Plants of possible insecticidal value : a review of the literature up to 1941

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Title:
Plants of possible insecticidal value : a review of the literature up to 1941
Physical Description:
286 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
McIndoo, N. E ( Norman Eugene ), 1881-1956
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insect pests -- Control   ( lcsh )
Insect baits and repellents   ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Control -- Biological control   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 214-251).
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-661."
General Note:
"May 1945."
General Note:
Includes indexes.
Statement of Responsibility:
by N.E. McIndoo.

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030289720
oclc - 12626624
Classification:
lcc - Z5354.P75 M3
System ID:
AA00025119:00001

Full Text





May 1945 E-661



United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine

PLANTS OF POSSIBLE INSECTICIDAL VALUI A Review of the Literature up to 1941

By N. 1. Mclndoo, Division of Insecticide Investigations

CONTENTS

page Page
Scope of this review ..... 1 Part l--Cryptogams --------- b
Brief history of Part ll-Phanerogams or
incecticidal plants ..... 2 spermatophytes ....-... 12
Methods of research .---- 4 Literature cited ........... 4
Commercial and experimental Index of botanical names ---252
cultivation of insecti- Index of insect names ------281
cidal plants --------- 5 Index of plant products ----285



SCOP3 OF THIS REVIRV

This is a review of the literature on plants that have been reported to have insecticidal value or have been tested or used in insecticides or other preparations, such as repellents or attractants, for the control of insect pests. In addition to plants that are
sources of the active ingredient of such preparations, brief mention is made of those that furnish such accessory materials as spreaders, adhesives, emulsifiers, and synergists. The notes give only information on the insecticidal value of these plant materials, not on their chemical nature. The preparation of this review was reported in 1942 (McIndoo, _)

This review covers the literature up to 1941, with a few more
recent references that were added In 1944 when the manuscript was revised. Reviews on some of the more common insecticidal plants and their constituents, as well as lists of patents, have aIready been issued, most of them in the Z -ries of this Bureau, and in such cases the reader is referred to the !blished reviews. A list of nearly 200 species of plants that d been tested for or reported to possess insecticidal properties was u'&li shed by Roark (131) in 1919.

Included in this review are about 1,182 species of plants, reoresenting 697 genera and 173 families. The lower orders(cry-tofams), including the algae, fungi, mosses, ferns, and horsetails which total 27 species, 20 genera, and 14 families, are given first, 1ol1owed by the higher orders (phanerogams), which total about 1,155 species,








677 genera, and 159 families. Most of these species do not deserve further investigation, and some of the families, for example Asteraceae, have been extensively investigated. In each of these two divisions the plants are grouped by families so that the families may be compered from an insecticidal standpoint.

The botanical names are listed in accordance with the Internati Ial Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, and have been reviewed by botanist in the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils,and Agricultural Engineering, the Bureau of Aricultural and Industrial Chemistry, and the National Herbarium.

The refe nces were obtained mostly from the files of the Division
of Insecticide Investieations and the Division of Control Investigations, and from the Review of Applied Entonology. Most of the notes were taken from the original articles, although occasionally the author had access only to abstracts.

BRIEF HISTORY OF INSECTICIDAL PLANTS

Dioscorides (A. D. 40-90), according to Blyth and Blyth (64, pp. 4-5), divided poisons into three classes--animal, plant, and mineral. As plant poisons he enumerated opium, black and white Hyosyamus, Mandragora, Conium, elaterin, and the juices of Euphorbia species. He also especially mentioned aconite, the deadly nature of which the Greeks were well aware. Colchicum was also known to Dioscorides. Veratrum album and V. nirum were famous medicines of the Romans, and constituents of their rat and mice powders." They were also used as insecticides.

From the time of the early Romans to the twentieth century only
three efficient insecticides were discovered--nicotine, pyrethrum, and hellebore. The nicotine-insecticide industry has been developed largely in America, whereas the pyrethrum and hellebore industries are European in origin. During the nineteenth century there was little interest in
searchin,- for new insecticidal plants, although in 1885 the United States Department of Agriculture (Riley, 325) tested 42 species of plants a-ainst cotton caterpillars without finding any new effective ones. In the second decade of the present century large-scale investieations were bezun which led to a new world-wide industry using Derris Pnd Lonchocarpus as insecticide materials. More recently

-----------------------------------------------------------------/ S. F. Blake, C. 0. Erlanson, V. R. Fosber?, Oliver !. Freeman, F. J. Hermann, E. C. Leonard, Robert F. Martin, Rogers McVaugh, C. M. Muller, Paul G. Russell, J. A. Stevenson, and Jason R. Swallen.












anabasine, derived from Anabasis a"hylla, has become commercially important in the country of its origin, Russia, and Tephrosia is also used locally in a few places in Africa where it is easily tained.

In 1915 and 1916 the Russian investigators Gomilevsky (164), Goriainov (166), and Schreiber (358-360) wrote considerable ab-ut vegetable insecticides, but they tsted only a comparatively few plants and discovered none of oommeroial value. For centuries a few countries, for example China, have had their own insecticides, but these have not become commercially important in other countries.

In 1915 the United States Department of Agriculture began a
series of investigations on this subject. The first problem was to find a substitute for nicotine, which was expensive, and in 1916 Mclndoo (254) reported the results of his studies on nicotine as an insecticide. This was followed in 1917 by a paper on quassia (McIndoo and Sievers, 258), and in 1919 by one on derris (McIndoo, Sievers, and Abbott, 260). Soon after the publication of the last paper an English firm, which had previously tried to sell its derris products in the United States, prepared other derris spray materials on the basis of information given by these writers. Since that time interest in derris has grown rapidly, and it is now used more widely than nicotine.

A later problem was to find a substitute for both nicotine and derris, one that could be grown cheaply in America. This was partly solved by the finding of cube in South America, as first reported by Molndoo and Sievers (259) in 1924. Up to that time cube was prActically unknown, both botanically and from an insecticidal viewpoint. It has since been identified as a species of Lonchocarpus. These writers also gave the results of testing 232 preparations from 54 other species of plants against 28 species of insects, ad reported on others mentioned in the literature, making a total of 260 different plants.

In 1920 appeared a bulletin on insect powder (pyrethrum) by McDonnell, Roark, LaForge, and Keenan (251).

Work in England on vegetable insecticides was begun at the
Rothamsted Experimental Station in 1920 (Tattersfield 390, p. 90). In 1923 Tattersfield and Roach (396) reported on the chemical properties of derris, and Fryer, Stenton, Tatterafield, and Roach (147) on its insecticidal properties. In 1925 appeared a paper by Tattersfield, Gimingham, and Morris (392) on the toxicity of Tephrosia, which grows in West Africa, the Sudan, Rhodesia, and the Comoro Islids. Following a search for some substance that would prove an adequate alternative to nicotine as a contact insecticide, they found that extracts of Tephrosia could be substituted for nicotine against aphids. In 1926 the same writers (393) discussed 28 species of plants as contact






-4

insecticides. In 1932 appeared a second paper on Tephrosia, this one by Tatterafield and Gimingham (391). In 1940 Tattersfield and coworkers (395) described the insecticidal properties of Annona and Mundulea and of some fish-poison plants (394).

In 1931 Roark and Keenan (347) published a long list of plants found in India that were reputed to have insecticidal value. Since 1927 several papers on the insecticidal properties of Indian plants have appeared, and since 1933 several others on plants found in China.

Worsley (431-434) between 1934 and 1939 wrote about the insecticidal properties of some East African plants.

METHODS OF RESEARCH

In the search for insecticidal plants no dependable guide has been found. The only procedure is the trial-and-error method. Botanical classification is not a trustworthy guide, because hundreds of plant species must be examined to find one that is sufficiently pr sing to warrant intensive chemical and toxicological studies. E .ce of
this is the fact that the most important commercial insectic s of plant origin are distributed in five different families as follows Insect powder or pyrethrum, Asteraceae; nabasine, Chenopodiacea-e; derris, cube, and timbo, Fabaceae; hellebore, Liliaceae; and nicotine, Solanaceae.

Much time has been spent in insecticide laboratories trying to find an ideal test insect, which would correspond to the white r commonly used in other fields of research. A method used by Mcindoo and coworkers (260) in a study of Derris in 1919 was to extract the
plant materials with several solvents and to test the extracts against several species of insects. A later method, used by Tattersfield rn coworkers (392) in a study of Tephrosia in 1925, was to use only to solvents alcoholl and water) and only one species of insect, the bon aphidr. A still more recent method is to use only one solvent alcoholl or acetone) and only one species of insect, such as the bean aphid. housefly, mosquito larva, codling moth larva, or Japanese beetle.

Roark (345) has pointed out that many of the tests on insecticidal plants are inadequate because the material was not tested against the proper insect, all parts of the plant were not tested, or the proper solvent was not used for extraction. He considers that the examination of plants for insecticidal value should be prosecuted as follows:

(a) The plant should be identified by a botanist who
is a specialist in the order or family to which it belongs.








-5

(b) The entire plant should be tested unless it is
known that the active principles are localized in one
part*

(c) The plant should be tested shortly after it is
collected, because many plant constituents, e. L., the pyrethrins, deteriorate when the dried plant material
is stored.

(d) Several species of insects, representative of
different orders, should be employed as test organisms.

(e) The plant material should be tested as A contact poison, as a stomach poison, and As a Nmigant by
the aerosol method.

(f) The plant material should be tested as a finely
pulverized powder and in the form of extracts made with
different classes of organic solvents.***

If these precautions are observed, many plants formerly discarded as worthless may be found to have value.

Botanists, chemists, entomologists, plant physiologists, and
toxicologists should cooperate more than ever to find suitable insecticidal plants that can be introduced and grown in the countries in which insecticides are used on a large scale.

As Mclndoo and Sievers (259) stated in 1924 the search for a
plant which may be made commercially available as an insecticide at a reasonable price extends much further than merely finding a plant with satisfactory insecticidal properties. It involves, in addition, a study of the botanical characteristics of such 8 plent, its habitat, the available natural supply, the effective pnrt of the plant, the means necessary for its collection and shipment, sid, above all, the cost at which it can be delivered to the :msnufpcturers in this country.

COmmERCIAL AN D EDXPERII-ENTAL CULTIVATION OF iNST.P 2 C:DPL FLUTS

A book by Tolmn (198) on insecticides o- v-egtble origin w-s published in 1940. He na ed 9 coitries as e rwcipal profducers of nicotine insecticides and 10 others As lesser producers, and F-,7e the total production as more than 3,593 lonr tons. Fe devoted 66
pages to plants containing rotenone and allied compounds. flerris was grown commercially in 12 localities and was under experimental cultivation in 20 others. The derris root exported fromritish Malaya alone in 1939 amounted to 1,456 long tons, and 913 tons of






-6

this came to the United States. Cube and timbo are produced comrercially in Peru and Brazil, and Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and the Guienas are potential producers. Peru exported 550 long tons of cube in 1938 and 770 tons during the first 8 months of 1939. In 1938 Prezil exported 1,038 long tons of Lonchocarpus powder anrd 38 tons of roots, most of which came to the TTnited States. Holman Plso gave very brief Accounts of Tephrosis, undulea, And !'illettia, which up to 1940 had not been cultivated for commercial purposes. He devoted 37 pores to pyrethrum, Chryspnthemum cinerprinefo1lum ond C. cocnineum. The first species is the only one of commercial importance and is grown chiefly in Japan, Kenya, and Yugoslavia, although there are 16 other producing countries. The United States consumed a large proportion of the world's exportable surplus of the crop. The total exports in 1937 were 8,969 qonr)tons; in 1938, 6,490 tons; and in 1939, 6,058 tons. Short accounts of anabasine, hellebore, and qussia are also given.

Roskill (349, p. 114) and Sievers (364) discussed the growing of derris, end the former told about the exports of cube and timbo. Tattersfield and coworkers (394) said that the well-knovin insecticidel properties of Derris and Lonchocerpus have stimulated the search for the other plants in many parts of the world, partly with the object of establishing local industries or of finding local means for the control of insect pests. Sievers and coworkers (365) discussed the possibilities of the devil's-shoestring as a commercial source of insecticides. Moore (283) reported on the introduction of insecticidal plants in Puerto Rico.

In 1939 there were imported into the United States 2,335,048
pounds of crude derris root, 1,907,194 pounds of crude cube and timbo roots, and 896,640 pounds of powdered roots (U. S. bureau of Lntonology and Plant Quarantine, 406). Before World .ar II the United states imported annually 15 to 20 million pounds of pyrethrum flowers, largely from Jpprn. About 1 million pounds of quassie wood were also imported annually.


_7 T T--fCn7PT0
CGPPTOCEIC_\
(Funf-i--Mushrooms)

MAIITA MUSCARIA Fr. Synonym: Agricus muscarius L. Fly mushroom.

Bu.r 97,ric.

A solution of the alkaloid muscarine increased the heart activity of the lnrva of Corethra crystallina (Deg.).--Doiel (120, p. 29).









The spraying of peach trees with a decoction of poisonous mushrooms (1 kg. to 10 liters of water) was recommended to destroy peach aphids in France.-Anonymous (5).

This mushroom has been used in Europe as a fly poison for hundreds of years.--Chesnut (87, p. 13).

This fungus was used formerly as a popular insecticide. It was bruised, steeped in milk, and the milk exposed as we now expose arsenical flypaper.--Blyth and Blyth (64, p. 426).

The poisonous qualities of this fungpus probably depend on the presence of volatile matter and the alkaloid amnitine (muscarine).
An extract of the whole fungus is likely to prove effective against all kinds of -nnwing insects and their larvae.--Gomilevsky (164).

Comments by reviewer.--Since poisonous mushrooms are extremely toxic to people and appear to be also to certain insects, toxicological studies should be made with various orders of insects. If the poisonous fungi prove to be worth while, they might be cultivated as we now cultivate the edible mushrooms.

AMANITA PANTHERINA Fr.

This fungus was used as a fly poison.--Lyons (248, P. 29).

CHARAC / E
(Algae--:oneworts)

CHARA FOETIDA

An active principle isol1 a rorm this alga was toxic to mosquito larvae. In action it appere 0 e similar to derris.--Howrd (204, p. 10).

CHARA FRAGILIS Desv.

Ponds in which this alsa 'ro neturally were free from mosquito. lrvae. It was lethal to four socies of Culex larvae, and the lethal action seemed to be closely s n f with hi-h pF. The pH seemed
to vary directly with photosyn thetic activity. Tests with the dried plants also showed a mprked IPtihh ction.--Yatheson (271, pp. 95-86).

Chara is grown widely in IndiR in paddy fields and in pools. It is said to destroy mosquito larvae. Alcoholic extracts and water suspensions had no effect on caterpillars.--Futtarudriah and Subramanism
(312).







-8

BX UI SETACEAB
(Hor set ails)

BQUISETi1 ARVENSE L. Common horseteail. BE1JTSETUM HYFMALE L. Scouring-rush.

Extracts from these horsetails were not repellent to the Japanese
beetleo--Metzger end Grant (277).

An aqueous extract end a powder of iE. arvense were recommended as insecticides in a Germa~n patent.--Diener (119).

ifYPOCREAC 1EAE
(Fungri)

CLAYTOFFPS PTJRPTT',A (Fr.) Tul. Errot of rye.

A wpter extr~~ct killed Aphids, psyllps, And thripe ilevsky (l64)o

Extractum secale corriuti (10 percent in wpter) and secele cornutum pulvis (100 percent, end 10 percent in flour) had no perceptible effect on the caterpillars of Prodenia litura. (F.).--DeBussy (76).
LYCOP }3DACEAE
(Fungi--Puffballs)

CALVATIA GIGANTE-A (Pers.) Cunningham~. Synonyms: Lycoperdon bovista L.,,

Lo giganteum Batshe Giant puffball.

This fungus was used in its mature condition as a styptic and for stupefying bees.--Greshoff (170, p. 167).

The spores may be used in the samne way as flowers of sulfur* Insects covered with this powder either perish from its mechanicAl effects or are poisoned by it*--Gomilevsky (164).

LYCOPODIAC-EAE
(Club losses)

LYCOPODIUIA COIPLANATUMI L. Ground cedar.

The decoction killed lice.--Williams (428, p. 924).

LYCOPOPTU17 SELAGO L. Fir club moss.

Listed as an insecticide,-Greshoff (170, p. 165)0






-9

OSITDACEAE
(Ferns)

OSMUNDA CINNAJNONEA L. Cinnamon fern.

OSMUNDA REGALIS L. Flowering fern.

Extracts of the cinnamon fern were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.-Metzger and Grant (277?).

Extracts of the rhizomes of both species killed none of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188).

PARMELIACEAE
(Lichens)

CETRARIA ISLANDICA (L.) Ach. Iceland moss.

To destroy eggs of Lepidoptera, trees were sprayed with a solution made by boiling 4 pounds of Iceland moss for 1 hour in 20 gallons of water, adding more water as needed to maintain a constant volume.-Chmielewski (96).

POLYPODIACKAE
(Ferns)

ADIANTUM CAPILLUS-VENERIS L. Southern maidenhair.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

DENNSTAEDTIA PUNCTILOBULA (Michx.) Moore. Hay-scented fern.

Acetone extracts of the rhizomes killed only 10 percent of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188).

DRYOPTERIS FELIX-MAS (L.) Schbtt. Synonym: Aspidium filix-mas (L.)

SW. Male fern.

The powdered rhizome of the male fern has been used since ancient times as an anthelmintic. A commercial extract (an oleoresin) was secured, and crude filicin was obtained from it. Preliminary tests on mosquito larvae (Culex quinquefasciatus Say) showed that the oleoresin was toxic. Purified filicic acid was four times as toxic as the crude filicin to these larvae. Satisfactory control of bean aphids was obtained with a spray containing 0.03 percent of crude filicin and 0.5 percent of Penetrol.--Wilcoxon and coworkers (425).







-10

Acetone extracts of the rhizomes and the oleoresin (25 popome)
killed 100 percent of the mosquito larvae tested. A 0.1-percent concentration of filicin killed 99 and 96 percent of the bean aphids tested*--Hartzell-and Wilcoxon (188). ONOCLEA SENSIBILIS L9 Sensitive fern*

Acetone extracts of the rhizomes killed only 10 percent of the mosquito larvae te~ted*--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188). PiIYLLITIS SCOC'1 _' -:( U1d (L.) Newman* Hartstongue.

xtr- s were not repellent to the Japenese beetle.--tietzger and Grout 7

FO,,rS'C~TCH1~ AGROT~0rIHOIDYZ (MIchx.) Schott* Christmas fern*.

Acetone extracts of the rhizomes killed none of the mosquito lArv~'e tested.--HArtzell And Wilcoxon (168). PTERIDIUM AQUILINU (L,.) Kuhn. Bracken.

In Spain it was suggested that fern leaves be placed among clothes, for it was claimed that clothes moths do not deposit eggs in the presence of these leaves.--Anonymous (27).

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle*--Metzger and Grant (277).

PTERIDIWfl LATIUSCULUM (Desv.) Hieron. Bracken*

Acetone extracts of the rhizomes of this fern killed none of the mosquito larv~e tested*--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188).

POLYTORACEAE
(Bracket Fungi)

FOMES OFFICINALIS (Fr.) Faull. Synonym: Polyporus officinalis Fr*

Larch ae. ric.

Agaricine (10 percent in flour) and ea 'PFricus alba had no perceptible effect on caterpillars of Prodenin litura (F.).--!DT~ussy (76). Uhese botanical drurs are derived from this speciess]
T~xtr~cts from this funrus were not repellent to the Jnppnese etle.--1'etz~rer end Grant (277).







-11

POLYTRICHACEAE
(Mosses)

POLYTRICHUM JUNIPERINUM Willd. Hairoap moss.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277) .
RHODOPHYCEAE
(Red Algae)

CHONDRUS CRISPUS (L.) Stack. Carrageen. Irish moss.

In Germany it was believed that seaweed mucilage might control
insects in orchards and vineyards. The mucilage was prepared by boiling 4 pounds of Irish moss in 20 gallons of water for 1 hour. When the muoilage was sprayed on infested plants, pieces flaked off taking with them the eggs and larvae of the injurious insects. Still more effective results were obtained by adding 2 pounds of ethereal oil of mustard, dissolved in 10 pounds of methylated spirit, to every 2,000 to 4,000 pounds of mucilage.-Issleib (215).

Alginic acid is derived from a seaweed, probably from Chondrus or other alga. Woolen fabrics are impregnated with a soluble salt of alginio acid and then placed in a bath of antimony salt (Ger. patent 304,506).--Roark (333, p. 7).

This moss was a constituent of a petrolatum emulsion used for mothproofing fabrics (U. S. patent 1,799,047).-Roark (335, p. 24).

SALVINIACEAE
(Fernlike Plants)

AZOLLA CAROLINIANA Willd.

This small floating plant grows densely in stagnant water and
covers the surface for large areas a that mosquito larvae are unable to reach the surface to breathe. It is recommended in Austria as a good plant to raise in stagnant waters to prevent the development of mosquitoes.-Henkel (192).

AZOLLA sp.

Azolla and Lemna, when grown in water where mosquitoes breed,
oheok tTebreeding by preventing the larvae from getting air.-Howard (20o3. pp. 25, 27).






-12

SELAGINELLACEAE
(Club-Moss Allies)

SELAGINELLA SCANDFENS Spring.

The leaves of this small creeping herb were put on fires to keep ticks away from houses in the Gold Coast, Africa.--Irvine (213).


PART II-PHANEROGAMS or SPERMATOPHYTES

ACANTHACEAE
(Acanthus Family)

JUSTICIA ADHATODA L. Synonym: Adhatoda vasica Nees. Malabar nut.

This plant was fatal to flies, fleas, mosquitoes, and the pupae of aquatic insects.--Rusby (350).

This species was reported to be steed as an insecticide India.Roark (332, p. 2).

JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA L. f. Synonym: Gendarussa vulgaris Nees.,

In India the natives scattered the leaves among their clothes to preserve them from insects.--Drury (122, p. 233).

