A review of the insecticidal uses of rotenone and rotenoids from derris, lonchocarpus (cube and timbo), tephrosia, and r...


Material Information

A review of the insecticidal uses of rotenone and rotenoids from derris, lonchocarpus (cube and timbo), tephrosia, and related plants
Physical Description:
170 p. : ; 29 cm.
Roark, R. C ( Ruric Creegan )
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Biological insecticides   ( lcsh )
Rotenone -- Industrial applications   ( lcsh )
Beetles -- Control   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 132-168) and indexes.
Statement of Responsibility:
by R.C. Roark.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-603 ; October 1943."
General Note:
At head of title: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
General Note:

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030292591
oclc - 276430507
ddc - 016.632
System ID:

Full Text

F,-603 c tc,ber 1<43

UUITTD STA-'-3 __'P7 7 7 A L C' T E."
AGPICilT l.L r r-.C: AD fiSIrATIr
A .EVIv: OF L 7- I SF7'C1.'_L Tr.S O POT'.T7'E A),D
"~~~~~ -3 07. ..."-E A
P.OTIIO r FF'OD Dr.. IS, L:C:O-: S (C A '
TIM;O), TEP??C.ST.'., A"D I'L,7:: 1LA'.TS


By R. C. Roark, Divis-on of Insectioide Investi,.-.tions

CO "'-9
\ Page
N Introi etii n . .. . .. ... ..... . .. ..- - 1
Coleoptera: 2
,m:o ol id!10e-
A rnob ibidcae- - -
*Bostrichidae - 3
BT3ruchidae- -------------------
Bupr:stidae- - -* ---------- 10
B)3luridae-- I-----------------10
Cant'.a ridae- - - --------- 17
Carabidae- - - - - - - - - - I
Ceranbycidae l---- -----------
Chrvso-eliile- - - - - - - - - g
Cicindelidae - - - - - - - - - 62
Cleridae------------- 63
Coccinell idae- - - - - - - -- - 63
Col- diidae - - - - - - - - - 4
Cryptophajidae -e-- ---------4
Cuicujidae- - - - - - - - - - 4
Curcilionidae- ----------- g5

/ The manuscript of this publi. .-tion was read in the follo''.in;;
research divisions of the ur,.-au and helpful su"-...tioLs were con-
tributedl: 7ruit Insect Inve:-i',. ios, Ti'v Cr.' Insect I.vestij'.t-ons,
Investigations of Insects AffectP t ,an an. AnCals, Cs.tton Insect
Investigations, CO ,trol Investi7ations, Cereal and ForF,,- Insect I-veti-
gations, a'-d Insect I~irt- ficatien. The reviewers in these divisiccs
vwere, respectively, B. A. ',.rter, '... A. S. fnds, d .. C. Bisho' L. V,
H a m me d L A # 1: 0 ,;: i -., p. "'. 7- I t o n "\, C P W" ,* I .u e s eb e c k ,


Dermestidae- - ..- *. .--------- 102
Dynastidae 103
Elateridae - - - 103
Galerucidae- .. . .-. 104
Lvectidae - --- --- 104
I!eloidae ----- -4----------
Nitidulidae- -- ---- 106
Ptin idae - - - - -106
Scarabaeidae- -------- 106
Scolytidae - - - - - -- - - - 119
Staphylinidae- - - - - - - - - 120
Tenebrionidae- - - - - - - - - 120
Insect index - - - - - - - - - 122
Literature cited- ---- ------- 132
Jiuior-authcr index - - - - - - - - 132


This is the sixth in a series of papers designed to review all
available information on the insecticidal uses of rotenone and the rote-oids,
Part I reviewed tests with derris, cube, timbo, Tephrosia, Yundulea, anr
their constituents on members of the Collembola, Orthoptera, Derm.apte',
Odonata, Isoptera, Corrodentia, and lil.lophaga. App-aren.tly no tests .:ith
the rotenone plants on Thysanura, Eohemeroptera, or Plecoptera h.voe oeen
recorded. Part II reviewed the tests that have been made on Thvsao ptera;
Part III, the tests on Homoptera; Part IV, the tests on Hempitera Part V,
the tests on Anoplura; and Part VI, the present paper, reviews tUe tests
and recommendations for use on Qoleoptera. f


Lasioderma serri.crnc (F.), the cigarette beetle,

H1Tot affected by derris.--Van der Laan (252) in 1936..

Reed and hookocm (324.) in 1937 reported rotenone dust ineffective
against adult cigarette 'e'etles. Pyrethrum dust T.;as slightly more effective,
but not satisfac".or;r.r

The adult is defiJnitely susceptible to derris.--Crauford-3inson
(90) in 193o.

The United States Department of Agriculture, bureau of E.to-ology
and Plant Quarantine (308) in its annual report for 19,I3 reported that
pyret.hrum-dust mixtures containing a high percentage of pyrethrins were
slightly more effective than the dust rfixtures containing rotenone, but
in no instance did tho pyrethrum comipounds give a percentage of kill that
would be satisfactory in prtcticr.l operations against adults of the cigarette
beetle in tobacco warehouses of the ooeni type.

- 3 -

(Sitodrepa) Stegobium panicetum (L.), the drc,"' tore ',--.jl

The adult is susoeptible tc derris brut te results are uarelial e and
the insect is therefore r.ot a suitable abor2try test iL-sect for evaluating
derris prcparations.--Craufurd-Benson (90) in 19ZC,


Araecerus fasciculatus (De-.), the coffee-bearn T.eevi]

The adult is not susceptible to derris.--Craufurd- i -,on (90) in 125?,

Dostricl i'.el-

Dinoderus bifoveolatus "011l.

Feeds on derris roots in stor .--Corbctt (86) in 19C1; Iederat"-l
lalay States Departmert of .rriculture (121) ard miller (683) ii 1954;
'Luesebeck, hxi a letter to R. C. L:oarkc in. 1277.

Dihod.rus minutus (F.)

Feeds on derris roots r stora ge.--Federated alay StAtes -ret
of Agriculture (125, 124) in 1533 a-.- l-Ci; Lilwr ( iC3i) ih 19C.

ih"izonertha d(cminica (F,), tIe lesser graini borer or Austrrlir ,-. het "'veevil

The adult is definitely susr;etible to der;s.--Cra,:.'u. -...n.n ('.
in 1938,

IJLhiizo ri, .a sp.

Teohrosia candida serds r. d Derri? elli'tica roos "- Xiel a dIL ts
-ere not offoctive.-- htta and 'arayan ain ) n9-

Sinoxylon anale Losne

Feeds on derris roots in storage.- ...r p Tl Sta
of Agriculture in ]26 (139), i 13951 (120), in 19052 (121), iI 1'> (122),
and in 1934 (124); Corbet" '-() in 1921; Soon and J-o'.va ,?,5) ir 1;"'-
V.iller (2_5) anc" Sakai (l)-~in 192; L.o1eoi0, '. l:ttrc ..
Th.irpscn, Jr., Kingston, P. I., and the ited SPts -,-r.n ....f icul-
ture, Bureau of L'nomolc.y ard Plat r.. -, ,t5 i (3 n l2.-

Sinoxylon c ir-'.,r-' Grst,

Feeds on derri- root- i sor fe.-- nat' S es ertme of
Agriculture, Bureau of toml a l!nt Cuaraoti, (2.') ii1 .

Sinox[ilon milacoanur. Lcsne

Feeds on derris roots n sItor. <.-Ccrbe (fu) in ]91; ,ed eic.t
I alay States Departuernt of A';ricrlouure (120) in li1 d ( .'4) in I-
and Viller (C'2'5) in 9:.'-

-4 -

Sinoxy-lon rugicauda Lesne

Feeds on derris roots in storage--7ederated i.alay States DeOart-uent
of Agriculture (124) and Miller (285) in 1934.

Sinoxylon sp.

Feeds on derris roots in storage. -Cahn (64) in 1955.

Xylopsocus capucinus (F.)

Feeds on derris roots in storage.--Corbett (86) in 19 51; Federated
F'alay States Department of Agriculturo (123) i. 1 "33 a.id (124) in 1934; and
Miller (285) in 1934.

Xylothrips flavipes (ill.)

Feeds on derris roots in storage.--Federated ,'al:., States Fepartnient
of Agriculture (124) and KNiller (285) in 1954.

3ostrichidae (unidentified species)

Two species of Bostrichidae feed on derris roots in storage.--~ater
(162) in 1925.


Bruchus pisorum (L.), the pea weevil

Kuwivayama and Endo (251) in 1935 reported that derris-soap and 7Teotoi.2!
soap sprays proved to be the most effective against the pea weevil. It ."'s
recommended to spray these solutions three or more times duri-ng the young
pod stage in July.

The United States Deprtrtment of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantino, in its annual report for 1936 (393) reported that
experiments indicated that dust mixtures containing rotenone may be useful
in the control of the poea weevil, particularly in crops of high-quality peas,

An anonymous (1) writer on August 19, ]937, called attention to the
use of rotenone dusts to control the pea wreevil in the Pacific :Torthlrwet.

The rotenone method of attacking pea weevils takes
advantage of their habit of congregating on the first pea
to bloom. To lay the foundation for the attack, growers
plant narrow Cborder trap crops -which will bloom earlier
than the main field. The border is dusted just preceding
the appearance of blooms in the main field. The weevils
congregate on the peas in bloom to feed lad de osit their

Derris extract in fish oil.

Two methods are used in aoplplyn the rotenone dust.
In larc-scale commercial pea "rowrnr- it is af-,-ied with
a power duster that covers about 50. feet at a svwath. In
small garden plantings the dust is applied directly to
the rows of -,as with a hand dust gun. The first dusting
on :arden plantings is made just after the peas come into
bloom and an application is made in each of 3 weeks there-
after, In large field plantings the dust is applied at
the rate of 20 pounds to the acre. For a garden planting
the entomolo-ists advise dusting at the rate of about 1.05
ounces of dust to 100 linear feet of peas.

Dr. "?.:':eland reports that in the cannery pea districts
of Washi-.gton and Oregon about 30,000 acres of peas were
protected by border dusting. One grower protected 4,000
acres of peas with the dust.

Brirndley (49) in 1937 reported' that rotenone dusts gave promise in
control of the pea weevil. As a result of large-scale field tests during
1936, dust mixtures containing 1.0 or 0.5 percent rotenone, with finely
ground diatomaceous earth, tobacco dust, or sulfur as diluents, reduced
the infestation more than 99 percent, on an average, in re. peas harvested
for canning and in dry peas harvested for seed or processing, as conp: red
vwith the pea w,,reevil infestation in untreated plots. These dust mixtures
gave results superior to treatments with undiluted cryoclite, calcium
arsenate-sulfur (1:5), or Paris green-lime (1:5). Five treatments were
applied to these experimental plots at a dosage of 20 pounds per acre per
application, with the exception of the plot treated with the dust r.ixture
containing 0.5 percent of rotenone in diatomaceous earth, which received
40 pounds per acre per application. In the untreated plots, on an avera;:e,
approximately 43 percent of the peas were infest-?! by the pea weevil.

Brir.dley, Chamberlin, and Associates (52) in 1937 report-.! that
dust mixtures containing rotonone have -iven excellent control of the
pea weevil in recent large-scale field trsts in Idaho, '.af-:.-ton, and
Oregon. Talc appears superior to diatomaceous earth as a diluent. In
the Dayton, v rh,, area many tons of rotenone-dust mixtures have been
applied to the weevil-infested poafields. In most instances a dust
mixture containinr 1 percent of ro Lenone has been a. -lied to stris. 20
to 50 feet wide around the edoes ol the field vherr. the hibernati::-
weevils have congregated. Under favorable weather conditions, nest of
the infestations in the treated fields have been relucec-; more than 95
percent and in some instances the weevil population has been reduced c-
percent. From one to three applications to those field borders have been
necessary, depending- on the movement of the weevils into the fields a"t,-r
such fields have been dusted.

IEo,ard and '.ason (198) in L957, in C'icussing the bes rotenone con-
tent of dusts for i: e ral' ise on the trucl farm or in the garden, stated
that it may be necessary to use a 1-percent dust in the control of the -'

- 6 -

x.-periments by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, in
cooperation with the Idaho Agricoltural 3xperinent Station (211), in 1937
reported that successful control of the pea ,weevil may be expected from
the use of derris dust, Peas dusted wvrith derris and tobacco dust were
99.62 percent free from the weevil in the green-pea stage and 98,77 per-
cent free in the dry-pea stage. Other effective insecticides were cryo-
lite and derris dust with diatomaceous earth, and derris dust with sulfur,
Calcium arsenate .was the least effective of any of the dusts used,

The Oregon Agricultutral Experiment Station (310) in 1937 reported
that a method of controlling the pea weevil by the applicationn of rotenone
dusts had been discovered.

Ballard (25) in 1938 reported that the control of the pea weevil in
commercial-scale plantings was achieved the past year by growers of 22,000
acres of peas in Umatilla County, Oreg. This was done by applying a talc
dust containing 0.75 percent of rotenone by means of a hood-type duster.

Brindley (50) in 1938 reported that, laboratory tests against B.
pisorum at the Moscow, Idaho, laboratory gave the following results:'- (1)
Distinct differences were sho'.'* to exist between the mortality obtained
with dust mixtures containing 1, 0.75, and 0.5 percent of rotenone,
respectively. Much less difference was noted in the toxicity of dusts
co.ntI'n". g 1 percent and 0.75 percent than betvreen those containing 0.75
and 0.5 percent of this ingredient. (2) A cube-dust mixture with diatoma-
ceous earth as a carrier did not give so high a mortality as did cube with
talc as a carrier. (3) The addition cf 2 percent of peanut oil, 1 percent
of sodium oleyl sulfate, and 0,5 percent of -water to cube in talc did not
increase its toxicity. (4) A dust containing 0.005 percent of sulfur
nitride was nontoxic to the weevils. (5) The addition of 0.225 percent
of pyrethrins to a cube dust in talc, containing 0.5 percent of rotenone,
markedly increased the toxicity of the dust. (6) Additional data were
accumulated to indicate that at least a part of the toxic effect of
rotenone-containing dusts to the pea weevil is due to its contact properties

Chamberlin and Gray (78) in 1938 reported that the pea weevil in
Oregon can be best controlled by the use of dust mixtures containing 0.75
percent of rotenone. From one to three applications to the infested fields
are necessary, the first being made when the peas are in bloom and before
the pods have set. Dusts should be applied at the rate of 20 to 25 pounds
per acre.

Hinman and Fisher (187) in 1938 reported that during the summer of
19357 a dust containing 1 percent of rotenone, applied at the rate of 25
pounds per acre, satisfactorily controlled the pea weevil in Oregon and
Washington. The use of hoods on the large dusting machines increased the
efficiency of the dust, which should contain not less than 0.75 percent
of rotenone.
The Idaho Agricultural -'Ieoriment Station (215) in 1958 reported
that rotenone-bearingP dusts applied when -ods began to form and at inter-
vals when the population vwas increasing, continued to give a high per-
centa-o of control oC' adults.

- 7 -

The New York State Agricultural Experiment Station (3_3) in
1939 reported that rotenone dusts showed promise in controlling the
pea weevil in the field.

The Pea Weevil Conference (313), held in Spnkane, Wash., in
1938, reco-mmended rotenone dust for the control of the pea weevil in
canning and garden peas. Talc is a good diluent; the rotenone content
should not be less than 0.75 p-rcont; and 20 to 25 pounds should be
applied per acre by an efficient dusting machir&. *ne to three applica-
tions starting within a few days of blooming are necessary.

The United States Department of Agriculture, Bureaui of Ento-
mology and Plant Quarantine (396)in 1938 recommended dusts contain-
ing not less than 0.75 percent of rotenone for the control of the
pea weevil infesting garden peas and also peas grown for canning,
for the green-pea market, and for seed. Either derris or cube may
be used as the source of rotenone; and talc or some similar inert
carrier may be used as a diluent. Applications of from 20 te 25
pounds of the dust mixture per acre, if applied with an efficient
dusting machine, should give satisfactory results. In heavy infes-,
tations, as in some border-strip plantings, the use of an additional
5 pounds of the dust mixture per acre should give greater assurance
of tntrol. The first application should be made within a few days
after the peas start to bloom and before Pny pods have formed; other-
wise the weevils may lay eggs on the young pods. Additional weevil
populations may fly into some of the fields; in these cases one or
two additional applications may be necessary. The date of these later
aplications depends nn the time the weevil population increases in the
field. In most instances a 6- to 10-day interval between pFplications
has been satisfactory.

The United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Ento-
mology and Plant Quarantine (398) in 1938 reported that biological
cnd control investigations on the pea weevil as a pest of prcc.'ssd
and dry peas were continued in the Ncrthwrst in cooperation with the
States .f Washington, Oregqn, and Idaho and interested growers, with
gratifying results. The large-scale field experiments in the Blue
Mountain area of eastern Washington and Oregon, in which dust mixtures
containing rotenone were applied, yielded favorable results, as in
1937. Comparative treatments sho-ed that the use of hoods on large
dusting machines incronsed the efficiency of these dust mixtures. No
apprnclable differ-nces could be detected in the percentage of ppa
weevil control obtained with dust mixtures conta-ining 1 percent, as
compared with those containing 0.75 percent of rotenone, "h-Pn the
quantities of the dust mixture applied per unit area were practically
equivalent. The results, however, indicated that unde-r unfavorable
climatic conditions or othpr restricting factors the dust mixtures
containing less than 0.75 percent of rotenone might not give a satis-
factory dngrpe of control. In large acraP,;s, tho practice of tropt-
ing border strips was followed to protect the rest of the field. In
somp instances "spot dusting" was prActic-d to reduce infestaticn.


In the western Oregon and Washington pea-growing area where the pea-
fields are in smaller units, the entire field was treated and weevil
infestation was reduced to a minimum;

Brindley (-51) in February 1939. reported the results of tests
to control the pea weevil. Laboratory .tests were conducted in 1934
with four insecticides-calcium arsenate, barium fluosilicate, a dust
containing 0.45 percent of pyrethrins, and a dust containing 1 per-
cent of rotenone in the form of powdered derris root* Adult weevils
were placed on blossoms picked from plots that had been treated with
these materials at the rate of 20 pounds p.-r acre, dusted weevils
were placed on untreated blooms, and weevils forced to walk a distance
of 2 inches across a glass surface dusted with each of the materials
were placed on undusted blooms. One application of calcium arsenate
or barium fluosilicate, even though thoroughly applied, did not kill
all the weevils in 24 hours, whereas the application of derris and
pyrethrum dust killed all the weevils. When the materials were applied
directly to the weevils, practically the same results were recorded.

Brindley and Linduska (53) of the Moscow, Idaho, laboratory,
reported in February 1939. that experiments with dust mixtures contain-
ing rotenone against B. pisorum on garden plots in 1938 showed that
the addition of various conditioners to the dust mixtures only slightly
increased their efficiency, as compared with dust mixtures composed
solely of finely ground derris or cube root with talc or diatomaceous
earth as a diluent. -The results of these experiments may be summarized
as follows: (1) Dust mixtures containing 1 percent of rotenone with
talc as the diluent, which is now being used commonly by the growers,
gave a control of 95.6 percent when applied to plots harvested as green
peas and 94.6 percent in plots harvested as dry peas, as compared with
comparable untreated plots. (2) A dust mixture containing 1 percent of
rotenone with diatomaceous earth as a diluent, also being used commonly
by the growers, gave a control of 98.9 percent in the gronn-pea plots
and 95.8 percent in dry peas. (3) A dust mixture containing 1 percent
of rotenone with talc as a diluent, plus 1 percent of lampblack by
weight, gave a control of 100 percent in the grenn-pea plots and 90.4
percent in dry peas. (4) A dust mixture containing 1 percent of rotenone
plus 2 percent of peanut oil, 1 percent of sodium oleyl sulfate as a
wetting agent, and 0.5 percent of water gave a control of 100 percent
on green peas and 96.1 percent on dry peas. (5) A mixture containing
equal parts by weight of a dust mixture containing 1 percent of rotenone
with talc as the diluent and a dust mixture containing 0.45 percent of
total pyrethrins with diatomaceous earth as the diluent gave a control
of 99.6 percent on green peas and 89.9 percent on dry peas.

Haude (181) in 1939 recommended cube or dorris dust (0.75 to 1
percent rotenone) at 20 to 25 pounds per acre, applied under a hood for
control of the pea weevil.

Hinman, Fisher, and Brindley (188) reported in 1939 that a
survey of the Blue Mountain area of Washington and Oregon revealed
that more than four ti -es as much dust mixture containing rotenone
was used ag-.inst the pea weevil in this aroa in 1938 as in 1937.


In 1937 approximately 47.5 tons of dust mnixtures containing rotencre,
cb'osting ar.prnxi-i.tely $10,925, were used to protect nrrroximately
38,000 acres of peas. In 1933, with ,n acreaee of aoproxi'nately
34,000 acres, a total of 211.5 tons of dust mixtures containing
rotenor.e, costing approximately $37,790, were used. The general
results of the control campaigns for the 2 years were nearly the sane,
as in 1937 716 acres of pTeas, constituting 1.9 percent of the total
acreage, were discarded on account of the pea-weevil damage, whereas
in 1938 386 acres, or 1.1 percent of the total acreage, were discarded
on account of pea weevil d.amage.

The Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station (216) in 1939 reported
that dusts contsinir.g 1 percent and 0.75 percent of rotenone gave good
control of the pea weevil when applied at the rate of 20 to hO pounds
per acre. Experiments on garden plots indicated that control to the
extend of 97.02 percent in peas of table size could be accorm.plished
with rotenone-bearing dusts.

An anonymous writer (_) in 1940 described the use of rotenone
dust against the pea weevil in the Washington-Oreron ci.nning-pea
section. Approved practice now is to use a dust containing 1 percent
of rotenone at the rate of 20 pounds p;r acre between the arpeqrance
of the first blooms and the first pods, usually 2 or 3 days. Cost for
materials has been around $1.50 per acre. Records of weevil dnmnge
were as follows:

Acrea-e left uncut
Year Acreage in peas because of weevil damage

1935 12,000 Not recorded
1936 28,900 6 prcr-nt
1937 38,000 .1.0 percent
1938 34,000 1.1 percent
1939 32,000 0.7 percent

Rotenone dust was first tried in the field in 1935, and in q1937
big-scale dusting with power nschines was used. Various dusters are
pictured and described.

Bruchus rufimanus Boh., the broadbcnr. .rcr.'il

Licbster (259)in 1940 reprrtod that rvr thrum and derris dusts
were effective agni..st this socies.

Callosobruchus chinenpis (L.)

T'.hrosia candida s..ris anr. D,'rris elliptical roots, aoprli'd as
d.usts to :3uqhus chinrensis L. [Callosobruchus ohinensis (L.), according
tc H. S. Barber, as statrd by Mucsebcck], in stcr-d pulses g-ivc from "Cr-
ti 100-pcrcrnt mortality in 24 to 72 h'.urs.--Bhntta vndl Nara. -n.nn (29)
in 1938.

Buprest iae
Chrysobothris femorata (Oliv.) the flatheaded apple tree borer

Johnson and Fenton (229) in 1939 reported the results of toxicity
tests made in Oklahoma in 1937 on cagc-omerged adults of the flatheaded
apple tree borer. Derris (5 percent of rotenone) at 2 pounds per 100.
gallons + casein spreader killed 100 percent in 5 days. Lead arsenate
mast be used at the rate of 8 pounds pcr 100 gallons to ensure lOO-per-
cent mortality in 5 days.

Gryptodactylus gracilis Schoenf.

Matsubara (2l) in 1937 recommended spraying with Neoton (derris
extract in fish oil) for the control of this buprestid, which is widely
distributed on chestnut in Japan.


Byturus tomentosus (Deg.), a raspberry and loganberry beetle

The East Malling Research Station of Kent, England (l07) in 1930
reported that a derris-root 'preparation had bc-n tried for the control
if the raspberry and loganberry beetle, but so far without success. In
1930 this station (10) reported that the proprietary derris-root prepa-
ration used in previous 'trials without conclusive results wns again used
and showed considerable promise. Further trials are being planned on a
statistical basis.

In 1931 the East Malling Research Station (109) reviewed its work
on the loganberry beetle. In spraying tests made in 128 for the control
ef B. tomentosus lead arsenate paste at 4 pounds per 100 imperial gallons
ef water reduced the infestation from 37.3 to 15.0 percent; and a prop-
rietary derris root preparation at 2 pounds to 40 imperial gallons of
water reduced the infestation from 36.5 to 1.2 percent. In 1Q29 a
pyrethrum extract and the derris preparation (2 pounds to 40 imperial
gallons of watc-r) did not mat-'rially reduce the infestation, wbrreas
lead arsenate at 5 pounds plus 2 pounds of gelatin to 100 imperial
gallons of water gave almost complete control. None of the snrays had
any appreciable effect on the adult beetles, which were in the flow-rs
at the time of spraying. In 1930 the derris preparation reduced the in-
festation to 3.7 percent. The failure of dorris to control in the to-ts
in 1929 may have been due to variation in the composition *f diff-rnt
samples or to the use of old stock. Arscnical residue on sprayed berrips
bars the use of lead arsenate.

In 1932 this station (l07) called attention to Steor's (3_7)pnper
on the control of the raspberry and loganberry beetle by moans of derris.
The proportion of mqrk table loganborriLe in a badly infoct-d plantation
was increased from 23.8 to 77.7 percent by two epraying- with derris and
soa.p. The avera,- number of loganberris prr pound of ripe fruit over
the whole if the picking season worked out at 176 on unspr'yed and 127
on sprvyc-d plots.

SKearns and Sw-rbrick (240) of the Agricultural, and Horticultural
Research Station of the UTniVersity of Bristol, at Long Aihton, England,
in 1932 r-.portid that derris-soap srerr, (rot-none 0.004 prrcrnt) was
superior to derris extract in rape oil Pmulsificd in water (rape oil 1
percent, rotenone content une.ctermnoed) for the control of larvae of the
loganberry beetle.

- 11 -

St-ecr (356) in 1932 reported favorabl- results on the control
of the raspberry and loganberry be tle in Erglnrid by means of derris.
This beetle was formerly controlled b3, three applications of lead
arsenate given when one-third, two-thirds, and all the blossom were
fully open. On account of arsenical resic.ue on the ripe fruit when
the young berries were sprayrod with lead arsenate, this insecticide
was abandoned in favor of derris. In 1928 a, sir.nle application of
derris spray reduced the infestation considerably. In 1929 indifferent
results wore obtained because the derris usei had becn in stock for a
long time. In 1931 tvo sprayings of derris reduced the svrrqge infest-
ation of loganberries froi 66.3 to 14.6 percent and of raspberries from
79.3 to 5.6 percent. On loganberries this treatment nearly doubled the
total weight of the crop and increased the proportion of m-rkrtable fruit
in aP badly- infested plantation from 23.F to 77.7 percent. This meant Pn
increase in marketable fruit at the rate of over 2 tons (from 8.3 to
51.8 cwt.) per acre. The average number of loganberries pmr rcund of
ripe fruit over the whole of the picking season worked out at 176 on
unsprayed and 127 on sprayed plct-. A derris preparation containing
soap was used .at the rate of 5 p-iunds per 100 imperial gallons of
water and the; spray, was applied at the rate of 500 gallons per acre
per application.

The Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station of the Unj.-
versit"- of Bristol (i4), England, at Long Ashton, in 1933 stated that
efficient control of the raspberry and loganberry beetle is obtained
with derris-soap suspensions.

Hues (209) in 1933 stated that derris preiprations used as sprays
kill newly emerged larvae of the raspberry beetle.
Kearns and Walton (242) in 1937 reported experiments with pyreth-
rum eand derris washes and dusts for the control of the loganberry and
raspberry beetle. Tests are reco-ded with a derris wash (2-1/2 or 5
pounds of derris powder containing 1.72 percent rotenone and 10 pounds
spraying soap per 100 imperial gallons), derris emulsion (derris extract
in rape oil), and derris dust (crntir.ning 10 percent derris and O.1l
percent rotenone). The proprietary derris emulsion gv.- very poor results
against Byturus. Two applications of a derris w ah containing le q than
0.004 prrccnt of rotenone gave a high control of the larvae. The first
application, was macd 10 days after about one-third of the flower buds had
dponcd and a second application 10 days after the full flowering -r r.od.
No further increase, in control resulted b:.- using a wash of a high-r ccn-
ccntrntion than 0.004 percent of rotenone. In seasons in which the beetles
cluster in large numbers on the uncpnpd Pnd just-rpening flower buds,
the applicp.tion of a derris dust (containing 0.1g percent roten.-.ne) is
effective in killing large number of them. The dusting should be followed
by at least one ,pplic'-tion of derris wash, to kill the larvae.

Kearns rind Walton (2L3) in 1937 furth-r con-"'.r'cd the relative
effici-nr.c: of pyrethrum ar.d derris for the control of B, trmentosus.
A plot of raspberries of the variety, Lloyd Gcorce wnS -UIacent to the
Bqumforth 'A' raspberries. One portion wns zrr-,-,d twice with the
1.O-pcrcent-pyrethrum emulsion and another portion with a derris-soar
wash at periods cqlculntod to kill the larvae.

The pyrethrum plot had 22.6 percent and. the derris plot 5.5 percent of
the berries infested.

Petherbridge and Thomas (3l6) in 1933 reported that in 1931 a
good control of the raspberry beetle in England had been obtained with
a proprietary preparation of soft soap and powdered derris used at the
rate of 1 pound of derris to 60 imperial gallons of water. Thip was
applied when the eggs began to hatch and again 4 days later. In 1932
a derris powder (2.2 percent of roteno ie) at the rate of 1 pound in
50 imperial gallons of water, plus a proprietary spreader for the first
application and 5 pounds of soft soap for the second, was used in the
Isle of Ely. The percentage of damaged raspberries from this plot was
4.9, as compared with 4.6 from the plot sprayed with soft soap, 5 pounds,
and nicotine sulfate, 10 ounces, in 40 imperial gallons of water, and
84.9 percent from the unsprayed plot. In Essex in the same year two
sprayings with soft soap and derris powder gave satisfactory control of
the raspberry beetle. Foar sprayings gave still greater control, but
not sufficient to make more than two sprayings an economic proposition.
On loganberries two spraying of soft soap and derris with a power sprayer
gave a fairly good control (13.3 percent damaged berries) of this bpetle.
Two dustings with a derris dust gave a better control (4.5 percent damaged
berries) than two sprayings (13 percent damaged berries). The authors
concluded that dusting with a derris dust (containing 0.2 percent of
rotenone) is the most satisfactory means known at "resent of reducing
the damage done to loganberries by the raspberry beetle,

Spron (352) in 1933 reported that an aqueous suspension of pure
rotenone gave excellent results.

Steer (35) in 1933 reported further experiments on the control
of B. tomentosus. Tests were ma.e with a very finely ground derris
powder containing 5.97 percent of rotenone. The sprays were made to
contain 13-3/4 ounces of this powder per 100 imperial gallons rotenonee
content 0.005 percent) or double this strength. The dust was composed
of 1.6 percent of this derris powder and 99.4 percent of china clay,
making a rotenone content of 0.09 percent. Three applications of a
derris dust, about 100 pounds per acre, reduced the infestation pnrr 100
berries from 75.5 to 12.5. Two sprayings with derris powder (rotenone
content of spray = 0.01 percent) plus soft soap, 5 pounds per 100 imperial
gallons, reduced the infestation per l0 berries from 78.8 to 0.4. A
proprietary derris and soap preparation used with success in previous
seasons reduced the infestation te 0.9. According to Stear, an estimation
of the rotenone content appears to be the most satisfactory method of
assessing the value ef a sample of derris, and such estimations have been
used as a means of standardization in the trials described. Steer oon-
cluded that a spray containing sufficient finely ground derris to givo
a rotenone content of 0.005 percent, and 5 pounds of soft soap per 100
gallons, gave excellent results against larvae on both raspberries and
loganberries, whether used according to the double-spraying or the new
single-spraying method. Besides reducing the percentage of fruits in-
fested, it had an enormous beneficial effect on the yield and quality
if the crop. A derris dust containing 0,09 percent of rotenone again
gave a serviceable measure of control on raspberries but was somewhat
inferior to any of the wet sprays used. Preliminary trials showed that
the pest can be controlled gn cultivated varieties of blackberries by
means of derris.

- 13 -

The East Mailing Research Station (lll)of Kent, England., in 1934
stated that a single application of a derris spray of known rotenone content
is adequate for control of the raspberry and lnganberry beetle.

Steer (35 in 1934 reported experiments on the control of the
raspberry and loganberry beetle in Kent, England. Tests were made with
derris (2.71 percent of crude rotenone or 2.32 percent of recrystallized
rotenone) as a spray and as a dust, and cube (6.26 percent of crude roten-
one and 5.27 percent of recrystallizpd rotenone) as a spray. In the sor,'ys
2 pounds of derris or 1 pound of cube, plus 5 pounds soft soap, was used
per 100 imperial gallons. The dust was made by mixing 3.7 percent of
derris and 96.3 percent of china clay. The conclusions are as follows:

Derris dusting. Good results have been obtained by
dusting three times with a derris dust of 0.09 percent
rotenone content applied to kill the beetle larvae. This
method of control is somewhat less effective than a single
wet spraying given when the larvae begin to attack the
fruit, it is more costly, and the dust is very apt to
leave an unsightly (though harmless) deposit on the earlier
berries. On the other hand, a dust is quickly and easily
applied and for this reason recommends itself to many growers,

An attempt to kill the adults, and to prevent egg
laying and subsequent fruit damage, by means of a single
application of dust was not successful. This experiment
cannot, however, be regarded as conclusive in view of the
good results obtained by Petherbridge and Thomas, who
dusted loganberries in a similar manner. To get adequate
control by means of a dust applied sufficiently early to
avoid leaving a deposit on the fruit, and intended for the
adult beetles rather than the larvae, it ma;' be necessary
to dust very heavily and to use a dust of higher rotenone
content than that hitherto used in our croeriments.

Wet spraying with derris. Frc-i the results of field
spraying trials carried out to date at East Malling, it is
clear that one application of derris and soap is adequate
for either raspberries or loganberries. This should be
given when the larvae begin to damage the berries.

The results obtained on blackberries suFgest that
the very early varieties can be given exactly the sqme
treatment as loganberries.

At the concentrations usrd no differences can be
detected between 'the performances of derris and of cube
either at any one time durir.r the picking season or for
the whole period.

Roark (321) in 1939, in comparing the insecticidal values of
derris and cube, referred to this report by Stcer.

The'Wageningen Plantenziektenkunc~igcn Dionst (4.03) in 1934 re-
ported that an aqueous suspension of rotenone (l:10,000) is effective
against adults and larvae of the raspberry beetle.

Amos, Beard, Moore, and Painter (10)in 1935 stated that a proprietary
derris powder, 2 pounds plus soft soap, 5 pounds per 100 imperial gallons,
was sprayed on raspberries on June 26, 1934, against B. tomentosus, as part
of the routine spraying program for that year.

Steer (102) in 1935 reported that finely ground derris (crude
rotenone = 3.63 percent or recrystallized rotenone = 2.92 percent) was
applied as a spray, 2 pounds to 100 imperial gallons of water, and as a
dust diluted with china clay. A single spraying of derris and. soap gave
inadequate control of the larvae on raspberries. A single application
of a derris dust, applied late in May to control the adult stage of the
raspberry and loganberry beetle, failed to give satisfactory results on
raspberries, even when the rate of dusting was about 3 cwt. per acre and
the crude rotenone content of the dust as high as 0.36 percent. On logan-
berries, derris gave as good results when incorporated in a spray of lime-
sulfur and sulfite lye, or of colloidal copper and sulfite lye, as when
used with soft soap. A small-scale trial on Himalaya berry confirmed
last-'seasonts finding that a single application of derris and soap can
satisfactorily control the pest on cultivated blackberries.

Gray and Brooks (166) in 1935 reported spraying trials against
the raspberry beetle in England. A liquid derris wash gave better con-
trol than barium fluosilicate or nicotine. Two applications were suffi-
cient, one during the opening of the buds, the other during petal fall.
Applications consisting of a combination of dusts and a wash gave con-
sistently inferior results. Derris dust was applied when the buds were
opening and when fully open, and a derris wash when the petals were falling.

Harris (179), of the East Malling Research Station in England,
reported in 1936 that a spray of 2 pounds of finely ground derris root
and 5 pounds of soap in 100 imperial gallons of water caused a 90-ppr-
cent reduction in injury by the raspberry bietle.

B. tomentosus is sensitive to derris dust. This is one of the
first insects in the cktherlands to be successfully controlled with derris.--
DeBussy et al. (61) in 1936.

Carroll (67) in 1936 reported the results of tests in the Irish
Frep State with derris against the raspberry beetle. Sprays of derris
powder plus coconut oil soap, or of eLorris preparations containing a
spreader when diluted to a rotenone content of 0.005 percent and applied
twice (first, about 2 weeks after flowering had bpgun and second, 10 days
later), resulted in 99 percent of the berries being free from larvae.

Fryer (l49) in 1936 reported on insect pests of crops in England
and Wales fo 1932-34*and methods for their control. The success obtained
in earlier experiments on the control of the raspberry beetle by means of
derris sprays an. dusts has beon confirmed by further work; and the treat-
ment of raspberries, loganberries, and cultivated blackberries with derris
preparations has become a routine method in fruitgrowing areas.


The destruction of the raspberry beetle by derris in the Nether-
lands was general practice in 1936, according to the Koloniaal Instituut
ef Amsterdam (12, 13).

One of the principal uses of derris in the Netherlands is for the
control of the raspberry beetle.-- Van der Laan (243) in 1936.

Steer (360) in 1936 published a summary of the use of derris as
an insecticide in England.. For many years, usually under various propri-
etary names, derris root has been used in England, not only as a spray
for fruit trees, hops, and garden crops but as an ingredient of cattle
and sheep washes and domestic-insect powders. There are four forms in
common use: (1) The finely ground root, for use with soar or other wetter;
(2) the ground root ready mixed with dried soap or other wetter and re-
quiring merely the addition of water; (3) an extract of the root, usually
in an emulsified firm, ready for dilution with water; and (h) the ground
root mixed with a suitable "carrier" or "filler", such as china clay, and
intended for application as a dusting pcwC.er. Derris powder costs from
50 to 62 cents per pound. Dusting powders containing 0.2 percent of roten-
tne usually cost about 7 cents per pound. Derris is compatible with any
ef the sprays in common use, such as bordequy mixture and lime-sulfur.
At East Mailing Research Station derris was first used experimentally in
192g to control the larvae of the raspberry beetle. Against the raspberry
beetle a single spraying of derris and soap gives perfectly satisfactory
results. Many growers prefer to attack the adult staa of the pest by
means of derris dusts and so prevent egg laying and subsequent fruit daszo.
Good results are obtained by dusting during the flowering period, but
several applications of the dust seem to be required.

Derris gies. good results. --Anor.o'mous (2) in lQ37.

Kearns and Marsh (238) in 1937 recommended derris dust for the con-
trol of adults of the raspberry beetle and derris dust or spray for the
larvae. The derris dust should contain not less than 0.1S percent, and
the spra:r not less than 0.004- percent of crystalline rotenone. Manr samples
ef derris root contain 1.5 percent of crystalline rotenone, and with a root
pf this concentration it is nc-cessnry to use 2-1/2 pounds of derris root
per 100 imperial gallons of watcr. The application after petal fall is the
more important, and a spray is preferable to a dust, as it also provides a
control of aphids. For loganberry and blackberry a program similar to that
for raspberry is recommended.

