Methyl bromide as an insecticide fumigant -- a review of the literature

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Title:
Methyl bromide as an insecticide fumigant -- a review of the literature
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38 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
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Busbey, Ruth L ( Ruth Lawless ), 1909-1990
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
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United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
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Washington, D.C
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Bromomethane -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Fumigants   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Caption title.
General Note:
"May 1944 ; E-618."
General Note:
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Statement of Responsibility:
by R.L. Busbey.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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Full Text
: *". w.t.

LIBRARY
,:| E PLANT BOAM,
% ATE', P-618
W:~. May 1944

|fi " U.TWITED STATES DEPAF.ThEF',, OF AGPICUUfLT-E
*.::.. ~Agricultural FLesearch Ldministrt tion
>Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine

IIFTHYL EPOCIDE .\S ".:" I::SECT 7WrI1..:T-
MVA P.EVI 0 0' ':TE LIF. .fi7E TITPCUG: 1940

By R. L. Busbey, Division cf Insecticide Investigations

i Properties of M.ethyl Bromide

Methyl bromide (CCisr) as used in umi ain is a colorless as
with a slight sweetish odor sLi:ilo.r to t::- cf ct--er low-molecular-
.., weight aliyl halides. It has the icllo-rin.; 'sic'.! conz-ants:
.. .... .... ..
: ''M Molecule r wei-ht ---.. ...---- .95
:: :..... Boilini ooin: -- ,-- ... 50 C.
:. I..T.c.l in- point ----0 8 ..... ----- -9.EoC C.
..,. 'Specific ra.it c, ieaid --..-. .-. i.7 C,.
::. Specific ::r -.. o as ----------.- t r, C0 , :.r.
^i. ..':.
760 an. -z ,;,;,, cow r 2d
Ft I t: ir I : the
,,X:'*::. ,' ^ s .n e c o :".d i c I ,T:^
s .me cc. diLcn,
,*;i-' It is very slightly soluble in '-rter and v.it- ccldd -'ater f~ -..s a. vhite
crystalline hydrate of t.ie ar ro:.:i.Th.e for-nula C>Br. 0 !i97. It is
soluble in the ccrra.ion organic ol-.,* :'*, r is n: n -,in ir. :aol c -. nd in
mixture with air can be exploded by a spark r'-". 'rLthin I: narrowL
: range of 13.5 to 14.5 Fercen-' b h vcluz-.e (1 -'et-hyl brorIide.

:; This compound has been used for years b.y Che chemicI.l industry:
I, .as a methylatin,; agent in the preparation of dyes ainl an-tiD-rie. It
$,,,has been employed co some extent .s a 'irc-e::tir:uishina a-.ent, either
alone or mixed with other materials such C.. c:.ruon tetr.chloride. It
has found libiited use- also as a refr3 er: t.in, E nt in n:-cc.:.r: ic'! re-
Sfrigerv.tors.

SThe insecticidal possibilities of 'n.eo hyl bromide xere Cirzt report-
ed by Le Goupil (63) in 1952. Sinc that tir.:e it ha-s be-n tested ex-
tensively and is now id 6Oly rue,! ir t.:vic u ig '-lct.i.n 0, ..'... y stc,-!,1
fruits, seeds, bulb., stored rr'.in, -:n ,r' "'r tt l's- r, r'?s'-r&':" rtr in
insects against wl.ich qv, ran'>il: s n: x, J c. c L- 1 it ic:.". It h'r s a so
been uw ed to so:ne -*xtent ? s P.,:~c- r' .' I i ;" .1 z-"''ri 291 0
probably 400,000 pounds of n,,,vh'l br,:'n.] ic v:..rc .rc,' C -. in-c cti',id.tl
fumigant in Thie Irnited States. i: i:'j-lottL -t v' 1-.iso is ..s tk rccnti-
cide.

Methyl bromide possesses 'a nU. 1- c ,'d.s.n:r";c. .s furi .nt. It
is highly toxic to many kindis of i -'-c' s i 1 -. :' ot 7'"1 oplnfrt.
:: .It is stable chemical, and i-. th.c -,rncci r.1 i:r "s- 'is no J lo-.r-
ious effect on mt on T pla nt tis s-e It in rtr c ii r ti -n't] n saste
or odor to foodstuffs fumi ,.t ted with it nr, lc'v,'-'s no :r-an c rous residue.
fc :It is convenient to handle, since i-c i. r.adjl. liquc.',ed -A.id yet vapor-
"::, izos at tompcratures encountered in ftuni;y.ti;-,.. It is tnc only common




-2- ". :5

fumi-;ant -*hich is a gas at room -,,c'mpcraturc and normcl atmnosheric "pres-'. .
sur '. It resorts no f'iro cr ..x-ylosion hazard. ccauso of the groat ': --jig
dcnsity of the gas, it is necessary to pro-ide mears for mixing it :.:...j
adequately with the air. ..
** -" ;.; ; "*
Like o'iecr f'.-i..c.nts "i .5'y coxic to insects, methyl bromide is :":.
aI so to xic to ri.n, and -dequcat: precautions r.-ist be taken in its use. .:
Trish and ,ovorkers a ( 53- stC t.-d. in 1940 t'UL.t the li- creature records 42 '
definite cases of rmrothyl- brc-iid-c poisoning, of which 12 proved fatal ....,..
It vr7.s earlier belieeo-rd that th: toxic action nas duc to splitting of ....":.-
thc methyl bromide in the body to for.- mctlianol and inorganic bronmdo, ..d:'
and that the m-th..nol caused the poisonin-. it nowj apcpars, however, ....
that mr thyl bromide exerts a toxic c.ctior: of its own. It is more toxic .
than any of the closely related halides, such as methyl chloride and "
cthyl bromide. It has a dcla,.ycd effect, t'oe s-.ymptoms often not appear- '..
in'g until hours, or even a day or more, aft-,.r exposure. In mild oases '.
the usual sTMito.-.i are disturbance of equilibrium, double vision, *-head-
ache, and vertigo. In acute cases declirium, loss of consciousness, epi-. .:.
loptiform convulsions and sometimes death occur. After recovery from,
severe poisoning there may be persistent ncurc.sthenia f6r years. :

Biblio -'"B
y~ *: i...:.#I
Th. references on methyl bromi pi-rcsscntcd.J in this publication i
h}avc beeoon collected for the benefit of ntomol:,ists and others inter- :
ostcd in the control of pests by chcnic:l i-n.-s. Only. references to ...."
the ins.-oticidal use of the compound cad to its :.toxcity to man and ,
animals have been included, except for .- f1v p.tcnts or articles giv- : .
"i@ r::'.'i
ing directions for the preparation ol 1,' tyl broiridc or for its deter- .
mination in air or f-ini.:-tod matric.ll, Th;-, h-,.ve bc,;n obtained mainly :'::,
from thl, following abstract journals through 1940: Chemical /Lbstracts,..'
Review of -pplicd E'.-tLomolgy (A), Bilo,-ic ". 'bstr:.cts, Chemischcs ..,
Zontralblatt, and Qu,:.rterly Cumulativ end Indcx .'edicus. "..;"

A Frill C 0US,. N ... Jf
Or,_.nic halog;n compounds. [Gt. Prit.] Dcpt. Sci. and Irdus. Ros.,, ,
.I.: thcds for the Detection of To;:ic Cases in Industry, Loaflot-12,."
6 pp. 1940.

Injuries from breathing irdustriLl vapors containing a number ,
of organic ha.locn compounds, including mcthliyl bromide, are discus-
sod, and the procedure for d,,tcctirn them is described. The only
simple method is the use of a h-lidc d.,'ct.,ctor lc.mp which burns pure .."
Athyl alcohol and causes the dccomposi.tion of the various compounds. K
The halo,.-:rn reacts with a sma-.ll copper screw in the nozzle of tho
lamp to form copper halide, vhich impc.rt.' a green color-.tion to the
flame; i.-, degrooee of coloration dcT.pcnds upon thc. nature of the or-
:.anic halide and upon its concr-,tra.ion in the air. Directions
for h-.-Lad1irig the lamp, c..rrying out the tests, c.nd interpreting the
results arc given. An ec:pcrienced op;-rtor is nc,:dcd, and ho -ill
hi.vo to got accustonced to thl ciurroundinu,.s before hc is certain of
getting accurate results. The l.amp c.,.in-ot be us,,d when inflcum.vbl.ac
5.s-s ".re. pre-sent. V



'" *'. '"'






-3-
7
.:: ." .


A'. ADLER, H. J. (2)
F. Eino t"dliche Bromnmcthylvcrgiftun:;. Zcntbl. f. GC.wrcrbc Hy;. u.
: Unfallvcrhdtung (n.f.) -4: 161. 1927.

::. A fatal case of poisoning by ncthyl bromide is reported.
r: About 16 hours intecrvened c.ftcr chc c::posirc before the onset of
,:,. symptoms rith convulsions.

SBACmH, C. (3)
\... Bcitrag zur Toxikologic dcr Halogcnllkylc. -Arch. f. Expt. Path.
:. u. Pharrmnkol. 122: 69-76. 1927.
;.' *.:: .." "

l;: Several reports of cvses of methyl bromide poisoning arc rc-
:, viewed. Experiments arc described in v'hich mice urcro: -exposed to
1;" the vao.pors. 1- concentra.tion of 0.001 mole per liter cc.uscd death
in 75 minutes, and 0.000017 to 0.000136 n:iolc pcr liter kilcrd the
: .' f.'.'". ..
m:: mice within a few hours. In the na.rcosis the mice often reacted
% .. to strong tactile irritation (pinchinw); sporadic.lly increased
:i::^ reflex excitability and indic.at.ons of convulsions also occurred.
A concentration of 0.000008 n7ole per liter in the ccIrse o.f r many
:hours caused deep narcosis, -rhich, ho'rcvcr, u..s follovrci by r..nid
::: .and lasting recovery.

BERRY, C. E. (4)
,. Ucthyl bromide as c. rodenticide. Cal;f. DcFt. -.gr., N.onthly Bul.
27: 172-130. 1938.

Ncethyl bronidr- is effective. in thc control of rodents as wrcll
c.s the insects har)or,-d by thc.n. It c-.n bz vscd in 'act or 'ry soils
and at various temperatures. Although thi cost is hiPh, it can be
used -aherc folloe"-uo or eradication mncthcds are bein] cirried on
-i and around builciinr;s whorc. ticr.c is d:-,n:-.r in usini trc.-t,-d grain
; baits. It should hIc used only und:-r Dropcr supervision ev:cn by
S. official agenciess having a- trained personnel, and should not- bC
Made available for gcn.ral use until further s.afe-,uards have been
Developed.

:, BEYIE and GOETT. (5)
l; Toxicite dc curtains cxti}'ctcurs d'incendie ct precautions qu'ils
comportent. Arch. do Ecd. et dc Pharm. NJav. 124: 409-'27. 1934.


The toxicity of .cithyl bromide is bric.fly revicwemd. Experi-
monts v.-ith rabbits .and doors .are described. A concentration oe 36
mg. per liter for 25 minutes 'as fi..tal to a rabbit. Dos died
after exposure to 10 to 21 mf,. per liter for 30 to 33 minutes.

BING, D. (6)
[iMethyl bromide poisoning.] Schv:iz. Eundsch:u f. Mcd. 1910:
1167. [In Gcrmi.n.]

Tvr nonfatal ca.ses arc reportcd in ;..'hich rcsidu.l symptoms con-
tinued for S and 7 months. 'rhe sy.prtom.s include tr,-.cr, dizzi-
-nd ardt' scr. rns itocry
ness, vomiting, and muscular de.bilit:,, vith scnc rsiory
psychic changes.




-4-
BOULnin, C., :nd SIION, L. J. (7)
Preparation of methyl chlorid'. and methyl bromide from dimethyl
sulfate. [Paris] Acad des Sci. Compt. Rend. 170: 595-597.
1920. [In French.]

In th, presence of hydrochloric acid, vater hydrolyzes dimothyl
sulfate to give, in part, mci-th,.vlsulfuric acid and methyl chloride,
'ithL 3 p:.rs of hYJroehloric cid (22 BU.) and 1 part of water 90
pcer c-nt or r,,o re of n-racti:-eily pure nctl-hyl chloride results. A
scturatcd solution of sodium chloride works nearly as v.-cll, but the
solution should be w,-a.rn-e.d to 60-65 C. to start the reaction. Hy-
drobromic acid gives c. sii -r rca.ction, but aqueous sodium bromide,
slightly acidified with sulfuric .icid, is preferred, jiving (at 30-
55 C.) methyl brcmido in SO percent yield. Methyl bromide is very
soluble in glaci.l -c.ctic r.cid (42 gin. per 100 gi. of acetic acid
at 2I C.). These mc -thods ar.- recorrmended for laboratory prepara-
tions.

ZLUS-EY, R.. L., and DR.AKE, 11. L. (8)
Dct- rm-ip.c-tion of small qu:a.ntitics of mo.thy] bromide in air. Indus.
and :n.Ii'i. Chem., '.nalyto Ed. 10: 390-502. 1938.

T'L m'-tiod proposed is for d:ty:.-inin' the methyl bromide con-
tent o)' funig-tcd ir. T-rec sample- of a.ir is subjected to the sc.pon-
ifyincj I fCcct of !ot:I.ss iui K:,'-'.ro::idc in :.lco hol, for which purpose
a s 1ci:i cr..pr:.trmts has be-cn lclvised. i'hc alcohol is finally ro-
mkov':d r' istilla-tion, the :bro:cide o:idiz.-d to bro amto by sodium
hypochlori t:-, :.nd- the 1'ron- .t : d-tc rminc d iodoerctrically.

DYGDETI, A. (9)
Prcpar:.tion of rnothl-l ;:,romi.d. o Jour f. Prakt. Chaem. 83: 421-424.
1911. [in i,.,-r'..man.]
M'tli'l bromi.de is obtained in .33-34 '. rccnt yield (as against
44, 5 percent ",- > br,:,minc a.nd :,hosphorus mnctlhodc) by adding 450
gir. of iancthq': alcohol to COO -in. of sul.furic '.eci-, adding gradually
0 i. ef ccr. 300 -I, ef o...c.. .,.d pota.ssiu:n bromide to the
coldJ il..tur,, .nI h. t ir;g until as coeso s to I-- evolved.

(10)
Prep:.raion of' mth-'l bromide. Jour, f. Prakt. Chem. 104: 285-
2538. 1922. [In GIn. i'0n I

Sulfuric cid (25 iercent) is ir.:t diluted vith l- ater, the
mrthl1 alcohol is siovly added ,,vi Lh cooling, f'ollo',:cd by pulver-
ized potassium bromide, :n, h-ic fl:.zk "tih rcflux: condenser is
sli:ghtl- v.e.rmod. T'ri, evolved -'.scs ..ri: j.-.sc.sd l-rough vintcr or
sodium i'droxide --to r.ei.iov.: hy-:.rolronie : cid ..rid thun through two
bottles of cocl'.untr.rac.cd sulfu,'ic .cidi. '.thyl bromide is then con-
d,-rsod i'n an I,--:,'.l; b. tl i. The 'i..ld -:,ried bet.ccn 93.5 and 97.3
p'.rcent, ,'],-- rd '.;' on I.,e ,ro .or'"I on o.. m1th,,l alcohol to the other
r.O'actan s .






