu-
cumber beetle was ppi-oxdridtely 4 to 1 in favor of pyrophyllite.--
Turner (602).

Sprays and dusts of roteone materials and of calcium arsenate
were recommended in 2941, In Februwry 1942 a dust contiiairnrg 0.75
percent of rot-e' .-. rei-'. .euded in place of the 1 percent rote-
none dusto-U, S+ -.L'eeau :', rlr-,logy and Plant Quar&an"- -e (622;
626# P" -).

In !Masa. ; --*:< driua were applied eleven times in 1940. Cal-
cium arsenate was `e most effe-ctive. Cube with talc (0.75 p;et:ent
of rotenone) and ro t.onr dust (0.8 percent) gave at least 80 per-
cent reduction of the beetle population on cucumbers, and 90 percent
on cantas lcuper. In i194i most of the insecticides applied eight times
gave at leaet 90 percent control. The most effective ones contained
rotenone or oalci'im senatet. In 1943 rotenone-*'copper oxychloride
sulfate" dusts rrtainiug 0.75 and 0*5 percent of rotenon- were about
equally effective against the striped cu.cumber beetle; the 0.75-per-
cent rotenone dust gave slightly better protection on cucumbers, and
the 0.5-peraent dust on melons. The 0.5-percent dust, if available,
will be satisfactoryj'r hItcoinb (676, p. 48; 677, p. 61; 681, p. 35).

A mixture of 12 pounds of derris and 88 pounds of dusting sul-
fur gave consistently better reaults than any other combination test-
ed, but burned melon plants. A mixture of 12 pounds of derris and
88 pounds of talc ranked second in oontrolo--isconsin Agricultural
Experiment Station. (694).

Disonycha manthomelaena (DalmBan), the spinach flea beetle

Rotenone is effective; nicotine is ineffective.-MceIndoo (383).

Rotenone is recommended against this pest.-Maxwell (407), and
White and Doolittle (683).

Epitrix oucumeris (Hsarr.), the potato flea beetle

In Massachusetts Cuber and derris mixed with bordeaux mixture
gave the greatest reduction in leaf punctures on potatoes.-Bourne
(68).

In Connecticut a cube dust (0.75 percent of rotenone) was more
effective than a spray of 1 pound of cube (4 percent of rotenone)







in 25 gallons of water, or a dust of barium fluosilioate and hydrated
lime (1:4). The additi.-I of a pm.roleum sulfonate (Ultrawet) to the
cube dust (1:1000) c..reased its -fV'-ctiveness and reduced the feed-
ing of the beetles.--Conr'icclut A.ricultural Experiment Station (120,
p. 299).

All dusts tested ap&InaL this species on shade-grown tobacco
were more effective *-1-'. the sprfsa and gave significant reductions.
On the sun-grown tobaccoi, vr .+_hk' h;u *iupt was more effective than the
cube dust, which was more eff.?ive when it contained no wetting agent.
-Morrill and Lacroix (4.?"7),

Newly set tonjo anid &i my be protected from flea beetle
damage by dusting them three times weekly with cube dust (0.75 per-
cent of rotenone).--Tirner (597).

In Connecticut in 1941 the Trio st satisfactory control of this
pest was obtained with a cube-tobacco dust mixture containing 1 per-
cent of rotenone, and with an impregnaeted pyrethrum powder. Prior
to 1936 commercial damage caused by E. cucumeris to shade-grown, cigar-
wrapper tobacco was estimated at 20 To 6 percent. In 1940 the growers
estimated this damage to have been reduced to 1 to 2 percent by the
use of a dust mixture oontalning 1 percent of rotenone.--Morrill (425);
Morrill and Lacroix (128)t

NNOR, consisting of technical meannitan monolaurate, rotenone
(1 percent), and other derris extractives (1.8 to 2.6 percent) was
tested against the potato flea beetle on eggplant. Dilutions (1l1200)
gave 86 percent mortality.-Roth and Pyenson (517).

A *-way* dust of pyrethrunm, rotenone, and sulfur gave increases
in yield of potatoes from 70 to 90 bushels per acre. The rotenone
caused a significant reduction in flea beetles and aphids.--Skaptason
and Blodgett (542).

Derris and Syntone in combination with bordeaux mixture gave a
high initial kill, and the potato foliage treated with these materials
was relatively free from flea beetle injury.-Anderson and Walker (18).

To control this pest on tomato plants, in seedbeds or on newly
set plants, it was recommended in 1942 to use a derris or cube-tale
dust mixture containing 1 percent of cotenone.-Beattie and ooworkers
(43).

Flea beetles on tobacco in plant beds in Florida and Georgia can
be controlled by a cube or derris dust (1 percent of rotenone). A
mixture of this dust and sterilized tobacco dust containing 1 percent
of rotenone should be applied soon after the plants are set in the field
and thereafter at weekly intervals.-Chamberlin and Madden (109).







The gene-ral use of pyrethrum-sulfur or rotenone-sulfur combina-
tions against flea beetles and aphids on potatoes may be lited "
their failure to prevent late blight, and by their higher costs,.--
Daines and coworkers (134).

The control of flea beetles on tomatoes ., de-jii i increased
control tf the early blight fungus by reducing u.-e di s nation of
the spores and the number of feedij-i punctures. Effective control
of the blight where beetles are present early should be achieved b
applications of copper and derris while the beetles are prest,
followed by copper alone after 'they have diappearoc,-...b er

In Connecticut there was no significant difference in ecce--
ness between the three treatments tried-p.,rethrum dust alone, .
thrum followed by cub and a 1-percent rotenone dust,-orill and
Lacroix (429)e

In New York the addition of pyrethrum and rotenone-bpipi4
powders to bordeaux mixture increased both the 1or-r.1 of : ucuciFer I
and the yields. C:ibe oust (0.,75 percent of rotenone) was ---
--Rawlins and Staples (492); Rawlins Pnd ,-o.-kers (47$),

Calcium arsenate dust wa the most effuct-ve of the terials
tested against the potato flee. .eetle in field tests ir. --n;; Fc_;ifc
Northwest. Dusts containing zinc rsenite and certain fluorine n
rotenone compounds gave fairly good control after eight sppliations
--U. S. Bureau of Ektomology and Plant Quarantine (c p. 35)

In Washington control of larvae on pi. 'atu ',u,,ers was given i.y
four to six applications of calcium aroenate or cryolite dust, A
mixed dust of rotenone and cryolite was more rapid in action, but ri.e
cost was high.--Webster ano C worker (,C64).

One part of derris suitably diluted with pyrophyllite was as ef-
fective as 2c. to 5 parts of der. is diluted with clay,--urr (- -.)*

In experiments in which iAto were taken 3 days- after sett':-.
out tomato plants, both dearris dust and derris sjr-y gave satisfactory
results against the potato flea beetle.--Vatkins and L'-n (6G,1)

Epitrix parvula (F.), the tobacco flea beetle

Note: Two species Eitrix heItApe.:is (Me .) and E. fasciata
Blatchler have been confused in our literat>-re under the name K. par-
vula.







In South Carolina -fective control was obtained by a thorou.7h
application of 10 pounds r,-r acre of cube dust (1 percent -f rote-
none). Dust nitr.-s contain ;in,0 :,tenone and cryolite :ave rood
plant protection, but the cryolite gae the best protection over a
period of days. Results obtained over a 5--y<:ar period showed that
this pest can be controlled in tobacco plant beds, or in the field
by cube or derris -'..st mixtures (1 percent of rotenone) which re-
main effective for 2 or 3 d'y,.* A thorough application of a spray
of 2 pounds of cube (4 percent of rotenone) in 50 gallons of water
controlled its Some late-season teats on individual tobacco plants
indicated that a cube dust mixture (1 percent of rotenone) gave good
control, although a *;,y.lite dust mixture (80 -t-rcent of sodium
fluoaluminete) gave better plant protection over a period of 6 days.
--Allen and ccorkes (12, 13); AIen (10); Allen end, Sn-ds (14).

Mixtures of cube or derris and sterilized tobacco dust con-
taining 1 percent of rotenone controlled the tobacco flea beetle,
They should be applied soon after the tolavco plants are set in the
field and thereafter at weekly intervals. OYne p;.licatiocn per
week or a total of eleven for the season gave the most eoon -TEcal
control under : r.-'.tions of hv infestet'on on cigar-wrTp-r to-
bacco, while one rDi'-ioation 10 da-s, or a total of three
per season ',M& SLJfflcie.t for a vt-y light infestation--''.aberiln
and Madden (108, iC) .

No substitute for ic.teij,.ore has been found for the control of
flea beetles on shad-t-fr;Y, tobacco in Florlda,--U., S. PUreaau of
Entomology and Plant Quaran'-"'I. (62, p. 136)0

A derris ccvnpound used in the laboratory was much more effec-
tive against the tobacco flea beetle than Dutox or oryolite,-.-
Wene and Nominick (674),

Fidia v-itloida 'Wa1.m- te grape i,5'tworm

In rkea-'.s6 'e adults may be destroyed during, the pra.vi-
position period of about 2 weeks with one or two grape spre'.,.s of
1.5 pounds of derris (4 ,..rcent of rotenone) in 50 gallons of water.
--Iselyr (312).

Galerucella xanthomelaena (Schr ), the elm leaf beetle

In New York derris >rier, 2 po-i-i w.th a wetting agent, gave
good control* This was a stan'"-:d ,ith w:.-J: various rotenone ex-
tracts and cube were c'miptired.- rfrrott (457).







Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), the Colorado potato beetle

A lO-percer: yam bean dust killed 100 percent of the larvae
in less than a day, but sprays containing up to 8 pounds of ground
yarn bean per 100 gallons of water were less effective than 1 pound
of 5 percent cube in spray.-Anonymous (7).

In laboratory tests, derris, cube, timbo, and Tephrosia virgini-
ana, mixed with talc or sulfur to give 0.5 percent of rotenone, were
very effective.-Arant (22, 26).

In laboratory tests using 10 fourth-instar larvae in each ex-
periment, records were made of the exact time at which the different
symptoms of the poisoning and paralysis of the larvae took place.
When dusts containing 0.5 percent of rotenone, used as contact poi-
sons, were compared by this method, derris proved superior to cube,
and cube to timbo, but preparations of derris, cube, or timbo differ-
ed among themselves. The toxicity of cube dust wes affected by the
carrier used with it. The time required for larvae +-o become com-
pletely paralyzed varied with the temperature. In tests with cube
dust (6 percent of rotenone) alone, or diluted with talc to contain
0.9 percent of rotenone, there was no great difference in rate of
action of the two dusts at any one temperature, but the talc appear-
ed to exert a desiccating effect that assisted the lethal action of
the rotenone. High temperatures accelerated the action. The applica-
tion of rotenone dusts during the warmnnest part of the day is there-
fore recommended. The effectiveness of the cube-talc mixture was
unaffected by darkness.--De Lapparent (355); Feytaud and De Lapparent
(184). -

When use of arsenicals is undesirable in France, potatoes may
be dusted with derris or cube, but the cost is higher. The necessity
of common action is emphasized if the potato beetle is to be con-
trolled.-Feytaud (182)o

The best preventive measure in Europe is to spray all potato
fields with lead or calcium arsenate. In situations where the use
of arsenioals is dangerous, dusts or sprays of nicotine or rotenone
should be used.--Mayne (409).

Rotenone or rotenone plus Bordeaux mixture, is considered good
for the potato beetle in victory gardens in Indiana.--Reed (496).

Derris-talc dusts were effective and acted quickly in Germany,
but derris sprays were not so effective.--Sellke (535).





-48-


A mixed spray, consisting of bordeaux mixture and lead arsenate,
is recommended in Switzerland. Places where potato beetles are
actually found should be treated with derris powder to kill any larvae
falling to the ground. The derris treatment is the only one possible
where there is danger of poisoning from vegetables-e-Wahlen (641).

Lochmaea saturalis (Thorns.)

This insect injures heather in Scotland. An outbreak may be pre-
vented by dusting with derris or pyrethrum while the infested area is
still small*--Morison (424).

Luperodes brunneus (Crotch), corn silk beetle

In Louisiana the beetles are easily killed by arsenicals or cryo-
lite, but dusts of nicotine, derris, or pyrethrum are only partially
effective.--Eddy (168),

Phyllotreta atra F., a flea beetle

A derris dust (KAmex) containing 0.8 percent of rotenone kill-
ed almost all the beetles on rape in field tests when it was applied
at 22.5 pounds per aore.--Kaufmann and Prey (337).

Phyllotreta spp.

KAmex was effective against cabbage flea beetles in Germany.--
Frey (200).

Repellent dusts containing naphthalene, and insecticidal dusts
containing nicotine or derris, have been used widely in recent years
against turnip flea beetles on orucifers in Britain. They have given
satisfactory results but their effectiveness depends on proper tim-
ing.-Miles (418).

Phyllotreta undulata Kutsoh.

KAmex killed nearly 100 percent on rape in Germaiy.--Kaufmann
and Frey (337).

Phyllotreta vittata disoedens Weise

A cube-sulfur dust containing 0.4 percent of rotenone would ef-
fectively control this flea beetle on the Texas Gulf Coast. A spray
of cube powder and water was equally as effective as a cube dust.--
Janes (316, 317).





-49-


Prnmecotheca papuan. Csiki, the coconut leaf miner

In tests with dusts in New Guinea lead arsenate gave the high-
est mortality, while derris and pyrethrum gave very poor results.-
Froggatt (203); Froggatt and O'Connor (205).

Psylliodes attenuata (Koch), hop flea beetle in England

This insect on hops can be controlled by derris dusts, applied
in May.--Massee (400, 401).

Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.), rape flea beetle in Europe

In Holland results of tests on the adults with derris were in-
conclusive.--Van Poeteren (469, p. 47).

In East Holstein experiments with proprietary dusts against the
adults on rape showed that a derris preparation was most effective,
followed by a mixture of pyretbirm and derris.--Meuche (412).

In Germany eumex was effective.--Frey (200); Kaufmann and Frey
(337),

Rhapidopalpa foveicollis Lucas, red melon beetle

In Palestine the adults on melons may be controlled by two or
three applications ef a derris dust (0.75 percent of rotenone).--
Anonymous (2).

Unidentified flea beetles

Flax in France can be protected from flea-beetle attacks by the
use of rotenone powder*--Martin and Verrie (396)o

In England a farmer did not Icse a crop from the ravages of flea
beetles for 10 years. On the first appearance of the pests on a
crop he dressed it with 3 pounds per acre of the best derris powder
(not derris dust). The machine used to spread this small amount per
acre was devised from an old horse rake.--'illett (684).

Pyrethrum can be substituted for rotenone to control flea beetles
in Connecticut.--Turner and Horsfall (606).

Rotenone is preferred for flea beetles on miscellaneous crops.
Nicotine is ineffective. To control flea beetles, a 0.75-percent
rotenone dust was recommended to replace the 1-percent dust commonly
used.--'U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (626, p. 5).




-50-


Sprays containing 0.1 percent of nicotine were extensively and
successively used in East Prussia, because derris and pyrethrum were
scarce.--Janisch (319).

Rotenone was considered fair, and rotenone with a copper fungi-
cide good, for flea beetles in victory gardens in Indiana.-Reed (496).