Warwick (410) in June 1938, reported that two dustings with derris
are usually adequate to control the raspbr-rry nnd loganberry beetle.

Shaw (3_37) in January 1939, wrot.- that the mixed derris-cr..:r-
oxychleride wash was likely to become recognized in Great Britain as the
standard combined treatment for the raspberry beetle and cane spent.

Byturus unicolor Say, a raspberry fruitwnrm

Caffrey (6L) in April 1935, reconmmnd&'d derris sprays and idusts
for the control of B. iunicolor. If sprays are use. the first spray applied
Just before the blossoms open should consist of a niyture of U pounds of
lead arse-nate powder and 4 pounds of hydrated lime to 100 'nllons (f water.

Twc weeks later apply .a derris-root spray Containing 0.01 percent of
rotenone, made up according t`6 the following formula: 100 gallons of
water, 27 ounces of derris root powder containing 5 percent of rotenone,
-and .l pint of a good grade of ne'itral mineral oil or pine oil or sulfonated
castor oil. This derris spray'should. be repeated 2 weeks latI r.r Although
dusts have not been so successful a. sprays in controlling the raspberry
ftuitworm, dusts may be used if desired, Time of application of the dust
mixtures should be the same as for the sprays. The first dust application
should consist of lead arsenate powder mixed thoroughly with an equal weight
of hydrated lime and applied at the rate of 35 pounds per acre. The second
and third dust applications should consist of a mixture made.'up of 2'pounds
S of derris-root powder, containing approximately 5 percent of rotenone, and
9. pounds of tobacco dust, talc, or clay as a diluent.

Crumb (_) in 1935 reported results of tests at Puyallup, Wash.,
with insecticides against the raspberry fruitworm on Marlborough and Cuth-
bert raspberries, loganberries, and youngberries. Best results were ob-
tained by applying a spray consisting of 4 pounds of lead arsenate and U
pounds of hydrated lime to 100 gallons of water at the peak of beetle emer-
gence, approximately 2 or 3 weeks prior to blossoming, followed by a second
application of the same spray just before blossoming, with a third applica-
..tion of a derris-root-powder spray, containing 0.01 percent of rotenone,
2 weeks after blossoming. The.omission of the first or second lead arsen-
ate spray decreased the percentage of control. In general, sprays gave
better results than dusts. The application of a derris-root spray con-
taining 0..01 percent of rotenone in the third Bpray gave results superior
to those obtained with a nicotine sulfate spray (40 percent of nicotine)
1: 4OO.

The United States Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (39)
in, 1936 reported that large-scale tests directed against the raspberry
fruitworm in the Puyallup Valley, Wash., showed that two sprays of lead
arsenate applied to the plants prior to blooming, followed immediately
after the blooming period by one spray containing derris root, gave a
satisfactory commercial control and produced fruit free of arsenical reosidues

Crumb (94) in 1939 reported that applications of ground derris or
cube root, either as a spray or as a dust, will give satisfactory control
of the raspberry fruitworm, if the work is done prop-rly. In general, how-
ever, sprays have given better results than dusts. Threr applications of
spray containing finely ground derris or cube root powder are necessary
for the best results. The first spray should be applied 10 days after
blossoming begins, the second 7 days after the first, and the third 7 days
after the second., If only two Aprays are used, the first should be arplied
15 days aft-r blossoming begins and the second 10 days later. The last
spray, if applied later than recommended, may leave an unsightly residue on
the harvested fruit, particularly if derris or cubc root low in rotenone
is' used, thus making it necessary to use a, lInrp quantity, of the material,
The dorris or cube powder should be made into a paste with a small quantity
of watrr before being added to the water in, the spray tAnk, The time of
application of the dusts should br- the same as that recommended for sprays,
and 35 pounds pr r acre should be used for each application. The diluted
Fprf- shrould contain about 0.01 percent of rotenone,; the dust, 0,5 percent
of rotc-nono. Very finely ground talc, bentonite clay, and.tobacco dust

- 16 -

- 17 -

are suitable for use as carriers. Lime should not be used fo'cr this pur.-
p DOse,b,-cause it gr-atly reduces the efffcti-enoss of thesp insecticides.

Hanson and Webster (i79) in lPg reccm-ende. derris or cube dust
(0.5 percent of rotenone) or ssray (0.01 percent of rotenone) for the
control of the raspberry or logFrnberry fruitworm, B. unicolor. Three
applications should be nma-e, the first 10 days after blossoms arnear
and the others at 10-day intervals threraftr-r.

At the New York Cou-.ty Agents Training School (299) held in
Ithaca, N. Y., on December 19, 1931, it was r^-portd that rotenone g-'-
very good results against the raspberry fruitworm. Reports from Washington
State indicate that good results were obtained with three rotenone sprays,
the first 10 days aftrr bloom and the last two at 7-day intervals. Under
Hudson Valley, N. Y., conditions the ap-lications would ha'e to be nade
much earlier than this.

The United States Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (Qg)
in 1939 reported that continu-d insecticike tests against the r-spborrv'
fruitworm in the Puyallup Valley, Wash., showed that satisfactory control
of this nest could bc- obtained with threr- ti ely applications of sprays
or dust mixtures containing rotenone, _. that in general the sprays were
superior to the dust mixtures in controlling the- fruitworm.

Landis and Baker (255) it 1039 re-Trcrted that of 50 Puy liup Villey
raspberry growers who were questioned) L6 used insecticides containing
rotenone in combating B. unicolor in 19?. Of the growers who used dust
mixtures containing rotenone, 63.6 percent madr- one application, 27.X mad-e
two, and 9.1 percent made three. Of the growers who used spr,.-'s contain-
ing rotenone, slightly more than half ma.e one application and none -ade
more than two. Judging from all availablr- inform-tion satisfactory con-
trol of the raspberry fruitworm waq obtained with two applications of the
sprays or two or three aplications of the dust mixture, tis and applier-
prop--rly. These results coincided in general with the results obtained in
experimental plots, which indicated that opr-'-rs containing 0.01 -*rcont of
rotenone were slightly better than dust mixtures containing 0.5 percent of
rotenone, and that three applications of thesp insecticides were surerinr
to two.

Byturus ep.

The Wagenin-en Plntenziektenk-.' i.-en Dienst (402) in 1933 reported
that rotenone siuspendred in water 1:5,000 nnd dcrris powder Pt a concen-
tration equivalent to rotenone at 1:2,500 r'.'- very :--od results -Zn.inst
Byturus on raspberry.


Cantharis (Telephorus) sp.

Killed b;r one application of '.erri- O.ust containing 0.5 p-rc-nt of
rotcncn., ani. 1.2 percent of ether extrertivs.-r-eBiur" et al,(61) i' 106.


Zabrus tpnebrioides (Goeze)Zzibbus F.)

Resistant to a dust containing 2 percent of rotenone.--Anonymous
(2) in 1937.


Gracilia minute F.

Sensitive to derris dust.--DeBussy et al.(61) in 1936

Perissus laetus Lameere

Feeds on derrip roots in storage.-Federated ilay States Depart-
ment of Agriculture (124) and Miller (285) in 1934.

Pterolophia melanura Pasc.

Feeds on derris roots in storqgp.--Fedcrated Malay States Depart-
ment of Agriculture (124) and Miller (2F5) in 19-4.


ultla ampelophaga Guer.

Chevalier and Laffond (81) in 1938 reported that the toxicities
of dusts containing different amounts of derris, cube, or rotenone were
tested on adults of Rhaphidopalpa foveicollis Lucas on melon, and on
larvae and adults of altica) Altica ampelophaga Gusr, on grapevines
in Algeria. Determinations were mac'e of the contents of rotenone and
other extractives in 13 commercial dusts containing cube or derris
alone or with a diluent. Experiments were arranged to test the toxic-
ity of rotenone (using talc imprregnated with a solution of pure rote-
none), of derris diluted with talc, and of commercial dusts of known
composition. Each powder was tested on 10 larvae and 10 adults in 3
ways--by rolling the insects in the dust, by dusting them from a distance
of 15 centimeters, and by placing them on powdered foliage. Control in-
sects were treated similarly with pure talc. Mortality varied directly
with the content of active material. A dust containing 0.25 or 0.5 per-
cent of rotenone appeared to br effective, although commercial products
usually contain more. Dusts containing plant material were 'iore pffncv-
tve than talc with the awie rotenone content, which showed the insecticidal
value of the other extractives. The rate of action of the insecticiLdr'
appeared to be practically independent of the method of application.
There was considerable difference in the toxicities of some of the com-
mercial products with nearly the "m'n rotenone content.

Altica ignita Ill., a strawberry flea beetle

Fenton (127) in 1936 referredi to worlr at Dickinson, Tex., by Ron--y,
who found that a dust containing rotennno (0.5 percent) and also pyrethrum
and sulfur controlled this beetle.

- l'a -



The paragraphs that follow were accidentally omitted
from the original edition of the circular. This sheet
sh-uld be inserted (as pge la) between pages 18 and 19.

Altica oleracea (L.), a flea beetle

This pest on cauliflower was killr-d by a prcd&ict con-
taining 12 percent of powdered Lonchocar -is nicou root (of
6 percent rotenone content) and gg percent cf talcum, accord-
i-g to Etnblissements Rotrnia in 1047, in a letter to R. C.

Altica pganr.a Blackburn, a metallic flea beetle

Evans (116) in 1937 reported that the metallic flea
beetle is Tasmania can bn contrelle-d by the applic-tion of
derris dusts, several brands of which are now on the market.
Th-se dusts can be used right up to the time the fruit is
picked, unlike lead arsenate, which can be used with safety
on plants only prior to fruit development. Derris dust will
not only kill the beetles and grubs on treated plants but -41i
protect the plants for a pericd from furthc-r attack.


- 19 -

Altica spp.

Hampp (175) in 1937 reported that fica beetles rf the gnera C_-_ton-
npmna, PsyllioCes ande Altica are among thc worq1- ,oPt. of hops in Bavaria,
csprcij-ly in warm, sunny situations. In qprinp th,. in .ur:. to the shoots,
usually most svre in May, retards their growth, wr-ns the plats, nd
reduces the crop. The second sumner attac17 imrair7 the ap-carancO -n-
ounlity of the inflorescsnces. The beetles wer" particularly abundant in
1l2g, in 1934 (which was -!xtrrmnel- hot an. dry,), an. .n 1.. q5 Some vari-
eties of hops are more attc'-ed than others; those th-at zrow rpidlyc
when youn- overcome the cffect of tho injury most roenil y. Sine". 1i'Z 45
different insrcticiA.cs halve boen tsti'r. in 31 rxp-ri-ents. Hand .ust! rs
andimapsack gprny'rs were uspC.. On -n overagc, mi-nutEs worp reo-irpX
to dust 7)000 hop vines and 70 minutes to sprt-' thpm with 22 r.l]lonq of
spray. The offoct wag best iudged after -n itrrval of 72 hour?. In th"
dustirrn tests, "erris insecticides invariably proved a.bsolutfly r *lia'blc
arid were dicti .uishec by rapic'. nd. ff,:cti--i action. -r: .thrun w 4 a1-
ways less efficient, n. tho'-h gof. resv]t- ,,Err obt!i-.ed with 22 ro-rnd
per 3,000 vines, it ig not advocted -icoti :.- nocted ick'ly, but rbir;'dr
a high air humidity, and a nO b--t.'-tl r-covcr. Ar:einical? act.zd slo.l
but werc effective if the water was cor.tqiuouo!sy fine. Th' silicic u">
rowdt.er, uin.- as nerzely q re",.c-lent. In the str'yi.- trt, derri .
nicotin-e hcd wood killing pnw'.r, while tVat of cyrcthr-,j was poor. D it; ,
howev-r, are norr satisfactory, promt arr-liccrtion bing esespntia3.

Aphthona ap.

Sensitive to derrig dust.--Dc .y et r)l. (6l) av'.n van drr Laan
(252) in 1936.

Aspid.,morrh-1 milinris (F.)

The larvar of this bpnt]r were used ai to-t insects for .''tcrmin-
ing the insecticidal value of opeciiens of .derris b:, Corb,'tt, entonclog'ist
of the Fedcr-.ted ::al-.? States Department of A'rric'ltre (124) in 10o.
TI-yv were also us-d b:" the FcderatePd '--lay States Deoartmrv-.t of A tricI'-e
(12) in 1934 ii- testi.. the ins, cticidal value of Drerris elliitic? ad
D, malnacconsis.

Mill-r (Mi),of the Fedsr-t I-l'" 7t D, rt-nt cf A:ric'3 t1.re,
in 19 35 rerorted r-pults of )pryilg ind im'ersion tepts -.--Anst A. mili-
aris which indicated that thf insecticid'i.l -rorerties of th, threc ki 4.e
of derris tested wpre about the sa'(e. Hi corcl1,'dd t' .-t the rotoon'e con-
tent is not necessarily a reliable idex to t- to:ric vaio of d.erri root,
Rotenone, deguelir., and toxic'rc.l wrr- only no.'ratl toxic to the- in-
sects usrd in thb teotq. The agxeow solritions of Ucrris root or cr d
freshly harvest'., roots wore toxic to larvae of A. miliaris without act'u.al
contact, indict thft "errio "'n- :...l. a vrltilp toxic substance.
Fluids obti'...d fro.r derriq by te- .i '.stillati n wczr- nlso toxic to larvae
of the sp ie se cies wheni im-,rrsd thc ri.', killi.., 12 etrcr:tnt of A. mili-
aris. T-e, indr.ic.tionn arr that .erris ma,: affect the ner-ou's yst C& of
i-.sects thrown'. the inti i ncnt, and na" also act as a r-Iepellent,

- 20 -

About 24,000 of these" b-etles were used., anc. the-,- provc.--d to be entirely
suitable because of their qd.-ptability to laboratory. conditions.

Brontispa longissima Gestro

These hispids living on coconut proved in laboratory tests to be
really killed by derris. Wetting with derris powder suspensions having
rotenone content of 1:10,000 to 1.:20,000 was effective on both adults and
larvae. Control by means, of derris would probably be -qore difficult in
practice, because the ihspcts live concealed in the unopened leaves. T'sF
leaves should be opened as far as possible and the derris powder sprayed or
dustpc into the heart of the cluster.--Van der Vecht (4Ol) in 1936.

Cassid- sp., a tortoise beetle

Both adult- and larvae of a species of Cassida on beets were resitt-
ant to derris.--Anonymous (2) in 1937.

(Aulacophora) Ceratia flavomarginpcta Duviv. (401) in 1936

Freaucntly a serious pst of cucurbits. Van der Vecht/reported
that thr beetles are extraordinarily sensitive to derris. In the labor-
atory conclusive results were obtaineAd by spraying with derris powder
in watrr, rotenone content 1:2,000, 1:3,000, and 1:5,000. All treated
beetles (in lots of 20) were pnralyzed after a short time and were deard
within 1 to 2 days.

Also, spray ing with suspensions with rotenone content of 1:10,000,
1:20,000, nnd 1:30,000 was freoue tly conclusiv-e. All the beetles were
prralyzid within a few h,-urs; however, death -s.sually occurred latr-r,
aft r 2 to 6 days, and- in case of treatment with the 2 last-named linuids,
1 to 2 of the 20 beetles reacted to contact even after 6 days. All the
insects were paralyzed by spraying with suspensions with rotenone content
of l:4OOOO and 1:56,000, but at every- test 2 of the 20 beetles recovered,
thp cthrer 1 dying after 2 to 5 d.?ys. In field spraying test. madc in
triiplicate on about 50 to 100 betles each tilnf, with derris-powder sus-
pensions in water (rotenone content 1:'20,000) 100 percrcnt always died,
If more dilute sr'r;' liauids were used., a few beetles always remained
live. Van der Vecht recomniends a suspension with a rotf-none content
of 1:10,000 to 1:20,000; that is, 1 to 2 gm. per litr-r of a powder with
about 5-percent rot,'no,,e content.

Dusting with derris power '.lilut'd with talc also proved effective
against the beetl-s. The ins-ct- were parlyze. within a. few hours and all
died within 24 hours after dusting with powders that contained 0.25 to 0.5
percent of rotenone. Even by dusting with a mixture of eoual parts of talc
and a derris powder contain g less than 0.3 percent of rotenone and only
6 percent, of ether extract, the beetles were still paralyzed; in a few
instances, however, 4 or 5 days lapsed before they, died. Dusting with
talc powder plus 5 percent of ether extract without rotenone was also effect-
ive, th, treated insects being paralyzed in 1/2 hour and. dead in I1 hours.
Van decr Vecht rccorn-ends for dusting: High-gr.ada powders to be diluted to
0.5 percent rotenone content; low-grade to 0.25 percent.

- 21 -

The question whether sprryi, '7 r dusti:; i( ore profitable is
difficult to answer in this cas -.. In g'.neral, les it ri".l i u'd in
sprayi-:' than in dusting, r--'t r rhap.s th" tre.tmftnt wou.di ha :- to be
rCr :atOd mor: frecoue tly since th-- aft r effect of spr,Aing isvry poor.
In the laboratory, bei-tles confined for 2. dys on le;es th;.t a. be n
sprac ed with a strong derris-powder cisr-,.sior (rotencrne 1:1,600) showed
only slight mortality (5 of the 20 beetles). The i'.qects took' almost no
food; thus the- spryed leaves, in cn 'r.l, soen to har- ha a rollent
effect. Att',r the beetles had receive:" fresh" food t1., gain fed nor.mally,
The after effect of thc- lustingg was much grert-r thpn that *f thP rr-
ing: dusted lea-es wer- not c'nl attacY:e. but a. consic.er'bole n'rcentate
(about 60 to gO percent) of the be.tles thq+ settled' down on them Ai This ac.vantag over-r psraying, however, is irncrtant only in tift with
little raiL.f-'ll and. in ca-,s where the chanc-s of roinffstntion ar; _-r-.* +,

Finally, it has b-rn ccncludrd that it is "'&sirable to be-in the
treatment early, to protect the )lantl &uring the lifficralt early stages;
before all, the spray ng or -usting must loc re-.'hrlr r-etpl in the be-
ri. nin Thp results that con be obtain.ed were shown in a Luffa *o! nting
of the A-ricultural Institute. At fir.t thi- wns treated with derris t'-dca
a wek, later once a week; t'Ci treatment, wr(. bieF-u whn the littl- plants
were 2 weeks old. Whi], the imtreat-ed. Luffa were continually severely att'ac'-7
ed a:,. showed completely ridled. lea.vs and. for this reason grt-, slowly, the
leaves treated with derris r-m-nained practically wh-le and the growth was
fast r.

Ce.rotc-',i. tifur.o. (Forst.), the ber-n leaf beetle

Brannon (37) in 193r r-port, L that in rrelini nary tests derris
spr.s containing 0.015 percent of roterone werc- shown to b1 effective
against _C. trifurcnta, which had brn abnor--ll!y abu .'dnt in the, "orfolk
section during M'-ay. The tref.tnlent applied to th- i.fested onor bl'ans
was the sae as thr-t rfccrened for- the control of the "..xic->n. bear
beetle. Before tretmen,'t of thee beonc, th. folian, in.""r. c'np- d by
the bepn leaf beit]i wns -sti nated at froei 60 to 75 percent. E even
days after trcotn.ent the folia.-,e injury on thc tr-e ted oplots wn q ti-?tpd
at from 5 to 15 percent, whereas on the untre-ted mlotq it r,'nc-d front v5
to 4 pOercent.

renton (127) in 1076 reco--end as for the Mpe:icr n bea i beetle, th)t i, rotnoe ( d1 xstP end srr,.'s.

ki.'ttles (204) in January, IQq reco n.,c d 1erris Py4-r-rt for the
control of tho be-.n leaf b etle in Sourt Cnroli a.

Haule (1-l) in V 7, rerc ,-..-i st (.5 nerce' of ret nr)
or a nrir-y (3 pou-d.s of cu' or derris 1f k rcrccnt rot nnn, co.t-cnt 7vr
100 gallons) for th,-' control cf thip insect.

Brannon (4T) in IOl9 r nort-'. t]W.t a pr' c rt-i .i .. cubt root,
p"r-thru-, and P'-1folatrtd castor oil, : i dst iytu co of '1"
plus p';rethrum flow rs, with snlfur a 'lut, id contaiini 0.5 tr-
crnt of rot-no c, werr hi.-' 1"1 to'-ic to the e,-n leif bc t! e-n the -in.-
crop of sn .n bean, at ,),riolc, V.

Sulfur was much "-.orp -ffecti-e tha talc aP a diluent for cube-root powder
in the control of this insect.

Chaetocnrnma aricdula (Gy1.), a flea hoper

Ri-ner (326) in 1936 reported that derris dust gave good results
in preli-inary trials when applied under a long canopy attached to a
"'Beanm" duster.

Chaetocnema sp.

Seo Hampp (l75) unxi-r AlticP. qp.,on page 19

Chaleous dorsali Th7--b., the locust leaf miner

Poos (320) in 1940 report-ed the results of teets of q &erris dust
(0.75 percr'nt of rotenin.e) C. dorp.lis attacking -oybeans. The -rowvr
,r, .:q-in e -min r-tion of the area
iaP.e a hea'.. aeplic.tion ef the ut, n. n emiatin of the rea 5
.dav,.q !-ter i.,o.ict,--c'. that a ver, rge r-ta&. of th. a-ult b -tlcs
hae eith r bc--n killed or driven away. Th' p tp had m-. c r a rrrbl
rrcov~ry end were rapidly growing out of the injury. The adults showed
no tendency lat-r to deopoit _- on the plants, cven on thos not treated,

Chrysochus cobaltinus Lc-c., a blui miii!kvwi- bEDt-tle

L. G. Snith (3Ul) in 1i39 eur:.-'pte.d rotrnon, duet fo- the control
of thi beetle on peach tr es or oth- r -conomic -1lpnt s

Chroisoela populi L.

Kearns (27) in 1936 reports' on the control of Mrg populi
(L.) (Chryonepla populi L.) a pest of basket willows in England., Toxicity
trets in th laboratory -how'd that the beetle is re-dily killed by a wash
containing not less than 0.0025 percent of cry.t-.lino rotenone. The
larvae, prticu!rl... when fully .'.'n, werr not qo r,. ,.i.i" l killed 'ob a
-cerri. wash, and the application of lead arenate to the. folip.-'- proved
to b a -. more cert-ain mr-thne. of controlling them. T.e infected b-.d wa
.pr;.-f. on JLTP. 27, 19q74, with a co,tbined wash consisting of derris root,
4 pounds of leP.d arqenate powder, and a proprietary,, wetter addod to 100
gallo of wAt,..r, the conccfntr,-ration of the w.tte-r being .di.2et.d -o that
P Rtiefectory ,-.:o.it of the( lead nrsenate wa- obtained on the foliageo.
The wh killed b,.: contp.ct action conpidJ-ra.ble numbers of beetles, and
of thosc that emcaecl many more w-re killed by t e arcenate. M.n.- of the
la.rve coll-ct'd werJ- a.ftcr th rmra:'ring died, presumably by eating the
arrtpnate on the foliage .

Chroe.'o-la snP., willow leaf beI.tles

Hamilton (172) in 137 reportc-d that i-illow leaf beetles ( qLn spp.=
Chryolao- -1-p-.) o. bilcI': willow, trees were well controlled by a spray of
4 pound of derris or cubc po,.odcr (4% of rotenonoe) an& 4 pounds of rosin-
rcsid.e emnulion ppr 100 gallons of wa.ter. The spri cts as a repellent
andL contact poison .r... .'-e good control of larvae.

2? -

T, -, Jerseo: Arricultur.-l Ey,-rimnnt Sttion (2og) in l!-V
r-r-,ortp- that wporn-- of .Prrir or cub- no,,-r p*&.p ro n-re'pn
emrnulsion in wtcr-r wnq effecctive p.ain't th? lr:a- of t> lw, illo,-'.le;
b; -tite an1 >pa torn- cntac t n '-I repellent action ngai st thr a'U.Ilt.

Clitop mctallica Chpen

Chen (80) in l107 r-rort<. on the binonic- on control of this
bprtlp, which iq a s-rious T)Pqt of citrus in Cin. T 'l. tt-c
the b"'..s :'ou ._- le?''- flo 1 er o r friiit. L ,- rp'. prp-natP an7 bor.;-'-y
ixtur"re?.gi t' ic n.ult-,p.,n" "tv -u t',pr:" [probn bly
derris, according :o the Re,-iev of A',plic-. i.to-ology, (A) 23:117] g~i'.-t
the Inp.rvp, .

Criocprit z-prrgi (L.), thr .rrs.z' b-setle

At the 1934 )o<,ti:'. of the A'-ric-n. A-ociiti-'n of 7co-.c-ic
Ento'.ologists Cory (7FP)} le . .iscuss-ion of fiel' re-q"ltp with ar,7;ni-
cal substitutes for the control of .' teblc irnsct-. Accorc.in to
Headr-lp, (l13) 1- 1?5, the .p~r bretl cnn b* controlled, b- rPrris
c.uLt. In thpe ,me y-eer thr I'w Jrrp-y Agricilturl Sy7orri -int Stntion
(2fl) reportf-. that ".rric h- rro- ffecti' i. fiPl. r mrnstrptionR.

Derrick si-eo oo. rr-" t- ,-cor, i-.- to -, non"-oii (2) Ditch ?,,rit-r
in 1937.

Bour. ann. Bo (7 ) in 19- 7 1v9 `irectionp for th control of
co-.=:on insect pf&tc- in the honre 'rctn. Derri- or ci.b- c.iut c'houll con-
tain 0.5 to 0.75 ",.-rcent of rotc.n.ne. For thVe control of the
beetle, duringng thr- c'ttin,. sea.-on, l "<- occraions- -hootz uncut to 'ttr-ct
th'- b-etl-s for f'=edin- r.. e i -i,, ?\ 1c -t-, thW r--t of the be'. cl'prly
cut; or apTly nonpoisonous r-rthrun or rotrno c ors ,rR or it.

Huckett (205) in 1937 r,-co'nne .rriq or cb -' for th- ccoitrol
of thn p-.r-;.ur brctle. Infr" m," b,- preo-ntc. in b'- '" orr. in. or
S.ut-i'.- the tinp thoro''l- wvit- -rric -.iytu:.'r e.urinr, th- c',ti .. o p on
to kill beetiet D'a s\... Aa rr-.r' ur 5 rcLu ,.' -f ">.rai -. our'l
of s'i-i milk or K,.:-.o to 100 7-llon- of wat*-r. A a clt n.'- .in of
.prris to 85 poundc- of cl," or talc. U-- ..o',..cro. daor Ki; r to
percs'lt rotr. o c contc nt n:. 1- to 1 p-rrc-n t totd x. rt' .... c ;xt
or, if o.erris ip. not qy-liable, ub.titi.-tA pow, co mcpar,,b1 P- ?nltsis.

H'zt.qon (21) ir 137 reco '-n. .erri, u*t (0.6 pw"r'r-nt of rotrn-nr)
for th; control o thi0 letl<.

D-mri .... ..rr (4 p-rcr;it qf rot I .o r-) a*t th' r-t, of 2 oe.-" r
100 gllon of- ,.'r pT1I- -'boVt 2 wov.'.? ("r bpi ) o' coco-AuL-oil ..r
killed -' -nrc--t of th,- l-rv', .r. F7 T r, rc,:t o t'- u t in c''
(2_2) in 19?7

Derri? A .ujt? h.'1 ,-n r at factor rult o tht" iwari(). i' 1b9etle..
JA c lt rl I -- ----
N~z~ Je-. A:,i-icultrl i.- :," riiont St-tion ( i)in 191",7.

C. L. Smith (33M) in 1937 reported tests of derris sprays against
several species of ins-.ctq. Small-plot tests were mnade and the derris
power (90 to 95 p -rcri:t, passing P 200-mesh siee, rotenone 4 percent)
plus a 4O0-percent coconut-oil soap wag applied with a knapsack spr-yer.
A spray containing derris powder Pt the rate of 2 pounds per 100 gallons
of watr-r plue 4 pounds 11 ounces of sonp r.uc c( the population of adult
parags bstles 83 percent, 2h hurez after :npplication.

T'is -rest on asarpgus was killed by a product containing 12 per-
cent of powdered LonchocrTrus hicou root (6 percent rot-none content) and
SS percent of tplcum according to letter from Etkblis.emente Rotenia to
R. C. Roark in 193S.

Dust weekly during th,- growing and cutting ReaSon with a d&.rriq
flour (or gpeum, pr-rl '.ust, or "ulfur) dust containing 2 percent of
rot none.--G-andereon (16g) in 193I .

Leib- (259) izsued. intructiona in 193g for pre.au bn!tlp control
with derris spr-.' anp-. derrip dust. A p.ti!factory derri. spray is prepared
by mixing 3 ounces of derris powtoer (containing 4 or 5 percent of rotenonp)
in 4 gallons of wat-r to which should be ad --ed a a sticker 2.5 ounces of
skim milk power previously mix-d in a mall quantity of wrter. A iatis-
factory dc-rriq dust conqir-.t of ) mixture of 1 pound of Jerris (contain-
ing 4 or 5 nercr.t of rotrnone) and 6 pounds of cl.y or talc. Better d-
hesivenes is obtained if the du-t is pT'Dlied whrn the plants pre wet with
dew. Du!:.t or spray ,pplicetionq should be made whenever they are thought
necessary. T'hey are often most a.>visable when the second brood of beetlel
and their slugs appear, which is "ring July and early in August.

Rotenone spray was reco endedd b- Parks and Picrqtorff (312) of the
Ohio Extension Ser-ice in lq3S.

The South Carolina Agricultural ESy-riment Station (351) in lQ1g
reported the results of tests of sm-pr-l insectici :es on the asparagus
beetle in 0.1-acre plots. Against the n-ults a dust containing 3.5 percent
of cubc resins, 73 percent of sulfur, and 23.5 percent of diluent ranked
first in effectiveness, but was inferior to calcium arLeneto agqinqt the
larvae. Ca-e experiments were co.d'i.cted to .eterminc the effecti,.enoss
of various conccntr" tions of rotenone against adults. The maximum, mini-
mum, an) a'rage mortality of adult .pa ragus beetles after 49 hours* ex-
posurc to plants trretd. with v-rious dilutions of rotrnone derived from
cube and applied as a dust nre shown in the following table.

.~_______ ortal itv"
Rotenone content (r.rce-t) v't'yimum 4Aveg Minimum
?,c r c,. t Prce t Perc nt
1.00 9..0 91.5 97.0
1.75 96.0 91.6 79.3
.50 92.0 80.2 65.3
.25 52.0 42.2 34.
.10 0o.o 36.4 2107

- 25 -

Dil.tion- w r- r-1`.- with wlr:ut-qh.- Il flour.

TV i-w York Count' --,.r.. Tr-i.i>-. School (300) hol'. Pt Ilthc-a,
IT. Y., r-'-)ort-1. ii 1079 th-t tb orri iu-t a.ni -n' r-".' r com- -v .d b-
Huc'>ptt (205) -ed Crozby, Chup-, an'(. Liby (92) h -n b,-'. fol- loqt
successful. Hr'- v, rrort- tart t1-- b -.t 'rv c' ntin 4 pounds of
e.rris (h to 5 p -rcent of rotrnone) *n 1 po- of TowO.rec &ri- ni ill
to 100 gpllois of wptor.

In 1939 Cro,'-", Cu;-np, n" L-iby rco ry contii
,s of ..,, ..... to 5 prc( y ofc ont i')
4 poun? of r.erris, cube, or tiibo powcir (4 to 5 percent of rotnonw)
.n'. 2 -oumO& of 'i'. ni!'c or other r-r,'.rr in 100 gnllons of w.r,
or Pa 'ust consisting of 15 pounr-s 9f 'erric rnr g5 pounds nf tlc.

Hpudc (1g1) in 1939 r' co vn2 r. ii a ust cont-ining 0.75 or 1 r>r-
cont of rotinonp qn 25 to 75 7rcent of p1lfir, or -r- -r.v of 1- n'oinr-i
of .erris or cub Q (4 pprc-'nt of rot.n-one) ror 100 ,-llo:.p of -f t r. The
larva ip the most susc(,-,tibl- stp,.

Knowlton (2'-'7) in 1939 r0rort *d on th- ?^ra6us be-tlc, in Uth.
Roteo"ne-be.ri.-.. :, !,t th, r-t" of t*uo -f 4 rof. n-t rot nor.-
bearing 5erris or cu< -' pow.,- :"r to 100 gallon "f w4t--r, ,,ith tI wetting
_-.int. acd:*R, ga,'T- crooc control. Satisflfactory cube ann. 6erri,- du! t co.tini.'.; 1, rc>..t of rotn.-> wer r rorn-rly R-

Nettlr.s (29l ) in 1Y39 _.-ptf.c K.orris iuqt (0.75 ,rcrt of" roten-
one) for thVi control of the arar b ptle ir Souti Cnrolio'.

CriocrCPri5 dOuodc-cimrunct ta ? (L.), thn p:."-ttpk `p'ara.m? b-t!-.

Soe Huc"-ott (205), Gn.- rcon (160), Cro-b, -t al. (92), .-n. He,
(178) under CriocFri- ragi (L.) on -c 23 n. 25.
w.1 (4o04) i-n 191 rf-colpn'.n"f a solution of 26 -. of Kntnkilln
in 5 littrr7 of wnt-r, for thp c'-:trol of thp lnrvir. -f thVi zwcie.

Hutqon (202) in 1937 r co ri
Criocnris lilii (Scon.)

Sonsiti,,' to r.r!rrl u'.st.--D, Bu--/pid ,-n ,. r L-n (2c2), In 1936.

Crrntoc.'ph ]u- incr-rtu 1Oiv., a cr4nbc-rr., fire b-etlF

Thei Mn7.-chu'ett A.ricv tur1l T- -rin t St'tirn (277' i. 1I937
rr-irtp.4. t ptq of iSarctici '. c .1i st i'.qpctn crtt c-i .- .c r r i*
Ten rc',..&q of e.errip 'oo'rlcr (4 rcont -' rotfn-') 9n" 3 ron?9 f fiph-
oil sonT) i, 100 gtll ns o1 wto Ircrc, -i'J '
c-nt rf thr 1-ire bpftlep. I. 179q t'-ip Otrti7n (-7) rv-rtrA th-t .Prrls
pjplicdc in vvriu. wp-s, both i; 1 r*, "qnn. 6 cupts, f'Pil'- t7 eff-ct o
--"'*. ''il] of thp bfptlf1. Lr-PC. frc nRti 3 pornA. s r ,-"llor., was
veor. effective.

- 26 -

Diabrotica belteata L-c., the banded cucumbr r beetle

AcKi-ine: (267) in 1935 r'oort-` test" -,'ith derri. dust against
cufc-br baet'e at P' r--ix, Ariz. Th'e direct srnplic'-tion of aP &erris-
talc .ust mixture containin, 1 r-rcent of rotenone killed from 86.1 to
9Q.9 percent of thr- adult beetles. The beetle? were collected by the
sweep-net mtth d from will' gour!. vione on the desert. They were liber-
ated within a screened' enclosure and wer- treated with the dust mixture
aft-r they had settled on the scre-n. Judging from the results. obtainP.d,
it se-.,s possible that &erris' t mixtures c-ntaining pmroximptely 1
-erce-nt of rotenone sh-ul,. oro-e very, effective when applied dOirectly to
cucumber b,-tle odult-, The species involved in these tepts were the
strinpd cucumber betle (Dia.brotica vittata (F.)) the spotted cucumber
beetle (D. duodecimpunnct ata (F.)), arnd the bandedp cucumbe-r beetle (D.
balteata Lec.).

I!._ 1936 MKinny (268) re-orted that preliminary cage and field.
tests at Phlronix indicat<. that roten-ne-containing insecticides ar'
more toxic t- the tried c')c',mber beetle and the banded cucumber beetle
than to the srott-d cucumb-r beFtl'. In the course -f ex-erim.nts canta-
lourp, cucumbers, and_ wq trmelons infected by the thre-- spcies of bectles
wvrere treated with a dust mixture of ferris and cube containing 1 percent
of rotenone, with talc as n diluent. It was shown that, under conditions
existing in the Salt Rivefr Valley of Arizona, talc alone had some repell-
ant effect on the thr,-e -pcies of beetles involved. In general the a-.lic-
ati',n of this d.ut mixture ckept small watermelon vines in the field free,
from beetles for -t least 4 days.

Diabroticpa duodecinpunct ata (F,) the spotted cucumber beetle

See McKinrey (267) und.err Diabrotica balte-ata Lee. on pages 26 and. 28.

A .us-'enion of rote-nne in water 1:20,000 killed n-ne of the
adults on potato in the, fi!dL.--Darideso (97) in 1930.

Darler (96) in 1931 spray-Jd adult potted cucumb-r bnetles, con-
fined in small wire-scr ,'n c-. a-, a, it an auoui sus-'ensi'n -if rotenone
ac by .dd.ing a 2-rercent soluti-n in qcetone to watr-r. Rotenone at
1:1,000 killed 50 v.orce-nt in 24 h-ur-, 79 ,-rcent in h4 hourQ -)nd 91.9
percent in T2 hurs. 'Penetrol wps a ,.ed tq ech spra' at th- rnte of

Rotenon- suspendedp in water 1:125 had nn effect on the adults,--
DaviK..on, reported by C.mpbll (6_) in 1932.

At th,', 193 meeting of the American A-sociati-n of Economic Ento-
mologists, Corv (gWg) led a d.iscusqion of field results with arsenical
substitures for thr control of vngotoble insects. Headlee, of NTw Jersey,
in- 1935 published a statement that the spotted cucumber bhe-tle can be
controlled. by d(rris Oust.

C L. Smith (39) in 1937 renort'-d that a sq-roy of derris oowdoer
(0 percent of rotenone) ,t 2 ooundO -or 100 gallons of wat-r pluq 1- 7/g
pounds of coconut-oil soar. (anhydrous basis) killed 97 percent of potted
cucumber beetles on squash nl.ntq confined in cheesecloth ca,,,s 24 hnurs
aftpr applicnti-. A l-?->rcent O.orris d.u't ga-t a kill of 98 percent.

- 27 -

Britton (56) in 1938 ac--iK-. a corrcqonclent t- sr"y with onr
of the ccm-n,-rcI1l .-,r-prrtio'I. c- ctainin: rotonn or rnr't'rio, nr-ith-r
rf which is tn-,wn ti- cni1c-lor tt.e f1 r, fr, thn c-ntr"l of t>-, srottpe
cucumaber bDtlpA on +al o

For control of th "-c"--ertin b-etles a rl.rrit .,Ist (1 'pr-
cent of rotpeone) pho-'1 1 -c .i'i". atls l-,t twic w:-' f-r a m-nth.--
G.tn#.r -n (1l6g) in. 193S.

Par'h an. Pi,-rstorff (712) in 1o9? r-c-7i'nc1.eI retrnrn: sr,'s
(4 -une.q of h rn-rcent wir -o'r 100 golln) or c.ust' (0.75 --rcent
of rotrnone).