This plant is widely distributed in India. A 5-percent extract of the leaves killed 100 percent of the caterpillars of Prodenia litura (F.) and Euprootis fraterna (Moore), end a 3-percent extract killed 80 percent of E. fraterns. A 3-percent extract of the root bark killed 60 percent of E. fraterna and a 4-percent extract killed 100 percent. Powdered roots, leaves, and stems dusted upon beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.), killed 75 to 80 percent of them in 5 days.--Puttarudriah and Subramanian (311).

RHINACANTHUS NASUTUS (L.) Kurz. Synonym: R. communism Nees.

In India the root bark was used as a remedy for dhobi's *itoh.-Watt (422, v. 3, p. 90).

RUNGIA REPENS (L.) Nees. Synonym: Justicia repens L.

In India the fresh leaves were bruised, mixed with castor oil, and applied to the scalp. The whole plant was considered a vermifuge.-Watt (422, v. 6, pt. 1, p. 593).








ACERACEAE
(Maple Family)

ACER PLATANOIDES L. Norway maple.
Acetone and water extracts of the leaves killed none of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188).

ACER PSEUDO-PLATANUS L. Sycamore maple.

Acetone extracts killed only 10 percent of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell and Wilooxon (188).

ACER RUBRUM L. Red maple.

ACER SACCKARIUM L. Silver maple.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.-Metzger and Grant (277).

ACER SACCHARUM Marsh. Sugar maple.

Acetone and water extracts of the leaves killed none of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188).

AESCULACEAE
(Horsechestnut Family)

AESCULUS CALIFORNICA Nutt. California buckeye.

Observations on honeybees that visited this tree showed that the young brood was most affected. The eggs either failed to hatch or
produced drones. The larvae soon died and disappeared, and the pupae were often deformed. The emerging young adults crawled from the hives, and older adults died prematurely. The queens ceased laying or became drone layers. The colonies were weakened or killed.--Burnside and Vansell
(72).

This plant has taken a heavy toll from the beekeepers of California. The brood of bees was seriously affected when fed products of this tree. The eggs failed to hatch and oviposition might cease entirely. Immature and deformed dead bees accumulated at the hive entrances. On rare occasions the adult field bees feeding on buckeye blossoms became Dnralyzed and died in alarming numbers.--Vansell and coworkers (409).

Flours made from the nuts were toxic to the Mexican bean beetle, when applied to bean foliage. Adults and second inters died within 3
days after eating the hulls or meat, and the newly hatched larvae died
2 days after eating the meat. Neither the meat nor hull flour was a
violent poison, heavy doses being required to kill the insects within 2 or 3 days.--Apple and Howard (U. S. Bur. Ent. and Plant Quar. News Letter 7(11)t 23-25. 1940).





-14

AESCULUS GLABRA Willd. Ohio buckeye.

Alcoholic extracts of the fruit atd leaves and a decoction of the leaves had no effect on cotton caterpillars.--Riley (325, p. 184). AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. Horsechestnut.

Acetone extracts of the leaves killed only 5 percent of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188). AlECULUS PAVIA L. Red buckeye.

Bedsteads made of this wood were said not to be infested by bugs.-Porcher (308, p. 91).

An infusion of horsechestnuts was recommended as a spray against leaf-enting insects on veretables.--V. (408).

A decoction of horsechestnut proved effective against aphids
(Rhopalosiphum sp.) on seedlings of sugar beet near Prague.--Neuwirth (293).

AIZOACEAE
(Carpetweed Family) MOLLUGO CERVIANA Ser.

This plant mixed with oil was made into an ointment for scabies and other cutaneous diseases.--Drury (122, p. 305). MOLLUGO SPERGULA L.

The juice of this plant was applied as a remedy for itch and other skin diseases.--Kirtikar and Basu (230, v. 1, p. 615).

AMJARANTHACEAE
(Amaranth Family)

AitdAR NTHUS RETROFLEXUS L. Pigweed.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

A4R YLLIDAC kAE
(Amnryllis Vamily)

AGTAVE MERICANA L. Century plnnt.

The infusion of the leaves can be applied es an insecticide.Von Mueller (414, p. 24).








-15

In India wallpaper impregnated with the expressed juice was said to be proof against white ants.--Chopra and Badhwar (98). AGAVE LECHEGUILLA Torr. Lechuguilla.

Infusions of the roots had only a slight effect on fly larvae.-Cook, Hutchison, and Scales (103, p. 5; 104, p. 13). FURCRAEA HEXAPETALA (Jacq.) Urban. Synonym: F. cubensis (Jaoq.) Vent.

A water extract had practically no effect on silkworms.--Mclndoo and Sievers (259, p. 22).

NARCISSUS PSEUDONARCISSUS L. Common daffodil.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and
Grant (277).

ANACARDIACEAE
(Sumac or Cashew Family)

ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L. Cashew.

The pericarp of the nut contains a black acrid oil, which was
often applied to floors or wooden rafters of houses to prevent attacks by white ants.--Drury (122, p. 33).

Oil from the shells mixed with kerosene was tested in India against the mosquito Armieres obturbens (Wlk.). Nearly 100 percent of the larvae and pupae were killed within 2 hours in laboratory sinks.--Wats and Bherucha (420).

An emulsion of cashew-shell oil was tested in India against the coffee stem borer. It was found to be a good ovicide, provided it came in contact with the eggs.--Subramanyam (386). BUCHANANIA LATIFOLIA Roxb.

In India this plant was believed to cure itch.--Kirtiknr and Besu (230, v. 1, p. 381).

HOLIGARNA AMOTHIANA Hook. Bibo.

An extract of the seeds mixed with kerosene was tested as a lervicide against mosquitoes, but poor results were obtained.--Tets and
Bharucha (420).






MANGTFEPA INDICA L. Manro.

The gum resin, mixed with lime juice or oil, was used as a cure
for scabies, and the powdered flowers were used for fumigating mosquitoes.-Kirtikar and Basu (230, v. 1, pp. 375-376). PISTACIA LENTISCUS L. Mastic tree.

Various gums with oils were tested for stability as emulsifiers.
Mastic gum was unsteble.--Ginsburg (168). RITUS CANADENSIS March. Synonym: R. eromatica Ait.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

RTUS CORIARIA L. Sumac.

When grown in proximity to infested vines, sumac destroys phylloxera.-Von Mueller (414, p. 461).

Negative results were obtained upon testing infusions of the wood and leaves against phylloxera on grape vines in Italy.--Floriano (141).

A bag of sumac leaves was buried around the base of each apple
tree infested with the woolly aphid. For some time aphids remained on the roots, but a year later they had disappeared, and it was thought
that the tannin in the leaves killed or repelled them.--Reymond (320). RHUS GLABRA L. Sumac.

Extracts from this plant were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.-Metzger and Grant (277).

RHUS sp.

Water extracts of the leaves and berries killed only 5 and 20 percent, respectively, of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188).

SCHINOPSIS sp. Quebracho,

The commercial extract was an effective repellent against the Japanese beetle.--Yetzger and Grant (277). SFIECARPUS ANACART)DIIM L.

TOXICODNDRON RADICANS (L.) Kuntze. Synonym: Rhus toxicodendron L.

Extracts tested in sprays against adult mosquitoes were much inferior to the standard mosquitocide.--W'ats and Singh (421).






-17

ANNONACEAE
(Custerd-Apple Family)

ANNONA CHERIMOLIA fill. Synonym: A. tripetala Ait. Cherimoya.

The seed was used as an insecticide.--Greshoff (170, p. 12).

ANNONA GLABRA L. Synonym: A. palustris L. Alligator-apple. Pond-apple.

The powdered seeds were used as an insecticide.--Maisch (262).

Alcoholio extracts of the leaves, stems, and roots of this plant
from Ceylon were tested against the chrysanthemum aphid. The stems and roots were not toxic, but the leaves were moderately toxic.--Tattersfield and Potter (395).

ANNONA MURICATA L. Sour sop.

Extracts of the leaves, stems, roots, and seeds were tested against aphid Macrosiphoniella sanborni (Gill.). The seeds were the most toxic, but not enough to make this plant of any value as an insecticide.-Tatterefield and Potter (395).

ANNO0NA RETICULATA L. Custard-apple.

The powdered seed was used as an insecticide.--Maisch (262).

This plant is widely distributed in India. Alcoholic extracts of
the seeds and stem bark were tested against adult grasshoppers, Epecromia temulus (F.). A 3-percent extract of the seeds killed 80 percent, a 4percent extract 90 percent, and a 5-percent extract 100 percent. The same extracts of the stem bark killed 40, 70, and 100 percent, respectively. Alcoholic extracts of the stem bark, seeds, leaves, and root bark were tested against caterpillars, Prodenia litura (F.), Hypsa ficus (F.), Acheae janata (L.), Euproctis fraterna (Moore), Plutela maculipennis (Curt.), and Crocidolomia binotalis Zeller. The 3- and 5-percent extracts of the seeds, leaves, and root bark were always efficient while those of the stem bark were sometimes efficient. Alcoholic extracts were also tested against nymphs of the mango hopper (Idiocerus sp.). A 5-percent extract of the leaves and of the root bark each killed 100 percent of them. Powdered seeds dusted on beetles, Callosobruohus chinensis (L.), killed 80 percent of them in 42 hours.-uttarudriah and Subramaniam (311).

This is one of three plants in Mysore. India, found to have grent insecticidal value. The seed contains th insecticidal principle.-Subramaniam (386).

Alcoholic extracts of the leaves, stems, roots, and 4ped from Ceylon were tested against the chrysanthemum aphid. The leaves had a measure of toxicity, the stems and roots were not toxic, but the






-18

seeds were pronouncedly toxic. In other tests, in which A. reticuleta and Derris elliptica (rotenone content 9 percent) were compared, the root of Derris was decidedly more toxic to bean aphids than any part of Annonai the root of Derris paralyzed 96 percent of the beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), tested, while the root of Annone paralyzed only 14.5 percent. An alcoholic extract of the seed was ineffective as a stomach poison or deterrent against larvae of a moth. An ether extract of the seed was much less toxic than nicotine to aphids, but it had a delayed action which is advantageous to a contact insecticide.--Tattersfiel and Potter (395).

Commer 1ewer.--More work should be done with the custardapple.

AONh NESCENS MLrt.

he seeds, either finely powdered or in the form of a decoction, were used as an insecticide.--Greshoff (170, p. 12).

The pulp was used as a fish poison and for killing noxious insects.-Dragendorff (121, p. 216).

ANNONA app.

The seeds of A. cherimolia, A. muricata, and A. squamosa were
used crushed to poison fish in rivers. The milky juice of the seeds was a remedy for scabies and was also used for destroying insect pests.-Scarone (353).

ANNONA SQUAMOSA L. Sugar-apple.

The seeds contain a highly acrid principle said to be fatal to
insects, for which purpose the natives in India used them. The dried immature fruit was used for washing the hair to destroy vermin.--Murray (290, p. 72).

The seeds were used against head lice.--Greshoff (170, p. 11).

This species is cultivated in Brazil, and its leaves are used es an insecticide.--Rarcellos Fapundes (51).

An extract of the seeds mixed with kerosene was tested as a
mosquito larvicide, but poor results were obtained.--Wats and Bharucha (420).

Alcoholic extracts of the leaves, stems, and roots of this plant
from Ceylon were tested against the chrysanthemum aphid. The stems had no toxicity, the roots a slight toxicity, but the leaves had a high toxicity.--Tattersfield and Potter (395).






-19

Comments by reviewer.--Since the leaves appear to have a high
toxicity, more work should be done testing then and the seeds against a number off insect.

ARTABOTRYS SUAVEX)LENS Blumie.

Artabotrine is one of three ~laod sitdfrom the bark of
this species. Some of this alaliddisolved i--- alcohol was sprayed on aphids, MaooRphr.elI 8.Cb~ni, :t was not toxic*--Tatutersfield





Par 7 tr 1ne osre 64. 7- moch eollent were found to
be7 of'if no 1 -iowr!>Lp.

X~LYT~h 79' 7 11.> "lck } hraSnmr '~rrj ai~


Oric t


~xt~c'z ~e ~ts il9 tis ~ t froi i~ er ~cz oxE t
the eon ph~i-~->terfiel andirniigha L












01ACA





-20

CARUM BULBOCASTANUM (L.) Koch.

This plant was used in India to protect clothes and skins against the ravages of insects.--Kirtikar and Basu (230, v. 1, p. 622).

CARUM CARVI L. Caraway.

Oil of caraway was one of the best cures for scaly leg of poultry. It was applied in an ointment made of 1 part of the oil to 5 parts of white vaseline. This ointment should be rubbed into the leg and foot every few days until signs of the disease disappear.--Pearl and coworkers (304, p. 222).

Carvacrol was tested against the body louse. A piece of cloth
impregnated with the oil was kept for observation in a vial with lice on it. All of them were dead within 12 hours.--Moore and Hirschfelder (285, p. 55).

Oil of caraway was sometimes slightly attractive but u-'lly fairly repellent to the oriental cockroach.--Cole (101).

Acetone extracts of the seed killed 90 percent of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188).

CICUTA MACULATA L. Spotted water hemlock.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

CONIUM MACULATUM L. Poison hemlock,

The action of coniine on the common blowfly was determined. Droplets of coniine were applied to various parts of blowflies, which within a minute showed signs of external irritation there were rapid motions of the wings, and quick and aimless movements of the legs. The wings, as a rule, became completely paralyzed before the legs, and death occurred within 10 minutes to 2 hours.--Blyth and Blyth (64, p. 270).

Spray solutions of coniine hydrochloride were tested against the bean aphid. The minimum concentration required to kill about 95 percent of the aphids was greater than 0.5 gm. per 100 cc., while that of nicotine sulfate was 0.009 gm.--PRichardson and Smith (322).

When coniine was tested as a contact poison, 1.0- and 0.75-percent solutions killed 90 and 60 percent, respectively,of bean aphids.-Tattersfield and coworkers (393).

In laboratory tests coniine hydrobromide used as a dust killed only 25 percent of the codling moth lrvse tested.--McAlister and Van Leeuwen (249).






-21

To prepare an extract of poison hemlock use 100 parts by weight of fresh leaves with flowers and small stalks cut into small pieces and mixed with 5 or 6 parts of water and ground in a mortar; press out the pulp and again mix with 15 parts of water; again grind and press out, adding the second liquid to the first. The extract was found effective against varioud insects.--Gomilevsky (164).

The powdered fruit was ineffective aninst fly larvae.--Cook and Hutchison (103, p. 4).

Extracts from poison hemlock were not repellent to the Japanuee beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

Coniine is added to a drenching solution for hides to serve as a mothproofing agent (Ger. patent 595,849) .--Roark and Busbey (346, p. 20).

Comments by reviewer.--Since coniine is closely related to nicotine, more work on this alkaloid should be done so that the results
can be compared with those obtained with nicotine.

CORIANDRUM SATIVUM L. Coriander.

Oil of coriander was one of the best repellents tested against screwworms.--Parman and coworkers (302).

Oil of coriander, applied in 2-percent emulsion sprays, killed from 51 to 80 percent of the red spiders and cotton aphids tested within 24 hours.--Kayumov (226).

CUMINUM CYIINUM L. Synonym: C. odorum Salisb. Cumin.

Oil of cumin exhibited good repellency against screwworms for
1 or 2 days only.--Parman and coworkers (302).

It was moderately repellent to the oriental cockroach.--Cole (101).

DAUCUS CAROTA L. Common carrot.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

FERULA ASSAFOETIDA L. Asafetida.

Asafetida was ineffective against the tarnished plant bug.-Crosby and Leonard (108).

In laboratory tests tincture of asafetida was very strongly repellent to the cornfield ant.--Forbes (142, p. 465).






-22

Asafetida was stored with grain hich was kept in closed receptacles, but the grain was not protected against the weevil Sitophilus oryza
(L.).--Fletcher and Ghosh (140, pp. 733-755).

Asafetida (10 percent) had no perceptible effect on the caterpillars of Prodenia litura (F.).--DeBussy (76).

Asafetida, 1 ounoe per marla, did not reduce the white ant attacks on sugarcane in India, but much larger doses did 6liPhtly reduce the attacks on wheat.--Chopra (97).

An alcoholic solution of asafetida was of no vrlue as a repellent
to screwworms.--Parman and coworkers (302).
Comments by reviewer.--It is not worth while to spend more time on asefetida as an insecticide.

F'RUTLA FOETIDA Regel. Thing.

Extracts used as sprays apinst adult mosquitoes were much inferior to the standard mosquitocide.--~1ts and Sinth (421).

FERULA GALBAIFLUA Boiss. and Buhse

Of 20 gums tested with 4 oils to find stable emulsifiers, galbanum Indian gum was found to be the best. Only 0.5 percent of it was sufficient to produce a solid emulsion which remained stable for several weeks without the addition of a preservative.--Ginsburg (158). [This is probably not correctly classified, and amber gum, which was not classified, was found to be unstable.J

FOENICUJLU VULGARE Mill. Common fennel.

Oil of fennel exhibited good repellent action against screwworms for 1 or 2 days only.--Parman and coworkers (302).

Oil of fennel was attractive to the oriental cockroach in 21 counts and repellent in 54 counts.--Cole (101).

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

GAPCINIA iAlbURYI Hook. f.

nri 8s runs were tested with oils to find a stable emulsifier. oni -mboe arun wns one of the four efficient rums used. [This
may not be corre-tly clAssified.j--Ginsbure (IF). 'CTNT4 .',O-LLA DT)esr.

Extracts used as sprays nonPinst adult mosquitoes were much inferior to the standard mosquitocide.--17ats and Singh (421).







-23

IMPERATORi OS~ RUTHIUM L. Master wort.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

OENANTHE CROCATA L.

Alcoholic extracts of the roots were effective against larvae of Pieris brassicae (L.). This plant, which is common in England, contains a principle toxic to insects.-Tutin (403). PASTINACA SATIVA L. Parsnip.

Extracts from parsnip were not repellent to tho Japanese beetle.-Metzger and Grant (277).

PETROSELINUM CRISPUM (Mill.) Nym.

Oil of parsley was moderately repellent to the oriental cockroach.--Cole (101).

PIMPINELLA 4NISUM L. Anise.

In laboratory tests anise oil was very strongly repellent to colonies of the cornfield ant.--Forbes (142, p. 465).

Anise oil, sprayed in pure form or dilutgd with alcohol, was
used in Germany to kill lice on soldiers.--Frankel (143).

Anise oil was almost as effective as oil of bergamot against lice on soldiers.--Galewaky (150).

Anise oil in carbon tetrachloride was said to be among the most
promising chemical means of controllinr lice on humans.--Zucker (437).

Powdered anise seed was ineffective against roaches.--Scott and coworkers (361, p. 13).

Fructus anisi had no perceptible effect on the caterpillars of Prodenia litura (F.).--DeBussy (76).

Star-anise oil plus kaolin was one of the best repellents against screwworms. There was no emergence of thso flies from meat treated with this oil.--Parman and coworkers (30200.

Extracts from anise were not repell"-t to the Japanese beetle.-Metzger end Grant (277).

Clothing treated with a sopy er 1sion of anise oil will protect the wearer from the stings of rnpts ('er. intent 557,760) .--Roprk and Busbey (346, p. 4).






-24

PT 1'PTFLLA SAkXTF-Pkr L. Pinpiriella.

P~xtracts from the dry rhizomes and roots were more or less effective repellents against the Japanese beetle*--Metzger end Grant (277). PRANGOS PABULURIA Lindi.

Water in which the plant was steeped destroyed snails, and its
roots were said to be a valuable remedy for Itch*-Murray (290, p. 201).

In India the root was considered a valuable external application for Itch and a decoctionof the fruit was employed as a wash to cure "rot" in sheep*--WVatt (422, v. 6, pt. 1, p. 335). STLTM SUAVE Walt. Water parsnip.

_-,rpcts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle*--Metzger and
rt(277).

APOCYNA.CPAE
(Dogbane Family)

ACOK.UThRA LONGIFLORA Stapf.

This plant was used as an arrow poison in East Africa, but extracts of the le~kves and stems had only a very slight effect on citrus aphids*-Worsley (431).9

AP0CYNU k"~ROSAIYVLT~~L

aFOCYNTJht 1A71RNI.! L. Dogbane.

Ebctrects from these plants were not repellent to the Japanese beetleo--Metzger and Grant (277), CARISSA CARAINDAS Lo Synonym: C. congesta WIight*

In India this plant was used to keep off flies, and when pounded with lime juice and camphor as a remedy for itch*--Watt (422, v. 2, P. 165)

IIAPLOPHYTON CIMICIDUA A. DC. Cucaracha herb* Cockroach plant*

This plant is listed as-an insecticide,--Greshoff (170, p. 107).

reonsiderable success was had in poisoning Gulex, -Anopheles, varThus7 Spec(ies -7 TnstrypetAs, And other Diptera, by using the juice
~vndinfui _n f the leaves or of the entire plants, the macerated bnRrk, Find teconcentrnted alcoholic extrncte--Yexico Cornision de liurtisitol i.,i, A -ricola (27'8)#






-25

This plant was reported to be used as an insecticide and s
medicine by the natives of Mexico, who gathered it in the wid state and sold it at the local markets for a few centavos a bundle.--Roark (332, p. 24).

This plant has bsen used in Mexico since time imrer ; 'or killing cockroaches, flies, nosquitoes, l1es, lice. no < In the campaign against the Mexican fruitfly in 1900, e>:ixt plant were found effective against that insect end mrnir ;ze sprayed w-ith it. In recent tests a spro mentainia .1 leaves of a good sample per 100 c, was toxic to fruitfliess :'one samples, however, were nontoxic or only slightly toxic to the flies.-Pluimer (306).
Comments by reviewer.--This plant is apparently the only one in the family Apocynaceae that is worth while as an insecticide.

HOLORRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall.

Green vegetable matter decaying in water sometimes pollutes the
water and thus helps to control mosquitoes. In running water, apparently not every plant is suitable. One of the best so far found in India is the above species, which contains several alkaloids.--Hacket and coworkers (175, p. 1028).

NERIUM INDICUM Mill. Synonym: N. odorum Soland. Sweet oleander.

Kaner.

Water extracts, macerated juices, and dusts of kaner leaves were tested in India against citrus psyllas, aphids, lucerne weevil grubs, and adult beetles (Aulacophora abdominalis). The extract of its roots appeared to be more poisonous than that of the leaves. In these preliminary tests this material was less effective than tobacco.-Chopra (97, pp. 106, 109).