.-5-

CADE, A., and hAZEL, P. (e1)
:' nto'xicatioh par Ic bromurc dc m~thyle. Soc. Mcd. dcs Hop. Paris,
Bul. ct .5m. 47 (3): 722-727. 1923,

s A rather Poverc nonfa.tc.l case of poisoning by methyl bremido
Iw. is reported, in which synpto.ns p-rsistcd for 2 months. Another
patientt suffered from mcth"l bromide poisoning, on four occasions
in 27 yc-.rs.

S.. -"CAIN, C. A. (12)
S'" A methyl bromide dispenser for use in -che fumigation of qu."rc.ntincd
products. U. S. Bur. Ent. :'.nd PIlit Qua.r. ET-156, 4 pp. 1940.
:[Procossed.]

S ... A device is dcscribcd for dispensinrT .ccura-tel," mico.sur:d small
*., quantities of methyl bromide from a 1rccsurc cylinder.
S._ u :: '.. r ,*j .
,." CAMERON, G. R., KAWTN.PTNE, 'U. A. E., and THOK.S, J.C. (13)
'.......' ...Massive necrosis (toxic infarction) of the liver folloi'dng intra-
,:. portal administration of poisons. Jour. F;th. and 3B.ct. 44:
i '.... i .. 297-303. 1937.

M:,'. Many organic poisons, including., methyl bromide, ,-,hen intro-
r;' duced directly into the port--. circle :.tion, produce strong local
Snecrosis. The result is due, not to embolism or ischemi but to
'" the direct action of the poison on the liver cells. The condition
% '. : imay be designated as "toxic infarction."

: CHAO-LUN TSENG, and CIIA-SHIIU HO U. (14)
'' Prepc-ration of ..Ikyl bromides by the phospliorus bromide method. I.
Chinese Chem. Soc. Joior. 2: 57-72. 1934.

Parallel experiments with methyl r.nd several other :-lcohols
show that v,.ith theoretical inounts of Dhosphorus tribr'omido the
yield of alkyl bromide is 10 percent higher than with theoretical
wahounts of red phosphorus plur bromine.
/ "
C. CHAPAN, P. J. (15)
Effect of nethyl bror.tide on apple maggots in apples. (Scientific
Note) Jour. Fcon. Ent. :'3 : 817. 1940.


II



Si., -
Al


Is


ii


Picked and windfall Wealthy r.pples were f'mi-ted with 1, 2,
and-4 pounds of methyl bromide per 1,000 cubic feet for 1, 2, "nd
4 hours. The picked apples cc.nt-.ined i.rst -rd second instars
and the dropped fruit contained mainly second .nd third irstars
of Rhagoletis porionella (Walsh). All trer.tments gave complete
kills except 1 pound of methyl bromidCe for 1 hour, uihich cavo
91.2 percent control for picked fruit .and 91.9 percent for dropped
fruit. Injury to fruit occurred rwith the 2-pound dosage for 4
hours a'nd with the 4-pound dosac.i for 2 .no 4 hours.




-6-


CFISTIE, F. R., ?.nd COBB, G. S. (16)
The ineffic__.c- of me.thyl bromide fumi-- .lion ag-ir..st the chrysan-
themun folic.r _nen_.tode [ phelenchoides ritzcin.bosi (Sc.hwrtz
1911)1 Felminthol. Soc. Thx.sh. Prcc. 7: 62. 1940.

Fumi,--.tion v.ith methyl bro.nide did not eliminate this nema-
tode ev-n -hen the chr:,-zvz.themn n plc.nts Here tre:.ted under the
most severe conditions thc.t they -."ere likely to tolerC.te, nhnely,
fumi'in.tion with 3 pounds of :,ethi-l bro-ide per 1,000 cubic feet
for 1.i5 -hours -.t 70 F. undlei" 15 inches of sustj.ined vc.cuum. It
is lilcely th.t c treAtmernt will .Isco be ineffective against
the str:.t.thrr., bud nemnr.tode (Lphelenchoidos fragariae Ritzem. Bos,
1891),

DEPCOBETT, L. (17)
L' into.:icat:ion prof'essionllc pr' i. bromure de ncthyl. C-az. Moed.
de Strasbourg 9': 179-184. 1959.

A revievr givinc sources of intoxication end literature on
tox.icity of rricth.l bromide.
DEU'S(II G EESTLLSC L.FTT FPU SZDL I!CS"I.K-'PIUI, m, b. 2 (18)
Insc ticid.s., Trcrchl P'.t, -ct cP55, 36, Jan, 5, 1959,

ini .ecticiu is des,- ribe ccnsitii: of a liquid of rela-
tively 'irkh >:oilin0 point (e_.r, alcohols, aromatic o.nd aliphatic
h\dro'r bois, ,--strs, 1'.".d Zetcn.-.s) o-id r..n insecticidal substance
1 o ,oilin: po,,nt (e. g., v'ic:thi'l 1:-romiid c.]Lloroclanide, ethyleno
ox-ide, divtij m ,-.- erc:'tar, and ..ho.-s .-:cne). The liquids
y be o.bsor d is. "ii.caitc.

DOi.JOHOE, :. C,, JO HSIPSC', t,. C., a-.i E UL.-EP, J. ,. (19)
MLethyl broriidc fumin-ition ror J:lplnA.eu beetle control. Jour.
Eson, En-:. 33: 2'9-302. 1940,

Coirplrto mort-lit of the- a,.ul. b.,.:cties is obtained by doses
of 2 ponId.,-: of mth;- brrmiide p.i 1,0:0 cubic feot for 2 hours at
1;,-2.20 C. O pound p c r 1,000 cubic f,.et suffices at 24,4-
3, 'ind 0.75 pound at 25-30 .. m,-.lhlod for tr,-:cating refrigerator
c?.rs is dc.scribod.

---.-- -and JOHiISON, V. ... C20)
Tl' r,.f''fcct on plants of r,'th,''l broinidc. ft'ii L-.._.Lion in Japaneso
b1.:I tl'z trca'-tImnt tcsts1; prolimirar:,' report. U. S. rL'Ir, Ent.
aond Pl,.i'nt 'uar. E-482, 14 pp. 193E. [Processecd.]

Comp:l.-tc control of iaa:t.-ur-, sta.cs ci' the beetle in green-
hoiusc and nur-.r" stock vrms oC'taina d by,, fumi ating tho plants with
.'thl bromide (2.5 p]ounds_. pir 1,000 cubic [cct, including tho
leoad) for 2.5 hours atl: a jiniinuin soil and air tc-mperaturc of 63 F.
In tesCts cL' 187 gr.ci'a of plants r-onrs.:cting 503 horticultural
vari.et.i.. ':,.r!i.. unu m,.r'd cntrics, 6,C '..rcont showed injury or sus-
pcct-d injury su-ficl.int to rcnd,.r "i] pl:;-nts unsalablc. Injury
'S .s most cr,,.nofr (12 p,-rcent) .moi-, ;ro'.ting greonhousc plants.
ronn':; Lji, 'on'aiprt i.i, surini:oru' -nc olant's oril: 3,2 percent were
injured.


... .. .. ..w12 ..-,*.. .... ...H i to.-, .., .w_._




-7-


DOW CHEE:ICA'. COIP*AW _'. (21)
Dow and Boar brand methyl bromide. Ed. 3, 23 pn. Midland, l.ich.
1939.

This trade booklet sets forth the advantages of ncthyl bro-
mide as a fumigant and discusses methods of -.p-licaticn under var-
ious conditions.

DOZIER, H. L. (2)
Studies of control me-surcs for s-.cctpotato -weevil in Louisian..
Jour. Econ. E:t. 32: 315-318. 1359.

Methyl brornidc ri.as the quickest -.ctinr end most effective
fumigpant tested for the control of C:,vl.s fom-nicarius .lc-a.itulus
(Summors) in seed svoet eotatos. ,: of 5 cc. tco 50 crbic
fet gc.v'e coml.loto kill or 'll stc in hour t 8 F.
f o 1 st,',.-:c-. ionr 127t H8' F.

DUDLEY, H. C. (25)
1Bromide content of fruits ".nd vc:,etablcs follo-'inz- frni-ation ,rith
methyl bromideo. Indur.. :-.nd Engin. Chor., ...Ilyt. Ed. 11:
259-261. 1939.

In samples o' 50 to 100 gin. the mcthyl br.omide is cCnverted
- to potassiumn bromnid,': by' 1 pcrc.nt alcoholic potassium 1 rr'..roe.idc.
This is ignited thro.-. times at 500 C. ,.rd c::trn,.ctcd .-i'-h hot vater.
n chromic acid solution is added, arc thie brc..nin-c li'erL.ted, is
aspir'.ted into 10 pc rccnt Eot.,svivr.i ic-do. Tlc li':,ritcd iodi:co
: *is then titrated 'rith st.nd./,rd C.01 'T srdiu'm thir-sulif.t'.


.-- .-- EILLER, J. W., i'JL, P. .., and S,-7.S,. P. P.
Studies on foodstuffs f'P.imi ;.:.t,' -it>. c;.:-lI bromide.
Health Serv. }Lpts. 55: 2251-2202. 1940.


(2-A)
U. S. Pub.


The amount of methyl- brc;.i do (dctcrmi-'cd as brcnice) abrorbed
by fruits a.nd vegetables during, funiLuation was founl' to be several
times the normal bromid,, contcz-t. Ir most c2.cs th.- f-vig;iatcd na-
tcrial sho;,cd a drop in Lrcr.iidcs ,ftor L.orCation. Dried fruits,
fresh fruits, and voc t.'Lles absorb,:d -Iir!or qt',L'.1titics of the funi-
gant. The foodstuifffs :-.icr. a'.,sorb -rc-tcr amounts of t-.c ful:^.2it
include milled gr:.ins, chcusc, nujts, and, n1t '. rcats. T'ie :c.dsorptivo
capacity of milled grains is duc priParfly to trceir greate-.r surface
area, while the oily and f'.tt-,r f,-od .bcrb larjc qu.AItitip off
methyl b'rom-nide- becutteu nf .its solubility ini fits. .,.ts and rabbits
were fed on diets corsistin-ip: ntr{iel', or furi-:at' d ice .'+tffs, all
of which contained more m,';},l bromide th-in'. 1, f-.und in. similar
foodstuffs fLun i ytcd b;' m. e ).oIo. I&-u rnxir. 7tirn, co,;. r .c .ci.l -. ro c (cd,.res.
The results indrlicat. th.t it -i ui.li'uly ; J.ai: th, s.;all aiotuit of
methyl bromido or bromide residues or, comnoercially iufi," cd fresh
vegetables o.nd fruits, or -,rn ,'rin fr-iits, is h:.rnful c 'ek con-
sumer. bibliography lists P7 r:fcre.ncer. to mchyl reunidc, a
large part of them or., it:s toxicolor'-. aD


NT( ck"MIUD
DUSTAN, G. G. STATE PLAN Q9ARI)
*The offucto of tcr.ratur, an. c(crt>in ch.";ic'.ls on cheese mites.
Ent. Soc. Outario, .nn.. rpt. 6': E-C,7. 1038.

In experimental fuii ,ttion of chese in an c.irtight rooi. in


(I
" Ftg',",": ,




-3-


which an electric fan w-as kept r.nnir -, c. complete kill of
Tyrorlyrhus farinac Dc:;., including the ...gs, r. s obtained vith
a miwturo of 6.3 percent of' methyl broe'.ide and 93.2 percent of
carbon dio::idc eat rates from S to 20 pounds per 1,000 cubic feet
and et temperatures from 50 -o G3 F. n unpleasant taste,
which extended to about l/4 inch tbolc.-.': umv..xod and exposed parts
of the suriac: of the e-.e:sc, conplrtuly (isapprarad after expo-
sure to the ,.ir Loui 33 to 48S hours. animals werc apparently not
affected by focdir:- on cheese 24 hours after fumigation.

D-HOIR, 7%, FI.BPE, F., and LLYII]I, F. (26)
Poisoning*v-ith moth'l bro::idc. Soc. rica. dos HSrr. Paris, Bul.
et [C'ot 53: 15-10-155.'. 1937. [in French.1 (ilso in Bul. Sci.
Pharrnn.col. 46: 15-26. 1939.)

Dors kept in :'n atmospheric containin; 35 to 43 mg. of methyl
brcmide p'.:r liter woi-cnt into nercosis ::nd died shortly after. The
brc.i inc could be detected in the or;ans, especially in those rich
in lipoids. The pathologic pict;,rc points to a v-isomotor crisis,
Efforts to counteract oh is ef''ct ",-ithi vasocrnstrictor substances,
ospicially adronalir-e, ve,-e n',-t successful. Clutathionc is sug-
gostcd -s a st-.,bilizcr of th,. vxsomocor syste.,

EASTER, S, S. (27)
Fvur.i ;ation of s-v,7tot...toc.s ,ith methyl bromide for control of the
s.'tcti:iotato e*.cvil. Jour. Econ. Ent, 33: 921-926. 1940.

ilcth'l bromide is xtre.o1! toxic to C-los forniearius
elc___antulus (Sui.1.n.. rus), kill i'_. th_- i',ccts rvoa '-hon t-.cy are
deeply imbedd,-:d in the s'.::etpot.ztes. It produces a deleterious
off:ct un the s,'. .: tpot. to s, Vhich mW..J result in c-onsiderablc loss.
Careful hb.ndliz-, T;.rtic.l curing ind rostfuanig:.tion heating of the
swectpotatocs :iil na"rtially avoid this loss.

FEIL, A. (28)
L'intcxico.nion professionally. p.r le b',romurs. do mnthylc. Scmaine
d' H~p. -...ris u: 599-601. 130.

The syrmptoms, di..gnosis, and tr&i-.tmcnt of methyl bromide
poisonin' are discuss :d.

FISK, F. ?7., aiid SPhPARDPD H.- H. ( 29 )
Laboratory studies of'methyl bromide5 as an infect fumigant.
Jour, Ec:-. Ent. 31:79-84. 1938.

Nlethyl bromide is u. nromising ne. fumig.ont ..-ith boiling point
(4,5 C. ) lover Ilan that of other fumirn'-nts. Its toxicity to in-
sects cornp:res favorably w..ith t'. at of hydrocyanic acid gas, chloro-
picrin, : nd cthylenc oxide,. Th-: gr.n. ry wreevil (Sitophilus granaria
(L.)), tihic rico ..e.vil (S. oryz-, (L.)), and the b.Loan ,ecevil
(Ac .ntioscrl ides co',tectus, (Sr'-,7 "." :l:bout equally susceptible to
methyl 1romile, tl.,. concentr tion f,.r 50 percent mortality Lfftor 5
hours ra:.;'ins'r Irom 4.0 to 6.1 mc. n.r liter. The a.dult confused
flour b..t],- (Tribolima confusujn Dirv.) requires 10.2 mg. per liter
for 50 1'crccat mrt]tty its--t'i'cs are less resistant. Degree of
vbsorptior of the casess v.-as dctermircl sL spending a ca.gc of test
insects (Tribolium) above v. 2-inch layer of holc-'..ecot flour in


S. .. .. k W ta'wS~" "-. E~s.~W'~t -




^ iJ; .* : '-9-
'.^..." the fumigation chamber. The ratio of the median lethal c
':.':; tion (M.L.C.) with flour to that without flour equals the
I::* tion ratio, which is 2. The M.L.C. of methyl bromide for
W:.: after 90 minutes' exposure at 25 in the presence of vari
Sstuffs and at various pressures follows: (1) Atmospheric
empty flask 32.5, raisins 28.1, wheat 30.4, flour 50.0; (
:.i: pressure: Fnpty flask 16.8, ivheat 17.2, flour 54.0; (3) 3
pressure: Empty flask 11.4, raisins 12.6, wheat 14.2, flo
.:": The toxicity of methyl bromide is affected by temperature
ra much as is that of carbon disulfide anO less than that of
:" pierin. Methyl bromide is more effective on insects in t
S, .. ence of moisture. The germination of conn, wheat, oats,
S:.... beans, and field pea seeds is not affected by fumigation
:* methyl bromide.