One of the more important uses of rotenone is to control flea
beetles on vegetables, flowers, and fruits. Substitutes are: bordeaux
mixture, although much inferior; calcium arsenate, cryolite, and bari-
um fluosilicate.--U. S. Department of Agriculture (633, p. 14).

Coccinellidae

Epilachna chrysomelina F., 12-spotted ladybird beetle

In Palestine the larvae on cucurbits were easily controlled by
barium fluosilicate or sodium fluosilicate, and the adults by derris
dusts.--Anonymous (2).

Epilachna varivestis Mulse, the Mexican bean beetle

In Maine in 1940 rotenone was practically as effective as cal-
cium arsenate, but did not remain effective as long as the arsenate.
Rotenone dusts without wetting and spreading agents were effective
and were safe to use on beans, both from the standpoint of injury to
the beans, and human safety.--Hawkins (271, 272).

In Louisiana the best insecticidal treatment leaving no residue
on the bean plants was a derr-is or cube dust (1 percent of rotenone),
applied at the rate of 15 to 25 pounds per acre at weekly intervals
when the bean beetle was active. Cryolite at 10 to 15 pounds per
acre can be used until the bean pods begin to form.--Eddy (159).

In laboratory tests with derris, cube, timbo, and Tephrosia
virginiana, mixed with talc or sulfur to give a 0.5 percent rotenone
cntnt, cube gave 10 percent lower kill than the other dusts, kill-
ing only 70 to 90 percent of bean beetles in 72 hours, compared with
100 percent for the other dusts. In other comparative tests with
commercial samples of derris, timbo, and cube, and samples of powder-
ed tephrosia roots, derris and tephrosia were more effective than
lonchaoarpus of the same guaranteed rotenone content.--Arant (22, 26).

Certain new coal tar insecticide dusts were as effective as a
0.75 percent rotenone dust.--Ferguson (180).




-51-


Under greenhouse conditions on Long Island a large percentage
of the larvae and adults survived 5 days' exposure to the presence
of derris powder sprayed on foliage and little feeding took place.
The insect was able to distinguish between sprayed and unsprayed
foliage. Derris sprays were lethal when larvae and adults were
directly hit in spraying. Otherwise their effectiveness, when ap-
plied for purposes of ingestion, was dependent on their repellent
properties. The results of field experiments conducted in 1936 to
1941 on lima beans showed that dusts containing rotenone were more
effective than those containing pyrethrum. The addition of rote-
none to the dusts of copper sulfate and lime improved foliage pro-
tection, but had practically no effect on yield. In 1940 and 1941
pyrethrum tended to give better yield than rotenone.--Huckett (297,
299).

A study of the compatibility of cube combined with bordeaux
mixture was conducted in Ohio. The colorimetric analyses and tests
with goldfish indicated a 20 percent reduction in rotenone content
of the mixture after 30 days, 40 percent after 62 days, and 50 per-
cent after 92 days, but no further change was detected even after
12 months. In the field, a bordeaux-cube combination, originally
made up to contain 0.02 percent of rotenone, but which had deteriora-
ted about 50 percent in rotenone content at the time of applica-
tion, was tested against the bean beetle. It appeared equal in ef-
fectiveness and residual effect to a cube spray containing 0.015 per-
cent of rotenone.-Fulton and Nelson (207).

In New York a 0.75-percent rotenone dust, applied at the rate
of 30 pounds per acre of beans, was the most effective of the in-
secticides tested, and a spray containing rotenone and skimmilk
powder was more effective than one of nicotine sulfate in summer-
oil emulsion. Significant increases in yield of field beans were
obtained by dusting with Alorco cryolite, copper arsenate-lime
(1:4), or with a 0.75 rotenone dust.--Schwardt and Raxisay (528, 529).

In February 1942 the use of a 0.5-percent rotenone dust, ap-
plied at the rate of 20 to 25 pounds per acre per application, was
recommended.--U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (626).

Pyrethrum was suggested as a substitute for rotenone. Instruc-
tions to victory gardeners stated that rotenone was restricted in
1943 to use against the bean beetle and a few other insects.--U. S.
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (626, 630).

A dust containing Cuprocide (G.A.) 6 percent, dusting sulfur
30 percent, derris (5 percent of rotenone) 15 percent, and pyro-
phyllite 49 percent, was effective on Long Island.--Cunningham (131).





-52-


In a study of diluent! Pi-th deirid, -ruli.Tii, results iLdi-
cated the following relative rating. Talo, sulfur, pr-ophyllite,
and redwood-bark flour .*-Davis (135).

In Connecticut, Lethane increased the touxcity of derris and
cube& In dast mixtures an impLoper diluent may decrease the toxi-
city of the insecticide, as do certair, clays when mixed with rote-
none-bearing materials. Ground derris root (4 percent of rotenone)
was diluted with py-r-phyllite and then tested against larvae of the
Mexican bean beetle, The reduction in number of larvae per plant
with a 1-percent rotenone content dust was 99,7 percent; with a
0.6-percent dust, 99.3 percent; with a 0.2o-percent dust, 98.9 per-
cent; with a 0.125-peroent dust, 88.6 percent; and with a 0.0626-per-
cent dust, 69.9 percent.--Friend (202, p. 210).

In Maryland the average yields of shelled lima beans were 89.6
pounds for a 0.75-percent rotenone dust which was effective against
the bean beetle, and 83.5 pounds for a 0.4-Lercent rotenone dust
with Lethane which gave fair control.--Graham and Ditman (240).

To prepare a spray for bean beetle control., use 3- pounds of
rotenone roots (4 percent of rotenone), or 2-2 pounds of rotenone
roots (5 percent of rotenone) to 100 gallons of water. For smaller
quantities use 1 ounce of 4-percent powder to 2 gallons of water or
1 ounce of 5-percent powder to 2j gallons. This mixture will con-
tain approximately 0.015 percent of rotenone.- Howard and coworkers
(294 31).

The seeds of the yam bean (Pachjrt iius earvuo n 'ban), used as
a dust, killed 100 percent of first-instar larvae within 48 hours*
An examination of 12 samples from the Western Hemisphere, using
20 percent of ground beans in talc, showed consistently high kills
of larvae in the laborstory.--Hansbe. r. iad Lee (258).

The stems and seeds of dfillettia pachycaLrpa. Benth.o and Pach;Zhizus
erosus Urban applied as dastas iled practi ca ly all the first-iin-
star bean beetle larvae te-tedo--Lee and Hansberry (360).

In Colorado cAlciu ersanete spray, rotenone dust, and 0.2
percent pyrethrin dust zive yields not significantly different from
that of zinc arsenite. Rotenone appeared more effective as a spray
than as a dust.--List (Z67).

A home-made rotenone dust may be prepared with derris or cube
powder (4 percent of rotenone) 1 }: und, and talc, flour, tobacco
dust, or dusting sulfur, 7 pounds. --MVav.vell (4.7),,






-53-


Sprays and dusts containing rotenone or copper-rotenone were
reooumnmded for the Mexican bean beetle in victory gardens in
Ldianai*-Reed (496).

In terms of dotge for equal control at the 90 percent level
for larvae, 0.15 percent of pyrethrins equalled 0.08 percent of rote-
none in derris dust. In dosage studies to compare two diluents for
derris, the dosage-resapnse curves for protection of bean foliage
from injury were much flatter than the curves for actual control
of the bean beetle. One part of derris suitably diluted with pyro-
phyllite is as effective as 2.5 to 5 parts of derris diluted with
clay. Dusts or sprays of rotenone should be applied to the under
surface of the bean leaves.--Turner (602, 604); Turner and Horsfall
(607).

Dusts containing 2 percent of Lethane and 0.4 percent of rote-
none were as effective as dusts containing 0.75 to 1 percent of
rotenone.--Anonymous (8, 9).

In 1944 rotenone was still recommended against the Mexican
bean beetle in victory gardens, although as partial substitutes cryo-
lite, pyrethrum, calcium arsenate, magnesium arsenate, zinc arsenite,
barium fluosilicate, Pnd sodium fluosilicate could be used under
certain oonditions.--White and Doolittle (683); U. S. Department of
Agriculture (632, p. 15).

Cucujidae

yaeghilus surinamnensis (L.), the saw-toothed grain beetle

Adults are susceptible to the rotenone class of insecticides.
-Tatterafield and Potter (583).

Curculionidae

Anthonomus eugenii Cano, the pepper weevil

A cryolite-talo-cube dust mixture was used at the rate of 15
to 25 pounds per acre per application in California. The treated
fields produced more than three times as many pods as the untreated
fields* It was estimated that 3,570 acres of peppers were treated,
bringing the total net profit to $594,370. The use of calcium arse-
nate to control the pepper weevil caused increases in aphid popula-
tions.--Campbell and Elnore (102); Elmjore and Campbell (163).






-54-


Anthonomus grandis Boh., the boll weevil

Various combinations of insecticides were tested against the
boll weevil and cotton aphid in Louisiana. In one test calcium
arsenate plus 10 percent of sulfur, and 0.5 percent of rotenone
was used, but it is not stated what effect the rotenone had on the
weevil.-Beonel and Floyd (45).

Calcium arsenate-sulfur mixtures with derris effectively coo-
trolled the cotton aphid and boll weevil in Mississippi.-McGarr
(381).

Barium fluosilicate plus derris (to give a 0.5-percent rote-
none content) was significantly better than two of the three cryo-
lites tested with or without the addition of derris for boll
weevil control* In a second report, the materials tested were cal-
cium arsenate, with and without derris, and equal parts of calcium
arsenate and sulfur, with and without derris. No significant differ-
ence in the degree of boll weevil control was observed between any
two insecticides in South Carolina.--Rainwater and Bondy (490, 491).

Anthonomus musculus Say, the cranberry weevil

In Massachusetts a single application of a spray containing
15 pounds of derris powder (4 percent of rotenone) and j pound of
Areskap per 100 gallons of water, at the rate of 400 gallons per
acre of cranberries, failed to give a good kill.-Franklin (192).

Anthonoma pomorum (L.), an apple blossom weevil

In Germany dusts containing dinitro-o-cresol were superior
to a dust containing derris and pyretnrum--Thiem (587).

Anthonomus yri Koll. (oinotus Redt.), a pear blossom weevil

In Germany a preparation of pyrethrum and derris gave good
control at a high concentration, but one of derris alone was in-
effective.-Janoke (313); Thiom (588).

Anthonomus rubi (Hbst,), a strawberry blossom weevil

In Germany this pest on strawberry plants is best controlled
by a derris dust, or a mixture of derris and pyrethrum at the rate
of 27 pounds per acre during time of maturation feeding in late
spring.-Reimann (501).







,S a y the ,. r i-. w.ffil

In D6la,.i.e a derris xumt (0,5 P-.'cent of roteone) had
a slight effect on the Aa.iits, i ^ and Beacher (16)

Apion Cpj-, clo-e seed ,w,.*1,

In L, _,:.- d ...,ications ,,: -i i ,j-st destroyed weevils
on clover.-Staniland and Bei, :-nt (*'.))
Brach -,yriu .. ..... tha ,Itf& i snout beeti.

In New York a l-p:rcen oteio-a. dust was tri-.i, but the most
satisfactory control iateiaal as a rsisin bait containg .-, ,and
sodium fluosilicatea--Palm and sc-,okers (,_)

C(utor!.- .1, .3 8 ssimilis (P`-yik,.) the cabbage seedpod weevil

In western 'irgton infestation .r J.-..e by 1., _.,ect in
experimental plots re -... a'..t 20 percent by two applioetions
of a d+ .t- jitn: d,-r;-' 0 -3 --' :, ,t flour, tale, and a *-m.tlir agents
--Br .-'.--, and Wev.ar (:';,)<

Conotra i.e r'...,.,-. '- e _-,..in e w i:.,

In Cotio'-t when *i dry- lime sulfur were folls x. i % ir' .',tions of a rpra.. L r.c:-o',- r
ing derris and p er, 8ale I-"-. l .f the frits on quince
trees were uninjured by thie oriz moth and this curculio,
--Garman (218).

Conotraohelus i. (:-; .,. , the plum 'ucu..o

In e..,-p;u'_i.a'ri,-. 'with this .',set on peach trees in Pennsylvania
acid lead e at a t s only slightly more effective than basic lead
arsenate Z.r cabe, but thr.e sprays did not greatly reduce the num-
ber of larvae ".- matured when cropared with unsprayed checkso--
Steiner Faid "'..rthley (f?).

CoLo,.;mris americena Cas6,(Baris scotopacea Germ., a snout beetle

In Massachusetts preliminary trials with rotenone dust indi-
cated that this treatment will reduce the el.i, Ia.n and destructive-
ness of this pest on Swiss chard-.-Witcomb (679, p. 39)0

Diaprepes spp., citrus weevils

The use of Tephrosia candida in Trinidad and St. Lucia as a







cover crop was recoended be. u se this plant was -efinitely un-
attra':.-Hve to the weep-ils and poisoned those that fed on it. It
was found that this plant contains a toxic principle which is pre-
sent in deL--eaIn- quantities in the seeds, stems, root-cortex, and
leaves.---Fennah (1i9); St. Lucia Departmenat of Acriculture (51,_).

Listrodere obliu8 KluE, the -.-gotable weevil

A table weevil, probably this spet-ie, attacks carrots
in Nef Zealand. rerris as a dust or :irey will be an efficient
destroy-., gent.--Pritchard (476),

Listronotus oreonensis (Leo), the carrot weevil

Listronotus l-tiusculus (authors, not Boh.)

D s and pyrethroum were tried against this pest on cel-ry in
New .>rsey but t.e:, were not p : 'i.ing.-Pepper and Hagmarn (461)

Pantomor'i ,i-.I.' (Crotch), the ?u}ler rose beetle

A d- Istalo dust .tix !i.g 0,75 perce~it of rotanone killed
only ?3 u': .cenat of the weevils on a field of kale near Norfolk,
Va.-&lI;akr and Anderson (644).

Rhynchites auratus SCop.,

Rhyiichites aequ (Lo), an apple fruit weevil

Rep-a+ed applications of dust or liquid preparations of derris-
pyrethrum were LuOtable in d-.y weather.--Thiam (586).

Ibnthite, _gje anic idbta, a strawberry stem borer

Outbreaks of this weevil on strawberry in England can be check-
ed by a prrf.+ appliottion of a derris dust, but where an infesta-
tion is severe a second application may be necessary.--Massee (599).

Several prurprietary jubts of derris were more effective in
Germany than mixtures of derris and pyrethrum. In laboratory tests
the percentage of mortalities given by dusts containing derris, nic-
otine, and lyr'ethrun were respectively 100, 60, and 0.--Jancke (314).

Derris and derris-pyrethrum proparations applied as dusts gave
best results in the upper Rhine district.--Hanf (257).




-57-


In Gerv,., 430 acres cf strawberry plants were seo rely attacked
in 1941 by R. irmanicus and Anthonomus rubi. These weevils were
best controie -T- witng wiTers or a mixture of derris awn.
pyrethr=in. at the rate of 27 pounds per acre,--Reimann (.6'),

Sitophilus oryza (L.), the ris weevil

In South Australia derris was ineffective*--Andrewartha (19),

In India stored grain was in-.ffectively protected by mixing py-
rethrum or d rris with it--AnxonyL:us (4).