Derris-t.lc Au.t (0.75 rcrc-'nt of rctenone) will hecl- t" ri-'c-
the o'-f.1r of b-o-tle.--Cro". :', 7 r, :- L-ioy (02) i.' 19

Duqt 'with cutb or "-.rris (1 reOrcPnt of rotprn n') nt thl r++ of
15 to 10 ouz.& r-r -cre. Do n'-t ,'4ith pulfur.--Hr.'Y (igl) in 1C39.

DiL-br-ticp ;oror Lec., the w',tcrn erottrA cucli&br b- tle

Mot, a-ai. Tho-I-,s,-r. (2q_.) ij Ic^^ r-nrt-, thYt ? Aerril strict
prcvid.e inferior to 'yrethrum extrn-ct Vh-rn tst-tf'. fr the control of
this srr-cies -n c'nrin:bc oe-,na un+er firld c,.cition? i-- Crp,-^n.

R'ckwood. (329) in 1936 rr'Tortr'. that .erriP-inf'+orio.1-erth
,.11t (1.25 percent of rntrn-nc) w- cf'ctir -irt "p- "b-tlp" on.
fencp roitc. The mean t r;7rature for the 3 a" following th- &'tinrv
was I3,5'0 F., with a riaximin of 500 Rn r lninri'm-i of 3. Thfrr -'r-r-
light rains toteli -g 0.77 inch. Vor'- f-w livlngce etlep wpr' fon-m. -n
or -.P'r the n c T>- this 4.,.ist waR let'al to D. soro'r 9t l-w
teTmrratur'a wn.' sh-w+n b-- a lab'rat'r,- c7",rirtr'.nt on J-nn.r-. 29, wh- n
20 D. sor'rr bcptles, collectc1 P t r n J-an '-r: 20 Cr.A f' -- a lf-lf enci A'-,trian
peam, wrre sha"aen un in a aner cortnr. with "-incrh 'f thf dt a.aid
in the field. Thr'- w-r thn rl!.ced in clean c-rton with zrpen f--d.
This carton ann'. Pi-ilpr -r r*n,( cont!in'I '. un.u~t^( b ?tl= ,,-r k't in P-,
rnheatrl room (4o-50 F.). All h:'t 3 of thcrc betlrp 'ier within 21 hours
("ost of th"cr in 3 hour-). The oth-r 3 wire a'6le to mo' their nd
when takn int r w?.rn roo'n. All wer 'pd. within 45 h1ur'. i" of the
100 un?.nstr-,. bPetles dird .uri'-.-: this period.

.,- Orr-gon Akriculturnl Ex- ri"-n-t Stption (310) in 1917 rannrt.
that the bp-arn leaf -betlr or w -t rn tv-]-popttrc6. cu?,ibchr rtle (D.
soror) li& not occur on beans in thi F.v:ier of 1Q7h in -"uficont nrrmT rR
P- th-t < ..itjnal infor'iatirn -n control crulL i,'." tti+ & pIth'nic;1" a
f(w rrlimninar,,- teptp with a Aprris Aust phwry.v it tn '- 'f Tlr in -ill-
in& thr '.-etlep with which it c-', in contact. In 1075 t.t ct- '-vw that
rttfn-'earin; ~dut- O.ilutez. to c-ntain lcrs than 1 '-rcront *'f ritrni-I-r~
did- n-t kill th(:- brrctles.

Diabrtica triittata (s-.n.-.) thr wrt rn ,t'ir'" c-c'mb'r brCtl

McKinnc-y (269) in rc-rt' that the .-. lctL-n of .
miixtureq contani".n,1 rrrc-+nt of r0tnone, ri'(fr -rri- r cut
with talc an a ilur-nt, pr-e'M pffocti-' in c'-ntrlli thr Mrtcrn ptri,'.

- 28 -

cucu.b.-r -, tic "n cntal-,,'p in the S-lt Ri.'rr V-lly- of Ariz-,,a.
7:'atr(' pl~tp ;iirlcc p'rwxiult-ly 1.6 timn-s :lr,- fr'-it thi-n -i
*antr?^t'c'. -pl~t? grown under cr'r^*''raol'!' c~nnlitionp an, the prortecte'd
plnt" plso rpr(-'cluca-1. ncro fruit- oarlirr in t: .'n, wh'n -ricla
w-rnr high.

Duct with ci'jo ",r .'rri" (1 r-cnt r-trn.nn) at thr. rntr" -f 15
tn 30 rnun's per acre. D- n-t nix with sla fur.--Hir' (1l1) in 19Q.

Di_-.,r-otic -,,itt_ tn (F.), thr qtri-r-". cuciib-r

Sor McKir.nc" (267) unK'-r Dip.or-ticr balteot 'n -agn 26.

Cqjbcll (_6) in 1932 r..i:'w- u n>jis, ,,-r'r r l'rDi..' wh,
froim. th-,t r-tenno nr us-;-en.-.^c. in -,-t-r at 1:250 killr-i 11l PA.u1t.
F~liafiii" (-a "^r -ri-"t?.r} "-r^'iuct c''nt~iu1ing %prri9 an, -r'TrthrulT'
rxtractivos) ,t 1:400 killedI 80 =rc'rnt in L1 h-urc.--Frnick Cn'-.n'
(1l') in 1937.

At the 19c4 m;-etin, -f th1r A-.ric-_n AQs ci-ti-n -f Ec~nnmic Ent--
n" 1 gist Csrrj (388) Ic'., a .iqcu-irn of fi'l, reFultq with arqnicnl
Pubstitutr- fo th, c-ntr-1 f A"rgotpb1 insect. Acnr.'in;- t- H?-' .lp-
_180) in 1935, th" strirlcI cucib-~',r *rbtle ca ne c-'ntroll"- b- i'rris
KU t.
Huckctt an'. Hor-'cy (208) in 1935 ,rr-tr that derris dust h~ w
c:-^i.cr^1lc T.rom.is-, ) L'cii-p it actually kills ,ny ".f th- bt-otlrs.

Tho IMai^,chratt A-ricultural Zxmcri-.i-nt St-ti'n (275) in 1035
r'-n-rt'4. ti?,t, whX'n L-t c -crcil an'. hot'-na." Austs c7nt'ining the
silfur r.uqt with O.D: r,-rcrnt ryr-thri' c-"t'ntnt w,,rr a1lie,. iiCct.l.
t- stri-rc'. cucixmber "cotlo in thp I"" ^rt.tr;", all wrr Kor- -r dying.
jithLi 4 h-urs nft-r thi, -;-.,'nlic-'ti-n. In th' field pr .-vn --rrlicnti-nq
were i "w.-*,' tr n":l.r-, cucu-bcr, n-'. R unr 1o1-zh. Fr s. --b lic-ti-ns
of K.ust killoI 7nany r f th ot1- n-,n?. -r-tr ct,. thL- rI!-nts fr,- in.tlr.'
until they wore wa.h'j. -ff, alth-,u.gh thr -rc-tcrt int r-.1l botwc,-n rains
c'.ri-..-. this n.:ri-. w--p 5 @.ny,, Derri -sulfur '.i.qt an. c" r.r 'nt-
li 'i.ust c--u.q-J. sli.-ht injury t,- ',-l~n :*nrp .urinp vc, : tign -llv h-t
wc-thnr, .n. thia cii.s,-Ic. s ligbt crr-!-' in th; -i- '"c. Yi'lK. r'c-r.!
-.f irl^n- an;. cucnwb,-rq in'.icati.t, tha-t t', a1licrti-n ,f th,-- `'. ists
:.i:. n-t n-ticrpa :I- i-it,'rf(rr with --.Ilinati."n,

Wal r- a :' A ^.-r 'n (407) in 10,35 ro--'rtr--'!. -rr,,-i sin, r,,qil~tp! in
the cmntrc-l -f tho striv;c'. cnLc1".-1!:-r Tortlp with q lO(orris-.-mqu'n .Unt
c*'ntaj~ 'g 0.5 -,crc-nt -f r-ton-an. G 11'-1 :, r (lightly ,bttor rq. ult.q
th',,n talc w'oI,, ,;i -. ar- n c'rri'r with "'.,rriq.

Thli- Wiscocncin A.-ric'ilturl T-.-- ri '-nt Stnti-n (1116) in itq. .anrnia.1
ro-,-rt f-r 1l35-36 (ic-.urA. ilfrch 1907) r'nnrtt'. th'-, .'orris-t.-1c ui.ut
containing 0.48 r ,rcrnt ,f rt ni.nr crntrol1lkc. the trireK, cicr'ibrr be-t1r,o

- 29 -

Bearnx (26) in 1937 revrt''' t'-t" a! i't the *tri-'-"3 c&ic-
beetle in Connecticut. Pott' pnunih tlant- wor '-.: fer fo-& natr~rinl
anrc. w-rc r-r. co w're-c c.... B'-les w~rc irtrT.'c~d
into the ca..Fe< ,n- thr- 4np,-ctici a1"lie', thrnu-g:zh thp wire scrcrpn.
i"'' inprctici.'.e.p w, re- tried. a
Derris hbist: C-nt.inin-- 0.6 -.rrcent of rct-nonc (derris
root Alitoc. with clax).

Dprrip sr- y: Ground1 '. rri r"'ct ui' at a dilution of
1:200 with SS-3 s rc7.r at a til'iti-,n of

Rotenone q)rn-: A ca'Kvprcipl rrodnIct rf cuWe ro.t, c'nt-iin-
in:. 2.5 percent of rot.nar- ui at r.ilItion
of 1:200.

Calciii arpenate-: One --art ('.iuteft with 9 arts of grprum.
Pyrethre.i deut: A concentr-atZ )yrc-thrui dL'lt c-nt.ini-.- 2
prrccent rf -:.'r.thrinr- ilutd with talc 1:9.

B-etles w-ro also cc- .-l or;-r uuntreated rolantz to asrw" a, q chi-ck.
Twr-nt:-four h-iirv a-ter the inpectici'. es wrre avlie, coimta wr-r, .q
to dctr'"ine the killing -'owcrs -f the d.1t. *nA. snrays. The rpsqults ob-
t .l.';, are as follows:

]Treat i.rit Testq Beptlep : -,tle. killed
I' ".1,' r r'. "c' r r -..r rc .t
Derris dust T 70 70 100.0
Dorrip snray 3 47 46 97.9
Connercial rotsn-. spry
(&e.rivd from cube) 3 58 39 67.2
COalciz. arspnate 2 -0 is 45.0
P r:thrwn Auqt I 3 3 100.0
CCheck 61 87 1 1.1

Derris was also the "-iot -ff-cti-tFe inv-cticilo wher.n *bptl p wre
intro-'"ic&. into the c.,-.' 5 dA'a after spraying or C.Ustinc.. In f? >ck
of Hubbr:. ouaish, one-half of the ,l1nts w,-r(- treatfp-. with derris Lupt
ar:c )n,-half with cuibe .ust, alro c-ntaininf 0.6 0 rcont *f rotnfve.
Th!; killing action w?. i',refipt" in b-th c" Fr--i t',er- tcptz it
may be concliu.d. th!vt c'srria 6ust, conttki i.- 0.6 percent of rrteinone,
is the mort pffe cti-r trp-t-wnt .*.*in, t the ?trino. -" cl'iubrr b-,tle 9'
is to r -ref, rre. to the cicic.- 1reonntt'' vi ,, ch h'r.t'f'r, hns bfen the
stnn&,r. rrcot.niin-Vti-,n of this -tpti-n. Po-r'r- (327) in 1931, ii co ar":-
the rel.ti,.r cffncti-n, rts of ,.mrric -.nc cu,' rrferrd. to this w'-rk cf

B-.,irrne 'i. Boyv (3) of the, Marsqc-:s -tts Extension Srr-ic in
1937, r c-* -n.-ndO. that whpn octl-s fir-t oo-.-r n :.t c-ntnnin'.. at
1 ea,-t 0 5 rf'rccnt of rot:.nr.2 a- lioc .

- 30 -

Hamilt-n (172) in 193F rert that stri-nkd cucumber beetles
nr cuciriers wore c-ntrolleO. lrO -erc-nt 'C a. spray of 4 pounds of cderris
or cu,-r owrer (4 percent of rotenone) and 4 pounds of rosin-residue
euulsi~n oer 100 gallons of water. The spray acts as a contact poison
or as a repellent. Nno b"ctles were observ-d later than 2 weeks after
spro ry ing.

In laboratory tests derris-gypsum dust containing 0.2 percent
of roten-ne killed 100 percent in 1 day. A dust containing 0.04 percent
of roten-ne killed 20 percent and a dust containing 0.1 percent killed
90 percent in 1 day. Field. eprerirentq showed this insect to be very
susceptible to d.erris dust.--Kelsall and Stultz (245) in 1937.

C. L. Smith (339) in 1937 reported that a spray of derris 'r
(4 percent of rotenone) -t 2 pounOds per 100 gallons of water plus 1-7/S
pounds of coconut-oil soePo (anhydrous basis) killed 97 -orcent of striped
cucumber beetles -n squash plants confined in che,ecloth cages 2U hours
after applic-ti-n. A 1-nercent-derriq d.ust gave 98-percent kill.

Ultrawet (a pronrie-tary:r wetting agent consisting of water-soluble
sodium sulfonates of netro'lum hydroc-rbons) dide nrt i-ror".'e the control
of the strinecd cucumber beetle provided by cube dusts (0.75 percent of
rotenone) or pprays (3 pounds per 100 gallons of water).--WIalker (Uo6)
in 1938.

Dunlap and Turn-r (106) in lQ39 reconmended a dust containing 0.6
or 0.75 pcrcrnt of retenene applied three or four ti-es weekly at the rate
of 15 pounds ner acre.

For the sFcond-,en-r-tion beetles a derris dust (1 percent of
roten-ne) shul,'. be sa-olied at leat twice a week for a m-nth.-G2nderson
(16g) in 1938.

Howard (192) in 1938 re-ncrtr'. that in rreliminary test- againstt
Diabrotica vittrta excellent control was obtained with a dust mixture con-
tainin; 0.)'- rnrcrnt of rotenone, with talc a" a dilue-t. A-plicati-ns of
the uniluted finely ground rot nf the gourd Oucurbita foetidissima H. B.
K. wer, not so efffcti-e eq:inst the c',cuiber be-"tle as the dust mixtures
cnntnininr.: derris, but showed s-me possibilities. The c1erris dust mixture
was effective for sever7,l days and cyhibited c~nsideraile protection from
strped. clc.11(-er be-tl-s for 6 and 10 ds after application, e"orn though
hearv rei"s occurred and the plants male rapid. growth. Indications from
these p.r-rirqentR were tht irn co-nriercial practice the derris-dust mixture
should c' t plied evrjr few days. Silfur nitride is not so effective as
a dorris-talc-duist mixture containing o.4 rnercent of rotenone.

The Mthssachusetts A *ricultural Er-rimpnt Station (278) in 1938
reported th!'t a spray- -f wettable cube powder c-ntaining 3.65 percent
of rrtenene and uped ot the rate of U pounds in 1O0 gallons of water,
reduced the nuriber of beetles 90 percent, as comrnrcd with the untreated
lantc, and was the ,*iost -ffectivo treatment, Cube-clay dust containing
0.6 percent nf rote-noe rpn!r'd neyt in effectiveness, with an `5-nercent
rcductirn in be(etle population. Yield records corresponded with the striped
beetle control, and the plants treatcdl with cube-clay dust yielded 2.03
harvestdC1 fruits per vine, aq compared with 1,35 fruits on the untreated
vine*h .

- 31 -

Rton'n .r- o -r du. ts (0.75 pc-rcrnt cf retchng-o) w-,r-. r co<-inded
1- Par'p and Pir.qtorff (312) in 1038.

A duat -r,-arpd with talc a. a dilu'-nt an. c-ntininz 0.75 p'rc-nt
of rotrn-ne h-- .-iv-n satisfactoryr control of the strirT-d c'':.h.r b>,tle
an1 "ia-'y be uscd instead -f th: .'s--.- -r tlc-calciun pr,nate mixture
if ..eird.-Crsby, Churp, annd Lr.iby (02) in 103^.

Dust with culbe -r clerris (I percent rotenone) at the rat? nf 15
to 30 roi1nd' per acrz=. Do n.t ,iy wit'- sulfur.--Hau.Fe (Il) in lI09.

G. D. J-nes (232) reported in 1973 that rctenrnd-e Amts h.d -ivrn
rromnis ng results for the control rf stripe, cvucuambrr bestlr in !iceuri.

The i.Ksachustt' A-ricultural Srperi-ient Stati,>n (279) in 139
renorte%. t ,tq to control the strin-~d cucurib-r beetle. RecorF. -f the
eff-cti'r-n-s r.f insectici'.eR were t& present ,Jupt bfore stre'inrw or clistio, anc. o',n 24 hiurs after trpptnpnt.
Cu'e-cl '" dust containing 0.75 percent of rotenone reduce'. the lbetls
93-. rerce't thr-'.zghout the morio ac. ae the best -orrtectinn. Cube-
clav aust (.o06'pFrcnt of rotenone), cooper oxychlorir.e-li'e cdust 1:14
(DuPont), coprr-rotenonp dust (0.s rprcent of rotenone), and cplcilu
arsenate-li'r dust :Ib all gave 90 to 92 percent of protection. Microniz -.
roteno r--ilfur d.ust (0.75 percenr.t rotenone and 20 perc "nt sulfur) was
the lIn-t eff-cti-e of th-e dust use.. wettaUe cube .'I derri. srrpras
(4 o-'..dg in l20 .-.olins) :"c- 8.h an. F1.4L percent protectionn ind were
slightly inferior to the dusts. T>. effccti-nens of all the tre-ttmcnts
is within the rn '-f errient rror, inlictir. that the calcium
arsenate-lime d.ust, which is the cheapest, was the most -)ractlcal undpr
1938 coneLitieonQ.

Bcard. (27) in q190hO wrote th.t for the control of this species a
derris dust c0rtaini;r; 0.6 percent -f rotenonr is t"- e reco'i-en&,r. owtr
other treptntments becvausg this material sFr'wrs not nly e a rerelltut
but as b1-th steipch andl a contact oison.

Diabrntica spp., cucumber beetles

Howard, Mnson, and Davidson (200) in 1935 rc-ported that -erris
a-. bc.en tiqsted a,'-inst cucunr' -r b, qtle, .but in rr instencr the infesta-
ti:n waR too li,:ht to afford ccnclubsi-s.

Derris was f-ff-ctive in field eonstrationp.--.w Jeroey Aricultural
Eyr.-rinent Station (296) it 1035.

Davis (99) in 1916 reported r--.lts y Goid., of the P'ru Unive-rqity
Agricultural Erpcriient Stati n, witi copper comn-unds, ersonic1Is, fluorine
co-.ovndR, nicotir'c, and derri p -.iost the cncumber b"-etle andn wilt. The
best material (a -i.?-tire -f calcium arsr-ntr arndi co)-er oxychl1ride), drris,
ande. no treatment cT'rd as follows:

- 32 -



r -r acre

Cost of trialil
ner acre

Percent Bushels Dollars
Calcium arsenate 2 lbs.
ccpper oxvchloride 3
Ibs., water. 50 gal. 3.6 l,147 $s.64

Derris dust (0.75 ner-
cent rotpnone) 15.5 920 98.99

Check 30.0 39 ---

Howard and Mason (198) in 1937 referred tn the work of other investi-
gators who have found that derris and cube are very effective in the control
of cucuTnbpr beetles.

Derris dusts have given satisfactor. "rPsults on cucumwb-r beetles.--
New Jersey Aricultural Ey7,cri'ment Station (297) in 1937.

The ew Yorv- Co-uty A'ents' Treinin. School (300) in 1938 made
the following r.co'iende.tion for the control of cucumber beetles: Use
1 Trrcent of rotenonc if arsrnate-limo dust is not satisfactory. It kills
ant is nleo a --od repellent, *but mor- expensive. Treat the whole field
at once.

Epitrix. cucu'ieris (Harr.), the -otato flea beetle

See reports on the control of E-itrix rarvrula (F.) by Chamberlin
and .,.,d.n (77); end the United Stp.teR De.art-aent of Agriculture, Breau
of Entonology and Plant Quarantine annual rmrorts for 1937 (39 4) and 193S
(39_) on pages 32, 3g, 4l, 42, and 43 respectively.

Anderqon ndC. Walknr (15) in 1934 reported the results of field tests
on the Eastern Sh-re of Virginia for the control of the potato flea beetle
with calcium arqenqte-bordeauY sr.'ray (2-4-6-50) plus derris dust (1:7;
with derriq dust (1:3) anr. also (1:7); and with concentrated derris extract
(1:4oo), Some striking results were obtained with derris products, both
srry, and. dust, .when used on a, small scale. Kills of better than 90 per-
cent wcre obtained. with cad .beetles treated with a derris dust contain-
ir:- 0.5 percent of rotenone, or with n concentratrd derris extract with
5 gn. of rotenone nf-r 100 cc., diluted 1:400. Whien these. materials were
used in the field good kills were also observed, but prrmpnent protection
was not given and the btetles migzrp.ted in froq surrounding unspry.red plats,
causing c"nsiderabl.e injury.

Lacroix (25) in 1935 reporter. on test in Connecticut in the summer
of 1934 with r-r,-thrx'nr dust, g pounds per acre, Cuilor dust (0,5 p-rcent
of rotenone) 8 noune.s per a.cre, and bariun fluosilic.te 6 pounds per ncre,
for th, cnntrrl of the rototo flea beetle, wit' only one application of
each matcriql. Pyrethru-q and rotenone were both toxic to the potato flea
beetl, but their notenc" wr', lost within a few days afttr exposure to the
atmospherr. Tbese tests indicated that during a rainy season, in which
sevEral m,,.:lications of dust arr necessnry, any of the. thr-e dusts would
undoubtedl tk ,.ive good control,

The Ma qqqc'-setts Aricicult'-ral ES tri:,t Station (275)in 193P
reoort;e. t'--t against flr-a 7be, tlp9 all the rotrnr.c -nro:.ucts (Cubnr,
T'..': toy, ane. R,-i Arrow) e7- excellent protection. Thr, apnerr-. to
eyert a consid.erable renpllfcnt effect, in a-'.itien to their Oirrct
killing; action. T:'-r .,rr.s -gwrr slightly sup ,ri-r to the &.Lqst.. ".
pi'rrth, r.'.: .ust ws offecti-'e for a.. short ti:_- of-tr apTication, but
'-. r-r to have ver- littlf- resiV'.'. effect. Eycelleot yieleia were
o0btainp, in 1l1 thb. ilots, particularly in thosr where rotnonc compounin-s
had been 1plid. Thee yield record of the different plits is a follows:

@orc\eauy 5-*5-50 acide,. in all
a ml i c t ions)

Cubor s:r~: (rotenone)
Cubor dcst (rotpnonne)
Kuttoy' spray .(rot4nonp)
Kubatox dust (rottncne)
FP -r thrir' jl.ust
Calci'mi arsenate-arqenit- nixture
Bordeaux mixture only

"o-r acre

6o -z-;-

Wal':-r n-.d Anderson (408) in 1935 report.-. that very high kills
of the potato flee bretlp were obtained with derriz dusts containing
0.5 percent of roten-np, but enl.- slight increases in yield wpre obtained
by dustinr:: heavily infected potato plants with nB nany as six arrlicntinns
at 7- 10-day intervals.

Her-,an and Hockey (185) in 1936 re-norted CUbor 75 dust(0.75
percent of rot^-n-ne) and derri-s-,V .1 dust (0.4 percent of rotennne)
effecti-e p:.ainst potato flea beetles on tonato plants.

The M-sachusettq Aricnltnr-l Ey-riment Station (276) in 1930
rcportt,6d field tests a -i'-.st potato fler beetle-, with th- rotenene 'r ,a-
rptions Cubor, Kubatox, and Dcrrisol. All wcrr c'o-binpd with a 5-5-50
bor?.ep'j m-ixture, and l .n-olicr-ti-nq were ~icd. at 7-day intcrv.la, from
J1n: 13 to Sr'-etp.-pr 11. All tcstq were crnd.cted on the stcnderd vri-'t-,
Gr-rn M4unttin. T'-. -lants in the uns-r-'(-.' chcck" plots were r -,l:' ri'lUd
v' flea betlees an. browned by leafhvo-.trq -nc were rqcticplly all df.
by the list of July. The plant in the s'r".y(d plots wcre thrifty and
grcrn untilkilled. by frost -n Octobr 9. T'c ".r=s-rayod chrc'p yi-ld-e
179 bushI'ls per acre, whrears the .-r:'. :iUld in the sprpyr,. 'nlotp was
over )-30 buhels pr-r Pcro. L-,boratr.r- t'stq orn the rff.ct 'f the various
srrp.rs upon flcp beetlrs L-vc thr following results:

40 hours 62 hours
:er c .t P' rc.'. t

Bor ".:... mixture 5-5-50 4 80o
KXubatox bor,-.q',ux 5-5-50 33 100
Cubor + 'borceauy 5-5-50 3-< 100
Derriqol + `or'-eaux 5-5-50 79 95
Calc'lm arinat + bor',a
5-5-50 30 75
Barium fluo*ilic.tc + bordeaux
5-5-5r) 2' r

-4 -

Weekly records of flea beetle da1ia:-n were made in each plot through-
out the season. Results are tabulated as follows:

Mat cria!

Bordea.zx mixture 5-5-50
Kubatox + bordeoaux 5-5-50
Cubor + bordeaux 5-5-50
Derrisol + bordeaux 5-5-50
CalciJn aersenate + bord.eaux 5-5-5(
Barium fluosilicate + bordeaux 5-

Punctures por leaf cluster,
a erae for season
5L5 1352
-50 135

The yiel record in the v-rious plot? was as follows:

~t ~


Bor.deaux mixture 5-5-50
Kubaetox + bordeaux 5-5-50
Cubor + bord`.aux 5-5-50
Calcium ?rsenate + bordeaux 5-5-50
Derrisol + bordeaiX 5-5-50
Bari'-im flusilicste + bordeaux 5-5-50

eld pr r acre
474. 56

Anderson and. Walker (17) in 1937 reported tests made in 1932
and 1933 for the control of the potato flea beetle. Derris products
as sprays and dusts killed a hi.h p-rcentage of the beetles rnre(ent
at the timk of application, but ,-ave only temporary protection, as -ther
bpetloe scon-reinfester. the treated plats.

In lpborntor" tpsts derris-gynsum iustp containing 1.0, 0.5, and
0.2 -oercent of rotennne, rewpectirel", killed 100 .percent in h5 minutes,
In field exneriments derris dusts were aldo very effective.--Kelsall and
Stultz (242) in 1937.

The Massachusetts A:ricultural Experi ient Station (277) in 1937
aginr. reported on the control of flea beetles on'potatoes. In the plots
devoted. to field teqtp of different insecticides on the sta.ndard variety
Green 4,'-_'\.t.in, 11 arrlicatinns of l;ordeaux mixture were nnde from June 10
to Augvst 24. Insecticides wer- adde. to 5-5-50 bordeaux in 5 alic-cati-ns
frr' 2 July 15 to August 14. The treatme.ints. were duplicated on 1/100-acre
olot?. Bor.deaux :iixturc its-lf is an effocti"'e repellent for flea beetles,
iC cr 6. ( ro.TCr n .
yet, e'ch additional motrrial produced increased control. The rr..
effectiveness of the sr"." mixtures, neazured by successive counts of leaf
punctures, wps as follows:

Bordeaux 'olus COlrite (a brand of calcium arsenate)
Borderu6 plus C-"'bor (rotenone)
Bordouy r'lus YTiaron (rot-n-nn)
Bordeaux plu" Kut'qtox (rotenrne and ryr-thrum)
Ber,.e.u plu.s nicotine. tennato
Bordeauy alone

- 35 -

The protra.cted 'rorzht J.urir.g Ju!r 'nc. the crly rTart of
Au',: at wa not favorablpe for hiijh yields--a duplic-tinn of the
conditions that rr -vild in. 1935 with i-l-1r result-, The yie 1
in the Prorri1pntal.,tlot' ws as follows:

Matr rtr Yield ]>r acre
Bor:'.Pu.x 5-5-50 39.1
"-Ticotinp; tannatp _46 '46h.4
Derris (rot.-nonn)1/ 4 75.-
Cuber (rotenone) 1- 457.3
Fia- -ron (r-t -n-ne)5_/ 4U50.g
Kubntcy (rot enr:np-rrFr -t-')3r"_r / 42 h22.7
Oalqiu-n arsenate l4 h20,-

I1 Combincec. with bor:.epaux mixture 5-5-50

With fL-- '.etlPq the outt anin';1 inspct oest, Pn i. thp
atpi'rnce of potato .is c, the hi-_hi-r yield in the nicotine-t;nnntr-
ant. rotpno,-0 olotp ic b'lici' .to bn \ rl.u cr, l to the nrottcti-n
furnishnd1. si-t incipie-.t att-c- qf le~fhopiers rr potato -fphi'
an. rcflecte6 the superior -e.-ra.nce of the ,lantp in thrse rlotq
throughout the growing ; season.

Morrill and Lacroix (2Gj) in 1937 r -portoci test- to control the
potato flea. be-tipe -n shpde an. field-frown tobacco in the Conneccticut
Valley. The followi-.n lustp containr- r4ten c wpr te-t-d:

1. On:, prt of cube nowAcr (h vrcent of rotenone) olu's 3 nartp
of sterile tob-cco 'dust (finely urounc. dn. certified to lb t -
pro.uct in the nanufacture of nicotine sulf'xte), e.licl t the
rate of 4 to 10 poun1.s por ocre.

2. TDe, -nrts of cube powder. (4 .-prcont of rotfnone) 'lus g
rirts of bariun fluoqilicete, a)tlie. at thp r- tp of 4 to s pjrnun.
ror acre.

3. Dust centeinin. 1 oIrcent of rotrnone, annrlicd it thV r'tr
of 12 pounds p>r acre.

4. One -art of cube -owdr (1 rrcr'.t of rctpn-ne) .1lus 1 part
of bq.ri'-n fl"osilicpte, aali-,. t th- rtp of 15 no-ml, n-r ocr.

5. Frcrietir' "lust c'ntiinin: 0.55 'tw-rcent of rot.n-ne, ar-nlip(
at the rate of 12 noune.s p'r acre.

6. Proprietor. "-'ust contaiu.in? 0.3 rlrcent of rotennon, aqrlied
at t.e rte of 8 .ul r,.-r "crc.

All the above-npae'n treatments, in also cry'clit,, c;ve a distinct
inprovrm~nt nver the untre-tz.. check. The -nixtur, -f cube-rnot .-'..r
and tobacco dust .howpd tn hii-:h, qt n'ibrr -f -ted q -tle anv the ni,-t
to th least total leaf in 'zr:-. Th> -Aixtiire of ba-riwn fliv-isilic-t ".
cube-root pow-'r wra ?-"-what morr cff -ctir-, if 1ud-. pi -'* the numb-r of
livw beetles ariC'. the total leaf injury. i- superiority i. net believe.
to be sufficient tn justify the indreasd cost of the nirturo, n. each
material was up'rr1. at nearly th.-' sV"ipe trmn;.th nr when ar'T-lir, 4lone,

C. L. Smith (339) in 1937 reported, that derria power (4 percent
f rotcn-ne) 2 'outndes p r 100 Fallors of water plus 2.5 pounds of coconut
oil sm (anh:dcroua basis) reduced the population of potato flea. beetles
onr tcrto -lpnt.99S percent after. 24 hours. McCormick's dust (0.75 per-
cc-nt of rot;enrne) reduced the- population 87 percent.

Walker (40o6) in 1937 reported that Ultrawet at 1:OO, enhanced
the control of the potato flea beetle when added to derris-clay dust
(0.75 percent of rotenone) from 59.3 to 82.2-percent reduction, and at
1:1,600. it raise. the.effectiv-renesq of cube spra-, 3 pounds Per 100 gallons
of wpt.r fro- 49.6 to.76.8-T-rcent reduction.

T Connocticut. A ricultural Experient Staton (95) in 1938
r. prortrc. thr result of tests to control the potato flea beetle on Irish
Coob'ler potatoes. Results indicated (1) that cube dust (0.75 percent of
roten~ne) war more Pffr-ctive than cube srray, 1 pound pure ground cube
root (4 prcr-nt of rot-none) in 25 gallons of water; (2) that cube dust
0,75 percent of rotenone) was -iore effective than barium fluosilicate
dust 1 p-rt bhriui fluonsilicte and. Li parts '-ydroted lime: and (3) that
th< addition of a netroleun-sulfonate snrePdPr, Ultrawet, to cube dust
at th7 ra.te of 1 part i'. 1,000 carts of dust increased thO effectivrenr.sq
and r;ducred the amount of feeding by fleae beetles.

Dunlap and Turner (106) in 193g rec.mniended a dust containing 0.75
percent of rotenone at the rtr. of 20 pounds T)r r acre for the control of
flea bretlep on e-,lant and. the potato flea beetle on tomatoes.

Thp Ma'sachusetts A-ricultural Experiment Station (278) in 1938
report,-'. on th- results of exrperi-ents for the control of flea beetles on
pot toOs. In thr- experimental Tlots different insecticides were tested on
the standard late-season variety, Green Mountain, Twelve applications of
bordepuy -uixture wcre mp.-;.e between June 10 and Aut-ust 27. Two rotenone
rompounde, nicotine tannate, pyrethrum extract, and calcium ars-nate
wrr- tested in combination with 5-5-50 and 5-3-50 bordeaux mixture in the
a',plicntions fro-ni July 9 to Auagist 12. The rankin. of the different iatrrial
on the ba.ig of flea, "betle control was as follows!

With 5-5-50 bor(deoux With 5-3-50 bordeaux

Material Avrrae Material Arern-e
punctures p'r punctures per
lpef clustr'r leaf cluster
!H mber NIumb r
Cubor (rotenone) 306 Derris 192
Derris (roteLone) 26 Cubor 231
Calciun arsenate 341 Nicoti:e tannate 302
!Ticotine tennate 433 DX 333
C'.ck (b6r'..eauI only) 493 Calcium arsenate 33h
DX (pyrethrum) 520 Check (bordeau- only) 355

In bot' co-tbinsti-nns t1~e rotenonep werr about equally effective and
decide lly P heyd' of nll ot ',r trmtp'-t'P. Both were much more effective in
tr- low-calciuim Cor.eaux. Clciuir arsenate .vI po-"ly 'ood protection in
both cbmbination-. Nicotine tannate sh-wr-d to better advanta.- with 5-3-50
bordecaux, and the effectiirne.ss of DX, the nyrnthru'm extract, was greatly
increased in this cib'bintion. Thr fect that all the material" .ave better
control with the 5-3-5s : bordenuy would indicate that their action may be
somewhat inhibitk-d by th excess lime of the 5-5-50 combination.

- 37 -

it --_____ _____--0 --r:_'.:.y With- B-r.-
Yi~ OrIo1 Yi I 1, Crorn
t rat'ria1 rfr acre Gr?.e 1 Gr- r 2 '>,r ncre Grile 1 Grnr 2
Bushelq s __ Bush-l p _
Check (boreu, only) 261.7 75 11.5. 257.5 1 I.5
Calcium arpnte 396.6 93 8.6 270.8 77.5 10.5
Derris (rotno-ronc) 321.7 82.3 9.1 302.5 82.6 8.0
Culor (r-trncne) 267.5 71.6 13.1 254. 71.7 15.7
TicotinF tann te 264.1 g4.5 6.6 293.4 32.7 7.3
DX (p'rethrum) 245.9 79.3 9.8 270.8 77.8 11.0

All the natFrial. .e hiher yilr< .9 vhep. combined. with 5-5-50
bor'..'vu."-. cr,!t nicotin-e tatnnte anm DX. The ri,-l. in the *nlotq of th sp
lat two mmt-riilp reflect d the i')ron-'d. control of fle, btectles which
the" effectt" whe-n coobinece with 5-3-50 bor7.Paux-. S-rr inj.urv, wV v- ry
."'-r,>i .th polot- .r-'c(.e with 5-3-50 bordeux. Thip unoubt-Kl\ ev1'ins
the re-'icee. -iId.

The : nsachusetts A ricultur1l Z--l ri-1"t Station (279)in I1
reported that cubn nna c.erris powr (e'ch c-ntai'in7 h perc-nt of rotcn-
one) nn. a conmercial product containing 2 percent of rotpn', u- with
Either 5-5-50 'r 5-3-50 bord.c-au, ve better control of flea 'ocptlc than
clie bordenuy alone.

Mcrrill a, Lacroix (389) in 1939 r:,rorted tqt- of inqrctici.hq
ma. 6.urinr.- 137 Pt the "indor Conn., tobacco ubttiin. The follo,,in'
rotenonc rrerarti-n- were trip rin't th.- flp, bptl : (1) Cubp
c.ust containing 1 percent of roten-'> r.lus ,t:-riliz'7I. tobacco uat s the
Adiluent; (2) cube Oust ccntaining 1 percent -.f rLtenone rlu niuner.t c-n-
istin~. of 75 TP'.ccnt of steriliz-d to-cco ciust ,n'l 25 p'rcnt of noutr~l
tc.r-cco-coloreo. clay; an" (3) &ut conqi ti:.: of bariui, flueilict, 8 art,
a.. cu'.r r,-ot '-.owder cntai-.i.: at)out 5 percent -f rotcnonev, 2 -xrts. Thp
Alust i2xtcr-- were applied in ty,, .-9e trnts, ano. ec'h wa-nr!lie'. on two
1/8-?cr, plot, An eoutl number of l/S-acre plots wrre left u.ttre't'd in
the phpa,.p tsnt frr de-ta or. the vnfrttion ,rcw-ili1. wh#'n no tretucnts
wer. anoliec. Seven -li.cti-i :f each 5nsecticidc, w re '. 4 anc. J'ly 16 at interv1 of 7 ''s. T".- r-'tf- of "prlic'T i'n wer- 6, ?,
anc. 10 poundA p'r acr., dip.?.. on t-e sic -f th-ejlft... dT' of
10 r-,u.-.'.s ppr acre w-- nse". fo'" the lapt two aiplicatinn in J',ly, wrlrn the
tobacco wa. nearing Gturit:-. Good, plat nr-'tcti'n wna 'kbt.inepd front the
ap.u] icati-n of each of the i".sectici ,.eP list(ed a'jovc. The a'-rar': f s-mfl
cn"nt-t -f insects and )ipma,. :'-. lrn-cs sh-pd that nonr- -f tV' 4'.stq was *i<-
nificp.ntl bFtter tha.. thp other-, b -t th'ri w, highly significant differ-
r-rce betwr.-n all the treatpl plots anr'. the untrn-tcrd checks. Flotq t eat4-
with the duats showed en ?',-ra,. -,f hh--,.:rcpnt d&' whPrpap untrpted
check plrtS hrwv. 2' 3-=,erceit inna w.

Agicid.e Dc-h (rotonr-'e 0.6 oercpnt) at the rrt- -f 1 rooin"- ropr 100
-lions of water (O.0oc3 r-rcent of roteor.pe in Rrr") kill. A from 50 to I"''
percent within '" hur.--A.1'icie.& Le or-ttoir- (6) in lQ7q.

yliolf.C '0C-r as f-ll1'10,-I

Potato flea "r-'tle.' .. e-plants Mnar be held in c.h'ck with a dust
c-ntain-.: 0.75 p-rcent of rotenone.--Cr-osb:-, Churp, an? Loib (92) in 1939.

