A 25 October 1944
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH ADMIIISTPRATION
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AID PLLIVT QUhPANTINE
A REVIEW OF THE INSECTICIDAL USES OF ROTEIIONE AND
,. ROTENOIDS FROM DERTIS, LONCHOCARFUS (CUBE AID
TIJTBO), TEPHROSIA, AND RELATED PLIANTS
2' PART VII: LEPIDOPTERA
By R. C. Roark, Division of Insecticide Investigations /
Introduction ---------------------------------------- 2
Aegeriidae ---------------------------------------- 2
Amathusiidae -------------------------------------- 5
Arctiidae ----------------------------------------- 5
Blastobasidae ------------------------------------- 7
Bombycidae ---------------------------------------- 7
Citheroniidae ------------------------------------- 11
Coleophoridae ----------------------------- 12
Cosmopterygidae ---------------------------------- 13
Cossidae ------------------------------------------ 13
Crambidae ----------------------------------------- 13
Galleriidae ------------------------- 14
Geometridae --------------------------------------- 18
Gracilariidae ------------------------------------- 23
Hesperiidae --------------------------------------- 23
Hyponomeutidae ------------------------------------ 23
Lasiocampidae ------------------------------------- 25
Limacodidae ---------------------------------------- 30
Lymantriidae -------------------------------------- 31
Lyonetiidae ----------------------------- 38
J/The manuscript of this publication was read in the follov.ing re-
search divisions of the Bureau and helpful su1gesticns were contriburt'-d:
Fruit Insect Investigations, Trucl: Crop anij '-arden Insect Investig-ations,
Cotton Insect Investigations, Insects Affectins Man und Animals, Contrcl
Investigations, Cereal and Forage Insect Investi-ations, -AnL' Insect
Identification. The reviewers in these divisions were rospectiivel",
D. L. Van Dine, W. H. Mhite, R. WI. Earned, F. C. B.islhopp, L. A. La.,ins,
C. M. Pa ckard and C. F. 7'. Idousebeck anw the specialists on Lepi loptcru
in his Division (Insect Identification).
y"" Imphalidae 3-------------------------- 9
Cecophoridae ------------------------ 41
Olethreutidae -------------------------- 42
Papilionidae ---------------------------------------- 65
-h alaQnidac ------------------ --------------------- 65
Phaloniidae ----------------------------------------- 100
Phycitidae ----------------------------------------- 100
Pieridae. ------------------------------- -------- 103
Plutellidae ------------------------------------------ 119
Psychidae ---------------------------- ---i--- ----- 129
Pterophoridae ------------------------------------- 1350
Pyralididae ---------------------- ----------------130
rt:'r.ustidae ----------------------------------- 130
Saturniidae ----------------------------------------- 147
Sphingidae ----------------------------------------- 148
Tineidae --------------------------------------- 151
Tortricidae ---------------------------------------- 153
Zyaenidac- ---------------------------------- 158
Literature cited ----------------------- 171
Junior-author index -------------------------------- 213
Insect index --------------------------------------- 216
I mTF.ODUC TIO' 0
ThIs is the seventh in a series of pY.pers desi-ned to review all
available information on the insecticidal .scs of rctenonc and the
rotenolds. Part I rcviov.'ed tests .:ith derris, cube, tinbo, Tcphrosia,
rundulea, and their constituents on inic-nbers of thie Collcmbola, Orthop-
tera, Dermaptera, Cdonata, Isbptera, Corrodontia, aid I allophaea.
Apparently no tests k'ith the rotcnonr: plants on Thysanura, Bphemcrop-
tora, or Plccoptcra hcv b,'eri recorded. Pcrt II rcvic-rcd the tests
that have been. made on Thysanoptera; P.rt'f III, the tests on Haomoptora;
Part IV, the t.sts on Hcr.-miptcra; Part V, the tests on .-noplura; Part
VI, the tests on ColcoptIc-ra, and Part ,,II, the present paper, reviews
the tests and reconmcndsations for usc on Lcuidoptcra.
,' c ,:;c ri idace
Cephonodes ylas (L.)
Corbett ancd Yusopc (82) in 1,32 stated that the extract from 20
pounds of tuba root di-lut-cd to 100 inpcrrial gallons Trith vater, al-
though hot so satisfactory as lead arsonatc' in solutions of 4 *pounds
to 100 gallons of vatcr, is effective s,.ainst the ooffoc clear-wing
moth on coffee bushes.
1lelittia satyriniformis Won., the squash borer
At the 1934 meeting of the Akmerican Association of Econo:mic Entc-
mologists, as reported by the United States Department of' %gricrIlture
Bureau of Entomolo l- and Plant -uar-antine (437), Cort led a. discussion
of field results v.ith arsenical substitutes for the control of ve'et-blc
insects. -.eadlee, of ilewv Jersey, stated that the squash bor':r is amen'-
the insects .that may 'be controlled with derris dust.
Burdette (5,5)ir. 1935 recorded results of tests :ith t'!rc:_ de-rris
dusts and one derris saray, all r1atcrials bcing arolicd three tiv.i-s to
the stems and basal portions of thc plants only,/Cc-:. taki,. -to cover
all parts thoroughly, be.-innini July 10, -.hcn e --s -.vCere first found.
The dusts vrere an.-lijcd with a Vormorcl puff" duster t: spry it a
Vermorel hand spraycr. Th., total .rnount or dust applied ._cr acre r'-.g'd
from 55 tc 65 pounds.
.Increase in borer-. Increase in
lIaterial fr'orn vir.os ov:r v:cipht of" squash
:c?.cc:. : over check.
-c ro c nt FPerceoni
Derris 25 + talc 75 (rotmnonc = 1 83.5 3'3 ,.5
Derris 20 + sulfur 25 + clay 55 71.5 7-.5
(rotcnono = 1 percent)
Pyrethrum extract in c'--rricr 57.. 3c. 5
Lead arsenate 3 pounds/lCO gallons 51.7 29.5
+ 'I percent oil
Hoadlce (136) in 1935 reported trsts ;..de in '-.: J,:rsc,:., v'ith derris
as a suistitutc for arsenic-ls on vcgctabicz. VP.- scuc.s-. borer is anron.:;
the insects that "e.,- be controlled i-- di-ris dvst.
The 1cev Jersey A-ricultural Bxncrn.incnt St.tion (292) in 1935 rcnor-
ted that aP mi;:tur2 of 20 parts of .'in.l, ground dcrris root (5 nercant
rotenone and I1 to 20 perc,-ent total accton. e::trctiv'c ), 25 parts )f
finely [-round sulfur (300-m.csh), e-nd 55 "arts of finely :rounr c.'y con-
trols this insect.
The nost effcctivc insccticid-2 tr-..tm.rt, accordin,_ tc tl r Lk.ssv-
chusetts Agricultural FxL),rimci.t Sation (270) in 1907, ar.s a s-rav. ,.r,.-
pared front cube cooider at the rr.t, of I' .oTTIs in 100 r-allcrs of '.-tor,
and made v.'cttable ,ith fishl-oil soar, at L-i r..tc o 1. qu:.rt in 100 .'v.l-
lons of s 'ray. This reduced t.c injur. 7,i p r?:nt. Sr:-vcin: '.tth
nicotine sulfr-te 1:500 plv.s 1 "-crc',',t o. s5u.v.r on l -.:'s :- ', -ff.cti,-'
than nicotine sulfate 1:250. Dusts ,,'ere not so effective as in 1935d :
although they protected the vines Prom serious injury and were applied
much more quickly and easily thsn the sprays. Pyrethrum-clay dust 50:'
70 gave slightly better control than derris or cube dusts.
The same station (271) in 1938 re-oorted that the liquid sprays
were consistently superior to the dusts, although the cube-clay dust
containing 0.6 percent of rotenone wias nearly as effective. As in
other years, the spray consisting of nicotine sulfate 1:500 plus summer-
oil F.mulsion 1:100 was the most effective treatment and reduced the
borer injury 38.59 percent. The wettable cube spray using 4 pounds in
100 gallons of water r showed a reduction of 81.53 percent and, being less
expensiTe, would seem more practical. Contrary to the results in 1936,
the pyrethrum-clay dust containing 30 percent of pyrethrumn powder was
Average borer Reduction in injury
Treatment Plants tunnels per over check
Tur m e r Ntiub e r Percent
Check 25 3,68
Nicotine sulfate 1:500 19 .42 88.59
+ oil emulsion 1:100
W'ettable cube spray, 4 28 .68 81.53
lbs. in 100 gallons
'Iicotine sulfate 1:250 22 .77 79,08
Cube-clay dust, 0.6 per- 25 .84 77.81
cent of rotenone
Derris-clay dust, 0,6 27 1.48 59.79
percent of rotenone
Pyreothrum-clay dust, 30 29 2.06 44.03
percent of pyrethrum
The average field infestation in hubbard squash at Yi7altham in 1937
vas S.68 borers per vine, which is throe times as heavy as last year.
_Derris powder, 1936; othor powders, 1937.
The borer moths were late in apnecario.-: and the first treatment was not
applied until July 9, followed by three additional alications at v.0ch-
ly intervals. This station (272) in 1939 rcoorted that insecticides
were applied on July 6, 13, 2T2and 29, and 40 perci.nt of nicotine sul-
fate 1:250 permitted an average of 3.06 borer tunmrls per vine, a reduc-
tion of 54.12 percent over the infestation in the untreated plants.
Cube-clay dust (0,6 percent rotenone), w.cttablc. cube soray (4 pounds in
100 gallons), and a neutral copper-rotenone dust (0.8 percent rotenone)
all reduced the infestation approximately 45 percent. Nicotine sulfate
1:500 plus oil omul'sion 1 percent and cube-clay dust (0.75 percent ro-
tenono) wcre less effective in the record but obviously wvore affected
by the unfavorable weather conditions.
The 'c.v '" York County agents' Training School (299) in 1938 discussed
the control of insects attaching vegetables, including the squash borer.
Dcrris d-st with 1 percent of rotenone gave 79 percent control; derris
spray (4 pounds to 100 gallons),.73 percent control.
The '-:isconsin Agricultural Ex.pcriment Station (488) in 1938 repor-
ted that the effectiveness of dorris insecticide against this insect
v.as improved by including 2 percent of oil emulsion to the spray.
Crosby, Chupp, and Leiby (87), of the Corncll University Agricul-
tural Fxtension Service, in 1939 reported that recent insecticide-control
tests indicted that dustin7,g the plants vith a 1 percent rotenone dust
v.ill give good conmcrcial control of the insect. Sprayin with derris
or cube at the rate of 4 pounds to 100 gallons of spr.' also g-avc fair
control, but not quite so good as the dust. The trcatnments should be
started about July 1 and repeated at weekly intervals until 4 or 5 anli-
cations he.ve been made. 7hc s-ray or dust should be applied over the
entire plant. The rotenone in the insecticide kills the newly hatched
larvae and also seems to have a repellent effect on the moth at the time
of egg laying.
'r. 17. J. Haude in 1939 stated, in advertising literature published
by John Powell and Co., e-?.'e" York, Tev York, that v. wettable cube or
derris spray (4 pounds to 100 gallons) -.ill give better than 80-percent
reduction of infestation.
A.nathusia phidippus (L.)
Fli nance (137) in 1520 su--,_'ested tuba-root (derris) po'.-:der for use
against the larvae-of the large coconut butterfly.
Arctia caia (L.)
Van der Laan (244) in I.F36 reported that thi s pecies vas no. ..f-
fectcd by derris.
Diacrisia lubricipeda (l.)
Van der Laan (244) in 1936 reported that thief species was not
affected by derris.
Diacrisia subcarnea (Talk.) ..
The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (214),.Tokyo,.
Japan, in 1927 reported that Neoton at 300 gm. plus 750 gm. .of .
soap per 40 imperial gallons of water gave 100-percent mortality
of the larvae of this species.
Estigmene acraea (lrury), the salt-marsh caterpillar
-Finch et al. (133) in 1939 recommended derris preparations
for control on grapes in Arizona.
Tyria jacobacae (L.)
Craufurd-Benson (85) in 1938 reported that for testing derris
insecticides by his d-ppirin method (Mu. EFlt. RP;,. 229",l) many
insects are unsuic6. e. C.-rnba" mouth lr"Ivae, Tv. (-ipo:f.i .a)
jacobacne (L, ), h,,ra been trisd -..th umneljib-i rtrx-lts. This
was probabi;; due Lo t_ e var--iable '-ea-.Ft condtions F.t the timee -6f
collection, the variety of food material, the lack of uniformity in
the size of the lrvae, and the impossibility of knowing their age.
Hyphantria cunea (Drury) the fall webworm
Mclndoo, Sievers, and Abbott (264) in 1919 reported that cat-
erpillars about one-third grown were killed o-ithin a -eek .by a ....
spray containing 1 pound of derris po-der to 5 gallons of water.
Mixtures .rn.nirig f:.op. 1 pound per 50 gallons to 1 pound per 200
gallons -ere not satisfactory because nearly all the sprayed foliage
'-as eaten and not all the caterpillars -'ere killed.
Brit.ain (5O) in 1924 reported derris to be of no value against
the l1.rvo e. In Lht-s.a tests the larvae were dipped in a suspension
of derris in -"ate.' .nC. then allo'-ed to feed on unsprayed leaves;
also, larvae "rexe allowed to feed-on dipped leaves.
Kopp (242) in 1924 reviewed the use of derris as an insect-
icide. Derr..s po'-d.er has given excellent results against larva*
of this sIec.a,
Kel.all rt al. (233) in 1926 reported that the larvae were
strongly reis-,nrh to derris dust and derris spray. Not even at 10
pounds per I oO Imerial gallons of -'ater did the derris have the
Kelsall rid Stultz (234) in 1937 reported laboratory tests of
derris (b.95 p--rceuit rotenone) and pyrethrum (0.94 percent pyrethrins)
as dus'.s, --i-.h _-ypsum as the diluent. Derris 25 percent and 100 per-
cent each produ,-:ed 20 percent mortality in 5 days. Feeding on foliage
was somewhat reduced. Phrethrum at 50 percent gave 100 percent mort-
ality in five days.
Hamilton-(180) in 1938 reported that on walnut trees the larvae
were satisfactorily controlled by derris or cube po";der spray (0.02
percent rotenone) plus rosin-residue emulsion (4 pounds per hundred
gallons) as a sticker. The spray acts as a cor.t'ct poison, the
effective period being 6 days. There was 100 percent kill of
larvae in sprayed ,rebs.
According to the Ne7: Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station
(294) in 1938, derris or cube powder in water to which rosin-
residue emulsion had been added was effective.
'.;. J. HIaude in March 1939, in advertisir- literature published
by John Powell end Co. New York, N. Y., recommended a cube or derris
spray (4 pounds of powder containing 4 percent rotenor? per 100
gallons plus 4 pounds rosin residue emulsion) against this insEct
In cage tests Bonrote (a rotenone spray made by the Bonide
Chemical Comr-any) at 10 pounds per 100 gallons gave 67.7 percent
kill of two-thirds-grown exposed caterpillars at the end of 13 days.--
Felt and Bromley (128) in 1940.
Agicide DC-4 (rotenone 0.6 percent at the rate of 4 pounds
per 100 gallons of water (0.003 percent rotenone in spr.ny) killed
from 50 to 100 percent of bro'"n woolly-bear caterpillars within
96 hours.-Agicide Laboratories (8) in 1939.
Utetheisa lotrix (Cromer)
U. pulchella (L.)
Dusting with derris mixtures containing 0.5 to 1.0 percent
of rotenone failed to give more than 30 to 50 p-rc~nt control of the
larvae in the laboratory. About 50 percent of the ctcrpilJlns
of U. lotrix survived after being dusted in the field with derris
dust cont-iinirg 2 percent of rotenone.-Van der V.-cht (454) in
Holcocera iceryaeella (Riley)
See 33singer and Poyce (24) under Arg.rotinia citrnni
(Fern.), on pnge 154.
Bombyx mori (L.) the silkworm
Silkworms were used %s test insects by 'ry.. et al. (149)
in 1923 in evaluting derris extracts.
The cold alcoholic extract of cube used without soap was effect;
ive. A water extract of a species of Lonchocarpus had no effect.
A commercial derris powder was effective. Used as a fumigant (burn'
it was also effective.--Mclndoo and Sievers (263) in 1924.
Gross and Frihey (170) in 1930 referred to tests made by F. L.
Campbell, which h indicated th"t rotenone as a stomach poison is
30 times es toxic to silkrorms .s is lead arsenate.
F. L. Campbell (60, 61) in 1932 reported results by Davidson.
Rotenone suspended in water 1:1,000 sprayed on leaves and fed to
the third instars as 3 sandw-ich killecr all; at 1:5,000, 40 percent
were killed. Uore precise results were obtained by Campbell with
fourth instars. Using the sandwich method as described by Campoell
and Filmer, Campbell found the median lethal dose of rotenone to
be about O.003mg. per gn. Since the m.l.d. of acid lead arsenate
for the fourth instar is about 0.09mg. per gm.n rotenone is about
30 times as toxic as ncid lead arsenate for this insect. In two
of his tests Davidson did not kill all the silkworms. In his
quantitative tests of v-rious stomach poisons Campbell found that
the nost obviou. effect of nearly lethal doses is to prevent the
larvae from feeding on untreated leaves for a period that depends
on the quantity of the sublethal dose. '-hen lethal doses of roten-
one are taken, the silkworm does not eat again, but may remain
alive for several days. The toxic action of rotenon? is slow as
compared with that of established insecticides, and the silkworm
is so slowly aftEcted by rotenone that it may t-ke a dose many
times as large as the median lethal dose. The quantity of roten-
one tha-it an insect may ert in excess of the median lethal dose
depends on the concentration of rotnone on the 'oliage, the feed-
inq habits of the insect, and its specific reaction to rotenone.
Dr. Campbell ilso reported in 1932 that the m.l.d. of malachite
green for -'o,.'rth instnrs is -bout O.025mg. per gin.
Ginsburg(163) in 1932 reported experiments -pith waxes as
possible carriers of insecticides. An emulsion containing 1 percent
of spermaceti, derris-root extract 1:400, and 0.2 percent of tri-
ethanolamine oleate caused a mortality of 96 Dercnnt after 72
hours. Similar tests vith paraffin (42 m.p.) and with paraffin
(55 m.p.) instead of the spermaceti gave mortalities of 95 and
100 percent, respectively. Derris and triethanolamine oleate at
the same strength without wax gave a mort-lity of 90 percent. These
tests were made as follows: Pulberry twigs rere sprayed with the
desired, solutions and placed in vials of winter under cages. As
soon as the leaves were dry, 20 third or fourth instqrs were
transferred to the foliage in the cages, 3 or more cages being used
for each test. After 72 hours, the number of dead and living cat-
ert illars was counted. The derris was used in the form of an extract
equivalent to 1 pound of derris root (4 percent rotenone) to a galbor
of stock -mulsion. Simil r tests with a pyrethrum extract equivalent
to 1 pound of flovrers (0.9 percent pyrethrins) to a gallon of
stock emulsion killed less than half as many caterpillars.
Shepard and Campbell (368) in 1932 tested compounds isolated from der-
ris and- derivatives of rotenone, by the leaf-sandwich method of Campbell
and Filmer, as modified by Campbell, in fo,.irth instars with the follow.ring
Rotenone approximately 0.003
Dihydrorotenone not more than .010
Deguelin between 0.01 and ,012
Tephrosin between 0,03 .and .060
Acid lead arsenate approximately .090
Toxicarol more than 1,540
Derritol more tVan .870
Rotenrol more than .510
Dehydrorotenone more than .400
Tubaic acid more than .540
Voelkel (460) in 1933 gave an account of the after effect of a derris
preparation on some silkworms that were not killed by it, but there was an
apparent decrease in the number of individuals produced. The insects were
carried through two generations.
Ginsburg and Granett (164, 165) in 1934 reported on the insecticidal
properties of completely extracted derris-root residue, applied in the form
of coarsely and finely ground dusts, against chewing and sucking insects.
Silk moth larvae, cabbage worms, and apple anhids were us'.d. The results
suggest the followvring conclusions: Derris-root dust is very toxic to
sucking and chewing insects. Against :.phids the toxicity was greater vihon
the dust was applied on wet than on dry foliage. iosidues from derris root
completely extracted with acetone possess practically no toxicity to aphids,
but are both toxic and repellent to caterpillars. Pesiduos from dorris
root extracted first with acetone and then with i'atur do not seom to possess
direct toxicity to caterpillars but act as a deterrent, preventing them
from feeding on the dusted foliage. [Nlote: It is doubtful whether the
extractions were completev---R.C.R.]
Ginsburg, Schmitt, and Granett (167, 160) in 1934 reported th- toxi-
city of various extracts of deorris root to suc!:ing and chcvring insects.
Derris root ias )xtractcd with acetone, alcohol, and watcr, two different
processes beint used, one cons-isting oC continuous distillation in a
Soxhlet apparatus for 10 hours, the otLher, of making a suspension of the
ground root in c'Leesecloth and washing severLL! times with fresh solvent.
Secondary extracts were obtained by re-e:tra.ctinL the root residues from
one solvent with another solvent. The -.rirnary and secondary extracts
were tested on apple aphids, silk moth catcr,)illurs, --nd mosquito larve.
The results suggest the following, conclusion:.i Water-soluble organic tol-
vents, such as acetone and alcohol, E re able to extract prar'tically c.11
the water-soluble and water-insolublo ingrndients of derris root toxic to
sucking insects. Either continuous distillation or soaking vrith s ubsr~qunnt
filtration and bashing will extract practically all the active priiic.plos
of derris root. At low dilutions the "'utor extracts compared ".'oll in
toxicity with acetone and alcohol extracts but proved inferior to th-mn in
high dilutions. 1T-ater extracts rapidly deteriorate on stEnding, with
resultant loss of toxicity.
Garnett (169) in 1935 described further studies on the insecticidal
properties of derris-root residues extracted with different solvents.
Extractions were made by continuous distillation in Soxhiet apparatus
for about 10 hours. These solvents can be divided into two groups:
(a) Water-soluble: Ethyl alcohol, acetone, and acetic acid; (b) water-
insoluble: Ethyl acetate, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, chloroform,
and ether. Successive or secondary extractions were obtained by re-extrac-
ting the marc with the same or a different solvent. In some cases, the
residue left on re-extraction was still further extracted with another
solvent. The extracts were used to determine the percentage of total ex-
tractives present. The residues left after extraction and certain of the
extracts were tested on silk moth larvae. The following conclusions were
drawnvm from the results:
Ethyl alcohol was the only solvent vhich removed practically all
the insecticidal substances from the root, leaving a residue which
produced slight, if any, effect on silkworms or aphids. All the
mars tested, exerted a deterrent effect on silkworms.
The percentage of total extractives obtained from derris root
varies with the type of organic solvent used. Water-soluble solvents
tend to extract more total solids from the root than do vwater-insol-
uble solvents. However, the removal of a large percentage of total
extractives by a solvent does not al-..ays indicate more efficient in-
secticidal extractive properties.
Tests on insects with the mars and with certain of the extracts
indicate that the water-soluble solvents also extract more of the
active insectibidal ingredients.
Re-extraction with the same solvent after 10 hours' continuous
Soxhiet extraction removes very little, if any, additional solids or
insecticidal material from the root.
Successive extraction with a water-soluble solvent (acetone or
alcohol) of a residue previously extracted with a water-insoluble
solvent (ether or carbon tetrachloride) removes additional insectici-
These results are also referred to in the annual report of the New
Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (292) for 1935.
Fischer and Nitsche (134) in 1935 reported tests On fifth instars
with rotenone and various derris preparations. Pure rotenone 0.15 gm.
in 98 cc. of neutral Turkey-red oil plus 2 cc. of acetone diluted with
water 6:94 killed 9.7,5 percent of the silkworms within 2 days.
Tischler (413) in 1935 studied tie mechanism of howy derris kills
insects. Studies on the heart rates of various insects (including
silkworms) showed that the rate of pulsation was markedly decreased
before the insects exhibited incoordinated movements. Other tests
made with silkworms led to the conclusion ti-at derris inhibits oxygen
utilization by the tissues and that its detrimental effects are general
rather than specific to any organ.
Trappmann and Nitsche (417) in 1935 reported that rotenone sprays
gave 98-percent and rotenone dusts 109-percent rrortality of fourth instars
of the silkworm after 8 days. Dosage was regulated to give a deposit of
0.18 mg. of rotenone per 500 cm.2.
Klinger (237) in 1936 reported tIe results of toxicity tests carried
out with pyrethrum eytrct and ,,ith rotenone and derris root on fourth
instars of a number of Lepidoptera. Fifteen-percent petroleum extracts of
pyrethrum and of rotenone were dilute& to 0.15 percent, with Turkcy-red
oil for spray tests and with talc for dusts. These talc and Turkery-red
oil preparations served as standard solutions, beirg diluted further for
the tests. The sprsy balance described by Trappmann and Nitsche and the
dusting bell used by Lang and Welte wcre employed For measuring th? dosages.
The concentrations used in the actual tests "*ere 0.00015 gm. or pyrethrin
or rotenone in 100 gm. of dust (on 415 cm.2) and 0.00018 gm. in 100 gm.
of spray (on 500 cm.2). In some instances it ',,sF necessary to d oubl: or
treble this concentration.. The standard agents w.re kept in well-closed
containers in the dark and no loss in toxicity was apparent arter 4 to 5
months. The tests w.re carried out at room temperature (19' to 25 C.).
The spray gave 100-percent and the dust 95-percent mortality of 20 fourth
instar silk,'orms after 8 days. Derris dust caused 100-pcrcent mortality
in 6 days. Rotenone wa3 less effective than pyreti-.rurr. a ginst rnost rf
the insects. Derris root was markedly more toxic than rotrnone,.showing
that the other active constituents of the ro't--trpbrosin, dcr-uelin,
and toxicarol--are of importance. The- toxicity of the insect poisons
in derris root, expecial ly rotenone, was sho'wn to be due t a h:indering
of cell respiration and not to any action on the nervous system s'ich 3s
that caused by the pyrethrins.
Anisota senatoria (A. & S.), the orange-striped ouk worm
Two small oak trees, on which about 300 caterpillars of tLhis
species were feeding, were sprayed thoroughly 'ith derris -t t}.e rite
of 1 pound of ponder to 25 gallons, of water; soap -es added at
the rate of 1 ppund to 50 gallons, "nd a knpsack sprayer .,as used.
within 24 hours the larvae become inactive and ceased to feed, and
at the end of 6 days no living ones could be found. '.s a check
on this test, powdered lead arsenate -73s applied at the rate of
1 pound to 50 gallons of water, and almost identical results were
obtained. In a sedohd test a small tree ,as sprayed and 24 hours
later about 50 larvae -.ere placed on it. The caterpillars 'te very
little and gradually disappeared, evidently leaving thU trc..-, and
at the end of 5 days they ,we-e nearly all gone.-L'clndoo, Sievers,
and Abbott (264) in 1919.
Kopp (242) in 1924 in a review of the use of derris os an insecti.
cide stated tho-t derris powder has given excellent results against
this species vwhen used as a spray (500 gin. to 100 liters containing
250 gm. of soap.)
Piotts and Thitten (337) in 1940 described tests '.with conc,-ntr-ted
mixtures for aeriil spraying. In order to determ'n3 botherer certain
concentrated spr y mixtur-s could be successfully ap1ied from tie
air, and to study the comparative merits of various spr&qding -gents,
adhesives, arsenicals, and substitutes for arsenicals in concent-
rates, 22 mixtures wer= spr-yed on woodland plots from an a.utogiro.
1 o1r i nr 0 "i th
Frsh foliag- fr'.m most o' the plots 's fed to fo rt` ?n ..ith
instars. The dgr-.e of control was determine- by cc-pari--.' the
amounts of frass passed by l!rvae feeding on sprayed an6 on un-
spriyed foliage. These foliage s'mpp :s -.,ere taken 1 to 56 d.:.,s
after treatment ane in all cases the s,.r-7 r side ,,s sf' iciant
to kill some of the larvae. The arsenic0l sprays were more toxic
thin th;? organic spr'-ys after the longer periods of Lx:osur-:. rh
toxic principles of derris, de-rris extrn ct, nicotine sulfat.:, free
nicotine, and quebracho-fixed nicotine remain-ed on thk J"oli-ge
in ef -ectivz quantities after 2 to 3 weks' exposure.. with the
exception of lime-sulfur none of the mixtures caused any injury
to foli-g., of wild blsck cherry. The following derris mnxtur-s
were tested: (1) Derris 1, fish oil 0.4, water 5.6- (2) derris
1, fish oil 0.2, spreader B (wat:r-soluble sulfonic acid o1 pect-
roleum) 0.07, .'.r' fin oil 0.2, .-:-ter 5; 'and (3) derris extract 1,
acetone 1, fish oil 4, spreader A (alkylphenylbenzene sulfonic acid)
0., wter 37. The derris powder contained 4 ?rc.:nt of rot non
and the derris extract 2r percent.