. . .: "* : : *
L'LORET.
S.... .' linischer Beitrag zur gewerblichen Brcirnethylvergiftung.
.it i,... f. Gewerbe Hyg. und Unfallverh-turg. 3: 146-149. 1915.

..': ^. "Three nonfatal cases cf poisonin b0y irothyl bromide
: : ~ ported. A period of 4 to 6 weeks was required for recove
:>: : ." Clinically, three stages were observed in the course of t
%."..' l ess: (1) Prodromal stage with dizziness, visuL.l disturb
S*..,~ disturbance of equilibrium, reeling gait; (2) stai-e of ps
k:..,,. citement with delirium, delusions, con-vulsions, unconscio
:,.,- ~ coma; (3) appoar.nce of nervous weakness (hypochondria, m
".'. las "".
PV.:' cholia, hystero-neurasthenia), whichh mae.y last for years.

M' 'FLuRY. F., and Z1NGCrI, H.
*, Lehrbuch dor Toxikologie fir Studiumn und Praxis, 500 pp.
S : Berlin. 1928.

Symptoms of me-hyl bromidoc poiscni.ng -re briefly rev
-There is a typical interv'.l of several hours or da:'s bc'fo
onset of severe sntomns (p. 206).

S-- and ZLRNIK, F.
i. Schadliche Gase, Danpfe, Mebol, li.auch-und Staubartcn. 637
', "Berlin. 1931.
: : f
.: The action of .: thyl bropidc a: a nerve po-scn is Pr
....: to decomposition to on rncth:,yl alcohol or fc,.rm.ldc-hyde (

B;'I IRANCOLIhI, J. DE.
i" L'emploi du brornurc de nmcthyle pour le3 traitcnen'tL des gra
Ssemence. Rov. de Path. Ve.. tt d'Ent. .tr. de France 2


III;I I experiments in Lorocco in February 1S34, 100 prrc
0,,,, tality of all stages of Sito-loilus oryze (L.) and of a sn
*,, bor of S. Lanio (L.) infcsti- _Vhct.-c iv-s obtc.incd by e
to methyl bromide "at the rv.tr. of 2 otmunces p:r 100 cubic f
i' 19.5 C. A't first the vrcevils bcc.--ic v'r-,', acti'-c, but ac
W4 .4. gradually diminished until aft-er about G hours 1 movom:
: In further tests 100 porcen1t rdorttlity of tho rth.'ljs of S
'\ as obtained t.-ith the samo &anount of funitij-nt by cxposin,

hi hours in glass tubes closed vrith muslin under bcll jars a


oncentra-
absorp--
Tribol izn
ous food-
pressure:
2) 240-mnm.
0-mm.
ur 26.0.
a'-,.out as
chloro-
he pros-
barley,
with


(30)
Zentbl.


are re-
ry.
he ill-
ances,
ychic ex-
usness,
elan-


(31)


viewed.
re the


(32)


pp.


ob?.bly duo
pp. 309-310).


(33)
ines dr?
2: 1-8.


ent mor-
al num-
xposure
cet at
tivity
nt ceased.
* oryza
them 2
t 22 C.,




-10-


though some of th: weevils did not die until the next day. All
larvae within the grains were killed by 24 hours' exposure to 1
ounce per 100 cubic feet at 21 '. ,.ven at the rate of 5 1/2
ounces to 100 cubic feet for 24 hcurs, r.ct.Pyl bromide only slight-
ly reduced the germinating poweIr of wvrheat arnd other cereals.

(34)
Action sur les products vegetaux du bromrre de methyle en fumiga-
tion sous vide partiel. Rcv. dc Path. Veg. ct d'Ent. Agr. de
France 22: 9-12, 1935.

Tests were carried out in Morocco to determine the action of
methyl bromide on various fruits, vegeta>les, ..-.nd plants exposed
to 6-7 ounces per 100 cubic feeCt for an hour at 22-26 C. A par-
tial vacuum rwas maintained for 20 ninut-s, :fter ohich the pres-
sure was brought back to normi."., c.rnd the products vrcre ventilated
for 10 minutes after fumigation. Bananras became soft and black-
ened, pears became soft withouL showing outvward change, and pot'a_
toes became brown and slightly soft, but ntoner of the other fruits
or vegetables wore affected. Of 25 plants the only ones injured
were Fuchsia, Iresine, and Zantr-deschia, the leaves of which
withered and dropped 48 hours .:.fter c:xposurc. Susceptibility to
methyl bromide appears to be rclatcd tc the water content of the
plant or fruit. A series of tests s'-::ed that the hydrobromic
acid given off by methyl bromide in saturated atmosphere does
not exceed 2 parts per 1,000 if t.he fvrniation is of normal
duration.

FI-iM, W. (35)
Berufliche, t6dliche romethyl-Vcrgiftung. Sarnil. Vcrgiftungs-
fillen 8: 31-32, 1937.

A further report is madc.: on :. c s o f r:i-thyl bromide poison-
ing first reported by Opperma.n (sec reference 95), in which there
were repeated cpileptiform att: cks for 2 years, ,and even after 4
years there was some nystagmvs ond f-eling of discomfort. Two
new cases arc reported, of which one. 7,,rs ft.-tal. Both men wore
exposed at the same .timC, but the ,nce who died had been exposed
repeatedly previously.

GERBiALDI, C. (36)
Methyl bromide as an insecticid.. RCv. F'ruttic. 3: 221-283.
1939. [In Italian.]

Aill the larvae of (Cydi:L) G3rapholith.a Mnolecst, (3usck) and
Carpocapsa pomonella (L.- in pars cxpo.sd to 1 g-n. of UcLthyl
bromide per cubic meter for 18l hours ircre 1':illc-. lic, injury to
the fruit from methyl bromide -,-LS obs-rved-.r.d In Frnch crab
apples, however, the type of injury: described by Phillips and
coworkers (100) was found.

GLLSER, E. (37)
Zur Kcnntnis dor gowcrblichcn Bro.u,,ctililv" rgi.flugcn. Dout.
Ztschr. f. die Gosam. Gerichtl. D ,:d. 12: 470-474. 1928.

A fatal case of methyl bromid,: poisoning, is reported. There
was an interval after .*.xposurc b'-force tlic onset of oiny syr.ptoms.




11-l


The patient thcn soon lost consciousness nd died within a fcw
hours. The concentration of methyl bromide in thc air to which
vorrkcrs a-re oxposcd should not e;:ceed 1.9 mg. in 100 liters.

---- and FRISCH, S. (38)
The effect of technic:.lly and hygienically important gases and
vapors upon the orgaris.7i. Brominated hydrocarbons of the ali-
phatic series. .-rch. f. Hyg. 101: 48-64. 1929. [In German.]

Subcutaneous injection showed that tetrabromoothane is six
timcs, dibromcthanc four tLmes, and methyl bromide seven times as
toxic as ethyl bromide. The toxic action of the vapors of dibro..o-
cthano and th. l ..1 bro.-ide is eight tines greater than that of ethyl
bromide vapor. T'he inhalation of tetrabromocthane vapor is without
toxic rsult. Ikc.us-: of its reatcer volatility, the d:.re--cr attend-
ing the use Cf ethy1 bromide is more than twicc as or.t as that
attending the uzc cf th,. more toxic .*-ibromocthan,. t'r.thyl bromide
is still mere dangorous, and groat caution should be observed in
its use. The inh:.l-tion of subnareotic doocs of dibromocthane and
methyl broT.i', n-,'y eventually result in death. The animals appe-r
to tolerate T.rgc (cencc-cntratio'as of the compounds for a short time
better than ]c.,rcr concentrations for lco Ocer _criods.

GOLDSCHMID. E., -.d KaIfH, E. (39)
BrommethYlver-if'tung mit tdliclen A.,ugang. Zentbl. f. Gewrerbe
Hyg. u. Unfallverhutun: 8: 23-36. 1920.
"\
IIine cases of poisoning occurred in a 6ye factory follcvr:,
the bursting of a l:,r.e vessel ce?'niE .:q methyl bron-ide. There
were three deaths, and these cases all folloi.ed the same "--r.eral
course-a short period of feeling unvell followed by sudden epi-
leptifornn convulsions, loss of conscic-usi.ess, disturbances of
breathing and in a few hours, death. The six other cases com-
plained consistently of vertigo, headache, e ".ral weakness, and
disturbance of equil ibrium.

GRONOW, W. E. (40)
Die i.n-'vendung chemiicher.e Sonder-Nassfeuerl6ocher in den ger'erblichen
Betrieben unt,-r dem Gesichtslunrkte ihrer Ein-rir.:un auf die
Benutzer. Zentbl ... Gef. erb K",. u. l,.fallverhi.un-1i (n.f.) 4:
161-16'3'. 1927.

Wh.nein ujsd &s u f ire-extr.,v.isher liqvivd, r..Lt':l brr'-nij:e showrs
less te.enc.." than c,'rbon tctrachloride to fonr ".r:'.f'l deconPosi-
tion products. ..s y-t, onl', hn'-robroiaic "cid has been observe,
which irritates thi resoiratory or,. '.s -.*ut possesses no toxic prop-
erties.

GUEFFROY, W., and EHI.FLT.DT, 17;. (41)
The hal]e,-en.-ted hydroct r' ns of -:. c f: tty serir' .s .solvEn'. and
their sisn .if ic&ncc to th, mc. Ec 1 *Ir .cLi ce. Z':.t1l, f rbe
HyU. Unfall-vcrhutunj,25: 224-2,30. 1, E.3 Ii [ln ic- r.n]

These solvents as a clr.ss are cap:'.': e of rro'ucin.- .cute
poisoning c.nd occasionally blood chac.-. es, ,h: lurnfs cr,. th, cl.icuf




-1 2- i. ..* :i' ..

portal of entry into the body. Absorption through the 'kin .1B" ...
sible. Frequently, on long exposures the chloride and neu4ra.ir:.: :.
fur content cf the urine increases, as does the acidity. Dane'..": '
from fire and explosions frequently exists. The specificpropeti... .
tics a.nd actions of a nunb2r of these com-poundr, including methyl .....
bromide, ar3 discussed in detail. No specific medical prophylax ..'
for chronic poisoning by this cJass of compounds is known. -",..i'i
-" .',. ."
HAMILTON, C. C. ()..
Methyl bromide used successfully to fumigate plants in soil bed4<, ,
Hort. Topics 3 (6): 11. 1939. ,: '

Experiments h-sve shcvra that emulsions made 'y adding 50 cc;a..
of methyl bromide tD 250 cc. of wood alcohol and diluting in S al-
lons of rater will "_ill grubs of Anoi.-ala orientalis Waterh. in '
azalea beds both in the greenhouse and outdoors. Examination mwO .
7 days after treatment revealed that all the larvae vwere either ..
deai or disabled, but the azalea plants were not injured. .

(4 f31') t.
Methyl bromide fumigat on Cc r con-rcrol of asiatic beetle grubs :
att-.ac-ing azP.ler-. plae.nts. Jour. Econ. Fat. 33: 486-490. 1940.:.

Fumigation of soil and azalea plants in raised benches and- .':
floor benches by confining methyl bromide under a fumigating box '
at the rate of 1 cc. per square foot caused no injury to plants., in
spring tests and only sli.:-tt leaf burn to cne variety in fall tes-ts,
Soil temperature ranged from 54 to 861 F. A complete kill of
grubs of Anomala crientalis ,',aterh. vas obtained in all tests ex-,. '.
cept those conducted whe-n The soil temperature vwas 54 at a depth-
of 8 inches and 58 at 4- inches. .
Fumigation of soil by injecting at 6-inch intervals methyl btbr..'
mide and methyl or ethyl alcohol (1:]5) at a rate of 0.5 cc.' of '"
methyl bromide killed most of the grrus and caused little or no '
injury to plants. 3y dilutin.rr this solution .-ith water and sprinlk
ling ever the area to be treated, a nearly complete kill of the
grubs could be obtained without injury to plants, when 1 cc. of
methyl bromide per square foot was used; 0.5 or 0.75 cc. gave less
thE.n 50 percent kill.

1IAWIVKIS, L. A. (44)'
Fumi-ation of dormant deciduous nursery stock for the oriental .,
fru-.it moth iith methyl bromide. U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant
Quar. E-458, 3 pp. 1933. [Processed.]
Control of the immature stages of C-rapholitha molesta (Busol)
on bare-root stock ras obtained by fumigation at the rate of 3.5S
pounds per 1,000 cubic feet for 4 hours at 70 F.
------- (45)
The use of methyl bromide for the treatment of quarantined pla nt
products. U. S. Bur. Ent. cnd Plant Quar. E-484, 6 pp. 1939,'.:.
[Processod.] .
Results are given of experiments for the control of various
insects in green vegetables, sweotpotatoes, bulbs, potted plants,.
greenhouse stock, nursery stock, ani other plant products. .,.|





V:". "
: -13-

... (46)
jl Fum r. c 6 - c r c i U .B r
.i. :.. Fumigation cf vetch seed to c-ntrol the vctch bruchid. U. S. Bur.
I..."' Ent. and Plant Quar. '-492, 2 pp. 1939. [Processed.]

!' r Bruchus brachialis Fahr. in inf'csted -seed c'n
be killed by 'l7r.it4tion c.t a dosage c f 3 pounds per 1,000 cubic
feet for 4 hours, at 70 F. TI.Ire t.rs i-o .pprccible lcw:cri".g
of the viability e1 the s,.d "- t..is tr.-tm.cnt.

SHLHOFF, E. (47)
[Cases of methyl bromide to:dicvtior.] Jnr.-'g.-Diss. Berirn. 1924.
Rc :Reference in article by L. Lcrzbach, Ztschr. f. die cGcs-.m. Exot.
M cd. 63: 3S3-392. 1928.

ENDE PSON, Y., and THLGGARD, H. VW. (48)
SNoxious gascs ord the principles o.. r.s- ir:ticr. influc.cning their
action. 220 pp. New Ycrk, 1c27. (.Xn:r. Chcr.i. Sec. P:onor.r..ph.
SNo. 35. )

:" *The mon.oh.-lo,:en compounds of -,.eth?.ne--methyl bro.ide, .iethyl
i".."- : iodide, :.nd rmethyl cilcride----re re:.ctive 2.s5s, for -.fter c-.sorp-
C:." *tiorn by the body they c.rc deconposed intc ne-tht nol, -.uich ers -.e-.rly
... .... nonreactive, and the halogen -.cid. The acid then cor.'.bi:es vrith the
.. sodi-m of the blood to fern the so.diu=. halide. The u.Lsrked cukeu-
:":'.:::"lative effect of inethe.nol and its des-&ructi've action upon the r:er-
.:-vous system re.ider these three riothyl halides ".rticul'rly po.son-
'':"..'. ous. Theyr do not themselves accumulate in the body 2nd reach an
equilibrirn preventinx- f,?rther atscr-tion, ..s in .the cave of non-
reactive ;ases, but they arc. decomposed 2.fdth the production of
methanol. Ccnsequentl,, methaniol co:."inues to accumulate in the
body as long as the exposure persists. Thus severe pci.sc-.ir.g by
methanol results after prolonged e;-posure to ccncencrati.cns of a
methyl morohalide too sma1l to exhibit the ..nesthetic action of
the undecomposed substance. The s;,nTo. are those of ethanol
poisoning. Their development nay' be sl, and recuLv:-r/ delD,:ei;
there is usually intense cxciteme.nt r..-d cven epilertif)rrm con-
vulsions. Gastric and intestinial *-iiz-ur.'ances, voai ti. dirr.ea,
and pain nay also occur (pp. 15-160).