Sternechus pa1udatus (Casey), a bearnstalk weevil

In New n-x^o a commercial n-be duit and derris dusts contain-
ing 3 and 5 percent of rotenone, respectively, used as contact in-
secticides, were rro effective.--Shaw and Douglass (533).



Attfa.enus M i (Olive)., the black carpet beetle

Woiin A'aLLAo treated with derris resii was oaten only esifht-
ly by the a-.-el (275),

*Elateridae

Agriotes sppo

In tests on the control of wireworm, on lettuce in England, derris
and Lonohocarpas failed to give protection against the larvae.--Speyer
and Parr FU_9)T

Meloidae

Epioauta vittata (F), the striped blister beetle

A dust containing 2 percent of rotenone, made by combining equal
parts of talc And derris (4 percent of rotenone) was effective in
destroying the striped blister beetle on garden crops in Arkansas.
--Horsfall (289, 290).

Unidentified or other blister beetles

Rotenone is the standard insecticide for blister beetles. Nico-
tine is ineffective.-U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
(628)-







Rotaaoae b d coppe -*ri e beetles in l- *, di i8 ",'- ... *-;-eed )

A talc-otEaone t ... -.t. 2 .ent of ot e ws tried
against 7 n:aies of blister beles in -kaaso- .,r l )



Meligethiv ( a 'c.

In Rland two icEtion .,. dJ.. s *",t I: .ld t .* +t
seed G.., of sx--es kale, ad four ar-l clon ic -: ,.
crop only s!i11.'% ly i tests ..:e ins.:'. con-, .CB.lity
caused -. derrib &uter 6 da- wa ., c ;.. and 82, t The
general -jfect wa.. a .,-i ....,. ., Auc.--.. u

jf'i''. s 'Wt,-fc f v bJan )^miii W i n *' ..-< "ivs fc^*-!^
rap.e: in 0, .a....e th r Alo ?jfetC ... :'e8 ,
3 daya a ._ . .2 : f :24. . : th *,, n -':, I

to bad '-U. r v so -"... .e '. ,* .t f- tk aid
MEYY- ( '

In '-..,.,.,,-,. ,.;ia ".- --t i-,-ar? giveu -> L -S..-. .- L ,<-T e_,-
plete A-i in 't Z x in t: .1 abo ory and aeed -t7n in-
featatios n A-jV?9 in the V "'old l to 9 ranet in ..e .-'i,6e od,
In one field th d- a s, effetive 6 ,-'r after .,' 1.. i,-'n
--Frey ( 20l)

In *.- r *A 'ic ?.-('i r a l h .Ienc. -Y hu,.f"- 1% U^ .**t :.]
another p'' etar :-'ris t (L) '-,th the a e ,..i content
were appli d in F-Lt HTi 1%1--t was satisfactory w applied
to 2CC, aors ..- at th rte of 25 ds pbr i, ites-
tation wa by ,) ei>,ent I day ai't- tre.it '.t, v' ,-x al-
ways gave d reC ls, the other dvtrib dust wa oopletel1- in-
efficient' ... ',' .:.nl..<. 6 (234).

'.u i i ,ly ..3,, ii .Jr.. ,jaj, u.o t ',. A f ,Lhe ape e.tle,
but it if vr uual/, appli.-'., t.1,; the plant b to bloot, for
fea,- -re---, oaoInig hc00nye'iees. TxBpo.rnients werB-A 1+.reff i-t oesrried oL.-
to test 'ce neoea i:., for t -. C. -tion ., 'u.h.t a applied s ,
unue..aily high .rate iA the b::. suff';-ed no hfiA-Mf'l -ifeCt.I--
Kauf mann (5)

Ar. attempt w tWo a utVit' - ^tich he-d
been founLd effective gain t n rpe t- wl'ie in G6 ~y. In the
laboratory Kucx gave 100 ._f !..rtality in 2 *.y, 10n0 :.di-







luted, and 100 an-i 92 pd-ot4t in 4 dajys vhen dilut,i with talc at
the rates of 1:1 and 1:3, respectively. In infested rape 'ields,
the percentage mortalities given by 2 applications were 81 and -).,
for undiluted Kumex, 88.5 and 9. f:j: another derris dust, and 76
and 66 for a dsAt of derris and nicotine.. In ,hi. -tory and .- eld
tests of four sy Lhrcc st mas' :-.;isona, n. ' -J as 'e. tive as
Onex.--Meyez (413)

Oz ,oni dae

Tenebroides nauritanicus (L.), the cadelle

The larv-e were the most efficient in pentrating ckge of
foodstuffs, but .hen the packages were ij._. '*---"ted with 5 percent of
rotenone, penetration was ore,.ented for :' da:' .-Ess' and cooriers
(169).
3 -abaeidae
Phyllopertha orlicola (L.) (!_r't.,,le (P.)H. L.), a cockchafer

The adults seriously injir.. the lees pnd :"ts in orchards
in the lower Fibe district G:;E--':,-. In laboratory tests, ;.'. -thrur
did not give satisfact.-',r, control but derris sprays were f.lly --
fectives.--SFyer (560) .

Macorodactylus suhpinosus (F.), the rose chafer

Peach trees in a Conneticut orchard, where the young, fruit,;
were being attacked by larie numbers of h-is pest, were treated
with sprays containing lead ur .r-te.e, or 10 pounds of cube powder
with skinmilk spreader in !CO gallons cf water, A week la+er tn.re
were no adults on the 50 trees treated .rith lead arsenate, 8 on 22
trees treated with cube, ai 7', on 50 unsprayed trees, In a p- i-
vate garden only partial control was given by 2 pounds of cube and
1 pound of pyrethiruimL in 100 gallons of watero--Garman (219).

Popillia jLIr'tca Newn, the Japaiet.,e beetle

One of the fuu: most usef".l s,:.eyk tested contained derris.--
U, S. Bureau of Entonmology and Plant .uair.ntine (615)*

Derris is an effective repellent for this beetle.--Chisholm
and Goodhue (113).

Tests of the protective value of seven sprays were made on
apple and shade trees in Maryland in 1939. A spray consisting of
10 pounds of d-rris (1 percent ,-;f rotenone), 3 pounds of rosin







residue eiuisi .., a.ad 00 ,.ons of water, ns ixh in value. In
1941, 18 spr., mixture ere tested Lead ersenate with an aer:.ri-
ate stilki, wb the a st spray mat.i a'&l used. l'.Lr.8 or rotenone
dust with a g *:,- A sticker was the -mos fcintc of the nIJi-CC.lsoroub
materials tested--LEuifjord nd ikeis (3b 7 :)

A sp. y -_ 6 p_.... grnd derris root (4 percent of roterone)
and 1 quart of r-osin residue emulsion pei 100 gallons of water gave
protection to ornamental trees and shrubs in Connrecticut, u:.--. ded
the plants were treated every 5 or 6 Rye --J'hn. -: (329),

Lead aJrate gae b- .'., control of the Jre.-.Lese .--tie and
retained its effectiveness ..,er than did roteone- r,-'ennma and
Hartzell (724).

ID l.s, a:.-ed with sBll in which beetle larvae *ere c.c:" .ned in
earthen pots, wes so sl- -.tly toxic as to be of little prctica
vrlue. The slight insecticidal value of 'er- is was dest,-'..,d -
addindJ lime to the soi-Fli. (.-)o

To control the adult beetles the use of a.,ious sprays, includ-
ing lead arezate and rotenone-be-arin materials, is recommended.--
U, S Breau of Btomol:" and Plant Quarantine (625, p. 769).

T ris r..; sprayed on elms and other plants, afforded temporary relief fr-,- in-
tensive Jppanese beetle fY-7 ,'.g, but frii-dex ,ixture with lead arse-
nate was the best of several api;-.\ used,--Collins and Nardy (117).

sts3 ard sprays containing derris or cube poder and their ac-
tive principles are repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Hamilton (253,
p. 11).

.On-c ... e more 2,,a'.. rant uses of roteno-ie is to control the
Jepp:.ese beetle --Hlowrd and c rkers (294, p. 31).

Rotene is -if';ctive, but nicotine is ineffective against this
fruit pes. ... .:Loo (3,3).

Rotenone was rc-c'mn,-n*iJed L.,aii&t this beetle on many plants in
victory gsrdqi,._- --White and r d4ttle (593, p. 22).

For use t ain't&t the. 4 se ":ietle the su'bstitute for rotenone
is lead arsenate,--Uv S. Topart,'-,..t of Agriculture (633, p. 14).





-61-


Silphidae

Silpha (B.lithophapa) opaca L.

Knex (a proprietary product containing rotenone) was a quick
and effective means of control of the larvae on beets in Germany.--
Kaufmann (335).

HOMOPTERA

Al syrodidae

Dialeurodes citri (Ashm.), the citrus whitefly

Derris is toxic to the larvae.--English (165).

Aphidae

Anuraphis roseus Baker, the rosy apple aphid

Satisfactory control resulted when cube was used in oil in de-
layed dormant spray.--Steiner and Worthley (567).

When cube wes combined with 1 pint of mannitsn monolaurate, fair
control was obtained. An effective and economical combination in-
cludes 3 pounds ef cube in a 3-percent Goulac stock emulsion or tank-
mixture.--Steiner (565).

Ahis possypii Glov., the cotton aphid, melon aphid

On the basis of the medial lethal dose, cube-talc dust (0.25
percent af rotenone) was significantly more toxic to this aphid on
okra in laboratory tests when combined with 1 percent of rrppefruit-
seed oil or soybean oil than when used alone. Likewise, the addition
ok 1 percent of peanut or olive oil increased the effectiveness of
the dust, but the differences were not significant*--Howard and Apple
(293).

The cotton aphid and boll weevil infestations were lowest on
plots treated with calcium arsenste plus 1 percent of nicotine. Dusts
containing 1 percent of rotenone gave excellent aphid control in 1941,
but failed to control aphids in 1940. Yields of seed cotton per acre
treated with calcium arsenate, 10 percent of sulfur, and j percent of
rotenone were 1,384 pounds; with calcium arsenate alone, 1,258 pounds;
with calcium arsenate and 1 percent of nicotine, 1,674 pounds; and
with calcium arsenate, 10 percent of sulfur, and 2 percent of pyre-
thrins', 1,368 pounds. The untreated check yielded 1,269 pounds.--
Becnel and Floyd (45); Floyd and coworkers (189, 190).





-62-


Serious cotton-aphid infestation in Peru can be prevented by
dusting with a mixture containing cube (0.75 to 1.5 percent of rote-
none) and finely ground dusting sulfur.--Bibby (50).

A dust containing equal parts of tobacco dust and sulfur with
enough derris or cube added to give a 1-percent rotenone content
gave satisfactory control if the plants were wet at the time of ap-
plication. The addition of 4 percent of rotenone to cryolite and
barium fluosilicate reduced aphids by 88 and 76 percent, respective-
ly, as compared with the calcium arsennte plots. Derris, cube,or
nicotine sulfate, added to calcium arsenate dusts, in all cases pre-
vented the development of damaging aphid infestation. Rotenone was
superior to nicotine. Experiments in which 0.5 percent of rotenone
was added to calcium arsenate were conducted at seven locations in
six states. The data showed that this mixture was effective in keep-
ing the aphid population at or below that in untreated check plots
and caused a significant increase in yield over plots treated with
calcium arsenate alone. Derris, cube, and timbo were equally ef-
fective as sources of rotenone. There were highly significant dif-
ferences in aphid control favoring the insecticides which contain-
ed derris over those which did not.--Bondy and Rainwater (65-67);
Rainwater (489); Rainwater and Bondy (491).

Following eight effective dust applicAtions, there were 3.6
times as many Pphids on cotton dusted with calcium arsenate plus
O.5 percent of rotenone as on cotton treated with calcium arsenate
plus 1 percent of niootine.-Ewing and Moreland (173, 174).

Calcium arsenate-rotenone prevented aphid increases better
than calcium-zinc arsenate, but for yields the two mixtures were
equally effective and better than calcium arsenate alone. In 1934
and 1935 derris used alone or with sulfur seemed not to have in-
creased the yield of cotton. In 1940-1942, however, when cube,
derris, rotenone, or timbo was combined with calcium arsenate, or
with arsenate and sulfur, the increase in yield was usually con-
siderably over that for calcium arsenate, or arsenate plus sulfur.
The special mixture of calcium arsenate, sulfur, and rotenone sig-
nificently controlled cotton aphids and increased the yield of
cotton at Tallulah.--Gaines (210, 212); Gaines and Dean (211).

Before the war good results had been obtained in controlling
the cotton aphid by the addition of derris or cube to calcium
arsenate, used for boll weevil control. The mixture contained 0.5
percent of rotenone which was recommended for 1 year when war
restrictions prohibited its use on cotton.--(Harned] (266).




-63-


Calcium arsenate-sulfur mixtures, with derris added, effec-
tively controlled the cotton aphid and boll weevil. Treatments
of calcium arsenate plus nicotine, the arsenate-sulfur mixture plus
nicotine, and Lethane 60, all gave significantly better aphid
control than calcium arsenate plus 0.5 percent of rotenone.--VcGarr
(381); MoGarr and Henry (382).

Serious infestations of the cotton aphid may be prevented by
using a mixture of calcium arsenate and derris or cube so that the
finished product contains 0.5 percent of rotenone.--Little and
Martin (368, p. 108).

Dusts made by mixing 20 pounds of derris or cube (5 percent of
rotenone) with 80 pounds of calcium arsenate have been used on
cotton plants to prevent the increase of aphids that often follows
dusting with calcium arsenate. Since commercial calcium arsenate
may contain up to 10 percent of free hydrated lime, and since the
insecticidal value of the derris or cube is destroyed in an alkaline
environment, such mixtures should not be used after they have stood
several months. It is estimated that 50,000 pounds of derris and
cube were used in 1941 for dusting cotton.--Roark (505).

The effect of insecticidal drift in small plots was tsted
upon the cotton aphid. The number of aphids found in each plot after
the treatments started averaged 12.5 per square inch in the four
check plots, 22.7 in the two plots dusted with standard calcium
arsenate, 7.6 in the two plots dusted with a mixture of this arse-
nate and derris, and 25.8 in two plots dusted with a special cal-
cium arsenate.--Smith and coworkers (551).

Calcium arsenate and derris, cube, or tirbo mixtures were equally
effective against the cotton aphid, and gave highly significant de-
creases in aphid infestation and increases in yield when compared
with calcium arsenate alone. Mixtures of calcium arsenate and nico-
tine gave better aphid control and a greater yield than a mixture
of the arsenate and rotenone. Late-afternoon applications of cal-
cium arsenate and cube containing 0.5 percent of rotenone were more
effective against aphids, and were followed by a slightly higher
yield than early-morning applications, but the difference in yield,
however, was too small for significpnce.--Young and coworkers (707-709).

Aphis maidis Fitch, the corn leaf aphid

This species is an insect vector of mosaic of sugar cane. Dust
insecticides reduced the spread of mosaic in seed cane in some, but
not in all experiments. Significant decreases were given by derris
and pyrethrum but not by nicotine sulfate.--Ingram and coworkers (310).





-64-


This insect on sugar cane in the Philippine Islands can be con-
trolled with derris powder.-Otanes and Karganilla (453).