Coleophori laricella (Hbn.), the larch c!sebearer
Kelsall et al. (233) in 1926 re.portd that derris, both dust
and spray, gave a measure of control.
HFimilton (180) in 1938 reported that on larch trees 75 percent
-r. controlled by a -Ir-,y of derris or cube po-.der (4 percent
rotenone) at 4 p,'.unds per 100 gallons of water plus 4 pounds of
rosin-residu.- emulsion. ThtL spray acts as a stomach poison. The
Ef,-ctlve period is 3 to 4 days. Results sre slow. Thes,- results ire
rcjf-'rr.cd to in the 1938 -innuil r..p,-.rt of the e je-.rsey Aqricultur-il
Exp-.risnnt St-tion (294),
'7. J. Haude in 1939, in advertising literature published by John
Powell and Company, Ner- York, N. Y., recommended cube or derris spray
(4 pounds of powder containing 4 percent rotenone per 100 g-llons
plus 4 pounds rosin-residue emulsion) against this insect on'la-rch.
Coleophora malivorella Riley, the pistol cnseberr-r
Pesirs and Gould (325) in 1930 tested Derrisol, -:lone and -lso
rith Penetrol. as an activator, against the nevly h-;tched larvae.
Varying results wer- obtained.
Coleophora pruniella Clem., the cherry c-sebe-rer
Hutson' (205) in 1932 reported th-t a summer application of
Derrisol 1:800 plus lime-sulfu.r solution 1:40 as a contact spray kill-
ed 84 percent of th-i larvae or. cherry tru.-s. Nicotine sulfate
1;800 plus lime-sulfar 1:40 grive a control cf 88 perc. nt.
Batrachedra amydrauls .'eyr.
Derris qnd derris plus sulfur -ere inef'.ctiv., ag-inst the-
lesser dote moth.--Dowson (iO_) in 1935.
Cossus cossus (L.)
Debussy et ?l. (57) reported in 1936 that this species is sensi-
tive to derris dust but difficult to reach.
Chilo simplex (Butl.), the '.siatic rice borer
The Institute of Physical an-: Ch_:micdl Rcse-rch (214), Tokyo,
Japan, in 1927 reported th-it .'c-oton at ti-: r-tc- cfr 1 pound in 40
imperi-1 g-'lons of -ntf', spr.ycd, on tV- eqrs soon ift. r ovi-
position ind kcpt rorn r-in, giVwt rcrt-.lit. if 5.) p.rccrt.
.Chilo suppressalis (':-1k.) (syn., Di"tre'r 2uirciclia Dudr:-on)
Jack ( 216) in 1923 wrote thnt the juice txtr-r.ctrd fr:.- D,.rris
ellipticn was most effective in conb-ating this t-m-hbzri-a& ins-.ct
Crambus bonif-Itellus (Hulst),
C. sperryellus Klots
Bohart (39) in 1940 reported th-t dorris extract cont-ining 2
percent of rotenone, dilute-' 1:400 w'ith -.at:r an.-, .-pplied it tlm. r-tc
of 1 gallon p:r squ-re yard, rnvc tompnrrary control of th,.C-. tv-o
sod web.-,orms known to dam-ge la-.:ns in California.. This trc.-tm,.nt
did not prevent rcinfest-tion -ithin from 3 weeks to 1 month; there-
fore, it was necessary to r pert the treatment from one to three
times during the sumirer. Le-d 7-rs-nite used .t the rate of 5 pounds
to 1;000 square feet in 50 gallons of water, with 2 pounds of white
flour added as an adhesive, gave excellent temporary control and
retained its effectiveness throughout the season under most conditions.
;.here watering is done every day, it may be necessary in some cases
to make two applications a month apart, usin7 10 pounds of lead
arsenate and 4 pounds of flour to 1,000 square feet.
Crambus teterellus (Zinck.)
North and Thompson (308) in 1933 reported that damage to velvet
bentgrass by the bluegrass webworm was reduced from an rvera-e of
2.25 percent ;6 an average of 0.25 percent by the application of
1.5 pints of a proprietary rotenone extract per 111 gallons of water
per 1,000 square feet. Lead arsenate 2 pounds in 20 gallons of w-ater
per 1,000 square feet reduced the damage to zero.
Crambus spp., sod webworms
Apply a dust (1.0 percent rotenone) at the rate of 1 pound per
100 square feet of wetted sod, or spr y with cube or derris powder
(4 percent rotenone) at the rate of 4 pounds per 100 gallons of
water.--Faude in 1939, in advertising literature, published by J.ihn
f.owell and Co., !tew York, N. Y.
Crambidae sp. (unidentified), crambids on tobacco
L. B. Scott, at the second annual meeting of the Tobacco I,-sect
Council in 1938 (_4;), discussing the use of dips prior to setting
tobacco plants, st-ted that cube dust may be used with safety but
its effectiveness against cr-mbids is not known.
Arenipses sabella Eampson
Derris and derris plus-sulfur were ineffective against the
greater date moih.--Dowson (100) in 1935.
Gater (154) in 1925 reported dipping tests with larvae to detwr-
-mine the relative values of extracts of differ nt species of
Achroia grisella (F.)
Dusting with derris powder was unsuccessful.--..nonymous (V in
Dichomeris m-rcincllus (F.), the juniper web,'orm
A series of sprays and dusts was applied on DVny 8, 1936, to trees
in a heavily infested nurs-ry block and ther-:fare adjacent to in-
fested unsprayed trees. On Cctcber 14, results 7jrE as follows:
After rotenone spr-ys (sov.3r-'I dilutions of rotenone-bear"hn. prop-
rietary sprays 9nd 2 pounds of 3 percent retcnone dust in 50 g-llons
of water with and without spreader), the trees were heavily infested.
Results obt- ned -'ith rotenone dusts have been variable. The best
kill, 73.3 percc:nt, was obtained with a 0.75 percent rotenon- dust
applied late in th7 summr-nr.--Lmngford (247) in 1937.
Keiferia lycopersicella (Busck.) the tomato pinworm
Barfoot. (23) in 193c wrotE as foll.-is:
Due tc the rather outstanding result being obt-'ned
in the c-ntrol of the pea leafmir.er by the use of standardized
rotenone liquid spr ys, it is this v.ritr's opinion that if
the s,,me procedure -vere adnpted 6n the tomatoes, this ratErial
would go far in the way of conrtr.-lling the 'pinrorm;' however,
I strongly recommend spr-ying early and as often as 7v. ry 10 d-lys
from blossom time until maturity.
C. A. Thomas (40Q7, 408) in 1936 reporting on tests made in P.,nn-
sylvania, sa-id that the lbrvae ?rere easily affected by derris, pyre-
thrumn, cube, and nicotine dusts and sprays, and proprietary insec-
ticides containin- these mat.rir.ls or extracts of them in combination
,7ith various carriers. Ground der-is and cube root (2 to 4 percent
rotenone) and mixtures of these with carriers s,'c as dusting sulfur,
bentonite and inert C, also are toxic, although the larvae die quietly
without the violent reaction and strong re gurgitation ch-rct:ristic
of pyrethrum effects. Tomato leaves dnstd with a dcrris po'"der
containing 4 -,ercent of rotenone were still toxic to these larvwe
at the end of 4 v'e.:ks, although the plants wer expos.: in a -indow
during that tii-,. After the tomatoes have begun to form. such
contact materials as derris, rotc.none, pyr,:cthrur., or nicotine dusts
and sprays should be used. These materials, e-pccially de-rrIs,
containing several percent of rot.non;, are very toxic to the larvi.3,
and will kill them or brief contact. "'-ny proprietary dusts contain
too lo'7 a 7erc,.nta-r, of rotenone to b- ..*'y toxi,-. 7-:tr..c'ts 'ith
any of these materi-Ils should b gin with the sm-l1 s edlin(s n-nd be
repe-tud at intorvwls of r -eo.k or 10 days,
The Pennsylvinia agriculturall Experiment Station (327) in 1437
stated that dustirn "ith sulfur-cl-y--:.:rris-lead ars.:-'r te ve ,--
Elmore (110) in 1938 repcrt-J t_ sts of inscic+idcs at ll,. -.'br':,
Calif. Cube extract was ineffective. Cryolite and, cupron: cyanide,
in eith. r s',r.ys or dusts, wv rt. the moast .-:f ctive.
Haude in 1939, in advcrtisir- literature, [ublish,.] by JolIn
Yn 1. Y., citc-d Thr T's "Pi~nncylv'.ni, ,'hn
Powell and Co., Nev York, Y., itd This f Pi nnylvni, ho
f-und derris dust very toxic to ymuni larvae.
Pectinophora gos-ypielln (S'und.) the pink boll-. :rm
V- 4+-. - 3 i--i. /i rS s- irii -- A .A- -*i-i- ~ .
and small field-plot te-ts nt El Paso, Tcx., stat-d that derris was
by f.r the most effective insecticide used. In addition to prevent-
ing the young larvae from entering the bblls, derris was a repellent
,nd decreased oviposition on the dusted bolls.
Chapmrn and Cavitt, in a type"'ritten report tothe Division of
Cotton Insect Investigations, Burl-au of Entomology and Plant Quaran-
tine, gave the following results of laboratory tests with cube and
other insecticides in Presidio, Tex., in May 1934. Petri dishes
with a small coin placed in the center were given a light covering of
dust a pli-d with a small hand gun in a dusting chamber. Approximately
25 newly hatched first instars were placed in the undusted circle,
which had been covered by the coin, and were allowed to crawl into
the dust. Examinations for mortality were made at interva--ls ranging
from 1/2 hour to 2-1/2 hours. Four dusted dishes and a check -,ere
used for each test. In series I, 13 insecticides, including several
samples of derris from different sources, cube, and pyrethrum., wvere
us:d. The derris samples contained fr-'m 1 to 8 p-rcent of rotenone
and the cube contained 6 percent of rotenon-. .Ill the samples were
mixed with flour in equal proportions. Pyr-thrum sho'"ed no kill,
"while many of the derris samples and th- cube ro:t showed as m-ch
as 100 percent kill at the 2-1/2 h.'ur :yxamin.ntions. The checks
showed no :,.ort.lity."
In series II, the above-mentioned samples -,ere all diluted with
flour 1:3. "At the end of 2 hours there 'ere fsw larvae alive in
any of the tests and in one sample there was 100 p-rcent mortality."
In series III, the two samples of derris that gave the best results
in Serics ILandlII and the cube were selected. Dust No. 1: Derris,
claimed to contain between 5 and 7 percent of rot-non2-, was mixed
with flour 1:7. Diluted dust therefore contained approxi ,ate1. 0.75
percent of rotenone. In 2-1/2 hours 86,5 percent of the larvae were
dead. Dust No, 7: Derris containing 5-V'8 percent of rntenone was
mixed with flour 1:7. Diluted dust therefore contained approximately
5/8 percent of rotenone. Eighty percent of the larvae were killed
in 2-1/2 hours. There was no mortality in the chucks during the
same period. Dust No. 12: Cube containing 6 percent of rottn--ne
was mixed with flour 1:7. Diluted dust contained 0.75 percent of rot-
enone. .ll the larvae wers dead in 2-1/2 hours.
Fenton, Chapman, Owen, and Fife (13l) in 1934 reported the results
of laboratory and field tests with insecticides at Pr sidio. Tex.
In the laboratory tests for larval mortality, gr-;een bolls grown under
cages and worm-free were usec'. They '*._re cut from the plants ",'ith
attached stems, which were inserted through carboard covers over j-rs
of water. Th? bracts wver-. removed and 10 eggs about rrnqdy tr' h-tch
were inserted beneath the involucre. The bolls were then thoroughly
dust-d and were ex-min.:d 4 to 5 days later, Powdered derris (rot-
cnone, 4.8 percent) was the most effective material in laboratory
tests. It reduced the number of w.orms per boll over that of the
checks 89 percent.
The field tests were c.-'nfincd to small groups of plants. '.11
the bolls of suitable size ,were tagged and the infestations "stepped up'
in i half .of themra by placing 10 egge under the irnvolucre, and leaving the
otlier half with the natural infestaTJ on. The bo.ls were collected after
10 days and examined for worms that had nntercd. In the field tests
derris reduced the number of -!-orms 23 percent on the stcpped-up infestation
and 49 percent on the nutral infestation. Of the 12 insecticides tried,
only sodium fluosilicatc (.26 percent re-duction or, the stepped-up infestation)
was better than derris.
..The effect of dusting bolls on cviposition :as tried by placing 5
pairs of moths in breeding cages with dusted and undu'sted bolls and deter-
mining the total number of egas laid and the percer-tAge laid on the bolls.
Moths in the derris c.gcs became inactive and the avcr.ge longevity
was somewhat reduced.
Chapman, HollinLs'7orth and Robertson, in a typewritten report to
the Chief' of t-e Division of Cotton Insect Investigations, started that
only slight reduction in tl.e pink boll:,orm infestationlwas effected in
plants, heavily dusted with a mixture of cube and sulfur (j percer.t rotEnone)
at Presidie, Tex., in 1935. Cube (5 percent rotenone) used as a spr-ny,
10 pounds to 50 gallons of watcr and 2 pounds of flour, r-:dueed the worm
population 71.9 percent, as compared -",ith 46.8 percent. from the use of
barium fluosilicate -spray. Chapman an.d 'illiars, in a typc',ritten report
in 1936 states that a dust of 10 percent cube, 10 percent pyrcthrum, and
80 percent sulfur (0.49 perce.it. rot:rone), us-d ijn cage t+sts in 1936,
was not so effective as barium fluosilicat,- or c-lcium ar-enmte. The
weighted average perc-:ntage reduction in entries w; 94.22 for barium
fluosilicate dust, 81. for calcium 9rsenat: dst, and 76.21 for the cube-
The.Texas Agricultural Experiment Station (t04) in 1936 and 1937
reported the results of tests by Chapman and cth rs. Field tests -er-
conduct3d during T934 using derris, one of th. ti'r,. insecticides that
showed most promise in 1933. Sulfur seam7d slightly su4-*rior to eith-r
flout, kaolin, or tobacco lust as a diluent for d&rris. in 1937 t:e
Texas Agricultural E:,-perirm nt St:ti,.n (405) reported on r--r....ial mT: s'ires
conducted by CLapmqn as fol ow/s: SJasonal infexf- tion counts in"uicfat
that barium fluosilicate anr cube--sulf'ur used-' sers-tc",y -s dusts or
sprays reduced the 7orm population. This' "as mor: ;poDrm.t on the pl.Ints
dust:.d wit>- barium ffluoilicat.. Further in' .titio. r. recr s'ry
to determine the merits of insectilciJc,- ror the c, ntrol oft tis i-.s, et.
The United Stte.s eoartmcnt of Agricultir.--, 3ur.:u of 1rn.tlry
and Pl9nt Qusrpntine (42) in 1936 r.:-port--.d th;t barium fJu.: Iic}t
cube, 9nd cub--sulfur mixtur.- -t.rc -:.l.ct..d for idditicr.n -I Id-
pl6t tests. All g-ve some control, is indicr,.-td by a. r,.iuction -f the
the number of -or-ms per boll, but n-:nE ,..r:. -.ry fi'cti7e r 3 tisfactory.
Roark (JQf.-) in 193S r3.vicwved ti.c compsrtivr a.tior; f dcr-is or3
cube of equal rotc-nont content on many ins.+ t -.e rJ-' rrcd to a
typewritten report by Ch-pman and C.vitt, cf the Di. islon of Cotton Tns,.ct
Investigations, who, in 1934, made labor:4or:, t.--stg on rirst in-
- 18 -
star pink bollworms at Presidio, Tex. Derris dust diluted with flour
to 0.75 percent of rotenone killed 86.5 percent in 2-1/2 hours; cube
dust of equal strength killed 100 percent in 2-1/2 hours.
Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.) the Angounois grain moth
Breakey and Miller (48) in 1935 reported the results of tests
with rotenone as follows:
Rotenone sprays were prepared from an extract of derris
in pine oil, assaying 5 gnm. of rotenone for each 100 cc. Emul-
sions were made fr m this stock containing 1 part of rotenone,
19 parts of pine oil, 5 parts of saponin, and 75 parts of water,
Dilutions made from these emulsions gave the desired concen-
trations of rotenone. An attempt was also made.to use rotenone
as a colloidal suspension, preparing the suspensions from an
extract of derris in acetone with the aid of a protective
colloid, tannic acid. The results obtained from the use of
these suspensions confirmed, in general, those obtained from
the use of the enulsions, However, since there appeared to
be impurities present in the suspensions which might affect
the behavior of the toxin, these results have not been used
in preparing this paper. A concentr-tion of 1 part of
rotenone in 50,000 parts of the spray killed more than 95
percent of the egcs.
Smerinthus ocellatus (L.)
Trappmann and PTitsche (417) in 1935 reported that rotenone
sprays and dusts were not effective against fourth and last in-
stors, respectively, of this species. Dosage was regulated to
give a deposit of 0.18 mg. of rotenone per 500 cm..
Klinger (237) in 1936 reported that rotenone spray (0.18 mg.
per 500 cm.2) killed 5 percent in 6 days and rotenone dust
(0.15 mg. per 415 cm.2) killed none in 8 days. Derris dust killed
60 percent in 4 days. These tests were made in the laboratory on
fourth instars. Rotenone and ground derris root produced no
symptoms of poisoning when applied to the body segments of larvae
of this species.
Abraxas grossulariata (L.)
DeBussy et al. (57) in 1936 reported that the maepie moth
is sensitive to derris dust.
Van der Laan (24.) in 1936 reported that a plague of the
currant canker-orm on gooseberry in the Tetherlands was effectively
controlled with derris.
Alsophlla pomet-ria (Harr.), the fall cankerworm
Felt and Bromley (126) in 1937 re-orted the results of tests
made in 1936 and 1937 ssveril brands of pyrethrum powder and
cube powders applied in a mixture of summer oil, 1:200, as contact
insecticides. In gener-1, results on exposed tent caterpillars
were better than on this species, In 1938 these authors (127)
reported on a comparative test conducted in May 1937, of lead arsen-
ate, cryolite, and derris-resin-residue emulsion. :A woodland boratr
comprising deciduous trees up to 80 or 90 feet maximum height
whidh were lightly infested with the -oung caterpillars, was spray-
ed with power sprayers. The derris powder (4 percent rotenone and
15 to 16 percent total ether extractive,) was applied at the rate of
4 pounds to 100 gallons plus rosin-residue emulsion at 2 quarts to
100 gallons; Kryocide cryolite at 4 pounds to 100 gAllons plus S.S.S.
Spreader at 2 pounds to 100 gallons; and lead arsenate at 5 pounds
to 100 gallons plus 0.5 pound of S. S. S. Spreader to 100 gallons.
On the young larvae a good initial kill was obtaLned with all three
materials, the most lasting protection being obtained with lead
McDaniel (260) in 1938 reported on control on elms in lichigan.
All sprays were applied under 600 to 800 pounds pressure at the
nozzle. None of the sprays caused injury to the foliage. Results
were good with cube and derris applied in June 1937 at the rate of
3 and 4 pounds, respectively, plus 3 pounds of rosin residue per
100 gallons of water. Plo live larvae were found on spra-yed -Ims
at the end of 72 hours, but they were numerous on the checks.
Bupalus piniarius (L.)
See Traggrdh (416) under Panolis griseoviricratn, page 92.
7eis (477) in 1931 reported that fifth instrirs were very
resistant to Polvo but the effect of the poison was noted in a
decrease in the amount of excrc.ent.
Schwerdtfeger and Stahl (367) in 1937 reported tests made in
1936 with 12 proprietary contact dust insecticides aga nst larvae
of the pine geometrid in Prussia. In the labor3tcry, batches of
50 larvae were dusted in the Lrn,--"'elte apparatus [Rev. .ppl.
Ent. (A.) 18:7011 with quantities corresponding to about 45 p-'un-ds
per acre, fed on untreat-d material, and, examined for .nortil-'ity
after 2 days. Seven insecticides baseri on d:rri',, cY:.'-thr-., or
veratrine caused average mort-lities r',ngii p from 44 to 100 -p.. r-
cent, -m ile 5 based on dinitrocr'esol _rive 100-p.7rcent mortality.
The effect of the latter w- s confirmr-d in furti .---r tests, in h- ch
almost complete mortality was obtained in 2 hours. In fii-.l work
brtwe&n July 20 7,nd *.ugust 20, t.e ins-cticides were -pplied b,',
power dusters at the rate of 45 pounds i,.r acre in u-nix-'.:] pine
stands, each test area covering rcfirly 2-1/2 ac-. Th. fir-t gro ,p
of 7 1 nsecticides gave 'v,.r-,re 7,ort--.litiL ^,f 30-79 perc',nt, ,:hile
the 5 dinitrocr.--sol poisons piv.. mortalities of from 90 to "') pr-
cent. Th: latter c,,sr slight scrrcl.ing of the pin .:-., but onrly
when the -'iount ',ppli.d :s *xci siiv,
Chcimatobia brum-nti (L.)
Gimingham and Thttersfield (161) in 1928 found that fxtr'.cts -f
Tephrosia vogelii leaves and the stems and roots oP black and 7Lite
haiari were extrerly r-'pellent to larvae of th-Z winter moth. Extr-cts
of T. toxicaria roots and of T. macropoda stoens 9nd roots verec also
r.2pellent to the larvae on '-':thorn. Even at hiah dilutions (1 part of
plant mnteri.l to 400- parts of water) the spr'-yed foliage remained uneaten,
and the lnrvne died of st-rva'tion. Soap 0.2o' pe-rceint, was added to all
Kesrns, a"rgh, and Pearce (231) in 1933 r:portEd th,-t derris spray
gave good control of smill winter moth !arva3;. Comm.-rci-] experience
with derris as a means of controlling apple ps-sts. in Engl'nd is limited
and the results have been variable. The ii.difftei'r-nt results -re- probably
due to the use of too low a conc-ntration of the t.-xic principle (rctenone),
Derris is used moa.nly in two forms for the preparation of spr-ys:
(a) Finely ground derris root added to a .'e.k soap solution, and (b) an
oil -E-zulsion consisting of a derris extract in o mineral or vegetable
oil. The duration of effective toxicity after application of some prep-
arations may be several days, but critical data on this point are not
available for apple pests. Derris dusts have rot bern used to any extent
Kearns, .'-rsh, and Martin (230) in 1934 tried mixtures of rotenone
and lime sulfur "or the control of the winter moth on apples in Worce-
stershire, England. The composition of the rotenone spray ws as follows:
1.2 ounces of rot--nong, 1.18 pints of acetone, i15 gallons of line-sul-
fur, and 1 pound of sulfonated Lorol to 100 imperial g-llons of vrtcr.
This was pr paced by the addition.of an acetone solution (5.13 percent)
of rotenone to the dilute lime-sulfur plus sulformtid Lorol solution.
The sprays were applied in drenching amounts on May 17, 1934, each to
4 tr?.--s selected at random, 4 other trees being left unsprnyed is controls.
Imm-.Jlately after spraying small numbers of hi]L f-gron larve v, rc
collect-d from the spr-yed trees and kept under observation. Yanry of
the insects collected from the roterione-spr',y.d trees remained a-ctive
for an hour, then par-lysis set in; 15 houiirs later all the la.rvae w6'.re
:;Anore (105) in 1934 reported field tests of combined derris-fungide
spr'jys. Le-d arsenate -";ms not included in the progr-m and control of
cat.:-rpillIrs of the ',.inter moth group by the contact insecticides was
indiff.-r-.rt, although infestation of fruits on unspr-yed control trees
reached only about percent. Derris ,'ith sulfite lye failed to wzt and
spr.-dwell on the folinr.. but the -u.3ition of li>;,e-sulfur improved tl:e
mixture, in this respect. Neither nicotine nor derris greatly reduced
the proportion of fruits bitten by wvint.jr moth caterpillars.
Craufurd-Benson (8a) in 1938 reported that for testing derris insec-
ticides by his dipjAinr' method (Bul. *nt. Res. 29:41) many insects are
unsuitable. '"inter m.uth larvae were trid, with unreliable results,
probably bcciu.-c of the variable wcvatl-r conditions at the time of col-
lection, the variety of food material, the lack of uniformity in the
sjizc. of the l'arva, and the imp-sc7ibility of knowing +heir sge. The
followvnjn tabulation shows a tIj.icnl result of a trial with derris
insecticide on lirva.:- of this species coll.ct:;d in the field.
Concentration Trial No. Ar
(mg./l: mg. of derris) i .2 3 4 Average
250.0 '100 70, 100 7.0 85.0
1265.0 100 60' 80 :50 72.5
62.5 90 40 60 40 57.25
This pest on cherry, pear, and plum was killed by a product contain-
ing 12 percent of powdered Lonchocarpus nicou root (6 percent rotenone
content) and 88 percent of talcum, according to a.letter from Etablisse-
ments Rotenia to R. C. Roark in 1938.
CinRilia 6atenaria (Drury), the chain-spotted geometer
Derris;, both dust and spray, was ineffective. -- Kelsall et al. (233)
Paleacrita vernsta (Peck), the spring cankerworm
McDaniel (260) in 1938 reported on control on elms in lichigan.
All sprays were applied under 600 to 800 pounds pressure at the nozzle
and none injured the foliage. No live larvae were found at the end of
72 hours after the application of cube or dorris powder (3 and 4 pounds,
respectively, plus 3 pounds of rosin residue per 100 gallons of spray).
Larvae were numerous on the unsprayed trees.
Selenia tetralunaria (Hufn.)
Gimingham pnd Trttersfield (161) in 1928 found that extracts of.
Tephrosia vopelii leaves nnd the stems nnd roots of black pnd. v-hite
hinpri were extremely repellent to Inrvre. We'on -t hith dilutions .(l
pert of plpnt material to 400 parts of wrter) the sprayed foliage re-
mained uneaten, and the lnrvne died of starvation. Sopp, 0.25 percent,
was ad-ded to all these extracts.
Tattersfield and Giminghim (401) in 1932 reported that an alcoholic
extract of the root of Tephrosia macropoda when sprayed on the larvae
had considerable value as a contact insecticide. The stems were less
effective and the leaves were of little value. Alcoholic extracts of
black haiari (Lonchocarpus sp.) were toxic to the young larvae r'nd to
those three-quarters grown.
Tephroclystia absinthiacta (CI.)
Schotto and G6rnitz (364) in United Strtes patent 2,024,392 claim
an insecticidal preparation consisting of a mixture containing
rotenone and veratrine. They nalso claim an insecticidal propprntion
consisting of a mixture containing 2.5 parts of Dorris olliptica
root and 7.5 parts of sabndilla scud. By combining one of these
drugs containing rotenone with a drug containing veratrine,
C37153011N sabadilla seed or an extract or alkaloids recovered from
such products--an insecticidal eff-ect was obtained which was far great
er than the effects exerted by thetwo drugs used singly. This is
shown by the ThIT6wing comparative tests' made by using strewable prep-
arations corsistihg'of intimate'groiund'mrixtures of sabadilla seed
with talc, Derris elliptica root with talc, and with a mixture of saba
dilla seed and D. elliptica root. In each test 30 caterpillars of
Tephroclystia absinthiaeta (Cl.), placed on blotting paper, were duste
with a quantity of one of the mixtures corresponding to 0.16 mg. per
square ce timeter, the powder being evenly distributed.
Preparation Killed : Not Killed
Talc + 2.5 percent derris root 1 29
Talc + 5 percent derris root 10 20
Talc + 7.5 percent derris root 18 12
Talc + 7.5 percent sabadilla seed 17 13
Talc + 10 percent sabadilla seed 19 11
Talc + 15 percent sbadilla seed 26 4
Talc + 2.5 percent derris root +
7.5 percent sabadilla seed 30 0
Control test 0 ...30
Geometridae (unidentified sp.)
Geometrid larvae on a cut-leaf birch were killed and dropped
in a few hours when sprayed with derris 1.5 pounds per 100 imperial
gallons of water, plus soap.--Kelsall et al. (233). in 1926.