HOTARD, F. L. (49)
Chloropicrin, s:.ea-I, cr'on isuilfidc nd o',,her tr-alr.cit+.s f'cr
Sinjurious soil microorganisms. Ves. Growers' .-.sroc. -'..er. A-n.
Rpt. 1939: 115-130.

Slcthl bromide is a pow-rfu irs.octicidc '.rhicl', it :'.pp-oars can
(. be developed irto an eff'icieit cil f'ni;: r:t f"r "rcvri rI plants.

i'''' I, G. FIABI-B.. STPIE A.-G. C(50)
a tlkyl halides. GCcn.n Patc.nt 473,123, Junec 20, 1929. [In Gcrnan.1

Alkyl halides -.rc prepared by "ia.F w..; r.ixt'.irc ( C 1n aliphatic
,: alcohol v,,or v-ith a hydrorci: h] idc at .zlvvr-t d tcr.p'raturo
l"- over a catalyst eompris!n: active carbcr '-.id phcsphoric acid.
,.,. The examples describe the prcparvticin f .icthyl chloride, i: 'thyl
bromide, and propyl chloride.




-14-


( 51):.
Alkyl halides. British Patcnt 375,199, June 25, 1932.

AlkyIl chlorides and bromides are obtained by action, in the liq-
uid phase at temperatures exceeding 1CO C., of concentrated hydro-
chloric or ]hydrobronic acid on the corresponding al,:ohol. The
preparation of methyl brc'rice from methanol and 40 percent hydro-
brcmic acid is give-n as an exr.r.ple.

I -TEPA".7ATIO.'.L LA:P.I-1U OFFICE. (52)
Occupation and health, v. 2. Geneva. 1954.

T'he chemnistr-y:, tcxic acticn, patholog.y, .and. prophylaxis of
meoth'l broiiide a-re briefly reviev:'?- (ppo 235-240).

IRISH, D. D., ,AD,`2S, E, .'., SFEiCEP, I. C., an.i P.O-,E, V. ]:. (53)
The response c.tLcndinm exposure laborator'.- anim-als to vapors
of iCehyl '-,roi.de. J.our. Ircus. -Iy. and ?oxicol. 22: 218-230.
19 -G,0

A -.nals *ccld-.r:;: :. l rjc l,,.-'ses 2or sh-ort o ricods of tine.
!\7t?r I.2, e::oo su-': s,'0_, l, i ,- irritation is observed. Animals
succi-bi:o I ii'::!e ,-:: poC.l. o, 12 cL. 2--1 hcurs at, a concentration
of 0.53 in... *r'r 4i'-er. o -E.ts cu.r-iv:d for a V'-riablc period (1 to
3 we s-i:E to 5 :'- .t} .r jicr- re- :-, to'1 co ocvures cf 7 1/2 to 8
hours d..:.il' to 0,42 mrno rx:r l.tn:r, :u' th-ey showed definite intox-
iat:io". ?c nd coor gro-Erto. '-uir.':. i,-s ",ere more resistant, a
'K. 4,:,rit'' sur-r-ivin- a ful].l 6 months i;:t. nearly normal growth.
Pabitc .erc :,icr. s.ucce; tible,. 1 li, c tLe concentration vras lowered
to 0.25 nig., it vas tol.'.r.tol b.. )oth- rats and guiri3na pigs in re-
p -atd oxposur-s for 6 im.:.nths, McnJ-k:e,-. tcl,-rated 0,25 mg. for '5
weeks or Mc rno. '7hen ti: o cnc:-e-,:r--:icn was 0.13 :r-., rats, guinea
pigs, ,.nd ;ci:cys- s.,rv:ive-d r,.:catcd co.,,osnrcs for 6 imion-ths without
.ro05s :ci. f hi-.storath;-.ological c-1-.n;.?s. RT.bbits survived re-
peated exposures t. 0.065 n;g. for 6 ic.-nths.

Animals tolerated for a lon. period a daily 8-hour exposure to
a cc'iic-,nt rtion not far below the a::iirum tolerated for a single ex-
posure of S. hours. Pats r r an,. uinea. ,-,i.s tolerated for 6 months
a proxiristelr cne quarte-"r t-I e m.aximm'.n concentration when exposed
f.:'r E single 8-ho-,ur period dlail,. This indicates T;he ability to
destro' rapidly, cr e::crete i.etl-rl brc.-nide and recover quickly from
es'cn e<-.,cosure. Ania.si.ls exposed to concentrstions and for periods
sufficient tr cause a. d"!' i-ite para]Jysis iore ab.le to recover
comletlc-' if r,-ov, fro., the ch er. Fecovered animals showed
no, func',.ina1 .:r V',/sio',lor, cal J!:bnornalit,'.

JAQUET, A. (54)
Uecer 3roamneth'lvergiftt'i;;. Dort. j.rch. f. Ilin, Med. 71:
57--336 1901, .

Tro cases, i(-irher f..:.tal, of ;1-'s. ,ning by metlhyl bromide are
report,:d. Th-' first s:,.'ptrmns Twere i',realncss .:.nd vertigo, visual
dis'C urb',ncc s, and dy.,pnca. I. slit-it, po, s-,ning those seem to be
the on]." s, :nptc, m.. In nocre s e pcisonin:-: or in especially pre-
disposed ocrsocns th],ro .-LaV r 0 follc,' psychic disturbances, even
reaching doliriu;.i. It .is n:t.blo that th- svorc symptoms may -
.t




'. .-*: --15-

; ' appear only after several days. Soi..c residual neurasthenia was
.: .* .observed. A few expcrineonts vith animals are described.

L.. JOACHIhOGLU, G. (55)
... Toxikologischc Botrachtungcn ibcr einige modcrne Fcucrlbschmittcl.
: Dcut. Med. Wchnschr. 56: 785-787. 1930.
r Methyl brcmid' is much mcrc toxic than carbon tctrachlorido.

Concentrations as low as 0.00009 mole per liter were fatal to
;, dogs upon prolonged exposure. The animals displayed lung edema
: and finally died after severe dyspnea.

:, JOHNSON, A. C. (56)
A low-cost v.ater seal fumigator. U. S. Bur. Dit. and Plant Quar.
ET-154, 2 pp., illus. 1940. [Processed.]

0.' 'Directions are given for the cnstructicn ..f a vater-sealed
S. fumigator from a 50-gallon oil drui. Carbon disulfide and methyl
S"bronide have been .used in this fumigato.r.
.N.
JOHNSON, V. A. (57)
,, Fumigating with hydrocyan5.c acid and methyl br'-r;idr. U. S. Patent
:. 2,147,947, Feb. 21, 1939.

For destroying living orga-iis:.is such a-s Japanese beetles, 1
ounce of hydrogen cyanide and S ounces of methyl bromide are used
^ per 1,000 cubic feet of space. Such a mixture has a mutual syn cr-
:'' gistic action.

J' ONES, R. M. (58)
Toxicity of mcthyl fonwctc, -thylenc oxide and nethyl bror.idc, in
S admixture with carbon dioxide, to the mist-rcd flour b.eetla.
Io.wa State Col. Jc-ur. Sci. 13: 73-74.. 1938.

Thic maximum insecticidal c effects of methyl fomatc, cthylc'no
oxide, cLand methyl br.omide against Triboliun castc.nou-.i (hlbst.)
v wcrc obL-inod v-ith concentrations of 40, 60, and 20 percent, rcs-
pectivcly, of carbon dioxide. Increase of carbon dioxide may de-
crease the effectiveness.

.. .. -(59)
Toxicity of funigant-cv.rh. ,"n diox::ide mixtures to the red flour
S. beetle. Jour. Econ. Emn. 31: 298-309. 1938.

The to.:icityr cf methyl A' mate, methyl ",rcmide, and ethylene
i,:oxide, alone and in ni-turc with vrius concentra'. icx.s cf carbon
:. dioxide, vas studied with Iribcliur. castaneun (1bst.) as test in-
Ssect. The toxicity -f these fu:.nigants may bre :-arl:edly increased
by the ad',-iti1c.c of certain o-)rc';:tares c f corb.'" dioxide. The
:i stimulative affect of cer'cn dij:-idr i cc:-sidcr.,ly ra-re pronounced
'with methyl formate .nd ethylce'.-ic ocxide thani vi-ith mpthy;l b*rc-Aido.
!- Maximu.n efficiency cf methyl forate, cthylcnc on::ide, and methyl
bromide is cb-ained with approximately 40, 20 e.nd 10 percent cf car-
A bn dioxide, respectively.





-16-


KOHN-ABREST, E. (60)
Prc'cis de toxicclcgie, 388 pp., illus. Paris. 1934.

Methyl bromide is four times as toxic as carbon tetraohloride
(p. 83).

LANGE, W. H., Jr, (61)
Tests i.th methyl bromide as a fumigant for lar-vae of the arti-
choke plur.c moth. Jour. Econ. Ent. 32: 66-69. 1940.

Plat-%tilia carduidactyla (Riley) is controlled vrith minimum
plant injury by a dosage in vacuo ocf 1 pound per 1,000 cubic feet.
The tcmpcraturc should be 22,2 tc 24.4 C. and the exposure 2 to
2.5 hours. Treatment at atmospheric pressure increases plant
injury.

LATTA, R. (62)
AlICethl bro-.idc funic-ation for destruction of pod-borer larvae.
Jour. Ec.-n. Ent. 33: 173-179. 1940.

Doses a. l 7'r rs 0.5 pound per 1,000 cubic feet produced com-
plete *Kxrtality ( f ifaruca testulalis Gcyer, in 2 hours ht tempera-
tures above 21 C. at-t:-n spheric pressure, c'r in 90 minutes at a
15-inch vacuu.. Lc': t,';-uipraturs r',.quircd higher doses. For conm-
mercial ,:tr-osphcric funie.: ti._n 1,5 pou-ds per 1,000 cubic feet for
2 hours is advised temperaturese 21). Green lima beans, string
bca:-,s, and pigo.n p.as arn. t-t injurcd by doscs necessary to kill
the larv:..c o:f this insect.

LE GO'PIL., (63)
Les propricto's inisecticides du brcmure dc methylc. Rev. do Path.
Vcg. et dEnt. A~r. do rrance. 19: 169-172. 1932.

In studies .of vacu'.m fumigation with various substances,
methyl bromide, ,'ihich w as -ri finally used in conbinaticn v.rith in-
flamriable liquid fumigants to.. r'-duce the danger of fire, was found
tc possess a m-uch higher specific toxicity than the fumigants with
which it vas mixed. Furtlh:r t.sts verc. carried cut with methyl
br':r-.idc alone and diluted i-. o liquid possessing slight insectici-
dal pr:,pcrtics, such as carbon tetrachloride. Sitophilus granaria
(L.) wVa.s chosen as the test insect on account cr its resistance to
insecticides. A few other species, notably Tribolium, were also
used. The time cf exposure i-as 1 1/2 hours in every case, but the
dose rar:ncd front 2 tc 13.5 ounces per 100 cubic foot. The insects
wrc treated both isolated in vitro and buried in various types of
cornoditi.'-s, in dry atm.ossphrcs Cs %.ell as in varying degrees of
mncisturc., in the prrcsnc,- z.f rags soaked in oil, and at tempcrm-
cures from-i 15 to 26 C. With doses blow 3.5 ounocs some insooects
wi: re still alive when they wrc withdrawo-. from the autoclave, but
all succumbed within a fewr hours. Larvae, pupae-, and adults still
inside unsplit grains wore reached just as :ffoctivcly as those
developing betwc.n th: grains, and it is prcbable that the eggs
wero al, destroyed. Yiethyl brn'mide is toxic tc nan only in very
large dcses, and since it is very volatile i.nd soluble in water,
it ir easily --li.inatcd fron fL-uigatcd ccmmcditics. It is uninfla&h-
mable ui-der all conditions and carn be used tc reduce the danger of


-."-.. .. ....... :*:.2; .*;', Zg _"",-_.-^ .H,-,IB.. . l





i ": [. *'"i ." : ;


> ": ,
4.,


: LEPESM, P. (6
S The efficacy of methyl bromide in the disinfection cf vegetables
under partial vacuum. Acad. d'Agr. de France Compt. F.Rend. 24:
783-787. 1938. [In French.]


4)


Ninety-minute ex::posure tc 40 g:-. per cub-ic meter of methyl
bromide under a p-.rtial vacuum of 50 rmi. of mercury will completely
destroy Sitophilus granaria (L.), S. cryza (L.), Priizopertha
dominiica- T.), Trilolium castaneutmn (Hst.), C-nathccerus cornutus
7,'-r-yzaephiTus suriTna'Tens-is -s ), Laemophlc.eus spp., trucks
signaticornis GCyll., and Enhestia kiehniella Zell. This dose can
be lowiered to 30 g n. in so.ie cases.


iEP~IGRE, A.
The disinfcction of grair.s -'ith mixtures of ethylene oxide and
:-'- carbon dioxide. Sec. d'Enc.urage:norit pour lrndus. !!at. :ulo
135: 385-462. 1936. [In French.]


(6s5)


..
S:.
k .
'
t


LINDGREN D. L. (66)
Methyl broi.iidz fumigation of rcdlinr-noth larvae. J'.ur. Eccn.
Ent. 29: 1174-1175. 1936. (Correction in Jc'r. Ec(i. Ent.
30: 381. 1937.)
Five pounds of a mixture containing 3.4 porcont b" volum.c of
methyl bromide and 96.6 percent of carbon dioxide oper 100 cubic
feet killed all the larTi buried in sacks. l'cthyl bromide is
much more tcxic tr those l.rvoc tha.i hyrair. gc' cyanidc r carbon
dioulfide.


(67)


Methyl iodide as a fur.iO-.ut. Jour. '.ccn. _rit. 31: 320. 1938.


Tests with mr.thyl iodide rn sc Ilc insects (Cocciti(c), lLdy
bcct]es (Cocci,;cllidac), c-'fuscd flour b:.tl.s (Tritollun con-
fusui Diiv.), vodljin north larva.c (Car'suocar:.rt 'cnnrela (L. )-and
some other insc.c';s t.ndict.tc ti-..h t Tr ''-., -'' .. b i ic s
as a fumigant. I. zccsts .-n citrus s.,c.dli:ns c-r.c.ntraticns ;.bovc
these lethal to thc insects w-r r.ct- toxic to th.e plants.


-17-

fire with such substances .s ethylene -xide. Although its price
is high, the small quantities required render th- cost of using it
reasonable. It does not appear tc affect the genr-inating pcwer of
cereals, but tests have not beE-n carried far enough in this direc-
tion to be conclusive.


I*4
I. ".
: .,, .










I:/."


The use of methyl bromide as a fumiga.t for grain is discussed.
It properties arc given end its action en nan and higher animals is
discussed, chiefly front the l tcre.turc. The danger of its deconpo-
sition into hydrobronic acid in treatr-d -c,,:ds is thourhtto be con-
siderable. Little is .:nrc-m cf its cffict cn wheat for milling, but
its effect on the gcrmination cf the grain is considered serious if
a dosage of 6 ounces per 100 cubic .c"L of air is used.





