Laboratory tests with new compounds as insecticides against the pea aphid

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Material Information

Title:
Laboratory tests with new compounds as insecticides against the pea aphid
Physical Description:
10 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Dudley, J. E
Bronson, T. E
Harries, F. H
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Pea aphid -- Control   ( lcsh )
Insecticides -- Testing   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 10).
Statement of Responsibility:
by J.E. Dudley, Jr., T.E. Bronson, and F.H. Harries.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-651."
General Note:
"April 1945."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030289995
oclc - 779851671
System ID:
AA00025126:00001

Full Text
LIBRARY
fTATE PLANT BOARD
April 1945 B-651



United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology end Plant Quarantine
S/
I & ABODTOR! TESTS WITH NEW COWPOUNDS AS INSECTICIDES AGAINST TH"
PEA APHID

By J. I. Dudley, Jr., T. X. Bronson, and- ?. H. Harries,
Division of Truck Crop and Garden Insect Investigations

In an attempt to find a more effective insecticide for the pea aphid
(Macrosiphum pisi (Kltb.)), tests have been conducted under greenhouse or
laboratory conditions with a number of new organi-c materials. j/ With the
exception of DDT, most of the materials listed were not sufficiently tox-
ic to be very promising.

The tests were made at Madison, Wis., by J. 3. Dudley, Jr., and T. Z.
Bronson, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station,
and at Columbus, Ohio, by F. H. Harries, in informal cooperation with the
Ohio State University, during the period March 1941 to December 1943. For
convenience, the results at the two locations will be presented separately.

Experiments at Madison, Wis.

Pea aphids were reared in the greenhouse on the English Broad Windsor
bean (Tic faba (L.)). After reaching maturity, the aphids were trans-
ferred for testing to pea plants grown in soil in No. 2 tin cans, each can
containing one plant. When from 4 to 6 inches high each pea plant was in-
fested with 10 or 15 newly transformed adult apterous aphids and immedi-
ately caged with a cylindrical screen-wire cage. Several hours later when
the aphids had become settled on the plants, the cages were carefully re-
moved, and all the plants for a treatment (1 to 6) were placed at the bot-
tom of a glass cylinder 3 feet tall and 10 Inches in diameter for dusting.

Dust mixtures were prepared in lots of 100 to 200 grams in a high-
speed electric drink mixer, the type which has the revolving blades mounted
in its base. A dosage of 100 to 500 mg. of dust mixture was expelled into
the top of the cylinder through a copper dusting nozzle at an air pressure
of 15 pounds per square inch. The top of the cylinder was at once covered
and the dust allowed to settle for various lengths of time, after which the
plants were removed, the wire cages immediately replaced over the plants,
and the plants returned to the greenhouse benches for observation.

In the 1941 tests each of 13 synthetic organic compounds was diluted
with an equal quantity of talc and tested at a dosage of 200 mg. of dust
mixture against 10 aphids. Two tests were conducted, and the aphid mor-
tality was recorded after 1, 2, and 3 days. The temperature averaged 640
P. during the first test and 71 during the second test. The following m-
terials did not give appreciable mortality within 3 days after treatment:

;/ Most of the chemicals tested were furnished by the Division of
Insecoticide Investigations.
AY 2- 1945






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Diphenylamine, phthalonitri le, alpha, beta-dibromoethylbenzene (styrene
dibromide), dibenzofuran, .-chloronitro'benzene, acetone semicarbazone,
2-dibromobenzene, 2-dichlorobenzene. rnn l--iercaptobenzothiazole.


Dibenzothiophene and 2,5-dichloroaniline killed most of the aphids
at each temperature. 9,9-Di.nethylacridan and 2-chloro-6-nitrotoluene
were ineffective at 64 IF. but within 3 days gave mortalities of 100 and
80 percent, respectively, at 71. Poll-re injury was caused by phthal-
onitrile, 2,5-dichloroaniline, 2-chloro-6-nitrotoluene, dibenzothiophene,
and dibenzofuran.

Each of the materials that gave qrprecipble mortality at either
temperature was tested at approximately 64 F. in one or more mixtures
with derris. The results, as summarized in table 1, show that the ef-
fectiveness of derris was increased by the addition of the new materials.
Incidentally, however, when mixtures containing 0.50 percent of rotenone,
with and without 10 percent of 2,5-dichloroaniline, were applied to un-
replicated field plots at the rate of 40 p.unis per acre, both dust mix-
tures gave the same results.