Aphis pomi Deg., the apple aphid

A laboratory-prepared sample of pure rotenone gave 100 percent
mortality at a concentration of 3 ounces in 100 gallons of water
with a wetter, and an approximately complete kill at 2 ounces with
sodium cleate. Nicotine and anabasine sulfates with accessory agents
gave almost complete mortalities down to concentrations of 1:3,200.
--Yothers and Griffin (706).

NNOR, (technical manritan monolaurate, 97.2 to 96.4 percent,
rotenone 1 percent, and other derris extractives 1.8 to 2.6 percent)
at 1:800 gave excellent oontrol.--Roth and Pyenson (517).

Acetone extracts of the roots of the Texas Tephro sia virginiana,
grown in New Jersey, were highly toxic to this aphid.-Ginaburg and
coworkers (227).

Aphis rhamni Boyer de Fonsoolombe

Derris resin tested in iEngland against the eggs of this aphid
was more toxic, weight for weight, than 4#6-dinitro-o-oresol which
is recognized as one of the most potent ovioides.-Potter and
Tattersfield (471).

Aphis fabae Scop. (-rumicis Lo), the bean aphid

Potassium oleate soap was definitely a better spreader for derris
than either potassium soap of FF wood rosin or that of rosin residue.
When used alone the order of effectiveness (from most effective to
least effective) for the three toxic agents under test was as follows:
Acetone extract of derris, Black Leaf 40, and 20 to 1 alcoholic ex-
tract of pyrethrum.--Fassig and Pierpont (176).

Yam bean (1.5 g. to 100 co. of water) killed 99 percent, while
cube (4 g. to 100) killed 100 percent of the aphids. Water suspen-
sion of ground yam beans and various extracts of them each killed 100
percent, or nearly so, of the aphids tested, while water suspension
of cube powder and various extracts of it each killed 100 percent.
Also, the water suspensions of the powdered root and seed of
Millettia pachyoarpa killed 100 percent of the aphids, but the vari-
ous extracts of the seed were not so generally effeotive.--Hansberry
and Lee (258); Lee and Hansberry (360).





-65-


The most interesting fish-poison plant from an insecticidal
viewpoint was a vine from the British Solomon Islands, which was
indistinguishable from Derris trifoliata. Its leaves were some-
what more toxic than the roots to the bean aphid, but they were
less toxic than the roots of D. elliptica.--Tattersfield and co-
workers (582).

Samples of Mundulea serica from Union of South Africa con-
tained no rotenone, but tests with the bean aphid showed that the
roots have definite insecticidal action though not sufficient to
be of much economic value. Samples of leaves of Tephrosia vogelii
from Uganda gave positive biological tests, having paralyzed 100
percent of the aphids.*-Imperial Institute of T.onnon (308).

Aphis spireacola Patch, the spirea aphid

Potassium oleate soap was a better spreader for derris than
potassium soap of FF wood rosin.-Fassig and Pierpont (176).

Aphis tavaresi Del G., an orange aphid

Suspension of ground root of Derris elliptica, cultivated in
Mauritius, successfully controlled this aphid on citrus when ap-
plied at the rate of 5 pounds to 100 gallons of water.--Jepson
(323).

Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), the cabbage aphid

A dust containing derris, sulfur, hydrated lime, and nicotine
sulfate (25:37.5:37.5:5) by weight was much more effective than
one of derris and talc with the same rotenone content, but little
or no more effective than one of derris, talc and nicotine sulfate
(25: 75:6) in a field experiment. Derris and Tephrosia were more
effective than Lonchocarpus of the same guaranteed rotenone content.
--Arant (22, 23,t )

A derris-nicotine dust, with sulfur and hydrated lime as di-
luents, wes approximately es effective as a lime-nicotine sulfate
dust. A common derris dust appeared to be ineffective in controlling
the cabbage aphid, In 3-year trials it was possible to control
both cabbage worms and aphids with e single dust containing free
nicotine 2.5 percent, dusting sulfur 20 percent, derris (5 percent
of rotenone) 15 percent, and talc or hydrated lime 62.5 percent.--
Brooks and Allen (91); [Allen] (15); Wisconsin Agricultural Ex-
periment Station M_56, p. 65). -





-66-


Acetone extracts of the roots of the Texas Tephrosia virginiana
were highly toxic to this aphid.-Ginsburg and coworkers (227).

The control of aphids on cabbage includes the use of derris and
cube with summer oil, and pyrethrumn and rotenone sprays and dusts.
--Hutson (303).

The standard recommendations in New York include a dust con-
taining 0.75 to 1 percent of rotenone, or a spray containing 4 pounds
of derris or cube powder (4 to 5 percent of rotenone).--Parrott
(457).

In Crime the toxicity of the introduced species of Tephrosia
was greater when they were dispersed in mineral oils. Extracts ob-
tained by the hot method were more effective than those by cold ex-
traction.*-Blyumberg (60).

In Russia various extracts of Tephrosia were tested against the
cabbage aphid. Extracts obtained with chloroform, carbon tetra-
chloride, trichloroethylene, and ethylene dichloride were more toxio
than those obtained with benzene and benzine. Ethyl alcohol and
methyl alcohol extracts were the least effective. The toxicity of
the extracts increased when they were redissolved in kerosene or trans-
former oil. When chloroform extracts of T. candida were dissolved
in acetone, the percentages of mortality were 6.6, 9.6, and 81.2 for
the leaves, roots, and stems, respectively, and these results were
superior to those given by T. species and T. vogelii.--Bogatova (61).

Capitophorus braggii Gill.

A cube dust (1 percent of rotenone) with Vatsol-OS (1 percent)
and a spray of 4 pounds of cube powder (4 percent of rotenone) with
1 gallon of light-medium oil emulsion and 100 gallons of water gave
good control of this aphid on artichoke in California.--Lange (351).

Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausm.), .the woolly apple aphid

Sprays of white oil and derris used against a red spider in
England caused attacks by the woolly aphid to be less severe than
usual.--Hey (286).

Cream of Agicide (a rotenone-bearing compound) 1:200, 1 quart
per tree, gave poor control of the root form of the woolly aphid.-
Smith (549).




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Pure rotenone was ineffective at concentrations as high as 8
ounces in 100 gallons of water even when used with wetters. When
the same concentration was used with 4 pounds of soap, a kill of
only 93.5 percent of the aphids was obtained.-Yothers and Griffin
(706).

Macrosiphoniella sanborni (Gill.), the chrysanthemum aphid

None of the four species of Annona tested in the laboratory in
England are superior to the leaf, root, Pnd bark of Mundulee serica,
and all were much less toxic than the richer specimens of Derris
elliptica root.--Tattersfield and Potter (583).

Three toxicity tests of mixtures of rotenone with deguelin
concentrate, elliptone, and l-alpha-toxicarol, respectively, were
examined statistically. In each case, an hypothesis of independent
action of the constituents would underestimate the toxicity of *he
mixture, but similar action satisfactorily predicts the observed
percentage of kill.-Finney (185).

1-Elliptone was one-fifth as toxic as rotenone to this aphid
when tested in an alcohol-saponin medium. When the observed
toxicities of mixtures of rotenone with a deguelin concentrate, 1-
elliptone, and 1-alpha-toxicarol were compared with those predicted
from the potencies of the constituent poisons, no significant syner-
gistio or antagonistic effect was found, and it is therefore con-
sidered that the use of the rotenone-equivalent method for assess-
ing the toxicities of derris roots or resins is justified.--Martin
(397).

Macrosiphum pisi (Kalt.), the pea aphid

This aphid in Wisconsin was effectively controlled by dusting
thoroughly with a 1-percent rotenone dust at the rate of 25 to 30
pounds per acre, but under warm, wet conditions as little as 20
pounds was effective.--Delwicke and coworkers (138); Wisconsin Agri-
cultural Experiment Station (692).

In Quebec the use of a bamboo pole drag enhanced the value of
rotenone dust.--Maltais (389).

The addition of a small amount of crude peanut oil to a derris
dust mixture appreciably increased the effectiveness of the dust.--
Bronson and Dudley (90).





-68-


A derris-nicotine dust with sulfur and hydrated lime gave fair
results*--Brooks and Allen (91).

Comparative results, obtained by applying dusts and sprays of
derris and cube including Black Arrow 88 (4.6 percent of rotenone),
Black Arrow 77 (3.7 percent of rotenone), and Black Arrow 444 (1.05
percent of rotenone), showed that derris appeared to be superior to
ordinary cube in effectiveness. Good kill obtained with micronized
cube indicated that fine grinding might increase the toxicity.
Dusts appeared to be slightly better than sprays. Dusts applied at
high humidity when the dew was on the plants gave slightly better
results than dusts applied later in the day when the temperature
was higher, humidity lower, and plants dry.-Ditman and coworkers
(145).

Rotenone dusts were slightly erratic in their effect but
normally gave satisfactory control.--Glasgow (228).

A rotenone-talo dust containing 4 percent of vegetable or
animal oil appeared to have possibilities in Oregon. Rotenone dust
with a wetting agent did not give as good control as did rotenone
and oil. Nicotine-lime dust and pyrethrum-talo dust were inferior
to the rotenone-cil dusts* Loro-talo-rotenone dusts gave good kills
but produced a slight burning.-Gray and Schuh (241).

The determination that derris and cube powders could be used
to control the pea aphid is one of the high lights of the last 5
years. An industry which meant a great deal to the prosperity of
the Pacific Northwest was relieved of a production hazard which
threatened marked curtailment, if not abandonment.--Rohwer (513,
p. 61).

Vaporized nicotine gave higher initial kill than did derris-
talc dusts but the latter had more residual effect. Derris-talc
dusts plus Vatsol OS were more effective than a similar dust with-
out a wetting agent. An atomiized oil containing rotenone or nico-
tine gave high kills of the pea aphid, but owing to poor coverage
failed to give entirely satisfactory results near Norfolk, Va.--
Walker and Anderson (643).

In Maryland derris was superior to cube, and derris dusts were
superior to derris sprays. Moisture on the plants at time of appli-
cation of derris dusts was more important to the success of the
treatment than high temperature. Fine grinding increased the ef-
fectiveness of both cube and derris. The nicotine vaporizer gave
the highest kill of all the treatments used.-Ditman and coworkers
(146).





-69-


In Oregon use was made of a power duster that was attached to
the front of a motor car and provided with a new type of hood to
prevent the escape of the aphids. A 0.75-percent rotenone dust
plus 3 percent soybean oil, applied at 35 pounds per acre, was the
most effective. This dust can also be used to control aphids on
trellis peas. Based on 4 years' investigations a spray that can
be recommended for trellis peas contains 1.66 pounds of cube, derris,
or timbo (4 percent of rotenone), 100 gallons of water and a wetting
agent.-Gray and Schuh (242).

An acetone extract of derris, used as a spray, was the most ef-
fective insecticide used against the pea aphid in Maine.--Hawkins
(272).

With adequate equipment and proper insecticides the pea aphid
can be controlled, and serious commercial losses prevented. Derris
or cube dusts (not less than 1 percent of rotenone) applied at the
rate of 35 to 40 pounds per acre were recommended in Utah.-Knowlton
(342),

Nicotine applied by a vaporizer gave excellent control and was
more widely used commercially in 1940 than any other treatment in
Virginia. Derris or cube dusts with talc gave variable results.
The duster boom should be completely enclosed and a 25-foot trail-
er should be attached. Derris sprays with a suitable wetting agent
gave adequate control of aphids.*-Walker and Anderson (646).

Pyrophyllite (Pyrax ABB), flaky talos, calcium carbonate, and
gypsum produced high electrostatic charges which were reduced with
the addition of rotenone, but when oil was added to the mixture the
charge was greater than that produced by the diluent alone. Pyro-
phyllite produced the highest charge while ground cube and derris
roots produced a charge opposite to that of the diluents. The per-
centage of kill usually increased in proportion to a general increase
in the electrostatic charge produced by a mixed dust. These charges
develop best on warm, dry days and this may explain in part why rote-
none dusts give the best kill of pea aphids when applied in warm
weather.-Wilson and coworkers (688)j Wisconsin Agricultural Experi-
ment Station (693, p. 48).

Dust mixtures containing nicotine were recommended as a substi-
tute for rotenone in combating the pea aphid, although rotenone is
more effective. The recommendation, issued February 1942, specified
(1) the use of a 1-percent rotenone dust applied at the rate of 35 to
40 pounds per acre, or (2) the use of a 4-percent nicotine dust ap-
plied at the Game rate. The revised recommendation for the emergency





-70-


was (1) to use a 0.75-percent rotenone dust, applied early and
thoroughly at the same rate with the aid of a boom on the duster en-
closed completely and with a 25-foot trailer, and (2) to use a 4-per-
cent nicotine dust whenever possible.--U. S. Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine (626).

When SAE 10 lubricating oil and certain adjuvants were added
to rotenone dusts, consistent increased control with low concentra-
tions of rotenone was obtained. In one field test with four repli-
cated plots, a dust mixture containing O.I percent of rotenone, 2
percent of this oil, and 2 percent of propylene laurate showed a con-
trol of 90 percent in 24 hours.-Campau and coworkers (101).

Early application of rotenone dusts effectively controlled the
pea aphid in Wisconsin.-Carroll (103).

Rotenone dust and spray was considerably less effective than
nicotine applied as a spray or by a vepofumer in a 20-acre field of
peas in New York. For a 5-year period the population was reduced
94 percent by a concentrated spray of free nicotine and 2.5 percent
of rotenone, 92.7 by free nicotine vaporized, 86.5 by a concentrated
spray of nicotine sulfate, 79.8 by a 2.5 percent rotenone spray, and
79.3 by a 1-percent rotenone dust with 2 percent soybean oil and pyro-
phyllite.--Glasgow (230, 231).

One or two applications of a 1-percent rotenone dust or a spray
containing 4 pounds of derris (4 to 5 percent of rotenone) in 100
gallons of water with a spreader, made 2 to 4 weeks before pea har-
vest, often resulted in increased yield of peas.-Huokett (298).

Good commercial control is possible with dusts containing as
little as 0.5 percent of rotenone when the temperature is as low as
60 0F., and with a machine and a properly weighted apron satisfactory
control can be secured at wind velocities up to 16 miles per hours
-Janes and Wilson (318).

Certain combination dusts containing reduced concentrations of
rotenone and free nicotine gave consistently good control of the pea
aphid in the field for 2 years.--Lilly (363).

In California 1,614 acres were dusted with rotenone compounds
by using the airplane.--Mackie (385, p. 351).

Rotenone dusting, although occasionally ineffective in New York,
is considerably cheaper than either nicotine vaporfuming or nicotine
dusting.--Parrott (457).





-71-


A 0.6-percent rotenone dust with 3 percent of Lethane 384 and
a 0.4-percent rotenone dust with 2 percent of Lethane gave promising
results near Norfolk, Va.-Walker and Anderson (647).