The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (214) Tokyo,
Japan, in 1927 reported that the external or contact action of Neoton
is effective against geometers (larvae).
Turner (418) in 1932 reported that in a field test some small
apple trees received 2 sprays containing cube extract at the rate of
1:25,000 and 1:12,500, to kill a heavy infestation of cankerworms.
The sprays did rot kill the worms, but no further feeding occurred on
the sprayed trees. The larvae remained on the sprayed leaves for
several days and were apparently normal in reaction to proddi-g.
Hamilton (179) in 1935 stated that,powdered derris is more stable
and cheaper thbn derris extract. One pound of derris dust (rotenone
1 perccnit) to 15 gallons of wpter was effective against half-grown
Van Gundia (.52) in 1936 reporter control of cankerwrorm on many
varieties of shade tree-s with a rotenone dust containing approximately
30 percent of sulf:'r in the form of fused bentonite sulfur, -'hich aids
as a sticker for the rctenone ind also a.cts as an activator.
HEmilton (180) in.l '38 reported that canker'-orms on various sh-de
trees w.;re satisfactorily controlled by a s ray,.of cube or derris
powder (4 percent rotenone) at the rate of 4 pounds per 100 -illons
or water pl's 4 pounds of rosin-re-idue emulsi-.h. The spry acts
as a contact poison and as a repellent. The offect've period is 3
days to 2 '.?eeks, 9nd one sprayi-g befor-: l'-.ae ':'_reh more than two-
tiirds grc',n gave good kill. These results ar: referred to by the
Tew Jersey Agricultural E,.periment Station (294) in 193. *
'. J. ,aude in 1939 in advertising literature. published by John
?o7ell and Co., evw York, N. Y., recommended cube or derris s-ray,
4 pound's of po-'der of 4 percent rotenone content plus 4 pounds of
rosin-residue ermulsion per 100 gallons, for the control of c-nkerworms.
Phyllonorycter', n. sp.
The Unit-.d States Department of Ae-riculture, Puerto Rico Experi-
ment Station (451), in 1940 reported that nearly in January 1939 the
leaflets of a number of pctted insecticidal plants of Te phr6sia
toxicaria and T. vogelii were attacked by the l-'vne of a small moth,
which caused them to drop prematurely.
Erionota thrax (L.)
Flippance (137) in 1920 sugvest-d derris po?,der for use again-at
Urbanus proteus (L.) the bean leaf roller
"risecup (489) in 1933 reported tests in *rhich leaves '-'ere treated
in the laboratory and larvae introduced. Rotenone dust m-s effective
against small larvae but against lar e la',ie cryolite -.n5i le--
arsenate dusts -,er-- more effective. Rotenone-ccntain4-g sprqy,, 1
part in 200 parts of w.rter, appeared to be rath r ef'octiv'r repell-
ents, as only a small portion cf the treated food :ms eat-n. Fowev.-r,
when untreated food was added the larvie fed r-idily ard developed
normally, indicating th-t t.e c nt'.ct '-ith tre rot-none-tr. itej food
had riot been fatal.
Argyresthia con jugella Zell., the apt Ie fruit mnoth
St:pleY(392) in 1934 described laboratory tests "'ith derris
nigai st the apple fruit miner in Ln,'-lind. T,"o bnt.chL-s of :?.,., 'VLre
lightly dusted over with i derris dust 10 dAys I,'ter V .y c",r.r laid.
The young larvae cold be se-n inside tU e wgrs, which werr du.: to
hatch in 3 or 4 days. ,\bout h-i] the e7'-s hatch d but thL young
larvae were killed on leaving the eggs or immediately afterwards, as
soon as they touched the dust. The dust may have inhibited the hatch-
ing of some of '-he egos but it must be remembered that mortality of
ova was often observed to be high when large numbers were present on
a single fruit.
Arivresthia ephipella (F.)
Jancke (217) in 1931 reported that in investigations in Germany
on the control of the cherry blossom moth, a bait spray of 2 parts per
1,000 of Polvosol (a proprietary insecticide containing derris) and
4 percent of molasses (0O p-rcent sugar) gave excellent results against
the adults. In the laboratory a mortality of 80 percent on the
third day after.spraying was obtained with this concentration of insec-
ticide, higher or lower concentrations being' less successful. Probably
a second or third application would increase the effect. Only about
9 pint of spray was required for each tree, so the cost was low.
Hyponomeuta cognatella (Hbn.)
Spoon and. Van der Laan (385) in 1935 described tests "'ith various
samples of powdered derris root to determine whether rotenone con -
tent or total ether extract is the better means of judging the quality.
The materials were dusted and sprayed on caterpillars cr several spec-
ies, including this ermine moth. The rotenone content of the 10
samples of derris root ranged from 0 to 8 percent, and the total ether
extract from 8 to 23 percent. "'hen applied as a sprsy 0.1 percent of
Agral was added as a spreader. The writers concluded tiat the ether
extract is not a sufficient indication of the biological value of
derris root. 4 good indication, however, was obtained from a consid-
eration of the rotenone content as obtained by the extraction-crystall-
ization method. The rotenone content must therefore be gien first
consideration in rating derris root. In derris root containing a suf
ficient amount of rot none (4 percent or more) the quantity of ether
extract is of no consequence in respect to biological ef ectiveness,
but with roots having low rotenone content (under 2 percent) and high
ether extract the latter factor can influence the effectiveness.
DeBussy et al. (67) in 1936 reported that the larvae were sensi-
tive but the moths insensitive to derris dusts and sprays.
FYponomeuta malinella Zell. --.
Jancke (218) in 1933 reported that in Germany certain derris
preparations proved very suitable in the control of the larvae of
Hyponomc-utq variabiliss) malinella and H. padella. A mortality of S0
to 85 perc-:nt was obtained by the use in bait traps of derris extract
and of Katakilla (a proprietary derris preparation) when used at 1:100
in 3 percent sug:ir solution. The cheapness of the material indicates
the possibility of complete control.
Klingc.r (237) in 1936 reported that rotenone spray and dust gave
no mortality in 8 days. ThLse tests were made in the laboratory on
Bohmel (A0) in 1937 reported that effective poisoned baits
against this species were 0.4 p -rcent of sodium fluoride and 1 percent
of derris (as an acetone extract or as Katakilla) when mixed with
sugar. Derris did not produce any scorching, but ecdium fluoride did.
The bait sprays contained either 0.4 percent of sodium fluoride with
sugar or molasses, or 1 percent of an acetone extract of Derris el_ -
liptica vith sugar. In some tests a dye was added to the spray and was
traced on dissection, which confirmed direct observation of feeding.
In the laboratory, all adults placed on sprayed leaves before -nd after
the spray had dried were dead in 2 to 3 days. These results were con-
firmed by tests in field cages, and in a test on plum trees in the
open the number of moths was greatly reduced within 2 to 5 dys, in
spite of rain. With molasses the toxic action was a little slower
than with sugar, and derris was the more effective poison.
Hyponomeuta padella (L.), the ermine moth
See also Jancke (218) under Hyponomeuta malinella, on page 24,
Thce larvae were used as test insects by Fryer et al. (149) in 1923
in studying the insecticidal properties of derris.
A product containing 12 percent of powdered Lonchocarpus nicou
root (6 percent rotenone) and 8 percent of talcum killed Yponomeuta
padella on cherry, according to a letter from Etablissements Rotenia
to R. C. Roark in 1938.
Van der Laan (2_) in 1936 reported that "Yponomeuta" sp. was
sensitive to derris.
Dendrolimus pin_ (L.)
See also Tra7?rdh (416) under Panolis griseovarieggta, on page 92.
Schwerdtfeger (366) in 1932 reported effective control of this
species with the proprietary po-rders Derrothar. I and Derrothan II and
the emulsion Derrothan, containing derris.
Fischer and Nitsche (12&) in 1935 reported tests on thes.? pine
moth caterpillars with rotenone and 'frious dErris prpar-tionr..
Crude rotenone 0.6 gm. in 94 cc. of neutral Turkey-r,-d oil plus 6
cc. of acetone, diluted with waler 6:94, killed 55 percent after 5
Trappmann and "'itsche (j_7) in 1935 reported that rotenone srr-ys
g3ve a /+-percent Lnd rotenone d'usts an 8-p-rcent mortillty of lost
inst:3rs of this species after 8 days. Dosage was rerulittd to gi''- a
deposit of 0.18 mg. of rotenore per 500 cm.8.
Klinger (237, 2_8) in 1936 reported 'that rotenone dust gve 5
percent mortality and rotenone spray 15-percent mortality of tl is sp-e
cies after 8 days. Derris dust pave 40-percent mortalit',y in 6 days.
-These,.tests were made. in the laboratory on fourth instars. Later this
auth-or reported that of.17.fourth, instars treated with derris root 5
'died at the following molt and 3 more could "ot build complete pupal
cases,, Of the 9 normally pupatedd caterpillars, 6 developed into female
. moths and the other 3 died in tha pupal cascs.
lacosoma americana (F.), the eastern tent caterpillar
J I cTndoo, Sievers, and Abbott (264) in 1919 reported the results of
tests with derris against young caterpillars of tl-.is species in a
series r-'. strengths ranging from 1. pound of powder per P gallons of
water to 1 pound peri. 200.gallons. All the mixtures were'effective.
Apple-tree branches.were: thoroughly sprayed and after the foliage had
dried 20 to 40 newly hatched larvae '-'ere placed on each branch. The
larvae began to show signs cf discomfort withirn48 hours and practically.
all were dead in from 5,to 10 days. I'o appreciable feeding was obser-
ved. In a second series of tests thr larvse were placed an the branches
and sprayed after theyhad btgun to form their tents. Sprays contain-
ing 1 pound of powder to 50 gallons of .iter 3nd 1 pound to 100 gall-
ons killed all the larvae within 24 hours. "hen 1 pound to 200 gall-
ons and 1 pound to 400 gallons w',re used, not all the larvse were
killed within 11 days, but th.3 fc,-7, remaining alive "'ere very small and
inactive. Used as. a dust, this material killed all the treated larvae
within 1 -.'e:k.
Kelsal] et al. (233) in 1926 reported (1) that the derris applied
to the caterpillars along with th. foliage gave much higher control
than -wh:re applied to the foli:ie alone; (2) that 1 pound of derris
pe,- 100 imperial gallons of water gave an equal eventual control,
though, much more rapidly, than 2 pounds of lecd arsenate; (3) that
when applied direct to the foliage but not to the c-it- rpillars, derris
was not quite equal, pound for pound, to lead arsenr'te; and (4)that
used in practical strengths, derris vwas much more effective than
Rotenone suspended in water 1"30,000 killed 100 percent of the
first and second instrcs on plum and 5pple. Of the thirs instars
47 percent wire killed at 1:100,O00--Da idson (90) in 1930.
Li-tle (254, 25) in 1931 reported on the insecticidal properties
of root- of devil's-shoestrings (Tepl.rosia virginiani) dug fro'- several
localities at various times o"' the- y,-r' and dried by different methods,
then finely ground in anherb mill. Field experiments showed t1at the
plant has considerable promise as'a contact spray against, this species.,
He also determined the comparo'tive death rates caused by Tephriosia
virginiana root and by d.rris in experiments with t-is insect.
Catrpillars r-ngir g from one-third to two-thiras grown were d:ipped
in dilutions of 1:400 for 20 scconids rind then placed in c-iges on
dipped, foli'-je. Fifty cat-'rpillars were used in each experiment, and
with each. insecticide 4 exparimcnt- w',re run. All the larvae -were
Saffccte-d, but some ,recovered and resumed feeding. Two experiments with
eaicl insecticide re carried thro',gh until the ca-terpillars had either I
died or trnrsformeA to moths. From 100 caterpillars dipped'in the
derris spray, 14 pupated and 11 moths .;.merged, Vritt 3S pupating and 34
moths emerging from the experiments writh devil's-shoestrings. Field
tests with the powdered devil's-shoestrings root gaveo c-xcEllr-nt con-
trol. It. was indicated th-it t.h-. plRnt is a r.pellenr.t rather than a
F. L. Campbell (60) in 1932 critically r-vie7wEd the results of
Davidson, w}o found thEt rotenor.C. suspended in '.i-,t-r 1:4.00, 3Fr'ryed on
leaves and fed to the fourth insters as a saridwich, killed1 all; at
l.:3000Ofeeding was curtail.:-d. Ten lar.vae-. at the beginring of the fourth
stadium were used, 1 larva to a -'etri dish. Each' larva vwas given an
apple-leaf sandwich (5/8 inch in diameter) containing about 0.002 cc.
Qf a 1:1,000 suspension of rotenome, and probably corntaining about
0.002 mg. of rotenone. Thr; larvae ate from onc-eiYhth to one-third cf
the sandwiches and therefore probably did not co-sume r'or, than 0.001
mg. of rotenone. All but one of these Isrva-e finally died. If they
weighed about 0.1 gin., they v ,re killed by doses of about 0.005 r". of
rotenone per gram of body '.:eight. This clcul"- ion is ve-ry uncert.'in,-
but shows that rotenone is much :-ore. toxic to t nt c-terpillars than
is.acid lea. arsannte. Preliminary results obtained by Bulger i::Jicate
that a dose of at-least 0.15 ma. of acid le-id .rsenate per gram of
body vreight of t-.,t cate-rpillar in the lsst inst r is r-quired to kill
50 percent of a population or, in other words that the median lethal
dose is greater thin 0.15 mg. p-r _rram.
Turner (418) in 1932 report,-d that cub.. extract in oil emulsified
in water w ith a sulfonriatd rriner-.l oil (cube extract 1:50,000, oil'0,5
percent) killed 62 pr-rcent of the half-gro'.,n larvae. The ch-ck oil
killed 12 percent. In tests made by Turner in 1'-29 to det: rmirn: the
repellent effect of cub- extract, rose plants in the. grcenhcus- were
sprayed with emulsified min.ral oil containir.n- cub,.- extract 1:25,000.
Several larvae ',ere placed on each spr%',,ed plant and on suitable cl.ck
plants. In four tests ti'-re was rrmch essS fe:d.i.na or! the sprayed than
on the inspr-yed leaves. The larv,:% failed to 7ro-i on spr?.yd plants
One spr'-. ,cd plant '"as wc -hed twice in 4 days bef. r: larvae w-:rl placed
on it. These larvae gr..:' normally.
Badortscher ":nd '."'otherspoon (19) in 1935 co.parF.d t ;Y stability'
of treated derris and pyrethrum roo:d,-rs -it. that of u.tr-.ted po'&.'ders.
Tests were m-de on thL east,-rn tent c`t0rpil.lr. oxp osure to a liaht
from a Uviarc iorcury vpor lqm op.r',ting on 118 volts -ith a current
of 4.8 amperes and 450 l'vtts for 24L ours dustrov. d --bout half the
toxicity of a derris pnyder containing 6 r..-.rc._nt of rotenone :nd 18
percent of acetoner,- extractives. ?r-:ttd-.] o.'.,rs (tr.tmrn.t not A] ncr-
ibed) prolonge-d the life of tht-, ro,,drs ::i x. os-. to lirht.
The authors concluded:
That derris po"'rP:r re quirc-. a* 1,--st t-ice as long is
pyrethrumr. to losa -iost of it7 toxici y L,_. .xpos.J to the action
of air a-nd sunlight in th.. summ-irt-'Lm.
That thL rnpidity, of loss of toxici'; in pi thrum ind ]:rris
po,,d rs is larg..ly dir,.ctly dp-,nd .,t oP th,- int. ?it at;f n ur-
ation of the light.
That dcrris powder loses its toxicity r-l'itivcJy muc, snw-.r
than pyrcthruLm po-.vd>r 'iry-n ,xpos.d to -ir in t: c abscr-c f-r direct
That treated derris-powder after exposure to light and air
shows an efficiency from 34 to 93 percent zreat r than untreated
derris powder similarly exposed.
Felt and Bromley (126) in 1937 reported the r-sults of tests made
in 1936 with several brands of pyrethrum po, der "nd cube po-der applied
in a mixture of.summer oil 1:200 as contact insecticides. In general,
results on exp6sed tent caterTillars were better than on cankervorms.
One or eio commercial brands of derris powder gave excellent kills of
exposed tent caterpillars at the rate of 3 pounds of 4-percent powder
to 100 g lions of spray. The cube powder appeared slightly less toxic,
requiring larger amounts of material. The pyrethrum. powder in the oil
emulsions was invariably less toxic than the pyrethrum-extract soap
sprays and less toxic to the older tent cater illirs than wvs the
Derris-gypsum dusts containing 5, 12.5, and 25 percent of derris
(4 percent rotenone) in laboratory tests caused nort;ilities of 0, 28,
and 92 percent, respectively.-Kelsall and Stultz (234) in 1937.
Hamilton (180) in 1938 reported that the lirv: on wild cherry,
apple, and hawthorn trees mere satisfactorily controlled by a spray
of cube or derris powder (4 percent rotenone) at the rate of 4 pounds
per 100 gallons of spr-y plus 4 pounds of rosin-residu3 emulsion. The
spray acts as a contact poison and as a repell.-nt. The effctive
period is 6 to 8 days. Caterpillars would not feed on sprayed foliage.
These results were referred to by the New Jersey State agricultural
Experiment Station (294) in 1938.
Felt and Bromley (128) in 1940 reported th-t cube dust ,va effec-
tive -against very young eastern tent caterpillars in southwestern
Connecticut in the spring of 1939.
Malacosoma disstria Hbn., the forest tent caterpillar
A 5 or 6-year old sample of,derris was ineffective -'hen duist-d
or sprayed on chokecherry foliage fed on by th; c.int:-.rpill]rs.--Kelsall
et al. (233) in 1926.
M.-Lacoscma neustria (L.)
The larvae were used as a test insect by Fryer et al. (149) in
1923 in evaluating derrispr- p'irations,
Spoon and Van der Lann (385) in 1935 described tests 'ith various
snmr-les of powdered derris root to determine -"other th.- rotenone
content or the totIl cthr extrct is the bett,;r filc-nF of judging the
quality. rh,. materials -,re JuLt.-t] and spr9y:.c1 on the c.!t-rpillars
of several species, including the lackey moth. Tlic rot-none cctEnt
of the 10 samples of derris root rinq-d from 0 to 8 r%-rcent; an3 the
total ether extract from 8 to 23 percent.' '11hEn ppli. s n spray 0.1
pr':-rc, nr, of r Aral was added as a spr:.d]er. It :'.rns concluded that the
ether extract i-, not a sufficient indication cf thE. biological value
of .J-rris roots. L 7or,j indication, however, is obtained from a con-
z:id.,r-tion of the rot-.nonL-. content as obtained by the extrqction-crys-
talllzation method. The rotenone content must therefore be give-1 first
consideration in rating derris root. In derris root containing a suff-
icient amount of rotenone (4 percent or more) the quantity of ether
extract is of no consequence in respect to biological effectiveness,
but with roots -ith lo- rotenone content (under ? percent) and high
ether extract, the latter is a factor in the effectiveness.
De Bussy et al. (57) and also Van der Laan (244) in 1936 reported
that this species is sensitive to derris dust.
Klinger (237) in 1936 reported that larvae of this species had
been used to test the effect of iotenone dusts and sprays but no
results -rere recorded.
A product containing 12 percent of po,"dered Lenchoczrpus nico'i
root (6 percent rotenone) and 88 percent of talcum killed this spe-
cies on pear, according to Etablissements Rotenia in 1938, in a letter
to R. C. Roark.
The Koloniaal Instituut of Amsterdam (241) in 1938 proposed spec-
ifications for derris root, derris por'der for spraying purposes, and
pordered-derris mixtures. The moisture content of the root and of
povr-fered root for spraying purposes must not be over 10 percent. The
fineness of the latter material must be such that 90 percent --ill pass
a 75-mesh sieve. The po'-dered mixtures must be made -"ith a neutral
filler, the maximum moisture content should be 2 percent, at lest 90
percent must pass a 125-nesh sieve, and the density must be bet-'een
0.6 and 1.2. The follo-'ing materials "-ere sugEested as carriers:
Diatoriaceous earth (density 0.65), Kaolin (density 0.83), talc (eensity
1,12), and gypsum (density 1.33). Derris po-der of a fineness such
that 90 percent passes a 125-mesh screen has a density of 0,56. Duri--g
1937 derris preparations containing 1 percent of rotenone -'ere usedC in
the Nietherlands in combating this species.
At a meeting of the Netherlands Tntomological Society in 1938,
Polak (32'9) criticized the use of a derris dust against larvae of this
species attacking trees in Amsterdan. He argued that the larvae
w-ould be shielded by their webs -aiginst the dust, th.t rany harmless
species would be destroyed, and that control would best be obtained
by means of hymenopterous parasites. Diakonoff replied that derris
greatly reduced the ultimate number of pupae ant adults.
Fransen (141) in 1939 reported the results of investigations in
the Netherlands on the most economical emplo.-nent of contact usF.t in-
Ssecticides. The apparatus used for aecertalnir.n the riniu!-. leth!nl
dosages is described. Tests -ere made on larvae in different st-ves
of development. Fifty times as much rotenone '-as rnecees:u'r to kill
the largest larvae as to kill the smallest used (3.0 and 0,4 cm. in
length, respectively). The author concluded that for n r-iven insec-
ticide there is no fixed relation bet'-een the quantities necess.-Vy, to
control the larvae of this in different stages of dfevcloir.ent, and
still less between the necessary quantities of the active co^noncnts
of the various insecticides and a given developr.entnl stage of any
group of insects.' The susceptibility of the larvne nay vary, o-ij,- to
* internal causes and weather conditions. Temperature did not greatly
affect mortality, but dew and light rain before or afterr the dusting
increased the mortality.
Malacosoma pluvialis (Dyar), the western tent caterpillar
Campbell (60) in 1932 reviewed unpublished work by Robinson of
Oregon,who reported a few tests with rot-none in an insectary. Arost
of the caterpillars that ate any of the foliage treated V:ith rot..none
at 1:1,890 and 1:1,260 died. Robinson noted th'7t the toxic action
was slow;, and that many of the qaterpill-rs placed on th: s;ryr:' *ppl
foliage fell to the table bel-ow. He therefore concluded that rotenon
is repellent to the larvae. However, Campbell surprised th'.t th. c-te
pillars that fell from the foliage might have been irritated by h'-nd-
Lasiocampid:ae (unidentified sp.)
Kopp (242) in 1924, in a review of the ue of derris as an insec
cide, stated that derris powder has given excellent results a"-inst
Malacosona (500 gm. to 32-800 liters of water).
McIlndoo and Sievers (2_63) in 1924 reported that a hot-'-.ter ex-
tr-ct of the stems of a fish poison, Cracca villosa purpurea (Tep!.rosi:
purpure.), had no effect on tent caterpillars, and that derris powder
used as a fumngant was ineffective against s-l1 tnt c'-'teriirs
The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (214), Tokyo,
Japan, in 1927 reported that Neoton at 150, 225, and 300 gri. V"U.s
450 gmn. of soap per 40 imperial1 gallons of water gave rmortlities of
56, 60, and 72 percent, respectively, after 24 hours; arnd of P2, '8,
and 96 percent, respectively, after 30 hours. Neoton at 225 gm. plus
675 gm. of soap per 40 imperial gallons of *.'-:ter gvv lO0-percmnt
mortality of the Japanese tent caterpillar.
According to the Harder Extermination Service, Inc., in an adver-
tising leaflet in 1934, its Earder Rotenone Plant Spray is used at l:4(
for killing tent caterpillars.
Tischler (413) in 1935 studied the'mechanism of how derris kills
insects. Tests mnde with insects such as tent catc.rpill-rs la-'d to
the conclusion that derris inhibits the utilization of oxygen by the
tissues and that its detrim.'ntal effects are g,:ner-l rnth r than spe-
ific to any organ.
Haude in 1939, in advertising literature published by John Powell
& Co., N1 w York, N. Y., recommended a cube or derris -pray (4 lb. of
powder centiinirng 4 percent rotenone per 100 gal, plus 4 lb. rosin-resi-
due emulsion) against the te;st caterpillar on ",ild cherry, apple,
Farasa conLsocia ':alk,
Yago (502) in 1933 wrote that this species, formerly abundant in'
pear orchards in Shizuoka, Jipan, had become scarce, prcb':.bly o';ing to
the use of insecticides, including, derris.
Parasa herbifora (Walk.)
Gater (154) in 1925 reported dipping tests with mature lBrvae of
this species to determine the relative values of extracts of different
species of derris.
Setora nitens '"alk.
Van der Scheer (360) in 1935 ascribed the uns'-tisfactory results
reported for the use of rotenone susij:ensions to a lack of st-bility of
the suspensions used, and suggested first dissolvirng th.e r'tenone in
a liquid insoluble in water, then preparing a rot.-non emulsion from
this solution, because emulsions are regarded as ;.ring more st'-b1
than suspensions. Benz,:ne is well suited as n solvent for rotenone
for the preparation of rotunona emulsions, Soap is not suitable,
because of its alkaline reaction. ir-.-pon T may be us--.:1, -; s follows:
One gm. of rotenone is dissolved in 20 cc. of benzene. This is addEd
to 30 cc. of Ige-:-on T solution- (0.3 to 0.5 percent Ig.-pon T) and the
mixture agitated until a homog-eneous liquid is obtained. This c-ncen-
trated emulsion is then diluted with watcr to the desired concentra-
tion, which should first be determined on a small scale- The spray
material must be kept in a closeC container, or evipo.ration of the
benzene will cause ithe rotenon& to s;pnrate fron the emulsion. This
disadvantage may be avoided by the use of so- in. ::censive esF.:-ntial
oil, such as "katjang" oil, which also has some insecticidal 'ctivity,
and which protects rotenone from oxidation. St'blve emulsions were
prepared by the addition of pine oil to the katj-'-nu oil. Oil eit-
ronella may also be added. The rotenonL-benzol erulsions at a conc,...n-
tration of 1:5,000 gave good control of "Setora niteh.sis." The fruit
of the lerak (Sapindus rarak) contains a saponin that is an excellent
emulsifying agent and may be used to replace th.- It-pon T. '., he t-
ing 8 of the fruits with 1 liter of water, sufficient emulsifyini7
agent to prepare 250 liters of umulsion is obtained.
Limacodidne (unidentified sp.)
The Ceylon TLi Research Institute (66) in 1930 describe t..sts
of insecticides against nettle grubs on t-,i in Ce-ylon. Nicotine olt--it.
at the dilution t'jstcd gt:vo verydisappointi .- r suits, A spray sol-
ution made front the fel'ge of Tcp rosin-i vog.lii :aseff ctivo.
Lym: ntri idi -
Arctornis 'lba (Bremcr)
Sonan (2378) in 1927 roport.d that s r'syin,*, with J3-rris n: s.- p
proved very effective apairst this'spcci.s infLsti-.r t, i plnt- in
Dasyc ira mendosa (Hbn.)
Sonan (378) in 1927 reported that spraying ".'iti d&rris '.p, sonp
proved very effective against (Olene) Das-chira rr-endosa (Hbn.) infes-
ting tea plants in Formosa.
Euproctis conspersa (Felder)
SThe Institute of Physical and Chemical Researcl. (214), Tokyo,
Japan, in 1927 reported that Neoton at 300 9m. plus 750 gm. of soap
per 40 imperial gallons of water g-ve 100-percent nort1lity of the
Euproctis fraterna (Moore)
Bhatta and Nargyanan- (35) in 1938 reported thi-t in smuill-scale
field trials extracts of secds of* Tephrosia candila and stern b:rk of
Mundulea sericea were effective at 2-and 3-perce'r. corc:-ntr-tions, re-
spectively, against larvae of this species on ap isc.
'VWlter. suspensions and alcoholic extracts of -.r, roots of Derris
ellitica grown at Bangalore, India (rotenone 7 pe: -nt, -ticr extra
ties 22 percent) were effective.--Mysore, India, Departm-cnt of
Agriculture (287) in 1938.'
Euproctis pseudoconspersa (Strand)
Sonan (378) in 1927 reported that spr'yir ,tritL. derris and soap
proved very effective against this species infesting tE:. plants in
Hemerocampa leucostigma(P. & S.) the white-marked tussock moth
fIclndoo, Sievers, and Abbott (264) in 1919 r.p'rtur. the results
of tests in 'i:hich fine djrris p&7'dtr was extr-ctc s-cccssively v:ith
five solvents, nmely, petr6leuri, ether, ether, chloroform, alcohol,
and.water, in five idifferc-nt sequences. "later usecl as tlhe prirmry
solvent extracted 10.80 percent of the material. The extracts ind
the marcs .vere;. acded to honey and fed to honeybees (.pis mellifera L.),
The extracts w-r. dissolved in alcohol (0.4 ginm. in 10 cc. of 95
percent alcohol), and 1/4 cc, of 'this solution was mixed wvith 5 cc.
oj hon-jy. The water extract Yad no effect on.the be-s tested and the
p 7-der exhausted 'rith water killed 94 percent of the beus -'!ithin 48
hours. All the other extracts, whether obtained wiith the use of heat
or without it, vwcr.. almost- equally toxic to honeybe-s. Using the
same extracts against tussock moth caterpillrs p-ve similnr r.sults.