This plant is widely distributed in India. A 5-percent alcoholic extract of the leaves caused the following mortalities of caterpillars: 80 percent of Prodenia litura (F.), Buproctis fraterna (Moore), and Pericallia ricini (F.); and 70 percent of Crocidolomia binotalis fell --uttarudriah and Subramanian (312).

NERIUM OLEANDER L. Common oleander.

The bark was frequently used for the destruction of rats and insects.--Greshoff (170, p. 105).

The powder from the leaves and stems and a decoction from this
powder had no effect on aphids (Macrosiphum ap.).--Mclndoo and Sievers (259, p. 23).






_26

RURRA L. Synonyms: P. Peutifolin (Poire) Woodson; P, ncuminAta Roxbo Mexican fran.-ipanie

In India the juice mixed with sandalwood oil And camphor was employed as a cure for itch*-',Vatt (422, ve 6. pt* 10 p* 297)*

The sap mixed with coconut was used as a remedy for itch*Kirtikar and Basu. (230, v. 2, po 785)0 RAUVOLFIA OBSCURE K9 Soho RAUVOLFIA VOMITORIA Afz*

The Jat ex 'or A'-ded6otioh of the leavot was use(! in West Africa as a remedy fo r parasitic "skin diseases,',yaws, and for hair lice Dalziel (112),

STROPTANTHUS KOMBE 01liver. StrophRnthus*

)ctrscts were not repellent to the Japnese and
,Grant (277)0

TaVETIA PrICUVIANA (Pers*) K. Schum# Synonym: T. Jus-s'.
hts 'lafit-167 wid6lj4istributed, irf 'Th'diao- Al
7 p -racts
and water suspensions had no effect on caterpillars.-- -,--'riah and
Subramaniam* (312)

ExtrPrAe qp'Oli 6d Ps spr-ys etgn7inst adiilt' mo sqii -f- .7ucl in-ferior to the stpndprd' moqq1iitocide ,--Wat's P-ne

-AQUIPOLIAGEAE
(Honry I Mily)

ILEX OPACA Ait* American h ollyo

bftraots frbin the'Tresh''leav;es'were more or less o
the Japanetbi boet1ei-', M!Dtz-Or P,nd Grant (277).
2
I LEX PARAGUENSIS St, Hil, Para&FAY teRo

ExtrRets from the dry leaves showed some'repellency to the Japanese beetle*--Metzger and Grant (277)* ILEX VERTICHLATA (Lo) A* Gray. Common winterberryo

ExtrActs were not repellent to the Japanese beetle*--Metz-er end Grant (277).





--27

ARACEAE
(Arum Family)


ACORUS CALAEUS L. Synonym: Calamus aromaticus Gueldenst. Calamus.

Sweetflaa.
The leaves were said to be noxious to insects.--Drury (122, p. 14).

In India the sweetflee was used by the natives chiefly for protecting woolen ond flannel clothing from insects.--Dalzell and Gibson
(111, sup. p. 96).

In India the aromatic rhizome was held in high esteem as an
insectifuge, especially for fleas and moths. An infusion of the roots sprinkled in infested places also drove away vermin. The rhizome was used to keep moths from woolen goods and fleas from rooms.--Watt (422, v. 1, pp. 99-101).

In Malaya end Java the roots were dried and made into powder,
which was scattered around fruit trees to protect them against ants.Ridley (324)1 Krausse (234, p. 158).

The aromatic rhizome was held in high esteem as an insecticide and insectifuge.--Kirtikar and Basu (230, v. 2, pp. 1350-1352).

Paper is rendered insect proof by adding a decoction of sweetflag to the pulp during the process of manufacture. Fabrics are also rendered insectproof with this preparation (Brit. patent 13,071).-Roark (333, p. 6).

Extracts of sweetflag were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.-Metzger and Grant (277).

ACORUS GRAPWIEUS Soland.

In India the roots were started to be used as an insecticide and insectifuge.--Chopre and EAdhwar (98).

AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPAVULATUS (Roxb.) Blume.

As the flower stalk matures it emits an odor of putrid flesh,
inviting hordes of bluebottle and other large flies, which cover the whole mass with their eggs; and the subsequent maggots, which thickly beset it for the next 4 or 5 days, render the flower stalk as disgusting to the eye and nose as carrion.--Kirtikar and Basu (230, v. 2, p. 1337).

ARISAEXA DRACONTIUM (L.) Schott. Synonyms Arum dracontium L.

Indian turnip. Dragonroot.

The corm is used to kill insects.--Pamel (299, p. 103).






-28

ARISAEAA JAPONICUM Blume*

The roots are used in Japan as an insects .-.rs (171,
p. 19).

ARISAEMA SPECIOSUM M~arto

In India this plqnt was considered to be -tici --Chopra
and TRadh'w~r (98).

AIRTSAWA TORTITOSUM (Wyall,) Schott*

The roots are used as an insecticide*--Greshof'f (170, p. 157).

The species was known in India to have insecticidal or repelling properties*--Roark (332, p. 3). ARISAW~A TRIPHYLLUM (L.) Schott. Jack-in-the-pulpit.

Extracts from this plant were not repellent to the Japanese boetle*--Metzger and Grant (277). CALADIUM BICOLOR (Alt.) Vent.

The powdered leaves were used as an insecticide*--Greshoff (170s p. 158).

T)RACUWCULUS VULGARIS Schott. Synonym: Arum, dracunculus Le

This plant bears a large flower which exhales an odor so fetid and carrion-like that blowflies, carrion flies, and other slvuzhterhouse frequenters flock to it to deposit their egrs*--Bogert (65, p. 361). LAGEN~ANDRA OVATA (L.) Thwe Synonym: Lo toxicaria Dalzo

This is an insecticidal plant in Irdin.--Choprs ernO T~~hwsr (98).

ORONTTTTI AQITATICUTM L. flVfen club. PELTANT)PA VIRGINICA (L.) Kunth. Virginia arrow-arumo

Extracts from these plants were not repellent to the Jqpanese beetlo.--LMetzger and Grant (277). PISTIA STRATI0THS Lo Waterlettuceo

In India this plant was reported to destroy the bugs that infested a jil.--Kirtikar and BeAu (230, v. 2, p. 1331). RE!1WJSATIA VTVIPARA (Loddo) Scott* Synonym: Arum vivipnfllm Roxb.

The root was made into an ointment with turmeric, and used as a remedy for the itch.--Kirtikar and Resu (230, vo 2, p. 1342).





-29

SAUROMATUM GUTTATUM Schott. Synonym: Arum venosum Ait.

This plant was observed during its blooming period to attract in
2 days more than 100 flies, which were found dead in the bottom of the
flowers.--Anonymous (15).

SYMPLOCARPUS FOETIDUS (L.) Nutt. Synonym: Spathyema foetida (L.) Ref.

Skunkcabbage.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--L.etzger and Grant (277).
Acetone extracts of the roots killed 65 percent of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188).

SYNAND.ROSPADIX VEPrITOXICJS Engl.

The bulbs served for the destruction of injurious insects.Greshoff (170, p. 158).

ARALIACEAE
(Ginseng Family)

ARALIA HISPIDA Vent. Bristly aralia. ARALIA RACEMOSA L. American spikenard.

Extracts from these plants were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277). ARALIA NUDICAULIS L. American sarsaparilla.

Acetone extracts of the roots killed only 45 percent of the mosquito larvae tested.--H-artzell and Wilcoxon (188). HEDERA HELIX L. englishh ivy.

In England it was recommended that a solution of ivy be pu::,ed with a garden engine upon the caterpillars of the ermine moth.--?. (132, p. 179).

In England extracts of ivy were tested eAgainst ceterpillers.
A 5-percent spray solution made from a commercial extract killed 43 percent of the six species tested within 7 days, And a 1-percent solution killed only 13 percent of four of these species. In other tests with decoctions of ivy leaves, fairly rood results were obtained but not sufficiently so to render them preferable to various other insecticides.--Duke of Bedford and Pickering (53, pp. 83-94).




-30

IiEDERA spp.

In India ivy leaves have,, from remote antiquity, been reputed
to Possess remedial virtues, especially as a dressir.F for ulcers and to destroy vermin on the body*--'Jatt (422. v. 1, p& 289).

In India a decoction of ivy leaves wes used to kill lice.-Chopra Pnd Badhwar (98).

ART STOLOCHIACEAE
(Birthwort Family)

.ARIST0LOCHIA PP!CTE!1TA Retz*

In idin the leaves, freshly bruised and mixcd with castor oil, were considered a valuable remedy in obstinate cases of itch. The natives squeezed th-e juice into wounds to kill worms.--Drury (122,
p. ;o) .

~RTSTOLO CHTA PPA-SILIPYhSTS Paest*

PPIST0L0CTIA COPT-TT7A Yast.o

b'jTO0P1TTT? 7rLPATS J~St.

The insects visiting these three species were killed*-Greshoff (170, p. 131).

A RI STOLOCHI.. GRA.NDTFLOE.A Sw.

This species was used by certain Indian tribes for poisoning fish. The bark and seeds were mnacerated or an infusion wtas made which was very effective against cabbage butterflieso-Scnrone (353).

ARISTOLOCII INPIC L.

This species is found in the TAiigplore district of India* Al-. coholic extrRcts killed 100 percent of' the follo-winr ciaterpillers: Frodenia litura (F.), 9 5-percent extract of the ler'ves; Euproctis
fretrm~ Moor), 3-percent extract of leaves, sterns, or fruit.P 20-percent water suspension of the powdered leaves enid stems killed only 46 percent of the nymphs of the rrwnro hopper (Idiocerus sp.).--Putttarudriah endh SubremeniRrn (311).

ARI..S'ICLAtIA ,A.XILA L.

This plpnt wps used as a fish poison. "lie bark end seeds were mascerpte or Pn infusion vws inade which -Ts -rerv e'~frctive aP-Pirst cpl14jre hutterf'lins.--"Scnrone (3F3 )








kRISTOLOCTITA 1RO7TMN'A L. TRou 1roc --ted 1-rthwort,

In India the roots were- r th>- rtives in the treatment of
itch arid lice*--Watt (422, v. .)

ARISTOLOCIIIA SHRPLN'T!ARIA LO VisnP npkeroot.

Extreacts were not rep&en to the >-rpanese beetle*--Yetzger and Grant (277).

ASARUII CAK'NAP!L2:SE Lo CaL&6 snekeroot. Wild ginger.

This plant was of no vF1e s a repellent or attretant to screwworms.--Parlnan and coworker'-30)

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetl..--Metzger and Grant (277).

Yater extracts of the buttons killed only 10 percent of the mosquito larvae tested*-Hartzell end Wilcoxon. (188).

AS CLi:1 I A1.AC ;LAi
(ilkweea Famnily)

ASCLEPIAS CT-ASSAVICA L. T3loodf lower.

The Indians of southern 1exico were reported-to h~ve svept the floors end wells of their huts with this pl~nt to keep Piwry vermin, especially fleas*--Amonynous (13).

This milkweed wes reported to check the spread of' fleas in houses*Bergey (56).

Alcoholic extracts of the stems Find roots of this species, called Oconaii," fr in ?_ritish Guiana~, were ineffective against the bean aphid, but an extract of the flowers hed a slight insecticidal nction.-Tpttersfield and coworkers (393). ASCLEPIAS INCfiR1NATA L, var. of A. DULCHRlA (Ehrh.) Pers. ASCLEPIAS SYRIACA L, Milkweed.

Extracts from these plants were not repellent to the Japanese beetle*-Yetzger and Grant (27?). ASCL2FPrAS TUBEPOSk L. Butterflyweed.

An infusion of the roots had a considerable effect on fly larveae, but it was not efficient.--Cock and iiutchi,.-on (103, p. 14').





-32

Extracts of the roots killt-d rono o, xth !s!quito larvae tested.Hartzell and Wilcoxon (~)

CPLOTROPTS GIGANTp (ili,)_, r

This plant wtssd as an insect deterrni nId~ A 5-percent
alcoholic extr _t of he-- 11 e~ -. ol nl. ..-r~ of the caterpillars of Plutell11A mne c_7ip~ 'Curt.) --Putt rniah and Subrananian (311).

GAU)hi-OPIs PP(EA Ak Iwowot

4W r oxt-ra, P e~e ucs rId dustF4s of the leaves were
tesed in Th3 1 -, i~ cTru rslP s, F pYis n lucerne weevil
~'rus, ht wee i~ffiient--2hpr~(97,p

the leaves weeused in Seneerl to destroy fowl lice.--Dalziel (.112)o

A spray consistiri- of R decoction of the flowers, leaves, and twigs of this plant with soap killed 86 percent of the grapevine thrips (TRhipiphorothrips cruentstus Hood) in India, but without soap not more than 25 percent. Spraying with tobacco decoction And nicotine sulfate, both with soap, gave a mortality of about 98 percent.-Roihnan and Bhardwaj (314).

CYNANCHMAh ARNOTTTANUM Wight.,

This plant was used as an insecticide in India*-Chopra and Badhwar (98).,

CYNANCHUM 1.MACRORHTZON Carr*

The blossoms of this plant contain a viscous substance in w hich
all visitinF' insects are unable to extricpte therselves.--Carriere (79).

OXYSTE;LA ,,S UDrIJ 'k (I,. f.) R. Br. ,Synonym: Asciepiss roses, Roxb.

T.he nilky sqp in combination with turpentine was said to be a veluanble cure for itch in Sind, Indip.-- 'urrsy (?90, p. 161).

In Sir(' the milky ssp is used as P wpash for ulcers.--Kirtikar Pnd Pss (230, v. 2, p. 910).

$M~CST~Tp BlTSTIGMA Wight &- Arn. Synonym: Asclepias acids, Roxbe

In India water passed through a bundle of these plants and a bag Of salt is used to extirpate white ants from a, field*--Kirtikar and
~&U(230, v. 2, p. 823).





-33

TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA (Willd.) W. & A.

This plant is widely distributed in India. A 5-percent alcoholic extract of the whole plant killed only 50 percent of the caterpillars of Achaea jankta (L.), but a 10-percent extract killed 100 percent. A 20-pernt water suspension of the powdered whole plant killed only 40 percent of the nymphs of mango hoppers (Idiocerus sp.).-Puttarudriah and Subramanism (311).

TYLOPHORA FASCICULATA Ham.

This plant was used in southern Konkan (near Bombay) as a poison for rats and other vermin.--Watt (422, v. 6, pt. 4, p. 206).

Comments-by reviewer.--The milkweed family does not seem to be a promising one in which to find efficient insecticides.
ASTERACEAE
(Thistle or Aster Family)

ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM L. Common yarrow.

A powder and a decoction had no effect on aphids.-Molndoo and Sievers (269, p. 21).
Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese betle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

ACHILLEA NOBILIS L. Camphor yarrow.

The flower heads were reported to have insecticidal properties.-Gieseler (155).

YJM sp. Ageratum.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA L. Synonyms A. elatior L. Ragweed.

An alcoholic extract or a decoction had no effect-on cotton
caterpillars.--Riley ( 525, p. 184).

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

AMBROSIA TRIFIDA L. Great ragweed.

A decoction, an infusion, or an alcoholic extract had no effect on cotton oaterpillars.--Riley (325, p. 184).





-34

ANACYCLUS PYRETHRUM (L.) D.C. Pellitory. ANTENNARIA spp. Tassytoes.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle--Metsger eand Grant (277).

ANTHEIIS ARVENSIS L. Corn camomile.

The flowers were entirely inactive against flies.-Kalbruner (224).

The odor of this plant drove away mice and insects--Greshoff (171, P. 157).

ANTHEMIS ARVENSIS L. Camomile.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metager and Grant (277).

ANTHEMIS COTA L.

The flower heads killed the dog flea, although very slowly, but had no practical effect on flies and ants.--PFasserini (303, p. 42)9 ANTHEMIS COTULA L. Synonym: Maruta cotula D.C. Mayweed.

In Russia the powdered flower heads were very effective against bedbugs, fleas, and flies, but ineffective against grain worms end caterpillarse--Anonymous (1).
A decoction of the leaves was said to destroy all species of insects .--Garrigues (152).

The flowers were entirely inactive against flies.--Kalbruner (224).

ANTHEMIS NOBILIS L. Synonym: Chamosilla nobilis Godr. Common osamoilee

The flower heads were reported to have inseotioidal properties.Gieseler (155).

The flowers were entirely inactive against flies.eo--Kalbruner (224).

Camomile was ineffective against fly larvae.--Cook and Hutchison (1 03, p. 4).

ANTHEMIS app.

Smoke from the burning dried flowers of camomile stunned mosquitoes in 4 minutes end killed them in 36 hours, while smoke from firewood stunned mosquitoes in 5 to 7 minutes and killed them in 12 to 48 hours.Celli and Casagrandi (82, p. 96).





-35

Alcoholic extracts of the flowers, leaves, end stems of crmomile showed no significant toxicity to the been aphid.--Tpttersfield and coworkers (393).

ANTHEMIS TINCTORIA L. Yellow camomile.

The flowers were entirely inactive against flies.--Kalbruner (224).

The flowers were of no practical use against flies and ants, but they did kill the dog flea slowly.--Passerini (303, p. 42). ARCTIUM MINUS Bernh. Common burdock.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger end
Grant (277).

Acetone extracts of the roots killed only 5 percent of the mosquito irvae te -.-Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188). ARNICA AL,-ii
Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger aend Grant (277).

ARTE ISIA ABROTANUM L. Southernwood.

Extracts of the whole plant killed none of the mosquito larvae
tested.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188). ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM L. Synonym: Absinthium vulgare Lam. Common

wormwood. Absinthium.

Decoctions were recommended in France against leaf-eating caterpillars on fruit trees.--L'esne (244, p. 511).

The odor of absinthium killed mosquitoes in 6 to 24 hours.--Celli
and Casegrandi (82, p. 95).

In Siberia a decoction made from young wormwood was used as a cheap remedy for insects. A mixture containing 27 gallons of this decoction, 10 pounds of green soap or rye paste, and 27 wore gallons of water, and one containing 27 gallons of decoction, 54 gallons of water, 27 gallons of poultry dung dissolved in water and 10 pounds of paste of molasses were effective as sprays against aphids and caterpillars.--Stuptchenko (376).





-36

Various dilutions of extracts had only R slight effect on the insects tested*-Schreiber (6'and Corianinov h)

The powdered leaves had no effects on fly lar-vFe*--CoOk and Hutchison (103, p. 4).

Extracts killed only 5 to 15 percent of the mosquito larvae tested*--Hartzell Arnd Iffilcoxon (1893). kPTEITSTA T)PACPTC'JLOIDES Pursh,

on extract waS not repellent to Japanese beetles.--retzger and Grant (277).

ARTEMIS IA PAUCI FLORA Leva~nt worms eed.

The oil was moderately repellent to the oriental cockroachCole (101). CIC this oil was the American oil of wormseed, it was derived from Chenopodium sxbrosioides *I

Santonin (100 pepmi.), which is derived from this species, killed only 10 percent of the mosquito larvae tested*-iartzell and Wilcoxon (OW')

ARTJOVIISIA SACRiORUII Ledeb. Russian tarragon.

Acetone extracts of' the leaves and stems killed only 15 percent of the mosquito larvae testedo-THtrtzell and 1ilcoxon (188). ARI32JISIA TRIEZTATA Nutt* Se~ebrush*

waster extracts slowly killed honeybees, but had no effect on
silk-worms, webworns, potato beetle lervpe, rose aphids, and nasturtium Pphids#--!M.clndoo and Sievers (259, p. 21). .kP'r7-h STtA TTLGATS L. Mupwort.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japr'nese heoetle.e1Tletzrer and GrAnt (27 7).

According to a Japanese patent, mugwort is dried in the shade, powdered, treated with kerosene, cresol, soap and menthol oil, then with water and mineral cutting oil,, and filtered--Nke=i (291). ASTMi LINOSYRIS (L.) Bernho

DSTM TRIFOLIU11 L,

The flowers were inactive against flies*--Passerini (303).










Extracts from the fresh 1' ,oor er er r less
repellent to the Jappnese ~~ r&t(7)

ASTERAI T Z Lr

FExtrpcts vrere niot re1etto the Japrneso beetle--Mez -r -,nd Grant (277).

ATRACTYLIS 07ATPA Thunberg.

This I lrnt is ised in China for furni ating g-rain storeso--Scarone (353).
PA(CC.A.RIO FLGiIUUnbA -i. b. K. U~quitaue

Niquivsali wps used in Venezuela for killing insectse-Roark (332, p. 31). (T\iquivnu may not be identical with niquitpu.J

C~'Sk S07O77T0DFS Gray. 'Ppechpris.

Acetone extracts of the seeds killed none of the mosquito larvae
tested*--Hprtzell and Wilcoxon (181). IAILEYA MULTIRADIPTA Tiary. & Gray. Baileyao

The acetone and water extracts of the flowers killed none of the mosquito larvae tested*--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (183).

'9LM5hA AURITA DC, Pleadura.

This phent h~s beer. suggested for drivir,7 awey insects in the Gold Coastfc, and as possible so'.,rce of ins."ot pox'der.--Trrvire (213). BLUXEA LACaA (Roxi,) DC* Nuinurdi.

The natives of Konan, near Bombay,, used this plant to drive awey fleat Pmd other insects* It was suggested as a possible source of an insect powder.--.7att (422, ye 1, pp. 459-4630)o BRAUiIl sp. (probably echinacea).,

Acetone extracts of the root (N#Fo) of this plant killed 1003 percent of t-he mosquito larvae tested. A 0.2-percent concentration of the roots killed 49 and 38 percent of the been aphids tested.--Tiartzell rind Wilcoxon (188).

CALLILEFIS LAITREOLA, PC.

The powdered roots were used as an insecticide in Natal*--Greshoff (171, p. 155).








CARTHAMtTS TINCTORIUS Lo Safflower.