Table l.-Mortality of pea aphids dusted with 200 mg. of mixtures of
synthetic organic materials and derris Madison, Wis., 1941


R otenone : Mortality after--
Synthetic organic material : content : Aphids :
Sof mixture : : 1 day : 2 days: 3 days

Percent Percent number Percent Percent Percent

2,5-Dichloroaniline 25 0.25 60 90 100 100
10 .25 90 75 86 96
10 .50 70 67 77 83
Dibenzothiophene 25 .25 20 1001/ 100 100
10 .25 70 83 91 94
2-Chloro-6-nitrotoluene 25 .25 20 40 85 90
9,.9-Dimethylacridan 25 .25 20 40 90 95
None (derris alone) .50 100 40 48 64
None (check) 100 0 0 0


1/ Moderate foliage injury.






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Undiluted ground thundergod vine (Tripterygium wilfordii (Hook. f.))
caused no mortality of the 20 pea aphids in two laboratory tests conducted at
average temperatures of 640 and 720 F. A mixture containing 50 percent of
thundergod vine and 2 percent of peanut oil in pyrophyllite was also in-
effective.

During 1943 tests were made of a large number of specially prepared
dust mixtures that had been sent to the laboratory by E. G. Beinhart, of
the Eastern Regional Research Laboratory of the Bureau of Agricultural
and Industrial Chemistry. Each mixture contained, in addition to other
materials, 2 percent of nicotine derived from nicotine alkaloid, nicotine
sulfate, or ground tobacco dust impregnated with nicotine alkaloid to
contain 10 percent of nicotine. Pyrophyllite was used as the diluent. In
each test 30 aphids were given a dosage of 250 mg. of the mixture.

The aphid mortality after 24 hours was 100 percent when the nicotine-
pyrophyllite mixture contained 0.6 percent of a fractionated naphthalene
oil. Lower mortalities were obtained when the same percentage of a re-
fined oil, a lubricating oil (S.A.E. 10), a light and a heavy spray oil,
or propylene laurate was substituted for the fractionated naphthalene
oil. When the mixture contained 10 percent of sulfur and 1 percent of
glycerol (C.P.), all the aphids were killed in 24 hours. The mixture
became less effective when either the sulfur or the glycerol or both ma-
terials were omitted, and when either apple sirup (60 percent levulose)
or a sulfonated oxidized petroleum hydrocarbon was substituted for the
glycerol. The aphid mortality was 100 percent in 24 hours when the mix-
ture contained 4 percent of a thiocyanate preparation (containing 50
percent of beta-thiocyanoethyl ester of an aliphatic acid and 50 percent
of oil) but was less when smaller percentages of the thiocyanate were
used.

In one series of tests with 30 aphids in each, dust mixtures con-
taining talc impregnated with rotenone-containing resins dissolved in
oil to contain 0.15 and 0.25 percent of rotenone were about as effective
as comparable mixtures containing these percentages of rotenone in ad-
dition to 0.75 percent of phenoxathiin (phenothioxin). In similar tests
a dust mixture containing 10 percent of talc and 90 percent of di(tri-
methylcyclohexenone) had no effect on the aphids. Very low aphid mor-
talities were obtained with various dust mixtures prepared from saba-
dilla seed furnished by T. C. Allen, of the University of Wisconsin.
The powdered sabadilla seed was diluted with pyrophyllite and with talc
to contain 33 and 60 percent of sabadilla. Other dust mixtures tested
contained 5 and 10 percent of sabadilla seed extract in pyrophyllite.
Low mortalities were also obtained when small percentages of rotenone
were included in some of these sabadilla mixtures.

Tests were made of ground yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (Urban)) k/
with pyrophyllite as the diluent, 30 aphids being used in each test.

,/ Tarnished by R. Hansberry, of Cornell University, who in a pro-
cessed report, "Notes on experiments with the yam bean," has summarized
results of tests by various organizations with this material on the pea
aphid and other insects.






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Mortalities of lees than 25 percent were obtained with dusts containing
10 and. 20 percent of yarn bean at dosages of 200 to 400 ag. of the mixture.
The 40 and 60 percent yam bean mixtures, each at dosages of 300 and 500
mg., gave mortalities ranging from 60 to 93 percent. The temperature
during the tests averaged from 68 to 70 7.

Results of tests with mixtures of DDT and pyrophyllite are summnar-
itsed. in table 2. These tests substantiate those reported by Earries (a)
Is showing that DDT is toxic to the pea aphid at relatively low strengths.
fto aortalties were much higher at 630-650 7. than at 51 -550.