Many factors contribute to the effectiveness of rotenone, three
of which include the diluent selected, the equipment used in apply-
ing dusts, and the care employed when dusting. As a class, talcs
appear to be the best diluents although none of them equalled Pyrax.
Adding 2 percent of lubricating oil increases the electrostatic charge
of talcs but reduces the charge of some materials. When 22 samples
of talc and 3 of pyrophyllite were examined only 5 of the former
and 1 of the latter were compatible with rotenone. The failure in
the past to secure consistent control of insects with derris and cube
dusts was mainly due to the use of unsuitable diluents and methods
of application. When a compatible diluent was used as a carrier and
oil was added the dust was highly toxic to the pea aphid. With com-
patible diluents and optimum application methods significant re-
ductions in rotenone content can safely be made with no loss in kill.
A 1- or 0.75-percent rotenone content in these diluents are not sig-
nificantly better than 0.5- or 0.25-percent rotenone duets. Pyro-
phyllite was better than clay as a diluent for cube dust. All dusts
with a rotenone content of 0.5 to 1 percent to be used for control
of the pea aphid should be conditioned with 1 or 2 percent of oil,
such as soybean oil.-Wisconsin Agriculture.] Experiment Station (696,
p. 53); Wilson and Bender (685); Wilson and Janes (689-691).

In 1943 it was concluded that 5 years work in Maryland with
derris sprays had provided a satisfactory monetary return. A 1-'er-
cent rotenone dust gave as good results as a derris spray but cube
sprays did not give adequate control. The effectiveness of rotenone
insecticides varied from year to year. There was a strong relation-
ship between toxic action of the rotenone and adequate rainfall both
preceding and following the treatments. Nicotine sprays were better
than derris sprays, and the nicotine vapor-fumer gave the highest
kill.-Ditman and coworkers (14).

The most satisfactory treatment for the pea aphid on peas in
Wisconsin was the use of a dust containing at least 0.5 percent of
rotenone mixed with pyrophyllite or talc, applied at the rate of 35
to 40 pounds per acre. Directions were given for increasing the
effectiveness of this mixture by adding nicotine or light lubricat-
ing oil. Derris or cube sprays containing 3 pounds of powder, 4 to
8 ounces of a suitable wetting agent, in 100 gallons of water were
also effective when applied at the rate of 125 gallons per acre under
a pressure of at least 300 pounds.-Dudley and Bronson (149).





-72-


One of the more imports- uses of rotenone is to control the
pea aphid.--Howard and coworkers (294, p.31).

Mixtures of pyrophyllite, cube powder, and Black Leaf Dust
Base exhibited a true synergistic relationship between the two toxi-
cants. Most of the blends gave superior pea aphid control in exten-
sive field tests. About 10 percent of dusting sulfur should be add-
ed to the combination to reduce nicotine loss if the dusts are to
be stored before use. Similar combinations with the addition of an
aliphatic thiocyanate were also effective and showed still great-
er economy of rotenone-bearing materials and nicotirne.--Lilly (364).

Suggestions for pea aphid control were published by the Eastern
Pea Aphid Conference in March 1943. Among the methods suggested
were the following: (1) Use 3 pounds of derris or cube powder (4
percent of rotenone) and 4 to 8 ounces of a wetting agent per 100
gallons of water, applied at 125 gallons per acre; (2) Use a 0.5-per-
cent rotenone dust mixture containing pyrophyllite or talc and 1 per-
cent of mineral oil, applied at 35 to 40 pounds per acre under a 25-
foot apron; (3) Use a dust mixture containing 0.5 percent of rote-
none, 2 percent of nicotine, and 10 to 25 percent of sulfur dilut-
ed with pyrophyllite or talc; and (4) use a 0.5-percent rotenone dust
mixture to which is added 2 percent of Lethane 60.--Pepper and co-
workers (460) .

The American Association of Economic Entomologists, at its 1941
annual meeting, appointed a special committee on the insecticide
supply situation, J. L. Horsfall, chairman. The committee reported
that since rotenone materials were limited in 1943 one approach to
the problem would be the use of mixtures of rotenone with thiocya-
nates or nicotine added.--Horsfall and coworkers (288).

A dust mixture containing 0.375 percent of rotenone, 1.7 per-
cent of nicotine, and 10 percent of sulfur was as useful as a mixt-
ure containing 0.75 percent of rotenone.--U. S. Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine (628).

Black Leaf 10 dusts containing 2 or 3 percent of nicotine in
combination with 0.25 or 0.5 percent of rotenone save about the same
initial kill but had more residual effect than the 4-percent nico-
tine dusts. Cube-pyrophyllite dusts containing 0.75 or 1 percent
of rotenone were significantly better than those containing 0.2 or
0.4 percent of rotenone. A 0.2- or 0.4-percent rotenone dust plus
3 percent of Lethane 60 was as effective in controlling the pea aphid
as any of the other dusts tested in Vireinia.--"7alker and Anierson
(649).





-73-


Tests in Wisconsin indicated that dust mixtures containing 0.1
to 0.25 percent of rotenone, and 2 percent of Lethane 60 or 1 to 2
percent of Loro were comparable with dust mixtures containing 0.75
percent of rotenone and 1 percent of SAE 10 lubricating oil. Oil
added to rotenone dusts, when stored for some time, may cause a re-
duction in toxicity, but such dusts can be reconditioned with the
addition of 1 percent of oil. A summary of greenhouse tests with
rotenone dusts showed that the aphid control was significantly im-
proved by increasing the oil content of the dust mixture from 2 per-
cent to 4 percent.-Wilson and Campau (686, 687).

A rotenone-nicotine blend recommended for the pea aphid con-
tains: Rotenone 0.375 percent, nicotine alkaloid 1.7 percent, sul-
fur 10 percent, hygroscopic agent 1 to 2 percent, and the remainder
pyrophyllite or a satisfactory talc. Both field and laboratory
trials showed that 0.5 percent of rotenone will give almost as good
control as the 0.75-percent product which formerly was the standard,
when both are used with oil and a suitable diluent.--Wisconsin
Agricultural Experiment Station (697, p. 47).

Macrosiphum solanifolii (Ashm.), the potato aphid

Rotenone is more effective than nicotine against this aphid on
potatoes. It was recommended in February 1942 that a 0.75-percent
rotenone dust be substituted for the 1-percent rotenone dust former-
ly used.-U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (626).

The general use of pyrethrum-sulfur or rotenone-sulfur com-
binations on potatoes may be limited by their failure to prevent late
blight and by their higher costse--Daines and coworkers (134).

Cube dusts (0.75 percent of rotenone) were effective, but py-
rethrum dust gave erratic results and were definitely less efficient.
The use of pyrethrum and rotenone dusts instead of bordeaux mixture
for control of potato insect pests has been recommended because
bordeaux, in many years, has decreased yields.-Rawlins and coworkers
(493).

zus persioae (Sulz.), the green peach aphid, spinach aphid, or to-
bacco aphidr

Calcium arsenate undiluted was used alone and in combination
with derris (0.5 percent of rotenone in mixture). The derris had
some effect in retarding aphid increase on peppers in California, but
not enough to prevent serious aphid infestations.--Elmore and Campbell
(163).





-74-


In tests with this aphid on turnips the medium lethal dose of
cube-talc dust appeared to be decreased by the addition of con-
ditioning agents.-*-Howard and Apple (293).

A derris suspension containing 0.02 percent of rotenone used
as a spray or dip gave good control of this aphid on tobacco in
seed beds in Java. The seedlings were immersed up to the roots in
bundles of 50 to 100 when they were transplanted.-Schweizer (531,
p. 41; 532, p. 25).

In New South Wales this aphid on cabbage may be controlled by
the use of derris dust throughout the season.--New South Wales De-
partment of Agriculture (443).

Rotenone is more effective than nicotine for the green peach
aphid on potatoes, peppers, and spinach.--U. S. Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine (628).

A spray containing 0.2 percent of derris powder (10 percent of
rotenone) and 0.1 percent of soap gave the best control in Sumatra
and freed from infestation 97 percent of 3,510 tobacco leaves in
one series, and 99 percent of 2,898 leaves in another.--Laan (349).

In preliminary tests in Virginia a derris-Lethane 384 dust was
not effective in controlling the spinach aphid. Black Leaf 155
was not so effective as derris dust in controlling larvae of the dia-
mond-back moth but was more effective in controlling Myzus persicae
on collards. A combination of the nicotine and derris tended to be
more effective than the nicotine alone in controlling the aphids,
and more effective than the derris alone in controlling the larvae
of the moth. Also the hydrated lime tended to be a better diluent
for the derris-Black Leaf 155 mixture than pyrophyllite when used
within 8 days after being mixed. Derris-pyrethrum dust gave good
control of the moth, but did not give satisfactory control of the
aphids. Several growers used Black Leaf 10-derris dusts and Black
Leaf 165-derris dusts for the control of aphids and the larvae of
the diamondback moth on their kale and collards with vory satisfac-
tory results.--valker and Anderson (647, 650).

(Myzus) Capitophorus rosarna (Kalt.)
Acetone extracts of the roots of Tephrosia virginiana from
Texas were highly toxic to this aphid.--Ginsburg and coworkers (227).

Pemphigus sp., a poinsettia root aphid

Cube powder did not kill more than half of those treated. The





-75-


earth balls were bumped out of pots and the roots bearing the aphids
were dusted.-Bieberdorf and Fenton (51).

Phorodon humuli (Schr.), the hop aphid

In Bavaria it was recommended that nicotine be used until blos-
som time of hops, and derris alone or with pyrethrum from then onward.
-Hampp and Jehl (256).

In England some hop growers prefer to use a derris preparation
instead of nicotine.--Massee (402).

Rhopalosi phum pseudobrassicae (Davis), the turnip aphid

Under field conditions a derris mixture containing 1 percent
of rotenone with equal parts of finely ground tobacco dust and "300-
mesh" dusting sulfur as a diluent proved superior to a dust mixture
containing 3 percent of nicotine. Good results were obtained with
a spray containing 2 pounds of finely ground derris or cube root
(4 to 6 percent of rotenone) per 50 gallons of water, at the rate of
100 to 125 gallons per acre, at intervals of 7 to 14 days*--Allen
and Harrison (11); Harrison and Allen (267).

Pyrethrum and 1-percent nicotine dusts were more rapid in their
action than 0.2-percent rotenone-talc dusts, but derris and cube were
as effective at the end of 30 hours as were pyrethrum and nicotine.
Timbo appeared less effective. Derris and Tephrosia were more ef-
fective than Lonchocarpls of the same guaranteed. rotenone content.
--Arant (2T,

It was recommended that dust mixtures containing nicotine be
substituted for rotenone in combating the turnip aphid, although
rotenone was preferred for this aphid on turnips. The revised recom-
mendation for the war emergency was (1) the use of a 0.75-percent
rotenone dust, applied early and thoroughly at the rate of 35 to 40
pounds per acre, and (2) whenever possible substitute a 3-percent
nicotine dust for the rotenone dust.-U. S. Bureau of Enitomology
and Plant Quarantine (626).

Rotenone was recommended for aphids on turnips in victory
gardens.--White and Doolittle (683)*

Rhopalosiphum rufomaculata (Wils.)

Acetone extracts of the roots of Tephrosia virginiana from
Texas were highly toxic to this aphid.--Ginsburg and coworkers (227).





-76-


Toxoptera aurantii (Fonsc.), the black citrus aphid

For the combined control of aphids, red mite, and black scale
a spray consisting of light-medium oil, 0.5 to 0.75 percent, with
rotenone may be used.--Quayle (482, p. 26).

Toxoptera granminum (Ronde), the green bug

Valuable seed crops in Argentina can be protected with dusts
of nicotine sulfate, pyrethrum, or rotenone.--L6pez Crist6bal
(371).

Toxoptera piricola Mats.

In Japan sprays of pyrethrum, nicotine sulfate, or derris with
soap, applied when the eggs on pear trees hatch in the spring, are
recommended for control.--Yago and Furuichi (702).

Unidentified Aphids

Sprays containing pyrethrum or derris, or extracts from these
materials, are sometimes used for the control of aphids on grapes.
--Demaree and Runner (139, p. 27).

Plant sprays containing 1 percent of rotenone and 4 percent of
total acetone extractives of derris root will give a good kill of
many species of aphids at dilutions of l:800.-Hamilton (253, p. 10).

A spray mixture consisting of derris powder, pyrethrum extract,
and sulfonated castor oil with water is effective against aphids
and many other insectse.--Howard and coworkers (294, p. 31).

Derris sprays are commonly used to control aphids in China.-
Chan (110).
1II0).

Tests with derris and rotenone dusts as a substitute for a
spray of nicotine sulfate and soft soap, for the control of aphids
in Cyprus, were unsuccessful except at concentrations that were more
costly than the nicotine spray.--MoDonald (380).

Rotenone and copper-rotenone were considered fair for aphids
in victory gardens in Indiana.-Reed (496).

For control of aphids on rape, kale, turnips, and swedes in
South Africa either dusts or sprays of Pyrocide and Derrisol may
be used.--Schultz (527).





-77-


A spray of 1 pound of derris or cube (4 percent of rotenone)
in 25 gallons of water with a suitable spreader was effective against
aphids and thrips*.--Turner (596)

Work on aphids in Maine showed that aphid infestations can be
greatly reduced by applications of rotenone-soybean oil and nioo-
tine-rotenone sprays.--U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
(628, p. 136).

Cercopidae

Clastoptera saint-2o;_ Prov., a cranberry spittle insect

A considerable infestation of the adults in Massachusetts was
completely wiped out by dusting with 100 pounds of derris (4 percent
of rotenone) per acre without an activator or wetter.--Franklin (193).

Philaenus leucophthalmus (L.)(=apumarius L.), a spittle bug on straw-
berry

The use of a 0.5-percent rotenone dust proved satisfactory in
Washington. A 3-percent nicotine dust gave good control but was
less satisfactory.--Hanson and Webster (260, p. 37).

One of the important use of rotenone is to control spittle bugs
on strawberries.--Howard and ooworkers (294, p. 31).

Ch ermnidae

Pineus pineoides Cholodk, ( Chermes (P) p. Cholodk.)

A derris dust gave unsatisfactory control of this aphid on spruce
in Switzerland.--Schneider-Orelli (523).

Cicadellidae

Aoeratagallia sanguinolenta (Prove), a clover leafhopper

The greatest kill obtained with derris was 52 percent at a con-
centration equivalent to 16 pounds of 5-percent rotenone per 100
gallons, whereas 100 percent kill with pyrethrum was obtained at a
concentration equivalent to 4 pounds of ground flowers containing
0.5-percent of pyrethrins per 100 gallons.--Watkins (655).

Bythoscopus cedaranus Naude, a wattle jassia

Laboratory experiments showed that pyrethrum dust was superior
to derris in the Union of South Africa.--Evans (170).





-78-


Empoasca febae (Harr.), the potato leafhopper

In teats against the Mexican bean beetle on lima beans, the
following was recommended if this leafhopper was also present: 4
pounds of dtjrris, cube, or timbo (5 percent or rotenone) in 100
gallons of spray, or 40 pounds of dust with the addition of sulfur
or a copper compound.-Huokett (299).

Derris-talc dust was not consistent in its reduction of leaf-
hopper populations; damage was relatively high, but the yield was
also high.--Manis and Leffert (390).

In laboratory tests with bordeaux mixture and aqueous suspen-
sions of pyrethrum and derris, only the pyrethrum had an appreciable
toxicity as a contact poison on adult potato leafhoppers.--Watkins
(654).

Rotenone did not repel this leafhopper on citrus.--Woglum and
Lewis (698).

&poasca filament DeL.