In Bengal the oil was considered to be a valuable remedy for itch.-Kirtikar and Bau (230, v. 1, p. 717). CENTIP1&DA ORBICULARIS, Lour*

This species was said to be used in Sind, India, as an insecticide*-Roark (332, p. S)e

CHRYSATE)UM ACHILLEAB L. Synonym: Py-rethrumn achillea O

The opened flower heads had some effect on flies, fleas, and Ats; they were not much inferior to those of C. cinerariaefoliulL.--Passerini (303).

CHRYSAKTHM1h CAIJCASICUjM (WRilld.) Pers.

Persian insect powder was reported to be made from this species*U. S. Commissioner of Patents (407).

CHRYS9TTHWATMh CINEPAPI AEFOLIUM1 (Trev.) Vis. Synonym: Fyrethrun cinerariaefoliu] Trevt. Dalmatian insect flowers*

CIIRYSANTHEJV COCCINEUM Willde Synonyms: C. roseum Adam, Pyrethrum

carrieum Bieb. Persian insect flowers.

These two species and C, marschallii were recognized by the
Insecticide and Fungicide Bard of the United States Department of Agriculture in 1911 as sources of genuine Epyrethrum) insect powder.McDonnell and coworkers (251).

The literature on pyrethrum as an insecticide is too extensive to include here.,

C1RYSANTHWUM CORONARIMJh L, Crown daisy.

The flowers were entirely inactive against flies.-111elbruner (224). CHRYSA1:T.hLU!,j! CORY1kB0SUk L. Synonym: Pyrethiun corymibosum Scope

The flowers were feebly benumbing to flies*--Kalbruner (224).

A powder MAde from the opened and unopened flower heads, dried in the sun, was slightly less Active than penuine insect powder R-Rinst Ants rind flies.--Pohner (66).

The opened flower hends were not of muich v~lue against flies, or fleas, and Rnts.--Passerini (303).








II YSNTHWTTM Ml 'JTFZ3C' 14S L. Marguerit-.

The flowe. rs could ordinprilyj beaie for ~eieinsect
p owd er ,- 1-, (: rr ( 2 42).

__tricts of the leaves and bark fi'romUa were niot toxic to the bean -'*i3--'_7ttersIfield and (imingh (%I) C~fRYSANTHPI'TYM TNTITh L. Mother chrysrnnthemume

The open and closed flower heads and the leaves of this species were entirely inactive against the insects tosted.--Passerini (303). CHikYSVAIT {11 LEJIIHL riL: Lo Synonym: Loucanthemum vul ,ar Lain.

Oxeye Daisy.

The flowers were entirely inactive R79inst flies.--Kelbruner (224).

The powder, w~ter extract, and alcoholic extract from the flower hea'ls had no effect on cotton caterpilln'rs.--Piley (32 5, po 180).
This sp ecies had no effect on fly larvae.--Cook and coworkers (104, p.21).0

The powder -rdI hot water extract fror the flower heads had no
effect on Silkworms, webworms, potato beetle larvae, and rose aphids*-Mclndoo and Sievers (2599, p. 22).

Rtre~ctwer not repellent to the Japanese beetleo--!-etzger and Grant (271).

Pyrethrins were not found in the flowers, hence their worthlessness as an insecticidle,--Uo S# Bureau of Entonolory and PlPant Quarpntine (405).

The oxeye daisy was found to yield an oleoresin similar to thet of pyrethrum, which, however, was found to contain no pyrethrins anA was nontoxic to flies.--Shepard (363, p. 269).

~-~riZ .A$CUALII Aschers. Synonym: Pyrethrumn roseum Bieb.

w-s3ian insect flowers.

s one of the three species front -hchenuine insect powder
ie(see C. cinerariaefolium and C,. coccineuiii) .--1rcTonnell !ond .,irkers (25T)._ _11YSANTUHTM !.YCONIS L.

The flower heads killed dog fleas, although very slowly.-1Passerini (303).





-40

CHRYSANTHEMUM PARTHENIUM (L.) Pers. Synonyms: Matricaria parthenium

., Pyrethrum parthenium J. E. Smith. Feverfew.

The dried, fresh flowers had an effect on roaches similar to that of genuine insect powder.--Glover (163, p. 133).

The flowers had a benumbing effect on flies, acting within 1 or 2 hours.--Kalbruner (224).

The flower heads were not effective against the insects tested.- sserini (303).

Alcoholic extracts were not significantly toxic to the bean aphid.-Tattersfield and coworkers (3935).

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and ,rant (277).

CHRYSANTHIRT SEGETU L. Synonym: Pyrethrum seretum Moench. Corn

marigold.

This plant was used in Greece and was as effective as Persian insect powder, particularly as a fumigant.--Landerer (241). CHRYSANTHEMUM spp. Cultivated chrysanthemums. CHRYSOPSIS MARIANA (L.) Nutt* Golden Aster. CICHORIUM INTYBUS L. Chioory.

Extracts from these plants were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277). CLIBADIUM SURINAMENSE. L.

The powder had practically no effect on silkworms.--Mclndoo and Sievers (259, p. 22).

CLIBADIUM SYLVESTRE (Aubl.) Baill. Synonym: C. vargesii. Nivrai.

Extracts of the leaves and stems of this fish-poison plant from Antigua were nontoxic to the bean aphid.--Tattersfield and Gimingham (391) .

CNICUS BENEDICTJS L. Blessed thistle.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle. Metzger and TGrnt (277).





-41

Water extracts of the whole plant killed only 35 percent of the mosquito larvae tested.-Hartzell and Wilooxon (188). COREOPSIS GRANDIFLORA Hogg* Big coreopsis.

bxtracts from the entire plant were repellent to the Japanese beetle*--Metzger and Grant (277)o

ECHINACEA PALLIPA (Nutt*) Britton* Hedgehog-coneflower.

'-tracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle*--Metzger and Grant (277).

ECHINOPS ECHINAflJS Roxb.

The roots are pounded and applied to the hair to destroy lice,
and the powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy meggots#-Greshoff (171, P. 160). ERECETITES HIERACIFOLIA (L.) Raf. Fireweed.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle,--Metzger and
Grant (277).

ERIGERON AN~NUUS (Le) Pere. Daisy fleabane* EIIGERON CA1NADENSIS L. Horseweed. MIGERON PULCEELLUS Michx* Poor-robins-plantain.

Extracts of the daisy fleabane and poor-robins-plantain were
not repellent to the Japanese beetle, but extracts of the fresh leaves and heads of the horseweed were repellente-Metzger and Grant (277).o EUtPAT0RIUM CAPILLIFOLIUM (Lam.) Small* Dogfennel*

This plant was used to keep off insects by strewing it on the floors of cellars and dairies*--Porcher (308)o EUPATORIUM COELF.TINUM Lo EUPATORIUM HYSSOPIFOLIUM Lo Thoroughwort. EUPATORIUM MACULATUM Le

EUPATORIUA PERFOLIATUM L, Synonyms E* connatun Michx. Bones et. EUPATORIUM PUBESCENS M~uhl*

Extracts of the leaves and flowers of E* hyssopifolium were repellent to the Japanese beetle while extracti_ of the other four species were not repellent*--IMetzger and Grant (277).





-42

The powdered leaves of E. perfoliatum seemed obnoxious to cotton
caterpillars, but an infusion had no effect on theme--Riley (325, p. 184).

Extracts of the leaves and stems of E. perfoliatum killed none of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188). GALINSOGA PARVIFLORA Cav. Galinsoga.

A powder and a decoction had no effect on aphids (Macrosiphum aU)-Mclndoo and Sievers (259, p. 22).
Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

GNAPHALIUM OBTUSIFOLIUM L. Sweet everlasting. GRINDELIA CAMPORUM Greene. Grindelia.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

GRINDELIA sp. (probably robusta Nutt.). Grindelia.

Acetone extracts of the whole plant (N. F.) killed 65 percent of the mosquito larvae testede--isartzell and Wilcoxon (188).

HELENIUM AUTUMNALE L. Sneezeweed. HELENIUM TEMUIFOLIUM Nutt. Bitterweed.

The decoction, infusion, and alcoholic extract did not affect cotton caterpillars.--Riley (325, p. 184).

The powdered heads of the bitterweed had only a aliht effect on silkworms, flies, and aphids, and the decoction had no effect whatever on aphids--Mclndoo and Sievers (259, p. 22). HELENIUM sp. Yerba de la pulga.

The Pan American Society of Tropical Research brought to this country nearly 3 million seeds of this plant. After extensive experiments the Society concluded that the plant possesses exceptional insect-repelling qualities, and not only contains but actually exudes sufficient quantities of rotenone to make a single growing specimen of the plant repellent to practically all forms of insect life in an area of some 15 to 20 square feet.--Anonymous (34). HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. Common sunflower.





-43

HELIOPSIS HELIANTHOIDES (L.) Sweet sunflower. Heliopsis.

Extracts from these plants were not repellent to the Japanese beetle*--Metzger and Grant (277). HIERACIUM PRATENSE Tausch. Hawkweed.

Extracts from the entire plant were repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277). INULA CONYZA DC. Synonyms: I. squarrosa Bernh., Conyza squarosa L.

Cinnamon root.
/
This plant is listed as an insecticide.--Lyons (248, p. 246). INULA HELENIUi L. Elecampane.

This species was said to protect clothing from the clothes moth.
Extracts of flowers collected in England did not kill the larvae of the birch mocha moth.--Tutin (403).

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

A strong concentration of acetone extracts of the roots killed 100 percent of the mosquito larvae tested, and a 0.2-percent concentration killed 34 and 40 percent of the bean aphids, while an 0.18percent concentration of steam-distilled roots killed 79 and 90 percent of these aphids*--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188). INULA VISCOSA (L.) Ait. Synonyms Erigeron viscosus L.

This was reported to be one of the most common plants in Greece. The fumes of the burning plant had the same stupefying effect on mosquitoes as those of Caucasian insect powder.--Lenderer (240).

The flower heads were inactive against flies.--Passerini (303). KRIGIA BIFLORA (Walt.) Blake. Cynthia. LACTUCA CANADENSIS L. Wild lettuce.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

LACTUCA sp. Lettuce.

A spray, made by boiling 20 to 30 minutes 1 pound of lettuce plants from which the seed head has berun to shoot in 2 gallons of water and strained, was recommended for er'dicatinP the cabbape moth and capbbape aphid in New South Wales.--Fuller (148).





-44

LACTUCA VIROSA L. Lactucarium.

A 10-percent concentration in flour had no perceptible effect on Prodenia litura (F.).--DeBussy (76). LEONTODON TUBEROSUS L. Synonym: Thrincip tuberose C.

The opened flowers And roots were inactive ns7ainst flies and dog fleas.--Passerini (303).

LIATRIS SPICATA (L.) Willd. Spike gayfeether.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

MATRICARIA CHAMOMILLA L. Synonymss Chrysanthemum chamomilla Bernh.,

Chamomilla vulgaris S. F. Gray. German false-camomile.

The flower heads had an action similar to that of Persian insect
powder*--Schenck (356).

The dried fresh flowers had an effect on the oriental cockroach somewhat similar to that of pyrethrum.--Glover (163, p. 133).

The powder was inert towards roaches.--Hirschsohn (194).

Camomile flowers were ineffective against bedbugs and roaches.-Scott, Abbott, and Dudley (361, pp. 5, 13).

The flowers kill lice, although very slowly, but have little effect on flies and ants.--Passerini (303).

Extracts from camomile were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.-Metzger and Grant (277).

Extracts from the leaves and stems killed only 5 percent of the mosquito larvae tested.--ertzell and Wilcoxon (188). MATRICARIA INODORA L. Scentless false camomile.

The flowers have a benumbing effect on flies, acting within 1 or
2 hours.--Kalbruner (224).

MATRICARIA MATRICARIOIDES (Less.) Porter. Synonyms Mo. discoidea DC.,

M. suaveolens Riichenau. Rayless false-camomile.

A decoction was ineffective against Malacosoma neustria (L.).Goriainov (166).





-45

NEUROLAENA LOBATA (L.) R. Br. Erb-a-picque.

This plant was employed in the West Indies in conjunction with the bark of the mamee tree (Mammea americana) to make a wash for animals infested with ticks.--Anonymous (24).

Extracts of the leaves and stems of this fish-poison plant from
AntiguA were slightly toxic to the bean aphid--Tattersfield and Gimingharm
(391).

FULICARIA DYSENTERICA (L.) Gaertn. Synonym: Inula dysenterica L.

Fleawort. Fleabane.

This plant was called an herb insecticide.--Lyons (248, p. 384).

The action of the flower heads against flies, fleas, and ants was uncertain.-Passerini (303).

The flowers have long been supposed to be poisonous to insects;
hence the name of *fleabane." EXtracts of flowers collected in England were found to be inactive against larvae of the early thorn moth.-Tutin (403).

Extracts from the leaves, flowers, stems, and roots of this plant from England were nontoxic to the bean aphid.--Tattersfield and Gimingham (391).

PULICARIA VULGARIS Gaertn. Synonym: Inula pulicaria L.

The flowers were entirely nontoxic to flies.--Kalbrunner (224). RUDYECKIA HIRTA L. Black-eyed susan.

Extracts from the entire plant were repellent to the Japanese
beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277). SAITTOLINA C7R AIECYP ARISSUS L. Lavender cotton.

This plant is listed as an insecticide.--Greshoff (171, p. 158).

This plant killed the dog flea, although very slowly, but had practically no effect on flies and ants.--Passerini (303). SANTOLINA sp.

Small quantities of these plants put in containers holding herbarium collections were reported to kill the insect pests.--Regel (316).





-46

SAUSSlUREA LAPPA (Deceisne) C. B. Clarke. Synonyms: Aplotaxis lappa

veoaisne, Aucklandia costus Falconer. Costus root.

This plant was used as an insecticide to keep moths from cloth.
The leaves were used as a wrapping for shawls.--Von Mueller (414, p. 492).

In India the roots were used as an insect repellent.--Chopra and Badhwar (98).

SCHKUHRIA ABROTANOIDES Roth.

The flowers were used in Peru for the sane purpose as genuine insect powder.--Haas (174).

This annual herb yielded an insecticide powder.--Von Mueller (414, p. 497).

SCORZONERA LATIFOLIA (Fisch. & May.) DC.

An adhesive containing 38.5 percent of treated colophony, 57.5
percent of castor oil, 3 percent of beeswax, and 1 percent of water was prepared and tested. A study of the physico-chemicvl constants of resins extracted from certain plants occurring in Russia showed that colophony, the resin obtained from this species, may be of value in the manufacture of adhesives for use in caterpillar glue.-Inat'eve (?210) .

SETECIO AUTTPIRJS L. Groundsel. SENECIO VULGARIS L.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--MYetzger and Grant (277).

SERICOCARPUS ASTEROIDES (L.) B.S.P. Whitetop aster.

A powder end a decoction had no effect on the aphids tested.Mclndoo and Sievers (259, p. 23).

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger end Grsnt (277).

SILPHTUM LACINIATUM L. Compass plent. SOLIDAGO JUNCEA Ait. Early goldenrod.

Extracts were not repellent to the Jappmanese beetle.--L!etzger and ('rant (277).





-47

SOLIDAGO ODORA Ait. Goldenrod.

Extracts of the leaves end tops killed only 5 percent of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell nnd Wilcoxon (188).

SOLIDAGO sp. Goldenrod.

Extracts from the fresh leaves were slightly repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grannt (277).

SONCHUS OLRACEUS L. Sowthistle.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

SPILANTES ACHELLA (L.) Murr.

The fruit was used in India as a fish poison mad as an insecticide.-Roark (332, p. 37).

TAGETES ERECTA L. African marigold.

An extract of the seeds mixed with kerosene gave poor results as a larvicides--Wats and Bharucha (420).

TAGETES MINUTA L. Synonym: T. glandulifere. Schrank.

The khaki bush (T. minima- probably T. mninuta), e weed common in
South Africa, contains a strong-smelling volatile oil or mixture of oils in its leaves, flowers, Pnd seeds; this can be removed by steam distillation, the yield being about 0.5 percent of the total weight. Baits treated with this oil were very repellent to blowflies. In other tests to discover a dressing for sheep infested with blowfly lprvre, the most satisfactory mixture or emulsion contained 20 percent-of carbon tetrachloride, 5 percent of Tapetes oil, 6 percent of wool grepse, end wmter. The emulsion broke down soon Rfter it wps applied, the larvpe were killed within a minute, and the carbon tetrachloride end wrter soon evnporated.-Monnig (282).

TAGETES spp.

Experiments in Natal, South Africa, to control the stalk borer in maize were conducted by applying extracts of the Mexican marigold (probably T. erecta) to the tops of the plants. Only the pure oil from this plant -had any appreciable effect upon the borers. It acted as a contact poison and undoubtedly contains e toxic principle, but it is for too weak an insecticide to be used commercially against this insect.-Ripley and Hepburn (328).





-48

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

An emulsion containing 3 percent of oil of Tagetes had a repellent effect on blowflies for less than 5 days.--Hobson 196). TAYACETUM VULGARE L. Coron tansy.

The heads exerted an effect on insects siril r to that of pyrethrur.-Gieseler (155, D. 112).

The flowers were very feebly benumbing to flies.--Kplbruner (224).

An alcoholic extract And an infusion had no effect on cotton caterpillers.--Riley (325, p. 186).

An action similar to that of Persian insect powder was produced
by the common tansy, which Was sold in the north of Ehgland to replace this powder.--Kirby (229, p. 241).

Tansy plants grown near peach trees have only a very slight effect on the peachtree borer.--Slingerland (366, p. 196).

Alcoholic extracts were not significantly toxic to the bean aphid.-Tattersfield and coworkers (393).

Acetone extracts of the whole plant killed from 10 to 30 percent of the mosquito laprvee tested.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188).

In laboratory tests oil of tansy was strongly repellent to colonies of the cornfield ant. Field tests with this oil, applied first to bonemeal, which was then dropped with the corn, showed a gain of 10.8 bushels per acre.--Forbes (142, p. 465).

Oil of tansy was of no value as a repellent or attractant to screwworms.--Perman and coworkers (302).

TAPAX4CUM PALUSTRE VPR. OFFICINALE (Lam.) Fernald. Dandelion.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Y'etzger and Grnnt (277).

TRILISA ODORATISSIMA (Walt.) Cass. Carolina vanilla.

The leaves were used to protect woolen clothes against moths.-Jackson (218).

TUSSILAGO FARFARA L. Coltsfoote

Water extracts of the roots killed 70 percent of the mosquito larvee
tested.--Hlrtzell and Wilcoxon (188).





-49

VEaRONIA ANTHELMINTICA (L.) winld.

The bruised seeds were ltirgely employed as r, means of dostroyinr pediculi*--Greshoff (170, p. 92).

This species was used in India es en insecticide and insect repellent.--Chopra end Radhwpr (98). VERO131A YOVEPORACENSIS (L.) Wilid. Common ironwee!.

The alcoholic extract snd decoction were ineffective Against cotton caterpillars.--Riley (325, p.186)0

Extracts of ironweed were not repellent to th Japanese beetle*-Metzger and Grant (277). XANTHIUJM STRUIAARIUM L. Cocklebur.

A decoction and an alcoholic extract had no effect on cotton caterpillars*-Riley (325. p. 184).

Comments by reviewer*--None of 121 species belonging to the Asteracenes except those from which pyrethrun is derived, serve as material for efficient insecticides.

BALSA1 ,1T C EAE

IMPATIENS BAi.SAMTTYA L. Gpirden balsam. I!2ATI ENS BI FLORA Walt Spotted sne pweed.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Yetz-er and Grant (277).
BEaRB ERI DACE
(Barberry Family)

BE-FTRBRIS AQTIFOLIMTY Pursh* Synonym: IMahonia Pquif'olium Yutto Orepon

hollygrape*

An infusion of the roots had a considerable effect on fly lprvee, but it was inefficient*--Cook and Hutchison (103, p. 4)o

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetlee--Metzger and GrAnt (277).

BERBERI S ARI STATP DC,

The bark was used in India ns a fish poison and as an insecticide*-Roprk (332, p. 6).








BERhERIS sp.

BliRBERI6 VULCAFIS L. forms ATRU(AIRPJ1>EA Rie;-* Berberry.?'

Acetone extracts of the roots of IBerberis sp. killed 70 Percent of the mosquito lervpe tested, nnd extracts of the roots end stems of B. v. atropurpures killed only 10 percent of' the 1lPrvae.--Fartz ell and 'Th 1c o:o-n (-I ,8) 0

CAJJULOPTTYLIU?1 THALT(7TPOTTES (Le) Y~ichx. Blue cohoshe JEFFKP-SONIA. DIFTIYLLA (L.) P ers. Twinlenf.

Exctracts were not repellent to the Japenese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

PODOPIYLLUI TMODI Wall. ex Hook* & Thomas,

Extracts applied as sprays against adult mosquitoes were much inferior to the standard moequitocideo--Vt"Fts end Singh (421).,

PODOPHYLLUM PELTATUM L. CoMMion Makyappleo

The powder from the dried roots was ineffective when (lusted on cotton cpterpillars.--Riley (325, p. 187).

Rhizons podophylli had no perceptible effect on caterpillars of ProdeniF, liturs (F.).--DeBussy (70).

Extracts fromc the entire fresh plant were slightly repellent to th~e
Japanese beetle 9--~etz~er end Crent (277).

BETULIACEAE
(Rirch Family)

I3E~TTLA ALPA L, 'Thite birch.,

In cher'otropic~ tests In the fielce with oil of IMNrch t-r npemotive results were obteined.--nims end Fluspin (212). 13ETUL. LFNT A L. Sweet birch.

Weter extracts of the bark killed only 10 percent of the mosquito
lervee tested*--T~irtzell and Wilcoxon (1F% )* OSTRYA VIRG1IPTNP (Vill.) Koch. H~ophornherm. Ironwood,

Extrncts were not repellent to the Jeppnese heetlee--Yetzger snd Crrnt (27-).







Acetone extracts of the wood killed 65 percent of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell and W11ilcoxon (188).

BIGNONIACEAE
(Trumpetcreeper Family) CATMPSIS RADICANS (L.) Seem. Synonym: Bignonia radicans L. Trumpetoreeper.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--'etzger and Grant (277).

CATALPA BIGNONIOIDES Walt. Catalpa.