-18-


LIVIINJGSTOIC, E. M. (68)
Fumigaticrn :f bulk s il v-ith m:thyl bror.id. fcr the -,hito-fringod
bJotlC in J;cw Orlcanis. U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. E-512,
4 pp. 1940. [Processcd.]

Experimental ".-ork -v.ith methyl bromide as a fumigant for potting
soil and five additional tpes of soil showed that larval infesta-
tions of Pantonorus leucoloma (Boh.) in bulk quantities of these
soils :e7rre destro-Ced b'y Treatment with 58.3 cc. per cubic yard for
48 hours, at 42-P88O F. hio harmful effect on plants from the, use
of soil fumigated with nieth'yl bromide has been noted by commercial
u se rS.

- .----- (69)
P'lci.il bromide fumip'r.tion of th. -.white-fringed beetle larva in
small flov'erpots in Po' Orleans. U. S. uir. Ent. and Plant
*.uar. E-513, 4 pp. 1940 [Prcccssed.]

Fu.migm.tion of the lzrva. of PantoTiorus leucoloma (Boh.) in New
Orlc.c'.ns vith mI;,thl br.-nido at the rc to of r pound to each 1,000
cubic fct cf chai.b._-r space fcor 4 hours at about 85 F. destroyed
inf "st:..tions i i soil about the roots of plants growdng in 3-
inch or s.iallc:r flowerpots, '_-ut not in 4-inch pots. The volume of
the 4-inch pot is 2.5 ti-.i-s t.at of the 3-inch pot. The treatment
has be-:. u..:d successLully in oiiara.tinc .rork in Hiec,r Orleans and
is tc 1 rat,..o b'- ..-,- reoxinatl 90 pcrc,:nt of thc plant species and
varia tic s.

E, r '.SETI, S. S. ,-.d S,'.IJ C., P.. (70)
L'..;thyl ':rov.:idc in aqueous solution tc control Fantomoroua
Icucolomra [BDoh.] and Pr per-grinus [Buch.]. Jour. Econ. Ent.
.5=5fl 533. 1940.

Arn aqueous solutions cont,.ining 0.3 percent of rmethyl bromide
and 0.6 o.-rcrent of ethyl alcohol d.stroyd larvae of both species
about the roots of ba.llcd nursecry,. stock. The application of 40
gallons prr 10'0 square f'?-t ,r.1' soil surfarc.E gav. complete mortal-
icy of t.. larvv- in, 18 ho.urc or loss.

LOFFLEFi, '7I., .ud P ITIITYF= IV. (71)
Ucbcr Vcrgiftuntr mit Brornmsthyl und IcLchweis dcr Substanz in Blut
und Organcn v.-erift-.t.r Tiire. Vrtljschr. Gcrichtl. Mcd. 60:
60-67, ]920.

A fatal ca:-. o."' m-, th--l ronir-c. poison.r-ing is described. This
acute seizur: had :.c..n pr-ic2dd by suboxcutc intoxication during
periods hCh:ei: pati't hTad ,rcri.ed in an *-;ncloscd space where
there i-''as t.m,.1 :.posur'. t r'. th:l bromide,, ,!ith a.pparcnt remission
of.r all syiiptoins during r.s riod.: when h:- -.'ork?-d in the open.






A
.i


* "::,.. **-* "* *+ + .. **!","- :"- .... ..W il,- %' .. .:".;. ,;*- W -. ",i.




"19-


LOS ANGELES COUNTY AGRICULTURAL C0M'ISSIOIEP. (72)
Codling moth. Los Angeles Co., Calif., Agr. Comnin., Ann. Ppt.
1940: 7.

Packers of pears and apples equipped themselves with fumiia-
tion apparatus to take advantage of a change in the standardiza-
tion law, which allovred 5 percent of visible worms and 5 percBnt
of invisible worms in rhe packed fruit provided methyl bromide
fumigation vwas used.

LOUNSKY, J. (73)
Note sur la resistance des azalees 'a. la fumigation au bromure de
m6thyle. Inst. A.gron. et des Stas. de Rech. de Gembloux Bul. 8:
126-131. 1939. [Summaries in Dutch, German, and English.]

In continued invest nationss 34 varieties of azalea plants were
treated in winter, without bein- removed from their packing (wicker
baskets or wooden racklinP cases), by v.rcuum fumigation with methyl
bronide at the rate of 40 or 80 gin. per cubic meter for 2 hours.
On the whole, the trcatments had no injurious effects on the plants.

---- and VTND'-'T'AlLL, R. (74)
Observ&.tions cur l,- comportement de plantes d'azalees dans divo.rs
essais dc traitemcnt de desinscctisation. Inst. Arco-i. et des
Stas. dc RErch. dr- G.:i!oux viBul. 8: 52-58. 1939.

Fumigation .i''h m,-thyl bromide caused no injury to azalea
plants when used at 40 *i. per cubic meter for 1, 2, or S hours
at reduced or atoppric pressure, but gave irregular results at
higher dosac,cs, somctimtms causing injury that vwas found to bo duo
chiefly to imrpurities and which was always more severe at the
bottom. of th: umiair'; chamber.

SACKIE, D. B. (75)
Entomologic.al s..rvicc. Calif. Dept. Agr. (Ann. Rpt. 1936) Bul.
25: 455-481, illus. 1937.

Methyl broniidc ,ras used extensively as a fumigaCnt durini.g 1936.

----- (76)
Entomolo-'icrl s, rvicc. Calif, Dce,:t. >,r. (Ann. 1]pt. 1937) Bul.
26: 418-438. 1933.

Fumi-t ior ,'ith m.. t>.yl brc.vide as proved very satisfactory
for dcstroyin- K1.cifcria ly,rcp:rcicc1la (7usck) in harvested toma-
toCs, und w'a.s also used m:--ir~s.: L- 'rcC'r~ s obliquus Klug in
colory. In cold ''cathcr, lict'cver, This fuligant vB'.s less effec-
tive than hydrocy-nic acid .'*s c::copt at much higher dozagos,
which sometimes caused injury to -lan-.ts, especially those with a
noticEablc. cil content.




* .: ..., ., w:.'t. *,? .u!:
-20- -
- ..,,,. i: :o; .. ;

U'ethyl bromide-its expectancy as a fumigant. Jour. Econ. En.'t"-
31: 70-79. 1938. .. ..
Meth:.rl bromide is toxic to a large group of insects and other'
animals. Vany plants in the active or dormant stage can accommodate
themselves to its -.accrs -t concentrations and exposure periods
which are lethal to animals. The vapors are noninflammable and"
stabAe at temperstures, pressures, and moisture conditions met, in
practice. Lack cf a distinctive odor at toxic vapor concentrations
presents a hazar',. tC hwmsmns -,hieh v.-ill necessitate the use of a
t,,Jarinf: compounti (lachr,,r-nating gas). The equipment necessary ifl
using this fumir,.nt presents no great mechanical difficulty.


Entomological service. Calif. Dept. Agr. (Ann.. Ppt. 1938) Bul. .
27: 645-668, 1939.

As the second generation of Carpocapsa pomonella (L.) hatched
at the time cf the first -ickint of pears, newly hatched larvae, .,
which were difficult to detect .t the tine of picking, wre"
nunorcus in the fruit. Fumigati on of the packed and wrapped fruit
in the trucks r-ad, f;"or shipment vrith 2 pounds of methyl bromide
per 1,000 cubic feet ivms found to destroy .all larvae in 2 to 5
hours. "

------- (79).
M.,dern-.- fumigation tor pest contro).. o Pests 7 (4): 6-8. 1939.

Th. mount .nd t:'pe of ina-corial fuigated greap.tly affect the
concentrate oi, of 3::s in the air. Hydrocyanic acid gas and ethyl-
cnc oxide, bcin&, water-solublec, :'r'? gratly affected by moisture,f
rrhorcas carbon disulfide, mcthvl bromide, carbon tctrachlorido,
and ( thylen, diciloride, ,bcinc fat-soluble, are less affected. In
vacuum funi C tion hol,:iin,'; iec '.cuuj i throughout the exposure is
more effective than dissiprtin,g the va-cuum as soon as the fumigant :
is introdluc-d. The.- control of termitcs by fumigants is worth fur-
thor invcsti.gtio. 'ihce author is tcsting tri- and tctra-chloro-
ethylcne and methyl bromide. ,

and C.PTMP., W., B. (80).
M.thyl bromide as r. fumisint. A nrcliminary report. Calif. Dept..
Agr., Euil. 26: 153-162. 1937.

This fuminiant possesses certain properties which permit its
use against a number of fcrms of insect life not possible hitherto
because of injury to the host. Data relative to its toxicity to
human subjects are inconclusive. The gas has about the same insec-
ticidal va-due -AF ethylene o-::ide. Methyl bromide was used at the
rate of 2.5 pounds per 1,('00 cubic feet for 90 minutes in the fumi-
gation oC pot-atoes for Gnorinmoschelia coperculella (Zell.) 'with 100
percent kill. In one season 220 cars of potatoes were fumigated A
without injury to vcgeta'les or to personnel. The tomato pinwormn'
is easily destroyed 'by the zw,'e dosage. Preliminary tests on
citrus trees shored comaleote control, without injury to the tree,


..* '^


S--a. --...-~g S.N'.~'-. .S~'-.V.~L






-21-

I-... of resistant California red scale. The gas may be used in vacuum
fumigatorstors and mixed i-ith carbon dioxide. Insects vWhich apparently
.... survive the fumigation became comatose and die after several days.
surviv th fuiain cce na.os anddioen ynide soevertalin
: This fumigant is less injurious t'-han hydro-en cyanide to certain
.plants and tissues, including coleus, begonias, ferns, and other
succulent plants.

...---and CAFPTER, W. B. (81)
Observations on Hypera 1.'runneipennis and its destruction in baled
Ihay by fumigation. Calif. Dept. Agr., Bul. 28: 387-392. 1939.

Adults of H. brunneipennis in cages of perforated copper tub-
,. ing were buried in bales of tightly compressed alfalfa hay in or-
S*dinary freight and refrigerator cars loader to full capacity.
Ordinary freight cors wcre found to be unsuitable for fumigation
.. but complete mortality in refrigerator frs" ws obtained with a
Sdosage of 1.1 pounds of rNothyl bronide rer 1,000 cubic fect in the
baled hay and also in bags of flax seed, tlhe periods of exposure
ranging from 6 to 24 hours for the hay and 12 to 24 for the seed.
S,, Complete mortality wras also obtained in 12 hours vwhcn bales of
...: alfalfa hay were fumigated at 1 pound per 1,000 cubic feet under a
gas-proof tarpaulin.

S----, and CAkTER, W. B. (82)
', : Destruction of alfc.lfac. weevil Hypera variabilis by fumigation and
*::, other means. Calif. Dept. Agr., Bul. 28: 466-470. 1939,

......;' FPenetration by methyl bromide vr-s slower in timothy than in
":.'::. alfalfa hay. When 26 ..dults rerc plc.ced in hc. center of bale
S... of each in c, refrigorator car filled with timncthy hay cnd fur.igia-
ted for 10 hours at -, dosa.c of 1.2 pounds of methyl bromide per
1,000 cubic f(.c.t, a'll toc1sc i- t.-.c .lf-.lf. v.-rc de-d 3 hours after
: .trcat'ent, Thcroe.s 5 of t'iosc in ti'.othy wvcrc active 5 days ":.ftcr-
ic ward. Complete riort.,lity virs obt-.ined in bIaled timothy hay in
refrigerator cars b' fiz. t.att.or at dosages of 1.2 and 2.4 poun-ds
Super 1,000 cubic feet for 2,1 aind 6 hours, respectively. The bromine
. residu-es 72 hours after treatr.enit for 24 hours at these dosages
Swere 19,8 and 34.9 p.p.r. compared i'ith 5.8 n.p.m,. for untreated
I.. hay. WTen l.ales (-r alfar.lf. hay -;ere fumi a.&Led at 2 pounds per
S1,000 cubic feet under a gas-proofi' tarpaulin, all :-he adults v.-re
Dead ir..ediately after treatment for 12 hours, and 4 hours aft.r
treatment for 6 hours, but heavy concentrations of bromide re-
m. gained. When the dosage vm.s halved, all the adults vrere dead 3
I hours after fumigation for 6 or 12 hours.


------- and Cf.'RTR. W. 3.
Fumigation of fresh fruit with "Lethv.l bromiJde under industrial
conditions. Calif. Dept. Agr., Pul. 29: 78-86. 1940.


(83)


Packers during the 1939 reason funisated 1956 carloads of
California Bartlett pears to destroy,, codling moth larvae. The
work was done in refrigerator cars, refrigera.tor trucks, or utin-
der gastight tarpaulins. Fuuig.a.tion should not -e? done below 65
or above 95 F. in th-? car. The dosage is ;iot less than 4 or




-22-


more than 5 pounds per car, with an exposure of 2 hours. Twenty
c'rs of mixed fruit pearsr, plums, and peaches) were also treated
without injury, as were 5,000 boxes of apples consigned to Hawvaii.
The same method. wvrs used in treating 5,310 boxes of winter pears
to destroy the mcalyb',ug Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrh.).

MALLET, U. (84)
Insecticides for c.-ricu1tural products. French Patent 747,798,
June 23, 1933.

Agricultural funigants contain a considerable amount of methyl
bromide, v-hich is not only toxic to insects buit has fireproofing
properties, perrn.tting the addition of inflarmable products to the
liquid with safety. Carbon- tetrachloride may be added to lower the
vapor pressure.

McLAJNE, L. S., a.nd 7UTTO, 1-H. A, U. (85)
Develonme.nts in vacuum i''ni,-.'-tien at the port of Montreal. Ent.
Soc. Clnt.rio, n'P:n, r.n'c. C7: 15-17. 1936.

'. propri,.tary. fumi,:c..nt coi-,.taining approximately 7 percent of
methyl bro:.idre a-,i 93 percent of carbon dioxide killed European
corn bcircr lcr',e wnen used at: t"he r:-te of 40 pounds per 1,000
cubic l'c.,t r'or E0 mTinutes. A 2-hourL e:xposiirc at the same rate
<^ ~ c. p.ve ,- c i., ".ort. i c p,l, IJi'. ots and codling moth larvae
in LjO centers c inf'estcd apls. Analysis of vegetables and
-L" ""- LIi-L o l rated d t .}-, _L
fruit sf fitted vi1-h then mixture under exoorimental conditions
shoved '-,:'., to L-. very, limritc-d cxte the imethyl bromide reacted
r'1ith t:o' plant 've.tcrial to give T. .-watcr-solubl.c bromine compound.

MEIXIR, f. (86)
Ver-iftun..> .:lurch Dan',-A" ds Fouerlosehi,.ttcls Poloin (I'cthyl-
brc.mid). B.:itr. z. CGerichtl. Mcd. ': 10-17. 1928.

. worlma,, c'mplc.'ycd. in fi.lin.-e firc: vxtinruishers with this
liquid v-.s ftt.ll- poisned ':" theC fume's. Convulsions and marked
cn'.nosis nrcc-.'Ied dc.th. A.itops" sohoewed Ivngc edema and an early
stc.?c of' br.in e-d-ma.

LERZBACH, L. (87)
Zur Pharmal-olo,.ic d.s Broru,.cthyls und einig'cr seiner Vcrnandtcn.
Z-tschr. f. di,: "c's,.,a F i::pt, Mod. 63: 383-g?92. 1928.