A pyrethrum-cube-talc dust was effective in controlling this
leafhopper on potatoes, but a cube-talc dust did not control it.
The former consisted of 5 pounds of Dry Pyrocide (2 percent of py-
rethrins) and 95 pounds of cube-talc dust containing 1 percent of
rotenone. The latter also contained 1 percent of rotenone by
weight.--Manis and Turner (391).

poasa maligna (Walsh), the apple leafhopper

In an orchard which had been treated yearly for 4 years with
0.5-percent rotenone dusts, leafhoppers did not develop, possibly
because of the killing action of the rotenone on the adults.-Garman
(222).

Empoasoa Typhlocyba rosae (L.), a rose leafhopper

Dust roses with copper-rotenone dust.-MoDaniel (379).

Enpoasca terrae-reginae Paoli

In Queensland some control of this species on cotton was given
by nicotine dusts and by two proprietary dusts containing 3.2 per-
cent of "tubatoxins as derris," but the frequent applications that
would be necessary, make their use economically impracticable.-
Sloan (545).





-79-


ErythroneurR spp., grape leafhoppers

Sprays containing pyrethrum or derris, or their extracts, are
sometimes used for control.--Demaree and Runner (139).

For control of grape leafhoppers use pyrethrum extracts in con-
centrated form applied in vaporized oil; rotenone extracts applied
as sprays; or calcium cyanide, as dust.--U. S. Department of Agri-
culture (633, p. 12).

Evacanthus interruptus (L.), a hop leafhopper

Populations of this pest on hops in England were greatly re-
duoed following two applications of a derris dust.--Massee (399).

Macrosteles divisus (Uhl.), the six-spotted leafhopper

This insect transmits the virus of eastern aster yellows to
endive and lettuce. DMsting with a mixture of pyrethrum and sul-
fur containing at least 0.15 percent of pyrethrins, or with derris
and sulfur (1 percent of rotenone) at weekly intervals from trans-
planting time to harvest gave significant decreases of diseased
lettuce plants.--Linn (365).

Ophiola sp., the blunt-nosed leafhopper

Derris dusts (I and 1.5 percent of rotenone) with camphor oil
and peanut oil, respectively, as the activator and wetter, applied
once at 95 and 100 pounds per acre, both gave at least 94 percent
mortality. Results of commercial control of this jassid have in-
dicated that treatment should be carried out thoroughly when more
than 3 leafhoppers are taken by 50 sweeps of an insect net.--Franklin
(193).
Typhlooyba rose (L.), the rose leafhopper

The controls recommended in Germany against this pest on apples
were a dormant spray of tar distillate, a lime-sulfur spray, or
mixed dusts of derris and pyrethrum.--Voboril (640).

Unidentified l.eafhoppers

Rotenone was considered fair, while copper-rotenone was good
for leafhoppers in victory gardens in Indiana.-Reed (496).

Pyrethrum can be substituted for rotenone for the control of
leafhoppers.--Turner and Horsfall (606).









Aonidiella aurnntii (i'**ko), the California red scale

Promising results, "-* : ied with sprays of petroleum oil and
cube and derris resins-, I- to a s4f-'- of the relative suscc-:.-ibili.:-
of the resistant and nonresistant tLrains of this scale. %When the
two strains were spreved with the oil-cube resin the resistant strain
showed a greater survival in every case A light-medium oil with
cube was just as effective as a he---, oil with it; however, mortal-
ity when light oil alone was used on heavily infested old wood was
51.6 percent while hea -, ace caused a mortality of 58*1 percent.
Mortality was increased to z( 9 d 912 p-'cent by the addition of
cube resins. Both nicotine and cube in oil gave marked increases
in mortality of scales on all p-.. of a lemon tree as compared with
oil alone. In heavy infestations on old wood the addition of cube
resins increased the mortal '- -, 12o8, 58,1, and 58.6 percent to
43.9, 91.2, and 94.5 percent for the applications of 1, 1.5, and 2
percent of oil, respectively. Ep.3.'Iinents with a tank-mix oil show-
ed that the addition of deris resins increased the mortality of the
red scale, but that 1.14 p:; >- t resins in oil was no more ef-
fective than 0.57 p:r-cent. In regard to one type of emulsive oil,
scale mortality was proportionate to the amount of cube or derris
resins in the oil over a wider -ng of resin concentrations.--Cressran
(123-125); Cressman and Broadbent (126).

In recent years the addition of derris resin (25 percent of
rocenone) in suitable mutual solvents showed promise. Oil-toxicant
sprays, in which 10 percent of ri resin in dibutyl phthalate
was added to the oil, resulted in -eater mortality of the red scale.
The effectiveness of derris and cube extracts was best demonstrated
by the great increase in the toxicity of a kerosene spray made possi-
ble by the addition of a stock -olution vA.th 39 parts of kerosene
(resulting in 0.031 percent of rotenone in the kerosene). Used at
a 10-peroent dosage with 4 ounces of calcium caseinate spreader per
100 gallons, the toxic kerosene oean killed practically all red
scales hit by the spray. e iri.. ig results were also had by soak-
ing finely ground derris or cube root in unheated kerosene for 350
minutes. In 1942 the kerosene-rot -9 spray was not yet recommend-
ed for it had killed a considerable nber of trees. In 1943 finely
ground cube root (5 percent of rote7one), at 1 pound to 100 gallons
of spray, was used effectively as a -'mpleomt to spray oil* A
properly prepared oil-toxicant solution ",-11l result in more impr:'ved
red scale condition, +hrn oil alone, even at long periods after
treatment. Few, if any, of the scales succumb to the trep.tnent if
oil alone is used, but if derris or cube extractives are added to
tne oil, a large percentr-e of sales not recei-ing enough oil for
suffocation are nevertheless kill-. 1- the treatnento-Ebolein, (153-
156); Ebeling and LaDue (s).


-80-o





-81-


It was shown chemically and by use of the red scale that rote-
none and derris-containing preparations decompose when incorporated
into spray materials. All these spray materials should be protected
against the adverse effects of atmospheric oxidation, sunlight, and
high temperatures. The toxicants used are drastically short-lived
under field conditions.-Gunther (249),.

In a chemical study of solubilizers for petroleum oils and ex-
tracts of rotenone-bearing roots it was remarked that toxicological
evidence points to the fact that certain heterogenous compositions
are effective for control of the red scale and black scale, possibly
because the active constituents of the extract are in solution.--
Kagy and Boyce (334).

Extensive tests in several southern California citrus districts
showed that rotenone materials added to oil sprays gave a high kill.
In a 5-year spraying program on a large commercial orchard, applica-
tions of rotenone and light medium oil in the spring and again in
the fall kept the trees comparatively free of the red scale, and e-
liminated all other pest control problems except thrips. Kerosene
or light oil which give 70 to 87 percent mortality will, upon the
addition of derris or cube products, cause 96 percent mortality.
Heavier oils which are more efficient than light oils may also be
increased in effectiveness by rotenone. Rotenone is equally effec-
tive whether in complete solution or in suspension in the spray. A
minimum of 25 grams of derri's or cube resins per 100 gallons of
finished spray material appears to be necessary.-MoBeth and Allison
(373, 374).

Rotenone incorporated in oil may make possible the more effec-
tive use of oils of even lighter grades than those used in 1941.
The need for improvements in control of the red scale where the re-
sistant strain occurs has been urgent, and up to 1941 there was con-
siderable promise in the kerosene-rotenone spray.*-Quayle (482, p. 9;
483).

In field tests again& the California red scale, the addition
of cube extract or nicotine to mineral-oil emulsions increased their
effectiveness to a marked extent, particularly against scales on wood
where oil alone was less effective. Extracts of rotenone-contain-
ing plants were more toxic in oil sprays than nicotine, the most ef-
fective combination having been cube resins in a soluble oil. In
field trials the percentage mortalities of adults on grey wood and
on fruit were increased from 36 to 76 and from 82 to 96, respectively,
by the addition of cube resins to the spray. An increasing pro-
portion of the total spray mixture deposited on the wood became in-
secticidally active as the deposits increased.--U. S. Bureau of Ento-
mology and Plant Quarantine (618., p. 7; 619, p.9; 623, p. 9).





-82-


Aspidiotus pernioosus Comst., the San Jose scale

The percentage of scale-infested apples was 0.2 and 1.4 on
trees that received lead arsenate in the first two cover sprays,
followed with nicotine in summer oil in the other six sprays; 10
percent on trees treated with lead arsenate in the first two sprays,
followed with rotenone in the remaining six sprays; and 21.8 per-
cent on trees untreated.--Herman (265).

Eriococcus azalea Comst., the azalea bark scale, azalea mealybug

Sprays containing 1*5 gallons of white-oil emulsion with the
addition of either 1.5 pounds of derris or 1 pint of nicotine sul-
fate in 100 gallons of water gave excellent control.--English and
Turnipseed (168).

Lepidosaphes beckii (Newmo.), the purple scale

In tests on small potted trees, derris was more effective as
a toxic supplement when used with Mineral Seal oil and diglycol
oleate than when used with either component of the emulsion.--English
(167).

Parlatoria chinensis Marlatt

The addition of cube resin to low concentrations of oil in dor-
mant applications increased the efficiency markedly. In summer ap-
plications rotenone markedly improved the efficiency of low concen-
trations of light-medium summer oils; 1 percent oil containing 0.01
to 0.02 percent of cube resins (16.4 percent of rotenone) was near-
ly equal in efficiency to 5 percent of the same oil without the add-
ed toxicant. Also, 1 percent concentration of the same oil which
contained 0.05 percent of rotenone in stock emulsion gave a high de-
gree of control.--Baker and 9oworkers (31).

Pseudocoocus comstooki (Kuw.), the Comstook mealybug

Oil combined with rotenone-bearing insecticides showed promis-
ing results against the young crawling wealybugs.v--Cox (122) .

Pseudococous cuspidatae Rau, taxus mealybug

IN-2018 killed 90 to 95 percent of the mealybugs; Righto about
95 percent; and TI plus 0.4 percent of soap, about 95 percent. Each
was diluted l1400. The first proprietary mixture was a rotenone
spray containing a special wetting agent; the second one was a rote-







one oil spray; s._, the thi. "wis a rctenone-pyrethrum-oil
spay nicotine and ap spray was distinctly better than these
mat- jr i "Hamilton (252)

Saissetia oleae (berns), the black ele

,'trtio ., i) -...-th rotenone were more effective
,i'.-it i, e laer aults ,.,, oil at the full concentration.--Boyce
and cor- .. (^, 1),

'.r k .biGed e.o.L c. f this scale, aphids, and the red
eL .at:. of : -. ,'i. oil ( to 3/4 percent) with
,.kCbf,.nl ii.6 ., u60d,-:Itayl6 (y o p. 26).





'6 i".0e t.L.el eimel'ad re-5ias.tded in Fiji were draining the rice
fieldsD, 5,-,_-4YtLS the plaa.s fro a wvt-ring can with a suspension of
.1 PumJ-. >,f Arris in 10 eA.l c1& .f' water, or scattering rice bran
iLJP"&3te1. with kerosene on thia water in the fields.-Lever (362).

Derbic ae

-^ '1'is~~ta~ fostat (West-w)

Thi i~~-aaqet on sugar cane in the Philippine Islands can be con-
trolled by spraying with soap solution and nicotine sulfate or derris
. -iae O-0tanes and Karganilla (453).

Peyllidae

:_., _. _o<,ke i-elli (SIo), the potato psyllid, tomato psyllid

A i18 diust (Oa6 pe&det of rotenone) and pyrethrumn powder
(0.17 e.-cact of pyrethrins) were ineffective against the nymphs
on, c C3,,-^aliiList (366)o

HEMTCOPTERA

Cin ioidae

":' ic-' Tirius Le, the bedbug

dzRii ;Id sprays containing pyrethrum and .erris are usually
.q''Jed in Southern Rhodesia to combat minor infestations or as a rou-
tine preoaation against infestation, but they may in time considerably
.edace eve:. major infestations.--Mossop (431).





-84-


Coreidae

conjthocoris sordidus (Thnb.)

The control measures recommender- against this bug on vegetables
in Jiapa are hand collection, spraying with derris in soap solutions,
and dusting witn a mixture of pyrethrum and ash.--Yamazaki (703, 704).

Lypaeidae

BT l u hirtus Montd., the hairy chinch bug

E-..I-riments with 1- and O.5-perotnt rotenone dusts and tobacco
5ui:i. (1 percent of nicotine), applied at the rate of 25 pounds to
3.. square feet, were conducted on a very heavy, dense turf. The
tree dusts were about equal in effectiveness and excellent kills
-.. cutiaLtied by all three.--Johnson (330, 331).

A machine was designed which uses new principles in the appli-
ion of dusts to turfs. Economic control may be obtained with one-
third the amount of 1-percent rotenone dust formerly recommended.
Rotenone is highly toxic to all stages.-Pyenson (479).

LI .: (1:800) applied to tuirf gave 89 percent mortality of the
hairy chinch bug, while derris (4 percent of rotenone) gave 92.5
per..t *--Roth and Pyenson (517).

Blissus leucopterus Var. insularis Barber (-insularis Berber), a chinch
bug

tjil5sions of lubricqtin and fuel oils, strong soap solution,
diluted 'yrethrum extract, and locol proprietary dusts of nicotine
or derris were ineffective against this species infestin-g lawns in
- 1idad.-Pickles (468).

.--- is jddratus Montd.

11.6 n-atlensis Evans

'.ease insects were found in great numbers in South Africa, where
j ; p-oenoe was associated with poor turf which was improved by
t ent with derris.--Omer-Cooker and coworkers (450).

I ..., turneri Evans

Liberal applications of derris dust to food plants in Tasmania
.ve away the bups and protect the plants for 2 to 4 davs.--vans
(172).





-866-


Phaenacantha marcida Horv.

Excellent control of the adults on sugar cmnein Formosa was
given by a spray of nicotine sulfate, while one containing a
proprietary preparation of derris and soap wes slightly less ef-
fective.--Takahashi (578).

Miridae

Caloooris fulvomaculatus (blag.), shy bug

The active stages of this bug on hops in England are controlled
by nicotine or derris sprj6 applied to the vines .*--Massee (400).

Campylomma verbasci (Meyer), mullein leafbug

Nicotine, pyrethrum, and derris sprays in combination with
wetting agents gave good control *-Camneron (100).

Following a serious outbreak on apple in Nova Scotia, a pro-
prietary rotenone spray (Berako) was applied. A marked reduction
in infestation was observed, but not complete control.--Pickett and
coworkers (467).

Engytatus tenuis Reut.

A considerable reduction in the numbers of this insect was
brought about in Sumatra by the application of a spray containing
0.2 percent of derris powder (10 percent of rotenone) and 0.1 per-
cent of soap.--Laan (350, p. 56).

Helopeltis antonii Sign.