Hlomilton (180) in 1938 reported that larvae on various sh.nde
trees wv._re not satisfactorily controlled by cube or derris-poiider
spray (4 lb. of pov'dor crntaining 4 percent rotenone p-r 100 gal. of
water, plus 4 lb. rosin-residue emulsion), The apr-y acts as a cont-
act poison and as a repellent. Control was 10 percent in one test
and from 50 to 75 per-cent in other tests.
Lnclii quffoa ('.'Ilk.)
Gater and Yusope (15) in 1925 stated that the usual aqueous der-
ris extract, as made in British Malaya, would form an effective spray
against young caterpillars of this species daragins padi.
Lymantria mnonchnq (L.)
See Tragsr8h (416) under Fanolis c.rizeo-.priegota, on pnre 92.
Schwerc'feger (3C6) in 1932 renortea exyerriments or. th.c control1 of
the nun moth with several proprietqrv irsecticides, including an erul-
sion (Derrothan) qnd tw.o powders (Derrothan I sr.d Derrcthpn II) contain-
ing derris or extracts thereof. The powders, tested at 50 k'g. per hrc-
tare, caused 100-percent mortPlity in 24 hours, and the emulsion also
.was very effective.
Treppmann and Iitsche (417) in 1935 reported that rotenone sprays
were not effective against last instars of this species. Dosage was
regulated to give a deposit of 0.18 mig. of rotenone per 500 cm.2.
Klinger (237) in 1936 reported that rotenone spray and dust gnve no
mortality in 8 days. These tests were mode in the laboratory on fourth
Schotte and Gornitz (365) in United States potent 2,136,868, issued
November 15, 1938, claim as an insecticide n finely divided mixture,
solidified from the molten state, of an insecticidal vegetaUle mnntrir-l
and a carrier substance, the scid carrier substance beinc solid r
ordinary temperatures, but melting below: cvrboniz.tion temperatur':.-s o'
said vegetable material ond in its mTnolten stvte beirn, carablc of ex-
tracting the active insecticide froi. said insectic :aal v,-gctsblC: n!trial.
For example, derris root is mraxd witn moltez naphthol in. tLLC proportion
of 3:5 and the solid mixture is grouni with & suitt.Llc diut'rwn; ar-.nt,
such as talc. the product i igihly *-fficie-rnt aguirnst cvttsrpillsrc &r.d
also possesses fungicidal proritics. Cjmpar_.tivc test3 (.E.rh rMfode .'rith
50 5th'instsrs, 44 pounds boir,' d.ijtribut.,d on 2.Z ncrEs, rnve th-. follow-
Test "o. K ill.. after -- Fc.ding
S7 days : 8 days Co-nditions
Ilurmb cr I lrnbcr
A. Mixture of inert powder 80 pcrcont ni.d dr-rris rot, 20 peLrctnt.
1 20 30 Strong
2 22 33 Strong
3 15 30 Strnor,
B. Mixture of inert powder, 80 p-rcot .r.-.l drri3 rot.-I-Anl.thol r.ixturo,
4 32 39 WT nk
5 33 41 i:o- f'c cdiiiP
29 3- ,
In another example equal pjrts of pyrethrum blossoms and derris
root were mixed with molten raphthalerne in the proportion of 3:5 and
the mixture -.rourn:1 with alumina. Sodium acetate, borax, carbuzole,
thymol, isothymol, or crude anthracene may be used in place of naph-
thalene or naphthol. The insecticides obtained according to the pre-s-
.ent invention may also be combined with other insecticidal substances,
such as arsenic compounds; or with fungicides, such as copper compounds;:
and with adhesives, such as lime-soaps; or with fill-rs, such as talc,
alumina, china clay, bole, an, the like. It has been found useful to
add Turkey-red oil or other salts of sulfonic acids for spraying
Notolophus posticus (17alk.)
Sonan (378) in 1927 reported that spraying with derris and soap
proved very effective against this species infesting tea plants in
'y,'mri phaeorrhoea (Donov.) (syn., Euproctis chrysorrhoea L.), the
.eis (477) in 1931 reported that larvae were killed more quickly
when dusted with Polvo on the ventral side than when dusted on the
dorsal side. Polvo repelled third instars.
Van der Laan (243) in 1?35 reported t1at at 1:5,000, dihydroroten-
one was less than half as toxic to th; larvae as rotenone, 7,nd equally
as toxic at 1:10,000. "_ solution of rotenone in water (1:1,500)
lost half its toxicity on 5 hours' exposure to direct sunlight. Dry
rotenone lost none of its toxicity on 42 Jays' exposure to direct
sunlight, as determined by the relative toxicity of sprays prepared
from irradiat-d and nonirrsdiated rotenone. The srm2 procedure showed
that dry,, derris powder lost half its activity when exposed to sunlight
for 3 days, but retained it much longer after standing 5 days in
Aqueous suspensions of derris powder, stored in bottles, lose no
toxicity in 4 to 11 days, but the toxicity is appreciably lover 25
days after preparation. 1n aqueous suspension of derris powder was
mixed with a concentrated soap solution, alloweve to stand 2 days, thon
diluted and spr-iyed. The toxicity was 20 percent less than that of
a similar suspension used immediately after rop:iration or similar
susrpnsion that had been allo-'"c to stand 2 days but to which tl.e
soap wns added immediately before spraying.
Tr-:pj:.rr-in and Nitscbie (417) in 1935 report,:" that rotenone spr-.ys
gve 15-percent mortality of last instri's after 8 days, vwhere-s rotrn-
one dusts hod no effect. Dos",-: was r-salated to give a deposit of
0.18 mrn. of rotenone per 500 cm.2.
DeBussy et al. (57) in 1936 reported that young larvae cmn be
cor.t.rilled by derris dust (rotenone 1 percent) but a dust containinrig
2 p;.rc.'nt of rotenone and 5 percent of ether extr-ct killed only ha2f
of the older larvi tested.
.Klinper (237) in 1936 reported that rotenone dust was not effec-
tive -igainst fourth instars in the laboratory and that rotenone spray
(0.18 mg. per 500 c.. g.ve -nly 10-perco-nt .:.'rtalilty aftc--r 8 days.
Dorris dust caused 25-pc.rcent m.)rtality in 4 days.
Van der Lean (244) in 1936 reported that this species is sensi-
tive to derris.
.6n anonymous author (5) in 1937 7rote th-,t for the control of
this species with derris in the t!etherlands a concentration of not
less than 1 percent of rotenone ras n-cess-ry, vihich r.ust b.- applied
on a dry day at the en] of '.pril or the beginning oCr My.
Fransen (139) in 1937 reported the r--ults of various observa-
tions on the overwintered larvae in Holland in the spring of 1937.
't the en] of .'.pril he carrie& out experiments on active 1rrvae with
several poison dusts, mainly derris and pyrethrum, usinv = speci-il
dusting box. Dusts of derris and Lonchoc.rpus containing 0.5, 0.75,
and 1 percent of rotenone pr.vEl inadequate, Fr-nsen (140) l1ter
described a series of fi.ld tests in -I ich ro'-s of irnfester oaks ware
power-dusted with insecticides ait an approxir.ite r-te of 45 pounds
per acre on t-e. 7t. or 10th of May. The treatments v'cre cre,:'ly
ineffective, as all tie tr-.es ,--;re heavily infested on ',y 26 but, so
far as could be ascertained, they contr',,MLct.-.d th,: l.,bor:tory tests,
as derris dust (0.75 percent rot. none) -*.ppe-,ro t: havve been more ef -
fective than pyrethrum contoini'\. 0.45, O.15, or 0.3 percent of pyrc-
S thrins, which h seemed to bo ef'ectiv in tt-t order.
During 1937 in the a-Atherlands derris dust containing front 0.5
to 0.75 percent of rot n.ne was usc. successfully for th: c ritrCol of
this species.-Koloniaal Instituut of '.mstcrdam (241) in 1938.
Spoon et al. (386) of the Eoloniaal Instituut of r.mstcrdam in
1937 comp?.red the relative insecticidal value of dusts m'de from
derris and cube. Eihht set- of povwdc.rs ,'*Ere prepared, -ech set con-
sieting of one powder pr,;par..: -ith derris, the other rith Lonchocarpus,
both powders containing c-qu.illy hiqh -.mounts of rot:no-,. a-n'1 etL.r
extract. These pr-viders were mix.-d with diar.to'm.icous e-irth in order to
obtain dusts withdefinite amounts of rot.nnon,. (0.5, 0.715, an. 1.0
percent), according to the s nsitivity of th- various insects. The
dusts containing 0.75 p.Trcent of rotenon c.-re tc't-d on c-t. rpill-rs
of this species. The results are bazed on the obs_:rvation of 120
specimens at least. In 7 of the 8 sts the eff.-ct of i, rris was
stronc-,'r than that oC Loncrhoc,.arr.us. Th.:.' effectt of "'trris -'uMt on
caterpillars of t.i: sp.cis is -jb-iut one and one-hilf tr',.s 9s strong
as thAt of Lonciocarp'.is dust.
2 product c-'rtaining 12 p,'v-cnt ..f pQ.d,-rud Lonchocarpus nic.u
root (6 percent rotnc,'r:) *'n' 8F p.rc.nt o' t-,lcur *!ti-'td "chrys-
orrhc.-a" on plum tre,--s, tis rportj:J by Ttabli.s,_.mcnts Rot ni'i in a
letter to R. C. Roirk in 1938.
This species v!,s use-i by Spoon ,n'j Van -i],-.r L-ia-n (IL) in 193c .as
a test insect in corrcltinr r.,t -n-:r. cont-nt of dLr-is ith it:;
insc.cticidal value, (S.,. also unirr '7a-icoso-a ntustria (1.), p. 4. )
Fransen (141)-in 1939 reported the results of investigations in
Holland on the most economical Employment of contact dust inscticides.
Th? apparatus used for ascertaining the minimum lethal dosages is des-
cribed. Tests were ohfe.on larvae in different stages of development.
Ten times as much rotenone was necessary to kill overwinternd lrv'e
1.2 cm. long as to kill first instars 0.35 cm./ W'1940 Fransen (142)
reported that the best results were obtained by dusting with pyrethrum
against larvae in thsearlier instrs and with derris against the older
ones, but crushing the nests is still considered the most effective
Notolophus antiqua (L.), the rusty tussock moth
Gimingham and Tattersfield (161) in 1928 reported that in labor-
atory t-sts extracts of the stems and roots of black and .'hits haiari
and of the leaves of Tephrosia vogelii were extremely repellent to
larvae of this species. Soap, 0.25 percent, was added to these ex -
,tracts. Even at high dilution (1 part plant mat rial to 400 parts winter),
the sprayed foli-ge remained uneaten and the larvae died of starvation.
.'.n alcoholic extract of the root of Tephrosia macropodn was
sprayed on the larvae 2nd had c'nsiderqble contact insecticidal value.
Alcoholic extracts of black htiari (Lonchocorpus sp.) ier- toxic to-
the 1 month-old larvae.--Tattersfield and Gimingham (401) in 1932.
A product containing 12 percent of powdered Lonchocarpus nicou
root percentt rotenone) 'and. 88 percent of taldum mitigated (0rgya)
Lotolophus antiqua (L.) on apple and plum, according to 'Etablissemnents
Rotenia in a letter to R. C. Roark in 1938.
Porthesia scintillans (alk.)
P. sericea (':ileran)
P. taiwana Shir.
Sonan (378) in 1927 reported that spraying with derris *.ni soap
prov-.-l very effective -gainst these species infesting tea plants in
Porthetria dispar (L.),the gypsy moth
See also Tr."7'rdh (416) under Panolis riseovariegita,' on pqge 92.
Weis (477) in 1931 reported that the larvae were killed more
quickly when dustid with Polvo on the ventral side than rhen dusted
on the dorsal side. Polvo repelled fourth ind fifth instsrs.
Potts (330) in 1935 reported that promising results were obtained
with derris as a stomach poison against a number of insect, species (in-
cluding the gypsy moth) when an oil adhesive such as 0.5 to 1.5 percent
of castor oil, fioh-oil, or linseed oil was added to the spray mixture.
Trippminn and Nitsche (417) in 1935 reported that rJtnone dusts
w.drc not effective afrinrst last instnrs after 8 Qays. Dosage was
regulated to Piv- a deposit of 0.18 r.r-. of rotenone p:-r 900 c..
DeBussy :.t al. (57) anJ -lso VLn ,de- L'-an (244) in 1936 r:-ported
that this species is s.:ns;tivc t- i-'rris dlust.
Klinger (2_7) in 1936 re, ort?-' tlat r:.tono-e spray or Ij.t gvve
no mortalit, of fo.'rtt. inst-,rs i- 8 d'/rs. Derris dust kill-- 10
percent in 6 -ays.
Fotts (331) in 1936 reported that nine 10 acre plots w.ecre sprayed
in t'-o series by an auto-iro at Lssonet, MaST. The lead arsenate and
calcium arsenate spray c'ntai-ef-, by 1hiFht, 1 p-rt of arsenical, 0.4
pirt of fish oil, and 2.1 parts of water. In the clerris spray the
ratio of derris to water by weight '3a 1:6. Excellent adhEr.--hnce, fairly
good distribution, and fairly E5oo: control was indicated. Eff.-ctive
control was obtained in both the early and lat:r series of half-acre
plots '.with a spr-y cortaininrg 3 poun's of derris er 100 g-llons of
v.te anO 0.5 perc-nt of fish oil.
Van Guniia (4.52) in 1936 reported control of tle gypsy moth,
ain m-fny other le f-eatig-. insects, with rotenone dust. The formula
used carried approximately 30 -.-rcernt of sulfur in the -orr of fused
bentonite sulfur, rhic aids as -.tickoe for the rotenone, and also
acts as an act.ivator,
The "assachusetts agricultural l x -rlmc:t Stt',ion (270) in 1937
reported that the nearly ful]-qro".n caterpillars of ti is species -.ere
treated with derris sprays v-ith results as followTs: 4 pounds of
drirris po-der (4 percent rotenone) and 4 pounds of fish-oil soap in
100 gallons of w-,ter to an-acre killed only 40 -.rcent; 6 pounds of
derris po-7Jer (4 percent rotenone) -nd 4 -oun's of fish-oil soap in
100 gallons of w.ter, 400 illons to the acre, killed only 75 percent.
Potts (333) in 1937, reporting on tests at New Haven, Conn., stat-
ed that tUis insect can b. controlled by a s1'r-y containing from 5 to
8 pounds of der-is (4 percent rot.ncne) per 100 gallons of -,ter.
hen frorr 0.5 to 1.0 gallon of fish oil or lins .-. oil pi-r 10D gallons
of spr.v mixture- is a t.e te period. of effectiveness of the deCrris
-s .rL-tly >r-l"nged 'nd its -.hi.ence incf. s-..
Fr-rns,:p (141) in 193z reported that 32 t:.. as much rotenone s
nec-,:,s-ry +o kill l-rvac 2.5 cm. lon, as to kill l-rvwi 0.35 cm. l'n,',
but only 8 times as rr.uc! to kill still 1- *,:-r I rvwe rhich ere r tiy
tc p"':" te.
PseudoJ.]urg -isychiri-I,.s Strand
Stilpnotii cwna ("'oor, )
S.nrfin (3712) in 1927 r:,.'rt: that 3.r'\- vi derris -n 3
pr:'-,v v: wry effective -ai -t. these irs..ct3 inf-st :.: t. i pl.ntc in
Stilpnotia s-alicis (L.) the s-:tin moth
Trappm'%nn :iri Nitscl. (417) in 1''35 r. krt cd tL-t rot none "r r'\ys
and dusts rpgulatE. to give a deposit of 0.18 mg. of rotenone per 500
cm.. -.,ere not effective rgai-'st last instars.
DeBussy et al. (57) and also Van der Laan (244) in 1936 reported
that this species is sensitive to derris dust.
Klinger (237) in 1936 reported that rotenone spray and dust gave
no mortality in 8 days. These tests w-re mde on fourth instars in
Kelsall and Stultz (234) in 1937 reported that derris-gypsum dust
(I percent rotenone) caused no mortality ih 36 hours in laboratory
S Fnrnsen (141) in 1939. reported that nearly full-grown larvae of
this species vere very resistant to derris.
Lymantriidae (unidentified sp.),- tussock moths
The Institute of Physical and Chemic'al Res.arch (214), Tokyo, J.ap
in 1927 reported that Neoton is effective as a contact spray against
the larva. ,
The larv,e were not controlled satisfactorily by derris 6r cube
powder in water to which rosin-residue emulsion h-] been added.-
Ne:." Jerscy A.ricultural Fxperiment Station- (294) in 1938.
,gicide DC-4 (rotenone-0.6 .pc.rcnt) at the rate of 4 pounds per
100 gallons of water (0.003 percent rotenone) killed from 50 to 100
percent within 96 hours.--:gicide Laboratories (8) in 1939.
*Lyonetit clerkella (L.) ,
>'ihlb-r'g (9) in 1934 reported spraying, experiments in the labora-
tory, in which the materials test,-d included derris preparations used
in l-and 2-percent water solutions. Only 37 percent of the pupae in
the leaves -.--r,- illd.
Oda(312) in 1934 reported that injury to p,'ich trees by this
species in south _rn J';pin was minimized by spravinr- with Feoton and
nicotine sulfate, which are effective against t-ie moths ahd the larvae
Drymonia manleyi Lc.-ch
Tanaka (4q00) in 1927 recommended a derris-soap spray Por control
of the older I.rvae.
Ph-il r-' l'tuecphal'i (L.)
The larvae '.ero usrcl as tcst insects by Frycir et al. (14) in J
1923 in ..,vilu.,ing derris -xtracts.
Van der Laan (243) in 1935 r,-port:.d th-at 7rhen u..ed as 9 spr'.y
containing 0.]1 to 0.5 percent of gr-il, at a conctntratio-.n of 1:5,000,
rotenone gave a mortality of 9r p.:rc--.nt an-i dihydircrot.:nc "7 m.':rtality
of 80 percent of the- larvae.
DeBussy et al. (57') in 1936 rcporterl that this species ;c s,-nsi-
tive to derris dust.
The Koloniaal Instituut (240) in 1936 reported that powdered
Tephrosia root applied as an undiluted dust was inert to the larvae.
Derris-kieseluhr dust (1:4) was always deadly.
Phalera flav,-scens (Brim. & Grey)
The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (214), Tokyo,
Japan, in 1927 reporter.' that Neoton at a concentration of 1i0 to 225
gm. plus 750 gm. of soap F-Er 40 imperial gallons of water gave 100-
Datana minister (Drury), the yellow-necked caterpillar
Mclndoo, Sievers, and Abbott (264) in 1919 reported that tro apple
trees, on which large colonies of nearly full-gro'-n larvae were feed-
ing, ware sprayed with derris !t the rate of 1 pound of powder to 50
gallons of water. TIenty-four hours lBter one livin:-" larva was found
on one tree and two on the othVr. The ground undlr the trees 7as
thickly sprinkled with dead larvae and many hod lodg- i in the trees.
Kopp (242) in 1924, in a review of the use of derris -s an insec-
ticide stated that d-rris rp,--,d-r hs "iven excellent results -pair1st
this species at a conccntrr.tion of 500 ?m. to 200 liters of water.
Observations on this species indicate that the powdered root of
Tephrosia virginiana has little or no v-,lue as a stomach poison but
is repelling and has promise as a contact insecticide. Field exper-
iments with this pov:der at 4 pounds o 1r 100 gallons are d.scribcd
against this species fE ding on post oak. Eyc-Ulent control 'jas
obtained.--Little (254, 2a) in 1931.
The Io-'.a Agricultural Exr.-iment Stition (215) in 1934 r.-.;-,:rted
that C. H. Richardson found dihycrr'-t...none ap-rcxi a tely '-,.-h.lf
as toxic 9s 1,-;q qr.;-nate to the l'rv-e "vc.i: tast-d oy the lcaf-sand-
Hansberry and Rich-r-ls.'-, (13) in 1936 rcp-rt,.> the n.,-ian lethal
dose of dihydror't .'onn!. for D-.t-Q'! miniv"ri larvae to be 0.11 r-g. -.cr
gram .f body weight.
Euphydryas cl-alc-.'on.a (Dbl''y. and Hew.)
DeOng and "hi te (96) in 192!, rup rtc.J th't d-rris p.".1 r g've
98-pc:rcert control of the larvae 'hn u3t..j o0 the 1. v. ui.'n which
they "ere fc- *dinq.
DeOng (95) in 1930 tested the repelling action of the ether extracts
of four species of Derris on larvae of varying ages. Solutions containing
2 percent by weight of the extract were sprayed on the foliage and stems
of Scrofularia californica (the common host of this insect), and as soon
as it was dried the larvae were placed upon the twigs. Feeding caused, in
most instances, after a few attempts to consume the sprayed foliage. A
small percentage of the caterpillars were killed and the more mature ones
pupated. The larvae were confined with these twigs for 8 days with no
appreciable increase in feeding, except that in one cage the growing tip
was consumed. The repelling effect apparently lasted during the entire
time the cuttings were kept alive in the laboratory.
Aglais antiopa (L.)
Hamilton (180) in 1938 reported that these caterpillars on elm trees
were satisfactorily controlled by cube or derris spray (4 pounds of pow-
der containing 4 percent of rotenone plus 4 pounds of rosin-residue emul-
sion per 100 gallons of water)o The spray acts as a contact poison. The
effective period is 3 to 4 days, and the killwas 100 percent by actual
",. J. Haude, in advertising literature published "by John Powell & Co.:
New York, N. Y., in 1939 also recommended this spray.
Vanessa cardui (L.), the painted lady
Hansberry and Richardson (183) in 1936 reported the median lethal.dos.
of rotenone in milligrams per gram of body weight for the larvae to be
Vanessa io (L.)
Trappmann and Nitsche (417) in 1935 reported that rotenone sprays and
dusts were not effective against last instars. The dosage was regulated
to give a deposit of 0.18 mg. of rotenone per 500 cm.2.
Klinger (237) in 1936 reported that rotenone dust (0.15 mg. por/cm.2)
gave 15-percent mortality, and rotenonc spray (0.18 mg. per 500 cm.2)
45-percent mortality after 8 days. Derris dust caused 70-percent mortality
in,6 days. These tests were made on fourth instars in the laboratory.
Vranezsa polychloros (L)
Trappmann and Nitsche (417) in 1935 roport.ed that rotonbno sprays
gave 30-perccnt mortality of last instars after 8 days;'but rotonone dusts
gavy- only 10-pcrcnt mortality. Dosage was regulated to give a deposit
of 0.18 mg. of rotonone p-r 500 cm.2.
Vanessn urticao (L.)
Trvppmann and Nitsche (417) in 1935 reported that rotonone sprays
were not effective against last instars. Dosage wias regulated to -i-e a
deposit of 0.16 mg. of rotenone p'er 500 cr..9.
Xymphalidae (unidentified sp.)
Sprays made by extracting Tephrosia vopelii seeds with kerosene
proved about half as toxic to unidentified caterpillars of this family
as similar sprays containing pyrethrum. -- IVorsley (499) in I.4.
Cremona cotoneasteri Busck
Roaf, Dimick, and Mote (356) in 1937 reported tests against this
webwormn on Cotoneaster horizontalis near Portland, Oreg. A derris dust
applied to the infested shrub with a large salt shaker gave good control.
This dust was prepared by mixing 1 part of derris (rotenone 5 percent)
with 9 parts of hydrate of lime. This mixture did not kill the cater-
pillars quickly but in a week's time most of the webworms were dead.
After the caterpillars died a garden hose was used to wash the material
from the plant.
Depressaria nervosa Haw.
The WTageningen (461) Station in Holland in 1934 reported that sprays
containing 0.01 percent of rotenone, 0.25 percent of acetone, and 0.2 per-
cent of Agral wave from poor to fair control.
Blijdorp (36) in 1955 reported that derris powder containing 2 per-
cent of rotenone was the best of several materials tried for the control
of the caraway moth. This v:as applied at a rate of 37.5 and 75 I:g. ;er
hectare (equivalent to about K3..5 to 67 pounds per acre), in two ailplica-
tions using one-third of the total amount in the first applics tion. The
results were obtained by Tn:surin. the yield of carc".-iy seed cObtvincd
from each of four ex;ocrimental plots 10 1-. 20 meters, and counting; the
number of cocoons. Later Blijdorp (57) reported that for control of
this moth it is almost always better'to apply an insecticide as a dust
than as a spray, advocating dorris of kncotr,_ rotcnon. content dilute -d w.th
talc. Dusting is worth while if a count at the end of Uarch over a fow
square yards indicates the presence of more than 6 to 8 thousand females
Spoon (384) in 1935 reported on the control with derris po-',dcr in
Holland. Derris powvdcr (8 percent rotcien. 21 -'rccnt other rxtrict) vas
mixed with 3 parts of Fr,:nch chalk. This ::Mixture at 533 pounds ;-p.:r acre
gave better results than 135 :cit:nds per acre of either 2'0 percent of lbr.r-
ium fluosilirate or 30 percent of soium fluosilicate. At C.j pounds r- r
acre this der-'is mixture Cave prctiily complete r,,ntr.l.
DeBussy, van der Laan, and Diakonoff (57) in 1936 reported that in
the Netherlands derris i-as the best material for the control of this
species. The rotenone content should be at least 0.5 percent and, pref-
erably, 0.75 percent. The dosage was 50 to 75 kg. per 10,000 m2.
The Koloniaal Instituut (240) in 1936 reported that in the Nether-
lands an example of the practical use of derria is the control of this
insect.in Groningen. Eighty-six thousand kg. of derris dusting mixture
was used in 1935 for control. Derris was first applied as a dust in 1934
and pure rotenone was also used in 1934.
The destruction of the caraway moth by means of derris has become a
general practice in the IIetherlands. -- Koloniaal Instituut of Amsterdam
(239) in 1936.
In the Netherlands, one of the principal uses of derris is to control
this insect. -- Van der Laan (244) in 1936.
An anonymous writer (5) wrote in 1937 that in the Netherlands the
caraway moth was effectively checked with a derris dust containing 0.75
percent of rotenone.
The Koloniaal Instituut (241) in 1938 reported that in the Nether-
lands derris dusts containing 0.5 to 0.75 percent of rotenone were large-
ly used for combating the caravway moth.
Hofmannophila pseudospretella (Stt.)
An anonymous author (5) in 1937 wrote that the larvae of (Borkhau-
senij) Hofmannophila pseudospretella were sensitive to derris dust con-
taining 1 percent of rotenone.
Ancylis comptana fragariae ('1alsh & Riley), the strawberry leaf roller
At the 1934 meeting of the American Association of Economic Entomol-
ogists, as reported by the United States Departrment of Agriculture, Bur-
eau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (437), Cory led a discussion-of
field results with arsenical substitutes for the control of vegetable
insects. :Tutson, of riichigan, reported"that derris dust containing 0.5
percent of rotenone had been most satisfactory for the control of the
strawberry leaf roller. Satisfactory diluents were flour, talc, bentonite,
china clay, 300-mesh dusting sulfur, tobacco dust, silicated infusorial
earth, and finely ground gypsum.
In 1934 the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station (275) reported
that an infestation when there were berries on the plants was best con-
trolled by the use of pyrethrum or derris dusts or sprays.
Hutson (207) in 1935 reported that derris was tested both as a dust
and as a spray. A dust made by mixing 25 pounds derris powder (2 percent
rotenone) with 75 .Founds talc, applied :.t the rate of 30 pounds per acre,
left 74 live leaf rollers on a 10-rod rc.i: at the end of 10 days. A spray
made by adding 5 pounds of this derris *-oc der plus 2 pounds of soap chizs
to 100 gallons of water, applied at Lhc' rate of 125 gallons per acre, left
68 live leaf rollers. Cn the untreated cI'eck 267 live leaf rollers were
found. Hutson concluded that better control was obtained by the use of
derris and pyrethrum than with other materials.
The Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station (316) in 1937 reported th.t
life-histor" studies conducted in the insectary at 77ooster showed that 3
broods may occur annually, but during the preceding season the first brood
of larvae vas most abundant and did most damage. In southvrester.r Ohio 16
insecticidal treatments were tested against the first brood and each wras
replicated 5 times. Applications were made on May 11-12, May 21-22, and
i:ay 27, In the third application, however, only materials that would
leave no poisonous residue on the berries were used. Differences in the
extent of injury detected in the various plots on May 21 were sli,1:t, but
increased as the sea*.n advanced. On June 10, 600 leaflets from each of
the more outstanding plots were examined for injury. The efficiency of
the various insecticides, measured by the number of injured straw-berry
leaflets in a 600-leaflet sample taken front ea-ch replicate of each plot,
is shown in the following table.
Material Applica- Replications Total Control
tions 1 2 3 4 5
Number >irmb er Fercent
Derris, 4 percent,
Gypsum, 87-1/2 pounds 3 122 73 124 135 100 554 75.7
Cube, 4 percent,
Gypsum, 87-1/2 rFoinds 3 197 276 (213 24G 244 1206 47.2
Black Arrow Luzt 3 215 254 256 241 260 1225 4r3.5
Dutox, 5 poul'is
SS-3, 100 cc,
T'ater, 100 gallons 2 233 310 ?.4 2['6 200 1313 42.5
Kalo Spray, 5 pounds
SS-3, 100 cc.
TViter, 100 go lIons 2 74 170 111 7 '-, 11. 551 75.9
0 3W3 50'7 <13 51-2 472
Check, no treatment
Twc spray applications of Kalo Spray proved just as effective as
three dust applications of powdered derris root, each effecting a 75-
percent control. Powdered cube root, although it contained the same
amount of rotenone and was used in the same vay, was significantly less
effective than powdered derris root.
The Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station (228) in 1938 reported
that pyrethrum and rotenone dusts applied three times at 5-day intervals C'
during the period of nonrolling of the leaves by the larvae gave good con-
Neiswander (290) in 1938 reported that three applications of derris
dust gave 75.7-percent control in Ohio in 1936 and three applications of
cube dust gave 47.2 percent control. Each material contained 4 percent
of rotenone and was diluted with gypsum in the ratio 12.5:87.5. Cryolite
(either natural or artificial) is recommended as giving the best control.
The North Central States Entomologists (309)/discussed the control
of certain insects by the use of cube and dorris. Parker and Lamerson,
of D anhattan, Kan., reported on the control of the strawberry leaf roller.
Nicotine sulfate or pyrethrum extract in combination with summer-oil emul-
sion, sprayed three times at 5-day intervals during the period of nonroll-
ing of the leaves by the larvae, gave the best results. This held true
for the second and third broods, as well as for the first brood. Pyreth-
rum and rotonone dusts applied during the same period gave good control.
Cubor containing 0.75 percent of rotenone, -'ith and without sulfur, was
also tested by these workers.
Roark (357) in 1938 reviewed the comparative action of derris-and
cube of equal'rotenone content, on this species. Reference was made to
the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station (316), which in 1936 obtained
47.2-percent control with a cube-gypsum dust and 75.7-percent control
with a derris-gypsum dust (each containing 0.5 percent of rotenone).
Lamerson and Parker (246) in 1959 recorded tests of insecticides
against the American strawberry leaf roller at Mianhattan, Kans. Against
half-grown to mature larvae in rolled leaflets, pyrethrum dust containing
0.8 percent of pyrethrins gave the best control--96.8 percent killed. A
dust containing 1 percent of rotenone killed 90.8 percent and one contain-
ing 0.75 percent of rotenone killed 85.8 percent.
Carpocapsa pononella (L.), the codling moth
Quaintance (338) reported in 1928 that, according to Van Leeuwen, der-
ris in laboratory and field tests in ie',,' Jerseylhad shovn promise for con-
trol. In 1929 (339) he reported that derris had been tested for control
in Arkansas, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, TNew Jersey, and Washing-
ton. In Illinois good results were obtained u'th commercial derris extract
combined with white oil, 1.25 percent. An alcoholic extract of derris used
against second-brood woms appeared to be of little value.
,.. . ........... . .. .
Van Leeuwen (453) in 1928 reported that at Riverton, "!. 5., thr-r
early applications of lead arsenate u.-ainrst the first brood, fcllo-.,ed
by three applications of pyrethrum, nicotine, or derris against the
second brood,. gave good :results. Check trees showed 83 percent of all
apples free from vmr-id whereas the lead arsen:.-.te plat sho'.ed 97 per-
cent, the nicotine plat 95 percent, the pyrcthruiLm plat 93 percent, and
the derris plat 95 percent free from wor.s. In laboratory tes-s .-ith
nev1ly hatched larvae, derris, pyrethrum, and nicotine gave -ver:y .l:ocur-
The Bureau of Entomology (428) in 1928 mentioned that extracts of
derris at 1:800 had been tested as contact sprays and as ovicides.
Farrar (117) in 1930 reported that Derrisol 1:800 in combination
v.ith Verdol 1:50, applied for the control of the second brood, kept the
wormy fruit dovm to 1.1 percent in 1928 and 7.0 percent in 1929. The
corresponding figures, for Verdol were 3.C and 6.0, r-spectively. Lead
arsenate, 2 po'.-ds to 100 -rllons plus hydrated lime 4 ro-.inds t0 100 ga?-
lons, gave 3.6 a.nd 2.7 pcrcent wormy fruit for these years. Farror con-
cluded that in field combinations the addition of l:LOO parts cf cither
nicotine sulfate or Derrisol we.s satisfactory. otherthr the grower would
be recompensed in full for this additional cost in the spr.y is suestion-
Flint (135) in 1929 reported on Der-riscl for the control cf sccc.nd
and third-brood larvae. In southon Illinois z'o ccrmercial sprays using
a 2-percent lvhito-oil emulsion allow.cd infostatiorEs of 1.1 and 0.7 percent,
respectively. The same oil at 1 percent !.'s nicotir.ne sulfate 1:8CC per-
mitted 0.3-percent infestation, and a siitilar cxncriro Lnt w.ith Derrisol at
the same dilution gave 1.1-nercent infestation. Thc c.:mmcrci: sprayed
plot in tho same orchard, -.-hcro load arcon:-.te -.ans used in t.hY, second-b1,rood
sprays, had 5.2-percent infestation. Th',,r c'.eck shcw'.ed th:.t 31 percrrit cf
the apples werc injured by this insect. .zc ry aE i.rod results "-or ob-
tained in a second crch-.rd ir. ':cstc-rn Illincis.
nt the codlinc moth con.fcrcnce hold i2 ).3.29 by the: Unit,-i Stntr. s
Department of agriculture, Bureau of Entc.oloy (409), thr- fc,11 :v'inrq
Federal men reported on Corris: Ackermun, cf Bcintoiiville, Ark.; Gilmu'r,
of Wichita, Kans.; Ncv.comer-and Yothers, o4f Y-!Qinr., '..as'..; Var Lcou"'en
and i.cAllister, of Moorcston, II. J.; and Sijlcr, Quain.tancc, and Foarkr
of Washington, D. C. Reports were also rivr.n by the follo.rinr- Stste
men: Eyer, of IPew h iexico, pnd List, Yetter, .ndJ Uevrton, :t Cclcrado.
In field tests both derris povirer an. ': alc,:.holic extract :'f lorriE
gave poor results, and in laboratory tects a ,.in.3t lar.rvae t!ie e:-tract
of derris gave poor results. ..s r,ointed'U out ,, -,nrl Ihir alrol..c 7x-
tract of derris vwas later r-'.r.rinr.d rn'3 fr'.ricd ,o c,.nt:'.in v.-rr Iittle if
any of the active principles. Evrer rcur'rtrd that ba.I. troantd xiti ;',r-
risol at full strength wcre definitely rern.llent t, to r'.',re Lr. tr-
Mexico, and List, Yotter, and lZev.ton reported th-r t 'cr:'isuil :.?p. nrei to
have some valuv for control in Colorado but nut nr.ourh to be vet'r; :"c .1r-
aging. The Bureau of Entomology (430) in 1929 rferrc'd to terts r'it-.
rotenone and with derris plus oil spray.
Gross and Fahey (170) in 1930 wrote that in field tests at Yakima,
Wash., in 1929 rotenone in low,, concentration vwas not so'toxic as had been
The Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station (227) in 1930 reported
that Derrisol 1:200 plus summer oil 2*100 -w'as tested aa a substitute for
lead arsenate for the control of the codling moth. Fair to good control
Quaintance (340) in 1930 reported that the addition of derris extract,
1:800, to oil did not materially improve its effectiveness. In small-scalc
field tests rotenone gave very poor results; in the laboratory results
ranged from good to poor. Rotenone appeared to be effective immediately
after application but lost its effectiveness rapidly on exposure.
Spuler et al. (388) in 1930 reported that the use of spreaders, fish
oils, mineral oils, nicotine, derris, and pyrethrum compounds in combina-
tion with lead arsenate had given variable results.
The United States Department of Agriculture (425) in 1930 stated that
rotenone was being tested against this insect. At the annual codling moth
conference in 1930 the Bureau of 7ntoriology (431), of the Department, in-
cluded reports on derris and rotenone by I1c.comer, Dean, Campbell, Roark,
and Runnbr. Hevcomner reported as follows:
Laboratory/results with derris were poor in 1928, and laboratory
results with derris were poor in 1929, even when tested the day the
spray was applied. In the 1929 tests, the commercial Derrisol was
used at 1:400 and 1:800, with and without a mineral-oil emulsion.
Derrisol at 1:800, plus 0.75 percent of oil, used in the orchard,
burned the fruit and foliage, and the experiment was discontinued.
The rotenone was first used at 1:1,500 and 1:3,000 in alco-
holic solution, alone and -with mineral oil, fish oil, and casein
spreader, and later at the same dilutions and the same combina-
tions, with saponin at 1 pound to 200 gallons. The rotenono-saponin
combination was better than the alcoholic solution, and this combin-
ation with mineral oil showed some indication of value.
Dean reported that Derrisol at 1:200 plus summer oil at 2:100 gave
fair control and seemed worthy of further trial. Campbell stated that
rotenone was the most toxic compound to the silkworm that he had tested
so far under laboratory conditions and that if it failed in the field
decomposition or some other fact must be responsible. Such failure can-
not be due to lack of original toxicity. The Bureau of Entomology (432)
in 1930 reported that derris extract combined with white-oil emulsion had
been tested in the field against codling moth at Yakima, ThYsh.; Bonton-
ville, Ark., and V'ichita, Kans. Field and laboratory tests were made with
rotenone. The Burc':Lu (433) in 1931 reported that tests of rotenone against'
the codling moth in the-field gave disappointing results, but because of
the hiirh initial toxicity this material possesses, efforts to develop Mways
of effectively utilizing it were being continued.
Headlee (17c5) in 1931 recorded tests with crsenical substitutes for
the control ofe t"e codling moth. Four armlications against first brood
on early apples (Starr variety) gave the following percentages of infested
fruit: Lead ars'nate, 9.6; oil-pyrethrum, 11.4;- light oil-rotenone, 12.0;
hcavy oil-rotcnonc, 14.9; and tank-mixed nicotine tannate, 11.0.
The Virginia Agricultural Exoeriment Station (458) in 1931 referred
to the work of fIough to determine the difference between western and Vir-
ginia strains in. resistance to arsenical zprays. ne results had indicated
that tolerance tc spray materials is not s-ccific for arsenic, but also
holds true for such insecticides as cryolite, barium fluosilicate, and
For control rotenone is considered as still in the experimental stage.
-- Anonymous (3) in 1932.
Campbell (60) in 1932 critically reviewed all tests with rotenone.
In all tests the apples were sprayed with suspensions of rotenone in water
*ith or without the addition of other substances. iTe-..cc.eer found that ro-
tenone alone at 1:3,340 and 1:4,450 -;as decidedly more effective than lead
arsenate at 2 pounds to 100 gallons (1:416) when the tests were made
shortly after application of the spray, but the effectiveness of rotenone
'as markedly reduced when the tests were made 7 days after application;
whereas the effectiveness of lead arsenate remained about the same. Hough
noted the sane phenomenon in a test of rotenone ;rith Penetrol. Of the
larvae that hamc.ed from 6 to 48 hours after the application of the spray,
6.8 percent entered the fruit; of those that hatched fr.mn 48 to 72 hours
after the ar:,lication 25 percent entered. An experiment by Lathr'-p sup-
ports results of iTe-conier and Iough. Using a 1:4,450 suspension of ro-
tenone, Lathrop found that 97.4 percent of the number of larvae that
entered the untreated apples were prevented from entering apples freshly
treated with rotcnonc. However, the efficiency of rotenone, when the lar-
vae were placed on the fruit several ,"-.,-r after treatment, was found to be
cnly:r 32.5 percent. 7e-,:comor also tested rotenone at 1:1,110 and found that
the effectiveness of the deposit was greatly reduced in 7 d:iys.
In all tests by leiwccorier and Houjh the percentage of stings on apples
treated with rotenone vas lower than that on apples treated with lead ar-
senate. In laboratory tests a.'r.int this insect the addition of stare:.
and Llue as stickers reduced immediate effectiveness. The addition of
mineral-oil and fish-oil emulsions to rotenone suspensions ,, *,-,red to
hav. no si;-nificrant effect i iru inedi.ate tests. In :.ci.,'s '-*:.,rinent with
rotenone ard soap excellent results were obivhnrd 3 days vP'- r rTqi'. -
tiorn of the s-ra,. On the .r'sis of total injuri-:, rotenone-soap ,as
distiictliv sr.pr-rior to l.hro le:,,i' ;..:- nate :r-:. .'e.: ". noted that *fhe ad-
dition of soap nv'teriall-, in.rjroveo-.1 the distr7". ii...' of rot,'cne. Several
field trsts havei been aJoe in 11 aif ir' .'st C 7co 1 i "C Y
c.nd Spuler. SoC,,,i results 0' .uch tests of ro+.:. e i i co mparison vith
lead ars:cnate are i.ven i" the 7'-llv."i. ible. .. rotone dis-
solved in acetone and t.h,- solution vzt-s add. to wacr to fo a n,' 'sion.
Lead arser-tc 1:41
Lead srse-.^.te 5
poulids per 100
Rotenc.ne 1 :-1,450
Lead Lrs;t'o 3
pcu,:dS Oer 100
Calyx and first co.er spray
of lead arsenate followEd by
6 cover sprays of rotencne
Ce.l:,- and '3 cover sprays
Calyx and 3 cover sprays
Tannic acid was added to
first ccver spray
Calyx, an:d 3 cover sprays
Caly-: srray o-' lead arsena.te
followed by 6 cov--cr sprays
Calyx and (3 cover sprays
Those vwho have tested rotenone in the field do not consider it a prom-
ising substitute for lead arsenate. Feovrev.c'r, it is so effective in labor-
atory experfniments when freshly applied that the possibility of its use in
the field should not be abandoned until efforts have beer: made to under-
stand and control its adherence and-decomposition on fruit: and foliage.
Newcomer (306) in 1932 stated that pyrrthrum hlad been tested rather
Thoroughly but no way had been found that would ima:e it as effective as
nicotine for control of this insect and the same might be said of rote-
Ic.:.'comer and Yotliers (307) in 1932 reported ;that a commercial extract
of derris [Derrisol?] was .ineffective as an ovioide (1:800) aLrd as a lar-
vicido (l'400). A rmixt7.re of 0,75 percent of lubricating-oil emulsion and
coiTIrMrcial dorris extract (1:400 and 1:800) vas ineffective in preventing
the ror'-is from entering zpry.qd .fruit in laboratory, experiments. An alco-
holic extract of dorris cnd a kerosene -extract of pyro thrum in orchard
experiments were prantically -'orthco~s, the fruit becorning extremely wormy.
This samPnle of dorris root ras l.tc, found to be low i- tota'i. extract and
to contain not more than trc',s of rotnc.nr,., 'iich cxplai:is the v4'ry poor
results obtained with it. .i' nrch'.rd cxpcrim,,nt with the cou-,icrcial.
dorris extract was discontinued br-cause fruit and foliage injury developed
and ;-ilch of i.-), fruit vras becoming .or.y,
Spulor, Dorman, and Gillies (5K7) in 1.932 rcportc-'i t-.at t.. .onc the
contact sprays, sLch as mineral oil, nicotine sulfate, yr.c'ti.r't., ;:.
rotenono, have sufficient larvicidal value- as a spray -..:; .n used '-1: -.
Their chief value is in combination '-ith oth:-.r :1.tric..Is in suc'.i a'
that the resultant spray contains both ovicidlal ani l:.'ricil 1 v'.i'C.
Turner (418) in 1932 reported that tets in controlling: this insr'-t
wore limited, ow:ing to low infestations, l-ut in mencrnl t-r'.r ahl."-" tt.c.t
rotenone is of some value.
Webster (475) in 1932 reported that on '-locks of trees ir. the ... -.'i-hoe,
Wash., experimental orchard sprayed wvith rotoone1, oil-nicotrc, or ',o il-
pyrethrum combination, freedom frcm red spider injury -"as cc-c.picu:u drimr-
the past season. Ho said: "We must still regard the use of roto.:':-n, :.:d
the oil-pyrethrum combination as re]l, as in th-c oxpc'rimr:.t::.l s.1 GO 5 :.r
as codling moth control is cor.c-crned."
Jarvis (222) in 1933 reported on the use of J..takilla %'th -".!-e oi. in
Queensland. Five rovws of 5- to 6-year-old .-pple trrcs, four t'-: s 3 i-. each
row (Jonathan and Vv.ndorpool Red) werc sprc.-,rcd ,'w.*ith renarsonicn,.iC, -:.ci
row receiving a different trertn.cnt. Four treat-z.c:-'ts i.'crc -iv::. :n.-ch ro",,
the spray being applied with a knapsac'k spray ovLf'it o0 4 gallons' cr.pc.c-
ity. Approximately 3/4 to 1 gallon of spray fluid aias usc-d for each tr:e
per application. For a small tree this wvs a -,.erous allowancc c.'-d rcr-
mi-cted a thorough coverage. -In the Kate.killa .d ..itc-oil itu, --
killa was used at 2 pounds to 32 imperial gallons vnd the white oil at
1:80. White oil alone was used at 1:64. i'iiotir.e sulfato--.;hite i ,. ni
Katakilla-white oil gave equallyy uod results ac.d both w'ere sli Q:ly
more efficient than lead arsenate but -':ere much rore expen.sli.e. ic o-,- r,
it is possible that the strength of thes- t"o sprr..s ni'lt bh rrd&re?.],
and three applications be given instead .f' four, h3 .,,rcr-. -a." :"
sound fruit obtained by each treatment v-as as f.'llo,'s: 4_r;um ;lnos i-
cate 92.8, lead arsenate 97.3, nicotine su'lfr.te-W'hite oil :'.2, t..:iill..-
white oil 98.1, white oil 97.8.
List 052) in 1933 disc'issed the proprcss nudae in co.;lir- iv t.- c.:,.tr,
during the preceding decode. Petroleum oils as carriers -f .nictis., n "-
rethrum, and rotenone must be used cautiously',: to avcic folirpe inur".
The United States Department of Ar-riculti.irn, C ur,-. r. c E..i-- .. .-.-
(439) reported that Childs in 193-1 tested mi::.turee- '" c 1, r r 1.-r'r n".d
aoTlin 1:3 (rotenone 1 percent) on arp- .rs at I'.'"c,. ,..: ',-p. 'r.
results, compared with those obtait.-.cid '.ith lead .rr' .E..,. r': ..-. ', ""
Material 'Frrn fro-x '-r;.. ... .. -
laii ri .' : it .s .:: ,
r-' r T:'.'' ' -" .
Lead arsenate, 3 pounds per 100 96.1 ,.- '. ...
gallons, 5 applications
Cube mixture, 10 pounds per 100 93.5 V. .,
gallons, 10 applications
STATE PLANT BOARD
Derris-kaolin gave results similar to those obtained with cube-kaoli
Gentner in 1934 tested the same mixtures at Talent, Orec., against codlin
moth infesting 25-year-old Bartlett pear trees. Four cover sprays of tn.
material tested were applied following a calyx and first cov'r of lead
arsenate, and 6 cover sprays of cube-kaolin were applied also folio'i,.-,r a
calyx and first cover of lead arsenate. Because of delpyr in recei-.i'..-
materials, nicotine-bentonite (3 pounds per 100 gallons) wias iuised ir *ke
third cover spray in place of cu.e-hiolin. lead r':en.te or.'s
used, 5.6 percent of the fruit was wormy; when cube-kaolin ?as ',e as -
described, 14.2 percent was wormy; and when derris-kaclin was uose', 16.3
percent was wormy. 1ione of the sprays injured the fruit, but the :.c.'.vy
residue of cube-kaolin prevented uniform coloring of pears that developed
a red cheek. An acid wash containing 3 percent of acid at 100 F. failed
to remove a derris-kaolin residue on pears, but Robinson removed all
traces of the residue ,- washing in a solution of sodium silicate.
Hiaegele in 1935 tested these fixtures at Fprmp, Idaho, using eith'r 5 or
10 pounds of the mixture per 100 gallons of 1irpter, rnd making 8 or 12
applications to trees .bout 20 "'prs old. Comp-rativo figures for this
mixture and lead arsenate, 3 pounds per 100 gallons, applied in the regu-
lar schedule (8 applications) are as follows:
3,aterial Fruit -____ :
: Wormy T Free fi om worms: -7orms per : Stings p<
a-: ad stings : 100 apples: 100 appl
Percent Percent ,>mber AT'7u ber
Lead arsenate, 3 pounds 68.0 2.6 266.9 3173
per 100 gallons, 8
Cube mixture, 10 pounds 98.6 1.0 481.9 16.9
per 100 gO1 llons, 12
L-:did ,rsrcn-'t,, 3 pouinds ,6.3 2.4 181.6 31'o2
Cub,- mixture, por-Is 91.o3 1.6 304.9 131.8
pcr i0C, rP.1Ilons + 0.5
perc,-r't '-.f' '--iitc oil,
12 nppi c',i ,n, ns
Althou2,, a heavy residue of cube-kaolin was left on the fruits, this
did not i.ih;ibit coloring.o The dorris nnd cube dusts tended to be some-
what nauI.,.,ng to the operators. Derris-kaolin was not so effective as
the cubeo-kaolin mixture.
T,.alo (J7S&') in 1;''5 also reported that dorris, 10 pounds per 100
cnllonu alir.. t.., also plus 0o5 percent of oil, proved most unsatisfac-
".orry in controlling the insect at Parma, Idaho, in 1934.
Harman (184) in 1934 reported experiments in a badly infested King
orchard during -935 in Nev: York. Kubatox (a derris extract), 1 quart to
100 gallons, permitted 3 percent of stings and 89 percent of worms; the
same plus 1 quart of cil permitted 3 percent of stings and 87 percent of
worms, as compared with 60 percent of stings and 13 percent of worms for
lead arsenate at 3 pounds to 100 gallons. The addition of 1 quart of oil
to 1 quart of Kubatox per 100 gallons of spray resulted in 3 percent of
stings and 87 percent of worms.
Hough (192) in 1934 reported on the relative abilities of Colorado
and Virginia strains of the larvae to enter apples sprayed with rotenone.
Eggs placed on the apples sprayed with rotenone hatched 3 days after the
spray was applied. Greater ability of the Colorado larvae to enter
sprayed fruit mas not specific for lead arsenate but was also demonstra-
ted when such nontarsenical sprays as cryolite, barium fluosilicate, rote-
none, cuprous cyanide, and nicotine were used. Comparative tests with
Colorado and Virginia larvae on apples that received two applications of
a nonarsenical spray (rotenone, 1 gin. in 2,000 cc.) gave results as fol-
Strain Eggs hatched Live larvae Total injuries
Number Ilumber Percent !,urnber Percent
Colorado 377 57 15.1 67 17.7
Virginia 440 24 5.4 25 5,6
Kearns (229) in 1934 reported that derris did not provide a very high
control in England.
Marshall (269) in 1934 stated that derivatives of derris or cube root
have not been so widely applicable as nicotine sulfate.
Mote and Thompson (284) in 1934 recorded tests of substitutes for
lead arsenate in Oregon. Various materials were tried as substitutes.
The material wTas applied at a pressure of between 300 and 350 pounds, 10
trecs being used in each plot. All the apples on each tree, including
windfalls, were examined and the percentages ofV'-mrnv: oaples, stinrsi, and
clean fruit .-ore recorded. F:otonone was tried only 1 year, 3 ounces being
used in each 100 gallons of spray. In the first 2 cover sprays, 6 ounces
of tanrinT.as added to each 100 gallons and this may have been responsible
for considerable foliage injury, which developed on this plot.
Llatc rial r----- ------- --
Lat rial Clean '.'orny Stinp.s
Percent iPecrcent Pe r(c''nt
Rotonono 72,1 23.5 4.4
Lead arsenate check 89.0 C..5 4.5
Unsprayed control 15.2 82.0 2.8
The lie-.' York State agricultural Experim-nt Station (30O) in 1935
stated that rctonr:one and derris gave/promisinr, results as substitutes for
The United States Departncnt of Ariculture, Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine (--40) concluded, from a review.' : of all work done in the
United States in 1l74, that mixtures of 1 part of derris or cube with 3
parts of kaolin (1 percent rotenone) p-ave definitely unsatisfactory results
This material "as tested at strengths of 5 and 10 pounds per 100 gallons
on varyin" schedules and in; sc:".e instances in combination vrith oil.
Thither increr.azs in concentration nor in the number of applications re-
sulted in increased control. The addition of oil gave a certain degree
of effcctivenesz, -ut this is attributed to the oil rather than to the
derris. Th:c. kaolin used as a carrier c-aused an unsightly deposit on the
apples that cculd. net be removed by the usual hydrochloric acid vash,
therefore otherm-ise high-quality fruit could not be marketed except at a
carmern. Eo-;evcr, Iobinzon removed all traces of derris-kaolin residue
from pears by washingg their. in a solution of sodium silicate.
Boyce (4_) in 1935 reported the results of tests in Persian walnuts.
Nicotine tannz 'Ie, nico.tine-ben.tonite, nicotine-mineral oil, rotenone,
ground derris, pyrethirum extract, and -round pyrethrum gave unsatisfactory
results. Each toxic material .as used at thc rate of 4 pounds plus 2/3
quart of hii:-hly refined Ii.ht-nediumT mineral o.il, plus 1/3 pint of liquid
blood albumin per 100 -galonr of ir-ter. .asic lead arsenate gave the best
F.'L. Cam-)pll (62) in 1935 said that derris and cube are so toxic in
the laboratory that tl'ey should be followed uip further. Eyer (115) in
1935 presented the follovrri re.".ults of tests of insecticides in New Mexico
i Sound apples after treatmnont with --
Check (no Pyrethrum-derris-
Variety insecticide Lead bentonite-sulfur
during season) arsenate supplement
Forcont Percent Percent
Delicious 73.8 85.8 76.6
Staynan rinesap 8 1.5 8.i9 73.0
Gene 47.0 82.2 66.8
Arkansas Black 65.6 95.4 82.2
Childs (7i)' in 1935 stated thK.t derris and cube had been tested as
substitutes for lead arsr-na.te in t}.' Hood PRivcr Valloy, Orog., and had
boon found ineffective or uneconomical for general orchard use.
F. J. D. Thomas (409), ,ent, England, .-,ported in 1935 on the control
of'surface-c ting tortricii l]r.,eo cn Lppl33. T-sts -er-- mrde -uih derris
dust and derris spray against C'coecia pod.a-a Seop., to apple' a protective
dust to the fruit before an attack began. Tn the 1attcr opart c.f June
moths of this species and also codling ia.ths ,tre be-,ton- fror the trees.
Tilo dusts -uere applied on July 17--one of derris, the other of baritn
fluosilicate. Subsequent observations and counts on both '.indfalls and
crop showed very little tortrix dama-e to the fruit o.n .ny of the trees,
including the undusted controls. Surface drr:aa:e ':as mainly due to very
young codling moth larvae and nr:t -:ro C. podana. * Derris (crude
rotenone 3.63 percent), 2 pounds clus-soTt -oap 5 rounds per 1OC0 imperial
gallons, reduced the damage 50 percent -cw.en ap-,lied approximately 9 ..:eeks
Trapprnann and Nitsche (C17) in 1935 reported that rotenone snra,,s
and dusts w.ere nct effective against the l.-t irnstars cf th'-is species.