The juice, highly concentrated, from the green leaves and beans had a slight effect on honeybees.--McIndoo and Sievers (259, p. 21).

Extracts were not repellent to the Jepenese beetle.--Metzrer end Grant (277).

CATALPA OVATA Don. Hardy catalpa tree.

Acetone extracts killed only 10 percent of the mosquito larvee tested.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188).

BIXACEAE

BIXA ORELLANA L. Anatto tree.

The seed pulp was used by the American Indians to paint their
bodies for full dress, and also to prevent mosquito bites.--Kirtikar and Basu (230, v. 1, p. 118). HYDNOCARPUS ANTHELMINTHICUS Pierre.

The seeds were listed as an insecticide.--Greshoff (171, p. 112). PANGIUM EDULE Reinw

Water extracts of the bark and leaves were inefficient against tent caterpillars. The extracts from the bark appeared a little better then those from the leaves.--Mclndoo and Sievers (259, p. 23).

BORAGINACEAE
(Borage Family)

BORACO OFFICINALIS L. Comon borare.

extracts were not repellent to the Japenese beetle.--Metzper end Grant (277).








CORDIA MYXA L.

In India the Santals used the powdered bark as an external application in prurigo.--Watt (422, v. 2, p. 564).

CYNOGLOSSTM OFFICINALE L. Common houndstongue

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277),

IIIUOTROPIUMi EUROPAEUM L.

dhLIOTROPIUi PERUVIANUi L.

In tests against the body louse a small piece of cloth impregnated with a saturated solution containing lubricating oil and the alkaloid heliotropine was kept for observation in a vial with a number of lice on it. All the lice were dead within 12 hours. Heliotropine was one of the best chemicals tested, beino rov rently nontoxic to the skin and lasting as long as 168 hours when used with cocon butter, in which it was more soluble than in other fats. Without the oil heliotropine killed just as rapidly, but it crystallized on the underwear and soon rubbed off in wearing.--Moore and Hirschfelder (285, pp. 54, 57).

HELIOTROPIUM INDICUM L. India heliotrope.

A decoction had no effect on cotton cpterpillars.--Riley (325, p. 186).

This plant is widely distributed in India, where the juice of
the leaves is applied for the stings of scorpions and insects. Alcoholic extracts and water suspensions had no effect on caterpillars.-Puttarudriah end Subramaniam (312).

PULMONA-RIA OFFICINALIS L. Common lungwort.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger end Grant (277).

SYLPTiiYIUi OFFICIf!.LE L. Common comfrey.

Extracts from the dry roots were more or less repellent to the Japanese beetle.--retzrer and Grrnt (277).

'Tater extracts of the roots killed 45 percent of the mosquito larvae tested.--'Artzell and Wilcoxon (I9).

TOPMNFOPTTA HIPSUTISSTYA L.

This species was used as a reneral insecticide in taitio--Roprk
(332. p. 38).







-53

TOURNEFORTIA VOLUBILIS (L.) R. & S.

The powdered leaves were used as an insecticide, being very effeotive against ticks.--Scarone (353).

BRASSICACEAE
(Mustard, Cabbage, or Cress Family)

ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA (L.) Britton. Mouse-ear cress.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

ARMORACIA RUSTICANA Gaertn. Synonym: Radicula armoracia (L.)

Robinson. Horseradish.

Oil of horseradish was always repellent to the oriental cookroach.--Cole (101).

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

BARBAREA VULGARIS R. Br. Synonym: Campe barbarea (L.) W, F. Wight.

Bitter wintereress.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle--Metzger and Grant (277).

BRA SSICA JUNCEA (L.) Coss.

Oil from the seeds applied in sprays against adult mosquitoes
was much inferior to the standard mosquitocide.--Wats and Singh (421). BRASSICA NIGRA (L.) Koch. Black mustard.

Straits were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

Water extracts of the seed (U.S.P.) killed all the mosquito larvae testede--Hartzell and Wilooxon (188). BRASSICA OLERACEA CAPITATA L. Cabbage, cultivated.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).








-54

BRASSICA spp. Mustard, rape# etc.

Mustard oil is derived from the seeds .of various species of Brassios. (Sinapis), Chinese colza oil from B. campestria L., sad rape oil probably from B. naps L. These oils have often been used ia emulsions as iasectioides and occasionally as repellents. CAPSELLA BURSA-PASTORIS (L.) Medic. Synonym: Bursa bursa-pastorie

(L.) Britton. Shepherds-purse.

Extracts of the entire plant were repellent to the Japanese beetle.-Metzger and Grant (277).

ERYSIMUM FEROFSKIANUM Fisch. & Mey. Afghan bittercress.

Full-strength extracts from the entire plant were repellent to the Javanese beetle.--Yetzger and Grant (277). LEPIDITUM RUDRALE L. Peppergrass.

In Austria this plant was recommendeh as effective against flea
beetles. In Japan it was dried and powdered and used as an insecticide.-Anonymous (6).

Fumigation with this plant in hothouses was recommended against aphids and mites. When the leaves were dried in the shade and burned between sheets of paper soaked in nitric acid, they caused a very dense
smoke.--Binnenthal (57, p. 69). LEPIDIUM VIRGINICUM L. Wild peppergrass.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

BROMELIA C FAE
(Pineapple Family)

ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. Pineapple.

In olfactory tests to find an attractive essential oil that could be added to a poisoned bait, the oil of pineapple was found strongly attractive to the oriental cockroach. An attractive bait was made with
6 gm. of gelatin, 200 cc. of dilute beef broth, 0.5 ginm. of mercuric chloride, and 1 drop of oil of pineapple.--Cole (101). TLLA'DSTA USNOIDES L.

This species contains rotenone.--Scarone (353).










BURSERACEAE

BALSAMODENDRON PLAYFAIRII Hook. f.

The opaque, whitish gum resin was used by the Arabs and Somalis as a soap to kill lice.--Watt (422, v. 1, p. 369). BOSWELLIA CARTERI Birdw. Frankincense.

In India frankincense and resinous gums are burned in houses to keep away moaquitoes.--Ayyar (43, p. 47).

Various gums with oils were tested to find stable.emulsifiers. Frankincense was unstable.--Ginsburg (158).

BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. COMIPHORA sp.

These plants were said to be used as insecticides in Sind, India.-Roark (332, pp. 7, 10).

BUXACEAE
(Box Family)

BUXUS SEMPERVIRENS L. Box tree.

Extracts from the leaves were more or less effective repellents against the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

CACTACEAE
(Cactus Family)

CEREUS Sp. Cactus.

Cactus leaves, made into a sticky paste and spread over the surface
of the water, killed mosquito larvae by osphyziation.--Howard (203, p. 74). 0PUNTIA HUMIFUSA RAf. Pricklypear.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

CAESALPINIACEAE
(Senna Family)

BANDEIRAEA SIMPLICIFOLIA Benth. Kagyaw.

The leaves were used to kill lice in hen houses in the Gold Const, Africa.--Irvine (213).






-66m

CAXBALPINIA CORIARIA Willde Divi-divi.

The oomeroial extract was an effeotive repellent against the Japanese beetle--Matzger and Grant (177). CASSIA ALATA L.

The powdered bark of this plant was reported to destroy ticks.-Soarone (353).

CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA Vahl. Se=ma

Extracts applied as sprays against adult mosquitoes were much inferior to the standard mosquitocide.--Wats and Singh (421). CASSIA AURICULATA L. Synonyms Senna aurioulata Roxb.

In India the fresh leaves were ground into a paste with water, green hall (Phaseolus radiatus), and poppy seeds and applied to the body for itch.--Moooowamy 6).

CASSIA BACILLARIS L. f.

Sprays containing extracts of the leaves and seeds had only a slight toxio effect on citrus aphids--Worsley (431). CASSIA DIDYMBOTRIA Free.

Extracts of the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of this fish-poison plant from Kenya were slightly toxic to the bean aphideo-Tattersfield and Gimingham (391).

This species is a fairly widespread shrub, indigenous to East
Afri~a, and used by the natives as a fish poison. The seeds and leaves were only moderately toxic to citrus aphids. An amorphous solid and an oily resin were obtained from the alcoholic extracts. A spray containing the former killed 100 percent of the aphids treated, but spray containing the latter killed only 37.5 pero --- ley (431).

CASSIA FASCICULATA Michx. Synonyms C. chamaecrista L. Partridge-pea. CASSLA HBECARPA Fern. Synonyms C. marilandica. Wild senna.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetles.--Metzger and Grant (277).

CASSIA FISTULA L.

This plant is widely distributed in India. Alcoholic extriots and water suspensions had no effect on caterpillars.--Puttarudriah and Subramanian (312).







-57

CASSIA HIRSUTA Lo

~Rtracts of the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of this fish-poison plant from Malaya were nontoxic to the bean aphid*-Tattersfield and Gimiughan (391).

CASSIA LAEVIGATA Wild.

CASSIA IAULTIJUGA Rich*

Sprays containing extracts of the leaves and seeds had only a slight toxic effect on citrus aphidso.--WKorsley (431). CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Le Coffee serma.

An alcoholic extract and a decoction had a 8lifrht effect on cotton caterpillars*--Riley (325, po 186)0 CASSIA SOPHER.A L, Synonyms: Serma sophera Roxb,, Sp~p.e ob

LaIni both the powdered seeds made into a pDlas n an oir17-er
made of the bruised seeds and leaves with sulfur were se for itch, 7-he sap was a good specific for dhobie itcho-'Watt (422,v op2324)



This plant was ineffective against cockroacheso--Soott,Abot
andDudey(361, pe 13)o

CASSIA STIPJLACEA Alt,

The leaves were used as an inseciie-Gehf (170, p. 637),

CASSIA TORA L. Foetid oassia,

In India the leaves and seeds constituted avlubermdfo itch0--Watt (422, v, 2, p. 226), CM;4TOIN7A SILI.dA Le Algsarrobae Carob bean,

This plant was used in VenezuelR for killing ~~c~-or (332, p.. 8).

COPAITEA LANSDORFII Desf. Synonym: Coppiva lensdorfii (sf)0, Kze,

Copaiba.

Oil of copaiba exhibited good repellent action on screwworns for
1 or 2 days only*--Parman and coworkers (302).







-58

COPAIFERA OFFICINALIS L. Synonym: Copaiva officinalis (L.) Jacq.

African copaiba oil (66 percent) was a powerful attractant for male fruitflies (Ceratitis rosa Kah.) in South Africa.--Ripley and Hepburn (330).

CY'0!,TETRA RAMIFLORA L. Synonyms C. bijuga Spanog.

In India a lotion mnde by boiling the leaves in cow's milk and
mixing with honey was applied externally for scabies. An oil prepared from the seeds was used for the same purpose.--Watt (422, v. 2, p. 682). GYNOCLADUS DIOICA (L.) Koch. Synonyms: G. canadensis Lamn.,

Guilandina dioioa L. Kentucky coffeetree.

Insects eating the foliage of this tree are poisoned by it*-Von Mueller (414, p. 248).

The leaves and fruit pulp,when rubbed up with milk, have been used to poison flies.--Chesnut (87, p. 28).

Juice from the green leaves mixed separately with sugar sirup,
molasses, and honey had no apparent effect en the many flies tested.Molndoo and Sievers (259, p. 22).
Extracts from the fresh leaves were repellent to the Japanese
beetle.--M1etzger and Grant (277). HYMENAEA COURBARIL L.

Various gums were tested with oils to find stable emulsifiers. Anime gum was unstable.--Ginsburg (158). TRACHYLOBIUM HORME A1NIAYTM Heyne. Zanzibar cope l tree.

Copel resin was used with an odorous insecticidal materiel in
impregnating wood to form an artificial ce8ar board or "mothwood" (GOer. patent 470,458).--Roark (335, p. 74).

CANPANULACEAE
(Bellflower Family)

HIPPOBROMA LONGIFLORA (L.) Presl. Synonym: Isotoma longiflora (L.) Preal.

Powdered leaves and infusions had no perceptible effect on the caterpillars of Prodenia litura (F.).--DeBussy (6).









SPECULARIA PEPPOLIATA (L.) A* DC& Venus lookingglass.

r~trncts were not repellent to the Jnpsnese heetle*--Metzger and Grant (277),

CANELLACEAE
(Canella-B3ark Family)

CANELLA ALBA Murre. Synonym: C. winterana. Gaertn. Canella. Wild

cinnamon*

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle#-Letzger and Grant (277).

Baravol, made from. the roots of this South Aimerican plant, gave
fairly good results with a single wash in control of ox warbles in lowland cattle--Holmberg (199).

CATNA CEAE
(Canna Family)

CA14IA sp.

The ste~is and leaves ofL canna plants contain a very effective
principle, which will Cive as satisfactor- results as tobacco in F-renhouse fumigation*-Anonyrous (17).

CPPAR IDACF'AE
(Caper Famnilyr)

CAPI'ARIS AP MLL Poth. Dela..

Water extrpacts, rr-cc-.-ted juices, and dusts of dela, leaves had little effect on the citrus psylla, aphids, and lucerne weevil grubs in India*-Chopra (97, p. 109).

Dela wats said to be used in Sind, India, as an insecticide.-Roark (332, p., 8).

CAPPARIS SPINOSA L. Synonym: Co muraana. Graham. Caper&

In India the juice of the fresh plant was dropped into the human ear to kill worms*--Watt (422, v, 2, p. 133)0 GYNANDROPSIB GYNANDRA (Lo) Briq. Synonym: G. peta~la. (Lo) DC*

In India the seeds were used, rubbed with oil, as a vermicide in dressing the hair.--Watt (422, v* 49 p., 192).

In India this plant was used as an insecticide.,--Chopra and fladhWar (98).







-60

CAPRIFOLIACEAE
(Honeysuckle Family)

LONICERA JAPONICA Thunb. Japanese honeysuckle.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

SAYBUCUS CANADENSIS L. American elder.

A decoction made by pouring boiling water over the leaves, flowers, or berries of the elder was recommended as a wash for wounds to prevent injury from flies.--Porcher (308, p. 448).

A hot water extract from the green tops had no effect on silk-.;orms, webworms, or rose aphids.--McIndoo and Sievers (259, p,23).

SA S YI RA L. European elder.

The leaves are noxious to insects, moles, etc.--Porcher (30F, p. 449).

A decoction of the leaves was recommended against Cydnus bicolor
(L.) on vegetables.--Henschel (193, p. 55).

In Belgium a decootion was suggested as a spray to destroy caterpillars on fruit trees.--Anonymous (20). VIBURNUM1 DENTATUM L. Arrowwood.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

VIBURNUM PRUNIFOLIUM L. Blackhaw.

Extracts of the root bark (N. F.) killed only 30 percent of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188)*.

CARYOPHYLLACEAE
(Pink Family)

AGROSTEMMA GITHAGO L. Corncockle.

An infusion has practically no effect on fly lervae.--Cook and coworkers (104, p. 13). SAPONAPIA OFFICINALIS L. SoRpwort.

The action of snponin, when applied in concentrated solution to flies, was that of an intense irritant. There was protrusion of the proboscis and progressive paralysis. (Saponin is also derived from other species in this family, and even from members ofother femilies.J-Blyth and Blyth (64, pp. 451-452).







-61

A concoction containing soapwort has been employed in France and Germany as an external application for the itch.--Kirtikar and Basu (230, v. 1, p. 133).

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.-Metzger and Grant (277).

SAPONARIA VACCARIA L. Synonym: Gsophila vaccaria Sibth. & Sm,

Cow soapwort.

The mucilaginous sap was used as a soap by the natives of Sind, India, for washing clothes, and it was said to be a cure for itch.-Murray (290, p. 95).

SILENE ANTIRRHINA L. Sleepy catchfly.

STEL IA MEDIA (L.) Cyr. Synonym: Alsine media L. Common chickweed

ERtracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

CELAS TRACEAE
(Staff-Tree Family)

CELASTRUS ANGULATUS Max. Bitter tree.

This plant is widely distributed in the Yangtze end Yello or Valleys in China, Thirteen thousand plants were collected end rneplanted. The powdered leaves and root bark ere tie t
cabbage beetle Phaedon brassicae Baly In fied r the
adults cC another cabbage leaf beetle, Colaphellus iK( Th
pow dered root bark killed 94 percent ar n alcohol f The
bark, each in soap solution, 91 percent; powdered leaves killed 9 percent and an alcoholic extract of the leaves, 84 percent. This plant was also effective against Locusts migratoria migratorioides (R. & F.)China National Agricultural Research Bureau (90-92,

The ground berk of this plant, common in northern China, wRs used as a dust or spray against garden insects in China. Extracts used as contact sprays, however, seemed to have no effect on aphids.--Shepard (363, p. 30).

CE&LiTRUS SCANDENS L, American bittersweet.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.-Metzger and Grant (277),

BUONYMUS AMERICANA L. Brook euonymus.







-62

EUONYMUS ATROPURPURA Jacq. Wahoo.

The seeds were used to destroy vermin in the haire--Porcher (308, p. 154).

Extracts of the root bark (N. F.) killed only 15 percent of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188).

EUONIMUS EUROPAEA L. Spindle tree.

The berries, when powdered and dusted into the hair of sheep, destroyed lice*--Green (169, v. 1, p. 529).

This plant was listed as an insecticide.--Lyons (248, p.188).

The fruit, made into an ointment, was used for the destruction of Pedioulidae.--Hare, Caspbri, and Rusby (183, p. 632).

GYMNOSPORIA MONTAiA Benth. Synonym: Celastrus montana Roxb.

GYMNOSPORIA SENEGALESIS (Lam.) Loes.

The bark, ground to a paste, was applied with oils to the head to destroy Pediculidae.--Kirtikar and Basu (230, v. 1, p. 330); Watt (422, v. 2, p. 239).

TRIPTERYGTTUM WILFORDII Hook, f. Roy-kung-teng. Thundergod vine.

An extract of the cortex was reported to be of value against insects attacking vegetables. Descriptions of the plant and its physical and chemical characteristics are given, together with a map showing where it is produced in Chekiang, China.-Cheng (85).

Spraying cruciferous vegetables with an extract of the roots killed the larvae and adults of cabbage beetles, Phaedon brassicae Baly and Colaphellus bowingiL (Baly), and farmers found the powdered root bark of value in the control of P. brassicae.--Wong and Chin (430); China National Agricultural Research Bureau (90).

In 1934 and 1935, 20,000 plants were collected in China and transplanted on the Bureau farm. In field tests against the adults of Colaphellus bovwringi (Baly), the following mortalities were obtained with powdered root bark and leaves: In soap solution 95, alcoholic extract 73; in kerosene emulsion 87; as compared with pyrethrum in soap solution 98.--China National Agricultural Research Bureau (92).

This plant appears to be the most common insecticidal plant in
use in southern China. It also occurs in Japan and Formosa.--Shepard (363. p. 300).







-63

An alkaloid was isolated from the root bark, called tripterygine, which was proved to be a strong insecticidal substance.--Hwang (207).

The poison of this plant has been found in the root bark. Its
chemical nature has been investigated by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and thousands of cuttings sent from China are being grown at the Department's plant-introduction garden at Glenn Dale, Md.-Anonymous (35).

For a long time the Chinese market gardeners have made use of the powdered roots to kill insects which eat the leaves of vegetables. Seven Chinese papers are cited dealing with the insecticidal value of this plant which has been introduced into the United States. When tested against codling moth larvae, at the rate of 2 pounds per 50 gallons of solution, the root powder gave about 60 percent of clean fruit. An alcoholio extract ofthe fresh root, used at the rate of
2 pounds of extractives per 50 gallons, gave 90 percent of clean fruit.
The root powder was also very toxic to first instars of the diamondback moth and to the cabbage worm, but caused relatively low mortalities on first instars of the southern armyworm.--Swingle and coworkers (389).

CHENOPODIACEAE
(Goosefoot Family)

ANABASIS APHYLLA L.

In the past decade this plant has become important as the commercial source of anabasine, an alkaloid closely related to nicotine* The literature on anabasine as an insecticide has been reviewed by Roark (344).

BETA VULGARIS L. Sugar beete

Betaine hydrochloride was ineffective for mothproofing.--Jackson and Wassell (219, p. 1177). LBetaine is derived from beet juice.]

Betaine fluosulfonate was used for preserving textile fabrics (U. S. patent 1,448,276).--Roark (333, p. 27).

CHENOPODIUM AMBROSIOIDES L. Synonyms: C. anthelmintioum L.,

Ce ambrosioides anthelminticum A. Gray. American wormseed,

An infusion and an alcoholic extract from the blossoms and green fruit had no effect on cotton oaterpillars.--Riley (325, p. 186).

A water extract from the dried leaves and seeds had no effect on bees. A strong decoction from the leaves, stems and seeds, mixed with soap, had no effect on potato aphids and nasturtium aphids The powder used as a dust had no effect an tent caterpillars, but a considerable effect on cockroaches; and used as a stomach poison it had no effect on grasshoppers.-Molndoo and Sievers (259, p. 22).







-64

Oil of wormseed and carbon disulfide were the best materials to use in emulsions to destroy larvae of the Japanese beetle. The principal active ingredient of this oil is ascaridole, although other ingredients are also toxic to varying degreeso--Leach and Johnson (243).

Powdered American wormseed was effective as a repellent to sorewworms for only 2 days.--Parman and coworkers (302).

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetlee-Metzger and
Grant (277).

The oil of wormseed (25 p.p.m.) killed 90 to 100 percent of the mosquito larvae testede--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188).

CISTACEAE
(Rockrose Family)

RiNTEM.U CANADENSE (L.) Michx. Sunrose.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle*--Metzger and Grant (277).

CLUSIACEAE
(Balsam Tree Family)

CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM L. Alexandrian laurel.

The seeds or berries contained nearly 60 percent of a fixed oil, which was used for medicinal purposes, being considered a cure for the itch.-Drury (122, p. 99).

In India the fixed oil obtained from the seed kernels was said to cure soabiess--Watt (422, vo 2, p. 31).

Rxtracts of the bark, which are said to be used as a fish poison
in East Africa, had little toxic effect on citrus aphids.--Worsley (431).

CALOPHYLLUM SPECTABILE Willd. Kulit bentangor.