Tabl 2.-Xortality of pea aphids dusted with 250 ag. of mixtures of DDT
and pyropbyllite. Madison, Vis., 1943


MDT t Average Mortality after-
in I temperature : Aphids
mixture during test : 1 day 3 days 3 days

Percent OF. ftaber Percent Percent Pqrcent

10 63 135 100 100 100
5 63 105 96 100 100
55 45 91 100 100
1 64 165 68 98 100
53 105 34 61 83
0.5 64 195 61 91 95
53 105 45 61 82
.5/ 65 105 54 99 100
51 60 0 29 66
Checks 51-64 330 0 1 6


,/ Mixture also contained 1 percent of nicotine derived from ground
tobacco dust impregnated with nicotine alkaloid to contain 10 percent
of nicotine.






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A series of tests was conducted on the residual effect of DDT when
dusted on pea plants. The plants were dusted with mixtures of DDT and
pyrophyllite and held for various periods before aphids were introduced.
In all tests the average temperature was 64 P. The new plant growth
(except as detailed in table 4) was removed from the plants prior to ex-
posure to aphids in order to keep them from feeding on the untreated new
foliage. In each test 45 adult aphids were used.

The residues from 500 mg. of the 5-percent and 10-percent strengths
of DDT dust applied 1, 3, 5, 11, 14, and 21 days before exposure to
aphids gave 84 percent mortality of the aphids in 1 day and 100 percent
mortality in 3 days. The mortality of comparable check lots of aphids
was 22 percent after 3 days. In other tests, summarized in table 3, the
1-percent and the 0.5-percent strengths of DDT had greater residual effect
than did dust mixtures containing 0.5 percent of rotenone.

When the foliage was washed with tap water 8 days after being dusted
with 10 percent DDT-pyrophyllite, enough residue remained to be very toxic
to the 60 aphids that were placed on the foliage 1 day later (table 4).



Table 3.-Iffect of exposure of pea aphids to foliage previously dusted with
DDT or ground derris root mixed with pyrophyllite. Madison, Vis.,. 1943


S: Interval between Mortality
Material and strength q quantity : dusting of foliage: Aphids : in
applied and exposure to used : 3 days
_______________; ___ ___ ap ide ___ ; __ ;___

Percent by weight Milligrams Da Number Percent

DDTI
1 350 10 45 100
20 30 94
0.5 250 7 45 69
9 45 78
Rotenone 0.5 250 9 45 44
500 1 45 51
3 45 51
5 45 29
Botenone 0.5 plus mineral
oil 2 500 1 45 91
3 45 96
5 45 9
None (check) --- 240 8






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Table 4.--Removal of DDT from pea foliage by washing 8 days after dusting,
as indicated by the mortality of pea aphids placed on the foliage 1 day
after washi1n. Madison, Via., 1943


S Mortality after-
Treatment of foliage I
S1 day : 2 days 3 days

Percent Percent Percent

Washed and new growth removed 70 92 98
Washed 18 38 54
New growth removed 97 100 100
None 88 96 100
Updusted (check) 0 0 0


Experiment at Columbus, Ohio

The methods employed at Columbus were similar to those used at Madison.
The chief differences were that each mixture was applied at a very low dos-
age to 10 adult aphids by use of a bell-jar duster designed by Harrie (1),
and that the tests were usually replicated (repeated on different days.)
Pea plants for use in the tests were sprouted in trays of sand in the lab-
oratory and were prepared by transplanting two plants into each can of sand
and adding 50 ml. of nutrient solution. The plants were placed under a
bank of fluorescent lights, operated 12 or 14 hours daily with an electric
time switch, and were used when about 3 to 4 inches high. After treatment
the infested pea plants were ringed with a barrier to obviate the necessity
of a screen cage and to avoid the effect of a loss of light. The plants
were randomized in position under the same light conditions at temperatures
of 70 to 800 F. and 40 to 60 percent relative humidity during the obser-
vation periods of 3 or 4 days.

The results, as summarized in tables 5 and 6, demonstrated that most
of the materials were inferior to derris, although many of them were tested
at the 50-percent strength. The mortalities were generally low even with
derris, owing to the low dosages employed. DDT, however, was very effec-
tive and appeared to be more effective than derris at comparable strengths.
Promising results were obtained with 2 percent of beta.beta'-dithiocyanodi-
ehyl ether, 10 percent of yam bean, and 50-percent strengths of 4,6-dini-
tro-o-cresyl acetate, 2-chlorofluorene, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresyl methyl ether,
and phenazine. The only other mixtures giving mortalities over 30 percent
were those oontaintig, m-bromoacetanilide, phenoxathiin, and 21-hydroxy-
2,4.4,4',7-pentamethylflavan.