Do '.s v'.': I:illcd t, x'xosur:' to 0.00009-0.00054 mole of mothyl
bro.via.dc per lit-cr. rsr]: d cdoma of the lungs wras produced. A con-
centr-.tion .f 0.0,00036 mole per 1. ite-r '..i.s not fatal. Exposure of
c'. 'p [I';oor:o..rpr n.. el 2.139 cii. of .i-ethr-1 bromide in 1,000 cc. of
w,.ter c.us~d narcosis in 1 minutes, but:. 1.8373 ci.i, caused no nar-
cosis after 2, minutes. Exposure of isolated frc. hearts to 6.5115
gFim. in 1,000 cc. of Riner s,.luticn ,produced a diastolic stoppage,
al thoupLi thr h.eoart recovered spontL -cousl.'; irith 5.7975 gm, in
1,000 cc. t.er,: vrs no :.topp'.'e, but thriomrlitudc Vwas loss and the
frequEncy reduced.





A.


____ --- - ...a' --'~ -.*-* tr~'"''. ~'. 's.*t4,.* .i.a4.: 4* 4~~*' '44,





-23-


S METCOALF, C. L., and FLINT, P. ()
Destructive and useful insects, 981 pp. New York and London.
I 1939.
i;
SThe physical properties of ri nethyl bromide are described. "It
', is about as toxic to many insects as chloropiorin and is' used at
i dosages from 1 to 2 1/2 Ibs. per 1,000 cubic feet for 12 to 16
hours in buildings.. It is not narcotic to the insects and kills
very slowly. It is recommended for use in ordinary atmospheric
fumigation, as in mills and greenhouses, and in vacuum chambers,
:' and also for srch stored products as fresh fruits and green vege-
S. tables, dried fruits and other stored food products, household
goods, nursery stock and ornamental flowers, and for rodent con-
trol. It does not injure the germination of seeds if they are dry.
H.i-gh temperature and humidity increase the effectiveness of this
gas." It appears to be a very promising fumigant, but much is
still to be learned about it (pp. 288-289).

SFor the control of bedbugs in congested places, individual
,. rooms or apartments can safely be futmigated vith commercial Paascs
:: containing methyl bromide (p. 888)

.: MINISTERSTWTO SPFAW WOJSKOUYCH. (6)
: .- Preparation of methyl bromide. Polish Patent 24,777, May 25, 1937.

I:'.. Sulfur dioxide and bromine react in the presence of -water to
::;; form hydrobroiimic acid Lnd sulfuric acid. To this are added, drop-
y.**va-wise, methyl alcohol and excess sulfuric acid, and the methyl bro-
:. mido obtained is distilled off.

MUMOW, H. A. u. (90)
Some observations on the use of methyl bromide as a fuwnigant, Ent.
Soc. Ontario, Ann. Ppt. 68: 72. 1938.

This is a brief swunary of studies in Quebec on the use cf
methyl bromide as a fumigant for apples. It v.-ns highly toxic to
apple insects w.-hen applied at the rate of 2 pounds per 1,000 cubic
foot at 50 F. In each test an initial vacuum of 3 inches absolute
pressure was dropped to 27 inches after introduction of the fumi-
gant, the vault temperatures being maintained at 60G by fan circu-
lation. In several varieties of apples exposures of 90 and 60
minutes killed larvae of Carpocapsa poeonella CL.) and Rhtuoletis
pomonella (Walsh), respectively. Eggs of Rhagoletis in t-.he fruits
Nviere killed in 30 minutes, b'ut 60 minutes -ere necessary for e.;s
of Carpocapsa. In so'-,e experiments, howeve-r, it appeared that
methyl bromide cased injury to apples.


l Some fumigation methods employed in the United States to prevent
the spread of the Japanese beetle (Popill.a japonjca I'Tcw.,,)' Ent.
i Soc. Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 70: 80-83. 1939.

4; Methods of fumigating fruits, vegrtahlen, potted ,plants, and
S nursery stock with methyl bromide arc described.




-24-


I:,TICIT'L IISTITIPI' OF ZI-_LT.H.. (92)
Preliminary reconrcnda-cions to fu:liy.tors using methyl bromide or
mixtures conta-irnin;T nc.hyl bromide as c. fumigpant. U. S. Pub.
Health Srv., -.tl. Inst. Health. Uay 16, 1938, 1 p.
[iProc,-sscd.1

(1) Avoid breathin:- -ir containing; methyl bromide.
(2) Ga cou:!..'t-ic' of fmcniation, provide thorough ventila-
tion for cars, rtors, or buildings before entering.
-7-T fe -necessary to enter spaces containing methyl bro-
mide, use a gas masvc provided with a canister givin,- protection
aga.-inrt organic vapors, or a positive pressure hose mask.
4T7 oi spilling niethyl bromide. Get to fresh air iimed-
iatcl in case of spillage. Remove any clothing in contact with
sl-in iflhich has bIeco.re impregnated with the liquid.
(5) Pos'_t warningng sins notifying that methyl bromide is be-
ing vsed r('. t t tn ic gs is toxic.
(6) S-ore containers c.f rimet-yl bromide in a cool, well-venti-
lated plac,:, o',tsidle inJa-'i'-e.- buildings. Avoid leakage by seeing
thL'at valve-s on cylinders are tfzhtl" closed.

DIJEKOLLS, A. H. (93)
Co.nt- r.- 'u ive life, fire :vdd e;.plosion hazards of co.umnon refriger-
ants. I, -,,'r.rituers LaboratoriEs.. :isc. Fazards IJo. 2375, 118 pp.
195$.

I,.eth'Il bromide m,.s among the !,i.t,:rial investigated. Toxic-
it-f v.s dct,.-i,,iur.:d -rith conc'n.tr tio:-is of 0.5-1.0 percent and
2-2.5 ercet ; .ole (vithi hi-her: conc.ntrc. tion in some cases)
-'o:p i.n':.: guair, es. Digs for p ri s of 5 minutes s to 2 hours. The
effec- ,C f ,ec:'ipositio-r. of th-:.- .s ; :..tures b 'j- 'ra-'C. from gas and
oil flames s -,_d r. ct ic heatin;- units as also determined, and
anal..s,.s vcre m.de of the decomposition products. Investigation
of fLrre .n-d e-:losion haza-rds included dEtcr.:iinntion of ignition
temperS-tuw -, limiits3 c.'j fiarnaullity ,or explosibilit:, explosion
pressure, .s rcll as t2in., tests and speed-of-flame-propagation
tests. The a.parit'.t.s used a-:d results of tests applied are de-
-c ribcd i .-etail.

OEITIiiGE:T, WIV. F. von (94)
The halo;cniL.::d 1-iydrocarbons: Tlicir tox':icity and potential dan-
Uiars. dour, Ilnus. 1-:" .no. ,d Toxicol. 19: 349-448. 1937.

rTh, 1J t- ratur c.n :l,- toG.ic ity of mcthyl bromide is reviewed.

OCPPETJ.:IU., ]:. (95)
M., th'lbro..i -', ,:'r,- i i"F in :cn, b,:-rufl ic-oc. Sairl. Vorgiftungsfallon
,4 ( ,.. ,): 157-160,. 197 .

Two nonI'c-;:._J. r.'s, .r r L ;"' 'n-ro ,idc -oisonin;-, arc described
in 'hi)ch hicr:: w r. : Ion,,- c..:-inpto:,i-fr.:c- in. L-rvals. Drain irritation
porn si:cd for a lIen.; pr'io'] in on: c.sc anl psychic debilit-y in
tho oth.. 'r




.. . ... -._ -, . -. ,. S ., .. .- ... ... -. ....- ... ,:,,, ,L. ', '"





-" 25-
|. : ..'5 2 5

P8'*:,; PWELIS J. (96)
B.. Drmniniation of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon gases. Indus. and
S. Engin. Chem., Indus. Ed. 25: 1160-1161. 1933.

The.method described uses a low bromine concentration in the
p,. presence of iron powder st 290-370 C. Methyl bromide vwas ob-
tainea by this means from methane.
PETERS, 0. (97)
.'. The biological-chemical evaluation of gaseous insecticides. Anz.
f. Schadlingsk. 14: 116-122. 1938. [In Gennan.]

an'.d Data on the boiling point, specific heat, heat of vaporization,
i.,; .and saturation limit at 20 C. are given for a number of gaseous in-
: .:. sectic.ides, including methyl bromide. The vapor density, molecular
Weight, and explosion limits arc also given. The most important
.: .factors in fumigation are gas concentration and time.

'' PETRI, E. (98)
Pathologischo Anatomic und Histologic der Vcrgiftungcn. In Henke,
,. F., and Lubarsch, 0. ilandbuch der Speziellcn pathologischen
:' Anatomie und Histologie. v. 10, pp. 272-273. Berlin. 1930.

: The symptoms and pathology of methyl bromide poisoning are re-
,." .. viewed from various literature so'rccs.

.::.:'..PHILLIPS, W. R., and MUNRO, H. A. U. (99)
":: Methyl bromide injury to apples. Jour. Econ. Ent. 32: 344. 1939.

: Although fumigation with methyl bromide was previously repor-
ted as injuring apples, later investigations gave different results,
With a dose of 2.5 pounds per 1,000 cubic feet for 90 minutes 'in a
vacuum vault and 80 F., only two of seven apple varieties were in-
jured.

: ---.... MUMITRO, H. A. U., and ALLEN, C. E. (100)
Some observations on the fumigation of apples with n1cthyl bromide.
' 'Sci. Agr. 19: 7-20. 1938.

The standard trratnont vwas found to be lcthal to insects feed-
ing internally in apples. The rcsiduc of bromide was so slight as
to bo harmless to human beings. Undcr certain conditions, however,
methyrl bromide caused both in-cernal and external injury to the
apples. No injury resulted, however, when the arplcs wiere picked
S.at the proper stap;o of maturity and stored for 6 weekls at 32 or
S. 39 r and standard treatment vwas used. The d.-ma,,-, therefore,
S appears to be physiological rather than mechanical.

SPIPER., W. R., Jr., and DAVIDSON, R. H. lO1)
Methyl bromide vapor against five s,-,ccics of stored product in-
sects. Jour. Econ. 'nt. 31: 460-461. 1938.
t' Fumigation tests at atmo-phcric pressure and vr.rious room tem-
poraturos, concentrations and exposure periods were made on
t adults of Sitophilus granaria (L.) and .canchoscclidcs obtcctus
(Say), larvae of Trogodcra vcrsicolor Crcutz., larvc andi adults




-26-


of Cathartus quadricollis eue'r.) (Silvanus gemellatus Duv.), and
larvac o Tcnoebrio obscurus F., birth exposed Lnd covered to.a '
depth of 6 inr-chcs by. wv.heat. It wa.s estimated that 1 pound of
methy.:,l broride per 1,000 cnbic feet should kill all those insects
in 12 hours at 58-70F. Lower dosages may be sufficient or
higher ones required in practical fumigation according to the
speci-s concerned and the quantity and nature of the infested
materi.ln Sitophilus v.a.S the most susceptible, the species being
increasingly resistant in the order named. Under conditions in
W..ich ll the insects wiere killed, the germinating powers of
vh.eat, oe.ts, corn, and beans were not affected, Immersion in
liquid mcth'l bromide and exposure to its vapor did not affect
an- of nine coniT.on metals or change the color of seven w.allpapers
or nine samples of dyed cotton goods,. Ito ill affects were exper-
ienced b: the operators, and the fumigant vas found to be nonin-
flammsble and easy to handle.

QUAiYLE, iH. J. (102)
The developTment of resistance to h-,ydrocyanic acid in certain
scale insects. Hil-ardia 11: 183-210. 193.

Prel nainar- r c:;:,:rivients in ic sted that forms of Aonidiella
auran',il (-1-.:. ) I'hi.rCh are rcsiscant and nonresistant to hydro-
c.o-o:lic 'Acid L.cs di'fer in -their reaction to methyl bromide.

FPICi-LPF'DSO!!, IV. (10 )
SoM.e 'iirt'.er -.Jd iti',.s tc therapeutics. I. Org.nic bromides.
P-..ecti- tion r C: 537-345. 1871.

M:-,:".'- broiidie is men cioned cs a --eneral anesthetic.

------ (104)
!ethi-l-brr,.ride. t.scleriad 8: 2 59-240. 191

Se-.'eral jea.hs hap.-, occurred f'rci.. 'he use of met-hyl bromide as
a general anesth.t"ic.

P.ICHFTRT, P. U-. (105)
Apparr';us lr 'ispensinr:z methyl bromide. U. S. `atont 2,156,8693
Ea' 2, 199, to F'or Cheical Co.

Various ic leta. ls of valve construction, etc:.c are given.

ItHRE F.
Unber Prcrnmethyvurgif-'nc. Ein Deitra, zur Frage der Spatvirk-
un, en von GifLstoffen. '7-l jrschr. f. Gerichtl ed. 60: 61-59.
1920.

s. 0rkt< c1: ,e f' ',o .s,-ojil..* . :'' r' ] 'lroiiicle i s reported. The
0a2 i .!i': U.,,.s ex:,oscd,'l ,i'ile n.-i- inp r'-"r'- irs cn a pip.e carrying the
material in a pl.. r tha ac h'r; f antipyrioe. There was
a snup ton-I're' inter'val of a'c.'t 24 hours l.,eti.een ex.,osuire and the
onse'.: .r, e zilpioi L 'oni sciz1rcl', corm, nVd death.


1:11 1*1-1. -M-MM..




i: '-27-

*:"' SAYERS, R. R., YAUT, IV. P., THOMAS, B. G. H., and BERGEP,-L. B. (107)
[^*. "*'* .Physiological response attending exposure to vapors of methyl bro-
..i:i.. rmide, methyl chloride, ethyl bromide, and ethyl chloride. U. S.
h.:<:.: Pub. Health Serv. Bul. 185: 1-56. 1929.
' '.. ,
I... The purpose was to determine the effects cf these vapors es-
,. caeping in refrigeration plants. Guinea pigs wore used. Short
:'." expp.sure to high concentration of the vapors produced similar syrmp
S.tans, anesthetic in character, excitement, rapid loss of equilibri
,Ed;, struggling and running motion of the legs, followed by rapid recov
.... ery of those animals which had not died in the chamber. With low
/... F concentration of vapor and long exposure, the synntons r!erc similar:
.:: weakness, rapid pulse; convulsive, rapid respiration, with rales;
::y and in some cases a frothy, bloody exudate from the nostrils; fol-
.. lowed usually by death in 1 to 4 days. Ethyl chloride was the
i, .... least toxic and methyl bromide the most. Addition of chemical
4 agents to these refrigerants to serve as a v.arning of their escape
:'*. is suggested.


S 'SCHROTER, G. (108)
Methyl bromide. German Patent 330,642, Nov. 25, 1917.
M. methane or methane-containing gas mixtures are passed v;ith
:. bromine over catalysts, particularly iron, at temperatures above
2000 C.

.A.;; SCHULER. .(109)
=lh.j' Vergiftung durch Bromnmethyl? Deut. V'rtljrschr. bOffenrtl.
G|.. sndhtspflege. 31: 696-704. 1899.

#:E: Three cases of poisoning by methyl bromide are reported, one
"^ '-of vwich wvas fatal. These men worked with apparatus in which
:..' methyl bromide vras made from methyl sulfate and sodium bromide.
.... Experiments on rabbits, guinea pigs, and mice are described. All
the animals were killed by the concentrations of rnethyl bromido
ranging front 1 to G percent by volumte. Sy,mtors observed in the
animals wore somnolence, running of ncse, slovn.ess of pulse, and
cyanosis.


urn,


SCHWARTZ, F. (0110)
Brommethyl in der Schidlingsbc--lmpfung. Arztl. Sachverstandigcnztg.
42: 258-259. 1936.