A mixture of derris and talc considerably reduced the number
of both nymphs and adults on cacao in Java in 1938. In large-scale
field experiments in 1940 the preceding result was confirmed, and
it was shown that even on full-grown trees this pest could be con-
trolled satisfactorily by applications of a derris dust containing
0.76 percent or rotenone (1 part of derris powder of 10-peroent
rotenone content mixed with 13 parts of talc), with a resulting in-
crease of crop yield. In 1941 it was confirmed that thorough ap-
plicetions at fortnightly intervals of a sufficiently fine derris
dust were very effective.-Betrom (46, 47, 48).

nelopeltis can normally be controlled on tea in Java by a derris
dust (0T75 percent of rotenone). The rate of application for dust-
ing ranges from 2.7 to 7.2 pounds per acre, but if a heavy infesta-
tion spreads to the whole plantation, up to 27 pounds per acre must
be used, which is usually unremunerative.--Verbeek (639).




-86-


L, irolon laevigatum Reut*

In laboratory tests in South Africa pyrethrum dust was superior
to derris against this insect which attacks wattle.--Evens (170).

atriflavus Knight

In laboratory test a dust containing 0.125 percent of pyrethrins
and 0.5 percent of rotenone gave good kills of the nymphs and adults.
Kills approaching 90 percent were obtained in the field with this
dust but the fields were soon heavily reinfested--Fisher and Shull
(187).

L.s capestris (Lo)

Spraying with powdered derris and a wetting agent is helpful
and will give satisfactory control if the applications are started
while the infestation is light.-Whitoomb (679, p. 39).

Lygus elisus Van D.

Lygus hesperus Knight

The information given for L. atriflavus also pertains to these
two species.--Fisher and Shull Tl87).

This species can be reduced by the use of a derris dust or a
py4 ethrum extract.--U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
(622, p. 70).

Lygus oblineatus (Say), the tarnished plant bug

A spray mixture consisting of derris powder, pyrethrunm extract,
and sulfonated castor oil with water was effective.*-Howard and co-
workers (294, p. 31).

Dust roses bearing this bug with copper-rotenone dust.-McDaniel
(379).

Against adults there was no significant difference in effective-
noes between derris and pyrethrum, but both were more effective than
a calciumn-arsenate-sulfur mixture.--Smith and coworkers (552).

A proprietary dust containing sulfur, derris, and nicotine was
superior to others containing mainly derris, or derris and nicotine,
but its action was probably repellent to this species on chrysanthemums
in England.--Orchard (451).





-87-


The tarnished plant bug can .,j reduced 1- the use of mixtures
containing either a dust imp-aeg-.-ted with a derris dust or a pyre-
thrum extract.--U. S. Bureau of Eit,,uolog;-and Plant Quarantine
(623, p. 70).

Poecilocapsus lineatus (Fe), the ft'.-lined plant bug

Roses infested with this L.., should --.a treated with copper-rote-
none dust--MoDaniel (37y9)

F entit lcnLi d~a

Aelia op*

In laboratory and field experiments in Germany dusting with derris
caused no mortality of adultso--Tischler (593).

Antestia lineaticollis (Stal)

The use of a strong water e,:;ilact of Tephroaia vogelii as a
contact or stomach poison, and in baita, proved _ompletely inade-
quate as a control of this bug on coffee in Uganda.--Taylor (584).

In experiments conducted in the Belgian Congo a pyrethrum dust
acted more quickly than did a 5.3-percent rotenone dust, and much
more quickly than a dust prepared from the leaves of T. vogelii.--
Lefevre (361).

Dolycoris ap.

Burygaster sp.

No mortality of adults of these bugs was given by dusting with
derris in Germany.-Tisohler (593).

Eusohistis tristigmus (Say)

Susohistis variolarius P. de B.

Derria dust (1 percent of rotmno:) did not control these penta-
tomids on tomatoes.--lmdinger (453)*

Murgantia histrionioa (Hahn), the harleuin J g

Because of the adhesiveness of talc, derris-talo mixtures were
more effective in laboratory teats than derris-sulfur mixtures or
derris alone. Dusts of derris, timbo, or Tephrosia containing talc





-88-


and 0.2 percent of rotenone gave 100 perce-nt mortality in 48 hours,
whereas cube with tale gave only 3.-.6 percent. In field experiments
two applications of dusts of derris and talc containin-; 1 percent
of rotenone and 10 percent of f'j-: ;ve 9. *'cent control of this
pest on cabcbage and collards.--Arant (2 .3).

In laborits-, tests -rt&i; natural and sulfonated vegetable
oils combined wth derris or cube increased significantly the toxici-
ty of the rotenone mat F .- ., --', n-d RcFw-,rd (206).

Rotenone is relatively more effective than nicotine against the
harlequin bug.--Isely (2Vl, p..'.

Spray or dust frith derris or cube. This is the only insecti-
cide recorr-3rded,--U. S, Bureau of Entc,- ,logy and Plant Quarantine
(617),

There is no comparable substitute for rotenone.-U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture (633, p. 14).

Nezara viridula (L4), the southern green stinkbug

Dusts of derris and talc were effCective against small nymphs,
but all the rotenone insecticides tried were ineffective against
the large nymphs and adults--Arant (22, 26).

This species and Cuspicona simplex Wlk. are both called the
green vegetable bug in Queensland. A derris spray containing .02
percent of ether extractives, prepared from powdered derris-soap
or liquid derris proprietary products, was of some value against
the nymphs on tomatoes.--Sloan (546).

Rhoecocoris sulciventris (Sthl), a bronze orange bug

High concentrations of derris sn:.-;,B gave good mortalities in
Queensland. The fourth-instar nymphs were more resistant than the
adults,.--Smith (553).

Rhyn chocoris humeralis (Thnb.)

In Formosa control measures comprise hand collection of all
stages and spraying with derris against the nymphs.--Takahashi (579).

Other pentatomids

On cotton in Arizona 53 species of Hemiptera were found, the
more important injurious ones being 3 species of pentatomids and 4





-89-


species of mirids. Sodium fluosilicete gsve an increase in yield
of 517 pounds of seed cotton per acre, and derris (4 percent of
rotenone), 151 pounds. A year later lead arsenate gave 523 pounds
and derris-sulfur, 206 pounds.--Cassidy and Barber (106).

Pyrrhocoridae

Dysdercus fasciatus Sign., a cotton stainer

In Africa a bait including 5 percent of derris powder (5 percent
of rotenone) was almost as toxic as sodium arsenite and much more
attractive.-Rainey (488, p. 48).

Tingitidae

Stephanitis pyrioides Scott, the azalea lacebug

A spray containing 0.83 percent of oil and 1.5 pounds of derris
(5 percent of rotenone) per 100 gallons of water was effective in
control. For the eradication of infestations in nurseries, applica-
tions should be made every 3 weeks. A 3-percent nicotine dust and a
dust containing 0.75 percent of rotenone were ineffective.--English
(166); English and Turnipseed (168).

Teleonemia nigrina Champ.

Derris dust was unsuccessfully tried to control this tingitid
on snapdragon plants.--'ixson (287).

DIPTERA

Agromyzidae

Agromyza oryzella Mats.

Sprays of nicotine sulfate (1:800 and 1:1000) were tested in
Japan. The stronger one killed all the eggs and more than 90 per-
cent of the larvae, while the weaker one and a derris spray each
killed more than 90 percent of the adults and larvae.-Okazaki (449).

Bibionidae

(Dilophus) Philia febrilis (L.), fever fly

The larvae damage roots of grass in lawns. Field experiments
were carried out in three heavily infested areas in Wales. The





-90-


mortalities were 91.9 to 94.9 percent when a derris suspension con-
taining 0.0064 percent of rotenone was applied to the turf at the
rate of 1 gallon per square yard; 97.9 to 98.9 percent when pyre-
thrum extract was added to this to give a content of 0.001 percent
of pyrethrin I; and 99.6 to 99.7 percent when lead arsenate was uni-
formly distributed over the turf at the rate of 1.*5 ounces per square
yard and watered into the soil with 1 gallon of water per square
yard.--Edwards (160).

Calliphoridae

Calliphora erythrocephala Mg., the blue-bottle blowfly

The results obtained are in agreement with the work of Morozov
and Alexandrov, acting singly, on the permeability of the insect
cuticula to various substances, while Fulton and Howard have shown
that the toxicity of derris inside the insect may vary with the
nature of the oil carrier used.--Hurst (302).

Calliphora stygia (F.), a blue-bottle blowfly

(Lucilia) Phaenicia cuprina (Wied.), a green-bottle blowfly

(Lucilia) Phaenicia sericata (Mg.), the green-bottle blowfly

None of the substances tested, including derris (19 percent of
ether extract), showed promise as a substitute for sodium arsenite
or calcium arsenite in the mixtures used for the control of blowflies
on sheep in Australia.--McCulloch (376).

Culicidae

Aedes cinereus Mge

In a glass chamber derris dust was more effective than pyrethrum
powder.--Mironov and coworkers (420).

Aedes concolor (Tayl.)

Ground derris root was equally as toxic to larvae of this species
in see water as to larvae of Culex (fatigans) quinquefasciatus in
fresh water.--Pasfield and Woo-.l k458)0

Aedes spp.

In India complete mortality of mosquito larvae of this genus and
of Anopheles and Culex was obtained in 24 hours with an acetone ex-
tract of Tephrosia vogelii.--Chopra and coworkers (115).





-91-


Chaoborus astict2pus D. & S., the Clear Lake gnat

Derris powder (5 percent of rotenone), tested as a larvicide
against this nonbiting midge, was less effective than pyrethrum.--
Deonier and Lindquist (140).

Culex pipiens L., the northern house mosquito

In a glass chamber derris dust was more effective than pyre-
thrum powder.-Miironov and coworkers (42D).

Culex quinquefasciatus Say, the southern house ;i raquito

Ground derris root was toxic to all instars of the larvae. The
minimum concentration necessary for 100 percent mortality rose with
each succeeding instar, and the concentration necessary to kill the
early third instar in 48 hours was 0.01 gm. per 1000 cc. When no
food material was available the minimum concentration necessary for
100 percent mortality was lowered, as was also the time taken for
this mortality.--Pasfield and Woodhill (458).

Unidentified mosquito larvae

An extract of the frniit of the Amur cork tree (Phellodendron sp.)
was more toxic to mosquito larvae than was a derris extract 52 per-
cent of rotenone).--Haller (250).

Thanite was reported to be an effective substitute for pyre-
thrum or rotenone in household sprays against mosquitoes, cockroaches,
and other pests.-- tercules Powder Company] (277).

Acetone extracts of the seeds of Tephrosaia vogelii were lethal
to both anopheline and culicine larvae in India up to I in 2,000.
This action was due to deguelin, an isomer of rotenone.*-Manson (393).

Xanthone was more toxic than rotenone to mosquito larvae, hav-
ing been effective at a concentration of ;1l,000,000.--U. S. Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (624, p. 53).

Gasterophilidae

Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis (L.), the nose botfly

Gasterophilus intestinalis (Deg.), the horse botfly

Gasterophilus nasalis (L.), the throat botfly

Derris powder and rotenone crystals were given with feed to







animals, but tha results obtaired were not conclusive .. e 'erris
powder was tosed on botfly larvae, under lao.oratory conditions, it
killed slowly and, in some cases, require_: retreatment to secure a
kill.-Iiaseman and Roland (,)

Hippoboscidae

Melophagus o ins (Lo), the sheep tick, sheep kba

WiIen pupae of mixed ages were iLm. sed in a solution o' rote.one
the percentage of _i w._easo a not materially affected, commonwealth h
of Australia (118, p4 .)

Derris is particularly suitable for the control of the sheep
ked.-Freak (199) .

There are three kinds of diLp used for eradicating sheep ticks at
one dipping, rn,;.Tely, fuse{ bentonite-sulfuir ube, arsenic-sulur-rote-
none, and hoae-made derris or cube dipa V.hen used accor:f. to the
instructions furnished, thL4 are effective.--imes and -fEbcock (kj7);
Thomssen and Doner (591).

All the -.1e were effective in .c Zealand against the adult keds on sheep, and
trials indicated that derris gave the necessary delayed action so
that the keds emerging from pupae were also killed.--Now Zealand -. -
partment of Science and Industry (445).

A rotenone-sulfur dip was tested in Niw York on about 2.'-._ sh-?ee,
representing a number of farm flocks and all the common breeds, In
addition, three county rings used this formula on approximately 10,0 t
head. The result was the err> location of the sheep tick in all flocks
dipped Only one dipping was necessary, and this usually occurred short-
ly after shearing, .Mhile this dip does not Lill the pupae it remains
effective i..'.L, e to kill all *ouag ticks energing from the rup.oe
which were present at the time of dipping. The formula follows: Cube
(5 percent of rotenone) 10 pouiida, wettable sulfur )0C pounds, and
water lt4 gallons. Wettable sulfur alone will usually eradicate this
pest but it is too slow, and a f. Aed nicotine-sulfur dip was also .:,od
but was not uniformly efficient--Schwardt. and Matthysse (5,),

In 1942, 70. she-p infested with this pest in Colorado were dipped
once in a suspension of 4 ounces of derris powder (5 --r.-ent of rote-
none) per 100 .F.llons of water. None became reinfested during frequent
inspections in the course of the following 92 ds.s, during which time
they mingled with infested sheep.--U, S. Bureau of Animal Industry (613).







An i,.ipro'ed and inexpensive dip that can be prv--pi.ed on the farm
or range was made in 1945 by adding 4 to 6 ounces of cube powder to
each 100 gallons of iater, With nearly 10,000 farm and run-e sheep
that were dipped in Colorado and New Mexico during 1944, a si-ritle
dipping destroyed all ticks in a relatively short time. The dip ma-
terial apparently remained in the fleeces of dipped sheep long enough
to destroy any young ticks that developed from the live pupae re-
maining in the wool after dipping. The cost of this home-rade dip
is only 10 to 20 percent of that charged for commercially prepared
dips. The use of this dip was one of the high lights of the year's
scientific work,--U, S. Bureau of Animal Industry (614).

Pseudolynchia canariensis (Aacq.), the pigeon fly

One of the most easily applied and effective treatments for
squabs is fresh pyrethrum powder. From 1 to 3 pinches dusted in the
feather tufts will kill all flies present. Derris or cube powder
(5 to 5 percent of rotenone) is nearly as effective as pyrethrumn and
should be used in the same way, but these powders are less effective
on grown pigeons.--Bishopp (53), and U. S. Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine (627, p.24)-."

Hypoenrmetidae

Hypodermna aeratum Aust.

In Cyprus dressing the warbles on goats with derris preparations
gave satisfactory results,--Roe (511).

Hypoderma bovis (Deg.), the northern cattle grub

Hypoderma lineatum (De Vil.)_ the common cattle grub

In Cyprus dressing the warbles with a derris preparation was
found to be a cheap and effective means of destroying the larvae of
both species. Arrangements were made in 1937 to treat large numbers
of cattle in different parts of the colony. In 1938 investigations
indicated the advisability of treating all cattle in an endeavor to
eradicate these flies from the island. The government approved a 3-
year scheme that entailed the examination of all bovines once a
month from December to April and the application of a derris prepa-
ration to every warble that could be seen or felt,--Roe (511, 512).

In Germany the best insecticide for both species was a suspen-
sion of derris in soap solution which kills the larvae at any sti,-e





-94-


of development of the warbles. The derris root should yield 8 per-
cent of rotenone and 25 percent of residual extract, and two a-;'li-
cations with a 2 percent suspension, with a 2-day interval, were more
effective than a single application of a 4 percent suspension.--
'Bartels (35).