The PFn-".lvni? A ricultural E>-erim.ent Station (315) in 193q re-
"-'ort<'- i that flea b'.tle in.o.r:- to to'cbacco and potatoes is caused by the
-otato fle T-tle e1rrl; in the season. The grertegt rrotr-ctiron against
'Orntl'e (. nrIeP to tobacco leaves was fforu.e? by dusting with a -ixture of 1
~':rt of r.i:.d cube root (h4 ;ercc-nt nf rotenone) 9nd Tp'rtR of sterilizdO
tor-rccl- )ist (filter duqt r!':.nin eftpr nicotine" extr-cti'n) with 1 rn.rt
tr g00 -4 a. wetti.,< '-e-nt, Ultrpwet. The mat-'rinl waq ^.mli.'d at. the rnte
of q ti 5 po'm.cs n--r a.crF t newly s-t nlnt, incrp.sing to 10 to 15 pounds
no(,r ncre. r.ftcr to.)ping.

Epitriy p-rv.la (F.), the tobacco flea beetle

Cha'imb.-rlin (ES) in 1933 rr-rt!i.` that, of various duptq testpd. against
th tobacco fiFa beetle, derriz dunt produced the hihrst lortalit,. within-
th sehrtest o.rin,. of time. Drris ce.usfd an in'ed.iate and extreme irrita-
tion, a ... ic.enced b: the insect'f s conv-lsi-e effort following application
of th'ie .tcr.ial.

The sane author (69) reioorte". in 1934 and. also in a tmewritten
report to the Divipion of.Trucl Crop and. &GrJ<-n Insects, of the Bureau,
in 1935, that at Qui:cy, Fllae, both ",.rris and cubc diluted tn a rotonone
crntcnt of 1 percent b- admixture with tobacco dust or kpolin gve good
control of the tobacco fleck, beetle on to'"Lcco in tobacco-plant beds. The
infesttion wa.s light. Neither poison injured the foliage e-en when applied
undi lute., Derris anc cu'be dust, containing; 0.75 percent of rot-none rid
newl set fiPld tobacco of overwintere". flea betles. Field teats on matur-
in. tobacco indicted that a dust containing 0.75 percent of rotenone, ap-
plied at the ratp of F to 10 pounds per acre, -is effective in controlling
flea beetles when. the infestation is light-. As diluents for derris mr cubc
the following were tried.: Georie. clay, talc, clitr-, and a tobacco dust
''O -e.rcent of which passed through a 150-'nesh screen. The last is the most
s'.itale for sha.ce-teocacco dusting. Derris e=nrli-d at the rate of S rounds
ror acre killed 94.9 percent of th, flea beetles and cube applied at the
rate o-f 7.5 -ounds prr acre killed 83.2 percent. Both powders contained 0.75
percent of rot.enne.

Stle:" and 'Mprcovritch (354) in 1935 reported that derris-r'ot dust
containing 0.75 pe-rcent of roten-ne was fundcl to act niiclrly on flep beetles,
'u.t efter the second & "beetles ered ain n onts, ev though dr-
ris w-p still nr th'- leF-es. To determine how long derris retains its toxic-
it;; whm-r exposed t' cli:-itic. cPnditins, an exnoeriment was performed as
follow,: Sail le*re- were renrvf-d from. tebcco, placed in vials with water,
Pnrd diited heavily with ;'.erri7 dust containing: 0.75 percent of rotenone.
They wor- then olLoc. in ;.'ircct sunli-ht. EBch evening at 5 o clock the
levec were rr-..ived to the irsectpry for -rotection front rain, and at 7 a..m.
th:' were a.',in nAecod out.ie'd. Each dc'," for 5 days a dusted leaf was re-
'_v-"d ;.nd nrl'fcd in a, c-? : with fleI beetle es, nd the kill noted. It was
fo,7. t!-,t derris lost its toxicity, rnridly upon exx-osurre, giving 100-per-
c7nt kil the first clqy, 55 percent the second, and 20 percent the third.

Dta-, r ar qhow: in the following : t-.ble:

.x'.osurr to Insects Perc-nta :P kill i'i ta:,s
woath'r (I.c"s) -s 11 2 3' 5
.................. u6 56 r
2. ................. 25 10 45 55 55 55
3........... 2r' 1 4 6 20 20
4.................. 25 0 0 12 12 12
5................... 25 o 44. 4 4

A tpicl exnrilp of control of flel 'tl in. the ficV. with .'.rri,
Sa- p.'rcthr'1-m on June 15, 1934, is shown in the followi- i tablPe:

Beetlesf ound
Dust usied Before June June
Material r(_r acr _ d4us ti.g n16 q. 1
Pounds I1uTb'jr I', e r Ti -'j er
0.20 bercrnt pr-thrumn 25.7 o106 li 501
0.50 r recentt pyret'.r'Li
.ilute& with talc 26.1 1il 13 527
Dcrris (0.75 percent
rotenone) 10.3 146 2 204

Th- United States Depnrtmint of A -ricultur2, Bureau of rEntomoirgr
.nd Plant Quarantino. ( _),in its p.nl report f-r 1935 r:nart,. that
derris powe.er hns shown excellent promise ap a c-ntrol for the tobacco
flea. beetlp, Psr, cially 'in the sp.'cb.s. Si-.ilar control wa, obtained
in the field, but the cost nf ;nch tr--tnrrnt t-ln. not brn dietrmint'-.

White (L112) in 1935 recomiend rotenone) at thp rate of 1 rounc. per 100 souaro yarf! of plant brd for
the control of flea beetles on tobacco.

Chamberlin (11) reported in 1936 from (Z.incy, Fla., that recent
lpa,."crtory nc. field m'eri .nt. di:nF.rL to .et',r-.r1in th lots in toxic-
ity of cub- c.ust a.p a result 1f ex-rosur, to direct urliAt't ha-" "hown
that the toric prorepties of a cube-clust riixture with d.enicotinizrd. tob-
acco dust as a diluent docreap.. rmidl:' when thiV d-st mixture was sub-
jectcd. to c.irpct Runli.-ht, andr neapurpd b" its toxicity to the tnbpcco
flea beetle. Thepe experirenietq qlo c.isclosrecL thrat the cub'->.1st .ixtur,
contpinin-: 1.5 -orcent of rotenone iaiatAinc,'. its toxicity ruch lon.e-r than
ai:a a ust m xtir- cnnti.ininrL 0.5 percent of rott-nons, A c.i -.r2.11st ri-turc
c'ontninin.-: 1 T.-rc;-nt f rot,;noie kill-A 7- pFrcr'nt of the tobacco flp tectlps
after the du.t nixturr had 1becn p"o.,-r, te direct sunli jt for 2L1 h7urt, which
was equivalent to '-rr-r-io tcly h4. hours' ryxosuro und-r fiel'. conlitionq.
In r*rfornin;: th-- exyprimnents it was not roq'ible to oakc pr'rcr sllowpno-
for two i-port-r.t influ':"ceo which "r,'.inril' nccur uir.'.cr nornpl ha.e-rrovm
tobacco cer,-LO.tiora, nio. the wett'..-- ff,'ct -f h",'^ Aw an the .enP
sha:-e which rr.rv-.ils within cr-,- of m'turis-.; sh',. r,'-n t 'occo. Conpp-
aunr.tly:, it is rnroba'blt thnt u:-..rr actual fir-eld. cc ,'-tinn-c cu, -t,,t ixtr
will retain their inirctici'--i Effici -.c' .--inst th. tobacco flpA be tle
for a lonc--r rrio- th'n wp inc.icrtjo. b" thep xy'-ri ,ntq.

- 4O -

Ii 1936 Chamberlin (70) also rporte tests made at Quincy in lq9h
in which he fm-.n that '-erri andL c'.bo(, diluted with a firnt, nearly neutral,
denicotiniz-d tobacco duOt to a rotrnone cont'rn't of 0.05 percent were nquall,
effective ('5 7,ercent mortalit:) when dust-ed on the tobacco flea beetle und&-
cgc co'ritionP.

Roar!, (327) in lQ3i, in rerirnw nf the com-nartive in-'cticidal
v -lne f dOrris and cube, referred to thin finding by Chamnberlia.

Howe (201) in 1936 rer-ortod teqt-a .*ae .at Clarlsville, Trnn., a.7ainst
thr tob-cce fl. bErtle which inclic.tFd th--t cnubm-root-du-t miixture hn-
ing t r-tnou c-ntnt of approximately 1.5 Percent wp- the nopt toyic -f
the -stcria.lr? t- d nriainpt the flea. bcetlr- n dTrk-fircd tobacco, t
thft a. irilr *'.t m-'xturc containing 2 nprcent of r.oten-nr wa, most effic-
ient in the tert with Burley tob-cco. In -n r-l, howo:rr, it .nDpe-.red
that the dust miyturc ccntrAinin.: 1.5 rocrc.cnt of rotenone war so nearly
eql.u.l to th: mixture cont-ining 2 percent of rotenone that the former di-
lution i -rrfr-pehlr 'beceuPe ;f it, lower cost. The cube-dust mixture
Spr m1 'orer efffctiv than a mixture of 50 percent of cryolite and 50 per-
cent of kaolin or a mixtur cn-,ooc>. of percent of 7nari greF7 n, 42 -prcen"
of leach. arsenat2, -nc. 50 -ercent of kaolin. Re.-ults indicot.rd ery little
difference in the reltivF toyicitM to flea be-tles on tcbpcco -lant bedc
between thn two lat-menti-n<. duat mixtures.

Ey-.eri-ent.p in Florida and Tennesee disclo-d *that a. derris or cube-
8x2s.t mixture containing 1 -,rc,-nt of rotenone was effecti-c- in controlling
thp tobacco flep b-etle in the plant bpd, aa w- a n newly s.t plants on.
on the g'rowin, crop. Teftp with Aiff-rent dilu-ntz for th-; dCrris or ciiube-
root row.7Pr indict that strrilizrd toducc s du~t 1,af the oat suita.-le for
thick ourpoce "n did not -'o,^ unsi htl:. de-osits on th- har.restd plantt.
Thp United St-teP. Deo-rt~ent of - Quarantinc- (793) in 1Q96.

The Sooth Carolina ..tricultural T-eriirnt Statio-n (348) in 1936
re-ort'd that at the Po ee eyr'ori-ient Station tests 1a.inqt tobacco flea
1bDe tl.'-p weri- ma.e .vith dr"ip dust (1 pprc- nt of r-tp.nene) and cube dusts
(0.5 end 1.0 r-rcent of rotmno-). Th diffe-rence in the r-rcentage of
rdi'.ction of li-in- Ve-tlop with th- rotenone o nd the nonrotenone dusts at
the end of 72 hourc w"e not PufficientlI =roat to warrant the selection of
an:" of the materials as outrtandin. ?owvr the greatest rcte of
ead beetle were ottae fr the ''olictin of dust mixture- derriq and
cube containing 1 percent of rotennn-. There w.s no Significant difference
bot41,-. thPpe two insectici. .es, lltho-u, h there wv? a tendency for the cube
of l-rorcent-rote-nrne c-intent to losP its effocti-ensss f-'etpr than the derr:

In ficld te.tq einst the tobacco flea beetle on shade-'rown tobacco
in: Florid', F. S. Cha'-iberlin (72) reortd in Iq77 that cub, unsts cont.in-
Sg1 r 1,5 p'orc-nt of rotf-none wre.r more effecti-e than a, cube dust con-
t'ininp; 0.5 percent of rottnone. Later'(73) he reoorted a dust containing
1 p rent of rotenne nd pteriliz'd teobcco a. a diluent applied at the
rate of 4 to E .o-nd rrr acre to be effective in controlling' the tobacco
flie 1;t! n ad-r. c .; .row'.. t-bcco. A1rplic'-tion made -nce a weekly should
or .iir;oril' orotect the crop sufficien.tly.

Chamberlin and MpAden (77) in 1Q37 rc"ortpd on thr v7lup of rote-
nonie dust for the control of flea b--tlc attacki:"- 1 h-:e-erown tcbcccc,
In th~ Gpor,-iA an'. Floriia producing re ion the crop iq -ttacker. the
tobacco flo-a bpotle (Zrnitrix par'vll,) whilp in thr Connecticut VUP-1
the potato flea br-til (E. cuctrmwri8 (Harr.)) ip thp attacking v'-cips.
Brcpuq-eof lownr coat, cube hrq b-en uWe inste'-.l of c'.pr-iq. Thp throP
mrin a.v-ntoavs of th. rot'none-braring O.ust mixture. mnAdf of cub'- powdpr
ovwr the insecticid&i u.Ld proriou.l;' to control flrc br-etlrz in shee=
Frwrv cign r-wrrr'r tobacco pr pe-d. of ,ction, safrt., to the crop, and PAb-
opnce of obi.octimnable rePi4uu-, conbinedl with P. rel.ti-Ply high toxicit:- to
thp ingrct. The onutqtn.ing .in .-annt?: of this -i.trrial i- thnt it- pffi-
cipncy is of shnrt '.ur.ti-n1 unr'r the con'*.itons inosp. in tobacco h'e.
Oube-deist mixture cont-inin- 1- nroreont of rotenona exertd1. a 74-.nrcent
kill of thr flep botlp B. pr'pnl- eftrr en expooure of 24- h-ur to *un-
light, which w- 'ut the p'ij-Arl-nt of 2 .VyQ of clu I.lecq -ypoo'nrr,.
Tho O.it n iyturp cont-in inf 1.5 Itsrcnt of rtpnonre aintained it toxicity
n,.ch' longer thpn 7iU thr 0.5-r-rc-nt m-tcri0l. It :Teprs that thp c"ff-ct-
iv-npet of cub'-.'1st 'mi.turs cor.ntininr 1 rIrcr-nt of rot-nrnr ij linitro
to acout 3 dn-'s un?.r'r firl&. c-n.itiono.

Until ,.,it*o.nl ?tr ir~ obt".ind it <"- cira-lo to c-ntirn- thp
pr -r-nt rpcr-' 1 -nC.!ti-nc of r, &ust mixture c-nt-rininc' 1 nrcenrt of rotenon-
for the control of fl-, bc'-tl'- on c---r- -.r cie'r-)wr ,-r tob-cco.

Rotcn.ne-.'.'it ixtur-,1 --r to '-ill fle. bp!tle r'ri icin.lly bp-
ci1uQF the. irrit-ti -' 'rr'r. rti o. -f this in.cctici,:'&- i'nprl th, b--tleq to
"6cl(Pn uo" 1.ftpr coiin1,: in c-ntn.ct -.,ith it. Dosar.s of thick inaecticik-d
qhrul1 ". thprpforc b'- rufficir-nt to :i- joo'. cov7r-gc of thr )l.rnte. For
newly `at tobacco l-'t. a doo-. of 4 or 5 pounds n'r 'cr% shoulO'. be quf-
ficipnt wherr-r,. in the lr t'r-ro cr- S t- 10 'onni.s rrr .cr- is blier r- to
be neceptary. ; S?.ti frctor- .ilu-ntp nrp finpl- zroiru' Gora7i- cly, kiolin,
diatom'-.cqouC11M Parth r'. toUbrcco

SJewett (?2j 229) i lq37 rnr.rt-d thq.t derri-' .ut (powqtere d'rriR
roonnt plup infurorip.l rprth) c nti.ini." 1 rrrcont of roten"n'> Prli;-d Pt the
rote rf 1 r nun_,. rer 100 iour.i. .-.rcs-p*,r'ritt(ed 27.55 r-rcpnt of th: rlq-r.tp
to b in'ur, by tho tob!ccn flr1 b -tl A d.upt cnnt-ininz 2 T'rccnt of
rnto-.one- -r -r7iitte,. 27.0 E' rcf .t inj'.,r", coir.,' i with l.9 in th,
control (no treatment) '. l: 3 for tho bset ins'ctici:e", b.rim flu!*ilicrte,

Sh'.in- rt -1,(336) in 1937 rerort-l thpt qn rff-cti'- iort-litv of
tobp.cco flrr" b-'rtlr- cpn 'b 't-1- b:* tho- rnro r pnr'liccti-n of t
cont--inint: 1 nercnnt of rottn ro t nry ti-'r of thp A'y when t'se wind vrlocitv
q not ~c-cr'. o-r~ ti"^ y 4 -iileQ rner honr.

To Soith C-irolin. -.ricvltr-l ET-Pri n.t Stotion (34m) in 1937
'-t-t'. thpt a cube 'Iit cont-i- : 1 i"',rc".t of rvtenon wq nore -p ff'cti'e-
thp. on cort" inin;; 0.5 rrc"nt of rotpn^no or P dust c.ntoinir-" 16 rorc' nt
of crryclitc- ','hn .Oi r lit. t th) .o r'.t- n, r pcrp. For th bpt rpquiltp
with l-V-'rciot-rot,-nonr 'i'ct, th' r-t- of nrrlicti'.n ah-'ulA r-r. from n'r
Srp'-.".:.-.. r,,r cro w .- thp 'ld-t" rr pr 1q--1II to 10 roindp or n"r' for "qtr
pl-rnt', ;itb..'. h inf'.ct ir',r ','- 'rc-t r to rlf'tq tr,"-tpa onl' nt broo-A
^rr; .'cr thr, wh'r orrc frcnuit 'vt-lic-ti' w rr u'" co- -rcil control
w iO tcrti '. bot" f'ri'-, '*.-" 'vorp *t il t i'-fofr-tion i* ofilfbly n
t h-bit' .-. lif,: hitor" -,f the- tob-cco fle "-rti', rrllc-'tions r f i-f ct-
ici'.' c- ". ticf:-. ir. "'curot' l'" with rr pr> t, br^ '. r-'incn with
pro':lr ntcre-r, in fthr ffici"c'." of the r.ccticip,.

Tobacco flea beetles E. parvula and. 3. cucumeris, are controlled by
cube or derris dusts containing sterilized tobacco dust as the diluent.-
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine (394) in 1937.

White (413) in 1936 and again (414) in 1937 advised thcAt the most
satisfactory control of flea beetles attacking tobacco is a derris or cube
dust containing 1 percent of rotenone. These dusts are obtained by diluting
derris or cube powder to the desired strength with a clay diluent. The foll
ing dosages of dust are recommended for each application: For plant beds
1/2 pound per 100 square yards, applications to be repeated every 4 days unt
control is obtained. For newly set plants, 3 to 5 pounds per acre, applica-
..tions to be repeated every 4 days until control is obtained. For the grow-
ing tobacco crop, g to 10 pounds per acre, depending on the size of the
plants, applications t.o be repeated every 7 days until control is obtained.

F. S. Chamberlin (74) in 1938 reported that experiments and observ-
ations have indicated that finely ground and sterilized tobacco dust is the
most satisfactory diluent for cube or derris when applied to shade-grown
tobacco in combating the tobacco flea beetle. The addition of clay to the
customary cube- or derris-tobacco-dust mixture used for combating the tobacco
flea beetle apparently did not improve its dusting qualities when applied
with rotary hand-operated dusters. It appeared that the use of a dust mix-
ture containing 1 percent of rotenone, with 75 percent of tobacco dust and
25 percent of finely ground Georgia clay as a diluent, on shade-grown tobac-
co--- under favorable weather conditions at the rate of 6 pounds per acre,
did not leave conspicuous residues on the cured tobacco leaves. Heavier ap-
plications, however, did leave conspicuous deposits on the cured product.
In general, these experiments demonstrated that the addition of finely grour
clay to the derris- or cube-tobacco-dust mixture did not result in any ap-
preciable improvement in the finished dust mixture and may cause a permanent
white residue to remain on the treated leaves.

Chamberlin (76) later reported in 1938 that results of recent experimer
designed to determine the duration of the toxicity of a cube-dust mixture
containing 1 percent of rotenone to the tobacco flea beetle on shade-grown
tobacco have shown that the toxicity of this dust mixture to the insect
decreases very rapidly on shade-grown tobacco. In the presence of the most
favorable wec-th-r conditions the effectiveness of a light application of
the cube-dust mixture is limited to a-proximately 3 days but apparently the
toxic action occuring on the third day after application is relatively
slight. Showers evidently remove much of the cube-dust mixture from tobacco
foliage and render such aopplications ineffective. It is believed that this
mechanical loss by the action of rain is one of the most important fLctors
limiting the effectiveness of cube-dust mixture for flea beetle control in
Florida. Cube-dust mixtures applied to shade-grown tobacco by the "drift"
method when the foliage is moist with dew appeared to be more effective
against the flea beetle than when applied to dry foliage. The above result.
wo.re obtained and conclusions drarLi from experiments wherein the method of
nroccduro consisted of confining a definite number of tobacco flea beetles
with loaf discs cut from the treated foliage at various intervals and deter-
mining the percentage of the resulting flea beetle mortality.

Cory (88) in 1938 issued recommendations based on the report of the
Tobacco Insect Council, for the control of tobacco insects.

The Tobacco Ini-ct Council (3_2) in March 198g i-qued 'i-.c-ti-ri
Sfor thr4 control of tobacco- inc-uct,,. Du.t co'tt'i.-" 1 pr-rc,.'.t of rot-Anonp
w'a r'-c-p'. pe-n for comb'tinv th' tobacco flep. br-ztle infpeti-n- flu--curr-,
B,.rliy, and drxr fire-curp6 tnb-ccoc, al ..-zrown tz'-e of cigar to-
bcc-., For there ltt"r, fi-Ply irroaund, strrilizrd. tobacc- duqt qh-ual1 be
uq.. -' the .ilurnt a-rlic-ti-n brinr ndr with a rotary he.dc-or'trd
F.n't*r. W-.-r the Tl-ntp r.- -1::ut kn --hi!h c.osAn, -f 4 t- 5 -,ouneis '-pr
Pcrn iq guffic'p't. MItur- tobeccc ey reouir- 7 to 9 p,-unds rpr acrp.
A'lic~ti~np phl.' b- reutbCL every .4 t- 7 daey until control ie obtainre.

At the -cx'C. innnyl rmetin- -of the Tbp.cco Inqcct Cruncil (373)
" Iri- Jul:y 193", Pwvcrl vparc Tnieti^ned rrttphrnt. W. H. whitee ef the
B)r'-.'. of .t' c n Plrt ur-ntine, rr-ortre- thi.t .'.ut niTture-Q rre-
orr"' frno elth-r .orri-. or o'bo ha bn used. during the lft tw.o eon
rnthur Pffrcti-,l, 7n( epto;it'ely for fl',. bc-rtlo- control. Hp -t-tel alio
that in vttremr-tQ to incre .- th- toxict7, of cubc a.n, dr-rris 7.trriolq
certri'- ,, (tbln cil. h,,- bc-n incrrnor.ted with the power and e'. -'tr-'ctp.
Early 'te-t7, ihow, th tht th? c'ition of these oils sprveAd tc incrr-sp the
t',-icity r-f the *it'riols to c'rt'-i' inr'ct-t. HowvF. r, fourth r work hb-
inictre. that ;rh,-n thep- oilo r- uned with certain Qrrep.in?- or wetti:iz
az-nt-, the effrct sizht be a rp-Oictin rp.thcr th-.n -n incren i the
toxicity, H. H. Jewett, If th" Kntuc--' A'ricultnral E -rim, nt Stati-n,
rprnrtfa, that for thp control f flpn brrtlca in toVbcco-rl-nrt bp(d *i) st-
c -t".i"in,* roten-i -. arc (-.ffrcti'rp onl.j whpn t.,pli-d at frghiHnt intrro.l
nc. ore. little uv.np:. for th-t rrpe.n Pnd b(cecpo o f jre-tr r cont. Thee in-
spcticicea o.o net inijurp tob'cco lt."t in brdc if npr-lied prr'-rly :ndm in
ccrrr.ct -nnunts. L. B. Scott, of the Bureau of Entomology .n Pla-t Q,-nr-
eantine, Clar ,ville, Tenn., ro.-rteA on the u.- -f Ainrs nri-r to q.tting
to'-'co plant. Cube qnO pyrethru.- di'sts -iy b;- u '-i with safety, but it
is not known whether r-ithrr will or effecti-' fta&inqt cr-bils nr flo-
beptle larvP.e. W. A. Shar-.q of the Oyford.!'la'c-otory of thep Blr-pu of Ento-
mnlonv an Pl.ant Qnar-ntine, qrloks on thc- posibilit.pp f incor-orating
*iir rcticicle effectivTlP- in th rri for 1weny milc-Vew. Th0 rppult -f two
series of tr-ct conndictod in the sprinr of iQ7.1 t-,,--th r with thqe from
*imil-'r t,:ts in 1937, chW~crA th.t th p.r.plic-ti-n of th' reconir-nd.e. rrry
containing 0.02 rvrcrnt of rotonron, for the control of bl'xi -T10. waq not
so pffrcti'-e in c-ntrollinr thr tr-.-cco flea b-etle in rnlpit b-a. ac w- the
,nliccati'n of n cuat c1 trinin; 1 nrrccnt cf rotrnone. H. C. Hplloc'-, nf
Per" -lv.nia- Strt,.- Collp-, r---'-ortA, thc.t wrrli-i-.ary t---t in- lct.-'A that
cube conti.-.in.' 1 t-rc-nt of rote:n-ne with qt-rilized tobacco -uqt a Ail-
.''vt, will vJi- *:oc'. rr-ultc for thr control of thr flF' b-ctl unAr Prnn-
(rli.nia cnr.itir.n, ''-cisll- if r-r- .ticklr -uch q Ultr-w-t i- 1'
with thr mot, ril.

Thr Rpcomninc.tionn Co;*ittr- of thW T-bacco Co'-'cil qu',- t--', the
followl-.. chpjn-('- in the I rcor'-,'-nd. tient for tr,-cco irnsct control:
"That rotrrnnr '"t for firl,'- c-ntrol If flcr '-otl, or n-grown tlb-
nccoa br r' c-irn.ee. with, 'rhnrr. ,tr-rr rr-,pti-." 11

T''. Unit'c%. St-rtcQ 3Bnir!1:u of '7nto ole:io; Plant -'Ar^.tine (7Q?)
in 193E. ttn.t th-t fivle.-nlt tc-t ep. lnr---c' rEpir.qt E. raarvnla En. n E. cucu-, ri F in Floridp, Tf- nt epr Iorth C-rolnla,
South Cproli-.., -n. Co-necticit e-rr-^or-tf th,- roeult- )f trotp pvrfor~>'.
'.21rir& 1"'re',ioiui yarF in i..'.lctin.. th-t wherryr thr -f cf the cro'r
justifioe t. 'ifc- f t1iin1cticiO the. r 'petp c"ull. 'h c- trnllc F in
the rnlp,.t b-r., avr well pr -n nowl," s.t rlant- ,n.A -n thf 'ro-wi-,- cr-, 1"'
timely arplicpti-ns of o e'.ipt "i1tnrp contpininz rotun-nc.

- 43-

!Thttlps (29q4) in -1939 recommendedd derris d&st for the control of the
t- bacco flea br-tle on efplant anz cabba.:, in South Carolina,

kThe Penns'l znia Aricultural Exneririent Station (15) i.n 193q re-
rorted that flep beetle inj'-ry to tobacco and. potato" is caused by the
tobacco flea., Iptlp after mid-July. -T-e Pre .test protection against
beetle amage to tobacco leavp7-s was afforded by dusting with a mixture of
1 part of ground cube root (4 percent of rotenone) and 5 parts of sterilized
tobacco dust filterr dusxt repaining after nicotine extraction) with 1 nart
to 800 of a wetting a.nt. T-e mtorisl wa. Popplied at the rate. of 3 t' 5
potum s rcr-r acre to newly- set plants, increp.ed to 10 to 15 po-nds r.r acre
Pfter topping.

"G.alrucella rubi Tapanu10i"

Ta'Tnuki (364) in 192S recot-npnded derris and soap spray for the
control of this inrect on t1"- irung leaves of strawberry nlmnts in-qouthlrn
Sakc.alin., '-. *

G-lerucplla viburni (Payk.)

Sensitive to derrig dust.-DeBusy ;t al. (61) in 1936.

Gpl,-rucn llp xant0ormlfo1en. (Schr.), the eIm leaf boetle

Hamilton Pnd G-zmmoll (17_) in 1934 re#-ortpd that derris powdpr-
-nlir- -i a T)ra- .arf. gooct control, and the foli ?n retained consi'derabl0
toxicity for o da

Hapiilton (163) in 1935 reviswoed information on nonpoionous pub-
.tituites for -rp-ical. Powdered derris is Tiiore stable and eherPopr than
e..ryi. extract. Rpfprencp was mndeo to Ha.nilton and. Gnmr.Il (174) who, in
1934, r(eortd. that a d.ust co-ntaininz 1 rrc.nt of rotenone, d-lut-d 1
pound to 3 gallons nof water, g.e almost lOO-pcrcent control of the plm
lcIf br'-r:tl., n nd. 3 d&ayr after ha-ing been sprayed,. 96 recentt of the lpr-7pc
placed. utnm the s-ra7' d folia ,c were killed, and 6 days aftor qrr-ying 59
percent wore dead.

Rotenone dust P;V e-cllfnt c-ntrol,-Van Gundia (U")in 1936.

H-ilton (172) in 1937 reported that l n leaf bretls on Plm tr7en
wfrc nrt Ptisf.ctorily controlled by a mpray of 4 pound- of derris or cub'e
T'-. j.r (L rTercnt of rotpnone) and 4 pounds of rosin-residup enulqion ro
100 allon of wotor. Fi- tepsttP wr a., two of which were stisfactory.
T'T- r nprr ;cet as a contact ooison and as a repellent. The ppri-d of effect
itrr.o is 5 to 7 days, Control soe is to de.end. on ti-e of avorllcttlon.

T Jc w, Jr?5'v Stit-, Azric'iltural Erperin'int Station (29g) in 193'
r .ortc.. that a spray of derris or cube nowd'or plus rosin-residue emulsion
in wnt *r wP '-ff'etie n-a-n.inst the larv-p of the elm leaf beetle and ha. som
c-ntAct rn. r-nellent action against the adults.

4- 5 -

Te-. New York State Agricultural experiment Station (303) in 1938
reported that a rotenone pr:.' iA apparently vry:f eff-ctive in the control
of the elm leaf beetle. It hzs the ,dv.t_- of lnavi'.- no visible rpiru-
on the foliage e:nd also avoids thr' possibility of etainin2- paint"' surface,

Gnbrell (154) in 1940 recorded tests for the control f the pIn
leaf beetle with cube powdrr (4 prrcent of rotenonr) at h rounds n-r 100
gallons plus 4 -.unces if-lgl; derris powder (5 percent of rotenon) P.t 4
poundR nmer 100 gallons plus 1 pint of Poubp.n oil plus 1 r,-LnA of Binderina
(Goulsc); stabilizoc derris powder (from tht United Sttater Rub'e-r Co-nnr-)
with the fr.me riaterialR; ar..i both regular an.d stabilizr-d derris pnow5.r
plus either soybean flour (1 pound) or Grss<*lli Sticker-Srreadcr (1/2 rint).

Ixperinents in 193g indicr't%':d that spray '-s containing eitherr 4 rounds
of cube powder or 6 po':n?.1. of leaf. artenate to 100 gallons of wat-r were
Pffcti-e when applied after mwrr than hnlf of thn e-->-' hp. hatched. In
1939 Mpray rmixtures cnntaini o cithir derris (2 or 4 pounds) or lepd qrQenatr
(4 or 6 pounds) in 100 gallons of water gove atisfoctory control if rr plid.
on or after the. sFcond weck of June. Li'itel. tests with 2.5 percent of rot-
enone extract, .Uiluted 1:;LOO0, eff(cted a hid7h degr'- of c-ntrol of both
larvae and adults. In field tests n- arrecipblp 6.iffer,,nces wprT notpd
bctwern the eff,-cti-eness of rep-ulnr rerris anor that of stabilized derris
(c'-ntair.ing an anti-oxidant), with the r osibl1,f exception -f the influence
on the unhatched eggs.

The advantages of derris w,-r er rotenone extract atpr 's anpear
to include the lack -f objectionaUll residue; releti-e saff-nesp to an pd
pets; and rapidity of kill. Thi latt-r proint is of particular i-eprtr.nce
when spra:',s are applie.. r,.th r lat7 in the season when --nr.r lrvTe are
sec-nd or third instars and i-sediate relief from folia',- inr.,ur,- is desired.
The nain disadvnta:ee are the d.ngrr of poinr.in fish, cost --f the rit'trial,
and poqssi'jle lck of adihesi-n 'n folir-e during he,'- r.inr- -r wet wethr.
Th-is latter objecti-n ; not rro-r t- be srirus, inasruch as the nat-rinl
Ph-ull be -'pplied to the und.>r surfrce of the leaf ?no. also because f the
fpct that much nf its effectiveness apparently result, fr-1 the c-ntact
action of the spray. within a shrt ti ie after applic'ition.

Lema oryzap Kuw.

Kuwaya-.n (250) in 1916 gave a ,!etail-! historical account "f thc ls"
of insectici'es for th'c cont -'l of this insct -n rice in Jn.r.n and. -.f py-
reriments made durin- 1930-34 i Ho!k'aido. A spr of 6-2/3 o-r.ces of
prethrum ani. 5 ounces f a -,ap in 10 -'.'cllons !f water proved ,ry effcctiv
aRainr.t the e .'' larva an, a-ults; en. onr -'f nicotine sulfate r o,- soap
was more effpctii-e than ierris.

Leema trilineata (Oliv.), th three-lineft potato beetle

The three-lined potato bh'tle was controlled br'. dust anrnlic-tien
of a 50-50 mixture of derriO and h'P-rtpi lime.--Kolell Pt .0I (2hh) ia-
1926. ~^

The Wisconsin 1_::ricultural Erx-erinent Station (41l6) in 197 rorort.55
that derris powdpr, 3 rounds pcr 100 g--llons of woter plus an "oleated
resinous soap" as a spreader was almost 100 Tercent effective in 1936 .-pinst
the larvae and adults of the thrca--lir.,a lena attacking. potatoes and'Japa'-
ese lant rns.

Leptinotarsa decnlincata (Say), the Colorad".o pVtato b-etle '

Mclnd.h4, Sievers, and, A1:ntt (266) in 1919 rer-rted. that d&rris
powder s a sto-iach poison was, tete,, on a srail. scale against oot-t
beetle larvae at several strengths, ra.ning from 1 pound' .f powder to 16
gallons of water up to 1 pound_ to 12F allins, and was foene. to be vry
effective. Practically all the larvae were killed. within Hg h-urp and th-
plants were little eaten. As these sray nixtures might have acted nas
contact poisons, because the larvae were already on the plants when the
latter w-re sprayed, a soc-ncd series 'rf tpqts was arrengo, tn eliminate
this factor. TVr- saie plants were used an". from 20 t- 40 larvae wore rlace..
on them 1 or 2 days after they ha.' bc-n sray-d. Th results o'tainea'were
practically the same as in the first series of tests. Ver- few living larvae
were foune. 3 days later and the plenty w-re little eaten. When ap--lied as a
dust, derris was equally efficient against potato bbettlr lnrvPe. The alco-
holic extract -f Derris elliptica in the rati- of extractfrom-i 1 ound of
powder to 50 gallons of water killed 96.6 percent of the larvae and 2q.1 per-
cent of the adults.

Brittain (55) in 19214 described. insectary feedin,2, tests, mrade in Fiske
trays with potato beetl- larvafte. Arsenate of le. (paste), 2 pounds to 40
imperial gallns, was c vpare d with various contact poisons, nam.ly, nico-
tine sulfate, fish-oil soar, and derris powder, an attempt bing mrlade to use
the last both as a contact insecticide and as a stomach oison. To test the
contact action of derris the insects ware placed in a wire basket and din-ed
in the solution, then drained. and fe-d -n iunsrayvd lees. -

STo test the int-rnal action -f derris the
leaves were dipped in the solution and fed to the insects. The e-xperiments
lasted for a week, daily records Vsinc taken. Te. -i^st notable results of
the tests were thrsa obtained. in the case -f derris, which in all stren-yths,
ranging from 3 pounds to l'O0 im;,riol gallons to 1 ounce to 100 im0 trial
gallons, and with both eth-t ds, .estr'oed 100 1erc('nt 'f the insects, in-
clv'ing half-grown and fully r,,nr. This -atorial did nt a.ct as a sto-moch -oison, -.ecanusc th'" beetles, wre found
dead in th- tray-, with no vtdrnce of feei:n.-

The extrem-- toxicity of this material to rotatn beetles is shown by
thr- fact thrt 1 week after this xmYoriient was concluded a numb'b"r -f last
instars were placed upon untreated leanres in a tray. The nert morning the
insects were found dead'. in the bottom of the tray without ev'-r hain-- fed
on the leaves. This tray had been used in the previous wee1's test for one.
of the derris treat!ients (1 ounce to 100 imperial gallons), and evidently
sufficient iluti-n ha'.d bern taklrn ui- by the cheeseclot"h 'ttom of the tray
to cause the death of the insects. In corripari;. those results with tose of
field tests, it a.'lears that the material is nuch rinorz effectivee under in-
sectory corditi :.s.

Kopp (24g) in 1924, in a review -.f the nse of derris as an insecti-
ci:.e, stated that at the rat-, -f 1 wLnem to fro' 17 to 100 gallons s of water
it had -ivcrn excellent results., aair.st this -necies.

McIlr.".o and Sievers (265) in 1924, r.-orte. th.t c.'be n., errig
lusts, also the cold olcoholic extract of cule with snap, were effectiTre
appinst potato beetle larvae. A. a.lcohclic extract of derris, with .oap,
was inefficient a.::ainst the lsrvae an't alults.

Kelsall et al. (2hL) in 1926 published, thp results of tests on
Celorado -notito beetle larv-e with derris ij 4-4-4O bor.ea-"x, andA hydrated line, anr derris alone, which led8 to the following.. conclusions:
Derris is Pffpcti-e in both spray ArnA dust for-s: derris kills 7iore rapidly
than the arsericals: de-rris is less effecti-e when "ixe. with y-.'ratrO lime,
and 'still les, sc when niyed with ordeaux. To) :rt the .sa-v eventual kill
1 pound. iof derris is arTare-tl, abut cq1..ivalent to from 1-1/2 to 3 pounds
of calcium aren.'.te. These workers rcsarc:. terris as a crntact .roisn

Davidson (97) mnacle tests on notato- plants in the field in 1930 anA
obtained the followi-:- results with sus-,Ennsi-is 'f rctr-nne in water:

Insect atn-ge Crncentration Mortality
.m : cc. Percent
Adults ------ 1:2,000 60.0
-Ad.ults -.--- 1:5,000 12.0
Adaults ----- 1;10, 00 0.0
E ----- 1:30,000 100.0
Smnll 1nrr,.e- 1:7 ,000 95.0
Iqr,.'e l- r-",e^- I 109,000 96.
L a r;: --! ,- :r--- .J. OgQ,~ T?7- ..... "

Little (261, 262) in 191l ren'rt.. excellent control (9Q.g percent
kill) of ColoraMo potato beetle larvae feeci'in-: nn eq.- rlpnt in the field,
by vi.'in. root of devil' s-shnestrints (Tr-hrrsia viriniana) at 4 po'rd.;!
per 100 gallons of water.

