Uses and dosages of cryolite for insect control

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Title:
Uses and dosages of cryolite for insect control
Physical Description:
8 p. : ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. -- Division of Truck Crop and Garden Insect Investigations
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insect pests -- Control   ( lcsh )
Cryolite   ( lcsh )
Plants -- Effect of pesticides on   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 8).
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by the Division of Truck Crop and Garden Insect Investigations.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
"January 1944 ; E-610."

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030289101
oclc - 779845011
System ID:
AA00025109:00001

Full Text



January 1944


1-60o


United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Intomology and Plant (uarantine


USES AIND DOSAGES Of CRYOLITI FOR INSECT CCTTROL

Prepared by the Division of Truck /
Crop and Garden Insect Investigationre,



The uee of oryolite for insecticidal purposes is relatively new,
but, on account of the limited supplies of rotenone, pyrethrun, and the
arsenicals, cryolite is now being more generally recommended for insect
control. Recommendations have been published as to its use on a few
species of insects, and since there are available unpublished data,
which can be used as a basis for additional recommendations., this cir-
cular is being issued as a supplement to the published data. It ite
hoped that it will lead to the development of more closely correlated
and less confusing recommendations for the use of cryolite, particularly
with regard to dust mixtures. The information given is not to be con-
sidered as final and is simply based on the experimental data available
in the Bureau; therefore it does not cover all uses of cryolite or the
recommendations made by other agencies. The published literature oan
cryolite has been reviewed recently by Carter and Busbey (1) and by
Marcovitch and Stanley (2).-'

Natural cryolite constitutes the largest source of cryolite for
insecticidal purposes. This material contains approximately 90 percent
of the toxic agent, sodium fluoaluminate. Another source of cryolite is
the synthetic or processed material. A domestic synthetic cryolite is
available which contains approximately 95 percent of sodium fluoaluminate,
and until recently there was available an imported synthetic material
which contained about 97 percent of sodium fluoaluminate. Cryolite can
be used in the undiluted form, but in this form, in the more humid regions,
its "dustabillity" is poor. Therefore, in an effort to improve this condi-
tion, inert materials, such as talc and pyrophyllite, in varying proportions,
have been added to the undiluted cryolite. The addition of sulfur may also
improve its dusting qualities. Hydrated lime ie not used because cryolite
decomposes even with small quantities of hydrated lime. It may also de-
compose to some extent and cause plant injury when mixed with such mate-
rials as bordeaux mixture, lime-sulfur, and calcium arsenate, especially
if an excess of lime is present.


i/
The information in this circular was furnished by the Divisions of the
Bureau responsible for research on the specific insects involved.
/Underscored numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited (Pae 8)
Underscored numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited (Page 8)






-2-


Uses

Cryolite has had itse greatest usefulness as an insecticide in
the control of caterpillars; for example, its usefulness in the con-
trol of the sugarcane borer has recently been demonstrated, and it is
also recommended for the control of the velvetbean caterpillar on soy-
beans, peanuts, and other legumes. It is useful as a substitute for
lead arsenate in the control of the codling moth on apples in the semi-
arid valleys of the Pacific Northwest, and of the gypsy moth as a pest
of shade and forest trees in the Northeast. As a substitute for calcium
arsenate it has been used against the tomato fruitworm on tomatoes, the
bollworm on cotton, and several species of caterpillars affecting
cabbage.

Cryolite has been useful in the control of various species of
beetles. It has been used extensively for the white-fringed beetle on
peanuts and other plants that will not tolerate arsenicals. In Cali-
fornia it is used as a substitute for calcium arsenate for pepper weevil
control. In the absence of rotenone, cryolite is used as a remedy for
the Mexican bean beetle.

Oryolite is also used for the control of the walnut husk fly,
but, with this exception, its insecticidal use has been chiefly con-
fined to the control of caterpillars and beetles.


Plant Tolerance

The commercial cryolites available during recent years have
usually been found noninjurious to the. crops mentioned in the tables
of this circular, although a few cases of injury have been reported.
In the eastern States cryolite has been recorded ag injurious to the
fruit and foliage of apples and to the fruit of peaches. Its use on
corn cr grapes is not recommended because of injury to the crop. In
New Jersey B. B. Pepper has directed this Division's attention to ap-
plications of cryolite affecting adversely the growth of tomatoes, snap
beans, lima beans, cantaloupe, and sweet corn.


Dosages

Experimental work at hand indicates that the control obtained
with cryolite on a given insect is mainly associated with the number
of pounds of the sodium fluoaluminate applied per acre, rather than
the quantity of dust mixture applied or the strength of the mixture.
For example, irrespective of the percentage of cryolite in the dust
mixture employed, the control of the tomato fruitworm depends upon the






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amount of sodium fluoaluminate applied, that is, 40 pounds of a dust mix-
ture containing 35 percent has been as effective as 20 pounds of a mixture
containing TO percent of sodium fluoaluainate. The most practical rate of
application of the dust mixture will be dependent upon the equipment to be
employed as well as the insect and the crop to be treated. The dosage re-
quired. to give maximum benefit to the grower will also depend upon the
margin of profit of the crop and the severity of insect infestation.