A 5-percent water extract of the bark of this Malayan fish-poison tree killed none of larvae of the moth Parasa herbifera (Wlk.), and a similar extract of the roots killed only on;-fifth of the larvae treated.-Gater (153).

CALOPHYLLUM WIGHTIANUM Wall. Synonym: C. spurium Chois.

In India the oil from the seeds was used in cutaneous affections,
and an infusion mixed witn honey was used for soabies.--Watt (422, v. 2, p. 33).











E'traots of the bark of this plat from Sierra Leone re nt toxic o the bea n aphid.-Tattersfield ud Giminghax (1

MAMMEA A1dERICANA L.

Extracts of this plant from the 1est Indies were not su: ently
toxic to the bean aphid to warrat urtner investigation.--Tat sfieldc
Gimingham, and Morris (393),

Extracts of the roots, shoots, and branches of this plant from
Trinidad were slightly toxice.-Tattersfield end Gimingham (391).

MSSUA FERREA L. Synonymt 1f. specioss Chois.

The oil of the seeds was found useful in the treatment of itche-Kirtikar and Basu (230, v. 1, p. 155).

COCHLOSPERMACEAE

COCHLOSPERMUM GOSSYPIUM (L.) DC.

The value of karaya gum to increase the effectiveness of nicotine sulfate sprays is established. A 1-400 concentration of nicotine sulfate with soap was required to control aphids, Macrosiphum ambrosiae (Thomas)* The addition of 0.2 percent of karaya gum in combination with a commercial spreader-emulsifier made it effective at a dilution of 1-2,000. In similar tests on the bean aphid nicotine sulfate with soap was as effective at 1-2,000 with the addition of 0.2 percent keraya gum as at 1-800 without it.--Eddy and Meadows (127).

The addition of 0.2 percent of karaya gum considerably increased
the effectiveness of all the nicotine sprays used against Frankliniella
fusca (Hinds).--Eddy and Sharp (128).

When karaya was combined with nicotine sulfate plus a wetting agent, the toxicity to the bean aphid was increased 8 to 27 percent over the toxicity of the nicotine and gum alone.--Garman (151).

COMBRETACEAE
(Myrobalan Family)

CACOLCA COCUITNREA Aubl.

Extracts of the shells and kernels of the fruit from British Guiana were not toxic to the been aphide--Tatterefield and Gimingham (391).

TERMINALIA CATAPPA L. Synonym: T. moluccena Lam. Indian almond.

The juice of the young leaves was employed in Saoutherr. India in an ointment for A)es,--Wftt 4 v 6, pt. 4^ p. 24)







-66

The commercial extract was en effective repellent for the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).
CONVOLVULACEAE
(Morning-Glory Family) ARGYREIA NERVOSA (Burmo.) Bojer. Synonym: A. speciosa Sweet.

Elephant creeper.

In India the juice, mixed with an equal quantity of gingelly
[sesame] oil and a little powdered dill seed, was used as an external application for scabies.--Watt (422, v. 1, p. 310).



I- ;rd~h ALis 'ut -m.s used exte17'ev ainst itch,--att (422,
v-. 2, p. 672).

OMOEA~~ U~)RC~~Jcq,,

IPO10OEA PURPURA (L.) Roth.

Decoctions of the fresh leaves and young shoots were used
against aphids, scale insects, caterpillars, and flea beetles.-Binnenthal (57, p. 46). IPOMORA JAL4PA (L.) Pursh. Jalap.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and
Grant (277).

IPOMOEA IJICATA Jaoq,

The juice was used to destroy bugs.--Dymock and coworkers (14, v. 2, p. 532).

IPOMOOEA PANPJ1RATA (L.) Meyer.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

IPOv0EA sp.

Alcoholic extracts of tubers from the British Solomon Islands were not toxic to the bean aphid.--Tattersfield, Martin, and Howes (394).

CORI!ACEAE
(Dogwood Family)

CORNUS FLORIDA L. Flowering dogwood.









NYSSA SYLVATICA Marsh. Tupelo.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

Acetone extracts of the leaves of dogwood killed 60 percent of the mosquito larvae tested--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188).

CRASSULACEAE
(Orpine Family)

KALANCHOE SPATHULATA DC.

The leaves were used as an insecticide in India--Chopra and Badhwar (98).

CUCURBITACEAE
(Gourd Family)

HRYONIA ALBA L. White bryony.

The root and other parts can be used against aphids.--Gomilevsky (164).

CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS (L.) Schrad. Synonyms: Cucumis colocynthis L.,

Colocynthis vulgaris Schrad. Colocyntho Bitter gourd.

Decoctions were recommended in France Fgainst leaf-eating caterpillprs on fruit trees.--Lbsne (244, p. 511).

An excellent remedy for the cactus aphid, red spider, etc., was colocynth tincture, which was applied to the infested plants with a stiff brush. This tincture was made of 2 gm, of colocynth extract, dissolved in 100 oc. of 95 percent alcohol.--Graebener (168).

The pulp was ineffective against bedbugs, roaches, and clothes moths.--Scott and coworkers (361, pp. 5, 13, 26).

Colocynth was of no value against chicken lice and dog fleas*Abbott (37, pp. 7, 11).

A 10-percent extract in water and fructus colocynthidis had no effect on the caterpillars of Prodenia litura (F.).--DeBussy (76).

Conmmercially prepared extracts of colocynth were not toxic to the bean aphide--Tatterafield, Gimingham, and Morris (393).

The use of aqueous extracts of colocynth, or bitter gourd, for
mothproofing is discussed in a patent (Ger. 488,307).--Roark (335, p. 24).







-68

Colocynth is widely distributed in India, where the root powder
is used as an insecticide. A 5-percent extract of the leaves killed 100 percent of the caterpillars of Plutella maculipennis (Curt.) and Buproctis fraterna (Moore). A 5-percent extract of the fruits killed 100 percent of P. maculipennis, and a 3-percent extract killed 90 percent of E. fraterna. A 3-percent extract of the stems killed only 50 percent 7f E. fraterna and a 4-percent extract killed 100 percent.-Puttarudriah ad Subramaniam (311).

Comments by reviewer.--Colocynth appears to be of little value as
an insecticide, but since it is one of our common poisonous drugs a more
careful toxicological study of it would be worth while.

CUCUMIS SATIVUS L. Cucumber.

The juice was said to banish wood lice and to kill cockroaches.
It was recommended that floors be strewn with the green peel for three or four nights.--Drury (122, p. 173).

CCUCURBITA FOETIDISSIMA H.B.K. Missouri gourd.

Acetone extracts of the roots killed none of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188).

CUURBITA PEPO L. Pumpkin.

In Germany it was suggested that freshly cut pumpkin leaves be rubbed on cattle or horses as a repellent for flies.-Anonymous (8).

Acetone extracts of pumpkin seeds killed 100 percent of the
mosquito larvae tested and a concentration of over 600 p.p.m. killed 85 percent.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188).

ECBALLIUM ELATERIUM (L.) A. Rich. Squirting cucumber.

Elaterin, derived from this plant, was ineffective for mothproofing.--Jackson and Wassell (219, p. 1177).

NICROSECHIUM HELLERI (Peyr.) Cogn. Sanacoche. Chichicamolle.

This plant, which contains saponin, was found at Villa del Carbon, Mexico. For insecticidal purposes, the fresh roots were crushed and macerated in water (1s20) and boiled for about 1 hour, but if the roots were dry the maceration was prolonged for 2 days or more before boiling. This decoction was found satisfactory as a spray against phylloxera.-Mexico Comisio'n de Parasitologia Agricola (279).

Alcoholic and water extracts of this plant used as sprays and the powder used as a dust had almost no effect on aphids and potato beetle larvae. The powder had no effect on silkworms and fall webworms.Mclndoo and Sievers (unpublished results of tests in 1928).







-69.'

IIWORDICA CHARANTIA L. Balsam-peare'

In India the whole plant mixed with cinnamon, pepper, rice, and oil of' Hyncru inebrians was used as an ointment for psora., scabies, and
other outaneous diseasese-Drury (122, p. 306).


This plant was used in Haiti as a general insecticide*--Roark ?5DRfICA SCHIMPERIANA Steudo Iuru.

The fruit of this plant in East Africa was listed as insecticidal*-Bally (50).

CYCADACEAE
(Fern-Palmlikce Family)

CYCAS CIRCINALIS L. Sago palm,

The male bracts of this gymrospermous tree were in southern
India as a narcotic and were called "madana-kama-pu" flowers off Kama.* which were said to contain a property that intoxicates ..nsects that rest upon theine--Dyrnock and coworkers (124, v* 3, p. 383).

CYRI LLALCEAE
(Cyrilla Family)

CYRI LLA RACEIFLORA L. Southern e ath erwoodo

Honeybees were poisoned by this plant, but only the brcoc- ~e affected* The larvae died usually when nearly matured, often aig the colonies to be severely weakened*-Burnside and Vans eli (1 ~ 'DI CHAP ETALACEAE

DICfAETA:LYM RUHLANDII ?ngl.

This bujsh was poisonous to cattle and goats in A_,.ic?*containing an extract of the leaves were nontoxic to itu Worsley (431).

DICHAPETALUMA TOXICAMIUM (G,Don) Igl* West Pf', ,-n tsn3

In Sierra Leone this plant was used to destroy head lice,Daiziel (112).

DI LLMACEA

DILLEXJIA INDICA L*

This plant grows in India. A b-percent alcoholic extract of
the leaves killed 80 percent of the larvae of Prodenia, liturs (F.) and







-70

Crocidolormia binotalis Zell., and 100 percent of Euproctis fraterna (Moore) and Epilachna sp. Five-percent extracts of the root bark and stem bark killed I00 percent of E. fraterna. A 5-percent extract of the leaves killed only 60 to 70 perent of Lecanium viride Green.-Puttarudriah and Subramaniam (312).
DIOSCOREACBAE
(Yam Family)

DIOSCOREA CYLINDRICA Burm. Synonyms D. hispida Dennst. Nami.

This tuberous vine is common in the Philippine Islands, where the roots seem to be generally used for killing mArrots infesting wounds of amimals. A large root is peeled, sliced, and finely crushed in a mortar. to the consistency of a paste. In an experiment all the maggots were killed within 2 days.--Manresa (264).

DIOSCOREA PISCATROUM Prain & Burkill. Tuba cherok. Sakut.

A 5-percent water extract of the roots of this Malayan fish-poison
plant killed four-fifths of the larvae of the moth Parasa herbifera (Wlk.) but a 0.5-percent extract of derris roots killed alfle~~ arvae in less time--Gater (153).

The tuber was reported in North Borneo as a more potent fish poison than many species of Derris. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of it showed only a slight insecticidal action, but the expressed sap showed more potency although not enough to warrant an extended investigation.-Tatterefield and coworkers (394).

DIOSCOREA sp.

This plpnt was recommended as a repellent against fleas on man.Kisskalt (231).

DIOSCOREA VILLOSA L. Wild yam.

Extracts of the roots killed none of the mosquito larvae tested.-Hartzell and W1ilcoxon (188).

TAITUS COMhTS L. Black bryony.

The powdered root has been recommended to destroy lice in children's hair.--Greshoff (170, p. 152).










DI PSACACEAE
(Teasel Family)
SCABIOSA ATR0PFUTPIREA L. Sweet scabiosa,

Rtracte were not repellent to the Japanese beetle#-_ etrger and Grant (277).

DIPTEOCARPACEAE

DIPTEROCARPS TURBINATUS Gaertn. if. Synonym: Do laevie Ham*

In India garjin oil, obtained from this plant, was largely employed in preserving bamboo wickerwork from insect attack*-Wfatt (422, v. 3, p. 170).

VATERIA INDICA Lo

An effective and cheap viscous adhesive for bending to prevent ants
from reaching the crowns of trees was prepared with 10 ounces of powdered Manila 7-un copal (the gum of this species), 1 pint of castor oil, and 1 ounce of beeswax*-Costantino (107).

DPOS PRACRAE
(Sundew Family)

DROSERA ROTIUhDIFOLIA L. Roundloaf sundew.

Mctracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle*-Metzger and Grant (277)0








DIOSPYOS MONAARC Ds,)Kse,$yoins T mrotei e





This fish-poison plant_- is widely iit & n India X -ecn
alcoholic extract of the_ leve -illed only 40pretof the adult grasshoppers, Epacrornia tanlsFtested, ut10pret of the
beetle grubs (Epilachns, s- 3-percent, extract t -.il'led 70 percent of.i
Achaea janata _7_ ed8 perc-ent of Diacrisia obliqu (Wk.).'P~t7udrish and Subrarnanlan (311).







-72

DIOSPYROS sp.

The wood is listed as an insooticide*--Greshoff (170, p. 103). DIOSPYROS VIRGINIANA Lo Common persimmnon.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japmiese beetle*-Yetzger and
Grant (277).

TDTOSPYT?:OS ALLTCTI King & Gamble. Tuba-buah-daun.

Ri ~ter extract of the leaves of this Malayan fish1o10yjtre ~i~eonly one-fifth of the larvae of' the moth Parasa, >erbi~er ~~-.) heated,, but a similar extract of the roots-fled LTL CACEABE


A~ ~ S COUAHook. f., Mgagana.

This vlant i~East Afrioa is listed as ins ectici dal.*-Bally (50)9 .A'R'-C O TAPHYLOS TJVA-ZTRI (Lo) Spreng B earberry.

An extract (U.S.P.) was more or less repellent to the Japanese beetle*-Metzger and Grant (277).

AZAILRA 1NUDIFLORA L. Pinxterblooni. CHIMaHJILI& UMBELLA.TA kL.) Nutt* Coxmon pipsisewa EPIGAE& REPENS L. Trailing arbutus.

Extracts of' these plants were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.Ifetrger and Grant (277). GATTLTiMIA F~RAGPAVTTTSSTMA Wall.

ExtraCts applied as sprays against adult mosquitoes were much inferior to th.e standard mosquitocide.--Wats and Singh (421). GAUL717:!II PRQCUMI3EN8 Le Wintergreca.o

Diluted oil of wintergreea was usually attractive to the oriental ookroaoh-.-ol (101).

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle*-Metzger and Grant (277).







-73

Water extracts of the whole plant killed only 20 percent of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188). KALMIA ANGUSTIFOLIA L. Lambkill.

The dried leaves had no effect on fly larvae.--Cook and Hutchison (103, p. 4).

The powdered leaves had no effect on grasshoppers and honeybees.-Molndoo and Sievers (259, p. 22).

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

KALMIA LATIFOLIA L. Mountain laurel.

Infusions of the dried leaves had no effect on fly larvae in horse
manure.--Cook and Hutchison (103, p. 4).

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Yetzger and
Grant (277).

LED J GROENLANDICUM Oeder. Synonym: L. latifolium Ait. True

Labrador-tea.

This plant was reported to kill lice and other insects.-Williams (428, p. 916).

LEDUPALUSTRE L. Crystal-tea.

It was reported from Austria that this plant killed lice, bedbugs, fleas, moths, and other insects. It was most active when green and in blossom, but the dried material was also effective.--Anonymous (3).

The heaves and twigs were used as an insecticide.--Lyons (248, p. 266).

LEUCOTHOE GRAYANA Maxim.

Extracts of dried leaves were sprayed on larvae of various insects
in Japan. Some of the samples seemed to be fairly toxic to Phaedon brassicae Baly, 50 to 80 percent being killed, but most of them were not effective enough to be promising as insecticides.-Harukawa (189). LYONIA OVALIFOLIA (Wall.) Drude. Synonyms: Pieris ovalifolia (Wall.)

D. Don., Andromeda ovalifolia Wall.

In India the youn7 leaves and buds were used to kill insects, and
an infusion was employed in cutaneous diseases.--Tatt*.(422, v. 3, p. 90).







-74

OXY1DRUM BORPT (L.) DC. Sourwood.

aots were not repellent to the Japanese beetle,--Metzger and

PO u } Do Asbo seii eto

This plant is knova oy at least 38 common names. It was first described by Kraempfer in 1712 under the names "asjebo (asebo)" and s'jemi (asemi).T It is very common in all the mountainous regions of Japan and has been used for a long time as an insecticide. One employs, according to the circumstances, a decoction of fresh leaves (150 gm. of ground leaves per liter of water), dried leaves (30 gm. per liter), or dried branches with leaves (70 n. per liter). The mixture is boiled for 45 to 60 minutes, and when it is ready to be used the first is diluted 10 times, the second once, and the third twice.--Mlotte (288).

RHODODENDRON HU1 "UMdLLIANUM Rehder & Wilson. Nao-yang-wha.

This plant grows in Cnina, and the compounds (andromedotoxine and
an unidentified substance) present in it are effective as insecticides. Preparations made from this plant paralyzed the insects, the injury spreading from the posterior to the anterior end. It is recommended especially as a stomach poison, and three formulas are riven.-Ku (237).

This species crows wild in +he YainTtze Piver region in China and
is used there as a stomach poison for insects. The flowers are supposed to be the most valuable, but in recent tests extracts of the flowers had no value against aphids as a contact poison.--Shepard (363, p. 299).

RHODODENDRON JAPONICUM (Gray) Suring. Synonym: R. molle Sieb. & Zuo.

The powdered flowers might be used to good advantage to control the mulberry white caterpillar (Rondotia menciana Moore) in China.Scarone (353).

RHODODENDRON MOLLE (Bl.) G. Don. Synonym: R. sinense Swe Sheep poison.

This species has been found effective against certain insects in China.--Chiu (94),

The dried and ground flowers were commonly sold by Chinese drug
stores because of their effectiveness against bugs and maggots. In 1935, 13,000 plants of this species were collected and transplanted on the Bureau farm in China. In field tests a ninst the adults of cabbage leaf beetles, Colaphellus bowringi (aly), the following mortalities were obtained with the powdered flowers: In soap solution 96, alcoholic extract in soap solution 92, in kerosene emulsion 81; as compared with pyrethrum in soap solution 98.--China National Agricultural Research Bureau (92).







-75

RHODODENDRON sp.

The best results obtained against the mulberry white caterpillar
(Roxidotia menciana Moore) were with a pyrethrum-soap solution, which was followed in effectiveness by a rhododendron-soap solution and croton oil emulsion.--Chen (84).

VACCINIUM sp. Blueberry.

Extracts from the leaves and berries were repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzeer and Grant (277).

ERYTTROXYL ACEAE

ERYT'OXYLON COCA Lamarck. Coca.

An aqueous solution of 0.05 part of cocaine hydrochlorate mixed with 2 parts of honey did not affect ants,--Cobelli (100)0

In Brazil a tincture of coca leaves was recommended as a remedy for lice on poultry.--Carneiro (78).

Folia coca and hydrochlorax cocaini (10 percent in flour) had no effect on caterpillars of Prodenia litura (F,).--DeBussy (76),

Spray solutions of cocaine hydrochloride were tested against the
bean aphid. The concentration required to kill about 95 percent of the aphids was grepter than 1 g., while that of nicotine sulfate was
0.009 gmn. to 100 cc,-Richardson and Smith (322),

ETPHTORBI A CEAE
(Spurge Family)

AGALYPHA iNDICA L. Synonym: A. spicata Forsk.

In India the powdered leaves mixed with common salt were applied
externally for scabies. The powder of the dry leaves was used in wounds
attacked by worms.--Watt (422, v.1, pp. 63-64).

This medicinal "Indian acalypha" is widely distributed in India. A 5-percent alcoholic extract of the stem bark killed caterpillars as follows: 90 percent of Plutella maculipennis (Curt.) and Pericalia
ricini (F.), 50 percent of Prodenia litura (F.), 40 percent of Crocidolomia binotalis Zeller., and percent of Euproctis freterna
(Moore).-Puttarudriah and Subramanian (312).

ALEURITES FORDII Hemsl. Tung-oil tree.

Since stink bug nymphs in southern China migrate by ascending litohee trees, sticky bends composed of tung oil and resin were used to trap them.--Hartman (187),







-76

The acids or acid compounds in oxidized or blown tung oil were used (U. So patent 1,739,840; Brit. patent 247,242) to form salts with rare earth elements for use in mothproofing compositions.--Roark (333, p. 109).

Tests were conducted to find an adhesive for cryolite suspensions to be used against Busseola fusoa (Full.) on maize in South Africa. Of the 31 materials examined, boiled linseed oil, tung oil, and fish oil, in this order, were the only ones of sufficient adhesive value to justify their use.-Ripley and Hepburn (329).

Extract of the leaves of this tree killed 40 percent of the mosquito larvae tested, but the extract of the stems killed only 5 percent and the extract of the roots killed nonee-Hartzell and W11coxon (188).

ANDRACHNE CORDIFOLIA Muell. Arge

This plant was used in India as an insecticide.--Chopra and Badhwer
(98)

CLEISTANTHUS COLLIJNUS (Roxb.) Benth. and Hook.

The bark of this Indian fish-poison tree was thought to contain
some poisonous property, for white ants leave it alone. The inner bark pl ced on the sores of sheep and goats wps efficacious in healing them and in destroying infesting margots.--HIooper (201).

CLETSTANTES spp.

Green vegetable matter decaying in water sometimes pollutes the water and thus helps to control mosquitoes. One of the best genera so far found in India is Cleistanthus, which is poisonous to fish.--Hackett and coworkers (175, p. 1028).

CROTON CAPITATUS Michx.

CROTON GLANDULOSU8 L.

CROTO MONANTOGYNUS Michx.

C7OTON TEENSIS (Klotzsch) Muell. Arg. Crotonweeds.

Decoctions from the leaves and blossoms of these species had no effect on cotton caterpillars.--Riley (325, p. 186).

CROTON ELUTERIA (L.) Swartz. Cascarilla.

In Bermuda fresh cascarilla bark is burned to obtain a smudge for driving away mosquit6es.--Howard (203, p. 30).







-77

CROTON FLAVrS L.

This plant was reported to be used as an insecticide in Venezuela, but it had no effect on roaches, flies, or gnats.--Thoms (401). CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxbe

The seeds were stated to be used as an insecticide in India.Chopra and Badhwar (98).

CROTON sp.

Croton was used in China as an insecticide; its poison killed aphids
(Jen. 1938. Univ. of Minn. Master's thesis).--Shepard (363, p. 29).
Cancanapire ( a species of Croton was used in Venezuela for killing insects.--Roark (332, p. J. CROTON TIGLIUM L.