'C-Ar-'' CIl (66) in 1932 critically r viewc.w, tests -ae by Dqvilon
with rotenone 'n the Colorairh rot-to bertl Roten:ne. susrerne.a in water
1:200 snrsv-ed on leaves and fed ti t- ..ult as a ?anr.wich killed all;
at 1:1,000, feeding w.s curtailed; bretles -n a "lant sprayed with rote-
none 1:10,000 were not affrctnd. Daividson Plso made an exrerient with
rotennne to test its rer.ellent effect a-ov.st Color,',) rotnto beetles.
The insects were -ivrn on or.!ortunity d rirz a ?r'on. of 5 hour* to f-r-d
on potato-leaf sp .'wiches containing< roten.nc. Thereafter the" wer- fed
untreated leaf dis-R for days. The 7n'rteplity was ne-lii'ible tulit it was
o'B':.rve. that the beetles ate less of the rNtenone sandwiches tkan of those
cntainin lead arc&nate. On the following Aqny the boetlea th-t '-.d
taker- rotenone ate less untre'ted f'Aince than '.id thpse that h ? taken
lead prsenate. Dnavicson, threforr, -sus-ct-d a rerelle-t acti-n of rrt.-none,
btt C=mrbell bclirvpq that n' re'ellent ctin was fdein trot- '. Th beetles
probably ato subl'thol do.ea of rotennnp anr werr affected tr the rytent thVt
the:. were r'.ale to fee.d nnrinlly on untretfd lenf Ai&:-. until they hpd ro-
c-vered. Undu*bt.t. t! the --,t effP-ct could. havy- "cn wrr'c:. with lIpd
arsenate if larcLr sublethr.l dosps h-d b fn t":-n.

Turner (376) in 1932 reortO. that in,labertory tests roten-ne
in mineral oil 1:25,00 killed 7- rentt of Color..o r' otpto bietle larvae
in 6 days. Leo.d arsenate at 1-1/2 pounds t-, 100 -allong killed 171 v,-rcpnt
and 23 percent died on the untreated check. In these tests the larvae
were transferred to cut potat shoots after the spray ha- dried.

At the 193L meeting of the American Association of Ec'nonic Entomo-
logists, Cory (38S) led a discussion on field results with arsenical sub-
stitutes for the control of vestaible insects. According to Hea.lee of
New Jerey (183) in 1935, the Colorad.o potato beetle can be controlled by
derris dust.

Lapraront (257) in lQhz4 reported that in France trials with ekbe
and derris powders (5 percent of rotenone) against the Colorado potatoo bpetl
gave good results.

The Alabama Polytechnic Institute (9) in 1935 stated that derris
dust (0.5 percent of rotenone) is effecti-c in controlling rotato beetles
when applied at the rate of 10 pounds ner acre,

Feytaud (128S) in 1935 referred to the use of rotenone pr-owders for
combating the Coloradco potato beetl, in France. The type formula is 5
parts of powdered derris 'r cube (rotenone not legs th.n 5 percent) and Q5
parts of talc or '
Feytaud and LappOr.nt (130) in 1935 reported favorable results
against the Colorado potato beetle in France with a terpinolene extract of
derris (or cube) emulsificL in water. These workers prenred teroinolene
extracts of derris and. cube by macerating E &m. of root with 100 gm, of
terpinolene for 3 to 5 days. After bpin&, filtered and emulsified, this
extract killed larvae of the Colorad.o otato beetle at a dilution of 1:19
with watr.

A good emulsion is mpde by mnixing 700 ,in. of the terpinolene
extract with 300 -m. of sulfate: higher fatt- alcohol (oleyl, lauryl,
cetyl). This is better than sodium resinate. Terninoleni or essence
of pine, is rich in iso-cineol.

Later, reytaud and Lp:-'-arent (131) reported that in laboratory
tests against the Colora'o potato beetle it was necessary to use the
following quantities of a product c-ntaininc: about 16 percent of the
extractives of derris, of which 5 percent was roten-one: 100 gim. pr
hectoliter of water for your;- larvae, 200 `in. per hectolitrr of water
for old larvae, 50n 9rm. per hectoliter of water for adults. Derris ex-
tract in terpinolnen is made as follows: 15 an. of powdered derris or
cube (rotenone = 5 percent) is macerated for 5 days at a temenrrature
not above 7O0C. in 100 z-r. of terpinolene, then filtered and kent in
a tinted glass flas'- to escr -re the action of light. A mixture is made
of derrip extract in terpinolene, ( parts: terpineol, 20 parts; sulfated
olel alcohol, 20 parts. Preferabl- the last two in,:rEdients are mixed
first and the derris extract then added. For use this mixture is aRded to
water to makr a 0.5-percent emulsion. Ammoniun qulforici-ate may also be
"jsed ae an emulsifier. A 0.5-p-rcent emulsion of this applied to fourth
instara of the potato beetle killed 30 percent in 24 hours, 75 percent in
h hours, and 100 percent in 4 days.

- 4S -

Fryer (148) in 1935 reported that derris ha'l been used ag(-inst the
Colorado potato beetle at Tilbury, glar.i, but that the exaat degree cf
success will not be known for another year.

Derris was effective in field demonstratiens.--Kew Jersey Agricul-
tural Experiment Station (296) in 1935.

Robin (328) in 1935 reported good control of the Colorado potato
beetle in France within the following mixture: Derris or.'der (rotenone 4
percent) 18 percent; pyrethrum' powder (pyrethrins 0.6 percent), 25 per-
cent; and clay 57 percent. Excellent results against larvae and adults
were obtained when dusted at the rate of not more than 15 kg. per hectare.

In discussin- insecticides suitable for combating the Colorado potato
beetle in 1936 (28), Feytaul stated that powders containing 5 percent of
cube or' derris were in use for this purpose.

Fenton (127) in 1936 referred to an unpublished report of the Texas
Agricultural Experircnt Station, which described tests for the control of
the Colorado potato beetle. When 10 pounds of derris (0.5 percent of
'rotenone), 15 pounds of pyrethrum Powc- "A" dust (0.75 percent of pyrethrins),
and 75 pounds of 325-mesh sulfur were employed, all insects were killed
within 36 hours; when 10 pounds -of derris (0.5 percent of rotenone)and
90 pound- of 325-mesh sulfur were employed, 95 percent of the insects
were killed within 48 hours; and when 25 pounds of pyrethrum Powco "A"
dust (0.125 percent of pyrethrins) and 75 pounds 325-mesh sulfur were
employed, all insects were killed within 4s hours.

Feytaud (129) in 1936 recommended rotenone powders for combating the
Colorado potato beetle. The derris or cube should contain 5 percent of
rotenone and should be diluted with talc or kaolin. The proportion of
root powder should be 5 to 20 percent..
Herman and Hockey of iovaw Scotia (185) in 103 reported practically
complete control of potato beetles by the appolic-tion of Cubor 75 dust
(0.75 percent of rotenone) or derris-y.)suim dust (0.4 oorcent of rotenone).

Chevalier (0.) in 1937 disci.-ed the use of rotenone-bearing roots
in France to combat the Colorado potato beetle and other insects. Derris-
g.-,m. dusts in laboratory tests gave results as follows:

Insect td, Rotcr:,-. do,:t.-nt -r.rtality in 4 days
Percent P *r-ent
Adults 0.5 100
Adults 0.2 L'O
Adults 0.1 100
Larvwe 1.0 100
____ Larvae 0.2 100

In the field a dust contain '.; 5 percent of derris (equivalent to 0.2
percent of rotenone) was very eff.rtive,--zelsall and Stultz (-45) in 1937.

Derris powder ( .p erc6-nt of rotenone) Pt th-3 rate of 2 nounns pr
100 ~-allons of watrr plus a'ut 2 rounds (d'ry basis) of coconut oil poar
killed 9<7 percent of the larvae and 82 percent of the adults on tomatoe.--
HCanschkn (272) in 1937.

Derris dusts have ziven satisfactory results on the Colorado potato
beetle.-New Jersey AI:ricultural Exppriient Station (297) in 1937,

Smith (339) in 1937 rcnort- d that a sra" of derris -'owA- (14 rercen
of rotenone) at 2 pounds per 100 g-llons of wRter plus 1-7/' pounecB of coco
mnut oil soep anhydrouss basis) killed 9S percent of thp larvae andc 92 rpr-
c'nt -f the ac-ults of the Colora-.o potato beetle 2h hours after anplicatinn

A prep-rartion called Pirox, in use in France for the control of the
Coloreado potato beetle, contains daerris, sulfur, anOd co-rnpr pRefpr:nce, is
made to vpriouq derris mixtures -entioned in the literatur- for the control
of this insect.--Wahl (4n5) in lq37.

The Colorado potato tbetle on -xotatoes was killed by. a product con-
tainin, 12 percent powe.ored Lonchocarpus nicoui root (of 6 percent rote-
nnne content) and fo percent of talcun, according to Zta'li-'me'ntR Rotonia
in 1938.in a letter tn R. C. Roark.

The United. States Bureau of 3ntomolOzy and. Plant Quarantine, Divisio
of Control InvestiL--:?ti-ns (397) in 193' isuedt its thire, report of tepts qOn
the insectici.l v-lue of v-rious compoun',.s. Results of tUsts with .erris
against fourth instars of the ColoraVf.o potat-o beetle were reported qq folio

Material (dust) p'r so. c., Effect
Derris (rotenc-ne 5.4 percent; 125 or Permitted sli.-ht feer-
total exytractives 15.5 percent) 110 ine and killed lQ0
nprrcrnt in 4H hour.

Dcrris + talc (rotinonn 1 percent); Ir,0 Do.

Derris-talc (rotpnone 0.5 percent) 230 Do.

Cu'e powder (rotenone h.4 percent;
tot!l extracti-,es 20,7 percent) lo Do.

Aicie DC-4 (rotenr-ne 0.6 pr-rcent) at th rat- of4 r ounds )er
lr100 allons of water (0.003 percent rotenon, in spray) killed from 50 to
100 percent of the beetles in 96 hours.--Asicido Laloratories (6) in lq3o.

De.yriard (101) in 193Q d.iscusrd the adranta,',a and limitations
of rotrt-none as Pn insecticide. A powder cont-ining rotenone, stabilized
according! to a-pat:nted process, retained full toxicity to Colorado notato
beetle larv-ie when ey-oeed to light for 110 hours, whereas the nonstabilizo
powder dropred to 12 nercepnt of its efficacy in this tiwo.

- 51 -

Foyt-.ud an? de L-a;rarent (12) in 1939 d1o cri ,d cT-riments
carried out in Fr-ince in 12!7. to c"' --rr th_ ingccticitp.l value of a
cubp dust (6 percent rotenone content) usco. Plone or in c<'bination with
vari-us diluents, each mixture contninin& 15 percent of cube. Fourth instarr
of the potato beetle were used a, th, test insects. Thr results .'owe'.
that the mixture-s werc practically as toxic as the rure cu7'", which caused
fatal paralysis of th ihrvo* In le s than 2 h'-urs, an that calci''m carb-n-
ate, Pulfur, kaolin, carbonatod talc, or ya.v"i were -referabl, to silicn,
b!ntonite, or lime.

To test their aur"-ility, th0 dusts were kent in closed. metal boxi
for 3 and. I1 months or exposed in layprq -f 2 to 3 rmm. to li--i t an.' changes
in temperature and humidity in an insectary for 3, 5, and 15 m-nths. There
was nn decrease in the toxicity of the dusts kprt in mntil boyxe, vith the-
excew.tion of the mixtures c-ntaininc-' bent-nitr and lim, -f' which tbe toyic
action ^n the larva. ws. dl.e.;-d for svernl h-urq. Of the .u.stsq rosPd in
the insectary, cube alone and mixturcs of it with ca.lciumn cnr*innt tolc,
sulfur, carbonate'. talc, or -s.. retained th'ir full toxicity ev-n aft-r
15 months; whereas the 'eralyzing effect n th la-rvor f the duetm crntain-
in,.-: kaolin and silica was C.el.yed for peverl1 h'ur an. that of the line
mixture for srver-l days. The bcntonite mixture sh'w,,'. a vcry reta-rded
action after exposur-e of 3 and. 5 months, anc. aft'r 15 months it turned into
a solid mass End vwh-r.. broken up did not affect the lrvne placed on it.

In experimentF in May 1939 a potato plant protected from rain but
not from air, 'i.:ht or humidity was dusted with a mixture of d.erris and
t-lc containing 0.25 percent of rotrnonf and larvae of L-:tinotnrqa dece,-i-
lineap.ta were placed on it the s-.e da.y or at variou. intervalS. All those
placed on it 27 days later, the longest interval tested., died! within 24
hnurs. In further tests in June 193q a comercially prepar.e'd dust contain-
ing r.65 nPrcent of rotenone .nd stated to be stabilized a--ainqt the *ff-ctc
of air and bright light wap. found to 'be considerably slower in its action
than a nonstabilized dubit crntaininc: only .3 perc- r.t of rotcnone, whether
uPed after having been ke-nt in an air-tiiht box or after 9 lays' exposure
to bright sunlig-ht. The addition of a colori-: a- 7-.t to the second dust
did not increase its toxicity.

The Internati-nl Institute of A riculture (221) in 1"39 tp-ted that
rotenono rret-r.rationa are rc:arka'l.y ffecti-' p."inst Color do -otato t eetls
in the early st .'es.

Nelson and Howard (293) in 113q reported that exrim-rnent in l39 in
Ohlo h-wr-,d that Ptnrnd-r2. s8rpys containi.'v lea. arspenat, at the rnte of 4
pounds to 100( -allons of water werr far superior to derri. srr,:, c'nt-in-
ing 0..015 percentnt of rotrnonre, phenothiazino, nr sulfur nitride (22,9 q r-
cent pure), each at the rate of h4 pounds to 1 .ollons of wate-r, for the
control of the Color.'.o potato beetle. To o ,lic-ti.-ns 'f erch nf thee
,r, rn:-s were- na.e. Althru. lower in action, sulfur nitride c -rrre. f--'r-
a.bly with rhenothiazin- an with derris nt the eyoireti-n of 3 wt-,'* nfter
the second ar'lica.tion; however, -nly liad arpenate j-oe sptisfncter" control
at the ex'iratien of the 3-wpek n-ria T1e nK'itn r.f a varnish Pticker
to the derris sr: di. rnt i-prove t rV, ret'c c-rtr-l.

Sellke (335) in 193q reported that derris dust, derris qr-r.,
derris plus pyrethrum c'ust, and derris plus pyrethrum spray were "ffecti-
against the lprvac and adults of the Colorado potato beetle in tests in

Demonstrations in controlling the Colorado potato beetle on tom'--to
with rotenone dusts were so favorable that a number of 7rowern are using
that material in place nf calcium arsenate.--Marylandc Univerqity Extrnsiom
Service (274) in 194r.

Longitarsus suturellus (Marsh)

This flea beetle, found on Crotalaria, is sensitive to derris.
Dusting and spraying with the above--nentioned concentrations 7ave conclus:
results. How frequently the treatment should be repeated in practice is
still not known. Of 4O beetles, which were fed for 3 days on Crotalaria
leaves sT rayed. -with derris powder in water (rotpnone 1:2, 000), 25 died in
4 days; the other 15 remained alive for a considerable ti-ie, so that the
action nf derris as a stomach prison is insufficient. Therefore, it is
essential to contact the beetles with the remedy.--Van Ier Vocht (401) in

Lonitarsiisus sp.

A species which oerforatrId the young leaves of ratchoiuly in the
"Culture Gsarden" at Buitenzorg, Jav'n, on bein- tested by dusting with der
power (laleur) plus talc 1:3, died in a. short tine. After th. planting
was dusted with the powder mixture by a hand duster, only a very few beet'
were to be foun- on the plants the following day. When the dusting was r
peated after 1 week the infestation practically disameared.-Van der Vec!
(401) in 1036.

Luperodes praeustus Motsch., a clover loaf beetle

Tamaniki (365) in 1029 recom',iended spraying with derris to control
the larvae of this species.

Nodonota puncticollis (Say), the rose leaf beetle

Ha'ilton (172) in 1957 7 reported that N. puncticollis on bush hone
suckle was controlled 60 percent by a spra-- of h pounds of derris or cube
powder (4 percent of roten-ne) and 4 pounds of rosi -residue emulsion per
1): gallons of water. The snray acts as a repellent. The effective peri
is 4 to 6 days. Repeated spra77s should give satisfactory c-ntrol.

Paria canellt. (F.), a strawberry rootworm

Derris dust and derris extract, applied as abvo-v .r'pvd treatments
were inferior to lea'1 arsenato mixed with bench soil at the rate of 10
pounds per llrO souarn feet.--New Jersey Agricultural Zxreri-nent Station
(29) in 1q35.

Britton (56) in 1938 rcrinmnended derriq dust for thi control of th
strawb.--rr,- rootworm f-edi -i; -on the leaves of strawberry plant-.

Parks an'. Pierstorff (312) in 1,V rec',7-ind&d derriq -r cu't dust
(0.5 to 0.75 percent of roten'ne) or sraq' (h ounds of rowd.r of 4 nDr-
cent rotenone content pcr 100 Famlnns ,f w.Rtar) to ^ aprlid in .My.
when the beetle, rp first observo-d.

Phndrdon brossic.o BHly

Tho Instit-to of Physical and Che-ical Rsearch (22,0).in 1027 renort-A
that IT,'oton (derris extract in fish oil), 1 pound. in 60 i2-T rial n.ll~n of
water, 1i11d 100 percent of the Pault 1ts n. r percent 7f the laarper in
the field in war:- w, at'.er, '-.'t whe: th- t,-71nratrtur. ,..rorr&-. (7i.'V.lp 'f Sr-Tt-
e-':er in Jp-pan) the mortality of :oth fcrns roe'. to 6 pr-rcent. .,t n,
1 r.-itnr in 4r imprrill gallons of water, killed 21.6 percent -f tho -.

Fh-P-'.n conchlearine (F.), a mustpr *betlc

Thompnson (370) in c1972 reported that sno spra.ini with a .erris-
sran'waeh, followed by fio-'dinj, was effitie in checking: t'-p iniur t"t
this beetle in -ne locality in Wales. Another bcf. of wp.tr cresq was
eustpc' with der-is powder, "ut on accov.nt of the lar4- ouaatity of ?trrial
required this methnd wBp discontinuef-d pn. the dcrris-sop w?.h was ppr .'-y,
on six or seven tines nt intervrn.1's of Pnurt week. It wps concluded that
sprv.'-ini in this w'y is thorouhly eff -cti-c as a control ne-.surc.

qd.rd (lls ) in 1037 rcportf- the reciults of y7ecri-entas cnrriod.
:out in Sj in 1l35 with derris Ynd rethrui insectlcidrq for thc control
of the mustarc. beetle. InsecticiC.-e toctrO. comnrised hprris sray contain-
ing OQ,,4 percent of rotenmne with 0.05 percent of sulfonatod lorl a a
srro.er, two Oerris &uits with repsrpcti-e rotrnono cotntsnt of %.2 ard .5
nercrnt, and. a ,pyr,'thrur" emuli'n contninin '".C(*i percent of nvrrthrin I.
To applications wrr- mad on Junp 2L na. July 5, respectively, on nlrts of
'uiformly heavily infosted water crs. County were c's on July 10, the
weather in the interim hvrin.r beprn warn ande. sunny. The treatment reduce&O the
beetle population to an a,-erag-o of 22., 13.7, 3.1, an& 37,9 percent rvsnect-
ively, of that on the control plots, which acrnoed 322 individual T-r souare
foot. The control givrn "by the si-c-nd. derris 'dnist was c'nsiOrertd v(r" s.tis-
factory, hut sr--r-l disadvntt:cs would ttrnd an indiscriminate use of
&erris dusts in the 'beds. Theso include thr anai'wr of neiisoninz fish in
ri'ers or pones to which tie dust -".ight h> carrip., and. th- 'rctical iff.
cult of ennr.r.-, a th-roni.:h arplicrtion to the low,-r leavo, whore th'I bretleso
c-n.-rcgrto in d.ull wpather.

T'.oqp resnlts w'ret confirelod 1:-y ro-wers in Sr-,'th Wnl es and Monmnuthqhir
in 1936, who o'tained qufficicntly -'oond control with 'Prris .",'7t of not less
than 0.2-prrcent-rotr-n'np cortent apTlied at intervnls -f 1' days in .'
wi-p their.

Pha&'-n incertus Baly,

Nozu an. Sonoy-a(3 (37'' in ln2 rr covni e, sr,.vir..: with iprrtis mix-
tures for the contrvi -f this chr's'.li l fe 'i;..' -*n crucif r'T. ve..-t.blr
in Japan. 7

a ut ak au Masi, and fT-1.':rPshi (2 2) in 17 r- rco-tnn f r' tf
a*''"it 1 fluid ounce -f derris soap Lphoton?1 to 1 f--11on" of wqtpr.

- 54 -

Phaedon so.

Korff and Boning (249) in 1;33 stat,'d that a soray containing 0.5
percent -of Pclvosol (a derris preparation) killed 100 -oercent of the beetles
of Phaedon sp. in 12 hrurs.

Phyllodecta vitellinae (L.), a brapps willow beetle

A very high kill of willow beetles was obtained with a derris dust
of known rotenc. e c-ntont.. In dry weather the dust acted as an efficient
repellent for several days.--Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station
of the University of Bristol (54) in 1933.

Hutchinson and. Kearns (210) in 1935 reported on the effecti-eness.
of derris d.ust for the control of the brassy willow beetle in England. A
proprietary dust, consisting of ground derris root and a carrier, with a
crystalline rotenone content of 0.l1 nrcrcent (ether-extraction method) was
used.. The material was a .fine dust and easily distributed.I by means of a
Fiagsra type of 1hand. blower. A total of 44h9 beetles were collected from
a willow beJ., ann. batches of 50 were lightly shaken in Petri dishes with
a small quantity of the derris dust. Immediately after this treatment they
were placed in clean dishes. The following. day 9S -percent were dekd. This
experiment showed that the dust was highly toyic to the beetleS, -nrovided
it cao.e into intimcate contact with the-m.

As P. result of the above experiment further observations were car-
rieeL -ut' on a bed of Salix alia vitellina. A block of 35 stools infested
with beetle., were dusted on May 30 and on the following da. the stools and
soil were examined. The dust had settled on the bark of the stools and on
the soil surf cf, c but very. little was evident on the folie. A total of
751 beetles were counted on, the soil surfPce at the bse of the stools, lnd
only 3 living beetles were present on the plants. No dead bcetles were
observed on an adjoini-'g untreated block of 25 stools on which 450' beetles
were counted.
In a. second experi-ent designed to determine the duration of effec-
tive toxicity, a stool and its shoots and adjacent soil were lightly
dustcd, then coerered with muslin to form an insect care, and 12g beetles
were intr-uiced. The followin;.- da.y ll the beetles were dead. On the same
stool, 3 days after the dust ',plicpti-n, a second batch of 150 betles was
added to the c-.'e, e'and of these 127 were- dea, on the following day.

The failure of pyrethrui. dust to control the beetles had su'isted
that the result was due to the poor adhesion of the carrier, kaolin' to
the insects. An exr-erimont was, therefore, carri-:d out usinr: kaolin mixed
with the finely ground derris root, to ascertain whether the efficiency of
the derris was affected. In orLder to compare the results with those obt-o.ined
with the prorrietnry dust, the kaolin was :nixedI with the derris root in
proportions to rivre the se,.me content of crystalline rotenone. The results
obtain, from this experi-"ent showed, that the kaolin pr-T-are.tion ,ve a 100-
percent kill of the beetles, despite its poor n hsion, and the results from
its use were similar to thosobtPirned with the proprietary dust. Hutchinson

v.dn Keerns conclud.d from the above eroeri:nients that dferris is much
more toxic to the beetles than pyrethrui when used in dust form, and
that a satisfactory control cf Fhy-llodectf vitellinae can be ot i:'.ed
by the use'of a derris d.ust. Under dry-wcathcr conc.itirns the powder
after applicatirn retAin'td sufficient effective toxicit" to kill or
to repel wandering beetles for at least 3 dIys.

lhlldect? vulgatissi-ia (1.)
Sensitive to derris dust.--DeBussy et al. (61); also Van der
Laan (252) in 1936.

Phyllodecta sp., blue anc. brnqsy beetles

Kearns (236) in 1935 rrc'-i iPredc derris spray -n'7. *-erris d:st for
the control of insect pests of basket willows. Thn sprp? should contain
not less than j.0C14 percent of crystalline rotenone, and 1/2 pouni wetter
(best suited for hard waters), r-r 17, imperial gallons of water. Derris
dusts should contain nrt less than0.15 percent -f crystalline roton'np.
Duqts provide a satisfactory control of th. aiult? of the blue and 'r:ssy
beetle, Phy-llodecta op., and the l.rv.e p.nd adults of the r'.rwn ,beetle.
The best results are obtainPd when the betles ha-e collected in con-
siderable nuri'brs or. the shoots and -,n:i leaves in the early srrinf;. At
other times ,f applicati-n dusts do not .itv, satisfactory results. 'Derris
may be usde in connecti-n with =ordeaux mixture.

Phyllotreta albionica Lee., a cb.a.ge flea beetle

Derris dust (3.95 percent of rotrnone) was very effective in field
tests alone and when diluted with gy-:,uu in th- r-tios of ?0:10 and 7T:.--:
Kelsall and. Stultz (245) in 1i)37.

Phyllotreta atra (F.)

Petherbrid. e an. Tho-i..s (317) in 1935 r- ortrd on the control of
flea beetles in seed'c .s in .l-.. The -po cies of flo. iceotles found
attrckin cab-n,::e plants during; the course of the r.resent investi.;o-tions
werc the followir.c: Phyllotreta atra (F.), FP. consobrina (Curt.), F.
cruciferac (Goeze), P. nemror'rm (L.), F. ni:-ripr's (F.), F. pur.ctulata
1(Marsh) nd r:..:dlata Kutsch. In 1031 beat results a'tor the plantss
were up were obt!ined with 4-^percent-nicotine dust. Poor results were
obtain,-. with he:'.: derris dust, tVc dusted es b' in.r: cz evard:, pttoc~ed
as the controls. The dust was a.ls difficult to apnly with a rotary blowse
and injured the plants. In l':14 eypnrri-wnts were m-de on cauliflowers
with 3-rerlcent-nicotnr dust, li. h:t an'. medium' derris dusts (0.2 p, recent
of rotenone), and othe-r m-nateri-le. T ':ec~t control was obtaine. with a
liAht oerris dust arplif. four tines, tho rl^ts chain" only threat pr-r.lic-
ations being ne.rl ap >3'.--,

In a season when flea o "t~e damage is vry ba', the fol1owi.-..-
proce.'lur', was reco'Li':"d ''. for caP.'Lb -' sedtee,: (1) ]r,-r'rc as fine a
tilth as possible; (2) ap.ly n-r.,r,hthleine or a derris dust a'crut 4 nr 5
drays aftc-r the seed is sown; (3) dust with a l1.--t derriq .ist .s the
plants are cm'nin: thr,'u-h the ground; (4) s.ib-,'nuently, dust with a

- 56 -

derris dust at intervals of I to 5'tlays, depending on the weather and
the extent of the attack--in the Pvent of a severe attack, as many as
five aprlicati."ns may be necessary; and (5) keep a very careful watch
on the seecdbed.s. During fine weather they should be examined twice a
day. A bed mav be free from b..etles in the morning and yet be severely
day.~~nd ye bed masbefv fom"oly.e
attacked by the evening of the same day. It is possible that this
method of dusting with derris may be applied to other crops subject
t- attack by flesh beetles. If a lizht dust is used, ab'ut 30 pounds
per acre -er application should "be enough if the plants are in drills
about 2 feet 6 inches apart.

Phyllotreta bipustulata (F.)

Fenton (127) in l1,6 referred to an unpublisheI report by Roney,
of the Texas Agricultural Epi-rim nt Station, wh,- found that a dust com-
nosed -f 15 pounds of pyrethrum (0.5 percent of pyrethrins), 10 pounds
of derris (5 percent of rotenonee, and 75 pounds of sulfur successfully
controlled these beetles,

Fhyllotreta consobrina (Curt.)
P. cruciferae (Goeze)
r- nem r e (L.)

See FctherbriL.,:e nd Thomas (317) undOcr Phyllotreta atra (F.),
on pae 55.

Phyllotreta nigrines (F.)

See- eth'rbrid.ce and Thom-ias (317) unier P. atra (F.), on e 56.

Blunck and M-yer (_0) in 1932 reported derris powder and Polvo
to be effecti-e for combating P. nigri-nes,

Phyllotreta punctul.ta (Marsham)

Sec ?ethcr.rid)re an.-- Thomas (317) under P. atra (F.) on p-9C! 55.

Phyllotreta ginuata (Redt.)

This flea beetle can be esnpcially injurious to mustard.. Dusting
with derris mixtures cntainini; 0.5 percent of rotenrine, and spraying
with suspensions of 1:5, (0r rotenone c-ntent in the laboratory, killed
the insects in a short time. After a field test in a kitchen irrden in
Batavia, th, treated plots wor', noticeably better than the untreated,
but were not (ntirely free from attack. FrobablytThis is to V.e ascribed
to the ro-ulPr watering: of the r-lant by which means the derris rowier
was washed. off; then reinfestn.tion occurred from the c-ntrol plots.--
V-,n der Vech (4__l) in 1i:36.

Fhyllotreta undulata Kutsch

Sece Feth(rbrid.-e nnd Thomas (317) under P. atra (F.) on pie' 55.

Blunck and Mey-r (3IL) in 1932 reported derris powder and Polvo
to be effective for co7nbting this species.

- 57 -

Phyllotreta vittata (F.), the striped flea beetle

Allen (9) in 1934 reported that a derris dust containing 1
percent of rotenone and equal parts of finely ground tobacco dust,
with 300-mesh dusting sulfur as a diluent, is very effective in control-
ling the striped flea beetle.

Easily killed by derris dust.--Hamilton and Gemnvell (174) in 1934.

Killed by a derris-gypsum dust (0.4 percent of rotenone)--HermrIan
and Hoc':ey (185) in 1936.

Ok.amoto (309) in 1936 reported that a derris insecticide is
very effective for the control of this species, vhich is very common
on cruciferous vegetables in Japan.

Agicide DC-4 (rotenone 0.6 percent) at the rate of 4 pounds per
100 gallons of water (0.003 percent of rotenone in -spray) killed from
50 to 100 percent within 96 hours.-Agicide laboratories (6) in 1939.

A 1-percent-rotenone dust may be used for the control of the
striped cabbage flea beetle with effective results if the applications
are thoroughly made and reasonably frequent. The tendency is to begin
the tree-mernts too late, and injury is often severe before even an ex-
perienced grower realizes it.--Crosby, Chupp, and Leiby (92) in 1939.

Phyllotreta vittata discedens Weise

The Louisiana Agricultural Tlperiment Station (263) in 1938 re-
ported that a derris dust containing 1 percent of rotenone has given
best results in the control of the striped flea beetle on turnips and
mustard. If the dust is applied at weekly intervals as long as beetles
are present, this pest can be controlled very effectively.

Phyllotreta sp.

Sensitive to derris dust.--DeBussy et al. (61); also Van der Laan
(252) in 1936.

Davies (98) in 1937 referred to experiments by Petherbridge and
Thomas (317, 318T in 1935 and 1936 with derris dust against flea beetles.
Davies tested derris, derris plust slate dust (1:4), and other materials
against turnip flea beetles, Phjlletreta sp., on 3Svede seedlings. Sl'te
dust (10 percent of seedlings damna-e) alone was about eas effective as
derrls (15 percent damaged) in protecting the plants. From 74 to 69 per-
cent of the untreated plants were damaged.

Plagiodera iinluse Stal, a soybean leaf beetle

In the laboratory 30 adults were repe-tedl, iu'-.ted *'*ith lpleur
plusttalc 1:1, and Derris malaccensis plus talc 1:1, end sprayed with
derris "K.I." 0.5 percent in water (rotenone 1:2,E50), and rotenone
emulsion (1:2,000), according to Van der Scheer's procedure. The re-
sult was not conclusive as 10 or more beetles of each 4ro ip were still
alive after three dpys. Better results were obtainci by feedino- the

58 -
the beetles for 3 days with soybean plants previously dusted with mixtures
of derris powder and talc. After using laleur plus talc 1:1, the number of
beetles that died on successive deays were ....7.:- 10ll,7,.and 2,re-
spectively, of a total of '7r beetles. One-hundred-percent mortality was
still obtained, even by dusting with laleur plus talc 1:5, 16 beetles died
within 3 days and. the rther l4 w-re Daralyzc!d and died with 3 t- 6 days
after being dusted. Of the untreated beetIes, and. of thnse dusted with
talc (30 each), only 2 and 3, respectively, died.

As Plagiodlera does not occur in the neighborhood of Buitenzorg,
Java, two plantings in tho Kalasan district were d.ustedo with a dust mixture
composed of laleur, C'.aLgi, an. talc, which contained about 1 percent of
rotenone. The dusting was done with a hand duster. The first fT- rime t
took place on July 12, 1935, at which ti-ne a plantin. -f aoout 620 square
meters was dusted with 1 kg. of oowder mixture. The effect of the &ustii
was checked. on July 15. Apparently all the larvae wer dead.; however, the
dusting had haed practically no effect on the beetles. The.second. ex-coriment
was -nm'e on July 30. At that time a planting of fully y snuare meters was
dusted with about 2/3 kg. of the dust mixture. This plot was attacked y-
ad.ults only. NIeithF.r on the second nor on the fifth of August could any
reduction in the number cf beetles be observed,.--Van der Vecht (Ql) in 1J36,

Plesispa reichei Chap..

All the larvae but none of the beetles were killed by wett.-. with a
derris powder susoensiin with retoncne content of 1;:5,-Or.--Van der Vecht
(40) in 1936.

Po.rJ ca javana (Motsch.), a kapok flea betle

The beetles (20 in number) when placed on kapok leaves that had been
lightly dusted with Changi plus talc 1:3 and laleur plus talc 1:1 did not
feed and, apparently by contact with the nowdPr, wcrr more or lesg pnarxlyzed
aftPr a few hours. Half. of them were defd aft r 24 hours, and of the re-
mainder a few c-ntinued to react to touch for 4 to 5 days, but they did not
recover.--Van dcr Vecht (4.l) in 1936.

Podnntia affinis GrInd.

The larvae -f this s-pecies living on "lked&nd"-ng"l in Java were dust 'd
in the la!'nretory with derris (laleur) plus talc, 1:1. Six of the 10 nearly
full-grown larvae fell from the leaves after an hour, while the other 4
m,:ed only sluggishly. All the larvae were dead in 2L hurs. There was no
mortality on the controls.--Van dOr Vecht (Oal) in 136b.

Peylliodeso cbrysocephala L.

Roebuck (330) in 1037 reported that cab'ages in Derys ire, Er.T-lnnd,
were severely infested by this species during 1`35'-3. ihc c!bba'es atticke-.
by larvae were ploughed. in and dusts of derris Pnl b-,riurn fluosilicate and
sprrPys of lead arsenate werr employed against the adults. Tho winter of 1036-
37 was unfavorable to the peat, so crops were n-t attacked the following

Psyllio.ies punctulata Melsh., the hop flea Ibettle

Dorst (l4) in 1918 reported rn flea beetle inj-ir:, to sugar beets
in central Utah. During the s)riT ., of 1'737 the hr? fle? Tetle red in:
enormous nurnbers u=-,n Cheirinia rerj.d-. (L.) Lin1', an introd.uced wild
mustard known conionly as wr-stern wallflower, cn th- rrnje land a&djocpnt
to the cultivated areas -f the Sevier Valley, in central Utah. Preli-.'-ry
experiments desi-ncd to control the flea beetle irndicated that a spray mae
up at the rate rf 2 pounds of derris ro-t powdrr, contairinin' 2 pcr~cnt of
rotenone, in 100 gallons of water killed a large proportion of t'- resident
flea :ectle rp.'ul3tion. This spray, howcre.r, a'-o r"l2 t'-nrarry rrotectin,
as i-Icc'-r:.-- flea beetles s-onn reinfestpcl the fields. Bor"ea_-.Kxiyture
(4-4-50), to which 4 u.o.d of calci'm arscnate wa asde ap lied at the
rate of' 75 -li ons prr acrr- gve satisfactory 'rotectirn 'ai.t the flea

Psylliodes S-0

See Ha-rnp (175) under Altica np., on pa--es 19, 22,. .

Rhaphdhi opalpa fe-'rali ts ch.

!Neoton, 1 pound in 80 ilpnrial gallons of water plus 2 poun-ls of
soap, killed. all aPdults of "Aulacophora fenoralis". [This srccies according
to H. S. Bar'-,r, as stated by h.ese'-.c:, 'ray e a chrTscn-ielid... if so, the
name ?h-,'uld bo Rhi'-: l- fe:orelis ... tsch.].--I/.stitute of Physical and.
Chemical Rcsearcn (220.) in lc27.

Nezu, Saka.moto, and Sono'_-. (i34) in l134 reported studies on this
species, a seriouus -,.-t of cucurbits in Jarnan. Derris sprays are effective
against the larvae and the adults.

Mishima (2!7) in 1936 recnorted that in Janon a Corris dust was eff ct-
vlye aeinst the adult beetles on cucurbits. Derris also kills h.e c:s.---- and
stimulates the Vrowth of the plants.

Sew-trg:i (72) in li93 reco rnded srry'. contain:-..- derris for the
c.-ntrol of the larvae of this svocies in Jp-.n. In the Mie Irefecture they
sh-uld. be oipliedC twice, in mid-June a:d early in July.

h aphid elr. feveicollis LUC-.R

Seo- Chevwlirr and Laffrni (C1) under Alticp. ar'l'Th2n^. Gur., on
'o.-e* 18. '

Systena rr ntalls (F.), a cranb- rr,, flea '-tle

Agni,;st the cranbe-rr' flea. -, -tle, a c=priy -f l0 oo';.. f derris
owde'r (4 percent of rotetr .-) and 1 rimd of Aresklo ir; 1 ir of
water, applied at thr r-te rof 4(, .-" l-r.. rrr acre on Au&'"St 11, .--ve a
satisfactory kill of the beetles.--I':sr'.setts A ri.:'1tura. .-r ri rnt
Station (277) in lr37.

- 55 -

- 60 -

Typophorus viridicyaneus (Crotch), a sweetpotato leaf beetle

Brannon (38) reported in 1936 that cryolite-talc dust (60:40) was
more toxic to the sweetpotato leaf beetle adults in field-cage tests than
were derris or cube-root mixtures containing 0.5 percent of rotenone or
derris-root sprays containing 0.02 percent of rotenone. The same author
(4l) in 1937 reported that the sweetpotato leaf beetle had developed into
a pest 6f.distinct importance in northeastern North Carolina. Results of
cage toxicity c.v,-eriments demonstrated that undiluted calcium arsenate was
more toxic to the insect than was a derris- or cube-dust mixture containing
0.5 percent of rotenone or a water suspension of ground derris root contain.
ing 0.02 percent of rotenone.

C. L. Smith (39) in 1937 reported the following results'against
the sweetpotato beetle:

1at riall Reduction
Larvae Adults
S^erceint Forrccnt
Derris power (4 p!.rcent rotenone) ---
3 lbs + 1-7/8 lbs. coconut-oil
soap (anhydirous basis) p r 100 Cgal. 81 89

McCormick's dunt, 0.75 percent
rotonono 79 89
Brannon (45) in 1938 reported the results of toxicity tests in
cagesq, which indicated that undiluted calcium arsenate, O pr'rc:nt barium
fluosilicate 1 pert with infusorial earth 2 parts by-weight, and synthetic
cryolite 3 parts with talc 2 arts are highly toxic to the adult swe-?t-
potato leai beetle. Th7ei- materials wpre mere toxic than were dcrrnis or
cube dusts containing 0.5 percent of rotenone, or a watc-r suspension of
ground derris root at a dose ocauivalent to h pounds of derris of 4
percent rotenone content in 100 gallons of watnr (rotenone content of spray
0.02 percentt.