In experiments with derris in Germany the most effective rene-
dies for these flies contained rotenone or other extractives in th.e
ratio of 1:2. Several proprietary extracts containing 8 percent of
rotenone and 16 percent of other extractives were marketed. Two
thoroue-h applications of a wash conitaininr.' 2 to 4 fluid ounces in
5 pints of water killed 95 to 100 percent of the larvae under the
skin.--Gotze (238).

In Great Britain the use of derris as a dressing for cattle
grubs wps suspended. OwMin to lack of supplies nicotine was used
in place of derris.-- Great Britain Ministry of Agriculture (243).

It was reported in 1940 that work on the control of cattle
grubs with the derris treatment in 10 districts of British Columbia
had progressed satisfactorily for 6 years. In one district alone
15,000 cattle were treated.--Gunn (248).

Experiments were carried out in 1938 with wishes of 4 ounces
of white flaked soap in 1 Fallon of water to which was added 1 pLund
of derris powder (5 percent of rotenone) or 1 ounce of rotenone.
1fhen applied to warbles with a bristle brush or with a soft brush,
the derris wash killed 96.7 and 75.8 percent of the larvae, respec-
tively, and the rotenone wash killed 83,2 and 61.6 percent.--U. S.
Bureau of Animal Industry (610).

The formula recommended in 1940 for the control of both species
of cattle grubs was: Water 1 gallon, cube or derris powder 12 ounces.
and soap 2 ounces. One gallon of this was sufficient to treat the
backs of 12 to 16 adult cattle, the cost of materials being about
2 cents per head per treatment.--Wells (671).

A single dipping in the sulfur-cube dip killed a very small per-
centage of cattle grubs, but two dippings at intervals of 17 to 19
days killed 67.3 percent, in 1940.-U. S. Bureau of Rhtomology and
Plant Quarantine (619).

In experiments in 1941 to control both species of cattle Frubs,
derris was combined with soap and water as a wash, then rubbed
vigorously with a stiff brush; or derris combined with a li-ht oil,
was injected into the warbles with an oil can; or derris, combined







with heavy ppraffin oil wn p-'s into the 0 op .. .
the fineero, or inl-oted with a larpe .. e wt the
needle rmo In all .erda so reaed the .,. i p: -'. -ratlcns
ave practically 1 per et i. 11 of i ie . ',. and a .-0A.Lo
269).

Thoa-e W s little ..I _. i . e in L'.1 e e
washes of uarris and Lc.',?, ,., .. -. at the ... t .,,,.-,t
and washes c..ii .i i xis d a .. ..-8 o 12 of .L:.- .. ...
and 4, 6, and 8 ounces of' -.*..].A- ..te sul Ts p2 -"
fectiv average 90' &b ,t 90I :ire L.e-.- r0,. i .- .. eetiL-.Y. L 0
to 15 duy and oaa,,J to =, .*. o t to 'to L .: 'L.*-.-I .to
tion*w-U, So f3.>eau > (612)

Derris a cd oube ,,* ,,._. ] 'i,-':' -:r e .- .I ve a, -,- ., <)
ly pure rotenone or a pr.., '.0a '.en K>nf.i. `-. ;,.. ; .-.enone
Derris and cube ,,-i.' (4 .- :. .,. rot ,;:.e o were as _'eotive as
those cont-u iuug; 5 rt .. ,. _.., and s es a,"n. .I t .. .ek 1
of powder to 1 gallon of wate wre as effective as those ae with
16 ounces and were safe .d 5Yr -i:t but washes ci..i.. onl. 8
ounces of powdae were not,* il a.fivet Single freat ent of in"
feasted cattle with washe L .- 12 ounces of ..i'.s oI cub, 4
ounces of asc:.-, flmk.ed, and _. on of water gave "-,. to 1L' L..rcert
kill. The washes were applied to the a..ck and upper parts of the
sides of cattle with -.'f ......:-8 at t ate of about 1 pint j.,_
animal.--Smith, Live.4good " (2j -)C

Cattle grWisia r"p'I t.-,- that the e powder cotroled w
bles even though it contained oIl, 1 c-.rc-,it C' rotI ,.7--_. Ab
dance of rotenone al. 25 p,2 et -LA'.jugth was made avail&-Lle for
warbles in largd herds, .u, uoder the 'IPB regulations none was a-
vailable for lil.2 -Clason Agricultural College (116).

Cattle gr.bs a ontro tii.d L. dli .loatii. of ,_r.ed
derris or ib root to the ok of te infested k",31114 ,-., '.e
powders may be L.1plicd in iie fo of a waih. dust, '..^ ; ;.pe
full dir actions for applyliin h e ,jv4i-- &l&th i., c,-i. e,..
(554); U. 3 Exteasion Saoriy (64)

In aApbjb-L^.ijt8 in Col.,'L 1 0 TA J. in jfi;\oh a
oommeroial hymolosalt was uustil.tt:1 for .oa, i derrir, ad ,nbae
washes for the control of ox -.'i-Lles, bo i to 97, -,. to t'C", -:..1
37 to 52 percent control, r.-v.i'vel-, was bUAe.ted-oU. ST ?ui e,.
of Animal Industry (61S).






S*T ) .,







The application of rotenone suopciions on the C .is; of cattle
was greatly expedited and simplified by use of a i jwr spr-yer 6-1
a regular orchard gun, the spay having been direc-ed ertic.lly
downward on the backs of the cattle in in ordinary cattle chute, The
spray re-;omr.erided consisted of cube or derris pwder (5 p-rcent of
rotenone) 5 poun, wettable sultr 10 pounds, ari water lO0 gallons.
This method would appeal especially to owners of large ranch hrr3--
Wells (672).

Cube-tidlfur wash may be applied to the backs of the ottle h
a brush.--Laake and wworo-r- (348)0

Cube and derris powders applied ary in com'-':.ition with wetable
sulfur were fully as effective as when they were applies = as w5slhs
or sprays. The dust mirbxture was not so eff active as the wash on cattle
with dense coats of hair, but it can be applied more rapidly than the
wash and it had found favor with the owners of biall farm herds and
dairy herds.*--Laake (347); Viells and Laake (673),

Ox warbles might be satisif.ctorily controlled by plac.n- ra--e
cattle in chutes and spraying them with 10 pounds of wettable s-fr,
10 pounds of derris (5 percent of rotenone) to iC, gallons of water
to which a detergent should be added. This spray was not effective
in controlling these grubs in dairy cattle when applied as a wash wi::,
a stiff brush.--Stewart (569).

In Idaho both species of cattle grubs are common and the control
methods are fully described, including the hand wash method h&nd uast
method, and power sprayer method.-.-}1-t' and Fisher (540); U. S. L4-
partment of Agriculture (632)o

The oft-recommrended pr(oedure of extracting thie grubs by haind
and the chemical methods of control are effective only after the grubs
perforat-e the hide for their oxygen supply. For large hterda a rote-
none preparation consisting of 12 ounces of cube c. derris rionr and
6 ounces of wettable sulfur per gallon of water uikoe a very effecj-
tive wash for application to the backs of oattle,--Th)imb&s an. i-oner
(591).

There is no known substitute for rotenone in the treatment of
large numbers of animals infested with cattle grubs. Extracts of
derris or ground derris root diluted with pyrophyllite cor tripoli
earth to a rotenone concentration of 1.25 percent was reocxenced.-
U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant. Qua-rantine (c28)*




-97-


In September 1943 the rotenone was reduced in dusts for cattle
grub treatments. The rotenone dusts mixed with tripoli earth or
with pyrophyllite are more efficient than those made with talc or
sulfur, because the former penetrate the hair better and also be-
cause twice as many animals or more can be treated with the same
amount of derris. Two dust formulas were recommended: (1) Ground
cube or derris (5 percent of rotenone) 1 part by weight, and tripoli
earth (No. 200 sieve fineness) 3 parts by weight; and (2) cube or
derris, the same as in (1), and pyrophyllite (No. 325 sieve fine-
ness) 4 parts by weight.--U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaran-
tine (629).

Nearly 800 cattle were treated in Colorado, New Mexico, and
Texas in 1943 for cattle grubs. Indications are that dipping cattle
in a suspension prepared by adding cube powder (5 percent of rote-
none) at the rate of 10 pounds per 100 gallons of water is as ef-
fective, in many cases, as the use of washes and dusts containing
cube or other rotenone-containing substances. In some instances dip-
ping is more effective than the latter methods.--U. S. Bureau of Ani-
mal Industry (614, p. 86).

Rotenone to treat cattle for cattle grubs costs less than 10
cents per animal per season. It would be possible to kill every cattle
grub in Idaho during one season if all cattle producers and feed-
ers would cooperate in the control program.-- Shull (539).

In Kansas a State campaign was conducted against cattle grubs
in 1944. In 1943, 116,000 cattle were treated, and in 1944 it was
planned to treat 1,000,000. In a demonstration for county agents
and farmers, four methods were shown: (1) The old method of squeez-
ing the grubs from the backs of animals, (2) the wash method of ap-
plying the cube-wettable sulfur, (3) the dust method of applying the
cube-tripoli earth, and (4) the spray method of applying the rotenone
preparation with a sprayer.--Kelly (340).

The effectiveness of the following dusts was found to be in the
order in which they are given below:

Parts by weight
GrouL.d cube or derris (5 percent of rotenone)--- 1
Double-ground cream tripoli earth ------------ 2

or

Ground cube or derris (5 percent of rotenone)--- 1
Volcanic ash (micronized)-------------------- 2






Parts by weight
Ground cube or derris (5 percent of rotenone)--- 1
Pyrophyllite (90 percent to pass through a No. 325
screen)--- 2

The following spray formula at 400 pounds' pressure was
found satisfactory:


Cube or derris powder (5 percent of rotenone)---
Water ------------------ --------- -. --

The following wash formula is recommended:

Ground cube or derris (5 percent of rotenone)---
Granular laundry soap------------------
Warm water------..------..........b..


7.5 pounds
100.0 gallons


12*.0 ounces
4.0 ounces
1.0 gallon


The following formula is used for dips:


Ground cube or derris (5 percent of rotenone)----
Wetting agent (sodium lauryl sulfate)---------
Water---------------------------------------------


10.0 pounds
2.0 ounces
100.0 gallons


--U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (631).

Itonididae

Contarinia humuli T1lg., hop strig maggot

Satisfactory control was given in tests in which derris and nico-
tine dusts were applied against the adults on hops in England in late
July. A derris dust was later applied to the soil just before the
larvae left the cones.-Masse- (400, 402).

Contarinia pyrivora (Riley), the pear midge

In Denmark the measures adopted against the adults included fou
applications of a nicotine spray, and dusting tha pear trees and soil
with derris.--Bovien (77).

Dasyneura mali Kieffer, the apple leaf-curling midge

Good control was secured with sprays containing 3 pounds of fixed
nicotine or 5 pounds of ground derris.--Parrott (457).







Spraying during the height of cbo oviposition period of the
second generation caused a xnbsaurable reduction in the number of
infested tips where a rotenone or a IN spray was used, but no re-
duction where a pyrethrum spray was used--Whitocob (680, p. 38).

Dasyneura vaccinii Smith, a cranberry tipwormn

Preliminary tests indicated that this pest can be controlled
by rotenone sprays.--Crowley (128).

Diarthronomyia hypogea (Loew), thc chrysanthemum gall midge

The time of day at which nicotine or rotenone-pyrethrum sprays
were applied appeared to have little significant difference on the
degree of control secured, although sprays applied after 2 were
slightly more effective than earlier applications.--Wstan (152).

Mycodiplosis alternate Felt, dogwood club gall midge

Four applications of sprays containing 4 pounds of rosin resi-
due emulsion and 4 pounds of cube powder per 100 gallons of water
appeared to be effective.--Felt and Bromley (178).

Muscidae

Hylemya bressicae (Bouche), the cabbage 'nc.pot

Powdered derris root had no Tin.luence on the amount of maggot-
injury.--Glasgow (232).

(Haematobia) Siphona irritant (L.), the hornfly

Rotenone, administered by mouth to btock, was the most effec-
tive material tested when given to cattle daily at the rate of 0.4
gram per 100 pounds of body weight of the animal, it killed all the
fly larvae in the droppings. It had no apparent harmful effect on
the cattle.--Bruce (93, 94)

It is possible to administer certain chemicals orally to cattle
which render the droppings uniiij.albie for the development of horn-
fly larvae, but this method has not reached the practical stoge. Ef-
fective materials include roton ( g per 100 lb. of body
weight), zinc oxide, and phoa'u '.L -_nomssen and Doner (591).

'When pyrethrum or rotenone sprays were applied to animals to
control the hornfly, the toxic action persisted almost undiminished
for at least 7 hours.--U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaran-
tine (623, p. 94).





-100-


Musca domestics L., the housefly

In a study of the toxicity of poisons applied jointly, the nu-
merical relations are illustrated by a teat on the toxicity to the
housefly of solutions containing pyrethrin and rotenone* A uixt-
ure with a little less than four equitoxic units of pyrethrin to one
of rotenone agreed closely with the definition, but one in which the
ingredients were about equally balanced showed a significantly great-
er toxicity than expected on the hypothesis of independent action,
indicating the presence of synergism.--Bliss (58).

The terms "synergism" and "antagonism" Lave been used to des-
cribe nrodes of action of mixtures in which the toxicities are respec-
tively greater or less than those predicted from the separate con-
stituents. This definition is illustrated by an analysis of data
obtained by Le Pelley and Sullivan in tests on the toxicity of rote-
none and pyrethrins and mixtures of these poisons to M. domestica,
in which tests synergistic action was demonstrated.--Finney (186).

In a study on the effect of using reduced dosage and reduced
time exposure in the Peet-G rady test, experiments were carried out
with two finished sprays, one containing 150 mg./lO0 ml. pyrethrins
(equivalent to 7.5 percent of pyrethrum 20,1 concentrate), and the
other 55 mg./l00 ml. pyrethrins plus 50 mg./l00 ml. of cc p. rote-
none, both in a deodorized kerosene base. The reduction of exposure
from 10 to 5 minutes did not cause any substantial changes in the
knockdown and kill of houseflies when the standard 12 ml. dosage was
used. The reduction of exposure time, caused a noticeable decrease
in knockdown and kill when the 6 ml. dosage was usad,. The reduction
of the dosage from 12 ml. to 6 ml. caused a decrease in both knock-
down and kill. The reduotion of exposure time did not c-ppear to have
any adverse effect upon the accuracy of the results*--Ford (191).

The roots of Tephrosia virginiana used in a utuc,' coont ed 1*2
percent of rotenone and 6? percent of total exti utiv2 i'.ree
fractions of the nonorystalline portion were prJpar. L the
toxicity of each to the housefly was compared with .that rotenone.
The neutral-resin fraction which comprised approxin-.tel 50 percent
of the total extractives had considerable toxicity, but the alLali-
solution portion (9 percent) and the oil (23 p'jrceut) f. oatoxio.
The two crystalline compounds which were isolated from the neutral
resin were nontoxic to the housefly. In recent tests comparing the
toxicity of smoke from burning derris and burning pyrethrum, derris
was much more toxic to the housefly while the cockroach .as more
susceptible to pyrethrum. Fumigation with rotenone and pyrethrum
in the form of a smoke or aerosol is discussed, and methods of