In eastern China one of the control measures for larvae of Rondotia menoiana Moore, attacking mulberry trees, was spraying with croton oil emulsione-Chu (99)9

The seeds of this species are the source of an important home-made insecticide in China. The methods of making and using are given.Jung (223).

This plant has been found of insecticidal value against certain insects in southern China.--Chiu (94).
This plant is cultivated in China, where the powdered seeds soaked
in water are used to destroy Rondotia menoiana and aphids.--Soarone (353). EROCARPUS SETIGERUS (Hook.) Benth. Turkeymullein.

Cold-water extracts of this common weed of southern Oregon were
found to be toxic to goldfish, just as are extracts of derris and cube root, Extended studies were being made by the Oregon State Department of Agriculture to determine whether this plant could be developed as a source of inseoticide.--Thomssen and Doner (402). EUPHORBIA ANTIQUORUM L.

The juice was used to kill maggots in wounds.--Kirtikar and Basu (20 v. 2, p. 1131).







-78

UPHORBIA BICOLOR Engelsm. & Gray. EUPHORBIA MARGINATA Pursh.

The juice of these plants was used to some extent in Texas to
brand cattle, it being held to be superior to a red-hot iron for that purpose, because screwworms would not infect the fresh soar and the spot healed more rendily.--Chesnut (88, p. 407). EUPHORBIA BIGLANDULOSA Deaf. EJPHORBIA DENDROIDES L.

Deootions of these plants were recommended as insecticides.Spranger (373).

EUPHORBIA COTINOIDES Miquel.

A water extract had a considerable effeoot'on eilkworms.--Molndoo and Stevers (259, p. 22).

Extracts of the stems and leaves of this fish-poison plant from British Guiana were nontoxic to the been aphid.--Tattersfield and Gimingham (591).

EUPBORBIA CYPARISSIAS L.

In Crete gardeners collected these plants, crushed them, and
expressed the juice, and then diluted it with water to make a 2 to 4 percent solution. After an hour the liquid was used for watering gardens in which melons, cucumbers, etc., had been planted, in order to destroy the mole oricket.--Rastello (315). EUPHORIA HELIOSCOPIA L. Dodhak.

Water extreots, macerated juices, and dusts of dodhak leaves were tested against Psylla, aphids, and weevil grubs, but poor results were obtainede--Chopra (97, p. 109). EUPHORBIA IPECACUANHA L. Spurge.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metsger and Grant (277).

EUPHORBIA HYBERNA L.

Extracts of the stems and leaves of this fish-poison plant from Ireland were nontoxic to the bean aphide--Tattersfield and Gimingham (391).







-79

EUPHORBIA MARGINATA Pursh. Synonyms Dichrophyllum marginatum

Klotszsoh & Garaokee. Snow-on-the-mountain.

A decootion was ineffective against cotton oaterpillars.-Riley (325, p. 186).

EUPHORBIA NERIIFOLIA L.

This species was said to be used as an insecticide in Sind, India.-Roark (332, p. 22).

Extracts applied as sprays against adult mosquitoes were much inferior to the standard mosquitocide.--Watts and Singh (421). EUPHORBIA RESINIFERA Berg. Cactuslike plant of Morocco.

Euphorbium gum had no effect on the caterpillars of Prodenia litura (F.). -DeBussy (76).

Various gums were tested with oils to find stable emulsifiers. Euphorbium gum was unstable.--Ginsburg (158). EUPHORBIA sp. Spurge.

A decoction of spurge gave only 38 percent kill of Malacosoma
neustria (L.).--ioriainov (166). EUPHORBIA THYMIFOLIA L.

This plant was stated to be used as an insecticide in India.-Chopra and Badhwar (98).

EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI L.

This species was used as a fish poison and as an insecticide in India.--Roark (332, p. 22).

All parts of this plant were said to poison fish in East Africa, but it was not widespread. A 2-percent extract of the stems killed 72.5 percent of the citrus aphids sprayed*--Worsley (431).

This tree in East Africa was said to keep away mosquitoes.--Bally
(so).

EUPHORBIA VERMCICULATA Ref.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).







-so

Caats by revieer.--8o far this genus does not appear to be a promising one in which to find efficient insecticidal material*

EXCOSCARXA AGALLOCHA L. Blinding tree Babooter.

The lklays knew of the poisonous qualities of this tree and used the sap to kill maggots infesting sores on bu"aloes.--Stevens (374, footnote, p. 107).

FLUGGEA LEUCOPYRUS W11d. Synonymes Phyllanthus louopyrus Roxb.;

8ecurinega leuoyrus Muell. Argi Fe virosa (Willd.) Dais. & Gibs.

The bark was used to kill fid, and the Juice of the leaves was fatal to worms in sores-Dalsell and Gibson (}11 p. 236).

In India the uice of the leaves or the leaves made into a paste with tobaco were used to destroy worms in sores--Watt (422, v. 6, pt* 2, p. 496).e

FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume

The juice of the leaves or the leaves made into a paste with tobacob
were pised to destroy worms in sores.--Kirtikar and Basu (250, v. 2, p. 1147)

This species was used as a fish poison and as an insecticide in India.--Roark (332, p. 23).

BEVA app. Rubber tree.
Rubber latex was employed as an ingredient of an adhesive composition which might be used for mothproofing (British patent).--Isaaos (214).

HURA CREPITANS L. Sandbox tree.

Both 10- mid 4"percest sap killed most of the aphids tested within 3 days, but both 5- and 10-peroent sap mixed with soap were inefficient. The alcoholic extracts of the bark and sawdust were inefficient, but the extract of the bark u amed promisinge--Malndoo and Sievers (259, p. 8).

In 1924 and 1925 the sap or latex of this tree was again tested.
Both 5-percent and 10-peroent latex mixed with soap were efficient against Aphs ireacola Patch within 2 days. A 5-percent sap taken fro the upper portion of the latex killed nearly all the three species of aphids sprayed within 2 dayas--Xladoo and Sievers (unpublished).

HURA POLYAEDRA Baill. Javilloo

In Central America this plant produces a latex of blistering properties which was used against microscopic skin parasite, especially Tunraganetras (L.).--Searon (553).









JATROPHIL W&RORIIZA, Bunthe

A powder used as a dust had a slight effect on tent caterpillars and roaahese-Malndoo and Sievers (259. p. 22). V&LIWldJ PILIPPflNSIIS (Lam.) Jizell. hrg* Monkeyfao tree. Kamala.

In India the leaves end fruit mixed with honey were made into a cataplasm for the treatment of ito.-Watt (422, v. 5, p. 116).

taots from this plant were not repellent to the Japanese beetle*-Netsger aud Grant W7.)0

NIXIHDT DUMBCI (Gael*) Paz. Sweet cas sava*

Tapioca was employed as a constituent of an adhesive composition which might be used for nothproofing (British patent) .--Isaa (214). OWDFIELDIA AFRICANA Benthe and Hook. f. African oak.

The bark and leaves were used in Liberia. as remedies for hair lice and crab lice.--Daluiol (112)

?HYLLANTHUS C(EAE b. Danoonani.

Ntracts ot tho roots, stems, and leaves of this fish-poison plant from British Guiana were nontoxic to ttio bean aphid-Tatterefield and Giingha (5).

PHYLL&NTHIJ NIRURZ Le

In India the bruised leaves were applied for soabies*-Wat' ,22 To 6, pt. 1# p. 222)*

PuyLLNf uw sIIAPem Retsj.

In India the fresh leaves bruised and mixed *ith butter.: ia
a wash to ours the itoh in ohildrsn.--Waitt (422, v& 6, pt. 1, RICINUS QONKUIIS Le Synonyms: R* vulgaris Mill*, R* medious Frk

Castor-bean plant. Castor-oil plant*

Attention is called'to recent publicity on the insecticidal uses of this plsute-Haller and Malndoo (180). aWIUK ELIPTcuU (Hoohst.) Pax. Msharaka.

The branches of this plant in East Africa were used on maggotinfested womds-Bally (50o









8APIUM INIMCUM Willd.

The seeds were used in India as a fish poison and as an insecticide.-Roark (332, p. 35).

SEBASTIANA PAVONIANA Muell. Arg. Arrowwood.

This species is found in Guatemala* Its milky juice caused the death of various insects.--Scarone (353). STILLINGIA SYLVATICA L. Stillingia.

Extracts from this plant were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.Metzger and Grant (277).

TRAGIA sp.

This is one of the insecticidal plants occurring in Nicaragua.Roark (332, p. 38).

Comments by reviewer.--Despite all the Fork done on the numerous species of Zuphorbiaceae, none have yet furnished material for a valuable insecticide.

FABACEAE
(Pea Family)

ABRUS PRECATORIUS L. Prayer beads.

Extracts of the roots and stems killed only 10 percent of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell and Wilooxon (188). ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L. Peanut. Groundnut.

Many published papers discuss oil of peanut or groundnut as an insecticide and repellent. ASTRAGALUS GUMMIFER Labill.

Various gums were tested with oils to find stable emulsifiers. Tragacanth gum was unstable.--Ginsburg (158). ASTRAGALUS app. Locoweeds.

When honeybees were poisoned by these plants, adult workers and
pupae were mostly affected, the field bees dying first and then the pupee. The queens frequently died, and the colonies became demoralized, and sometimes died.--Burnside and Vansell (72).








-83

BAPTIBIA TINCTORIA (L.) R, Ttr, Synonymi: Sophora tinctoria Lo

YeOllow wild indi j

The plants 'when plhad in the harness kept flies from the horses.Williums .(4a281 p. 916),

An alcoholic extrsct and a decoction had no effect on cotton caterpillarso-Riley (325, p. 184),

Tracts from third plan', were not repellmnt to thf~s Japanese beetle,-Metzger and Grant (277),

BUTEA )8)NOSPERLA (Lam.) Tgube Synonym: Bo frondoss Roxb. Buteao

Kino gum.

In India the seeds were used for the oure, of dhobies iteo.
Watt (4229 Yo 19 p. 553).0

This wts one of four efficient gum among those tested with oils to find stable emulsifiers*-Ginsburg (158)*.

The seeds were used as an insecticide in India.*-Chopra and Badhwar
(98).

CAJANUS INDICUS Spring.

This species, found in Mysore, India, was of no value as an insectiaide*-Puttarudriah and Subramaniam. (311-). CALOPOGONIIJM VELLUT1U& Benth. Catinga do maoacoe

In Brazil satisfactory results were obtained with the alcoholic extract of this fish-poison plant against lice and ticks* Chemical analysis indicated thpt the extract contained rotenone*-Ildefonso Ramos (211).

CLADWATIS (KAACKIA) A1JRBNSIS K. Koch. Cladrastis.

Extracts of the roots and stems killed only 5 percent of the mosquito larvae tested*--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188). CLITOR'. MACROPHYLLA Wall*

Extracts of the roots of this plant from Siam were slightly toxic to the bean aphid.-Tattersfield and Gimingham (391).






-84

CRACCA spp. See TEMHRO8IA.

CROTALARIA PANICULATA Wild.

This plant was used in India as a fish poison and as an insectioide.-Roark (352, p. 14).

CROTALARIA spp.

In tests an the effect of poisonous plants on cane grubs in Queensland this genus was the most promising.--Jarvis (220).

CROTALARIA VERRUCOSA L. Synonym: C. anguloea Lan.

The juice of the leaves and tender stalks was used in cases of soabies.--Watt (422, v. 2, p. 614).

IJSUS LABURNUM L. Laburnum.

Cytisine is an alkaloid showing physiological properties similar to those of nicotine. Tests with body lice, in which garments were impregnated with weak solutions of oytisine, were satisfactory from the experimental viewpoint, but this alkaloid was too toxic to the human skin to be considered as a practical louse remedy.--Bacot (48).

Cytisine is rather widely distributed in nature, being found in many species of Cyisus and also in several species of Genista, Ulex, Sophora, and Baptisia. It has been isolated from the seeds of laburnum (66peroent), gorse (1.03 percent), broom, Sophora speiosa Benth. (the poison bean of Mexico and Texas, 3.23 percent), Se secundiflora Lagasoa (a small shrub of Texas, 3.47 percent), S. tomentosa Sohrurbaum (2.06 percent), and Baptisia australia (1.56 percent-). The crude oytisine, unlike nicotine, did not prove toxic to the eggs of a moth. A 5-percent chloroform extract of the seeds killed 100 percent of the bean aphid and a 2.5-percent extract killed 80 percent, while a 0.06percent nicotine solution killed 92 percent.--Tattersfield and coworkers (39.3).

CYTISUS SCOPARIUS (L.) Link. Scotch broom.

An infusion made from freshly crushed broom tops was recommended
for killing larvae of the cabbage butterfly. In France it had also been found effective for removing cochylis larvae from vines and various caterpillars from apple trees.--Anonymous (26).

Water extracts from the tops of Scotch broom, collected in two
localities, had practically no effect on silkworms. Since this plant contains sparteine, a 0.5-percent solution of sparteine sulfate was fed to silkworms. This solution proved efficient but acted very slowly.-McTndoo and Sievers (259, p. 22).






-85

Sparteine has a narcotic action similar to that of coniine and, to some extent, of nicotine. Sparteine was tested both as sulfate and as base. The sulfate was not found materially toxic at a concentration equal to 1 percent of the base, but the base at this concentration gave 100-percent control of the bean aphid. Sprays containing 0.35 and 0.2 percent of pure cytisine killed 100 and 80 percent of bean aphids, respectively, and sprays containing 0.5 and 0.4 percent of crude cytisine killed 98 and 80 percent. Sprays containing 2.5 and 1.0 percent of crude-chloroform extract of broom seeds killed 100 and 40 percent.Tattersfield and coworkers (393).

DALEA VULNERARIA var. BARBATA Oerste Synonym: Parosela barbata (0erst.)

Rydb.

Two constituents were isolated from this Florida plant, but they were nontoxic to insects.--Roark (342).

DERRIS. Synonym: Deguelia.

Since several reviews on the use of Derris as an insecticide have
been published (Roark 234, 339, and 340), the reader is referred to them for digests of the literature on this group of plants. Little information is given here other than to name the species that have been tested for insecticidal value. A more recent article by Roark (343) discusses the
present status of rotenone and rotenoids as insecticides.

DERRIS BENTHAMI Thw.

Insecticidal investigations on this plant, which was reputed in
Ceylon to be a fish poison, were begun in 1928.--Stockdale (375, pp. 78-79).

DERRIS CHINENSIS Benth.

This species has been found by test to have insecticidal vplue.-Roerk ( 334, p. 2).

DERRIS CUNEIFOLIA Benth. Synonym: Deguelia cuneifolia (Benth.) Taub.

Derris ountmeifolia was the only plant used in Hong Kong, China, as an insecticide. It was imported in small quantities from Singapore.-Roark (332, p. 18).

DERRIS ELLIPTICA (Roxb.) Benthe East Indian fish poison. Derris.

This was the first species of Derris to be tested fot insecticidal purposes, and it is the most important species cultivated and used in preparing commercial derris insecticides.

To control the insects infesting the nutmeg plant in 1848 it was necessary to wash the leaves with a decoction of tuba root.--Oxley (29p, 651).







-86

This w-s th species tested mostly by the ,Tjnited States Departm~ent o' A~i~1ture i1919' on- 1924, although the commercial powder used wOLs
~ mitureof eliptia ed T). uliPinose,.--.VoTndoo end coworkers




Th s Ec shdisciialvle-Clfri Agri-cultural
Lxpeimeit tation (77, .5)

DURS KOOLG17' 1A Fe Me Bailey

Alchoic xtact were gaelly efficient, but thiAs species was
iinstisaoto fr iscticidal iurposes*--1Tclndoo and c~oworkers (260, pp. 168, .199).

DERRIS MALACCENSIS (Benth.) Prain. Derris

This species is effective against lepidopterous larvae.-Gater (153. p. 322).

This species and D. elliptica. are cultivated in Malaya, Philippine
Islands, Sarawakc, and Indo-China, and practically all the exported roots are obtained from these two species*--Holman (198, pp. 60, 69, 71, 73)._DERRIS OLIGOSPEIA K. Schum.

Alcoholic extracts were seldom efficient, and this species was unsatisfactory for insecticidal purposes*--Yclndoo end coworkers (280, pp. 188, 199).

DERRIS PHTLIPPINENSIS Merro

The powdered roots of this Philippine species were effective against mosquito larvae and aphids*--Castillo (81). DIRPIS POLYANTRiA Perk.

The powdered roots of this Philippine species were more effeotivb against aphids and mosquito larvae than those of either D. elliptica or Do philippinensiso--Castillo (81). DERRIS ROBTJSTA Benth. Same as for D. oligosperma. D1ER7IS SCANPENS (Roxb.) Benth.

Extracts were seldom efficient and this species was unsatisfactory for insecticidal purposes.--Molndoo and coworkers (260, pp. 188, 199).

This species, which is indigenous to (Queensland, appears to be of no commercial value.-olnan (198, p. 74).




-87

DERRIS sp.

Japanese farmers apply treatments containing a soap with rotenone derived from a species said to be Derris sekken.--Scarone (353). This specific name could not be found by F. J. Hermann] DERRIS THYRSIFLORA Benth.

This species was slightly toxic to lepidopterous larvae.--Gater
(153, p. 322).

DI RiIS TRIFOLIATA Lour. Synonym: D. uliginosa (Roxb.) Benth.

In India this species was reported to have an insecticidal value.-Perredes (305).

Alcoholic extracts of the stems from the Fiji Tslands were generally efficient.--Iclndoo and coworkers (260, pp. 188, 199).

This species, which is indigenous to Queensed, appears to be of no commercial value,--Holman (198, p. 74), DESMODIUM LABURNIFOLIUM (Poir) DC. Synonym% Meibomia laburnifolium DC,

The leaves were used as an insecticide.--Greshoff (171, p. 72).

DESMODIUM TRIFLORUM (L.) DC. Synonym: Meibomia triflora (L.) Kuntze.

A paste of the bruised leaves with kamala was applied to indolent sores and as a remedy for itch.--Kirtikar end Basu (230, v. 1, p. 430). DIPTERYX ODORATA Willd. Synonym: Coumarouna odorata Aubl. Tonka bean.

Coumarin, when chemically pure and used in relatively large
quantities, was toxic to grain weevils.--Zaoher (436, p. 152). [Coumarin is obtained from tonka beans, sweetclover, and ot-er plants, and also
made synthetically.

An alcoholic solution of coumarin has been used for mothproofing purposes (Ger. patent 485,101).--Roark (335, p. 25).

DOLICHOS LUPINIFLORUS N. E. Brown.

Extracts of the roots of this fish-poison plent from southern
Rhodesia were nontoxic to the bean aphid.--Tatterafield and Gimingham (391).

DOLl CHOS PSEUDOPACHYRRJIZUS Harms. Whayo.

The roots of this plant in East Africa are listed as insecticidal.-Bally (50).










e ,-i 0 1. s r C S f s C S C m e







7,; 9 fr or:



7

We s 7,-, e R-7c-Z were -.;se-- -- o rub on -_ Czs as a
7 7 e-, Er- 17: 1' e Ifcce, e- c.-_-slz e'- 112).

Stick, S -7= or -v-- S# indica Lam* oncsn,, lndis,, -.he ce of t- a younz leaves, was used to
ir-m5 sores *- atrtt &r a -r- 3asu (2M,, vo 1,, Po 440)

Le ommcn goaterueo Z-r--TSC.E f-rz:= -_--is -::Ien- were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.-E! e S.:j pnt 277

_z) BL-, cz s r- 'tr o cm

:-ab'-&:-e w-cx--..s in France was 4---e s=rF-,- made from an
Ie reta red as u3elUl for it had e!a SLS very satisL c-.ory, acting '- th as an insectiS-M am E_7 s-n e a:i f S e r c : e e-n '_ r s c -_ wr s :-, c c e s a
7 th e c v s e.7 e c a -bp_ e U 7eT
-re.-. -w---zs w e7 fcr 1:





-x--r F s reeds '-F-" '-e-n -sezz for
G*r. Ta-t-t 21,70C




vere not repellent to the iapanese






-89

GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM (Jacq.) Steud. Madriado.

This species was considered one of the insecticidal plants occurring in Nioaragua.-Roark (332, p. 23).

GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA L. Common licorice. Same as for Genista tinctoria.

HAEMATOXYLON CAMPECHIANUM L. Logwood.

Two commercial extracts were effective repellents against the Japanese beetle-Metzger and Grant (27?).

INDIGOFERA TINCTORIA L. Synonym: I. indica Lam. True indigo.

In Jamaica this plant was employed to destroy vermine--Porcher (308, p. 205).

A strong infusion of indigo roots was said in India to destroy vermin in the haire--Watt (422, v. 3, p. 86).

The seeds yielded a tincture which was used to destroy lice.-Grdshoff (170, p. 52).

Wool dyed with indigo was badly damaged by larvae of Tinea pellionella L. and Attagenus piceus (0liv.).--Minaeff (280).

LONCHOCARPUS app.

In 1924, when Mclndoo and Sievers (259) first reported on the
insecticidal use of cube, it was impossiTe to give the botanical name
of this plant. Since 1924 the botanists have become greatly interested in the South American fish-poison plants. Up to 1937 there was still
confusion concerning the correct botanical names for the plants known locally as cube, haiari, and timbo, but more definite information on this subject was had when Krukoff and Smith (235) in 1937 reported that they had studied 11 species of South American rotenone-yielding plants, including three new species (Lonchocyrus lvestris, L. m and
L. utilis), with special reference to native names, distributier economic importance, and specimens examined. The literature was reviewed by Roark (336, 338) in 1936 and 1938.

The six species that have been tested for insecticidal properties are reported below.

LONCHOCARPUS CHRYSOPHYLLUS Kleinh. Black haiari (British Guiana).

Nekoe (Surinam).

The species appears well distributed in British G14ana and Surinam. The rotenone content of the roots averaged 2.1 percent, and the









extraotives content 9.4 percent. The natives use the roots as a fish poison more extensively than those of the white haiari (L. martynii), as the plant is more common. The plant is not yet used for commercial purposes, although it is under experimental cultivation in British Guiana and the Federated Malay States.--Krukoff and Smith (235).