WV.ll--,ea palmarum Gestro

According to ccm,iuniticn front P. Dnkk3u Bultenzorg Botanical
Grden, this species, which lives in the heart of palms was successfully
controlled by dusting derris powder (2 percent of rotenone) into the heart
of the infested plants. Satisfactory results could probably be obtained
with a powder of lower rotenone content.--V.n der Vecht (L01) in lq6.

Chry.scnelidae (unidentified spp.), flea beetles

In 1934 Cory (=.) led a discussion of field results with Pr enical
substitutes for the control of vegetable insects. According to Headlee
(1l3) in 1935, flea bEoetles in plant beds cnn be controlled by derris dust.

McCampbell (264) inl 134 recommended derris dust for the control of
flea beetles en cabbage.

Dorris-sulfur dust (0.5 percent of rote:none) is of som. value for
comb.tir.-, flea beetles on ccbbago.--Ala'ma Polrtechnic Institute (8) in

Howard,, Mason, and Davidson (200) in 1935 reported that a hotbed
of eggplant heavily infested with flea beetles wa.s cleaned up by sprinking
with e comm-ercial product composed of finely ground dcrris root mixed with
a 'igh.-gr-.de soap powder. Derris root should not b- mixed with soa) if
residual or lasting effect is desirci.

The Kentucky Agriculturel E:ecrimont Station (246) in 1935 reported
talc to be sup-rior to fuller's earth, bentonite, or tripoli as a. diluent
for dcrris used to control flea. beetles,

lilcs (2L74) in 1935 reported that two substances wore found eff,ctivc.
aminst flea bcctles on Brassicae in ngl :d. As soon as the sc *brc-ing through the soil, the rows should. be dusted with either naphth'.lcne
or dorris at the rate of 30 to 40 pou.Lds per accre. It c'n be applied by means
of a knanps.cl dust r, and under orii:?ry circumstances two men ran dust an .cr.
in an hour and a half. Two or threc dustings m,:. be necoCssr". While naphtha.-
lone is only repellent in its action, derris dust is definitely toxic to the
beetles and also repellent.

Derris was effective in field demonstr-.tions a,:ainst flox b.e.tles,--
-.Tw Jersey Agriculturpl Experiment Sttion (29 6) in 1935.

A niixturc of 2.5 pprts of derris, 7.5 parts of s-'.:' ,1l] se'ds, d
90 parts of talcum proved useful in ext;rrmin ".ting. floe. betles.--Schotte and
GSrnitz (3) in 1935.

The &a.st i-L'l!lnT Reesearch Station, 2:..and (110) in 1936 str-ted that
a proprietary dcrris rio'.,der was used in the roatinc spraying ?rc.- r.rp in 135
for the control of flea. beetles on hops.

Pet'-.;rbrid.'--.; ar.d Th'-in.:s (31l) in 1936 re-prt d thc results of fu-t-. r
tests with derris in Englcnd. In 1935, tostSz were mad-. at three: placs in
Bedfordshire with three dusts for the control of flee beetles in Brassico-e
seedbeds. The dusts were (1) Derris dust (rotonoie = 0,2 p,.rcent); (2)
r.phthalenea-silica: (50:50), and (3) a Gruen proprietary dust consisting of
finely po.'' rod quartz D[T:i?]. usts 1 -nd 2 were ppli d at the rat. f
65 to Z5 pounds -.;r acre and Dust 3 -t the ra>tc of 145 purnds oper ar. :-th
Dusts 1 .nd 2 gav. very good control of flecr beetles. As a result of these
tests, the authors recom:-.nl dusting with a dorris or nr'nth~lcno-silica
dust as the plants are coming thr-.'ij, thi ground tnd subs-iu.'tl'" dust.r..
at intervals, dep. ;ii.- on the wcether uiL the extent of ,7ttnck.

Stcr (LfO) in 1936 '-rctt that for flea b tlos on ho.s rJi crucif-
erous crops derris dust is the pr'-fcrrcd inzectied.d.

The United St-tes Deao-rtment of Agricultur. (8_1.) in 1033 ref!rrCd
to derris a-nd cube -s *'-'fectiv r:.' "inst fleo >,Itlef dostractive to groe.,:-:

- 61 -

- 62 -

Whit, (413) in 1936 issued recommendati'na for the control of
insects attacki:.- certa-in vegetables, small fruit,, and tobacco, Derris
dusts ind ictpd that thry may aid. 11 the control ^f flea bP.tles infesting
cabbage and related. cronps.

Howard and Mason (198) in 1937 wrote that in the hotbed and cold.-
frames derris or cube will be found useful in controlling attacks of flea
beetles on young tomato plants and young eggplants.

Derris dusts have givPn satisfactory results on flea beetles,--New
Jersey Agriculturl. Experiment Station (297) in 1937.

Hampp and. Jehl (176) in 1938 reported experiments on1 the control of
hop flea beetles in 1937 at the hop experiment station at 'Hull Germany,
The overwintered adults appeared early in MThy, and the new adults, in smallE
numbers, from mid-July on. The tests were made with unstated quantities of
derris, derris mixed with pyrethrum, and nicotine. As in all previous test
Aerris dusts proved absolutely reliable if applied. in sufficient c'uantity
and were much superior to pyrethrun, nicotine, or aTsenicals, and ePT cifall
superior to sprays.

Rotenone sprays or dusts were recommended by Parks and Pierstorff of
the Ohio Extension Service (312) in 1939 for the control of flea 'beetles
on beet, eggplant, pepper, rad.ish, sweet corn, tomato, and'turnip.

Warwick (410) in 1938 reported. that the most uniformly reliable
'method. for controlling flea beetle in England is the broadcasting of a good
quality of derris dust at the rate of about 1/2 cwt. (56 pounds) per acre.

The Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station (216) in 1939 reported
rotenone dusts to be effective against flea beetles..

Chrysomelidae (unidentified sp.), a red melon beetle

An anonymous (4) writer in the Palestine Gazette in 1939 stated
that the red melon beetle is Extremely sensitive to derris .usts, which
can be rg'.rdeP, as the specific poison for chrysomrelic, beetles; and. that
it, can be easily controlled by two or three applications of derris d.ust
containing 0.75 percent of rotenone, from April to June, inclusive. Against
the larvae boring in the root collar of the cucurbits hardly a measure c.an
be 'dvip(- "L because they hid.e underground and their presence becomes evident
only after the damage is irreparable. Therefore, the necessity of a ouick
and full control of the ;dults is stressed.. A 50-50 mixture !-f rurr. barium
or sodium fluosilicnte and derris dust is recormmnnded, provided the whole
mixture contains 0.75 pQrcent rf rotenone,

Ci cindelidae

Cicindelp campestris L., a ti:-:r beetle

This insect on roses was miti,-rtod by a product containing 12
percent 7,f powderXrd Lnchoc-rD'? nicou rot (of 6 percent rotenone content)
and 88 percent -f talcum, accrrd.in to a lettEr from Etablissements Rot.nida.
to R.C. Roark in 1l31.

- 63 -


ITecrobia rufipes (Deg.), the red-lergi-- ham. beetle

Not. affected by derris.-Van der Laan (252) in 1936.


Epilachnp b-realis (F.), the squash beetle
R.tenone s'usp'i.nded in water, 1:500, pre-nted ff-ling "'v the ad-lbt?
-n" even at 1:2,000 feeding was curtailed.-Davidson, rep-rted by C-.rmbell
(66) in 1932.

2pilachnan &-Aeca.tigna Muls.

Abnut 40 larvae of Aifferent inst.rs wr-re lightly dustpd with
"laleur" plus tP.lc 1:1 (rotenjne 0.5 percent). These lhrea, an.. also
the ravpn-us fourth instars, were r.ral:' e. after a few h-urs, c-qed
feeding, and. dic-i within 2U h-urs. An experiment with 15 ad'Ilts crr-
respondinE" results; pupae that ha?. been dusted with the said p.'der mixture
produced normal b;etles.-Van cer Vecht (hol) in 1936.

pilachna indica Muls.

Most of the adult, and lerve.? di: within 24 hurs aft-r being placed
on the leaves of Solanum rPl-n..-:--.n which have be'?n .usted with a mixture
of rotenone an" tapioca flour.--Federated. -:-.lay States Department of Ag.ri-
culture (126)in 1938. [This report was referred to ':y the Imprrial Institut,-
(218) in 1939.]

Epilachns varivestis (Muls.), t-.e Mexicp.. bear. beetle

The West Virginia De-art"ent of A.-riculture (lIl) in 1927 stated that
Derrisnl showed pr.mis.inrg rp.ilts Ps a repellent r.nd killi r.. a' nt fr.r I.'lt
Mexican bean beetles ant as a killiTn ajent for their larvae.

Dalidson (7) in 1930 report,": the following r.-Uilts with susr-ensigns
of rotenone in watcr. Tests woro nade x bean plants in the fi-d!.

Insect B tC-e' C~nc-ntratir.n Mortality
Overwintered adults 1:5,000 100
1 20, Co0 0

Fall-brood adults l: .Or ."50
treat-d in October 1:250 '50
1I:125 100

S-il larv-c- i :0,OCO 0.3

In field tests half--rown larvae were all killed with a. dust nf 1
part of rotenone and 99 -arts -1f diatomsceous earth.

In 1930 the United States Departmnt of Agriculture (390) called
attention to its research on rotenone, whi-rh was b=ing tested against
the Mexican bean beetle and other destructive insects with promising results.

Darley (96) in 1931 sprayed adult Mexican bean beetles confined in
small wire-screen cages with an aoueous.- suspension of rotenone madLe by pd-
ing a 2-percent solution in acetone to water. Rotenone at 1:50,000 was
ineffective. Rotenone suspended in water 1:200 sprayed on leaves and fed
to the larvae as a sandwich killed all. At 1:5,000 all adults on a sprayed
plant were killed and at 1:10,000, 90 percent were killed.--Davidson, re-
ported by Campbell (66) in 1932. Campbell also reviewed- work by Howard,
who reported the failure of a dust:containing 0.15 percent of rotenone to
protect beans from Mexican bean beetle attack. Two applications of 20 to
25 pounds per acre gave some temporary protection, but at the close of the
experiment, 25 days after the second treatment, the foliage. had been de-
stroyed, whereas the -mPgnesium arsenate plots remained green. Howard also
used concentrated Aoueous suspensions of rotenone in cagec tests against the
Mexican bean beetle, with dIssppointi:ng results.

Douglass (105) in 1933 reported thelresults of tests of insecticides
against the Mexican bean beetle in Nev Mexico. Derris dust and. Cubor dust
killed more beetles than did arsenicals and. barium fluosilicatr. Derris
dust containing 1 percent of rotenond was' mre effective than Cubor -Ust
against overwintered beetles, larvae, and newly developc;. b tlev.

Howard, Brannon, and Mason (191) in 1933 reported that in 1931 they
had found a commercial dust containing 0.15 percent of rotenone to be in-
effective; in 1932 a commercial dust containing 0.275 percentt of rotenone
gave fair results. A commercial extract of derris rort, contain'ir.gn 5 .n
of rotenone per 100 cubic centimeters, with other extractives, gave satis-
factory control at Norfolk, Va., in light to medium infestations, when used
at dilutions of 1: 250, 1: 500, 1: 00, and 1: 1,000. In medium t- heavy
infestations, in Ohio in 1932, at 1; 250 and 1: 400, it gave results raual
to or better, than magnesium arsenate at 2 pounds, to 50 gallons and cryolite
at 2 pounds to 50 gallons 'of water, an.d better than a well-known pyr-thrum
extract at I; O4,00. Derris extract appears to be superior to .-r:.thrum ex-
tract and equal to a cormtination: of the two, and far sui-rior tn pure rot-

The Suffolk County, IT. Y., Farm Bureau (361) in 1933 called attention
to the use rf rotenone and pyrethrum insecticices fnr controlling the i.-x-
ican bean beetle on both string and lima beans. In spraying lima beans the
pyrethrumf- or rotenfnF-spray extracts may be added to the bor(-ef:,i mixture.
In this way the bean beetles, lice, and mildew or pod mold mnp be controlled
with -ne spray. A-parently the bordeaux d-cresses the killing properties of
the rotenone or pyrethriurm a little, but the sprays should. gile jpd c-ntrol
if applied as soon as mixeCL. Bordeaux is n-t neededl on string benns.

Should beans require spraying-against the Mexican bean beetle after
the pods havc set, pyrethrum or derris oxtrp.ctq must be used.--United States
Der~nrtment of Agriculture Bureau of Entomology (386) in 1933.

In 1934 Cory (38) led a discussion of field results with r?-ieal
subctitutes for the control of ve-7 t -tljc irn-sectu. Eeilee rf 'ew Jereys
discussed derris for the control of the Mexican bean tcbeetle. Dhrirn4 the
seasn of 1934 the following mat.rials were studied: (1) Hone-rnix-.
derris dust containing 25 parts of 4 percent retcncne ani 75 parts of talc:
(2) Oerris dust eontaining I rparts of zrount. derris rirni.-- 5 percent of
rotenone ar.d 18 percent of t'tnl extractives, 25 parts -f finely ground
dustinr sulfur, and. 59 parts of finely ;round clay; (3) O.erris d.ust contain-
ing 16 arts of ground derris rort, running 5 percent of roten-ne and. 1"
percent of total extractives, 20 parts of Coposil ani 64 parts of talc;
(h) a dust consipting -f a fine :race rf gypsu-, in, reMnpted with -'.erris
extract in onantitics sufficient to give 0.5 pcrc-nt f rctenone; (5Y "
si:-ilar dust. nmade -in the s*amn way "o".as t ct.rry O"T5 oorcet of rot-none;
(6) a eimiil-r dust Eado so n -'to-containo 1.pcrc-cnt of-rotnono--.3ch af
those tuts-ras u&3d-on*'rbo.ns*in 1/7-aez- blocks. Two aplicctions v'r.e
nado boforo th bor.ne wore -Ac.ix:.:d for mtirkot.
The matorialq macl.e up with -roun. &erris dust werc much more eff3ct-
ive in relucir. the fecdirng injury to fclia-e than were the ratorials cor-
prsed. of il prergnatcr1 dusts. Tbc plants tretetc, with frtun & rris dusts
showed about 10 percent of the foli".: enten at tho time thp >ep.ns were
harvested, whil-' the 7rcKretri nritpri-ls shwef front 30 t- 60 percent of
the folic :e destr-P0.. A stnau.:y of t-e Ietlcs returnin.:- t the treated
bl:-ck9 showed reinfestrAtin nf the iorernateo, nator!el tre-it!-.nts first,
and later the -:r*uun'.-derris-'ust trt'.nts. "rtheror'-, the last -f the
ground-.erris-d.'ist materials to- be rp.nfostic. wa.s the ,.rris-sulfur-elay
coMbination, indicating that t'hi ortic'-l.ar derris dust hJa. a much r:ro-ter
residual effect thr. any of the 'th-ers. These matcripla were applied by
means df a two-row duster, uln i metal sirnle-rcw ho-d&s 6 feet lr.n-, 12
inches wide, P.rd 14 inches high. The use of thae h-ods rmi.de it possible
to effect satisfactory covwrag> and to -bt-in complete kill by the ure of
10 ,ounC.s of dust per acr-, as c-pared. with 25 to 30 o'o'-ns per acre when
a.rplied without the hoods. In view of tho fact tiat the 6erris dustq were
s'id to the cre'-,-r at the ratr of from 1g to 22 cents per po-.nd, the re-
sultant savinf.l made the use -f the hoods very attractive. oreover, the use
of the hood.s ma'.e it possible t apply the dust in thp pri sence of considor-
able wind, instead of han-'ng t, w-rk eprly in the ncrnin:; or late in the
evn o.- or at ni.-ht. These single-row hoods arc describ'bod in Circular Il
of the irw Jersey Lirltultural Expr-ri.rnt Stntion.--H.-adlee (lV2) in 1935.

Croqb. a.n'. COhup.. (1) irn 19.h4 r-con n..'.- rotencne dust for ue
agqinet the Mexican bean P.-tle aft-r the `:,;- .a.C .i'-ir to for-, Bordeaux
should not I.-' r nixd with roton-ne.

Gar-ian an.-I Turner (161) in l194 rAi.cursc:. substitutes for lesd arsi.onte
for use in Connecticut on fruits an& vc -et.les. A P.upt containing 0.6
percent of rotenone was recor-'icdz.'k. for the control of tho :exican lben".

HuekrPtt (202) in 1934 reported. th-t 1.ur4.r- 1I737 on 1-'. Islnrd du&tts
eontnininc from 0.5 to 1.0 percent rf rotcnonp hat re'n 'se- i'ccvssfully
as substitutes for ma-7:.siumn arsEnr.te for the control of the Mexican enn
beetle on snap, an'. lian beans whilc th- pcd.s were frr-nir._,

- 66 -

Huckett (203) also re-orted in 1934 that against insects attacking
ve-taobles derris dusts were usually slightly superior to ft rris srrys.
The Mexican bean beetle l"- be effectively controlled by the us, of a
derris-clay, kaolin, or talc dust mixture of not less than 0.5-percent-
rotenene content, applied much in the sse manner s recoPended for
arsenical dusts. Hyc'.ratrd lime or a mixtur, of hydrated liie and mono-
hydrated copper sulfate affect rqtenone- a.versely, hence their use as a
diluent for derris dust is not recommended. During the summer months it
will usually be necessary to apply sprays or dusts ".nce every 10 drys t"
2 weeks, whereas with thp shorter, cooler days of autuitn, once every 2'to
3 weeks may be quite satisfactory. If derri.s powder is applied in a spr.y
mixture it is advised that a strength comparable to 10 pounds of a dcerris-
clay dust -f 1 percent' rotenone strength be use. in 100 gallons of water,
or 2 pounds of an undiluted powdered derris root of 5 percent rotenone
content in 100 gallons of water, plust the addition in either case of a
spread-r, such as dry skim-milk powder, 4 pounds, or a miscible su2fonated
oil or neutral coconut-oil soap, 2 quarts. Both derris power and skin-
milk powder should be made into a paste before being added to the tank.
Hydrated lime, bordeaux mixture, or ordinary laundry soap are considered un-
desirable in a derris spray, owing to their adverse effect on rotenone. Al-
though spraying may be found to be a, little cheaper than d.usting, insofar
as costs of ingredients are. concerned, it will generally be found necessary
to spray at slightly shorter intervals to obtain results similar to those
obtained with the dust.

The South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station (246) in .13,4
reported the results of tests with various nonarsenical insecticides against
the Mexican bean beetle. Various commercial preparet-nq containing p-.reth-
rum, rotenone, nicotine, and ether materials as the active jr'-redients wert
tested. Best results were as follows:

AvgFrwgc kill___
Material Dilution Old i ew Larvap Flino-e
.1Mul t s ..&ul t s injury
Percent. Percnt Percont Pfrccnt
B1ack Arrow NIone 55 47 3.6 None
Kubatox None 52.5 55.7 64.6 Slight
Re-d Arrow 1:200 17.5 16.4 35.3. None
Avera,e of two tcsts using 20 hibernated adults in e)ch, 10'to l4
tests usinF 25 recently raised adults, an,. 6 tests using 25 larvae in cR-ich.

Turner and Friehd (37) in 1934 reported that the use of -:Tr-thrum
and rotrnone dusta following Ppplicationr of arsonicals prevented Mexican
bean beetle dnrac.:;, qnd a higher rpercentou. of mar1ket,'ble pods resulted.
These n-nroisonous dusts were also Offpctive when used throughout the season

The United States Departmont of A--:-iculture, Bureau of Entomolo*vy
and Plant Quarantine (387) in 134 made the following recom'indation: "The
bert c-ntrol for the bean beetle is snrayirg with nrinesium .rsrnate, the
spray mixture being used. at the rate of 2 pounds to 50 gallons f water or
2 ounces to 3 gallons. If later treatments prove necessary, a derris or a
rotenone dust (containing from 0.5 to 0.6 percent rotenone) should be used."

- 67-

Dorris dust (0.5 percent of rotenone) ani' spray (4 funds s of pow.'er
of 4 percent rotenone content) are eff ctie.--Alabama Polytechnic Institute
(g) in 1915.

Bobb (31)of the Virginia Agricultural Ex-riuent Stption reported
in 1935 that rotenone d'.st at certain strr-ngth. ws effective in destroying
Mexican bean beetles.

In 1935 Brannon (74) reported that sprays were superior to dusts
in control of the Mxican bran beetle in Virgini.. A spray cond-se. of
3 pounds of synthetic cryolite in 50 gallons of water and. a d.erris-rnot-
powder spray continuingg 0.025 percent nf rotenone gave perfect folin.c
protection against the '.ean beetle and increase". the :ields 39 .; 33.5
"percent, respectively, as co ipred with si-ilr.rly situated untreated plots,
A duet :-ixture c'nmT-,sed of synthetic cryolite and talc (6o-40) anrd a e.erris-
talc dust ccnt.ining 0.22 percent of roten'ne gave fairly satisfactory re-
sults inc'. increased the yields 32.9 an".' 23,9 percent, res-ectively, as com-
pared with untreated plnts. These materials were applied with a traction
duster and a traction sprayer, res -cti- lyo,On 1/2-acre replicated plots.

Cory (3g9) in 1935 stated that :.ircrvitch, of Tennessee, reported in
Decenber U193 that Cubor, 1 pound tr 50 gallons f wati-r, -e the best
control of the Mexican bean beetle. Turner, of Connecticut, reported t'-P.t
Oubtor spray and Oubor and Kubstox dusts q o. control of this insect.
A dust cnntaininr: 0.4 percent of rotenone applied oncz on first-reneration
and 3 times on scnd- -n'rtion larvae gave excellent control. Sher".n, of
South Carolina, reported that Kubatox killed 52.5 percent of the old. o-ults,
55.7 percent of the new adults, and 64.6 rrrcent r.f the larvae.

N. F. Howard in a t-.newritten re.Tort to the Division of Truck Crop
and'Garden hInsect In-ec-ti-.tions in 1935 reported the results -f tests '.ith
cube ae-inrst the Mexican been bentlr- at Columbus, Ohio. Cube (roten ne,
7.7 percent) at 3 pounds per 100 gallonr. pplie, at the rate of US c-llons
per acre, and derris c4't~i.ir.4 4.4 percent of rotenone '-:.ve 92 percent
better control than the check. Tlhe addition of 1 -ounOd "f Ynys- or 1 pournd
of soap to the cute srr.,r w-Vk. a'.. ut thc sa r result. Both derris and cube
sprays :rve bettor c'-ntrol thp.n either -a.-:roiui arsenrt -r s','.thetic cry-
olite. A cute powder diluted with talc to a rotenone content o-f 0.77 per-
cent and applied as a tust rt the rate of 21 pounds per acre gave as ,7-,d
results as prp,.ys of "."*T.esiun ars:-LIte or cr:-.lite. Derris and cube dusts
did not (ive sn etisfactory contr'ls as did thb. sirays.

Howard, Brannon, and, Mason (lc4) in 1)35 reported that finely around
derris r-rot in water --!,ri. to te 'ne "f the 'Lst ino,'cticides ever tpst..-l
for the control cf the M!cxlcan been 1ectle. ":-' use. al!-ne it grave ttter
results than when used ,,,ith pvw' .ro 1 s-sap, liie-c 'cin, or > ntonite-sulfur.
Derris stays in susr .e-ion an. stic':Q well, even t'. cL';a? leavw, anr ias
about as lasting effect as Pa-Lo -.'tcril yet treated. Vr r r-.A c^ntr l was
obtained Pt dose .:c- of 3,4h, an 5 pounds cf 'r.'Js, f 4.4 percent r-tcn'se
content, in 100 gallons of water. The wat.r suw--': --.zine sf ..rrris T ",dr
were superior to the ExTrrcts nf derris -r pyret~m -, or a crnP ,r.ti-n of
the two. The irncre-se in re!idual 1 c'f-ct )f th.o --r'i r-'-t ov'r t'>t -f
the extract was r-trked. L-'loratory tpt- in .ic.ate.l that ,,rris 4::sta pnd
sprPys are tr7ic to the e

Ground derris rrot with-' a carri -r -used as'a dust :eavo very '-:r-"is-
... in- E results. The general 'cnclusinn from a largc number of arplication|
was that a dust should contain from 0.5 to 0.75 percent of rotenone (10
pounds orf 5 pcrccnt derris to qO pounds of carrier or 15 pounds of 5 p=r-
cent derris to 95 pounds of carrier). Of six carriers, and co.'i'ntivns
of carriers, comprising talc, tobacco dusts, irnfusorial earth, ,'round marc
(extracted pyrethrum flowers)S inert clay, and. hydrated lime, talc is gen.rrl
proved to be the best. Very good control of the bean beetle was ,.taiin-d
when 20 to 25 pounds was used to the acre. Hydrated lime in so:ie 1istnpcep |
appeared to reduce toxicity and should. not be recommended.

The same autthors (l1_) in 1935 issued instructions for the eontr-l
of the Mexican bean beetle in the Eastprn States. Derris was 6ne of the
insecticides rec'miiended. To prepare a derris srpray use 4 or 5 p,-und.s of
finely ground derris (rotenone content 4 percent) t? 100 gallons of wpt'r.
These sprays will have a rot''none content of approximately 0.02 and 0,025
percent, respectively. o srreader or sticker is required, Directions are
given for preparing dusts containing 0.5 or 0.75 percent rotenone from derris
of 4 percent rotenone contr-nt and talc. Other diluents which mnay be used
are infusorial earth, kaolin (china clay), dusting gypsum, wheat flour, and j
tobacco dust. Fine dusting sulfur may be mixed with the infusorial earth or
Clay to the extent of 25 pounds of the sulfur'substituted for a like amount
of the earth or clay. Some prepared dusts may be thorcua'-ly mixed by.TlhcinO
the ingredients in a drun or barrel, not over two-thirds full, and rolling
and tilting for 5 minutes. Commercial dusts may be obtained alre-dy mixe.i.
Dusta are usually applied at dosages of 20 to 25 pounds per acre on snar, ansL
bush beans, but with careful application thr dbc' may sometimes be redlucrd.

SHoward and Davidson (17) in 1915 teted the dovil's -shoestrinrf?
root against the Mexican bean beetle inr Ohio. Theyr reported that both p
dusting mixture of this root containing a-proximately 0.6 percent of r.ten-
one and a spray With a content of 0.01 percent of rotennne gave satisfactory
control on sm811 plots of heavily infested! beans in the field.

Howard, Mason and Davidson (200) in 1935 reported that 3 pomundR of
derris containing 4.4 percent of rotenone to 100 gallons of water was
effective against Mexican bean beetle. Derris spray was better than derris
dust but 20 to 25 pounds per acre of the dust (0.5 to 0.75 percent of roten-
.one) was fairly effective.

Huckett (204) in Septe'nber 1935 recnmicndcd derria as a s9rno-y .r
dust for the control of the Mexican bean beetle. As a spray, use 4 p-un&''s
of derris (4.5 to 5 percent rotencnoe content and 15 to 1I percent total
extractives) and 4 pounds of Kayso or skim milk p-ow.er to 100 6o-llone of
water. A suitable 'dust may be made by mixing 12 poutndf of derris of al ve
grt.e with 88 pounds of talc, clay, or -,ir-floatead ivr-sum.

Huekett and HEarivey (207, 388) in 1935 reported that derris and cube
spr-'ys and dusts have shown ror- -ii results for the control of the. Mexican
bean beetle on lima and snap beans on Ln.rz Island.

Hutscn (211) in 1935 reported derris rre'nrltions to be superior
to those of pyrethrum for "eyccayn bean beetle control, chiefly because they
have a slight residual action, whereas there is none with the pyrethrum.
products. Derris dusts are usually rade with so-e bland material such
as talc, bentonite, chalk, tobacco dust, or flour, and contain at least
one-half of 1 percent of rotenone. It is often possible to purchase the
ground derris and make up the dust by Pdding the diluent at home. Fr.-, 25
to 55 pounds of dust per application per acre will usually give ood ccnt-ol.

T-.e Kentuicky Agricultural Experi-ent Station (2L6) in 1935 re-orted
that talc was more effective as a diluent and carrier for nicotine, pyreth-
rum., and rotenone than was fuller's earth, bentonite or triooli, when used
to control the Me-icnn bean beetle. Very absorptive clays, like f-.llr s
errth, were difficult to use on mornings whc-e plants were wet with heavy
dew, if the machine drew air from around the plants.

The Mair.e Agricultural Expcri.ent Station (270) in 1935 Mnntionr^d
derris as effective for the control of the Mexican bean beetle whrn properly
used, but somewhat expreosive.

The Massachusetts Apricultural Exp-riment Station (275) in 1935
re-ortcd that rotenone sprays and dusts gave excellent control of Mexican
bean beetle larvae, and the sprays also g"-v a high percentage of kill of
adult beetles.

The jrcw Jersey Agricultural ExTrriment Station (296) in lq5 reported
that a combination of 16 parts of finely -ro... derris root containing 4
percent of rotenone and 16 to 1S percent of total aaetone extr7ctives, 25
parts of finely ground sulfur (300 mesh), and 59 parts of R finely ,-rour.l
clay g!vo practically 10C--pcrcent control of the :'exican b-an bc- tli.

R. J. Prontias & Company, Inc. (323) in 1935 argued that for th'-
evaluation of the insecticidal value of dusts less ehFis be placci on
rotenone content and. more on total rth-r rxtrPctives. Dusts w re prep.r-d
from derris containing 5 percent of rotoron: and 18 rfrcp-nt of total ether
extractives and also from another lot of derris testing 1 prccnt of rctr-
none and 18 percent of extractives. Dusts wer, made from them contnin'.g
in ePc.cr case 15 pounds of rcwdered derris and 85 pounds of -y.T-.- first
dust tested 0.75 perc.,nt of rotenone nr.a the s cond only 0.25 pcrc nt of
rotenonec, yet both gave substantially tho smvne satisfactory result 'hen
used in the field on several ty-res of insects, including .'.xicrn bepn
b~-tler. In both cases the total active ingrediFnts of th- dust, of 'Ire
were the same, viz.; 2.70 pe-'c:nt ethcr extrPctives.

The South Carolina Agricultural EyT,.;rimnt Staticn ( h7) in 1935
reported the results of tests of rotenone dusts ad sprys on lerv'e qn.
adults of Mexicen br- b.-otlos placed on c.-,--d plants aftcr the plants h1d
beon .pr^y.d. T e derris ar:. cub, powders each contain.'". 5 Perc-nt of
rotenone. Results w,:rr as follows:


- 70 -

Derris-talc (0.75 per
Cube +- talc (0.75 per
Derrise-tobacco (0.75
Cube-tobacco (0.75 pe:
Cubor dust ----------
Kubatox dust -----.

Average kill of--
______________ _laIvae __ & ""A i.ult
Percent Percent
cent rotenone) 47.2 51.1
cent rotenono) 32.9 41.l
percent rotenone) 25.6 42.7
rcpnt rotenone) 24.g 22.2
------------ 4o.8 47.6
----------- 32.0 33.8
-- ------ 30.4 22.7

Derris (3.5 lb. per 100 gal.)
Cube (3.5 lb. per 100 gpl.)
Cubor spray (2 lb. per 100 gal.)


17 _

Turner (377) in 1935 r-portEd that one application of derris
dust containing 0.6 percent of rotenone, or pyrethrum dust contain-
ing 50 percent of pyrethrum, controlled a light infestation of bean
beetles. Threr anplicetions of derris dust containing 0.4 percent
of rotenone, or pyrethrum dust containing 25 percent of pyrethrum,
controlled a moderate infestation of be(-n beFtles and also reduc-d
the injury caused by th, bean leafhopper (Empoasc fabaer (Harr.).
Both of these dusts controlled bean beetles as efficiently as did
two sprays of magnesium arsenate at thi- rate of 7 pornds in 100
gallons of water. Bordeaux mixture (4-4-50) applied to lima beans
three tines during the season was slightly lesp effective in control-
ling bean beetles than copper-lime-caloium arsenate dust applied once
an.' followed by two applications of derris dust containing 0.6 per-
cent of rotenone.

Turner and Friend (279) in 1935 report& results of tests for
the control of the Mexicon bean beetle in Connecticut. Derris dusts
containing 0.4 and 0.6 percent of rotenorine, and pyrethrum dust con-
taining 25 percent and 50 percent of pyrethrum flowers, were used in
1934. The 25-percent pyrethrum dust was less effective than the derris
dust containing 0.4 percent of rotenone. All these dust applications
were very effective in producing a high percentage ofuninjur:d pods.
Use of derris and pyrethruxnr s:.rayrs following magnesium arQPnte applic-
ati-ns invariably caused foliage injury, probably duo to the action of
soap sprepd,.rs on the arsenic.l rrsid.ue. Sch spriys cannot be us&d
with safety on vines previously sprayed with arspnical compounds.
Derris and pyrethrum dusts caused no foliage injury in any test.

The United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine (Z o) in 1935 issued changes and additions in the
recor,'iendations for the control of the Mexican bean beetle. The follow-
ing wr-ere commended as superior to magnesium arsenate:

Derris (finely ground root), 4-percent-rotenone content, 2 to 2.5 pounds
to 50 gallons of water.

Sprays to contain approximately 0.02 and 0.025 p-rcent of rotenone respect-

71 -
When derris contains a higher rotenone content, less of the material
may br used to obtain sprays of the rotenone content mentioned abov.. No
snrerder or sticker is repuirrd.

Finished dust to contain 0.5 to 0.75 percent of rotenone.
Derris .(4 percent rotenone content) 12.5 pounds, talc or other diluent
87.5 pounds.
Derris (4 percent rotenone contc'nt) 19 pounds, talc or other diluent 81

: 'Other diluents that may be us.d are infusorial earth, kaolin (china
clay), dusting gypsum, wheat flour, or tobacco dust. Fine dusting sulfur
may be mixed with the infusorial earth or clay to the extent of 25 pour.ds
of the sulfur substituted for a like amount of the earth or clay. Home-
prcpared dusts m.-y be thoroughly mixed by placing the ingre6.ic-nts in a drum
or barrel, not over two-thirds full, and rolling and tilting it for 5 minutes.
Commercial dusts may be obtained alr<,dy mived. Dusts are usual'y artlied
at dosages of 20 to 25 pou.'(1q to the acre on bunch bcan-, but when careful.
applications are made the dosage may sometimes be reduced.

Walker and Anderson (407) in 1935 wrot!' that bean growers reported
obtnlnlng very satisfactory control of the Mexican been beetle with a derris
dust containing 0.75 percent of rotenone applied at th- rnte of 15 to 20
pounds per acre and some growers reported getting good control with 10 pounds.
prr acre.

White (112) in 1935 recommended derris sprays (0.02 or 0.025 p recent
of roti:none) and dusts (0.5 to 0.75 percent of rotenone) for the control of
the Mexican bean beetle.

Brannon (35) in 1936 reported that best simultan'ouq control of the
Meyican bean beetle and powdery mildew on snap bear.ns at Norfolk, Vs., was
obtained by aedlng 2 pounds of wettable sulfur to derris- or cubc-prcwd:r
suspensions containing about 0.02 percent of rotnn-ie or by ,iluitir.ng derris
or cube powi'.r with sulfur to P rotenone cont'rnt of 0.5 percent.

Brp.non (36) in 1936 summarized the rosulto of thE' field control
.experiments of 1935 ag-inst the 'eican bean betle on lima beans at
Mapprwille, Va., as follows: In an exnrrimrnt cor:'ictod on 1/2-acre plots
of Ford.hook li-ir beans (using power machinery) in which cryolit. spr-y (3:50),
powd-rjd derris-root spray (0.025 percent of rotEnone), cryolite,--talc dust
(60:4o), and derris-talc dust (0.22 percent of rotenone) were compared. The
rcsults, after six treatments showed that cryolite Dor-.y (3:50) was rnu.lly:r
as effecti-e as pow.,.-red derris-root criry (0.025 percent of rotenone), and
that cryolite-taic dust (60:4o) g.-v,- a considerably Iqr,-.r yield iTicrrase
than did dorris-talc dust havirno? P roteonnF: content of 0.22 percent. In
comparing the yield irncreasrs at the time of the various picl'iniq of this
long-growinr crep, there was an indication that pow,.re' derris-root spray
filled to afford the repidupl effect obtained following application. of the
cryolite sprry. This hnr. not been observ,-d on the relatively .hort-r-rrwinr
snapr-bean crop. Thr net profit pyr Pcrr .u- to tr ntment was co.-silderably
greater from the application of cryolite syrpry than frc- thp other mat rials
used in thW- ,yprri.Y.-nt, partly bec-is,- of the higher yield 1!.crease ott;.i-I'ed
with cryolite but mainly b.,'causr of the lowr cost of that treatment.

- 72 -

Bro-,n (59) in l36 rcferrod to th-b use of derris dust (0,6 percent
roter-ncn content) for the control of Mex4 cmn bean beetles whenever these
insects become troublesome. From 25 to 30 -ounis -r acic arplid once
or twice is usually sufficinLt.

Fenton (127) in 19.6 ref',rr-d to the recommendrtions of Robinson of
Alabamsa (g) and Thomas of Texas (367) co-.cerning derris dutts and sprays for
the control of the I'exican bcanp bectle.

Howard (190) in 1976 r-cportced test. mae at Columbus, Ohio iL 1935
with insecticides against the Mexican be'n beetle. Satisfactory control
was obtai:-ed with suspensions, of derris-root powder aJd cubtb-root powdr i.
wat.-r at ilutions of 0.01, 0.015, 0.02, and 0.25 percent of roVeno-o,
Fairly satisfactory result- vaer obtained with derris spra.1s containing
0.005 -orc(nt of rotonore. dhe incorocr'-tion of various wetting agents,
sr' c lnr, a_-.0. stickers :id not improv- bhe efficiency of these spray sus-
pensionF, In general, cube rro(-ed to be apnTroxi ately e ual in effecti-e-
neos to derris when tested at the sarn' dilution of rotcronD, Derris- and
cube-dust mixtures containing 0o., 0.5, nd 0275 percent of rotenor.e with I-
Ious dil-nt-, -.l gavc satisfactory control As a result of sprcial tests
of -,-rious dilu-nts, it wa? conciudc-d that Jt vwas not important to obtain
an-" raticular diluent for ufs with derris or cube dust, provided such dil-
u .t is nonallaline. in character,. -.c ri-sults nndiccte1 that talc-flota+tior
,ulfur (50:50), whet flour, ground' [pyrethrumr] marc talC, bentonite,, and
firely ground. dusting sulfur in the ord-' r named, with- thr last two almriost
ecual in effectivcnness were as good as or 1light]y suprior to, an' of th ,
diluents tested. In g-n'ral derris dust pperreC. to oe slightly supCerior
to cub3 dkaptq in effectiveness.

In a limited number of e.perim nts the ground. root of devil's-shoe-
strings(Tephrosia viy>giniana L) at a dilution of OI01 p recent of rotenone
gave aproxiniately en-ual results to those obtained with r.(rris-root 'owder
r),-rys containing the sa-n e proportion of rotenone. D~vil, s-1hoestrirg-r.
root dust mixtures containi,-F 0 39 an8 0,4 nerctnt of rotenone. resopective-y,
gave satisfactory control and w-re apro.imatelv equal to derris-iQ-.st nJi*tur- .
of te Esmf roter.nonr cnttnt.