Dosage vas rei'lc.ted to 7ive ae. deposit of 0.18 m-. cf rorenone per 500
The United States Departnent of -.ricu. 'ure, F.ureau of Lntonolory
and Plant Q.uarz.ntine (438, 43$), in 1935 assen-.-led the results cf codling
moth investigations conrdTc.ter' di.rin,; 193-- b' State a-encies. At L'onroe,
Oreg., four cover sprays -,-ere applied cn th? apple tr.ees. Le.d arsenate
3 pounds per 100 gallons ,av-e 89.07 percc-rt of cle:lan rotenone in
the last three covers with calciun arsen:'1.e in cln.x n... first cover gave
71.76 percent of clean fruit; and rotenone 7'.is 0.75 per-ei:t o-" cil 'Io. 6
in the last three covers and calcium_ -.rser.at,_ poun-1is -. r 100 gall ons in
the calyx and first co-rer ave 78&.'- rercr.nt clean fruit. .-.t Talent, Oreg.,
eight cover sprays -.-ere ai:plied to apples and five or C-x cover sprays to
pears. On pears derris v.-ith kaolin, 1 ner?'e3,t cf rotencne (calyx Lnd
first cover lead arsentate), 5 snd 10 pounds per 1-C0 gaCll,-ns, .ot>. -..ith
and without oil, rnd powdered cube rcoo- -...th kaoli-. (rot-none 1 pnrcnLt)
at 10 pounds per 100 gallons, a-o much poorcr control than did lead
arsenate. In 1934 workers in the Division of Fruit Insect Investi'7i.ons
of the Bureau, tested derris in the field at Koarneysville, I-'.. `,,.; Saint
Joseph, Mo.; Tarma, Idaho; Hood River and' Talo-t, Oreg.; and in the labor-
atory at Takomna ark, Ed. Derris power T. as toxic to larvae 'nrder labor-
atory conditions. Derris-haolin applied in the field to anples, from
which plugs were made for laboratory c-stinp; at Vincennes, Ind., was not
toxic. In the field derris, cube, inr,! yrethrum in adrixtur'e with kaolin
were all rated i effective.
Eaker and Butler (20) in 1936 reported on tests mcde on a 2O-icre
block divided into plot-sof about 15 trees each. All .pli nations vore
made -rith a power sprayer oporatin,- at ,oy ,,unds' pressure and carry-ing
2 singlo-nozzle suns. Derris alone gave little or no control, but in
combination with. Trinoral A] it '':as more eff.ctivo though still f'. f''om
satisf-actory. Derris cr.used no foliage irjij-y. The f-llo.in. table Sho"..'s
the results of field tosts of or-:nio sul'. :itutes Ccr lead ars..'Yite at
St. Joseph, Uo., in 1931. All plats wTcre spraycid "itih lend arscr.te, 3
pounds per l_0 gallons, in the cilyx -rpr-y,
IWormn infestation (number of -rorms per 100 apples
ITaterial used (pounds Material used vith --
per 100 -allons unless material used alone Slrummer oil, 0.5 i Fish oil, 0
otherwise stated) _______ percent percent
r -egular 7-day regular 7-day I Regular
schedule -qc-eduleol schedule schedule schedule
Lead arsenate 3:100 41.6 ..
Ground derris root 1 172.9 165.2 --- 76,4 ---
cart, kaolin 3 parts
containing 1 percent
The same 5:100 81.3 -
Lead arsenate 3:100 1......--- 111.3
in first brood; der-
ris as above 10:100
remainder of season
1 Be -ir. i,-. with second cover spray.
2/..:. cover sr'ays applied at approximately 10- to 12-day intervals.
j/ Fourteen cover sprays applied at approximately 7-day intervals.
Th, East V'llino Research Station, Kent, England (108), in 1936 re-
ported the folloriAng results in control: Of the unsprayed apples 13.7
percent were damaged; of those sprayed with derris containing 3.6 percent
of crude rotenone at the rate of 2 pounds per 100 imperial gallons plus
5 pounds of soap, 11.4 percent were damaged; and of those sprayed with
lead arsenate at the rate of 4 pounds per 100 imperial gallons plus 1
pound of Lethalate vwetting preparation, 2.8 percent were damaged.
Farrar (118) in 1936, reporting on the effect of petroleum-oil sprays
on insects and plants, stated that emulsions containing extracts of derris
and -yr,-thrum were less toxic to codling moth larvae under field condi-
tions than were the nonimpregnated emulsions. Exposure of derris or py-
rethrumi products to the action of sunlight and oxygen destroyed their
activity toward insects, as is clearly demonstrated by laboratory tests.
'}.ose same oil emulsions, when tested against codling moth larvae in tho
laboratory ifer a relatively short exposure to the air, consistently
gave performance superior to nonimpregnated emulsions. The following
were tested in admixture .vith "white oil stock emulsion 200:" Derris
1/2, 1, and 2 pounds per gallon; cube -xtroct; rotenone with and without
P, rotrol; Derrisol.
Garman (151) in 1936 reported the follmiring results of tests on
apples in Connecticut:
___Fruit showing --
Treatment External insect Codling moth Conspicuous
injury entries spray russet
Percent Percent Pe rc er.t
Lead arsenate1 plus 91.5 0.0 ----
Cryolite plus flota- 65,4 .8
Cryolite plus Coposil 48.3 2.0 3508
Derris spray3 32.0 .9
Check--pink spray only 24.4 3.9 1.3
I/ Lead arsenate used at 3 pounds per 100 gallons.
2 Cryolite used at 4 pounds per 100 gallons.
SDerris used at 4 pounds per 100 rallcns. One extra spray in August.
Ground root containing 4 percent rotenone combir-d .with skini-milkc
powder. -. -..
Klinget- (237) in 1936 reported that in laboratory tests on fourth in-
stars, rotenone spray or dust gave no mortality in 8 days,
I.lcGovran (262) in 1936 reported that in laboratory tests a-ainst lar-
vae oil impregnated with I percent of rotenone gave between 40 and 25 per-
cent of entries; nicotine sulfate, 2 percent in oil, gave 100-percent con-
trol and was the most effective material for impregnating oil.
The LMissouri Agricultural Experiment Station (2) in 1936 reported
that rotenone and a number of other chemicals proved far more toxic to
the larvae under laboratory conditions than lead arsenate, but in the or-
chard they did not prove effective or safe.
Siegler and hunger in a typewritten report to the Division of Fruit
Insect Investigations, of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
in 1936, stated that a sample of derris containir:'. 3.6 percent of rote-
none (15.6 percent total extractives with carbon tetrachloride), used at
the rate of 1 pound to 50 gallors'of water, was ineffective in laboratory'
tests against codling moth larvae. Tephrozia virjiniana, used at a dos-
age in which the rotenone content 'as tlhe saro as that of a sample of
derris, was not quite so effectiv.b.as derris, possibly because the per-
centage of total extractives v.-as oily one-hv.lf that obtained from. derris.
Extracts of other plants such as T. pisci.toria, Jamaica dc&wood, and
daisy flowers did not appear to ha-.-e pror:ise.
Strong in 1936, in a letter to the Chief of the Bureau of Plant In-
dustry transmitted the results of tests vwit. dvil's-shoestrings on various
insects. A ccr.pa.rison of this insecticide vith derris was made against
codling moth larvae at Beltsville, 1d., using Siegler's apple-plug method,
with the following results:
Treatment Larvae entrances
ITocne 226 95
Tephrosia virginiana 40 85
(1.72 percent rotenone, 7.5 percent
total extractives, carbon tetra-
chloride) 4 pounds in 100 gallons
Derris root 41 71
(3.6 percent rotenone, 15.6 percent
total extractives, carbon tetra-
chlpride) 2 pounds in 100 gallons
Lead arsenate was not used in this series but, on the average, tests
carried on by this technique gave approximately 40 percent of successful
The United States Department of Agriculture on January 13, 1936,
issued a press release which called attention to certain disadvantages
that bar the use of rotenone insecticides for some types of insects.
Derris is not effective against all insects. 11though toxic to codling
moth larvae in the laboratory, rotenone preparations, exposed to light
and air in a thin spray film, decompose too rapidly for economical use.
Allman (12) in 1938 reported the results of a series of experiments
in commercial control, carried out during the 1936-37 season at Maimuru
(Young) in Australia, the tests including four varieties. The derris and
white-oil emulsion specially prepared for the test was ineffective at
1:100, and a residue of derris usually ran to the calyx end of the fruit,
resulting in oil staining. Excessive use of the usual white oils has
caused a so3ne'vhat similar condition, but the presence of the derris pow-
der apparently encouraged this tendency to oil-burr.
Infestation on apple, pear, and plumi was mitigated by a product con-
taining 12 percent of powdered Lonchocarpus nicou root (6 percent rote-
none) and 88 percent of talcum, according to Etablissements Rotenia, in
a letter to R. C. Roark in 1938.
The Tev- Yor1- County Agentl'. Training School (298) in 1938 heard re-
ports on rot-.enone products. Cube was not a satisfactory control in a
mnn drlrately infestd orchard.
The Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station (318) in 1938 issued a
spraying program for the control of insects and diseases attacking fruit
.crops. Under Ohio conditions the following materials were not recommended
for use in the orchard against the codling moth: Natural cryolite, syn-
thetic cryolite, barium fluosilicate, pyrethrum, derris or rotenone, and
phenothiazine; and summer oils were not recommended unless fortified with
lead arsenate or nicotine.
Roark (357) in 1938 reviewed the comparative action of derris and cube
of equal rotenone content on many insects. Reference was made to reports
by Haegele and Childs (437, 439) issued by the United States Department of
Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, who tested derris-
kaolin and cube-kaolin mixtures of equal strength (1 percent rotenone) on
larvae. Neither material appeared to have much effectiveness in control.
Although both resulted in fewer stings, there were more worms per 100
apples than when lead arsenate vas used.
Webster (476) in 1938 discussed substitutes for lead arsenate and
stated that rotenone, because it breaks down quickly in sunlight, has not
been of much value.
Agicide DC-4 (rotenone 0.6 percent) at the rate of 4 pounds per 100
gallons of vater (0.003 percent rotenone in spray) killed from 50 to 100
percent within 96 hours. -- Agicide Laboratories (8) in 1939.
Siegler (370) in 1940 reported laboratory studies of various sugars
and other materFials as possible larval attractants for use in increasing
the effectiveness of lead arsenate and other stomach poisons. Of the
several compounds reported on, brown sugar, because of its availability
and lowvr cost, appears to offer greatest promise as a larval attractant.
The addition of brown sugar to lead arsenate, calcium arsenate, nicotine
bentonite, and phenothiazine considerably increased the toxicity of these
insecticides under laboratory conditions. In combination with paris green
it decreased the percentage of injury. With pyrethrrum, however, brown
sugar was not notably effective as an attractant and with derris it had no
value. It was thought that in a large measure derris and pyrethrum might
have killed the larvae by contact. The derris (5 percent rotenone) used
at the rate of 4 pounds per 100 gallons Cave 48.5 percent of clean apples,
when tested by the apple-plug method. The addition of brown sugar at the
rate of 16 pounds per 100 gallons to this spray gave 47.9 percent of clean
The United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine (447), in 1939 reported that at Y-arneysville, WIV. Va.,
cube was tested in two orchards. A proprietary cube mixture (4 percent
rotenone) at 2 pounds per 100 gallons -,as used in the 7- to 10-day
schedule but proved ineffective, the number of worms per 100 apples rang-
ing from 49 to 81.
Grap>o1 "'th funebrana Tr. .
Bovey (43) in 1?39 reported that in tests made in Germany, derris
dusts cort~ini- ng from 0.8 to 1.0 percent of rotenone did not give as good
results agralnst this insect as did nicotine sprays, which gave controls
rangin-.;: from 75 to 96 percent at a nicotine concentration of from 0.9 to
Grapholitho. molesta (Busck.), the oriental fruit moth
Driggers (101) in 1929 made laboratory tests to determine the toxicit
of sPr'.ys to the eggs. An alcoholic extract of cube root at 1:200 gave a
control of 4.1 percent; at 1:500, a control of -0.9 percent; and at 1:1,00
a control of 1.1 percent. Derrisol 1:800 plus rosin-fish-oil soap, 1 poun
to 50 go.llons, gave a control of 6.3 percent as computed by Abbot's formula;
The greatest control, 85.2 percent, rwas given by Volck at a strength of
Lipp (251) in 1929 reported that derris compound 1:500 seemed to have
no repellent action against this insect.
Garman (150) in 1930 reported that in Connecticut peach shoots sprayed
with rotenone 0.075 or 0.1 gm. in 100 cc. of water to which 1 or 2 gm. of
sirup or honey had been added were placed in cages containing the moths.
On the treated peach shoots 854 eggs were deposited, as compared with
2,217 on untreated shoots. Vhiite-oil emulsion 1.3 gm., derris preparation
1 gm., and water to 500 cc. killed 60 percent of the eggs; white-oil emul-
sion 1.6 gm., derris preparation 1 7., and water to 600 cc. killed 68
percent of the e-gs; and vwhite-oil emulsion 1.3 gmin., rotenone 1:12,000
(0.5 cc. of a 10 percent solution in acetone), and water to 600 cc. killed
73 percent of the eggs sprayed with the mixture. Rotenone 1:1,000 (1 cc.
of a lO-percent solution in acetone), sirup 2 gm., and water to 100 cc.,
when sprayed on the eggs gave a probable efficiency of about 93 percent,
on account of larval mortality after hatching. No insecticide gave suf-
ficient control to warrant recommending it.
Rotenone in oil emulsified in Vwater with powdered milk (rotenone
1:25,000; oil 1.0 percent) killed 96.4 percent of the eggs, but the oil
alone killed 92.9 percent. -- Turner (418) in 1932.
The Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station (313) in 1934 reported
that combinations of oil with rotenone were among the materials that gave
best results in orchard tests. Six applications at weekly inter.-als re-
duced injury 36.1 percent. Had the first application been made 2 weeks
earlier better control might have been obtained.
Chcindler and Flint (69) in 1936 published an account of tests of oil
dusts (35 parts sulfur, 25 parts talc, 25 parts lime, 10 parts lead arse-
nate, and 6 parts oil) against oriental fruit moth in southern Illinois.
The' addition of derris in place of lead arsenate to these oil dusts did
not increase their effectiveness. The same authors (70) in 1938 reported
that in Illinois in 1936 a proprietary dust containing oil, sulfur, and
talc uith lime, in the proportion of 5:57:38, gave 96 percent control and
this vias not improved by -he uso o" d-sti ccnt'iiniCg in addition 1 per-
cent of rotenone with c.r withoutt b. nt..nite sulfur, or 0.5 percent each of
rotenone arnd nicotine. It '..as ".s satisfactory to apply the dust at the
appearance of the third-gerer'.ticn larvae, about a month before harvest,
as during the attack of the second generation.
hialenotti (267) in 1937 reported -hc results of tests with rotenone
spray and dust on infested peaches in trne province of Veneto, Italy. Pow-
der containing 0.9 percent of rotencnc m.'s sfrjycd as an aqueous suspen-
sion nine times, and dust contairning- 0.3 percent of rotenone was also
applied nine times. Results were unsatisfactor-y. Trees not sprayed but
periodically pruned to remove infested branches yielded 70.3 percent of
wormy fruit; those treated with spray yielded 79.5 percent of wormy
fruit, and those ducted yielded 89.5 percent wormy, fruit.
The Connecticut Ac'riculti:ra3. Experiment Station (78) in 1938 reported
that experiments wiith derris w.erc made on a block of'-Ilbrrta peach trees
laid out in Latin-square arrnr.ne re'-t. Results sho.:ed no" improvc:ent cver
the untreated plots.
Flint, Farrar, and Chandler (136) in 1938 reported that three oil
dusts (60 pounds of 300-mesh sulfur, 15 pounds of ;hydrated limo, 20 pounds
of 300-mesh talc, and 5 pounds of oil) containing derris, applied tho
last of the season, were 37.9 percent efficient in control in 1935 in
Illinois. In 1937 5 oil dusts (no derris) gave 70-Terccnt control.
Garman (152) in 1938 reported the results of tests in a Connecticut
peach orchard. Spray applications were made on August 5, 14, 'and 28.
Results were as follows:
Material infe noted
Ground cube root, 4 lbs- to 100 gal. 31.3
Ditto, plus Ultrawet 0.25 to 0.75 2S.0
lb. to 100 t21.
Fixed nicotine mode with quebracho tannin, 23.5
the socl: containing 4.35 percent of
nicotine, 10 Ib.. in first sr.ray, 12 lb.
in second and third ayplic .ticns
Check--no sprays .'urine Au -usL
Carman concluded: "It will be seen from the data presented that
there was no significant difference in the amount of infested or injured
fruit fro!-i any of the treatments. Separation of the types of injured
fruit into old and new did not afford any more favorable data in regard
Stearns (393) in 1938 reported on experiments with the following sub-
stances, listed in order of efficiency: Lead arsenate, phenothiazine,
cryolite, tetramethyl thiuram bisulfide, and derris, used, respectively, at
the rate of 2, 4, 3, 4, and 4 pounds per 100 gallons. In each case, 6
pounds of magnetic sulfur was added as a fungicide, 1 pound of rosin resi-
due was added to all the spray mixtures except cryolite, and 4 pounds of
zinc sulfate and 5 pounds of hydrated lime were included with lead arse-
nate. Three applications were made, one immediately after petal fall, one
at the shuck-slip stage, and one a fortnight later. Lead arsenate gave
slightly better control than the other materials.
Laspeyresia nigricana (Steph.), the pea moth
Miles (276) in 1926 reported good control with the use of a derris
spray consisting of 20 pounds of powdered derris to 100 imperial gallons
of water. This spray produced the lowest percentage of damage (16 per-
cent) in the threshed peas. The percentages of damaged peas harvested
from plots sprayed with derris or nicotine showed little difference from
those observed when the green peas were examined; these sprays, therefore,
seem to have a permanent effect.
Melissopus latiferreanus (Wlsm.), the filbert moth
Tho.,ipso-: (412) in 1938 summarized results of spray tests in 1937.
This is the most important filbert insect pest in Oregon at present. Many
sprays and three dusts, including Cubor (0.75 percent rotenone), were
tried for control. Results were as follows:
Lead arsenate plus soap 0.99
Cubor dust 8.6
Unsprayed chock 23.3
Olethreutes pruniana (Hbn.)
A product containing 12 percent of powdered Lonchocarpus nicou root
(6 percent rotenone) and 88 percent of talcum killed (PTTina Olothreutes
pruniana on cherry and plum, and repelled it on apple, according to a let-
tor from Et-iLlisseraments Rotenia to R. C. Roark in 1938.
Polychrosis botrana (Schiff.)
Soe Jancke and Roesler (220) under Phalonia ambiguella (Hbn.) on
Delassus and Laffond (92) in 1936 reported the results of tests of
derris against this species on graTes in Algeria. Powder A contair.ed 1.5
percent of rotenone and other derris constituents; powder 3, 2.0 percent
of rotenone and related substances; powder C, 3 percent. Two applications
were made on August 2 and 9, 1935, by hand dusters. On A.ugust 4 there was
a flight of butterflies of the third generation. Dosages applied were 130
to 160 kg. per hectare per treatment--an excessive amount. Almost com-
plete protection was given by powders A and C; powder B was coarser and
did not adhere so well. In 1937 these authors (93) concluded that 15 to
30 kg. of derris dust containing 2 percent of ether extractives per hec-
tare gave satisfactory results. Derris residue on the grapes vas visible
a month after application but did not interfere with fermentation or im-
part a taste to the wine.
An anonymous (6) writer for the Palestine Gazette in 1938 reported
that during the preceding 2 years substitutes for arsenicals had been
tested at the Entomolofrical Laboratory of the Plant Protection Service,
Acre Stock Farm and Agricultural Station, for the control of this species.
Derris and pyrethrum proved effective in the laboratory but had always
been a failure in the -ineyard, owing to two facts: (1) T;Le active prin-
ciples, the rotenone and the pyrethrins, easily break down in the sun
and heat of the climate of Palestine in 3 to 4 days. (2) It is practic-
ally impossible to apply these dusts so punctually as to meet the larvae
just at their emergence or very close to it. The so-called stabilized
derris preparations have not proved better than the normal ones.
Jancke and i.]aercl-s (219) in 1938 reported on laboratory experiments
in Germany to determine the length of time during which sprays of nicotine
and sprays or dusts of pyrethrum or derris remain active. The insecti-
cides were applied at usual concentrations to glass dishes, and test in-
sects were placed in them at known intervals after the application, left
there for about an hour (uncovered, to preclude fumigant action), then re-
moved to unpoisoned food in clean dishes. The mortality was ascertained
after 2 days. Batches of varying numbers of larvae were similarly tested
or sprayed directly. 'h.en they were sprayel directly, the mortality was
estimated after 3 days and was similar (70-81 percent) for crude nicotine
and soap, tobacco extract and soap, and preparations of pyrethrum, or py-
rethrum and dorris. WVhen tested by the first method, the tobacco extract
was the most effective spray, giving 75 and 40 percent mortality of lar-
vae placed in the dishes 2 and 24 hours after application. The pyrethrum
and pyrethrum-derris sprays were disaFpo"ntin"r, the latter giving no mor-
tality. Pyrethrum dust and pyrct}i-rum-derris dust 'av. percentage mortali-
ties of 100 and 79, respectively, %Ahon the intcrv'.l .ms 2 hours. A derris
dust gave 100-porccnt mortality when the intervals were 2 and 6 hours, and
95 percent when they were 24 and 48 hours.
Paillot in 1940 (5323) briefly sur.'manrizcd the r-.,ults of :xpcirients
on control of the two vine moths (Clysiaiua) Ph'lonia ambitiuella (ibn.)
and Polychrosis botrtna in several districts it. Frnrice. Ar'senical sprays
were reported to be superior to dusts containiii(r 1 pcrcet of rotenone
which, however, were moro effective than dusts containing barium fluo-
Polychrosis viteana (Clemn.), the grape berry moth
At the ari.nu.l codling moth conference held o" the United States Depart-
ment of .'.Ariculture, Bureau of Entomiolog (4531) at V'ashington, D. C., in
1930, Punner reported tests of nonarsenicals for use on grapes at Sandusk-y,
Chic. Three years' work with coGm-ercial derris extract in mixtures applied
against the grape berry moth had not"-shown any iLnporta.nt gain in control.
At a strncrtith of 1:800 it did not seem to destroy t ie eggs nor have any
decided effect in preventing dai.Iage from larvae. The sczme Bureau (453) in
1931 reported that for the control of the grape berr., moth several contact
materials, including oil emulsions, nicotine sulfate, and derris and pyre-
thrum extracts, as vell as rotenone, have bee.- tested against the. second
brood of worms, with very disappointing results. The Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine in 1935 (439) reported that -ierris-kaolin (rotenono 1
percent) at 10 pounds per 100 gallons plus white oil, and derris rotenoneo
4 percent) at 2.5 pounds per 100 gallons plus' i'isi oil, reduced damage by
the grape berry moth at Venice, Ohio, but caused such serious staining
that the grapes were practically unsalable.
Runner (359) in 1932 reported that pyrethrumn extract, derris extract,
nicotine sulfate, and nicotine tannate were tested against this insect un-
der field conditions but u..ithout encouraging r -.ults. Failures in control
also characterized the use of rotenone, of oil spray.s, and of oil in com-
bination with nicotine. 'V",ile most of the nonarsernic:l materialsal s men-
tioned showed decided toxic properties, they ap..rently either did not re-
main highly toxic or were too easily washed from the. grape clusters to
afford protection over the long period needed fcor --decquate control.
rPhopobota naevana (Hbn.), the blackheaded fireiormn
SThe siashington State Agricultural Experiinm-nt Stotion (-73) in 1930
reported the results of tests by Crowley with insectic ides against cran-
berry insects. Tcoeton, a derris derivative, was tried ac7ain but proved
to be. no more effective than the less expensive pyrethrumn sprays. Rote-
none -uas tried against this fireworm at the rate of 3 ounces to 100 gal-
lons of water. It killed the larvae at this strength Cnd also repelled
che,.win insects for several da.ys after the pla.ntS 'ere sprayed with it.
Tha Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (270) in 1937 re-
porited .th:.t a spray of 5 pounds of derris powder (': percent rotenone) and
4 pounds of fish-oil soap in 100 gallons of wat.r, 400 g&-.l. to an acre,
killed 75 percent of the Yworms; 6 pounds of derris poucder (4 percent rote-
none) and 4 pounds of fish-oil soap in 100 gallons of ,atcr, 400 gallons
to an acre, killed 85 percent; and 8 pounds of derris ( -i percent rotenone)
and 3 pounds of fish-oil soap in 100 gallons of wstor, 400 g.-llons to an
acre, killed 98 percent. '.'ilile third last spray was vcjry effective, it was s
too costly to compete as a troationt for this post; however, it has good
long-range Irorni.. ze.
Rhyaciona buoliana (Schiff.), the European pine shoot moth
An anonymous note (4) in August 1933 called attention to t he steps
being taken by the Bureau of Plant Industry of the iNew York State Depart-
ment of 'Agriculture and Markets to bring under control an infestation in
the nurseries of southeastern New York. A control measure worked out by
R. D. Glasgow, State entomologist, ":as being employed. The method con-
sisted of spraying with any one of a number of formulas. It ..as stated
by Dr. Glasgou and B. D. Van Buren that the most successful of these form-
ulas consisted of 1.5 pints of cube extract (3 percent roterncne oil), and
2 gallons of miscible pine oil in 100 gallons of water. The nurserymen
were instructed to spray thoroughly between June 25 and July 4, directing
the spray branch by branch, dormn'.rard and inward, so that it night pene-
trate the needle clusters from the tip toward the base. T':o applications,
one near the beginning and one near the end of the period named, vere ad-
vised. This treatment gave good results, even in severe infestations.
Glasgow in 1933, in a letter to R. C. Roar]: reported the results of spray-
ing red pine in Nev York vi'th a spray containing 2 percent of miscible
pine oil and rotenone at the rate cf about 1:12,t.0O parts by .;eight of the
spray..f solid cube extract containing 15 percent of rotenone, dissolved
ir/pine, of", was' used. Glasgow said: "A single application of this spray
at the right time (July 1932) appears to -ive excellent control. The im-
provement is truly spectacular and can be recognized as far as the plats
can be seen.'1 Glasgow's excellent results .-ith rotenone sprays -..'ere refer-
red to by Friend and West (147) in 1934.
Friend and Hicock (144) in 1935 reported that tests in Connecticut
carried out in a red pinWplantation have sho-.n that tue a-pplicotions of
a suitable insecticide wrill give fairly good results. A mixture of lead
arsenate 1.5 pounds, fish oil 1 pint, and water 50 gallons, applied on
June 22 and July 2, gave 86-percent control, based on the number of injured
buds. Sprays containing lead arsenate with various other spreaders and
stickers, and ground derris (4 percent rotenone) v:ith pow:dered ski m milk
were not quite so effective. In 1936 these authors (145) reported fur-
ther tests. Spraying experiments were carried out in a star;_ of infested
red pines from 20 to 25 feet in height. Tirc applications '-crc made, one
at about the time the eggs began to hatch (June 22) and the oth,-r 10 days
later (July 2). The incubation pr,:riod of the '2i..s under field conditions
is approximately 10 days. The follov'ing thrr mixtures worc comprerd:
(1) Lead arsenate 1.5 pounds, fish oil 1 pint, vator 50 gallons; (2)
ground dorris root (4 percent rotenono) 1 pound, powdered Ckim nilk ".5
pound, water 50 gallons; (3) load arsenato 1.5 pounds, waterproof glue
0.5 pound, bentonite 0.5 pound, hydrAtel 1ti.C 1.,5 pounds, i.vater 50, -al-
Ions. About 5 gallons of the material i;er., applied per tree. Tnc rn. ec-
ticido must reach the junctions of the needle btsecs .ith the twi.rs, the
only point of entrance of the first ins'"r, a-.2i a hc.t'.r 'pnnlicat ion is
necessary. In the first applica.tion the dcrris-sJi:i nmi: hadL b-K.:. di-
luted to 75 gallons instead of 50, .vhich -wcr.kcncd the cfn;Artr:c: of re-
sults vrith those of lead arsenate,
eti e : 'Injured : Uninjured: Larvae per Tips in- Control
InsecticIde : tip : tip : :
tips tips injured tip jured
Number Number Jumber Percent Percent
Derris-skim milk 34 174 0.59 16 66
Check 112 127 .74 47
Lead arsenate- 17 226 .53 7 88
Check 150 110 .64 58
Lead arsenate-glue 38 238 .61 14 78
Check- 141 80 .74 64
The derris-skim-milk mixture might have given better results had it
been properly diluted in the first application. Reference is made to a
mimeographed circular by Glasgow, who recommTended 1.5 pints of a cube cr
derris extract containing 5 percent of rotenone plus 2 gallons of miscible
pine oil in 100 gallons of vater, the application to be made on June 25
and July 4 (in New York). eResults with derris indicate that the ground
root is probably 7-etter than the extract.