The insecticidal use c.nd the toxicology of methyl bromide are
briefly discussed.

SHEPARD, H. H., and BUZICKY, A. V. (111)
Further studies of methyl bromide as an insect fumigant. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 32: 354-859. 1939.

Laboratory tests wvore continued in 1938 (scoe Fisi. and Shepard
29) with common insects that occur in houses or infest stored pro-
ducts. Their susceptibility to methyl bromide andrl its .-.ffoctive-
ness in comparison with that of other funicc.nts are sho,.'n in a
table. With 5 hours' exposurc Et 25 C. the median lethal concen-
trations of methyl bromide, chloropicrin, e'uhyleno oxide, carbon




-28-.


disulfide, and ethylene dichloride to the larvae of Attagenus
piceus (Oliv.), and of the first two compounds to the adults,
were 17.5, 5, 17, 88, 195, 9.5,and 1.3, mr.. per liter, respec-
tively, and those of methv]yl bromide were 5 and 3.1 mg. to larvae
and adults of Flodia interpunctella (Hbn.), 13 and 7 to larvae
of Tenebrio obscurus F. and Tineola bisselliella (Hum.), 4.2 and
4.7 to male and female adults of Zabroues subfasciatus Boh., and
6.5 and 5.4 to adults of Stegobitun paniceum- (L.) and Rhizopertha
dominica (F.). The insect material used was as nearly uniform as
possible, most of the larvae being almost full-,wrown and most of
the adults fairly young.

Differences in the speed of action of various fumigants
against adults cof Tribolium confustumrn Duv. are shcwn on graphs.
Those exposed to r-ethyl bromide at higher concentrations than
that necessa-ry for complete mortality seemed normally active
ir.edilatel. after the exposure but died within 48 hours. An
added lethal effect of the low temperature appeared to depend
on the cold resistance of the particular species concerned.
Tne dose required to kill adult Tribolium increased down to
bout S-9 C. and then decreased, whereas that necessary to
kill adults of Sitophilus granaria (L.) increased down to nearly
0 C. The temperature appeared to have no effect on the flour-
absorption ratio.

Bain, t-sts showed no detectable injury to flour fumigated
for 5 hours at 2 pounds per 1,000 cubic feet.

STAHL. (112)
Die A.mnwendung chemische-' Sonder-nassfeuerloscher in den gewerb-
lichen Ec=trieben untt:r dem iesichtspunkte ihrcr Einwvirkung auf
die Benutizer. Zentbl. f. G3evwerbe Hy1,. u. Unfallverhiutung (n.f.)
5: 78-80. 1928.

The author takes issue with tih recommendation of methyl bro-
mide as f'ir,: -XT.inguishcr liquid by Von Gronovw (40) and quotes
several authorities o. shovwr that its use is dangerous.

STEIGER, 0. (113)
Uebor Bronrrcthylver,,.iftuniu. ,ihuchen. Med. Wclmschr. 65: 753-755.
1918.

A nonfatal cas':' of I.-ethyl bromide poisoning is reported. The
usual symptoms of dizziness, vertig;o, paralysis of the extremities,
disturbances of vision, etc., appeared, followed after several days
by hallucinations and strong motor unrest. The blood contained
methemoglobin, and blood vas excreted through the kidneys. After
2 months there? -was decrease in skin sensitivity in the region of
the radial nerve in the rir-ht hand, -ith a feeling of "fuzziness,"
and a similar sensation in, the ri-ht leg.








.*..


* Wr-SCQOr&7'r w---,. - e-, -


111-!, M. *_.'w"'2'_I___7a. I_ ..":.MM M


i ....




-29-


STEINKOPF, W., and FPWOMMEL, W. (114)
Ueber die Darstellung von Brommethyl. Deut. Chem .Gesell. Ber.
38: 1865-1868. 1905.

Ilethyl bromide is prepared by adding bromine slowly to a mix-
ture of methyl alcohol and red phosphorus.

---- and SCHWEN, G. (115)
Preparation of methyl bromide. Jour. f. Prakt. Chem. 102:
363-364. 1921. [In German.]

The authors increased the yield fror. 44-.5 percent to 77 percent
of the theory (calculated from the bromine) by using methyl alcohol
(110 gm.), bromine (110 gm.), end phosphorus (22 gi..). To avoid
the formation of an explosive mixture, they kept the methyl alcohol-
phosphorus mixturee slowly boiling before and during the addition of
bromine.

STENGER, V. A., SFTRLDER, S. A., and BESHGET00R, A. WJ. (116)
Analytical methods for methyl bromide, Indus. and Engin. Chem,,
Analyt. Ed. 11: 121-124. 1939.

Since the vapors c-. methyl bromide are toxic, it is important
to have a simple procedure for the ri.pid detection of the -as in
air. The literature ic reviewed and the results of 2 years' ex-
perience e.t the plc.nt of the Dow Chemical Company in Michigan are
summarized. The .'e11-known Beilstein test, which can be made
quickly '-rith the Frigidaire 'alide leak detector, can serve for
the approximate determination of 50 to 500 p.p.m. The procedure
of Kolthoff-Yutzy (Indus, and .Engin. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 9: 75-76.
1937) is, however, more accurate for these concentrations. For
the analysis of fumigated products, this procedure can be applied
after ashin& with potassium hydro.:ide in alcohol and in the pres-
ence of sodium chloride. Recoveries of 96 percent were obtained
w ith 1 mg. of nethyl bromide in 10 gm. of flour, nuts, dried fruits,
or tobacco. For larger quantities the Volhard titration is recom-
mended.

STEitT, M. A. and LMCKIE, D, B, (117)
The control cf sylvatic plak-uc vectors. Amer. Jour. Kyr,. 28;
469-480. 1938.

The control of fleas in rodent burrows, as well as the rodents
themselves, necessary in the suppression of sylvatic plague, may be
accomplished by fumigation with methyl bromide. All stages of fleas
arc susceptible to this Pumit-ant, but the adults are the most eas-
ily killed. It appears from field tests that the dosage of liquid
methyl bromide, approxiLiately 10 cc. per burrow opening, ordinarily
used to kill ground squirrels is also sufficient to kill all stages
of the fleas. It is belicve'd that the spre.d of bubonic plague
occurring through the transportation of plague-flca-infosted trains,
cereals, etc., may be chocked by fumigating these cargoes with
methyl bromide, and that the materials so treated will not in any
way bo rendered unifit for human consumption.




-30- :. '
.. .* ." .;*, ':1,

STORER?, T. I. (8" '
Control of injurious rodents in California. Calif. Agr. Col., 24t.i
Cir. 79, rev., 62 pp. 1938. ::

In 1936 methyl bromide was tested experimentally as a mean.sopf
ground squirrel control. The results were encouraging, and further
studies are planned, especially as to practical means for handling
the gas. If suitable methods are developed, its use will be limited,
for a time, to follow-up operations, since the cost of methyl bro-
mide is as yet too high to permit its use in regular control wock.

TAYLOP, A. I., an@ hicEETH, C. W. (119)
Preliminary tests of methyl bromide as a nematocide, Helmintho:14
Soc. Wash. Proc. 7: 94-96. 1940.

1:ethyl bromide appears to be sn effective soil nematocide for
use against the root-l:not and free-living nematodes. Satisfactiyi
results were obtained in preliminary trials writh 80 cc. to treat."a
layer of Boil 15 cm. thick in -a fumigation box of 1 cu. m. capacity
Fair results wirere obtaJl-ed with 1.5 pounds to treat 225' square feet
of soil, when the ceia'cal wv.s applied through hollow-tile lines. :
buried 18 inches ._nder the scil and1 I1 inches apart. There was '
so.ie evidence th.t r methyl bromide also controls fungi and bacteria.
in T-he soil, bu" an attempt to elimate root-knot nematodes 'from
tomc.to plant vrws ",nsw.ccess:ul. i.ematodes in the larger galls
were nit killed, and most' o the p v.rns vrere killed or severely
injured.

TIETZE, A. (1.20)
Clinical observations on intoxication by methyl bromide and carbon
tctrachloride. Arch. f. Gewvrerbepath, u. Gewerbehyg. 4: 733-759.
1933. [In German.]

These chemicals are very- soluble in lipoids, and thus consti-
tute poisons for the organism and particularly for the nervous
system. The disturbances which they cause in the organism are der
scribcd.

UTITED STATES BUREAU OF FTOTIOLTOGY AND PLANT QUARALITIIE. (121)
Dried-fruit insects. U. S. Pur. Ent. and Plant Quar. Ann. Rpt.
1936: 6-7.

Flumigation of pacl:ed raisins with methyl bromide at the rate
of -4 cc. per 25-pound bo:: gave complete control of Ephestia
figulilclla Gre^. and Pleclia intorpunctella (Ihbn.). .

------- (122)
Methyl bromide as a fumi,;;nt. U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar.
Ann. Rpt. 1937: 79. ..

Fumigation with methyl bromide .as effective in killing Japan-
ese beetles in green beans packed in hampers and in killing larvae
of the beetle infesting strawberry plants packed, with soil on
their roots,. in crates. It also gave promise of being a good- green-t:
house fumigant, giving nearly complete kills of throe varieties of .
II


-~ r. . ~ r . - '~> ~ re, it


*-... -- * .. ,"".. *"*.'" --. ^ l '-_ "-1_ '- "-" .,; .- :-. ~.....,- . r /ig -- ," ,B ., _..i.a -',Bi.,-..., ___,l _-m_ ~,__ _




S- -31-
: :;' aphids, the common red spider, one species of thrips, two species
4'. : of mealybugs, and immature stages of the southern armyworn. Con-
::.' ' centrations sufficient to kill Japanese beetles were tested on a
tsts o variety of plants without injury. Special apparatus has been de-
S vised for introducing this and other fumigants into refrigerator
'!." ,, cars,

^ ::i:. ... (123)
SZ: .. Fumigation of potatoes by methyl bromide as a condition of certifi-
.:,, *: .-cation of potatoes moving by refrigerator car from the area
':;'..: listed in regulation 5 of quarantine No. 48. U. S. Dept. Agr.,
,:-. B.E.P.Q. 473. 1 p. 1938.

aI:,';o.. 'The following treatment was authorized as a basis for certifi-
o.i.. actionn of potatoes moving to points outside the Japanese beetle
:...:.::.. -quarantine areas between June 15 and October 15: "Fumigation of
^.; i,.0 potatoes in dry refrigerator cars v.ith methyl bromide at a dosage
... i,. of 2 pounds per 1,000 cubic feet of space, including the space
:,,, ." occupied by the potatoes and bunkers cf the cars, for a period of
i ;:: .: 2 hours during which time the car shall remain tightly closed with
the plugs in place in the ventilator hatches. The temperature
:.., within the car when fumigated shall not be less than 70 F. Pro-
F' vision shall be made for circulating the mixture of air and fumi-
:gant in the car for as long a time as is deemed necessary by the
..;; inspector. At the end of the funigation.period the hatches shall
::.. :::: be opened, the plugs removed, screens placed in the hatch openings,
and the car shipped under standard ventilation."

-- -. .---- (124)
:. Fumigation of onions by methyl bromide as a condition of certifi-
.* cation of onions moving by refrigerator car from the area listed
in regulation 5 of quarantine 1c. 48. U. S. Dept. Agr., B.E.P.Q.
475, 1 p. 1933.

SThe sane treatment for onions as that described for potatoes
in the previous reference (B.E.P.Q. 473) is authorized.

.----- (125)
Fumigation of tomatoes by methyl bromide as a condition of certi-
fication of tomatoes moving by refrigerator car from the area
listed in regulation 5 of quarantine No. 48. U. S. Dept. Agr.,
B.E.P.Q. 480, 1 p. 1938.

.. The same treatment for tomatoes as that described for pota-
toes in B.E.P.Q. 473 is authorized.

-- (126)
Administrative instructions to inspectors on the treatment of
.,,. nursery-products, fruits, vegetables, and soil, for the Jap-n-
:. esa beetle (Sec. 301.48a). U. S. Dept. Agr., B.E.P.Q. 499, 20
... pp. 1939.
W. The use of methyl bromide is authorized for treatment in a
fumigation chamber of plants with or without soil, u.inr; 2 1/2
pounds of gas per 1,000 cubic feet (includinG space occupied by
the load) at a temperature of not loss than 63 F. for 2 1/2 hours.




-52-


For fumigation of strawberry plants in shipping crates of field-
packed baskets, 3 pounds should be used per 1,000 cubic feet for
4 hours at a temperature of at least 60 F. For the treatment
of fruits and vegetables in refrigerator cars, 2 pounds per 1,000
cubic feet (5 pounds per car) should be used for 2 hours at a
temperature of at least 70 F.

----- (127)
B.E.P.Q. 499, Sup. 1, 1 p. 1959.

The instructions in B.E.P.Q. 499 are modified to state that
the method is :o 'be applied only to plants with bare roots or in
12-inch pots or smaller, or in soil balls not larger than 12
inches in diameter or thicker than 12 inches when not spherical.
The soil should not be puddled or saturated, and the balls should
not be jamie-id tightly together.

..... (128)
B.E.P.Q. 499, Sup. 1, rev., 2 pp. 1940.

The minimum -enIrerrtures in the dosage schedule provided in
B.E.P.Q. 499 for fi.'u.i figation of plantCs with or without soil are
changed to the followin,-: 63 F. for an ex-posure of 2 1/2 hour,
54 F. for 4 hours, a.nd 50 for 4 1/2 hours.

------ (129)
B.E.F.Q. 499, Sup. 1, rev. 2, 2 pp. 1940.

An approved fumigation cham'-er equipped with vaporizing, air-
circulatinc_, and ventila.ting systems must be provided. The air
within the chamber must be kept in circulation during the fumiga-
tion. _Lt the comrple-.tion of he treatment, the chamber must be well
ventilated bf'orre it is entered and tre plants are removed. The
Temperature of soil and air for each type of treatment must remain
thron-hout the period of treatment at least that specified as
follows: For dos1,'e of 2 pounds per 1,000 cubic feet, 70 F. for
2 1/2, hours; for 2-1/2 pounds por 1,000 cubic feet, 63 for 2 1/2
hours, 54 for 4 hours, and 50 for 4 1/2 hours.

----- (130)
B.E.P.Q. 499, Sup. 2, 2 pp. 1940.

Tihe following. : dosa.es arc specified for f'umi ration of refrig-
erator cars: 1.6 pounds ,jr 1,000 cubic feet (4 pounds per car) at
a temp.erature of cat leIast SC0, P., or 2 pounds per 1,000 cubic feet
(5 pounds pecr car) at a t.-r-perccur, of at least 70 F.

(131)
Administrative instructions modifying the restrictions of the
white-fringed ,cetle quarantine by .authorizing treatment by
me-thyl bromidee solution of 1.allcd nursery stock not larger than
six (6) inches in thickness (or o? specified thickness) (Sec.
301.72-5c). U. S. Dept. Agr. :'.E.P.Q. 503, 2 pp. 1939.

Tho soil balls must be buried in sand and plunged in boxes or
trays approximately 1 foot deep, which are watertight. A 2-inch


* ~A ~ ~F *.~-sr~2*~e ~ ~ ;~j~ -. a-





-33-


space filled with sand shall be provided between the balls. The
balls shall be treated with a solution of 0.3 percent of methyl
bromide and 0.6 percent of denatured alcohol by volume in water,
applied evenly over the surface of the sand at the rate of 40
gallons per 100 square feet. The soil balls shall remain embedded
thereafter for 24 hours. The temperature of the balls during
treatment shall be not lower than 70 F.