Howard (1I3-) in 193( reported some rathr intpre,-ting results from a
cooper,-iti-e exp-rinent wit'. othcr field laboratoiy-s of the Burrau to deter-
rn';, tde lasting effects of debris on bean foliage. Bean plantin;s were.
made -t the following !oc7.tions throughout the United Statr s: Y)Jr Hav n,
Conn.: :orfollk, Va., Coluaibuf, OhioO, 3 ton Rou, L., Madison, W'is., Man-
ho).ttn, ans, G-rand Jurctio., Colo., Twin F.lls, Idaho, Ventura, Clif.
Cor'allis, Oreg,, Puyallup, ivash. and PI.,onix, Ar z. These plantings. were
treatedC with a derris spry and samples of l v,. s waerc taken at given inter-
val.s and scnt to Columbus for aalysis. In evwry case derris was' rfecoercrd
irn uff'icient quantities at the end. of 2 we- rk? to be detected by the colori-
mrtric and. goldfish methods. At *,-'cison, Grand Junction, Twin Falls, Corvrlli
and Columbus derrin showed a slower lo-, of toxicity 4than at other laboratrrie
Light alone did not seem.to account for the decomposition r'ato, neither did.
high humidity. At Pheoniy where daily tecneraturci. a"'r+ed over 100" F.,
derris was recover,=d aft' r 10 d&ys. At Venture, where- no rain fell during
th', tect, all the toxicity had disannn.rrd at the end of 4 we",ks. During
this trst period. Ventura had 9 fo' days, being the only laboratory where
foe' was r-pTorted.

- 73 -

Howard, Brannon, and. Mason (196) in 1936 recommended derris ov cube
spray as the best control measure for the Mexican bean beetle. Thrr-o pounds
of powder containingg 4 percent of rotenone) pcr 100 gallons gilr-s a rotcn-
one content of about 0.015 percent. Th- treatment should be started when
beotle5 are found in the filId and. should- b, repeated at int-rvals of 7 to 10
days. Dusts containing 0.5 percent of rotenone may be used at the rate of 20
to 25 pounds per acre per arplicrltion. Sprays are recommendd, in preference
to dusts for bean beetle control because spraying will giv better control
and longer protection to the plants. In the case of home-mixed dusts, either
talc, dustingsulfur, infusorial earth, kaolin (china clay) or oth'r finely
ground inert clay, gypsum, diatomaceous earth, wheat flour, or tobacco dust
may be used as a diluent or carrier, but recent experiments have indicated
that talc is the most satisfactory. Dustq containing 0.5 or 0.75 perc-nt of
rotenone should not be used for -naking sprays. Begin spraying when the adults
are found in the field or when thr eg6. become numerous on the undersides of
the leaves. One to four applications are reoluirod, depending on the abundance
of the insect.

Derris dust (0.5 to 0.75 percent of rotenone) arplied at the rate of
15 to 25 pounds per acre will control the Mexican bean beetle.--Hutqon (212)
in 1936.

Langford and Crosthwait (256) in 1936 reported eyrneriments on the
control of the Mexican bean beetle. The experiments were made under conditions
normally encountered in commercial bean production. Thc- spr-ying was done
with a 4-row traction sprayer with angle nozzles, and the dusting was done
with a 6-row pow-r take-off, self-mixrieg bean duster. Two treatment* were
ma?.e with each material, on June 12 and June 26. The plants were checked for
bean beetle injury on July 3. The r.-sults for spreys were as follows: The
plots treated with 2 pounz.Q of nagnesium ar-enate in 50 g6.llons of water
had 5g.5 percent of the plants injured by the be- tle, whorcas the plot treated
with natural cryolite, 2 pounds in 50 gallons of wr ter, had only 19 percent
of the parts injured. Two pounds of a 2.5-percent rotnnonr showed 25 percent
injury; bariun fluosilicate, 1.25 pounds in 50 gallons of water, had 55 per-
cent of the plants injury c1:.o The dustp of rotenone and pyrethrum gave excell-
ent r. ults. Thc riot .rs't .-. with a 60-percent p.'rethrumn Aiit (0.054 percent
of :rhins), apli. c. thVf- rate of 16 poun0> cr ace, hd,.t 5. percent of
the plants injure. by th i' Tlo.. Anothe-r plot w. v it.h a rot,-enore ,dut
(0.75 Tr.rcent of rotenon.) -vlied at the rate of o,5 pour.d-- per acre shc'-.-d.
only 4.g poercc-t of th plants injured by beetles, whereas anoth-r plot dusted
with a rotenone dust cont-ining 0.5 percent of roenone applied at the sai-
rate had beetle inj-.-.r" on 22.1 percent of the plants.

The South Carolina Airicultural Exyccrine .t Station (7') in 1036
rrco.., ended derris or cu1- 'for the control of the P 'ic-i be. beo tle. S-r-uvs
(3.5 pounds of powc'-r containing 5 r-'rcenLt of rotenone r* r 100 gallons) ap-
plied at the rate- of 100 to 150 g-llons ri-,r ecre g'vc slightly siir- rior re-
sults to dusts (0.5 or 0.75 percent of rotrenone) ippli-d at the rpte of 2:
to 25 pounds p'r acre at -ach dusting.

The Unit-d St-tep Don-rtrent of A.-ricultur, (3_) in 10c6 r'frred
to the effective use of derris and cube against the Mexican ben beetle.

- (4. -

The Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine of thaz United States
Department of Agriculture (393) in 1936 reported results of various tests
with rotenone,. derris, an. cube,. FielA experiments with insecticides in
Ohio end Virginia, on beans Erown for the green-bean market or for canning,
havr dem-nstratcd that the Mexican bean beetle can be controlled at a mini-
mum cost by applying sprays or dusts c-nta.ining rotenone derived from derris
or cube without den.-r of incurring harmful residues on the market product.
Laboratory studies disclosed that the active ingredients of derris .were ad-
sorbed and tran-locatc, in treated plants in. such a manner as to prevent
yextensive feeding of beanr. beetle larvae on foliage that developed on the
plant-s after- the insecticides had. been applied. This residual effect of
rotenorB-containing insecticides had been observed previously under field

Wallis (40O) of Grand Junction, Colo., in 1936 reported that the
results of field-control experriments performed against EDilachna varivestis
in 19Q3 on beans grown under irrigation revealed that a derris-spray sus-
pension containing 0.015 percent of rotrnone is. as effectiv, as a derris
spray containing 0.02 percent of rotenone.. Sprays containing 3 pounds of
cryolite to 50 gallons of water, or derris containing 0.015 percent of rote-
none, or cube sprays containing 0.02 percent of rotenone, were more efficient
than a spray containing 1 pound of zinc Prsenite to 50 gallons of water. The
latter spra,.- is most commonly used by growers of beans in the Grand Junction

Rotonone sprays or dustR after pods have formed were recommended by
Bo-rne and Boyd (33) in 1937.

Brannon (.e0) in 1937 summarized the results of insecticide tests
performed against the Mexicon bean beetle in 1936 on Fordhook lima beans
kt the 1orfolk, Va., laboratory. The best control was obtained with dust
mixtures of derris-sulfur an6. cube-sulfur, each containing 0.5 percent of
roteno-.e. Derris-wettable-sulfur and cube-wettable-sulfur sprays (each
containing 0.01 percent of rotenone) also gpve good control of the insect.
The percentage of control with the Lust mixtures, was slightly superior to
that obtained with the sprays.

Brainon (42) in 1937 reported that recent experiments at the Norfolk
laboratory, designed to de.termrine the relative effectiveness of derris,
derris-sulfur, cube, cube-sulfur, pyrethrum-sulfur, and sulfur alone, applied
as dus.ts or as sprays for the control of the Mexican bean beetle in associ-
ation with the green clover worm (PlathyreFna scabra (F.)) infesting snap
beans, showed that in instances where this pest occurs in association with a
Mexican boan be-tle infestation, sulfur should be used as a diluent for derrie.
or cubf: for the combined control of the two insects. The derris and cube
dust mixtures contained 0.5 percent of rotenone, the dorris and cube sprays
contained 0.015 percent of rotenone, and the pyrethrum-sulfur dust mixture
contained 0.1 percent of total pyrethrins. Wettable sulfur was used as a
nr-r'y at the r.te of 2 pounds to 50 gallons of water.

The Colorado Agricultural x-oeri nrnt Station (8_) in 1937 reported
that a dust cottPining 0.75 percent of rotenono used on the Mexican bean
bcrtle failed to give satisfactory -control. A spray of 4 pounds of derris
containing 4 percent of rotrnone to 100 gallons of water gave control eaual
to that effected, by zinc arsonite and magnesium arsonate or phenothiazine,
4 po',)nI to 100 gallons of watr-r, under heavy infestation,

Fulton and Mason (151) in l107 reported that wi'hen derris in sprn"rd
on bean plantsits constituents are qAsorbed eQ. tr-nslatrd to new growth.
Two varieties of beans (Pinto and. Burpec,. Stringlrss Grcenpoc), grown in
pots under greenhouse conditions, wrre treat,-., before th.- first trifoliate
leaves appeared, with suspension of derris in water, containing 0.025,
0.05, and 0.25 percent of rotenone. Some of the plants were tre.nted by
spraying thr entire plant with a compresseO.d-eir hand sprayer, some by
painting only the first pair of true leaves, and so-ne by rlintin- cnly
tht stems. As soon after treatment as the first trifoliate leaves had
attained a fair size or about the ti e the second trifoliate lea-es were
opening, the first trifoliate leaes were removed from the plants and used
for tests. Larvae of the MeYicn bean betle cornfined. in open glass cells
were allowed to feed on these leaves and the leaf areas consumed were
measured. There was very low mortality anor.g the larvae feeding on the
new growth from either the treated or the untreated plants. T 're was,
however, a definite reduction in feeding area of nrw -;r-,,th on treated
plants over that on'untreated plants. This reduction in fending area
was observed on the first, scond-I, and third trifoliate leaves.

Chloroform extracts, from the smr plants as those used for the
feeding tests, were prcrared for biological a::d chemical test- by evanor-
ating to dryness and removing the residue with acetone. An aliouot of the
acetone solutions was tested d.gainst goldfish (Carascius auratus) in water
suspension ar.d 100-percent mortality was observed in v. rv case. 'rn mortal-
ity was observed in ev-ry case. No mortality was observed in extracts
preor.qrrd from untreated plants. Where sufficient leaf material was avail-
able an alinuot was used for the colorimetric ansly:sis.

The Georgia Airicultural Exp-riment Station (163) in 1937 reported
the v.lue of several nonpqi-sonous insecticides in controllir.7 this insect
when tested in cngeq. A commercial dust containing 0.75 percer.t of rote-
none in talc and one of Pyrocid.e, a trnr.f product made from pr,,thrum,
mixed with nine parts of kaolin, gave lIO-perc.-r.t kill of beetles -rnd
complete protection to the bean plants. E masses dusted with the rote-
nore dust hatched but the larvae died before- leaving the e shc.ll. A third
commercial material, Florote, containi-.g rotenb-. e and other materials, killed
beetles more slowly than the others but protected the plants,.

Hamilton (172) in 1937 reported that M.-7ican bean beetles on beans
were controllf-. by a spray of 4 pounds of derris or cube powder (E percent
of rotncn e) ar.d U pounds of rosin-residue emulsion per 100 gallons of
water. The srry acts as a contact poison and as a repellent. The effect-
ive p'rio. is g days.' Yight- percent kill of larv'-^ and 20 percent of re-
peller.c- on beetles was obtained. Repeated spr.ayi "gc would give go-d control.

Howard and Mason (19g) in 1937 reo-ort-d that the Meican bea.n betle
can be effectively controlled dy. derri. or cube dust (0.5 p,-rc.:nt of rote-
nonre) applied at th,-' rate of 20 to 25 pounds. per acre; or -a -pr. contain-
ing 0.15 percent of rotenone. It has bern found. by grow. rs in New Jermey
that the use of hoo&ds behin;.- pow r or tr-irtion dusters allows a considerable
saving in the amount of dust P.nrl i.- for the control of the :rvic.r. been
betle. I h.-n hoods were used in dustine- n thr experientl plots of
Howard and Mason, one-half the doge f-'v. as satisfactory results as did
a full dosne without the hoods.O. These hoods n? be constructed of li.-ht
fri.nc.work, sich as barrel hoops and bamboo poles, and may be covered with
a ch"-ap grad, of muslin and attached behind th. dustr-r. T'-irr are of c'.:r-,
net practicable for use on the hand machines,

- 76 -

Experiments performecI in 1P37 at South Point, Ohio,against
,pilachne v.rivcstis by Howard an.d c..-,on (199) gave the following
results with th i.-iou.- inec:.i c e tested Phnothiazine at 2
pounds to 50 g -)l" of a'.r gave good control, bout slight plant
injury result<. cler::s, C-LOP, 'imbo. and Ceioil -sshoesBrings gave
good control a-a ccnca nr-btion of 0.015 percent of rotenone and usually
at concentration of 0,01 percent of rotnnono. While the use of a varnish
sticker with derris and cube increased the degree of control in one instance,
no increase could be noted in two other experiments. The use of sulfur
with derris or cube sprays, and its use as a diluent with dust mixtures of
these materials, does not consistently result in improved control in Ohio;
however, its use farther east usually results in better bean crops.

Hutson (213) in 1937 recommended derris dust (0.6 percent of
rotcnone) for the control of the Mexican bean beetle.

A derris dust containing 0.75 percent of rotenone killed 97 percent
of the larvae'and 83 percent of the adults on lima beans. A spr-y of
dcrris powder (4 percent of rotenone) at the rate of 2 pounds per 100
gallons of water plus; about 2 pounds (dry basis) of coconut-oil soap
killed Q90 percent of the larvae and 94 percent of the adults.--Manschke
(272) in 1937.

Derris dust has given satisfactory result? on the Mexican bean'
beetle.--Neew Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (297) in 1937.

The New York Agricultural Experiment Station (301) in 1937 made
comparative tests of derris, cube, and timbo powder having about the
soie content in active ingredients in spray and dust mixtures for the
control of the Mexican bean beetle. The results showed that all three
powders when used at comparable strengths in terms of active ingredients
were effective, a slight superiority favoring derris. Spray mixtures
containing 2 to 3 pounds of good-grade powdered root in 100 gallons of
wat-r with sticker gave satisfactory results. Sprays during the current
season were more beneficial to plant growth than were dusts. Of the dust
mixtures tested, those containing 0,5 and 0.75 percent of rotenone gave
the best results. It is interesting to note that the yield of snap beans
from plants effectively sprayed or dusted did not invariably result in
'marked increases in yield of pods. From such evidence it so'med highly
probable that to formulate a rational method of control for the Mexican
bean beetle emphasis should be placed nore on the:-.making of a few oppor-
tune applications and less on the necessity for fulfilling a definite
series of applications according to schedule.

Tho South Carolina Airicultural Experiment Station (314) reported
thr'.t insecticide tests were continued during 1937 but nothing developed
to indicate that changes are desirable in the 1936 reconmondnations, i.e.,
5 percent of roteno.:c used as a spray at thr rate of 3 pounds to 100
gallons of water, or 5 percent of rotenone used as a dust diluted with
talc or inert clay at the rate of 15 pounds to 85 pounds of the diluent.

- 77 -

-C. L. Smith (=3) in 19-37 reported that a srry'r of derris powder
(4 percent of rotenone) 2 pounds per 100 gEllons of water, plus 2.5 pounds
of clconut-oil scap (anhydrous basis) reduced the larval population of the
Mexican bean beetle 90 percent and the adult population 94 percent at the
end of 24 hours. McCormick's 0.75-percent-rotenone dust ci.'us-d a larval
reduction of 97 percent and an adult reduction of 83 percent.

Thr. United States Drpartment of Agriculture (3Q3) in 1937 released
information concerning the work of the Bur-au of Entomrolcy and Plant
*Quarantine. The problem of the practical control of the :hrxican bern
beetle was advanced by a demonstration that some of the new insecticides
containing rotenone are taken up by the bern olant an-d distributed to the
leaves in a way that ensures protection against the beetles for 10 days
or longer, cutting down the nrnbcr of applications needed.

The United States Bureau of rtomolo." and Plant Quarantine in
a picture sheet in June 1937 recommended 3 pour.ds of finely groui'. derris
or cu.be (rotenone, 4 percent) to 100 gallons of wator as a s!rry or a
dust containing 0.5 percent of rotenone for the control of the ,:ican
bean beetle. Suitable diluents arc- talc, clay, sulfur, tobacco, gypsum,
or other powders, except lime. Scrn.ying has given better results th-n
dusting. The uAder sides of the leaves should be thoroughly covere.
The first application of insecticide (spray or dust) should be made
when the beetles are found in the field or when er-rs becc-rme numrnrous
on the under sides of the leaves. Reeocat every week or 10 days if the
insects are numerous.

The Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (3_9)in 1937 reported
that sprays or dusts of cube or derris control the Mexican bean bcctle at
a minimum cost.

Ultrawet a-.ded to cube dusts (0.75 percent of rotenone) and sprays
(3 pounds per 100 gallons of water) did not improve their control of the
Mexican bean beetle.--Walker (40o6) in 1938.

White in 1936 (nl3) and 1937 (4l4)recomm'nded derris or cube s-prays
or dusts for the control of the Mexican bean beetle. The spr-7y should
contain about 0.015 percent of rotenone(3 pounds of powder containing
4 percent of rotenone per 100 gallons of water) and the dust 0.5 percent
of rotenone. Sprltys are recomirnded in preferencE to dusts because they
give better control and longer protection. lko spreader or sticker is
necessary with derris or cube in water for use on beans.

Brannon (43_,44) in 1938 reported the results of an exmoriment
conducted at ,orfolk, Va., aoinst Mexican bepn beetles on the spring
crop of snap benr.s, to determine the relative effectiveness of derris,
cube, ax;> cryolite du-,ts anc. sprays. BasFd on the dezr-, of foli:.^-.
injury-, derris and cube s'r .'s conta nir,- 0.015 percent of rotnch.e and
dust mixturrs conr.taining 0.5 percent of rotenone art tht most effective
materialss yet devised for the control of the Mcxican bean beetle. Dust
mixtures contpini .g combinations of derris, :'rethrur, and sulfur were
eoually as effective as dcrris-talc or cube-talc dust -7xturcs contain-
inc the spme pf:rc.,ntr-!.e of rot none. In Decenber lq-" he rc'crted that
tests made at Norfolk demonstrated. that dusts or sr.r-i:s cont'ain!:.i: derris,

cube, or cryblite are effective against Epilachna vrarivestis on crops
of lie beans' grown commonly on poles and from which pickings are made
throughout a long period. Insecticide applications made to the pole
beans on June l, July 1, and July l were apparently reflected through-
out the season in increased yields, as compared with comparable untreated
plots, pronounced ir.creases in yield being noted on the treated plots
at the end of the eventh picking (about September 30). The effect of the
insecticide treatments on the first and second pickings of the crop earlier:
in the season were also strikingly apparent, as judged from the yield records
made at that time. It appears that sprays or dust mixtures containing derris,
cube, or cryolite, when applied properly, are effective in controlling the
!ixlcpn bean beetle on both bush and pole beans.

Lima bean leaves sprayed with dilute solutions of rotenone were
unattacked by Mexican bean beetles.--Breakey and Olcott (48) in 1939.

According to Burkholder and Crosby (60) in 1938, the best means of
controlling the Mexican bean beetle is to dust with a derris powder contain-
ing 0.75 percent of rotenone. Good results c?.n also be obtained by sprpy-
ing with 5 pounds of a finely ground rotenone-bearing powder. ( percent of
rotenone) in 100 gallons of water. This dust or soray may be used in place
of an arsenate or cryolite dust or spray before bean pods begin to form.
Because of the danger of arsenical residues on harvested beans, the rotenone
dust or spray must be used when the bean pods are present. Arsenical or
fluorine (cryolite) poisons may be substituted for rotenone only before the
small bean pods appear. All the insecticides arc more effective when applied
to the lower surface of the bean plants where the beetles and their young do
most of their fredin,n, than to other parts. of the plants.

Rotenone dust is especially efficient.--Cory (_7) in 1939.

Dunlap and Turner (106) in 1938 recommended rotenone dusts and
sprays. The dust should contain at least 0.5 percent of rotenone, and be
applied at the rate of 25 pounds per acre; the spray, 3 pounds of cube
(4 percent of rotenore) in 100 gallons of water.

Fulton and Howard (150) in lq13 reported the results of studies
of derris residues on bean leaves. Experiments cnnducted at 13 laboratories
of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine from coast to coast indic--
ate that the most important factor concerned in the decrease of rotenone
from sprayed bean plants was rainfall, heavy rains causing gre-.tcr loss,
as would be expected. The loss in toxicity was comparatively slight after
31 days where no rainfall occurred (Twin Falls, Idaho), but vrry rapid at
Columbus, Ohio, within 4 days, owing to rainfall. Intense sunlight in
the Southwest and the South di. not account for so great a loss in toxic-
ity aq did.rainfall, although it appeared to be a factor.'

Fulton and Mason (152) in 1937 noted that in certain field tests
with insecticides for the control of the Mexican bean beetle the growth
of the bean plants that formed after the application of a suspension of
derris or cube in water appeared to receive some protection from Infestation.

- 79 -

It was suspected that this protection was due to the adsorrtion-absor-ption
and translocation of. the derris or ci'uc constituents. With this in min
tests 'were undertaken to determine whnth,r this phenomenon could. S explained.
Feedir.g tests were made with the larvae. Chloroform extracts of leaves wore
also tested on goldfish. The authors concluded that a definite retardr.g
in the fce&i.4g of Meyic:.--. bean beetle larvae has been observed on the new
growth of bean plants treated with derris powder. First, second, ard third
trifoliate leaves, formed after the first r.qir of true leaves hac bcen
treated, were found to be less ptl'.tablr tc bean beetle larvae thaIn similar
leaves from untreated plants. Extracts prepared from first, second, and
third trifoliate leaves formed after the application of derris rcwder to
the first pair of true leaves caused 10-p:rcrnt mortality to goldfish.
Extracts prepared from first, secondhand third trifoliate leaves from un-
treated plants were not toxic. A water extract prepared by macerating now
growth of bean plants that had beon treated with derris was fatal to gold-
fish, In-one instance,, where a large quantity of new-growth na-terial was
available, a crystalline- substance ros-embling rotenone was isolated. '.,
material when purified had a melting point of 163.5 C., gave the charCct.r-
istic color with the Gross-S-ith method, and the blue color test of Durham.
One mg. of this substance in 650 cc, of water at 26.7 C. killed three
goldfish in an average of 77 minutes. These experiments demonstrptt that
derris constituents are translocated from the outer surfaces of leaves to
first, second, ard third trifoliate leaeq formed after the application of
derris powder in water suprsion to the fir st true leaves and stems of
bean plant .

Huckett (206) in 19g reported test of cube mixed with each of the
following: Sulfur, sulfur and celite, bordeaux mixture, and celite and
clay for the control of the Mxicrn bean beetle. Two samples of cube
powe.der were comp.red, one aralyzi..- 2 percent of rotenone and 18 p-rcent
of total eth-r extractives a.nd the other 5 percent of rotenone and 12 to
14 percent of total .ether extracties. 'These powders were aptlied in
sulfur spray and d-Lst mixture at strengths equivalent to 4 pounds of cube
powder to 100 gallons of wettable-sulfur sprny and 10 pounds of cube pow-.r
in 100 pounds of a cube plus celite plus ,-rouind-sulfur-.,..t mi7 tur-:-.
Huckett c-ncludes that according to larval population counts, and yield of
podz, -ixtur-s containing, cube pcvwder of 2 percent of rotenonc and 18 --r-
cent of total eth. r extractives were as effective at the d.csrLge u? as
those containing cibe po.'-IL-r of 5 nercrnt of rotenone and 12 to l1 percent
of total ether extractivt-s. In field tests on li-na beans snpryed and dusted
with copper-lime mixtures for control of plant disease it was observed that
bor eeux mixture, as applied, possessed consid.ernble merit in that it had
notable: rFducCd the amount of fEedi:.-: by Epilrchna vwrivesti, This ff ,
it was observed, was sli>'-.tly en- -.:ced by the addition of cube rco'w'dr to the
mixture at the time of a'rp]ication or by -&--in4 se-nsr-ite a*,plic'tions of
cube-clay dusts followir.g treatment with bordcraux mixture.

The Indiana Division of A.-riculture (219) in lq,? poublish'-d infor-'.ation
on the control of the Mexican bean beetle. Derris or cube pow.ir, contnin-
irng 4 percent of rotenone, should be usco. in the -roporttdnn of I pounds of
powder to 100 gallons of water. P.otfnone dests are inferior to rotenrncne

- o80 -

G. D. Jones :(2-(l) in 1938 wrote that derris or cube dusts contain-
ing 0.5 percent of rote none -hale proved. most satisfactory under eastern
conditions for the control of the Mexican bean beetle.

The M1.ine Agricultural Experiment Station (271) in 1938 reported
that rotenone dusts, which should be applied at least 10 days prior to
the picking of green beans, appear to give good control and are aafe to
use on beans for market or canning.

TThe New Jersey State Agricultureal Experiment Station (298)in 1938
rcTcrted that a spray of derris or cube powder plus rosin-residue emulsion
in water was effectie against the larvae of the Mexican bean beetle,and
has some contact and repellent action against the adults. This station
stated that, out of over 500 synthetic organic compounds tested 'during the
preceding 3 years, 13 which proved toxic to silkw6rms were tested on the
Mexican bean beetle and 1 of these proved superior to lead arsenate in
toxicity and eoual to or better than derris.

The New York Agricultural Experi:-ent Station (302) in 1938 reported
the results of tests ag'-inst the Mexican bean beetle, ma.Ae with bordeaux
mixture and rotenone-containing powders as a combination fungicide-insecti-
ci.e sprey for use on fall-grown lima beans. The results indicated that
a spray consisting of tiibo powder in combination 'With bordeaux mixture
was as effective as one of timbo powder alone.

ITr'.T York County Agents Training School (300) in 1938 announced the
following.results of teots for the control of the Me1ican bean beetle:.
"On dry field beans, very good kill with Pyrocide No. 5 dust at 30 pounds
per acre. Same is truf: with 0.75 percent of roteno-e. Rotenone spray of
3 pounds of 5 percent of rotenone, with 2 to 3 pounds of skim milk per
100 gallons, is also very good. On lima beans on Long Island the most
effective results for the third'.successive season were obtained where
applications of- bordeau't mixture and rotenone-bearing powder had. been made,
whether the materials were applied seprrtely or in combination. Similarly
successful results were obtained whore Cupro-K was substituted for bordeaux
mixture. The fact that there are indications that roteno-.e-bearing powder
can, with certain mild reservations, be combined with bordeaux mixture for
spraying purposes without losing thereby its effPctiveness g-reatly simpli-
fies the problem of fur:ishiig a practical formula to the grower that may
be used for control of most parasites attacking lima, bean folin-c and pods.

Howard (306) discussed green bean pests in 1931 as follows;

Our primaryl- r-?co-vicndations for the control of the
Mevican bean beetle are derris and cube dusts and sprays,
We do not need iuite so strong a derris and cube dust and
spray for the control of the Mexican bean beetle as for
thp. other truck-crop insects. A 0.015O-Porcent-rotr-none
srra: or a 0.5-percent-rotenone dust is strong enouih,
but we do not like to encourage the selling of a 0o.5-per-
cn t dust because in the -nrden generally we shrulI probably
use a 0.75-p1rcent dust.

Rotenone sr;'/s or dust, were recommended by Parks and Pierstorff
(312) in 19-8.

Roark (327) in 1938 referred to the work of Howprd (190), who found
derris dust superior to cube dust, but both derris and cube sprays coually
effective against the Mexican bean beetle; also to the South Carolina
Agricultural Eyrcriient Station (317), which found derris and cube equally
good whether in the form of dusts or sprays: and to the 1ew York Agricult-
ural Experiment Station (301), which found derris better than cube, whether
in the form of dusts or spr-ys.

The South Carolina Agricultural Exporiment Station (351) in 193
reported that the control recommendations as first advocated in 1936
have been v,:ry effective in all tests at this station. The recc.m,-rded
treatment is to spray with a mixture consisting of 3.5 pounds of 5-percent
rotenone in 100 gallons of water or to dust with a mixture of 15 pounds
of 5-perc-nt rotenone and 85 pounds of talc or inert clay.

Todd (374) in 1939 reported that derris-talc dust conta'nhg 0.75
percent of rotenone applied to bean folia-',: did not afford protection
agair.st the Mexican bean beetle beycnd 7 days of exposure under field
(sun) conditions. In the shade derria was effective for 2 weeks or as
loni, as the, plants held up. A spray containing 0.Ol9 percent of rotenone
was less effective than the dust.

The United States Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (39')
in 193$ gave the results of much work with rotenone products. Field
experiments in Ohio and Virginia on beans grown for the green-bean market
or for canning showed conclusirly! that the Mexican bean beetle can bo
satisfactorily controlled by the use of sprays or dust mixtures contain-
ing rotenone derived from ierris, cubE, timbo, or devil s-shocstri-s.
In Colorado the. results from test on irriga.ted. beans. grown for the dry-
bean market demonstrated that sprnays containing derris and cube E-ve '-tter
results than any oth-r materials tested, _L:d thpt cryolite sp:r-'s o1ve
the next best results.

Wallis (409) in 1938 summarized the res'ilt-s of tests performed with
insecticides as-ri'-.st the Mexican bean beetle in ColorocLdo in 1937. tip
rer nortcd that sprays conta.n'n derris and cube gave better results than
an," othrr materinls tested, the increase in yilcld r-.gting from 10.4 to
48.7 percent ov;r the check plots.

Brannon (46) in 1939 summarized th. results of an eorperi ent con-
ducted on Fordhook lima bean-, at orfol, Va, late in the suvmer and
early in the autumn of 19111. Dust mixtures or sirn ,q containing; cryo-
lite controlled successfully an infestation of p7il7h0 varivestis in
association with Hellothis obsoleta (F.). The cryolite-dust mixture's
consisted of 60 parts of cryolite to h4 rartq of sulfur or of talc, by
weight. The cryolite pprr," werr -.A up at the rate of pounds of
cryolitc- to 50 gallons of water. Cr:.'olite dusts- and sprq''s incrf- ,,l
the yield aroroximatel- 70 percent, as conip-r." 2 with the chfc'', wherens
plots to which spr-iv of derris or cube had ben anplied sowcdA yi-ld
increases rangrLir.g from 30 to 10 percent. In view of t' fact that the
Mexicnr. bean beetle infestation in the field where the experiment was ,tred
was not usually sovere,the larger yi>ol iicrcses from th us, of cryolito

- 81 -

were attributed principally to the superior effoctiveress of this material.
a-sir.st the corn earworm, since previous experiments have demonstrated
that derris and cube are of little value against this pest.

Good control of the Mexican bean beetle can be obtained by using
a dust containing from 0.5'to 0.75 percent of rotenone. Good results'
can also be obtained by spraying with 4 pounds of finely ground rotenone-
bearing powder (4 percent of rotenone) in 100 gallons of water to which
has been added about 2 pounds of skim-milk powder.--Crosby, Chupp, and
Leiby (92) in 1939.
in 1939
C. B. Dibble in a "Bug Flash" [post card]/advised Michigan farmers
to apply derris or, pyrethrum sprays or dusts to control the Mexican bean
beetle, Some preference seems to be shown at present for derris dust,
and thip material should contain from 0.55 to 0.75 percent of rotenone
and should be applied at the rate of 25 to 40 pounds ner acre of snap
beans. To gie effective results, the material must be blown under the
plants and bounded back onto the under sides of the leaves. One treat-
ment may be sufficient, if timed exactly right, but ordinarily two treat-
ments are reouired for a season's protection.

A mixture of 15 parts of ground rotenone-bearing root (5 percent of
rotenone), 15 parts of lithopone-zinc sulfide pigment, and 70 parts of
kaolin or other inert carrier was toxic to bean beetles for a longer time
(e5 percent longer on bean plants) than ordinary rotenone dust. During
thee tests there was a normal rainfall.--Faloon (ll7) in 1939.

M. P, Jones (23)in 1939 recom-ended derris or cube for the control
of the Mexican bean beetle.

Nettles (294) in 193q recomnlended derris dust (0.75 percent of
rotenone) or spray (3 pounds cube or derris of 4 percent rotenone content
per 100 gallons of water) for the control of the Mexican be-n beetle in
South Carolina.

The NTew York State Agricultural .xp-rinent *Station (203)in 1939
reported 'that rotenone dur-ts and sprays apparently are effective and
pnrcticable for control of the :lexican bean be,'tle in the field,

She-rman and. Todd (339) in 1939 recommended rotenone dusts (0.5 or
preferably 0.75 percent of rotenone) or sprays for the control of the
Mckican bean beetle in South.Carolina. Tests are recorded with the pro-
prietary rotenone products Cubor dust, Cuber spray, Kubatox, Red Arrow,
and Pysol, and with dusts made by mixing cube or derris with talc, tobacco
dust, kaolin, sulfur, hydrated lime, and talc plus lampblack,

The United States Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (39
in 193 ouotnd thr, County Agp nt of Crawford County, Ind., as reporting
that rote.no e [.derrisj-sulfur dust on the Mex)ican bean beetle gave 100
ocrccnt kill in evrrr case. '

- 92 -

- F3 -

- Epila-hr.a vigintioctomaculata ab. niocnica Lew.

T-kai and Ito (363) in 1932 r'oortcO. that derris is v-ry effecti-e
agaiinst Epilchna niponica Lew. L_. vigintioctomaculata ab. niocnica Low.,
according, to 4uerscbeck].

ipilachna viginticctopunctata (F.)

A potato field near Sid 'r.gla, Java, attacked by both adults and
larvae rf different instars, was dusted with lalpur plus talc 1:1 by
neorns of a hand duster, at about 9 o'clock on sunny morni!.gs. After
the dusting 20 adults and the snm-c number of larvae were gathered frcn
this plot and from a neighboring untreated plot. Thc: dusted beetles
showed signs of paralysis after -bout 1 hour ano. s cretcd an abnormal
amount of liquid; after 2 hours nearly all were completely paralyzed
anL. only a few still tried to stretch their ein:-s. Aftr 24 hours,
12 were dead and the rest died the followir,'- d-y. Also, the larvae
cea-d. fcredir.. -ftcr the dusting; 17 were cead after 2I hours, and the
other 3, which nt that time still reacted to contact by mov -.-- their
feet, dicd the following d&y. The untreated. insects were observed for
4 d;:-, and remained alive during that time.-Van der Vecht (401) in

Yoshioda (41g) in lO6 r-port-d that adults in Formosa are killed
by pyrcthrxun with soap -s a spray or with a.sh as a dust, psrays of derris
or nicotine beinr: much lee.s effective.

EVila chna sp.

Extracts of sec,-s of Tiphrosia canAidla and stem bark of .Md:
sericea were effective at 2- and 1-pcreent concrntra.tions, respectively,
in 2 hours against the larvae.--Bhqtta and :,Fray nan (29) in 1939.

Wter sus-r. nslons and alcoholic extracts of Derris elliptica roots
(rotenornec nearly 7 pprc.-:t) grown in M.yrrc, In.ia, -w rr rffectivc against
Epilnchna F-rubs.--Hy yre, India, DeFaxrt'ent of Aericultur (291) in 1939.

Hiprpolami, ccr.-' rc-i'ns Guer., the, cenv.-r-':ont ladybcetle

Dc Or.-- (100) in 193), in test.n; the comparative insecticidal
value of frur species of dorriq from thr Philippine Islanr.ds, us"d this
p- cies as one of the t est insects.

Hau, Pr-n Peterson (].,2) in 193 t.st,-o. derris pcw,:or (5 percent of
rotenone, 14 percent rf etier rxtrfctives) at a concentration of r-u.,
1or 100 gallons a,,in-t t' conver:- r.t la :-jb, ctl-. T-n authors concluclid
that of the insccticis! tcteo, hcnothizi;c andc derri? prov;. to be the
most toxic to all st-:es of this cecci!cllil. Phenotliazinc '.ille. C, to
100 pcrcr-nt of t1-, pr.ulto Qn. larv, a.r.A erris kill a' r-xin'ately
rri a rn l- x i' ~ --i th-,l
70 percent of the adult, '6 T,,rc-nt of th larv- ,n. 14 p-cent f th-
('l- .. Th. 0r* mortality reported with derris is F-Th gren.tcr if tohe lr:.
nu'-,b:- r of larvn that .icd a short tim. niftrr they hatched are irc!u .
with the number of drr, e .

- c,4 -

Coccinellidae (unidentified spp.), ladybeetles ...'........

MciIndoo and! Sievers (265) in 1924 reported 'derris powder used as
a fu"nigant'(burned) to be effective against the ladybeetle tested..

Derris powder, 1.5 pounds per 100 imrrial gallons of water plus
soap, killed the larvae.--Kelsall et al. (244)__ in 1926.

.Killed by a derris-gyosum dust (O.4 percent of rotenone).--Herman
and. Hockey (1l5) in 1936. .. .

Butac (62) in 193g, in dusting cotton with a 50:50 mixture (by
weight) of 5erris and gawgaw for the control of the spotted bollworm,
noticed that all ladybird beetles were dead within 6 hours of the applica-

Garman (159) in lg stated that derris ahd cube have been shown
to be destructive to ladybeetles. -

SGarman and Townsend (160) in 19V reported that derris powder .(1
percent of rotenone) at 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water killed 82 per-
cent of ladybeetles. This observation was made when testing derris',-for
the control of the European red mite in apple orchards in Connecticut.

The New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (2L8) in 1939 reported
that derris-root dusts destroyed a large number of ladybeetles, whi!hl.
are natural enemies of the pea aphid.

An anonymous (4) writer in the Palestine Gazette in 19? stated
that 12-spotted ladybeetle adults are easily destroyed by derris dusts.
The larvae are not so much affected by it, but if well coo.ted by the
derris dust they also perish very soon. A 50450 mixture of pure barium
or sodium fluosilicate and derris dust should effectively protect cucurbits
against attacks of the ladybeetle" Pnd its larvae, provided the whole mix-
ture contains 0.75 percent of rotenone.

Colydi i dae

Bothrideres (?) andrewesi Grouv.

Feeds on derris roots in stornge.--Corbett (g6) in 1911.

Cryptcphs cidae

Atomaria linearis Steph.

Resistant to derris,--Anonymous (2) in 1977.


Ahasverus advF.na (Waltl.)

Cr-iufurd-Benson (9) of the Coorir Technical Bureau, London, in 1939
described an improved method for testnr!' liouii. contact insecticides in
the laboratory. This bureau has for some time past been engaged in chemical

- 8.5 -

and biological studies of insecticidal substances derived from retrn-ne-
containing plants. Rotenone-contaning plants, e.g., species of Derris,
Lonchocarpus, Tephrosia, and. 'u.tlea, arp essentially contact insecticides:
therefore the present work has bec:n devoted to evaluating only contact
action. An improved in.mFr~ion method for laboratory testing of contact
insecticides is described and the rigid technique necessary is detailed.
The effect on the resistance of A. advena to a derris insecticide of vary-
ing the time of immersion, the age of the insects, the tcmprrature, nd. the
humidity before, duri.;., and after immersion is illustrated and qhows the
necessity of controlling all these factors. Results with a standard derris
insecticide were given, to show the great accuracy that can be obtained by
the new method; that the same result with the sarr. insecticide can be re-
peated from day to day; and that two workers using the sane insecticide
have obtained identical results.