Potts (332) in 1936 reported that derris coated with linseed oil (der-
ris 4 lb. and- lb. to 100 gal. with 1 percent linseed oil) was the most
effective insecticide, giving approximately 75-percent control. Other in-
secticides tried were lead arsenate 3:100 and 6:100 with linseed oil; lime-
sulfur 1:20; bordeaux mixture 4-4-50; nicotine tannate 1:400 with 1 percent
of linseed oil; and phenothiazine 6:100. In 1937 Potts (334,'335) reported
that (a)"l part of dbrris resin plus 1/2 part-o 6f linseed oilplus- 8 parts
of water, .and (b) 1 part of derris resin plus 5 parts of linseed oil plus
2,5 parts of acetone gave excellent control. Derris and other insecti-
cides'were sprayed from an autogiro for the control o.f this insect. Potts
(336) in 1938 reported that the control obtained with derris ranrced from
85 to 99 percent. 'The mixtures contained adhesives and spreaders and were
applied by .'round equipimen,. Concentrated spray mix:.:tures were much more
effective than standard spray concentrations and can be applied at a srall
fraction of the cost of mixtures of ordinary spray concentration.
The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (78) in .938 reported
that two applications of -rouund derris or cube (4 lbs. per 100 gal.) with
a suitable sprcadimi-, and adhesive agent, was much superior to lead arse-
nate, 'vith fish oil as an adhesive agent, when the latter was used at the
rate of 3 pounds per 100 gallons. A modification of the spraying tech-
nique may rmako this method of control economically feasible in forest
Friend and Plumb (146) in 1938, reporting, on tests made in 1936 2nd
1937, stated that derris-4 percent rotenc;ne, 14 percent ether extractives)
plus SS-3 or powdered skim milk gave gre'.-ter reduction in infestation than
did lead arsenate. Cube (same analy-sis as the derris) ".-As tried with pow-
dered skim milk, rmilk, rosin residue, a-.nd 1Ultr.awet. The authors concluded:
Field experiments on the control of the European pTine shoot rT-Di
on red pine in Connecticut have shovn that spraying with a mixture cf
4 pounds of ground derris root or ground cube root and 1 pound of Dow-
dered skim milk in'l00 gallons of water is superior to sprayi 1 .riwth
a mixture of 3 pounds of lead arsenate and 1 pint of fish oil in !.)0
gallons of water. One application of cube about July 2 is as efi'ec-
tive as 3 or 4 applications of lead arsenate at 10-day intervals in
June and July. Two applications of cube, one on July 2 and one cn
July 12, are significantly more efficient in reducing5 tip injury
than one application on July 2. .AS spreader and sticker, po':dered
skim milk is as efficient as any other materials tried at the con-
centrations used. It iac found that sprayi:.- during the first hca-.lf
of June did not give good results in controlling the insect in .1956
Derrigs and cube -were equally good. Exposure to sunshine for
166 hours did not completely destroy the insecticidal value of these
materials. The labcraeory experiments "'ith ne-wly hatched larvae on
sprayed twigs show that, after an exposure of 11 days in the field,
ground cube root used i'ith powdered skis, milk or Ultra%'.:et was as
effective in preventing boring as .as the lead arsenate and fish-cil
Friend (143) in 1939 reported that t-:c applic-l'.tions of c. mixture of
1 pound of powdered skin milk and 4 pound:z of -round derris or cube inr
100 gallons of vater, the first applicz.tio- beii'n, rnde the l:st re:k :-
June or the first week of July and the second 10 ')ays later. !cav-e excil-
lent results on red pine. If control measures are effici.ntL_', car-ied
out, treatment every other year should suf_,ice, unless there are untr,-.ate.i
infested trees in the i.-nediate vicinity.
Spilonota ocellana (D. ': S.), the eyc-spot't.ed hu'..dnoth
Kelsall et al. (233) in 1926 re-orte- th.t derris sprra:.y, 2 pounds to
100 imperial gallons of water, ,.rs less t'.:..n 10, perc-ent effective against
budv.'orms, mostly this species.
Yago .(502) in 1933 v3rote that T.is species, formerly abliidn.nt in poar
orchards in Shizuoka, Japan, had become zc.-.rce, nrb"b'Iy o.i,.n- to the sc
of insecticides, including derris.
Steganoptycha trimaculana Don.
DeBussy, Van dor Lav.n, and Di konor1'f ([7) in I'.:, r-r;ot-'2 rh-t U-.is
species connct be controlled ".rith derris ,m-u- or s:5,-'s nrcuuc t}: i..-
sects cannot be reached.
Papilio cresphontes Cram. (P. thoas L.), the orange dog
Andries (13) in 1 32 wrote that citrus trees in crops attacked
by this species may be sprayed w.th Derrisol or Katakilla.
Agrotis segetum (Schiff.)
Klinger (237) in 1936 reported that tests made in the laboratory
with rotenone spray and dust against fourth instars gave no mortality
in 8 days.
Trappmann and Nitsche (417) in 1935 reported that rotenone sprays
and dusts, regulated to give a deposit of 0.18 mg. of rotenone per 500
om.2, were not effective against last instars.
Alabama argillacea (Hbn.), the cotton leafwvorm
The eggs were not affected by a suspension of powdered root of
Tephrosia virginiana in water.-- Little (2-55) in 1931.
Smith, Clark, and Scales, Tallulah, La., in a typewritten report
to the Division of Cotton Insect Investigations, Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine, United States Department of agriculture in 1934
compared the effectiveness of derris, cube, a.nd other insecticides again.
the cotton leafworm in cages and in the field. c-th derris and cube
contained 4 percent of rotenone. The insecticides were applied as a
dust according to 'average field dusting" practice, v.ith a small hand
dust gun. The results were as follows:
Cube only 60
Derris only 73
Calcium arsenate 94
These results were referred tc. by Ihoark (357) in 1938 in a review
of the comparative value of cube and dorris.
In 1936 Smith, Clark, and Scvlose (37G) reported that in cage
tests at Tallulah, La., derris powders containing from C.4 to 4.0 per-
cant of rotenone were less effective than calcium arsenate in killing
leafworms on cotton, In 1937, in a typewritten report to the Division
of Cotton Insect Investigations uf the bureau of Entomolo-y and Plant
q.uarantine they gave the following results cf cage tests at Tallulah,
La., in 1936t
T ... ..
Cube (4 percent rotencne)
Derris (4 percent rotenone)
Tephrosia virginianja root
(1.7 percent rotenone)
Commercial calcium arsenate
The Division of Cotton Insect investi:sticns of the United States
Department of Agriculture, in a memorandu..m to PR. C. Roarlrk-, reported the
following results of tests at Tallulah, La., and Port Lavaca, Tex. in l'30:
Derris 40 percent, sulfur 60 percent
(rotenone 1,6 percent)
Derris 20 percent, sulfur 80 percent
(rotenone 0.8 percent)
Derris 10 percent, sulfur 90 percent
(rotencne 0.4 percent)
Derris (rotcnone 4 percent)
Smith and Scales (377) in 1937 reported that calcium arsenate either
used alone or in mixtures with sulfur, caused a higher mort:1 ity of leaf-
worms than did derris, cube, or devil's-shoestrings .men tested in czres.
Results wvre as follows:
Dorris (4 percent rotenone)
Cube (5 pcrcnnt rotenono)
Devil *s-shoestr'ngs (1,7
Pyrethrum (0.76 percent
Wille, Ocampo, V'eberbauer, and Schofield (485), of the Agricultural
Experiment Station at La lolina, Peru, in 1937, reported that sprays of
cube extract containing 0.05 percent of rotenone had no effect on larvae
of Anomis texana Rfley and Alabama argillacea (Hbn.), but in another series
of tests a spray of 0.01 percent rotenone content gave 75-percent mortality
after 8 days, and surviving larvae were unable to molt normally. A suspen-
sion of cube dust in -water to give a spray containing 0.3 percent of roten-
one killed 73 percent of the larvae in 5 days, but was not effective in the
field, probably owing to imperfect wetting.
Anomis erosa Hbn.
Butac (58) in 1938 reported that in 1936 cotton plants in one of the
plots at the Philippine Carnival Exposition were dusted ';ith derris-gawgaw
(50:50, rotenone 1.5 percent) mainly to control the leaf-eating caterpillars
especially those of this species, which were abundant on the plants. The
dusting was done at about 9 am.,' the plants *crc examined between 2 and 3 p
and the insects found were collected, especially those affected by the treat
mont. TMncty-six caterpillars, of (Cosmophila Anomis cresa, all paralyzed,
were collected and 61 of them died after 2 days.
Anomis texana Riley
See Wille, Ocampo, fWoberbauer, and Schofield (485) under Alabama
argillacea (Hbn.), mentioned previously on this page.
Anticarsia gemmatilis (Hbn.), the velvetbean caterpillar
Ellisor and Floyd (109), in 1939, reported tests of insecticides for
the control of this insect at Baton Rouge, La. A derris dust containing
1 percent of rotenone plus 1 percent of Vatsol OS killed no larvae after
3 days. Basic copper arsenate gave the best control, 90 percent mortality.,
Guyton (174) in 1940 reported that timbo-talc dusts (1 + 7 and 1 + 3 con-
taining, respectively, 0.5 and 1.0 percent rotenone) gave from 25 to 41 pcr,'
control on peanut plants in Alabama. The best control, 91 percent, was shoi
by lead arsenate dust applied at the rates of 8 and 10 pounds per acre.
Autz4r-iphc. brassicae (Riley), the cabbage looper
:5cIndoo, Sievers, and Abbott (264) in 1919 reported that in two cage
tests derris, applied at the rate of 1 pound to 25 gallons of vater, killed
all the larvae within 24 hours.
Kopp (242) in 1924 stated that derris powder 500 gm. to 100 litcrs-of
water containing 250 gim. of soap gave excellent results.
-U'l'to (478) in 1933 published a-progress report of experiments on thc
control of three species of cabb:g.e worms, i.e., loopers, diamondback moths,
and common cabbage worms. Tests wore made at Chadbourn, N. C., Charleston,
S. C., and Baton Rouge, La., by dusting with calcium arsenate, paris green,
load arsenate, derris, plrothrnili, and hellebore. The derris dusts used con
trained from 3.4 to 4.9 percent of rotenone and from 18.8 to 22.7 percent of
carbon tetrachloride extract. Concerning derris the conclusions wore:
'When used undiluted or mixed "-ith equal parts of
finely ground tobacco dust or sulfur, ground derris root
proved to be more toxic to each of the three species
studies than the other materials tested. It apparently
has a residual action, whichh pyrethrun dust does not have.
Plants dusted -ith derris appear to bF more thrifty and
freer from thrips than those dusted '"ith other materials,
The data indicated that dosages of 3 to 6 pounds (mixed
with equal amounts of tobacco dust) per acre per applica-
tion, applied under favorable conditions, Till effectively
control the cabbage looper, the corron cabbage "-orm, and
the larvae of the diamondback notha Derris caused certain
discomforts to operators, including slight tickling and
irritation of the respiratory organs and, if breathed for
a long period, slight nausea. No plant injury occurred,
Derris with sulfur, 1:3, and derris, tobacco dust, and sulfur
1:4:5, -ere also tried. The relative susceptibility of the three
species to a mixture of equal parts of derris (rotenone 4.9 percent,
total extract 18.8 percent) and tobacco is shorn in the following table
of results obtained at Chadbourn, N. C.
Relative susceptibility of cabbage -orms to derris and tobacco
Time of : Bate of : Reduction in number of '-orms per plant
applica-: applica- : as co-'pared "ith undusted plots (percent)
tion : tion/acre: Loopers: Diaiondbacks :Connon cab-:All 3
: : :bage -ornus : species
p.m. 17 74 100 100 83
a.m. 16 46 69 100 57
White (481) in 1935 summarized the results obtained by the .-z.'eau
of Entomolo&v and Plant Quarantine at Chadbourn, IT. C., Ch-arleston, S. C.,
Baton Rouge, La., and Columnbus, Ohio, -ith nonarser.lcal insecticides
for control. As a general insecticide for the control of mixed popu-
lations of the four species of cabbage "-orms involved, derris gave
the best results and pyrethrum cane next. In cu-7p- ison, pn.ris green,
cryolite, and calclu. arsenate '-ere approximately equal in effective-
ness but, in general, were inferior to either derrms or pyreth.-an.
Based on co-parative efficiency, at econo-ical strengths, der, is and
pyrethrw -ere app Jxinately equal in effeztivene:., in co"-tro2ling
the looper, and eitl'er vas more effective than par4is gr'-,.n, cr.yolite,
or calcium arsenate. In general, beiLer results -"Ere o'-I-ine1. vith
dust mixtures than '-ith sprays. The dusts -ere a .ied with rotar--
type hand dusters in such a manner as to covcr thoroughly all ir.feFted
portions of the plants, care being t.ken to reach the insects with the
dust whenever r possible. The rate of application ranged fro- 15 to 2o0
pounds per acre per application, according: to the Rize of the Flarts.
Applications were begun Then the -'or'-s first app'-r.m'd orn the rlints
and "'ere repeated as often as -as necessary to protect the crop.
Usually three applications -'ere m-'ce p1r crop. D)c:is &u.;ts, either
hone-mixed or commercial, containing front 0,5 to 1,0 per-ent if roten-
one, gave the most satisfactory results of iny of the ir. ctliries
tested, in four sections of the Central, Eastern, ane Soucherrin States.
Several l:c-.l-,-: a..-_-ril ,icl'.i-.: finely grcl'.r. tobacco dust, f-ne
pulverized clay, talc, diitcamacQ'' c r:c:, ..inf2usoria. earth, and sulfur,
proved sati-fc.ctory as diluo -ts. Good cc --ctrol .- o": t! >cc v.-:th a dorris
C-.y osisting of ac.:s.:".-_-ipn. of derris-ropt .c' dcr tor diltcd tc
contain .from.0.02 to ',C., p.rQon of. rp .::c':-; fcr z.cjriLple from 2 to 2,5
pounds of derris-root 'ov,.-der c::.: :-.-j 4 "*erce:t ef rotencnc per 5C g.llc
of water. Under sc .- coiditipns it a'..s necessary tc :id to the spray a n
alkalne sr-cador Qr, sticlcer.s.uch',Qs hi.h-grado lIcr.id or rjovdered scap,
nisciblc :i.e oil, o ':. o. tp slforto oils. V.hiic (4.S?) in 1935 rc
mnor d o d derris dust(05 1,0 percent rotei-<:-:10-:. ) f.:,r thc cont-rol of the ca
ba-c. loodcr, DcrrH --.rQ y m.ade jby .dd,.:.r.- 'the porld:'r to ".ntcr, and ccntai.i
ing n.02 -,o 0.02 Crcent orcc.:c:'e, also is' of$,cti-vc- nacga.r.st cabbc.cc iV
"-te in1936 rccornended derris dulst ccnt-:.":-.nr C.15 to. 1.0 porcont of rot
none 'lcr t.. cc-t.ol of cabbage 1rorn.s on 1ob1.1-,' aL:. caulliflo.rr at a dosa
of 15 to 20 pond s"pc'6r aco. asod on the rolativ. c 1,"icicncv at the roco
mondod dosa-cs o- c.ch of the i.A ccticides tes.tpd, c::pcri'.crnts indicated
that dorris and cryolite ,..rr E'oro i6iutcly' qu.l in effcetivcnicss in con4
' L .... ooial c..r- meire eff4'ctiv,: tA
troll- t-ho ca.bbgo looper and that both nat rias r cre ffctiv t
-.ri. gr'-.cn, p rtl.rum, or' calcium a-senc-to. It -, -s sfo,.,nd to be cspccic.ll1
irnnortant to start the trca-tonts on the culifloe.. '. il thi. lacnts ;cr<
small, as it Tvas impossible to obtain a good cvera'.-c of the inaccticidc-.s
over the hcavy folia go o.f nearly mc.turc plants, _,Th.c cxpcrimcnts of 1934
on collards indicate th_..t coach of the :.irc,. ,rc cormnon spccics of cabbage,
worms n.ay be controlled z.-.tisfactorily -,itli a, dorris-,. ,s't mii:turc contain
j'-. 0,5 percent of rotenono...
7:to (.82) reported that derris dust cbrt'r -r. 'rom 0.5 to 1.0 pcr4
cent of rotcnonc,-appliod- t the rat.. of ,15 to 20 -o-L'nl:k ",cr a.crc, is tho
preforrod m,.tcrial for use a-.p n.-t cabbago loopor. T-'..- rotcnonc content
of dorris root -varics, ar.d purchases should bo made :-, th.,' basic of ro.tc2.-
one content., tct'-,.. .;--..c. tvs, :.u-.- degree of fincn.;ss. I'or cxamplc, a
dorris-root powder cd.:. bi;n 4 percent of rotenorc: Eh;li.l ce't,.ta:'n not
less than 1. p6lrcont'of tot'.l -:.rbon-totrachlorid, cr .t.cr cxtractives.
In general, the tot al' extract should avcra2.c app-rLo:ir;cl 3-1/2 times
rh of suc t eno='of
the rotonone content. Theo' dorris-root ;bodor should b, of such degree of
fine.ness that net less than 90 percent of At .;:ill 7-ss throuo;h a 200-mosh
sipve and all tho material should .-,s Sthrcl.glha&Co-111- sieve.
Tosts' havo shonvm that neither paris grcon,, nr'r n o.s. arsonat,. nor
calcium rrson ato ,( ill w .livc so err.-_ Ctivo control of c-bbl:r. loopers !is ...i
t derris ditsts containing 1.75 perc,.nt 6f rotenone a'-l ic-d at the rate of 1
to 15 .'.,,3:fh per acre, or -r':thr'dusts' cn n:' C12 pcrcnt ol pyrc
thrin I and applied at the same r'to. W'-!Qboro m.'-r fi, uiJ. to ivc better
control, 1', the arscnic.lal' but -,'as cen'sidor.' y .nf.rr- cr to thc dorris
c.nd ..S': hrui .' rb.1cts;- '''.'.... d States '.. ",.'.r.-.- ..it of A.,r iolturc, Broaue
E,', lo, o ( in 1933. .
In 19:c, a.s' rolv6rtc.d by. r,.. Pn.ted Stat.s Dopa.rt,:nt of Ag.riculture,
Bur1.' of 'ooo a P ..nt ,..rantino (437), "Cor. l''d discussion
of field results with arsenic- sub c, vtc r tlC. c-ntrol of vcgot.blo
insects. F':,iv a:'nd Thomas, of Texas, r, 1tht .r-.s-ufur dust
(, c )15,. ,.), tht5 1, .-]-roo-su dust
(0.5 ;rccnt rotcn -.r. )' a,'uccossf !y' c,,i'2.Ollod t--,c c,.b'': :c loop,:r.
* * . * ,. ,
.. 70 -
W. H. White r.p.or-c-d that dcrris and i:-r.thrim uo'rc aro:riately ,:". 1 i"
effectiveness :n coa.trolling the cabbca-go looper, and either v r.s mcre cefcct-
ive than pari s ,-r:-i, cryolite, .ox. calcium,,: rc. tc. In general, dusts
gave better results thr'n srra's. Walker '. &:..irson, (.f the VTirginia
Trvc-: Expcri., en: St-.tion, reported that a rris 'st (0.5 rc rote-
none) gavc satisfactory control of the cabs..gTe lc',:,r. dl-c, of 7.-
Jersc-, reported th-.t a dust cont.i-i.-n, 0,8 perc.-'t of rot-on e (1 :.i-
dcrris, 25 parts sulfur, and 5P ?,rts clay &r talc), a: lied at th rat
of 15 to 1( pounds per acre -:iti..t hoods, or 8' to 10 pounds iithl hoods,
'..s effective against the cabbage loo-er, the i:.-.ort(K.iU.-:::r... -, and
the caterpillar of the dia.'.-in.rbc' moth. The ru/ii statd tht
laboratory experiments and large field-plot tests to determine the rcl.-
tivc toxicity of pyrethrum and derris :.:i:':u:.s for the control of several
species o ca.bba:.c :'or.s had been carried on at several laboratories -..
field-olot tests on c:bo:,).e showed defiW tcl- that derris-Tihet nixturcs
contain ng from 0.5 to 1,0 percent of r n. "ore effective -..st th
co-mon cabba. '.orir, less effective a.i- .. thcaecu.- loopor, and still
less effcctivc .;:,ir.st the diamon..b.': c' ,oth. T .:: indications, nevcrthelcas,
ircre thac.t derris po'.-der 7.cu be useful in the cc:.r:'l of' al three s .cies.
In .cncral, pyrcthrumi-dust nixturcs wecre less effective thc.n th. os of dcrris
af-.inst all thrc.c s-ecies. In 1536 the '"'reau (442)'reported thc.t on cab-
bagc, derris and cr'clitr woro c. :roxlnintcl- e.ff-ctivcncss in con-
trollin- the cC.bbaj..- loc.c-r, and both Tere i-iore :f"cctive than '- ris -r on,
p-'rcthrum, o:r calci',.m arsenate. Mxperinents in California- dcmonns'"racd that
dust mixtures of dcrris, cube, or *'.'r-thrurm avc ti' fx.ctorv results in the
control o.: the thr:c more co--cin species of c:bb: .:e vjr.s on caul. oe wOrr.
In laboratory tests the ground root of t.vil's-shoestr r:-s -.s as .-f."octivo
against the coom'.on sp-cios of cabbage .-orns cs wtas derris or cube contc.in-
ing cou.al percent' .gcs cf active i" .r.,'.icnts.
A dorris-di1st r,-ixturc- (20 parts dorris of 5 percent rctcnono co.;cnt,
40 o.rts tobacco dust, rnd 40 p.rts '--nesh d:'.u,;'-..*- su'!f') is "vcr'. ct-
ivc in con-ro1ng the cabbage loo'or.-r,-Allen (1) in 1954,
R. E. Camrbcll in 1955 in a. ty'-,,.Titten rc',:ort to the Division o' "-"'.ck
Cro. and GOrd,-, inscct Invcs:i--tions of the -'.r.v, n.e results cf field
te:it at Sa r'cr.--ando, C:-.lif., in I: rch 197-', ith derris Ind cu3be dusws
contani.n n 0.5 pcrc-nt of rotcnonc on ca'Q'w,:. A',liotions wcre -.:.c at
22 pounds ocr acre for dorris .nld 30 pounds per acro i-r cube v-.- mhcs f
hand dusters. Dcrris caused a reduction of 75 percent of loopcrs and c:'."
r'-duction of 34.4 porc..nt,
Crosby and Chupp (F0c) in 1934 r"coimce ..d tI,' .- .:.lication of a act
cc.:nt:..[nin,: 0.5 e,,crc,.nt f rotencn2 at the rate of 25 to "*) '.. r c'
for t.,c cor.rol of lorf-cot:t-i, tc r-i. inl th c 1
on ' '-C _,-ran i:d r
on cabbage, cauliflower, ,ri'.scls s r '?.', roccoli,
Gil'c-.rt ..i. Zo,',cc (15 ) in 19.,- r..7. -" ." r: tn n* duct%, sc
as tho-c rro:'uc_,l : 'i (: rr.i:T or cube roots, for ( Crc l or t a
loopc r. S.J.icf. rtcrv r. '1ts h 'r *.t us_ 1 to s' -
p:r :,crec cTm c.: ntu :i .n r .:i 1 rI, 2 ..rcnt -. r tcu vne, -.. run
dusts *nd c:x:tr:ict ..r- -.Lso effective, s .s d isti- :' : ..-i v.-"-
in strc,,, thc', s'.ic b'. u. :'C :' r." ...'f ri- 'r r's r ,
Hervcy and Palm (190) in 1934 reported cxnpcri.-.en'-: 1. work done in
western >:- York on the control of the thrc common species o2 c:.iliflo;
insects, including -utograph.. brassicac, by the use of arscnic:ls, ocrri
pyrethrum, and hellebore. Dorris-talc dusts (0.5 and 1.0 pcrccrn- rotc-
none), Dorcx (0.55 percent rotcnono), and dorris- yrethrum dust (2.5 ecr
cent rotcnono and 0.5 percent pyroti-rins) all gave good results. The dci
p..: thrumn mixture at the, dilutions used t-.as very toxic to oab'.o.gc t-erns,
did not aepcp.r to be superior to dcrris when used alone. In -c"r"'-'.l, ri:
none ,v-s far superior to calcium arsenate against these caterpillars and
appeared to bo about equal to or slightly better than lcad arsonate. Py-
rcthrum -ras more rapid in its action against cabbage crorn.s. than rc:n.::,
although the latter material a'opeared to have a more decided res?..al c i
and gave protection to the plants over a longer period than did p.rt!.:!'''..
Of the three species of caterpillars concerned, the imported cabb.: r" -rn
w."as the easiest to control, the diamondback larvc.o the most difficult, I
general, the cabbage looper .-as not abundant enor.gh to dctormrinc dcfini..-:
what effect the materials had on it, but the der.:c of control obt: i-.cd ";
somc.n,'hat less than that of the imported cabbage v:orm. On cav-.1l. l-r d.r
dust should be aDpplicd at the rate of 25 or 50 pounds p r a.cre.. Drri g t
season of 1933, with moderate infestation, 'mro alications about r:';
apart gave adequate protection.
Reid (344) i.n 1934 reported that at Ch.r1oston, S. C,, dorris-r ot
pow;dcr contTnu-ied to prove toxic to th-e cal.bago -iori;s present, includfln,
loopers. The degree of control obtained -ith derris powd-r nas prop1 rtio
ate to the strc.it, t- of material used. Dcst rc'sults followrod the us. cof a
mixture containing 1.5 percent of rotcnonc. ^n increase in this ce:c,.-
tration to as high as 3.4 percent in 1933 did not apparently increase ."'i
kill. mixture containing only 0.1 percent of rotcnonc shovrd soa,: to::i
ity. Reid (346) in 1958 suinmmarized results obtained in tests dircct-:d
o.gainst cabbage worms on cabbage grown at Charleston duri'-: the falJ .d
v.inter of 1937-58. He reported that a population consistr-':', of the c:b-
bage looper a.nd various .grotinac could be controlled cffcctic'ly by, T,'h
use of o. dust consisting of calcium arsenate and hydrated-lime mixttr.
(3:1) prior to the heading of the plants, follov.-cd by applications cf
pyrcthrum-talc-dust mixture (0.3 percent total pyrethrins) or a dcrri---
cl.y-dust mixture (1.0 percent rotonono) a.t 10-day interv.als after the
plants had headed; provided the plants had been well protected against
cabbr-:e -.:omns before being thinned or transplanted. The pyr- thrum-h1ist
mixture and the dcrris-dust mixture w.orc most effective -.:ainst the c .bb.-
looper, and the calcium arscn .te-dust mixture effective against th
Agrotinac. These results wore also referred to by the United States D.p.
nont of griculture, Bureau of '.omology and Plant 'u:'rant-,:c (44'3) in
Reid and Baro (547) in 19538 reported that against the cabbage looper.
the 1-percent rotoonon a.nd the dorris-pyrcthrum-dust mixture (0,5 prc,'l.,t
rocnono plus 0.2 percent pyrethrins) applied at 7-day intcr.vals v.cr.j '.,cs
Huc1kct(201) in 1934 reported field to'ots on L ng Island with dcrris
for the contro-lof cabb..ge worms. Tho materials used consisted of propri
tary products applied, so far as possible, according to the diroctie.rs on
the pc.a: o. The infestation wr.s lar..ly duo to Pic'ris rapac (L.), -.lih'
'as the season adv',nced from Juno to July, lAutolla maculipennis (Curt.) a
autogr.ph a brassicac became increasingly numerous, .-pplic:ti.6r we- rc:i
on June 27-L8, July. 6, and July 18, under favorable conditions, at rates
equivalent to 60 allons per acre, increasiwr; to 80 gallons for sprays;
for dusts, 25 to 20 pounds, 30 pounds, and 36 pounds per acre per each suc-
cessive application in series 1 and 22 pounds and 33 pounds per acre per
successive application in series 2. Derris dusts gave satisfactory results
in the field for the control of cabbage worns. A derris-clay dust (0.5
percent rotenone) applied four times at about 15-day intervals durin- a
10-week period of infestation gave as satisfactory results as five c:- scvrn
applications at shorter intervals. A derris-clay dust of 0.5-percent-rote-
ncne strength gave as satisfactory results as dusts of l-pcrcont-roter.o2:e
strength. A dust of 0.33-percent-rotenone strength was not so effective.