---- (132)
B.E.P.Q. 503, rev., 1 p. 1940.

As a result of more recent investigations, the instructions
are revised to provide that soil balls 7 inches in diameter may be
so exposed for 8 hours at a minimum temperature of 65 F. The
modification i estricted, however, to treatment for larvae of
Pantomorus leucoloma Boh. The former specifications remain in
effect for treatment of larvae of P. peregrinus Buch.

--- (133)
Administrative instructions; conditions governing the entry of
cipollini from Morocco (Sec. 319.56-2f). U. S. Dept. Agr.
B.E.P.Q. 504, 1 p. 1939.

Fumigation v-with methyl bromide is made a condition of entry
for all shipments cof cipollini from Morocco in order to eliminate
any infestation of Exosoma lusitanica (L.) which night be present.

(134)
Administrative instructior-is amending authorization of the shipment
of fruits and vegetables from Haw'aii to the mainland subject to
fumigation with methyl ron-.ide unde-r supervision. U. S. Dept.
Agr. B.E.P.Q. 510, 2 pp. 1940.

Provision is made for the certification of guavas, papayas,
bell peppers, bitt-.r melons, cucumbers, summer squash, string beans,
and tomatoes for movement inTo the United States, when prescribed
fumigation vrith methyl bromide is applied in Hawaii. The cor-iodity
must be fumigated in a gastight chamber for 3 1/2 hours vdth 2
pounds of methyl bromide per 1,000 cubic feet at a tcnperature of
not loss than 80 F.

(135.)
Methyl bromide fumig-ation. Construction details for an .pn,!'-v.-d
fumigation chamber. U. S. Bur Ent. and Plant ?yc3r. w2 on.
1940. [Processed.]

Construction dctr.il- -.rc --ivon for a bo::-t'7c fi... -aci ,c.-
ber, suitable for rhamnbers of 50 ar.2 100 cubic feet.

VAYSSIERE, P. (153)
Les stations'd d dc-i!nfction des ve',6t.ux sous vicd:, p'.rticl.
Soc. drEncouragcment pour Indus. Hat. Du. 1934: 295-308,

Methyl bromide kills all stages Qf insects at dneos of 30 to
50 gin. per cubic nctcr (3 to 5 oe. per 100 cubic feet), E-nd its
action is comparable to that of ethyleno oxide. Its v'arozrs ..ire




-34- '
N
not readily soluble, and it breaks up slowly in the presence of ':.
humidity, forming hydrogen bromide. Its use in the fumigation of ,' y:" .
vegetable substances with an appreciable humidity content but o'4t .,.i..
a continuous cuticle is therefore inadvisable. Excellent results, ", '
hovIrever, have been secured in the treatment of pears, the color ..:..:"
atnd consistency of which remain unaffected, a-nd for *which ethyleAe.'",:.
o:ide is unsuitable. ......

------- r(137)
1 0 ) "* **"- ;:;;

La disinfection des chataigpnes. Rev. de Path, Veg. et d'Ent, .. .
Acr. de Vrance 25; 277-293. 1938. .

(Balaninus) Curculio elephas Gyll. and (Laspeyresia) Cydia. .:-
splendana Iba. ..re serious pests of chestnuts in France. -umiga .
tion with methyl bromide at the rate of 2 to 3 ounces per. 50 cubic ..
feet for 3 hours at an initial vacuum of 700 amm. and subsequent .
vacuum cof 20 ffan. gave a complete kill. :. ., :

VOSS. (138)
New synthes-s in the solvent industry. Kunststoffe 17: 79-80, '': "''
132-134, 205-207. 1927.


PLecent m,:,e',ents are reviewed on processes dealing with'the)..
-enerati-'ion of methAl alcohol from. vater ras, direct oxidation of
methane to methyl alcohol, manufacture of methyl chloride and
tror.-ide from methane, and thie oxidaticn of these to meth-.yl alco*e
hol and the manufacture of r.t>.l alcc-hol ?rom carbon monoxide.'

VEBSTER, R. W. (139)
Legal medicine r-id toxicology. 862 pp. Philadelphia. 1930.


Early s:mn.ptoms of methyl bromide roisornin;, are headache,
weakness, vertigo, vomi Ling, and some disturbances of vision. The.
gait mayl be stacerin,,, an-:l sli. ht pin in the extremities and
neuritic s:,rmpons m.-- be nuted. After several hours or even days,'
severe sx.yt1.nos may ape,.r n the form of strong con-tractions of
different ;_.:roups 0of" Iuscles, clonic spaismrs of the entire body,
double vision, parcses ,-,i' the extremities, sleepiness, and poly-
neuritis, Ccnvt.pls -:.e t-.,pe of respiration may be noted, and in
the fDatal cases re-ported epileptiforn attacks are merged into a
terminal coma. Physical signs of pneumonia mn-.y be noted. Con-
valescince is slow.

WJESI6A'N,, P. (140)
Urtersuchun-en ubr.r ,`io Biolouic und 'okAnipfung der Erdbeormilbe,
T-iroonicmus fra,-c.riaP, II. Zi.;;rw'-crman-n. Landw. Jahrb. dcr Schweiz.
51 '. 335-348. 1037.

Tests wcr,.? :nmadcic cn thc control cf Tarson';mus pallidus BanIcs
(T. ;ra.:nariac Zimnr-, ) with '*.;j'.r of j''uni ,3ults, including a Swiss
prepracton called S--,as. This is supliiz.l in a liquid form in
a.iLpuul as, its active constituont beinr methyl bror.'idn. Methyl bro-
midCe is a rVt.jr violent rurpiratory poison, l'ut is easy to apply
with saf-et;; to strawl:.rry runners, h.'iich can be fumigaLed in any
tightly closed mntal box in which the ar.ipulo is broken. .A
strength oD 2 pcrccnt bo volume killed all the mites and eggs in



i-.. J. .. -...-ktz.-" *a -. a 'T u 'raig. ..-Ma ,'n r # p tp W


.!



















^".^.*1
S: ......
i" *" '"
< : !" !..".

; .: .:.:/ !<;: .- 1

*** : "'. : .
..........,.
.'.. . .:. ;
.:.:: *

}. :" :
"' :q "

** 1
. i -^ *.4 ;


** .. *

"!



". ...* :
': :-


: :. :" -,'



, : .* ..i* ;

".-..*. .,ft .

:, .as .&








6 hours at 150 C. Fumiiration would not be effective at lower tem-
peratures. At 18 bhe time could be reduced to 4 hours, but no
harm was done to the plants by fumi,-ating for 6 hours. All stages
except the eggs were killed in 6 hours with 0.75 percent at 18.
SA-tmospheric humidity did not affect S-gas, which acted perfectly
in fully saturated air. INo injury to t1he plants occurred, even
with a strength of 2.4 percent.

WIfMOT, R. J. (141)
Fumigation of horticultural products. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann.
Rpt. 1938: 106. 1939.

It was found that the green pods of covwea could be fumigated
safely with methyl bromide, and that ftmication wvrith half the
basal dosage [2.5 Ibs. per 1,000 cu. ft. for 90 minutes] gave corm-
plete control of larvae and adults of the corwpea pod borer. It
also controlled larvae of the tomato pinwormn without injury to the
plants.








































*..



r'-
E;i":,




-36-

INDEX TO INSECTS AGAilST WHICH METIHYL BPOMIDE HAS BEEN TESTED

Reference No.


Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (bear-n reevil)-------------
Anomala orientalis Waterh. (oriental beetle)-------------
Aonidiella aurartii (Iask.) (California red scale)-------
A p h i d s . .... .. .. . .
Apple insects -----------.-----------.-**-----------
Apple marrgot. See Fhagol.tis pomonella (14alsh).
Artichoke plune moth. See Plat;-ptilia carduidactyla (Piley).
Asiatic beetle. See Anomiala orientalis Viaterh.
.ttagenus piceus (01 i-v.Tblack carpet beetle) -----------
Ealanin'us elephas G-yll. See Curculio elephas Gyll.
Dean weevil. See A-canthoscelides obtectus (Say).
Bedbug. Sce Cimex lec--ularius L.
Black carpet beetle. See At-:;agenus piceus (Oliv.).
Bruchus brachialis Fahr. (vetch bruchid)-----------------
Bruchus signaticornis Gyl .--------------------------------
Calandra granaria L. See Sitophilus ,ranaria (L.).
Calandra oryza L. See Sitophilus oryzaE .
California red scale. See Aonidciella aurantii (Ilask.).
Carpocapsa pomonella (L.) (codlin$ moth)F

Cathartus q~uadricollis (Cue'r.) (square-necked grain beetle)
Chalcodermus aeneus Bob. (Covr'ee. pod b'orer) -------------
Cheese mite. See Tyroglv,-rhus farinae De-.
Cimex Icctul.-rius L. (b-edbug -----------------------------
Coccidae (scale insects)-----------------------------------
Coccinellidae (ladybeetles)----- ------- ----
Codlinr mioth. Sec Carpocapsa )omonella (L. ).
Coi m n red. spider. See Tetrrnyc-hus telarius L.
Confusedc! Flor b.eetle. Ser 'Tribol iiurin confusum Duv.
Cocpea o', bo.rer. See Chalcodernmus aene'.:s Boh.
Curculic el.phs G'll. .----...... .. . ..---- --" -"-- ----
CyJia molest. SeF. ,rb oholitha molesta (Busck).
Cydia pom'ncU11a (Lo). SeE Cnirnocapsa pomonella (L.).
CAdia spl-jd~na Hhn.------------- --------------------
Cvlas oon-ticLriuis 'le*antl lus (Surrui(rs) uClas formicarius F. )
(Fweotpotato weevil)
Dark mcalwvori. See Terebrio obscurus F.
Drug store w.roovil. So: S-te robium paniceum (L.).
lihcstia fig-ulilella Gre (raisin moth)
Ephc s tia khiclla Zell. ('Vcditerrsnean 1f'lour moth)------
Europea-r corn boror. Sco Pyrausta nubilalis (Ibn.)..
Exosoma lusitanica (L.) -----------------------------------
Fleas-------------............................. ........ ...... ........ .
Onathocerus cornutus (F.) ---- --...--.---- ... ..... -- -....--.. .
-norimoschema lycoporsicella Busck. See Keiferia
lycopcrsicella (I usck)
Gnorimoschema oerculclla (Zell.) (potto tuber worTmu) ----
Granary weecvil. Se Sitophilus Prcrnaria (L,).
Grape mealybug. Sec Psoudococcus maritimus (Ehrh.).
Grapholiths molcsta (BusckT) -ori7ntal fruit moth) --------
Hy,pora brunne iporins ------------ -----------


29,
42,
80,
122
100


101
43
102


ll


46
64



36, 66, 67, 72,
78, 83, 85, 90
101
141

88
67
67




137


137
22,


121
64

133
117
64


so80


36,
81


4
/

.'


_ ^ h* -J-Ji ^ --






Elm .. ..
U ,.%



















Nt
1' 7.
.', ... .. ...: , ... ,












A t11%
Iin




















44


4'AW
la
























: .E.'














IT
A ..






.":.AU "


Ref(
Hypera variabilis ---------------------------------------
Indian-meal moth. See Plodia interpunctella (Hbn.).
Japanese beetle. See Popillia japonica Nevm.
Keiferia lycopersicella (usc)" tomatoo pinworm)---------
Ladybeetles. See Coccinellidae.
Laemophloeus spp, ---------------------------------------
Laspeyresia splendana Hbn. See Cydia splendana Hbn.
Lesser grain borer. See Rhizopertha dominica (F.).
Listroderes obliouus Klug (vegetable weevil) ------------
Naruca testulalis Geyer---------------------------------
Nealybugs ------------------------------------------------
-Mediterranean flour moth. See Ephestia kuehniella Zell.
.Oriental beetle. See Anomala orientalis W.aterh.
Oriental fruit moth. See Grapholitha nolesta (Busck),
Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (saw-toothed grain beetle) -
Pantomorus leucoloma (Boh.) (white-fringed beetle)--------

Pantomorus peregrinus Buch. (white-fringed beetle)--------
Phthorimaea lycopersicella Busck. See Keiferia lycopersicella
(Busck),
Platyptilia carduidactyla (Riley) (artichoke plume moth) --
Plodia interpunctella (Hbn.) (Indian-meal moth)----------
Popillia japonica Newm. (Japanese beetle) -- 19, 20, 57, 91, 1i
125, 126, 127, 12
Potato tuber worm. See Gnorimoschema operculella (Zell.).
Prodenia eridania (Cram.) -------------------------------
Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrh.) (grape mealybug)----------
Pyrausta nubilalis (Hbn.) (European corn borer)----------
Raisin moth. See Ephestia figulilella Greg.
Red flour beetle. See Triboliut castaneum (Hbst.).
ghaoletis pomonella ("alsh) (apple maggot)-------------
Rhizopertha dominica (F.) (lesser grain borer)-----------
Ricf weevil. See Sitoohilus oryza (L.).
Rust red flour beetle. See Tribolium castaneum (Hbst.).
Saw-toothed grain beetle. See Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.).
Scale insects. See Coccidae.
Silvanus gemellatus Duv. See Cathartus quadricollis (Gue'r.).
Sitophilus granaria (L.) (granary weevil) --------------


erence Io,
32


76., 80, 141

34


76
32
122



34
68, 69, 70,
131, 132
70, 131, 13


61
111, 121
22, 123,
8, 129,


2


124,
130


122
33


85,


15,
64,






29,
34,


Sitophilus oryza (L.) (rice weevil) ---------------------- 29,
Southern armyworm. See Prodenia eridania (Cran.).
Spermophagus subfasciatus Boh. See Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.).
Square-necked grain beetle. Sec Cathartus quadricollis (Gue'r.).
Stegobium paniceum (L.) (drug store wieevil) -------------- 111
tored-grain insects ------------------------------------- 101
Strawberry mite. See Tarsonemus pallidus Bantks.
Sweetpotato weevil. See Cylas formicarius olegantulus
(Summers ).
Tarsonemus fragariae Zinm. See Tarsonemus pallidus Banks.
Tarsonemus pallidus Banks -------------------------------- 140
Tenebrio obscurus F. (dark mealriorm) --------------------- 101
Termites ------------------------------------------------- 79


Tetranychus telarius L. (common red spider)--------------


92


85, 90
ill,
111.





33, 63,
101, 111
33, 64





, 111






, iii


122


-37-




UNI\

-38- 3 1

Thrips ---------------------------------------------------
Tineola bisselliella (Hum) (vwebbing clothes moth)--------
Tomato pinvorm. See Keiferia l1.copersicella (Busck).
Tribolium castaneum (Hbst.) (red ficur beetle)-----------
Tribolium confus'nm Duv. (confused flour beetle)----------
Tribolium sp. --------------------------------------------
Trogoderma versicolor Creutz. ----------------------------
Tyroglyphus farinae Deg. (cheese mite)-------------------
Vegetable wveev'il. See Listroderes obliquus Klug.
Vetch bruchid. See Bruchus brachialis Fahr.
Webbing clothes moth. See Tineola bisselliella (Hum.).
W7hite-fringed beetle. See Pantomorus leucoloma (Boh.) and
P. peregrinus Buch.
Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) ----------------------


/ERSITY OF PLORIDA

262 09227 9891 I :
Reference No,
122 :
111


58, 59,
29, 67,
63
101
25






111


64
11~1 ."


II








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S .,