Laemophloeus turcicus Grouv.

The adult is very susce-otible to derris.--Craufurd-Benson (90) in 193e.

Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauv.)

The adult is v-ry susceptible to derris and is a suitable, tost insect
for evaluating derris pre-Darations in the laboratory.--Cr-uf',rd-Benson
(90) in 1938.

Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), the saw-toothed grain beetle

The adult is very susceptible to derris and is a suitable test
insect for evaluating derris preparations in the laboratory.--Crauf-r.1-
BEr.son (20) in 1939.

Used by Martin (273) in 190O in determining the- relati' toxicities
of different species of derris. The insects wer- reared in a constant-
tevrrature and humidity room (27 C. and 70 rrrcent relative humidity)
on sultPnas and flaked maize. Spry'ng:r trials, usi.,- for each concentrri-
tion a 5-fold replication of 25 insects, were carried out in an appar'tus,
devised by C. Potter, a deccrirtion of which will be rublishedd lter.
The app:r-tus is designed to .'ive a uniform ft, ,-rit over an arena of npprox-
imntely 70 cm., Prind is suitable for use with quickly moving insects.
:rinls were first carried out upinp the resir-s suspen(. 'd in a ediu.T of
0.5 nrrcent of sulfonatr` lorol containing 10 percent of alcohol. 7. e
deposit used was of the order of 1.2 mg. per svuarf centi'ietar. in-
sects aft:r being spraye were returned to the c.-stnt t- '-rature room
and examined 2L hour- later. ThE perconta ',p of badly affected, moribund,
rnde dead insects were ta

AmorphoidL-? lata 'ctsch.

All adults on cotton plnts in one ol the- plots at th;. -'. ilir-in-
Carniv,,l Eyr's1.tlo-. were killed by a derris-'.',r-w duit.-But-c (62)in

Anthfonomus eugc*nii 'no, 'the pepper w',,--i11
R. E. Camopbell, of the Alhambra, Calif., laboratory, in a type-
writtpn report to the Divisiori'cf Truck Crop and Garden Insects of
the U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant yav.rantino, in 1934 s-tated
that in cp.g tests terris dust killed 51 percent of pepper weevils,
as compared `rith 54 percent for cubee dust. Both dusts contained 1
percent of rotr-none. A derris' dust containJng 2: percent of rotenone-
killed 63 percent of the weevils. *

Anthbnomus grandis'Boh.,,* the boll weevil

Stnith, Clark, and' Scalrs of the Tnllulah, La., laboratory, i'in a
typewritten report to the Division of- Cbtton Insect' InvestigP.tions of
thr Bureau of Entomoligy and Plant Querantine in 1934, compared the
effectiveness of derris, cube, and other inTsecti'cide^ against' the. 1boll
weevil in cage tests, Derris -nd cube containing 4 percent of rotenone,
and derris mixed with clay, "'sulfur, tobacco dust, and lime to' 2-, 1-,
and 1/2-perccnt rotenone content were used. The derris-sulfur mixtures
were considerably better than those with -the same proportion of 1ime,
but in all cases the mortalities were low with 1- or i/2-pprcent rotenone.
The results with the undilutedcube and detri4 as compared with calcium
arsenate were as- follows: .

Insecticide (applied as a dus't--
"avernge field dusting" with a small
hand dust gun) Mortality
P* percent
Cube (4% rotenone) 75.0
Dorris (4% rotentie) 91.6
Calcium' arsenate 1.
Check' 32.8

As shown in the table, cube wa.s not eoua1l to derris of eaual
rotenone content in killing these insects.

Gaine., Y6oung, -nd G&rrison (153) in 1935 re-orted field tests
mie at Tallulh, La. The average yield-' of cotton treated with 'derris
diluted with sulfur to 0.5 and 1.0 percent of rote-none ihdicated that
toep,- mixtures '-'d little if -ny v'lue for the control of the boll weevil.

S.aith, Clhrk, .nfi Sc'les. (_4ll) in 1936 reoorted the results of
c -7 toxicity tets mia c-e Pt Talulqh La.- Derris cotainlng 4 nercnt
of rotenone kill-ed' 69 percent of the boll weevil as coin.ar'd with 60
percent with cplciu arsenato;e: but w,.n diluted with sulfur or k-.olin
tO 2 percent, 1 percent, or 0.4 -oercent rotenone content the kill was
greatly reduced -nd was not comnarbicl with that from calcium arsenate.
Smith and Sc-bl s, in a t^vpewrittr.n report to *thr D',rision, reported the
followinr:- results of cagr tests m,-.e at Tallulah, La., during 1936:

Treatment Control
Cube ho percent, sulfur 60 percent
(rotnone 1.96 percent) 45
Cube 20 percent, sulfu:- 80 percent
(rotenono 0.98 percent) 28
Cubi 10.percent, sulfur 90 percent
(rot*-none 0.49 percent) 6
Cube 10 percent, pyrethrum 10 percent
sulfur 80 percent (rotonon- O.049
percent) 9
cube (rotpnon" 4.9 prercnt) 80
Dcrris (rbt.none 3.9 percent) 67
Devilis-shoestrings (rotenone 1.7
percent) 26
Calcium nrs~na1tc 73

Youn.' and Smith (419) in 1936 reported the result? of fi ld-pclt
a.nd cago tosts' for boll weevil control. Dirris dusts wrr mnd.n- by mix-
ing dcrris powder, containing h percent of rotenone, with flour or with
kaolin to rotnnone content- of 2, 1, and 0.5 pcrcrnt. In c-ge-5 tnh boll
weecvil mortality observed at T'llul.h, Lr., in 13h was Q follows:

Tre ptmont Avrn-gc .: ort-lity
.Perc nt
Calciumn arsenatco 81.
Derris dust (2 percent rotenone) 72.9
Derris dust .(l percent rot.-nonc') 52.6
Derris dust (0.5 Tpercent rotenone) 42.5
Untreated 32.8

The authors conclud.c '. follows"

Derris-root dust mixtures cont-ining 0.5, 1, nnd- 2
prrccnt of rotenone, bnpse. on th( snu!r- infcstptior- "nd
yield. rc.rd., g-vo vrry little, if rny, wc*vil control.
TI'c feilurr of the pl'ts trc-,ted with derris-root 6.ust in
two tc ts te yirlr s well s the untr-eated rlntp irdicntrs
thnt the dcrri--reot dust mixtures, whcnr. uscd. nt t!.e ro.te
of b to 6 pounci. per rcre, h-.e. no vwlue as -me ns of boll
wv'-vil control. Th: rr' ult? with d.erri i- c' ge tcts, (.o
not grr- with thc results in fi.'lcl-plpt-tc ts Th. hic"er
boll we vil-kill in thf cf r-q w prob-bly ''.e to the f'-ct
th.t the boll wevr-ilf were estercfie[. sh-rtly nftr the p7plic-
.'tions of aerris-root rv-.tivr,-c wcre and would f-il to th,'
c-gc bottoms. wh-rr the:' lIny cypos(d to th> pun d.A were
killed brfor the- rrcov-r,d fro%.v th eff cts of th> dorris.

Th- Division of Cotton Insect Inv-,ti tion0, UnitrA States
Bure' i of Eitonology mnd Plant '.lmrantine, in a menor.-ndum to the
chiof of the Bureau, dtcd December 2, l2f roportcd the followi..l:
resriltq of tcqts Ionc at Tallulmh, L., and Port pLfcp, Tex., nlurinc

- 8g -


Derris 40 percent, sulfur 60 percent.
(rotenone 1.6 percent)
Derris 20 percent, sulfur O pcrcent
(rotr-nonf- 0.8 porcont)
Derrig 10 pprcrnt, sulfur 90 percent
rotenonee 0.4 pprcr-nt)
Derris (rotcnon? 4 percent)
Cube(rotenone 4 percent)
Devils ,-hoestriIgs (rotenone 1.7
Calcium a.rscn'.toe
Ch ck

Pe recent




Snith -nd. Scales (342) in 1937 r-'porterd the- results of insecticide
tr,-tp a,,inst 3 cotton insects. Te6t. wer' o>n:c. to c'm-o're derris,
cube, nd .iedvi.l' s-h6estrings4 contaiinng. .qual. qnu-ntitie. of rotnnone,
ii mixture. with sulfur. The mixturco were prpred.. howrev-r, before
the nralyses Vrpre received, iand the rotenonr, cont nt1 of th-" mixtur.-
rre only apron i .tIl equal. Q.ube cont-P.ining '4.9 percentt of rotenone
produce a- highErr mortrhlity of -boll wee'il.- than did d&errip cor.'ntaining
3.9 percent of rotenone, (1eil' s-shoestring (I.7 percent of rotenone),
or calcium arsenate. The mort1litz, from calcium arsnate, how, ver, was
higher than'that from cerris, 3edevil1s-shoestrings, or mixtures of cube,
derris, an n devills-shoetri-,gs with sulf-.ir. The results were as follows,

Mat eriatl "ort l1 t'
o. 'or t --) 1 i,t,-
Pnrcnt .
Derris-sulfur 40:60 (rrteno-Ie 1.56) 49
Derriq-oulfur 20:80 (rot,.ionr 0.78) 39
Dcrris-sulfur 10:90 (rotenbnp 0.39) 28
Cube-sulfur 4o:6o (rotcnoe 1.96) 53
Cube-sulfur 20:;O (rotenone 0.98) 39
Cube-s'ulfur 10:90 (rotrnone 0.4q) 21
Devil' s-shoe.strings-sulfur 94:6 (rot'nonr, 1.6) 37
Devil' s-shoes.tri:gs-sulfur 47::3 (rotennne 0.g)38
Devil s-sho -strinlgs-sulfur 23.5:7.'5
(rot-none 0.4.) 31
Derris (rot-none 3.9, tot*-l eYtr!ctivee 11.6) 72
Cube (rotcnon 4.9 totol e-tractives 17) g3
Devil s-p'ocstri.gs, rotenonee 1.7, to.t'l ex-
tr" ctiveI-R 7.5) 37
Calci -n ,rp o).teo Yo. 2 77
Check 16




," I ,

- .9 -

Cube with pyrethrum and sulfur was tricd. ig-inst th) boll weo"vil
with the following results:

Material_ -ortality, 'Control
Percent Percent
P.y re thrum-cube-sulfur 10:10:80 x9
Pyrethrum-sulfur 4o0:60 36 12
Pyrethrurm (0.76 percent total
pyrethrins) 37 14
Checks 27 -

Anthonomus musculus Say, thie cranberry weevil

In 1937 the *.asachusetts Agriculturnl EYT.eriment 'tation (277)
reported that 100 pounds of derris dust (1 percent of rotenone) per
acrt7, applied on June 5, grve a poor till of the cr-nb,-rr.,' weevil.
A spry:" of 8 pounds of derris powder (4 percent of rotenone) and
4 pounds of fish-oil soap in 100 gallons of water, used .t the rate
of L00 gallons per acre, filed to give good kill. In 1938 this
station (278) reported tha.t 't the Cranberry Station, East Wareh-m,
Iass.. a spr-,y of 15 pounds of derris powder (4 percent of rotenone)
and 1/2 pounds of Areskap in 100 gallons of water, used at the rate
of 400 gallons prr *cre on August 3, failed to give a good kill .of
the cranberry weevil.

Arthonomus pomorum (L.), an a,.pple blopsom weevil

Tests of derris iust to prevent ovipooition were of sufficient
promise to justify furthr-r trials.-En.st ialhifr Reserrrch Station
(ill) in 1974h.

Hey, Mni-se, and Strer (186) in 1934 reported a te(t made in K.-nt,
England, to control the ,pr'le blossom weevil. A proprietary derris
dust of somewhat he,,vry type, contnir.nlr. 0.1 pcrccnt of recrystallized
rotenone, was tested. '*,irrn apoDlied at the grcen-bud stage it hal'"-ed
the injury caused by the apple blosp.rm weevil, but had no Pppreciaoo
effect if applied a week earlier.

The East ::-llir.ug (es-$rch Station (112) in l915 reported dusting
',nd spr-l-ing tests with derris. Stccr and Thom',s of this station reported
that derris dust (10 parts o'f derris r.c1',drr of 3.63 percent cride roten-
one plus 90 parts of chin clay) reduced the amount of c-Ppnin.g by the
apple blossom weevil 50 rT rc-nt. It wns concluded that derris duets,
in two consecutive sc-sons' trials, havc giver promis>.(4 rcults, but
to obtain a rstisfactory me-a'ure of cr-.trol it would probably be nec-
essary to make several -pplic-1tiont and renew the ,':.t d-roqlt whenever
it is washed off b, rein. A dorris dust gave prominrn results in
preventing ovipodition but wrath. r coa.dtions i a linit to the
degree of control that can be obtained with it.

- 90 -

A derris dust containing JD.5 percent of rotenone and 1.25 percent
of ether extractives prevents the adult insects from laying their eggs
in the blossoms.--De Bussy.: et al (61) in 1956.

The East Mailing Research Station, England (114), in 1936 reported
that a proprietary derris powder was used in the routine spraying program
in 1935 for the apple bloss-om weevil on apples.

Two applications of a dust containing 0.75 percent of rotenone
killed 50 to 80 percent.--Anonymous (2) in 1937.

Kearns and Marsh (238) in 1937 reported that application of derris
dusts at the early green-flower stage do not provide a sufficiently high
control of the blossom weevil to warrant the expense. Sack banding
applied to the boles of the trees in June at times provides a means of
capturing large numbers of weevils. It is desirable that the bands be
removed from the trees before the end of October, and the weevils killed
by immersing the sacking in derris wash.

This pest on apple trees was mitigated by a product containing 12
percent of powdered Lonchocarpus nicou root (of 6 percent rotenone content)
and 88 percent of talcum, according to Etablissements Rotenia in a letter
to R. C. Roark in 1938.

Hanf (174) in 1938 reported on the control of the apple blossom
weevil. Of many insecticides tested, the pyrethrum-derris preparations
were the best. Quassia was useless. Nicotine often acted more quickly
than pyrethrum and derris but the insects were only stunned and later
revived. The opinion was expressed that an insecticide should be at
least 90 percent efficient in laboratory tests to be potentially of
commercial value, asin.practice not all insects are hit; hence the over-
all efficiency is reduced. It was "recommended (1) that trap bands.be
applied to the trees in February (2) that the usual preblossom Spray
with supplements of pyrethrum or pyrethrum-derris be applied just after
the first green on the buds, and (3) that in small orchards, bands be
applied in June.

Kearns and Martin (239) in 1939 wrote on the use of post-dormant
combined sprays on fruit crops in England. Sprays containing 0.004
percent of crystalline rotenone have been found satisfactory against
fruit pests and are recommended for apple, plum, and Rubi crops. The
addition of derris to the spray does not prevent severe infestations
by the apple blossom weevil, although a high kill of weevils on the
trees at the tine of spraying is obtained. The failure to prevent an
appreciable infestation of the blossom is due to the fact that it is
only rarely that the greater part of the blossom weevil population
congregates on the tree at any one time, and this may not coincide
with the time of application of the spray,

Niklas (305) in 1939-reported that rotenone at 0.4 percent con-
centration as a spray had killed, 100 percent of A. pomorum adults after

- 91 -

Anthonomus pri Koll.

Etablisseicnts Rotenia in 193g reported in a letter to R. C. Ro.rk
that "Anthor.omus cinctug" onr. cauliflower vs killed, by a product con-
taining 12 percent of powd'rer? Lonchoc-rpus nicou root (of 6 prc-nt
rotenone content) and. 9 percent of talcur, and on pepr tr;e0 wns
nitigated by this product. [According to Muesebcck', this species is
probably A. cinctus Redt., a synonym of Anthonomus pri Kollr.]

Niklas/in 1939 reported that rotenone at 0.4-pecrcent concentration
as a spray killed 90 percent of Anthonomus pyri adults after 1 day 'nd
100 percent after 2 days.

Anthonomus rubi (ibst.), a strPiberry blossom weevil

Derris spr,-y wps ineffectiove.--Spoon (352) in 19;3.

Jary and Austin (225) in 1937 reoortc'. thn t fielcld trials eith dprriR
dust (0.5 percent of rotenone) 'cre corntinuet in Susrsex for the control
of a strawberry blossom wr-cvil. Two seraratc plots of strawberries
were used, one rrcoiving 3 arnlic-tionq of dust nncd th1 oth r 10 applic!-
tiona, at 2- to 3-dPy intervals. Tre arno-nt of .ust use,. wps at the
rpte of approxinately 11 poundOs prr acre for -ach rnpplic-tirn. An .n-
treatred plot, sparated. from th. r-rmrindcr by larg- h'-'.,thorn h'd-e,
was '.pF as a ro'"ghl: comparable control plot. 4o r duction in the
n,.mbc-rs of attac'-ed b'. could b, 6.rtcctd., all plots show n i n roer-nge
of pbon.t 30 prrc"r.t, Wnc'. this result corrobor-,te(s the infor-,tion ob-
tained in previous years.

Jary (224) in 1937 reported thr results of 3 yearm tests of
ir.secticidcs nginst the- strawberr;" bloso.- wc-evil, un.cr ins -ctary
conditions in Bnglrind. Derris ists contoiii.g from 0.2 to 0.5 per-
cent of rotenonix ane. a finely groun. purc-.crris rrot havi".- rin fthcr-
'Ytr-ct v-'lu:. of qbc.-.t 20 percent gac poor requltp.

Janc':-- (2.2) in 1939 rePort.-f th-,t tests with several proprietary
insecticidPl d.ust. in I'y 1937 against Anthonom.is rubi on strawberry
in a heevil- infest'"d field. nenr Spe: r shovd that the best control
(88 percent) was riven by r single a-plicrtion of' r clcrris dust, wuich
was more efffctire than oth-'rq containing mixtures of pyrpthru' ,nd
.erris, or p.rrct hr1. alcn Duptin.g should b carried out wbhtn the
first injured blossoms arc, obsE-rvc..

Anthor.omu. cigrn-tus Say, the strawberry weevil

W. A. Thomas (271) in 107 ". reportrf that a str a.wb.-rr- plot trcat'-.
with a dust eont' dining 0.5 -r rent of rotenonr ranked first in pr-,uiction
of marketablP fruit. Thce mcit satisfactory t .rinl for rcducir,; the
number of weevil-cut bus wns a mixture of 1 tart of calci um rrsenate
and 5 parts of sulfur. The: vi, matrinls wer' te-ted for the control of
the strawberry wrevil at Chn-bo'..rn, .. C.

- 92 -

A mixture of calcium arsenate and sulfur was the most satisfactory
material for reducing the number of we-vil-cut buds on the strawberry
plant. Nonarsenical insecticides proved to be less effecti-e, although
dust mixtures containing rotenone resulted in the -production of larger
quantities of marketable fruit than any of the other insecticides tested.-
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine (.59), in 1936.

Anderson and Walker (16) in 1937 reported that strawberries on
the Eastern Shore of Virginia, infested with the strawberry weevil,
were dusted with a mixture of 85 pounds of dusting sulfur plus 15
pounds of derris (5 percent of rotenone) and with other insecticides.
Each material was applied at the rate of 40 pounds per acre per applic-
ation to plats of 4 beds, 5 feet wide by 120 feet lon-:, replicated h
times. Untreated check plats of similar size were included with each
replication. Treatments were made with a Iiagara 6-nozzle 1-horse
traction duster equipped with a 20-foot burlap trailer covering 1 bed
at a tiTie. Records were taken of the relative number of buds cut, by
counting 3 representative samples of 100 buds in each plat, making a
total of l100 buds for each treatment. Sudh counts were made on April
24, April 29, and May 6. Very little injury occurred after May 6.
Yield records were taken on May 22 and 25. The results are shown in
the following table:

Increase in
Buds Yield yield over
Material cut Nl per acre2/ untreated plates

Percent Qua.rts Percent
Sulfur-leaed arsenate 5:1 15 390 2
Lime-lead arsenate 5:1 l4 390 62
Sulfur-derris (0.75 percent
rotenone) l4 350 45
Sulfur-calcixm arsenate 5:1 7 31S 35
Untreated 39 241

Q, A difference of 6.27 ma- be considered significant.
SA difference of 59.9 may, be considered significant

Kelsall and Stultt (245) reported in 1937 that derris-gyosum
dusts gave results as follows in laboratory tests:

(Rotenone content) Mortality in 3 days
Percent P7rcent
1.0 100
.5 100
.5 90
.2 100
.2 80
.1 90

V. A. Tho-nas (36) at Chnrdbourn, N. C., reported in 1937 that
two or three applications of a clay dust containing 0.5 percent of
rotenone galre a significant degree of control agn'inst the strawberry
weevil when measured in trrrng of the numbers of marketable strawberries,
but not when measuredcl in t.-nrms of r auction in numbers of we-"il-cut buds.

- 93 -

A mixture of rotenone Ldoeris] 1 part an sulfur 9 r-trts, applied
as a dust, gave as good control of the strawberry weevil as the standard
treatment of li'.I-c lcium arsenatc but injury to the plants resulted.
The experrience seems to be that sulfur treatments 'nay be spfe in some
reasons but dangerous in others. Pyrcethrum proved, inferior to the rote-
none-sulfur or the lin-rcalciu: arsenate treatments. In gen ral, gro'.rra
do not make applications frc.auently ono,,g'.'g.. Dusts are remo-:'d by rains
and more freouev-.t rptlicrtions are necdc, in rai seasons. Satisfactor:
results may be expected only where a good. coverage is maintAined. through-
. out the xrngc-r period ..--ITcr York County Agents' Tr'aining School (29o) in

Dcrris (4 percent of rotenone) at 4 po'.n ns per 100 c-Hlons of crr-'
proved somewhat less effective than cryolite sprn'y or 85:15 dust- of
sulfur with either lead arsenate or calcium arsenate.--Steprns (35) in

A-mos and Pierpont (11l) in 1939 report -d the results of dusting
exopriments for control of the strawberry weevil in Delaware. Ground
derris root containin:g 4 percent of rotenone was a-.ed to a mixture of
inert clay, h parts, and Celite, 1 part, to "vake .dusts containing 0.5,
1.0, or 1.5 percent of rotenone, Results were as follows:

Rate Increase, in uninsured
per Buds bud.s ovrr untreated
Treatm ornnt acr. cut check____
Poun.7: T;rrcc nt P rcc nt
Inert clay + Celitr 4:1 25 55 11
Inert clay + Celite 1:1 +
0.5 p'-rcent rotenone 29 47 24
Inert clay + Celito 4:1 +
1.0 prrccnt rotenono 25 32 50
Inert clay + Celite 4:1 +
1.5 p-rcrnt rotenone 30 28 55
Lead arsenate- vlfur 1:5 30 47 24
Untreated check -- 62 --

H!.ude (181) in 1939 recommended du,-ti .g with cube or derris plus

Anthono-us v.- status Boh., th- PFruvian boll w<,vil

Will, Oc-mpo, *berbapnr, -nd Schefi id (415) of the Agricult-.r'-l
Eyprrinent Station at L- clinica, Pri, in 1]37 reorted th t dusts of
ground. cube root of 5 *n 1 percent rotnr.one contents . '" 15
percent mortality, rerpecti-'c.:,, of ''.nits of tlie :-rcicp in the la'crn-

Anthonomu; sp.

The Wngcr:irgen Pl-rnte:nziekt',k- ..iic' Dicnst (4i'2) "in 197 reported
derris po'.der (2 percent of rotenone) ot 1:7O in a 1-percenort-A.'r-r solution
to be ineffccti-e aga-inst Anthonomus on strpwberries.'

- 94-

kOtiorhynchus' Brachyrhinus ov-.tus (L.), the .-tra.wbcrry root weevil

Resistant to derris,--Anonymous (2) in' 137.'

Brachyrhinuf singulariis (L.), a cla.'-colored weevil

Kearns and. Umpleby (241), of the Long Ashton Research Station, England,
in 1937 reported that graftcO can be effectively protected from weevil injury
by liberally painting them with a mixture consisting of 1 pound of derris
or ground barbasco root containing not less than 1.5 percent of rotenone,
plus 2 pounds of lead arsenate powder (or 4 pounds of paste or 2 quarts of
colloid.al), plus 4 ounces of size,. The derris and arsenate should be mixed
with water to a consistency of thick, cream and to this mixture the size adde
(previously soaked- in 1 pint warmT waterr. The grafts should be painted just
prior to bud. burst, and in some seasons a second application may be necessary,
as the leaf weevils feed ovwr a long period. These weevils are the clay-
colored. weevil, "Otiorrhynchus" singul-ris LIachyrhinIs singunris (i.),
according .to Muesebeck] and the leaf-eating weevils Phyllobius pyri and P,

Brachyrhinu.s sulcatus (F.), the blac!- v1ine weevil

(Otiorrhynchus) Brachyrhinus sulcetus is not affected by derris.--
Van der Laan (252) in 196.

Calencra sp., corn billbugs

Not affe-cted by derris.--Van der Laan (252) in 1936.

Caulophilus latinasus (Say)

The adult is not susceptible to d.erris.--Craufur,.-Benson (90) in 1938.

CeutoQrhYnchus assi.iilis (Payk.), the cabbage seedpod weevil or turnip-seed

The Seale-Hayne Agricultural College, England& (734) in 1933 stated
that no definitely successful control mea,,sureq for the turnip-seed weevil
atta.cking s OcO pods of broccoli are known, but that spraying with sprays
containing derris or oyrethrum, uch as are us, d in the control of the
raspberry beetle, woullc probably succeed.

Ceutorhynchus macula-alba (Hbst.), a poppy weevil

Szelonyi (Z62) in 1935 ro-portel. that of insecticides tested for the
control of a poppy weevil in Hungary, the br-st results were obtained with
a derris -rrnrartion appliecl. during the flowering perio..

CeutQrhynchus pleurouti ma (,avrsham), a turnip gall weevil

K. M. Smith (34.) in 1925 reported. that tests were ma3.e with various
insecticidVe for the, control of tW turnip gall weevil. A mixture of 1
ounce of derris with 2 ounces of soot per riunre y-rd. did not give results
promising rcnruph to justify further trials with it.

- 95 -

Oeutorhy.-chu, sulciccilis (Payk)

This rL-st on cauliflower was killed by"a product containing 12 percent
of powd.ered Lonchocarpus nicou root (of 6 percent rotenonen cont -nt and gg
percent of tlicum, according to a letter from Etablissoments Rotrnin, of
Antwerpr, Belgium, to R. C. Roark in 1938,

Chalcodcrmus aeneus Boh., the cowpea curculio

Arnnt (1q) in 1Q3g reported tests of insecticides against thE cowpoea
curculio. A suitable method of testing the efficiency of insecticides
a.'inst the cowpra. curculio consisted in confining the "nsect for 6 to 8
hours in a Petri .ish containing a film of the powdered insecticide, thrn
transferring the insect to food., and making regular obs-.rvations to det r-
mine the percentage of kill. Large nmuibers of the beetles wore used and
tests of the various insecticides were conducted simultaneously. Derris
(4 percent of rotenone), derris with talc, and derris with sulfur wcre
relatively ineffective.

Arant (20) later in 1939 further reported on the control of the cowpea
curculio, in Aib.,. This is one of the major insect pests in Alabama and
other Gulf Coast States. Among the insectici.-l dusts tsted during q1931-
35 were derris plus talc, ar. d.erriq plus sulfur (each containing 2 percent'
of rotenone), and Florotc, which is defined as follows) l conmercirl dust,
containing rotrnonc, 5 percent; pyrcrthrins, 1 percent; nicotine, 1 percent;
residual deposit of roteno e, 2.5 percent; and inert materials, 90.5 per-
cent. Later samples contained a lower percent ,(, of active ir.gr dients.
The derris dusts and Florot- caused vrry little or no burning but gave
negative or very low positive percentages of control. ThK author's con-
clusions are as follows:

Accor:'.in. to results of field eoxpoerients in 1931-35
calcium arsenate is significantly more efficient than -..y
other insecticide tried, for controlling the cowpea curculio;
sodium fluosilic-te is next in efficiency. The ,-rcrnt'ves
of control for the various r-atrrials used in th, cxprri'-enta
werc as follows: Calcium arsenate, 74.53; sodium fluosilicnt ,
67,11; magnesium arsonato 61b.57; acid lead arnpcte, 50.93;
b.rium fluosilica.te, 40.Od; cr:'olitc, 26.22; pyrethrumn, 2-',68;
Florote, 3.71: derris, -2.97 percent. Both calcium arscn-te and
acid lead. arsenate caused severe burning of foliage'.

Florote. ws applied eight times; the derris mixtur-- five times e-ch.

A derris-kaolin ust ( r-crcnt of rotnon") wr, asplicd s* vcn tirm.es
in the field durir.-- the rerir, Juino 29 to ..1,.ist 25. Th pons were nicked
four times in th pD-riod Aiuqt 5.to Septrnb-r 27. Th- de-r: of i'. ct
control in the'firot picki.. ,,w as 40.5 pr-rcnt a for four p7i7.' 3 *
percent.--Georr-ia E-plriment Sta-tion (lj4) in 1Q7'.

- ~6 -

The So"uth Cr.rolina Agricultur'l ExpcrimIent St:.tion (3151) in l13S
reported that laboratory tests were m.de using 16ad arsenate, c -lci um
arsenrte,.ma nesium arsenate, and paris green a.s undiluted. ust-ts for
the control of the cowreo curculio. Synthetic cryolite, natural cryolite,
a.nd derrip were uscd a. spr-ys in the same series of tests. ,:n siumn
arsenate anc calcium arsenate-produced 20-percent mortality, lead arqsnn.4e
10-porccnt morta.lity, an. the othcr nateri:ls no mortality. Under labora-
tor7, conditions .paorj-p green caused severe burnir.n- of the foliage. Only one
series of test, was made, andc. the results were not conclusid, .. Replicated
field, plots wer- treated with undiluted lead arsenate., calcium arsenate,
and agnesium arsenate', and a 0.75 percent derris-talc mixture-was used
on *?ne replicated plot. Because of untmfavorable weather conditions only
one imsecticid- treatment was Jiv-en the plots, All the arsenicals caused
folir ge injury under field conditions while the derris dust'treatm6nt
resulted in no injury. irnnre of the treatments were entirely satisfactoryy.

' Cootrachelus nenuphar (Hbst.), the plumi curculio

Flint (l4) in 1929 reported very poor control of th; curcuiio in a
soultbrrn Illinois apple orchard by the application of a whitre-oil emul-
sion plus Derrisol.

Rotenone in oilw ineffc.ctive.--Turner (376) in 1932.

QGrnan (16) in 1934 reoort"'C. that, in' -eneral, nicotine, pyvrthrimn,
and rote-no e rrenxarntions are inoff ctive agrn.inst'.the adult plum curculio
and t0 at standard acid lead arqenate is the ,io-t effective of the arsenicale,

G (arman (15__, 15) reported test. la!de in 1995 with substitutes for
lead1 nr-.cnate. Gronnd derris root in combination with bentonite snd skim-
milk powdcr gave poorer results tha:, either cryolite or lead arsenate,
notwithstanding en additional nomlicntion in August. Control of the cur-
culio was partici-ilarly Ooor with this combination. YTo foliage burn w.s
note. in the cryolitC-sulfur plot and the trees in the derris-spreved plot
werore in particularly good condition at the end of, the season. All trees
received. a pink eprr7 of lad. renate and flotation sulfur. The condition
of th trees is shown in the following table.

SWit .'.ut ext rnal Marked by Conspicuous
Tre-atment insect injury* ..curulio _spray russet
Percent Percent Percent
Lead. arsenate plus flo-
t.tion sulfur 91.5 o.0.4 ---
Y'atura.l cryolite plus
f"otation sulfur 65.. 9.7 --
Qr,yolte plur4 Coposil, 3 9.S, 35.8-
Derri- s-orvay 32.0 22.4 ..
Chec_ (pi'_ sr-r-y only) _________ 23.8
4' Fruit russet very severe, T'ic substituted for Coposil in July
spra ys.

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Stearns (355) in 1037 tested derrjs, 1 -iO's p-r 100 gallons, with
1 po7ind of rosin residue ss a sticker, ir comparison with lead.arsenale
and other insecticides for the control of the plum curculio. Frnm the
standpoint of insect control alon-, lead arsenate was u.'-.cuestionably the
most effective. But if '.ue cc-nsideration be given to equally important
factors, such as general foliage conditions and the size nnd finish of
the peaches, there was but a slight balance, if any, in its favor. These
results are significant in view of the increasing demand d and the greater
premium paid for fruit of high quality.

Chapman (79) in 197 renorte,' on control of the plum curculio in
New York. This is probably the second most important insect pest of
deciduous fruit trees in "ew York. In a test cornd-,cted in lOu, several
trees sprnyed with powdered cube root, 2 rounds in 100 g-illons of water,
sh-'wer considerable reduction in curculio inJury over control trees.
Cube apPprently inferior to lead arsenate and cryolite, which were also
included in this experiment.

Cylas fcrmicarius elegantulus (PuSicr-), the sweetpotato weevil

The Louisiana Agriculturl Bye-neriment Station (23) in 1Q39 reported
th-t derris dust conta'ninP" 0.75 percn-rt of rotenone was less effective
than caicium arsenate or cr."olite in controlling the swectnotato .reevil
on growing plants in the insectr.ry. W.on ar.lied directly to the potatoes,
derris dust containing 1 or 4 percent of rotcnene wgi erlul to calcium
arsenate or cryolite in effectiveness.

Diorymerellus laeviv)rgo Champ., rn orchid weevil

Hanilton (173) in 1038 reported tostc to c-ntrol the orch-id weevil.
Derris powder percentt of rotenone and 15 percent of total extractirves)
dilute-d with clay at 1:1 ?nd also o.t 1:2 l.es Ies rffsclivo thlanr dry
Pyrocidc (5 percent of pyrethrins) at the sme dilution.. P'-rcthrum
powrder (0.9 percent of pyrpthrins) --,s more effectilre thrn derris xiowder
(14 .er.F-at of rotenone end 16 to l1 percent of tot,.l extrpctives) pr.us
5 rprcent of D. H. S. ( a pine oil activm.tirc agent made by th: Horcules
Powder Cc:-.- r .r)

Echinocnemus birunctatus Roelofq

1'eoton, 1 pound in fro-, 36 to h4 in pril gallons of water, id,
all lnrvan: nil edu]ts w-erc killed by 1 pound in 32 i.r-rri7l g)Illons of
water.--Institute of Th.gsical and Cheaic-il R( pearc' (2".) in 127.

Hylobiui abiptis (L.)

Thomsen and Wichmand. (371) in 1o o rTorted thiat in laboratory tets
.e'nirst this species derris rnov'cr nrovd. to bc useless.

Hyki ostica (G,.ll2, the aPfalfa wqIil

Hamlinin t:.re'vritten ouqrt -rl,, roortp to the Division of Cer-al Ind
Forrni-: Insect I,'i stigntions of the 3vrea-, in 19o' rrrNrt C. tosp nie
at 1-iedford, Or. b..' R. W. Buni and R. C. wehton, it inproticid-s for
the control of the lf: lfn weevil. Rotcro c s9.roa,- and duiits had consider-
able effr-ctivcncss ."_in t thi 1nrv-e. In Jul ly7 he rporrd cc 'tiv

- C'r -

tests of calcium arsenate and derris sprays for the control of third and
fourth instaers of the alfalfa weevil in Utah. The sprays containing 0.015,
0.0175, or 0.020 percent of rotenone were less effective than calcium arsen-
ate at 2 pounds per acre. It was concluded that a derris spray containing
0.020 percent of rotenone gives satisfactory control.

Hyera punctata (F,), the clover leaf wee*1'l

Rockwood, in a typewritten report to the Division of Cereal and Forage
Insect In-estigations in 1936, stated that a derris-infusorial-earth dust
(1 percent of rotenone) killed weevils that had gathered on fence posts to
escape flood waters.

Listroderes obliouus Klug, the vegetable weevil

The Alabama Agricultural Experiient Station (7) in lq38 reported on
the. toxicit' tests with larvae of the vegetable weevil. Sodium fluosilicate
k-ille:. 50 percent in 19 hours end 71 percent in 23 hours. Cube root killed
57 percent in 2X hours and 71 percent in 36 hour-. Other materials tested
killed a much smaller percentage of the larva,, in the same period of tine,M
except magnesium arsenate, which killed 71 percent in 36 hours. Toxicity
t'sts with adult weevils resulted in the cube root and sulfur mixture (1:7),
and sodium fluosilicate, killing 100 percent within 48 hours. All the oth"r
mritcrinls tested were less effective, cryolitr and talc being least toxic.

Ha.riqon (Il) in 1937 report-d on the efficie-ncy of rot."none compounds
-g-nst larvar of the vegta le weevil. In field rx-nri,-nts against the turiri
aphid on turnips and mustard at th,- Bfton Roug La., laboratory of th Divis-
ion of Truck Crop Insect Investigations of thp Bureau it wa's incidentally
how'n th-At dust mixtures conta n>.^ 1.0 percent of rotcnene, with cnu.l parts
of fincl7 groun@. dusting sulfur and tobacco as the diluent, and drrris sprays
containing -rpnrox,'Pteoly 0.0? percent of rotrnon;e, with or without alkylpher.1nyl-
b-nzcne'i1fonic ?cid (1:1000) as snpreader and wetti.ng a t-nt, were offetiv'
in protnct4n' thE t".rnips and -,ustrd from damn&ge by larve. of Listroder.-s
obliouus. Thc check plot- and also the plots tha. r'criv,-d applications of
pr-r':, -s or L.ust mixtur'-s containing- nicotine sulfatr wvr,' badly injured by th
arvr. Th insrecticid --.pT)]ic--tienn wor, brgvin when the plantss and the in-
fecting weevil Inrvae were sn.ll. They were rerpeated at intervals r-of 14 da;'-,
from L to 6 trcat-ents ben ap-plied. K. L. Cockerham and 0. I. Den, at th
Biloxi, Miss., laboratoryvforind that sprays containing amrroxim.te'ly' 0.025
nrrcent of rotenone, ,'rith or without alkrylph-n:lbnz.'--nesulfonic acid (1:6o00)
s a srr-alde.r an.. dwttin:' .-ent, were not eff-ctivr against either quarter-
grorwn or larg, r vegetable wcrvil larvae. J.-'.ing from these preliminary ox-
pE'rimnts, rot-nori, compounds man". be effctive against the vo :table weevil
whner -),lird to plants infested with sma.l larvfe.

F. S. Chn-ibenrlin (75) in 193g' renportrd that cube-root poc'dor applied
(Ait'!r ns a. di.ut or in s ,r-r-, ;-kve little control of vegetable weevil larv,
in tob-cco plant btds.

Cocerhm anod Doe'n (C") in. l"3g reTorted in labor-)tory tests that a
cdrrr -dust mixture containing 2 percr nt of rot none wan effctiVe -,..-',t
'o'i Jarvop, crlusing >2.22 percent morta.lity. The l-werccnt-rote'nono-dut
W!iYtur., killed *.i percent of the small la.rva .-. The dust mixture contain-;nn