Table 1 lists several insects upon which there has been sufficient
work with cryolite as a dust to serve as a basis for tentative recommenda-
tione, and it gives the strengths of dust mixtures currently recommended
together with the corresponding quantities required per acre for adequate
control. Usually in order to obtain adequate coverage the amount of mate-
rial used per acre is increased as the plants become larger. Por example,
in California the investigations on the control of the tomato fruitworm on
tomatoes have been rather extensive and show that three applications are
required, and if a 70-percent mixture of sodium fluoaluminate is used, 20
pounds per acre is sufficient for the first application, 30 pounds for the
second, and 40 pounds for the third. Table 2 gives the average quantity
of sodium fluoaluminate to be applied per acre and the quantity of dust
mixture to apply when it contains 90, 70, and 50 percent of sodium fluo-
aluminate, respectively. These quantities are based on the average of the
dosages and strengths given in table 1 for each usage.






-'4-

Table 1.--Qaantities of cryolite dust mixtures and their sodium fluoaluminate
content designated in current recommendations for the control of
different insects


I
Insect C rop



Tomato fruitworm Tomato

Tomato pinworm Tomato

Lima bean pod borer Lima beans

Mexican bean beetle Beans

Tomato frulitworm Beans

Pepper weevil Pepper

flea beetles Tobacco

Bollworm Cotton

Velvetbean cater- Soybeans, peanuts, and
pillar other legumes

White-fringed
beetle do
Cabbage coter-
plllareJ Cabbage and cauliflower

Sugarcane borer Sugarcane

Flea beetles Potatoes

Cabbage looper Lettuce


I Quantity of dust mix-: Sodiua fluoalu-
iture per acre per ap-: minate content
pDlication 1
Pounds Percent

20 to 40 70

20 to 40 70T

20 to 25 so80

15 to 25 70

15 to 25 70

15 to 25 50

10 to 15 70 to s0

10 to 15 70


7 to 12


7 to 12


or 901/
or9 i


31.5


Undiluted cryolite.

2/ The cabbage looper, the cabbage webworm, the tomato fruitworm, and climbing
cutworms. Cryolite is only partially effective against the imported cabbage worm
and diamondback moth.










Table 2.-- quantities of sodium fluoaluminate required per acre per applica-
tion in cryolite dust mixtures under current recommendations, to-
gether with equivalent quantities of mixtures of different
strengths

~ i Average quantity i QaAntities of mixtures of
Insect t Crop :of sodium fluoal-: indicated sodium fluo-
t :uminate require& : aluminate content_
___p~er application :90 vercent:TO gercents:50 percent


Pounds


Pounds


Pounds Pounds


Tomato frultworm

Tomato pinworm

Lima bean pod
borer

Mexican bean
beetle

Tomato fruitworm

Pepper weevil

Flea beetles

Bollworm

Velvetbean cat-
erpillar


White-fringed
beetle

Cabbage cater-
pillars-

Sugarcane borer

Flea beetles

Cabbage looper


Tomato

Tomato


Lima beans


Beans

Beans

Pepper

Tobacco

Cotton

Soybeans, pea-
nuts, and other
legures


do.


Cabbage and
cauliflower

Sugarcane

Potatoes

Lettuce


I/
Cryolite diluted with inert materials is not recommended at present for use
against the velvetbean caterpillar, white-fringed beetle, and sugarcane borer.


See footnote 2, table 1.


_L/







-6-


Table 3 lists the insects for which cryolite has been used in the form
of liquid sprays and gitvee the quantities and strengths recommende.* The
indications are that oryolite applied. as a spray is more effective per pound
of sodium fluosluainate than when applied as a dust. This is probably due to
better coverage and adherence, especially when an adhesive such ae linseed
oil or fish oil is included in the spray mixture.









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Cryolite has also been used successfully in a bait containing
corn meal for the control of the tomato fraitworm on tomatoes and on
beans and cabbage. The formula recommended is 1 pound of cryolite
containing 85 to 90 percent of sodium fluoaluminate to 9 pounds of
corn meal, the bait being scattered over the plants at the rate of
40 to 80 pounds per acre of tomatoes and beans and 25 pounds per acre
of cabbage. For the tomato fruitworm on tomatoes 5 to 6 pounds of
sodium fluoaluminate per acre applied in the corn-meal mixture have
given results comparable to those obtained by the use of 21 pounds
applied in a cryolite dust mixture.


Warning

While cryolite is probably not so highly toxic to warm-blooded
animals as are the arsenicals, it should be handled with the same care
as is used in handling the more poisonous materials. The hands and ex-
posed parts of the body should be washed thoroughly after working with
this material, and care should be taken not to inhale excessive quanti-
ties of the dust. This can be avoided by the use of well-designed res-
pirators.

Cryolite should not be applied to plant foliage that is to be used
for food. It is difficult to remove residues successfully from such
plants as cabbage, lettuce, and leafy vegetables such as kale, turnips,
swiss chard, and broccoli. Cryolite should not be applied to lettuce
within the period of 35 days before harvest. It should not be applied.
to cabbage after the heads begin to form in other words, after the
central leaves cease unfolding and begin to become compact. This usually
occurs 30 to 40 days before harvesting normally begins. Undesirable
residues are likely to be found on tomatoes or lima beans if applied.
within 2 veeks of harvest and on snap beans or peppers if applied after
the pods begin to form. However, if late applications are necessary on
tomatoes, beans, or peppers, it is possible to remove cryolite residues
from these products, as well as from apples and pears, by proved washing
or wiping methods, and any residues present must be removed before the
products are marketed or eaten.


Literature Cited

(1) Carter, R. H., and Busbey, R. L.
1939. The use of fluorine compounds as insecticides, a review
with annotated bibliography. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Ent. & Plant
quar. Circular B-466 (processed), 145 pages, 692 references.

(2) Marcovitch, S., and Stanley, W. V.
1942. Fluorine compounds useful in the control of insects.
Tenn. Univ. Agr. ZExpt. Station Bul. 182, 46 pages, illus.,
96 references.