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Table 5.--Mortnlity of pea aphids and the number of progeny 3 days after
dusting with synthetic organic materials. Columbus, Ohio, 1943



SMortality of g Surviving
Material adults progeny
; i per plant

Percent Number

Mixtures with equal parts of pyrophyllite, dosage 70 mg., 10 aphids in
each of 7 replicates:

Derris-1 43 18
m-Bromoacetanilide 33 40
Hydrasobenzene 20 24
Asobenzene 16 34
o-Iodoni t robensene 16 31
m-Iodonitrobensene 14 43
-I odoacetanilide 14 37
2-Iodoacetani lids 10 44
-j-Ohloroacetanilide 9 54
m-Chloroacetani lids 7 48
Z-Bromoacetani lide 7 53
r-Chlo roacetanilide 6 44
k-Iodonitrobensene 6 48
None (check) 3 52

Mixtures with equal parts of talc, dosage 100 mg., each tested with 10
aphids repeated 6 tines the same day:

4,6-Dinitro-o-cresyl acetate 98 0
2-Chlorofluorene 90 1
4,6-Dinitro-o-cresyl methyl ether 75 3
Phenazine 63 4
Derrial/ 63 7
Phenoxathiin (phenothioxin) 55 10
Phenothiazine 45 16
None (check) 7 54

Mixtures with talc, 4/ dosage 100 mag., 15 replicates of 20 aphids each:

Botenone 0.25% plus phenoxathiin 0.75% 45 88
Reotenone 0. 25% 40 94
Botenone 0.15% plus phenoxathiin 0.75% 40 97
Botenone 0.15% 33 110
Rotenone 0.5% (from ground cube) 34 86
None (check) 4 196

J Diluted to contain 1 percent of rotenone.
SThe first four dusts also contained 2 percent of oil and were pre-
pared by combining derris resins and oil, with or without phenoxathiin,
in acetone and spraying the mixtures into talc with thorough mixing.






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Table 6.--Mortality of pea aphids and the number of progeny 3 days after
dusting with various materials in comparison with rotenone; 10 aphids
for each material in each replicate. Columbus, Ohio, 1943



Mortality : Surviving
Material : of adults : progeny
: : per plant

Percent Number

Series A; .- -,e i i g., 5 replicates

DDT 10%:
In pyrophyllite 100 0
Technical DDT diluted with proprietary ; DDT
dust 100 0
Botenone 0.5% in derris-pyrophyllite 94 9
Yam bean 10% in diatomaceous earth-pyrophyllite 62 17
None (check) 4 59

Series B: Dosage 50 mg., 10 replicates

Beta,beta'-dithiocyanodiethyl ether 24 in talc-
magnesium carbonate:
Lot 1 98 1
Lot 2 71 25
Rotenone in derris-pyrophyllite:
0.3% from Derris malaccensis 40 65
0.5% from Derris elliptica 38 62
2'-Hydroxy-2,4,4,4',7-pentamethylflavan 5% in
diatomaceous earth:
Lot 1 31 70
Lot 2 34 67
None (check) 3 137

Series C: Dosage 1'0O ::., 5 replicates

Rotenone 1% in derris-pyrophyllite 74 13
Piperine in pyrophyllite:
1 10 54
8 6 55
4t 14 72
22 53
1% 4 72
None (check) 0 96






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Table 6.--(Continued)


: Mortality Surviving
Material of adults progeny
S: per plant

Series Di Dosage 100 mg., 7 replicates

Rotenone 0.5% in derris-pyrophyllite 46 21
Black pepper, undiluted 9 58
Black pepper in pyrophyllite:
80% 11 49
40% 16 42
20% 7 56
10% 17 37
None (check) 3 80

Series 3: Dosage 50 mg.l/

DDT in pyrophyllite:
10% 100 o
5 100 Ot
2.5% 98 2
1.25% 100 2
.625% 100 2
Botenone 1% in derris-pyrophyllite 96 5
None (check) 21 108

Series F: Dosage 50 mg., 10 repll.qatesV

DDT in pyrophyllite:
Mo% 100 o0
5% 100 0
2.5% 99 3
1.?5% 99 3
.625% 100 4
.325% 93 9
.156% 92 16
.078% 89 21
Rotenone 0.5% in derris-pyrophyllite 83 16
None (check) 3 123



J/ 80 aphids per treatment.

2/ Results with 9 of these replicates have been reported (Harries 2).








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3 1262 09238 7132


Literati-re Gited

(1) Harrtes, 7. 1.
1943. A duster for lPboratory experiments with insecticides.
U. S. Bur. Ant. and Plant Quar, IT-214, 3 pp.[Processed.]


(2) -----
1944.


laboratory tetsc with PT a4ainet the pea aphid and the
Mexican ber beetl- (Scientific lote) Jour. Icon. Int.
37151.