Alcoholic extracts were tested against the bean aphid.--Tattersfield and coworkers (393).

LONCHOCARPUS LATIFOLIUS (Willd.) H. B. K. Acurutu.

Extracts of this species from Trinidad were slightly toxic to the bean aphid.--Tattersfield and Gimingham (391).

LONCHOCARPUS MARTYNII A. C. Smith. White haiari.

This species appears to be found throughout British Guiana. The rotenone content of the roots averaged only 2,3 percent, and the extractives content 10.1 percent. The plant is not used for commercial purposes, although it is under experimental cultivation in British Guiana and the Federated Malay States.--Krukoff and Smith (235).

Alcoholic extracts were tested against the ben aphide--Tattersfield and ooworkers (393).

LONCHOCARPUS RARIFLORUS Mart.

This species has a wide range, being found throughout Amazonian
Brazil and in British Guiana. The roots are not collected commercially, as they contain only traces of rotenone and an average of 7 percent of extractives. An extract of the roots is often used by the natives for exterminating *sauba antse-Krukoff and Smith (235).

LONCHOCARPUS URUCU Killip and Smith. Timbo vermelho (Amazonian Brazil).

Timbo urucu (Para).

This species is widely distributed throughout Brazil and it was found often in large clumps several acres in extent. The roots often are 3.5 inches in diameter and extend from 65 to 82 feet in length, resembling garden hose, and confined to the upper 12 inches of the soil. The rotenone content averaged 4.4 percent, and the extractives content 17 percent. The bulk of roots and powder now exported from P'ra and Manaos is from this species.--Krukoff end Smith (235).

During the past decade this species has strongly competed with the L. utilis as an insecticide, but L. utilis was tested as an insecticide Tong efore timbo was known to have suicidal properties. Both species have recently been given new botanical names.





-91

LONCHOCAIRPUS UTILIS A. C. Smith. Synonyms L. nicou (Aublo) DC. Cube

aszd barbasco (Peru). Barbasco (Ecuador). Timbo (Brazil).

This species is found throughout the Amazon Basin, in Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil, and the natives generally recognize it as a very effective fish poison. Since all the specimens seen by collectors were either of cultivated plants or of plants growing in secondary forests on the sites of old Indian plantations, it is doubtful whether this species grows wild. The rotenone content of the roots averaged 12 percent and the extractive content 25 percent. The bulk of cube or barbasco roots now exported from Peru (Iquitos) is this species. The roots are seldom
collected in Bratil, as no large quantities of them appear to exist either in Amazonas or Para.-Krukoff and Smith (235).

This is the species that W. J. Dennis, head of the missionary school at Huancayo, Peru, first purchased at a shop in Huancayo for Dr. Eigenmann to use in catching fish. Some of the roots were brought to the United States in 1920 by Dr. Allen, a student at Indiana University. These were later ground into powder, some of which was sent by Dr. Eigenmann to the writer who first tested it on March 23, 1921.

LUPINUS ALBUS L.

LUPINUS ANGUSTIFOLIUS L.

LUPINUS LUTEUS L.

LUPINUS NIGER L. Lupine.

Six patents (Brit. 230,203, Can.247,578, Ger. 421,100 and 488,307,
U. So 1,610,167 and 1,885, 292) have been granted in which the alkaloidal extract of the seeds of these plants are used for mothproofing.--Roark (333, p. 56; 335, p. 38); Roark end Busbey (346, p. 29).

LUPINUS PERENNIS L. Sun-dial lupine.

ERtracts from this plant were not repe nt t 7 p Metzger and Grit (27/7).

LUPINUS spp.

A quantity of yellow lupine as grown but ~n exract of the roots gave negative insecticidal results.--Durham (123).

The leaves, stems, and roots of the three species of Lupinus tested had no marked poisonous action. Alcoholic extracts of the seeds of a perennial and of an annual blue lupine were toxic, but the toxicity of these plants was not of the same order as that of Tephrosia toxicaria and T. vogelii.--Tattersfield and coworkers (393).







-92

MULOTU 8 ALBA Dear. White sweetolover.

Extracts from this plant were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metager and Grant (277).

MELILOTUS ALTISSIMA Thuill. Clover.

Mosquitoes in Egypt fed on the juice of the highly scented blossoms, which contain coumarin. It was suggested that coumarin might have a similar action in the mosquito to that which quinine had in man and that the wealth of legwminous crops, especially of lovers, occurring in the cultivated areas of Egypt, might be responsible for the immunity from malaria in these areas.-Willoocks (426).

Inasmuch as synthetic coumarin had no deleterious influence on
adult mosquitoes (Anopheles app. and Culex fatigana Wied.), it was believed that coumarin ten witi the liquid extracted from clover blossoms would have no deterrent action on malarial parasites in the mosquito.Mayne (275).

MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS (L.) Lame Yellow sweetolover.

The natives of Bessarabia kept their houses free of moths by keeping bunches of this plant in all the rooms. This effect was confirmed by experiment.-Ossipov (295).
A saturated solution of eoumarin' tin sugar solution was ineffective against the housefly.-Jackson and Lefroy (217).

MILLZTTIA AURICULATA Baker.

In India the roots were applied to sores on cattle to kill verain.-Watt (422, v. 3, p. 89).

The roots were used as an inseoticide-Greshoff (171, p. 69).

ffMILLETTIA PACRYCARPA Benth. Fish-poison climber.

Extracts of the bark from Burma were nontoxic to the been aphid-Tattersfield and Gimingham (391).

This plant has been found of insecticidal value against certain insects in south China.--Chiu (94).

This plant is widely distributed in the mountains of Kwangsi Provinoe in China. It contains a large amount of saponin and possibly considerable rotenone. Mixed with soap it acted both as a contact and a stomach poison, being as efftaiet as derris and far cheaper*-Chan (83).







-93

The best method of cultivating this insecticidal plant in China is described.--Ku (236).

Extracts applied as sprays against adult mosquitoes were much inferior to the standard mosquitocide.--Wats and Singh (421).

An alcoholic extract of roots from China was tested against the
been aphid. Concentrations of 1,# 0.5, and 0.25 percent each paralyzed 100 percent of the aphids sprayed, but a 0.1 percent concentration paralyzed only 55 percent. In toxicity these roots were better than the leaves of Tephrosia vogelii and equal to the roots of T. macropoda which were tested at the same time, but not equal to the rotenonerich roots of Derris elliptica. Unless preatly improved by selection it could not commercially compete with D. elliptica, but where locally available it should prove of value.-Tattersfield and co-worker (394)
Th e es are toxic to several see of insects Furthbz stude
n ? l J ,c, eC-t_ i1 dt p:~o4i:i~ e~- u d


Sev .--More work on this promising plent should
be done using insects other than aphids and caterpillars.

ILLTIA FISCIDIA (Roxb.) Wight.

The wder of the bark and flowers was used as a fish poison d a n insecticide in India.--Roark (332, p. 30),

MILETT1A RETICLJLATA Benthe Roy-teng.

This plant was especially efficient for the large cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowrin ii (Baly), in China.--China National Agricultural Research Bureau 91 .

This plant grows in China, where the farmers obtained good results with the powder against cabbage pests. In laboratory tests the powdered
roots dusted on food plants killed only 33 percent of the nymphs of a grasshopper but 100 percent of the adults of Colaphellus bowringii (Baly).-China National Agricultural Research Bureau (92).

MILLETTIA TAUWANIA Hayata.

This species is found in Formosa. The crushed fresh roots provided a liquid having insecticidal properties due to rotenone. This plant served for the preparation of medicaments used against scab.Soarone (353).

MUNDULEA SERICEA (Willd.) A. Cheval. Synonym: M. suberosa (Roib.)

Benth. Mundulea.

Preparations of this plant were effective against aphids, mango hoppers, and mosquito larvae but not more than 50 or 60 percent of






-94

the other insets tested were killed. Laboratory results indicated
that it might prove to be a cheap larvicide locally available and easily andled The trestment f pieces of wood with varnishes to which an
tr t -of Mudulen had been added rendered them fairly imr t tacks of terites -- unhikannan (238, 23k,.
0 e s dier laer of ih bark were used a fish poison


un: e o w'ld over ler~e reas in Yfysore, Tndia, The laboraory, aJi fiel tess against a rax~o hopper, fra88hoppers, cattle ce an fles, a potato beetle p a sp.), a beetle store pest, ad :osquit 1 rvae, were s encoar in .as to warrant an intensive chemical study of its active principles, one of which had previously been called derrin (rotenone). In a laboratory test a water extract of the powdered bark with soap killed 100 percent of potato beetles,
and in the field the powder applied as a dust killed 70 percent.Subramaniam (377, 378).

Mundulea is common in most parts of tropical and subtropical Africa, Madagascar, India and Ceylon. It has long been cultivated, and the seeds and bark have been used as fish poisons. Extracts of the stems, bark, cork, and leaves from South Africa showed no appreciable toxicity to the bean aphid. Alcoholic extracts of the stems, seeds, and pods from India were toxic to this aphid, but extracts' of the roots and leaves had no appreciable action at a concentration equivalent to 1 percent of the plant material. The stems were the most active part of the plant.--Tattersfield and Gimingham (391).

A powder made from the dried bark gave complete protection against bruchids when it was scattered thinly over grain in bins. A half-inch layer of fine sand or powdered bark laid on top of pulses in the receptacles prevented infestation by bruchids.--Subramaniam (380, 382).

The powdered root bark, spread thinly over grain in basket bins, kept it free from bruchid attack in Mysore, India. All the insects coming to the surface from infested grain were killed, end no further breedin- took place. A 5-percent water extract of this powder killed 95 percent of the green scale of coffee in about 6 days. A 10-percent kerosene extract made into an emulsion and diluted to 50 times with water killed more than 75 percent of this pest in 3 days.Subrnmaniam (381).

This fish-poison plant is available in large quantities in the
jungles of India. A 5-percent alcoholic extract of the stem bark killed 100 percent of the caterpillars (Hypse ficus (F.)) and beetle grubs tested
in 24 hours. A 0.12-percent alcoholic extract killed 90 to 100 percent of culicine mosquito larvae. A 20-percent water suspension killed 100 percent of the mango hoppers, and the powdered stem bark dusted abruchids killed 80 to 100 percent of them.--Puttarudriah and Subramaniam (311).







-95

Mundulea has been recognized as an efficient fish poison for many years in East Africa. In tests with sprays and dusts against aphids, caterpillars, bugs, psylla, cockroaches, and,houseflies, the bark from the Moa district (rotenone 0.9 percent) was as toxic as the Amani derris (rotenone 5.4 percent), but bark obtained from two other districts (rotenone 0.5 percent) was only about half as toxic. The powder dusted on cockroaches and flies, although having a much smaller initial effect than pyrethrum and not causing any rapid knock-down, yet caused death in about half the time; derris had the same action. The seeds were about three-quarters as toxic as the bark, but were unlikely to be of any commercial value on account of their scarcity.--Worsley (432, 433).

Samples of Mundulea bark from various localities in Tanganyika
and Zanzibar, when examined chemically and biologically, fell into two main divisions, (1) those with smooth barks, which were toxic, nd
(2) those with rough, corky barks, which were nontoxic No correlation existed between toxic y and th oo o ratble ate
A fair coeatl a e !..
toxicity being about ie gr pe tone
mortality of the aphids tested ranged from 00 to 8 pe t e
12 samples analyzed ranged in rotne tent from 0 to 0 per t
and the ether extract from 4i to 89 p t.- orsley (43

Extracts of Mundulea applied as sprys .ga.st adul mosquitoes much inferior to the standard mosquitocide,-Wats and Singh (421)

Mundulea was one of three plants found to compare favorably ith standard insecticides It is largely obtained L Mysore, India, ad the stem bark contained the insecticidal principle,--Subramania ( ).

A sample of Mundulea from the Union of South Africa contained no rotenone, but it was slightly toxic to the bean aphid. A sample of stems from another source in South Africa was nontoxic, whereas a sample of stems from India was toxic. A 1-percent extract of leaves from India proved completely toxic.--Anonymous (36).

The genus Mundulea contains 20 species, the majority of which are recorded from Madagascar. At one time included under Tephrosia, it is now regarded as a connecting link between that genus and Millettia. Mundulea sericea has been found in India, Ceylon, Madagascar, and in Africa from the Sudan to Natal. The seeds and bark have been used in India and the bark in East Africa for poisoning fish. An erect shrub or a slender tree up to 25 feet tall, it shows either a smooth, greenish yellow-brown bark or a rough, longitudinally fissured, very corky yellowish-brown bark. The leaf, bark, and root of the Indian variety possessed marked insecticidal properties against aphids and beetles, in contrast to the African variety, the leaf and root of which were reported
as distinctly less potent than the bark. The toxicity of none of these parts was of the same order as that of the root of Derris elliptica (rotenone about 9 percent).--Tattersfield and Potter (395).






-96

C o=immrt by reviewer*--This is the most pronisini- insecticidal
-,nt771vre drin heI30 Although- P. rot.enone--iel ing. species,

york~7!- weth itsordbioniud











extracts of th sotsr Rhoesiad lcohesof .ds aliueous
"'77 -o were toeicto aith be apii, a1-p ret



.>hchoicxracts of theman roots pteraled leav e ,; of th ebn

aphids prayed; a 2-percent extract of the stems paralyzed 70 percent, ndof t.he roots,, 90 percent; but the leaves were nontoxic* No part of ttisp1ant was comparable in insecticidal activity with Derris ?lliptic ae--Tattersfiold and coworkers. (394).

'V-JG I I IT ALBRGIOIDS Benth.

attracts f the leaves and bark of this plant from India were nontoxc t th ben ahid.-Tattersf ield And Giming-hAm (391).0

Thisfis-posonplant Is widely distributed in Indit. A 5-percent
Alohli etrctofthe stemn bark ki.'lled 75 percent of Plutella maculisnnl (Cut,),80 ercant of Prodonia liturs. (F.) and Cooioniai
o i ~~le,,and 100 peroent of Kuproctis fratern VorToeA
C-pr~~extactof he leaqves killed l00 percent of the first, third,
d furt secis, nd9-C perc)at of the second species. Theo powdered
stem~~~~ ea~ dseupnbetles (Callosobruohus shinensis (*)kle
ony O ecet f hn in: 2 hours, but the piowdered leaves killed
1Cu pecen.-~utanidri ah and- Subram a (32)

rA~l~hR:IIZU ANGUATUS Rch

Tha srun oeed a id a slight effect on the caterpillars of
~rodena litra ().--Del~usey (76)

>QJRHIUS ~~0~s I~ran. a bxi

Theporionof the benmost' toxic to insects gives positive reactions for rconone( bhy the Gross-Smith and Duirham tests--Hwang (208).







-97

The seeds have long been used as an insecticide and fish poison
in various tropical countries. The toxic principle is called pachyrhizid, and the ground seeds had a nigh efficiency against tue striped flea beetle and aphids in China. During the summer of 1942 yam bean seeds were widely used there in the control of several insect pests of staple fooc crops. Tests conducted in New York State gave promising results asinst se 6e aphid and Mexican bean beetle.--Hansbery and Lee (181).

PACHYRHIZUS TUBEROSUS (Lamb.) Spreng.

The seeds were used in Venezuela for killing vermin,--Greshoff (170, p. 57).

PHYSOSTIGMA VENENOSUM Balf. Calabar bean.

Semen physostigmatis had no effect on the caterpillars of Prod litura (F).--DeBussy (76).

Eserine (physostigmine), the alkaloid in calabar beans, is very
poisonous to higher animals. In some respects its physioloical ati~on is similar to that of nicotine. A 0.2 and a 01 percent emulsion of eserine killed 100 and 56.6 percent of the bean aphids, respectively.-Tattersfield and coworkers (393).

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

PISCIDIA ERYTHRINA L. Synonyms: lohthyomethia Escipula (L.) Hitchc .;

P. piscipula Sarge Jamaica fish poison. Jamaica dogwood.

The powdered bark had considerable effect on fly larvae.--Cook and Hutchison (103, p. 4).

The Jamaica dogwood is used by the Carib Indians as a fish poison, and a decoction of the bark as a cure for mange on dogs.--Gifford (156).

Extracts from this plant were not repellent to the Japnese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

tracts of the Jamaica dogwood, daisy flers, and Tephrsia piscatoria were tested against codling moth larvae, but none of them appeared promising.--Siegler and hunger (unpublished report)

PITHECELLOBIUM ELLIPTICA Hasak.

Extracts of the leaves and bark of this fish-poison plant from Malaya were slightly toxic to the bean aphid.--Tattersfield and Gimingham (391).






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PONGA~IA GLABRA Vent. Synonym: Galedupa indica, Roxb. Hongay.

In India a fixed oil was prepared from the seeds, which was supposed to be an efficaoious application for itch.--Mootooswamy (286). [This oil is called hong oil or Pongamia oil.J

This species grows in Mysore, India. It was fairly effective against aphids. Extracts of the powdered root bark killed only 15 to 20 percent of the leafhoppers sprayed. Spraying with hongay oil-resin soap was effective against several species of mango hoppers and scale insects and against lepidopterous larvae.--Subramaniam (377-383).

A 5-percent alcoholic extract of the roots killed 10 percent of Prodenia litura (F.) and 80 percent of Plutella maculipennis (Curt.). A 10-peroent extract killed 100 percent of- litura. A S-percent extract killed 100 percent and a 2 percent extract killed 80 percent of Euproctis fraterna (Moore).--Puttarudriah and Subramaniam (311).

PONGANIA PINEATA (L.) W. F. Wight. Synonym: P. glabra Vent.

The oil of the seeds was an excellent remedy for itch or mange.-Dalzell and Gibson (111, p. 77).

In India a poultice of the leaves was applied to ulcers infested with worms, and the oil was one of the best native remedies for cutaneous diseases.--Watt (422, v. 3, p. 90).

A decoction from the green leaves had no effect on nasturtium aphids.--Mclndoo and Sievers (259, p. 23).

PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA L. Babchi.

An extract of the seeds mixed with kerosene gave poor results as a mosquito larvicide.--Wats and Bharucha (420).

PSORALEA PEDJNCULATA (Mill.) Vail. Sampson snakeroot.

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

PUEPARIA THUNBERGIANA (Sieb. & Zucc.) Benth. Kudzu vine.

Extracts killed none of the mosquito larvae tested.--Hartzell and Wilcoxon (188).

ROBINIA PSEJDACACIA L. Common locust.

Infusions of the powdered bark mixed with manure were slightly effective against fly larvae.--Cook and Hutchison (103, p. 4).





-99

Extracts were not repellent to the Japanese beetle.--Metzger and Grant (277).

SESPANIA ACULEATA Poir.

In West Africa the natives claimed that anima2s washed in water in which the leaves of this shrub had been pounded could safely traverse a tsetse fly belt.--Dalziel (112). SESBANIA AEGYPTIACA Pers. Synonyms Aesohynonmene sesbania L.

In the Punjab the seeds mixed with flour, were applied externally, as a remedy for itch.--Kirtikar and Basu (230, v. 1, p. 418). SESBANIA PUNCTATA DC. Sabral,

The natives in Africa used a decoction of the leaves for wasin animals to prevent bites of the tsetse fly.--Holland (197, p. 198) SOJA MAX (L.) Piper. Soybean.

Many papers discuss soybean oil as a, insecticide, but since this oil is not poisonous, it is effective in other ways, chiefly mechanically. A review of it will not be given herb. SOPHORA FLAVESCENS Ait.

A decoction of the stems and leaves is used in Japan as an insecticide.--Greshoff (171, p. 65).

SOPHORA GRIFFITHII Stocks. Synonym: Keyserlinpia criffithii Boiss.

The powdered seeds mixed with oil kill lice in the hair.-Greshoff (171, p. 65).

SOPHORA JAPONICA L. Pagoda tree.

Extracts of the roots killed 20 percent of the mosquito larvae
tested but extreacts of the stems killed none--Hartsell and ilcoxon (i88) SOPHORA MOLLIS R. Graph.

This plant was used as an insecticide in India.--Chopra and adhwar ( SOPHORA PACHYCARPA Schrenk.

This species grows wild in central Asia and is a rich source of an active alkaloid, pachicarpine, which might be used as a contact insecticide. Sophodust has been proved effective in controlling aphids.-Anonymous (33).






-100

The alkaloids are intermediate between Pnabasine and lupine in insecticidal power. d-Sparteine, contained in the vegetative parts of this species, is the most toxic alkaloid.--Sokolov and Koblova (372).

SOPHORA TOMENTO8A L.

Exbtracts of the seeds showed little toxic -otion to the bean aphid. Crude extracts of cytisine-containing seeds -h as these with the possible exception of laburnm, are not likely to prove of practical importance. Cytisine itself, if it could be prepared cheaply, would be worth further consideration. Cytisine showed no action as a stomach
poison against larvae of the moth Selenia tetralunaria Hufm.Tatterefield and coworkers (393).

SPATHOLOBUS ROXBURGHII Benth.

A sample of roots of this fish-poison plant from Burma contained about 1 percent of rotenone. An extract was highly toxic to goldfish and larvae.-Jones (221).

STYLOSANTHES BIFLORA (L.) B. S. P. Pencil flower.

Extracts from this plant were not repellent to the Japanese beetle*--Metzger and Grant (277).

TEPHROSIA. Synonym: Cracca.

For a long time it has been known that Tephrosia possesses insectioidal properties, but a serious study of it was not undertaken prior to the work done in 1925 by Tattersfield and coworkers (592). Since that date it has been studied considerably and if it had not been for amore lively interest in Derris and Lonchooarpus, Tephosta might now be one of our commercial insecticides instead of being still in the experimental stage. However, progress with it has been handicapped by the fact that the most promising species do not contain so much toxic of the principles as do cs. an species of Derris and Lonchocarpus.

In 1R37 the literature on Tephrosia as an insecticide was reviewed. Of 55 species listed 10 aere reported to have insecticidal value.-Roark (37).

TEPHROBIA AMBIGUA M. A. Curtis.

Extracts from the roots and seeds collected in North Carolina were slightly toxic to houseflies, but were not promising.--Jones and coworkers (222).