Talc, clay and tobacco dust gave a promise of being satiefctory diluents
for derris dusts. Hydrated lime apparently affected adversely the toxicity
of derris dusts. Rotenonc sprays did not give so high degree of control as
Cdusts, possibly owing to the apparently greater infestation in tho spra.-ed
section. A rotenone spray of 1:10,000 dilution was as effective as sprays
of 1:5,000. There .'-,as very little difference in the comparative merits of
the various spreaders used with rotenone when applied as freshly mixed
sprays. Proprietary derris products included Hellspra 1:. 1, Cuber spray,
Cuber dust, and Derox.
Huckett (202) in 1936 reported insectary tests with pyrethrum, derris
(4,5 percent rotenone and 16 to 18 percent total extractives), and nico-
tine against the cabbqje looper. The results rath dorris against third
instars were as follows: Mo;-taity after
Spray formula 96 hours
Deorris powder 2.5 gm., skin-milk powder 72.5
2.5 gn., water 500 cc. 70.5
Derris powder 2 gi., shim-milk powder- 61.7
2,5 gmi., water 500 cc. 62.7
Derris povdcr 1.25 gm.,- skim-milk: powder 56.7
2.5 gm., water 500 cc. 57.1
Checks 0. 0
Powdored dorris root (4.5 percent rotenone, 15 to 18 creont total
oxtractivos), at streng:ths comparable to 4, 3, and 2 pound: : of povrdor per
100 gallons of water, ,:F.ve higher mortality of i:,nicrted cabla :e wo rms tl.',
of cabbage looper larvae. The effectiveness obtained .'-,-inj:t the c .i.lbe
looncr at the greatest sre,,:-th of derris as scarcely satif:.ctory.
Huckett (203) in 1936 stated that yc:., larvae of the cabin .17e 1 -,,r are
susceptible to derris powder but that the elder larvae are resistant.
Huckctt '.n\I PUcrvy' (2.4) in 1935 reported that in r':-.'; the bb .re
looper is more difficult to control than the other "r n vors on ..'!.bJ,
such as the imported c'.bb;.ge jcrrr, pnd the di..i,..u1bach: .woth--;hethor ',:-.'o
of a difference in imnuni-:y to the poison, di.erences in f. ''. habits,
or other factors is not known. Uer-'ra, '.-ott, t nd G1 ow (89) in 19.5
recoim.irndod a dust cort:aijd!';-, 0.5 percent of roterno )made iiuti.
derris or cube with talc or clr-i, used at the r-.te of 20 to 1' ;-.:.-,i pr
acre. A spray. cc-nsisti r- of 4 pounds of darris poider (4 porcsnt rctenone)
plus 4 pounds of skim-nil): p<.r.er per 100 lions of a-,.* r TrL.: Lso be i.d.
l.cCamrpbell (259) in 1934 reconjmended derris dlsts for the control o
the cabbage looper on cabbage in Colorado.
The United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology a
Plant Quarantine, (435) in 1934 stated th-t the preferred dust for t1:e c
trol of the cabbage looper on cabbage is dorris or other rotenone dusts E
the preferred spray is pyrethrun-derris extract. [For further discussion
of dusts and sprays, see (435) under Pieris ranae (L.), p. 106 .]
Walker and Anderson (464) in 1934 reported the following results of
tests made in a broccoli field:
: otenone Amount : .
Dust : content : applied : Control
Percent Percent Percent
Derris-talc 0.5 53 70
Derris-clay .25 32 68
Derris-clay .5 42 79
Derris-clay 1.0 40 71
Kubatox .4 37 65
Cubor dust -- 31 45
Sprayrite .43 48 44
Pyrethrumn-talc dusts containing 0.3 or 0,5 percent of pyrethrins gav
better control (96 and 95 percent, respectively) than did the derris dust
Eight different diluents for derris dust were tested, each being mixed vri
derris powder (4 percent rotenone) in the weight ratio of 1 part of derri
to 7 parts of the carrier. Talc gave the best control, closely followed
by gypsum and Inert C (a clay). The large amount of gypsuma used vwas due
to its greater weight per volume. The newly made lime dust, flour, and
coarse tobacco dusts ralnkced intermediate, whereas the old lime and the zi
sulfate-lime gave the poorest control. Finely ground" tobacco dust gave
almost as good results as did the talc and gyp.un. In 1935 the same auth-
ors (465, 466) s.intarized results obtained Trith derris and pyrcthrtumn dusts
at the Virginia Truck Experiment Station. In 1933 a derris dust contain-I
ing 0.5 percent of rotenone and a pyrethrum dust containing 0.3 percent ol
pyrethrins gave satisfactory control of the cabbage looper and of diamond.
back moth larvae, whereas dust containing 0,25 percent of rotenone and 0.1
percent of pyrethrins did not give satisfactory control. There vas little
difference between tho effectiveness of gypsum, talc, and inert clay, or
finely ground tobacco dust when used as carriers for derris. A bcntonite
carrier was not/R&tisfactory as tho others. The addition cf 5 percent
by weight of finely ground dusting sulfur seemed to improve the effective-
ness of a dorris-talc dust. Based on rotenone content, a cube dust did n<
seem to give so satisfactory control of cannagec worms as did a dorris dusil
1alhker and Anderson (167) in 1936 reporting experiments made in 19352-36,
said that repeated applications of derris and cube dusts containir; from
0.5 to 0.75 percent of rotenone and from 2 to 3 percent of total c ctracti'
- 74 -
and pyrethrum e'usts c-ntainini from 0.3 to 0.5 percent of pyrethrins gave
good control of ctbbage worms, -here's dust of weaker concentrations
w.-re less effective. .Derris and cube-dusts having nppr-xiro'tely the same
rotenone and total-etther-extrective content appeared to be about equally
effective. Derris dusts (0.75 percent rotenone) gave 68 psrc:nt control of
the cabbage looper, indicating that the imported cabb'-g-: ,orm is as sus-
ceptible to derris,. if not more so, than the ccbbi-e looper or the lirva
of the diamondback moth. 1-lk'Tr and Anderson (468) in 1937 reported that
repeated applications of derris and cube dusts ct'nt2inii from 0.5 to 0.75
percent of rotenone .and froi 2 to 3 p recent of total extractives at 7-
to 10-day intervals g-'re good c rt-ol of the cabbage looper.
Talker (463) in 1937 reported that cube dusts (0.75 percen-t rotenone)
and sprays (3 pounds p-r 100 gallons), both with an:- without Ultr'.-'et,
were used to control the cabbogr- looper. In most cas?-s the addition of
Ultrawet ,did not result in increased protection of the plants. The sfr-qys
and dusts without Ul1tra'"',-t usually provided, adequate :'..trcl.
Hea-dlee (186) in 1935 reu-rtel j.ood control of cabbag- lo.'>,rs in
NYaw Jerseywith a dust c insisting of 16 p:rts of ground derris (5 percent
rotnone and 18 pe-c-nt tot'?l extrectives), 25 parts of sulfur, and the
remainder clay or. t Ic. 'hen applied without hoods from 15 to 18 pounds
per ac e wre necessary; and with hoods, from 8 to 10 pounds.
Howird in a tjpe-ritten rep rt to the Division, in 1935 stated that
derris powder mixed with tdIc, infusorinal earth, or tobacco dust so as to
c'-.-t-. n fr'-m 0.5 to 0.75 percent of r't-none and use.! at intervals of 7
to.10 days at dosages of 25. to 30 pounds per acre pe.;. application was
fairly effective a37inst the c'bbi;;e loop,-r.
Howard and Davidson (195) in 1935 aclvis,.-] th-t derris sprays or dusts
gave best control )f cabbr.-e '".'rms in Ohio. For the ccnritr)l of the looper
it was necessary to use derris or cube dusts containing 0.4 to 0.5 percent t
of rotenonE, or to use derris or cube-root sprays containing 0.015 to 0.02
percent of rotenonE. applications were made every 10 to 14 days after
1'rge numbers of worms appeared There -as no significant differ.-nce in
the degree of c ntrol obtin4 d Afr:,n the use o" derris-root or cube-root
dusts or sprrays, provided the r-tenone c ntents wvere practically equivalent.
The "dditic'. of spreaders or stick rs to derris-root suspensions in water
applied as spr-,7s seem:-,d slightly to increase the control obtained. Very
little di'fer,-nce in the degree of control result-;I from the use of a
number of diluents for derris or cube dusts..
iHo"-arcl, ascon, and Davidson (197) in 1935 r:j.,rte. that derris -..ist
was fairly effective against the lo-L,.r in Ohio.
The Ohio agricultural Zx.,.i,,nt St-.tion (314l) in '735 r; orted tcsts
.of23 insecticides -ag-.inst c-bbanc *wrms, inclui. n: t!V cabl-ge lI :.p.r,
the imported cnbba'e worm, tnd the dimrondback moth. The control cbt-.i.t.d
by any toxic agent was greater when the mtati il was ,M li J in dust form
than ',rhen .np lied as a spray. On the br-,sis of marketable c'..:' harv.-.st'-xL,
5 materials, differing little in ef ici.-ncy from .'r. *,rnt r, were dpfin-
itely superior to T.he other 18. Thfse 5, li.t d in r,:'. of th.ir effect-
iveness, 'ere as follow.vs:
- 75 -
1. Paris green 1 part, hydrated lime 2 parts, flour 5 parts
2. Paris green 1 part, hydrated lime 7 parts.
3. Derris powder (5 percent rotenone) 1 part, pyrethrum powder
4 parts, diatomaceous clay 5 parts.
4. Barium fluosilicate 1 part, flour 7 parts.
5. Derris powder (5 percent rotenone) 1 part, diatomaceous clay
here yield data Were available, plots treated with paris green
produced the greatest tonnage, followed by those treated with derris pow-
der, barium fluosilicate, natural cryolite, and calcium arsenate, in the
order named. The same station (315) in 1936 reported that 6 of the most
promising insecticides (including derris) for controlling 3 species of
cabbage worms, including the looper, were tested in 1935. The insecticid
rere used in various strengths and with different diluent'-, stickers, and
spreaders. The highest percentage (97 percent) of marketable heads was
produced on plots sprayed weekly with paris green (2 pounds to 50 gallons
of water), sulfated alcohol being used as a vetting agent. Average of
90 to 93 percent of marketable heads were produced on plots dusted at
-.0eekly intervals with derris-powder-flour (0.5 percent rotenone). The
same station in 1937 (316) reported that the most successfuL control of
3 species of cabbage --orms including the looper was obtained from paris
green. Paris green sprays, 2 pounds per 50 gallons, gave from 81 to 93
percent of marketable heads; paris green dust, 1 pound plus 12.5 pounds
flour, gove 87 percent; derris dust, 1 pound of 4-percent derris plus 7
pounds of flour, gave 58 percent; and derris spr-y, 1.5 pounds of 4-percel
derris plus 2 ounces SS-3 to 50 gallons of water, ,e 70 percent of
marketable heads. In 1938 (317) this station reported that derris powder
talc dust apparently protected cabbage better than did the other material
used. Three applications of sprays and dusts v.ere made during the season
on July 28, August 10, and August 24, .1937. The crop was cut. between
September 26 and October 2. The derris powder used contained 4 percent
of rotenone. The results were as follows:
: Weight of cabbage_
Treatment Gross : Trimmed
___Treatment per acre 12/ : per acre 2_/ : Loss
Pounds Pounds Percent
Derris powder 1 lb., talc
7 lb. 31,698 29,857 6
Derris povder 1.5 lb.
Grasselli spread-r 4 oz.
Water 50 gal. 29, 4/88 26,994 8
,l/ Trinrodto meet U.S. No. 1 grade, v\ith the exception of worm
injury which was not removed.
2/ Weight after removal of waorm injury.
The Indiana Agricultural Experiment Station (213) in 1935 reported
that the cabbage looper is harder to control than the other cabbage worm
Three series of experiments were conducted using in c mrrparison derris,
pyrethlrum, rrsenic-nl, and fluosilicate insecticides. In all cases the
derris and pyrethrum insecticides prov.'- J more efficient than the ars;icals
Roney and Thomas (358) in 1935 reported excellent control of three
species of cabbage *;-jorms, Pieris rapae, Autograc,.a brassicae, and 2lutella
maculipennis, in Galveston County, Tex., 'ith pyrctirum and derris d-usts.
Diluents used were 300-mesh sulfur, a fin:cly ground clay, and fuller's aarth.
Tests were m9de "-ith the following derois mixtures: kl) 10 parts of derris
and 90 parts of sulfur; (2) 10 parts of derris, 15 parts of Powco ?, and 75
parts of sulfur; and (3) 10 parts of derris, 15 parts of Powco A, and 75
parts of fuller's earth. Each of these mixtures contained 0.5 percent of
rotenone. It w s c.-clrded that a dust containing 10 percent of derris or
0.5 percent of rotenone and 90 percent of 300-mesh condit-oned sulfur is
more effective and economical than any other dust or combin-ition used for
controlling cabbage worms. Derris is slower than pyrethrum in its reaction
on insects, and little benefit can be se-nr -ithin 48 hours following an
application. ryreti rum is limited -ore than derris as to usefulns in adry
or irrigated areas.
The South Carolina Agricultural experiment Station (381) in 1935
reported that experiments of the 1934-35 season indicated that a dust mix-
ture consisting o0/poa ier and clay, and containir, 0.5 percent of rotenone,
was approx.ii:ratly as toxic, and in scm-:- cases superior to, undilute& calcium
arsenate, to pa-is grecr. and lime (1:9), and to synthetic cr -olite and
clay (1:3), when used against the cabbage looper.
F. L. Thomas (410) in 1935 recommended 1 p, rt of derris conta-ining 5
percent of rotenone mixed with 9 parts of finely ground condition.-d sulfur
for the control of cabbage ":orms including this species. 'r. Thomas (411)
in 1936 rF xrted that in Texas derris-sulfur dust (0.5 percent rotenore)
gave good results in the control of the cabbage looper.
The Bermuda Department of Agriculture (34) in 1936 reported that two
dusts containing derris, Cooper's Drym'-c and ShIr-vin-'Tilliims' Rotodust,
were tried against the looper on cabbage. Three applications were ma-de
and each dust gave a significant degre. of control.
The 'Color.dn ALricultural Experiment Station (73, 74, 75.) in 1936
reported that in c.:.rtrol of the cabbage looper, the iml orted cbi, T.- orm,
and the3 dimondback moth pyratl rum and rot',none give v.:ry sz-tisfactor
results at reasonable cost. Avainsf crbbage -.,orms pyrcthrum- and rotunorne-
bearing materials were nor', effective as dusts than as spr ,s. Tl-.E im-,rtd
cabbage worm is c strolledd with pyr.tl rin- and rotnor.c-bei'-ing dusts of
lower strengths than will control the cnbbaqe looper -nd the dijiordb--ck
moth. Derris and cube iusts wore cqu-Llly effr'ective when used at te s'mnc
rotenone content, although thW-. cub; appc'.:reA s:,'.",hct .or rr1tic ,.:hn
used during cool weather in the fall. Rot-:none -,nd pyr. ti :'irs are known
to break down more r-;pidly in direct sunlight; ho.'.'.. r, r1 cr- ver_ n.'c
significant differences in the results from mornin-: an.J ] 'ror' ..v< ninq
This Sttion report-:" that the 1935 inf,.-st'ition on c'b',-.*. nd culi-
flower consisted of t.e cabbage, loop.', the lfalt-I loop. r, -in. di mend-
back moth. These -ire rore difficult to kil+ t n th. i';, ort.--' cabbe, worm.
Dusts .carrying 0.2 percent of pyrethrins or 0.75 percent of rotenone, w
is higher than called for in cost recomnend-tions 9nd also higher than t
contents of most commercial dusts, failed to give satisfactory control.
This station in 1937 (_) reported that -seasonal test's filed to give a
isfactory control of cabbage loopers.
Fenton (129) in 1936 compiled information on mixtures of sulfur V'ij
derris used for the control of this species.
Gui (171), of the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, in 1936 re-
ported that in 1934 a spr'y of 1 part of Rotecide plus 1 part of New Eve'
green to 800 parts of water controlled 71.1 percent of the cabbage loope
A. derris-clay dust (0.5 percent rotenone) give 74.6 percent control. In
1938 Gui (172) reported th-.t for the protection of cabbage against cabba
7"orms, including this species, the crop should be dusted or sprayed at 1
intervals with p'ris green or derris powder. Derris-powder dusts should
contain not less than 0.5 percent of rotenone, and 1 pound of derris po'v
(4 percent rotenone) should be used to 7 pounds of the diluent. Desirab
diluents for derris powder ar:- flour, talc, diatomaceous clay, dusting
gypsum, and finely ground tobacco btems. Derris-powder spr ys should
consist of 1.5 pounds of derris powder (4 percent rot--none) in 50 gallon
of water. When other grades of derris powder are used, dosage should be
so calculated that the spr-y ccnt-:iirs 0.015 percent of rotenone. spre
er" and sticker should be used. Fe.er,;l regulations prohibit excessive
residues of poison on marketed cabbage; therefore paris green shotl, not
be ap lied after the heads begin to form. Derris po,'de- may be usec- aft
that date or thro ghout the season if desire. There --e no regualtions
at present concerning residues of rotenone on fruits ind vegetables.
The New Jersey Agricultural Exper.meht Stition (293) in 1937 report
that derris dusts gave satisfactory results p-gainst c'bb'..ge worms, inclu
ing this species.
Shropshire and Kadow (369) in 1936 recommended derris ind cube for
control of the cabbage looper. These materials are most effective when
applied as a dust late in the afternoon, The dust should cnnt-in at
least 0.5 percent of rotenone and should be applie-' at the rnte of 20 to
pounds per acre, before the -'orms become sbundint, applica
#being repeated at intervals of 10 days to 2 weeks or is often Is necessi
Unlike metallic poisons, derris products are sfe to use on crucifers up
* to the time of cutting. Derris sprays c,,n be used for the control of
*cabbage 'orms, if applied accorTing to the manuf-icturers' directions.
The Texas Agricultural Experiment St-tion (2404) in 1936 reported tha
derris was more effective than cube acinst the c-ibhge looper, regardless
of the carrier used, according to tests conducted at '"eslaco and "interhn
in 1935. The derris mixtu-es and tke cube mixtures ",ere more effective
against the larvae of the, diamondback moth than against the cabbage loope
Derris-sulfur (11:85) or cube-sulfur (15"85) coitainirng 0.75 percent of
rotnone gave better control of cabbage "orris on the average than either
l-AA arson-ite or barium fluosilicate, in the lower Rio Grande Valley, the
winterr Garden, or Galveston County. This station in 1937 reported that
results in two series of expyri rients indicPted vr-ry little difference bel
sulfur and fuller's earth "I-en they were mixed with cube ror the control'
of the cabbage looper.
- 78 -
The cabbage looper is more resistant than Pieris rapae to rotenone
dust. Then it is young a dust containing 0.5 percent of rotenone gives
satisfactory control but a dust containing 0.75 percent of rotenone should
probably be used. The applications should be made before the loopers
become half grown. --Howard and Mason (196) in 1937.
Hutson (209) in 1937 recommended derris dusts or sprays for the cont-
rol of the cabbage looper.
Kelsall and Stultz (234) in 1937 reported that in laboratory tests
derris-gypsum dusts containing 5 and 12.5 percent of derris (4 percent rote-
none) caused mortalities of 33 and 50 percent, respectively, in 1 dy.
In the field derris gave fair control, pyrethrum excellent control.
The Louisiana Agricultural Experirr.ent Station (257) in 1937 recon-
mended derris dust (1 percent rotenone) for the control of cabbe *"':or"s,
including the cabbege looper. The same station (258) in 1938 published a
summary of entomological progress, in which C. E. Smith reported that in
reducing cabbage looper populations derris dust containing 1.0 percent
of rotenone was superior to all other treatments; derris dust containir,-
0.5 percent of rotenon-e and synthetic cryolite wvs next in effectiveness
and superior to dusts containing 0.1 and 0.Or percent of pyrethrin I.
The FTew York Agricultural Experiment Statior (302) in 1937 re. orted
that in 1935 infestation by the cabtage :looper increased seriously on
late-grown cauliflower and cgbba-. The larvae were not readily killed
by applications of rotenore-containing s! rays or dusts, especially after
they had attained medium size. Insectary tests showed that the larvae
could be killed by contact applications of dusts containing pyrethrins.
This station (303) in 1938 reported that field trials with derris, cube,
timbo, and pyrethrum powders for cabbage worm c ntrol indicated clearly
that pyretfrum mixtures were more effective where the cabbage looper was
the predominant species. Mixtures of comp-r-able strength containing cube
and pyrethrum powders '7ero not so effective as those containinng pyrethrum
powder alone. Spray mixtures w-re less effective than dust mixtures.
The New York County Agents' Training School (299) in 1938 discussed
the control of vegetable insects. Glasgo' Huckett, iervey, and others
recommended rotenone dusts and sprays as follows: Rotenone dust con--
jinirg 1 percent of rotenone proved to be one' of the most effective
treatments for cabbage looper c.rtrol. The drawback to its us- is its
cost, as co par--d with that of lead arseno.e. Covmar.d with lead arsenate
spray, rotenone dust g:.ve as rood or better immediate kill of both the
imported cibbng2 worm ind the c?.bage loo^,r but tie lead arsen-t, spray
had a greater residual effect an' remired -ffective longer. The rot non,
dust gave a better immediate kill and was about equal or batter in rosidai.
effect. On Lonr Island rotenone-contninire dusts were also used larg:ly
in 1938 as a substitute for pyrethru-T dust, ond in the absencee of serious
cabbage, looper attack they afforded- protection.
The -North Central States Entomologists (309) in 1?38 dliscussed tWe
control of certain insects by the use of cubc "nd dr-rris. Compton r.Tor-
ted that rotenone-bearirg dusts rr st rays, an', lea-i irsenate dusts or
sprays gove the best results. Both these mater'ils w':r ( 'ectiv. ?Pjainst
cabbage looters if applied when the worms were very small. Nothing gave:
exceptionally good results against full-grown cabbage loopers. TWhite re-
marked that derris and cube dusts control the cabbage looper to some ex-
tent if applied while the worms are small.
C. E. Smith (372, 373) in 1937 reported tests made at Baton Rouge,
In field experimenTs-invo-ving several species of cabbage worms, include
the looper, a dust mixture of peat moss containing 2 percent of nicotine
vas distinctly inferior to derris-dust mixtures containing 0.5 and 1.0 p.
cent of rotenone, as well as to an undiluted tricalciumi arsenate. There i
was practically no difference between the efficiency of the derris dust
taininr 0.5 percent of rotenone and that of calcium arsenate, but a derr
dust mixture containing 1.0 percent of rotenone '-.as distinctly superior
the other three materials tested, vden applied at intervals of 2 weeks.
Field tests at Baton Rouge showed that derris-dust mixtures containing 1 a
or 0.5 percent of rotenone were superior to nicotine-peat dust in control.
ling the more common species of cabbage worms, including the cabbage loo '
Parks and Pierstorff (324) in 1938 recoinended a rotenone spray or
dust to control the cabbage looper on cabbage and spinach.
Gunderson (173) in 1938 recommended derris with or without sulfur f
the control of cabbage v.worms, including the looper. Flour, sulfur, pear
dust, gypsum, and ether carriers are given as diluents for preparing der.
dust, A 1-percent-rotenone dust is usually strong enough for all needs. -
Roark (357) in 1938 reviewed the comparative action of derris and a di
of equal rotenone content on many insects. Reference was made to a type.
written report by R. E. Campbell to the Division of Truck Crop and Garde
Insect Investigations in 1934 in which he said that derris caused a redu
tion of 75 percent and cube a reduction of 34.4 percent in numbers of ca
bage loopers (0.5 percent rotenone in each dust), and to alker and Ande
(465) who in 1935 reported that, based on rotenone content, a cube dust
not seem to give quite so satisfactory control of cabbage loopers as did
Agicide DC-4 (rotenone 046 percent) gat the rate of 4 pounds per 100 ll
gallons of ittor (0.003.percent *rotencne" in srra-) :illea from 50 to 100Q
percent within 96 hours.---'Agicide L'.bic'rtorles (t_ in 1939.
Crosby et al. (87) in 1939 wrote that rotenone dust. is not entire A
effective against large cabbage loopers, but that these can be controlled
with a pyrcthrum dust containingg from 0.5 to 0.6 percent of pyrothrins o
an improegrnated dust containing from 0.3 to 0.5 percent of pyrethrins.
Since the looper, as well as green cabbage worms and diamondback moth la
vae, is a problem under Long Island conditions, growers may generally ch
pyrcthrum dust as the most effective material for controlling all three
posts. A grower who wishes to economize on the cost of his insecticides
use a rotonone dust early in the season and transfer to a pyrcthrum dust
later (about August 15 on Long Island) or when loopers are present. Eac
dust should be applied at the rate of 25 to 50 pounds per acre per appli
Haude, in advertising literature published by John Powell and Co., ,Tew
York, F. Y., in 1939, recoimnended cube or derris dust (0.75 percent rote-
none) at 25 to 30 pounds per acre, or spray, 5 pounds of poi.-der (4 percent
rotenone) per 100 gallons of water, for the control of the c.-bbag-e looper.
Jones (226) in 1939 recommended derris or cube for the control of the
cabba 3 looper.
Nettles (291) in 1939 recommended derris dust (0.75 percent rotenone)
at the rate of 15 to 20 pounds per acre for the control of the catbace
looper in South Carolina.
Smith and Reid (374) in 1939 reported tests against the three common
species of cabbage caterpillars, including the cabbage looper, using four
insecticides, 'i.e., pyrethrum-talc (1:2); derris-dust mixtures cort-ainin-
0.5 and 1.0 percent of rotenone, respectively; and a combination of derris-
pyrethrum (0.5 percent rotenone and 0.2 percent total pyrcthrins), applied
at 7-, 10-, and 14-day intervals. The results indicated that pyrethrum was
more effective than derris for the cabbage looper. The combination of der-
ris and pyrethrum i:as most satisfactory for the three species as a whole,
and resulted in the best yields. While no differences could be detected
between the 7-day and 10-day applications, both were decidedly more effec-
tive than the 14-day applications.
Autographa californica (Speyer), the alfalfa looper
Currie (88) in 1934 reported that in the Salinas, Calif., area derris
dust had given good results on alfalfa loopers. "Liquid Rotonone" at 1:400,
applied at the rate of 300 gallons per acre, and dust applied at 20 to 25
pounds per acre gave good results against the alfalfa looper attacking
The Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station (76) in 1936 reported
that the 1935 infestation on cabbage and cauliflower consisted of the cab-
bage looper, the alfalfa looper, and the diamondback moth. T'L-hese are more
difficult to kill than the irr.orted cabbage w'orm. Dusts carrying 0.2 per-
cent of pyrethrins or 0.75 of rotenone, which is higher than most recom-
mendations and also higher than the contents of most commercial dusts,
failed to give satisfactory control.
Autographa chalcytes (Esp.)
The New South Wales Department of Agriculture (297) in 1938 reported
that this pseudoloopor may be controlled bj- sprain; ith lo.d arsenate
at the rate of 1 pound of powder in '0 i-ipcrial gallons of wvi at:r. It
would be inadvisable to use lead arsenate on vegetables such as lcAuco,
spinach, and beans, which are to be used .s focd. If the pest be suffic-
iently serious, a spray consisting of derris powder, 1 pound in 40 gallons
of wator, may be of value in control.
Autographa falcifera (Kby.), the celery looper
The Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station (210) in 1939 reported that
preliminary observations indicated possible cffetivciesz of rotc.nor.o dust
against this insect.
Autographa signata (F.)
Van der Laan (245) in 1938 reported that in laboratory experiments a
dust mixture containing 1 percent of rotenone gave 80 percent of mortality;
in 2 days.
Barathra brassicae (L.)
Klinger (237) in 1936 reported that laboratory tests with rotenone
spray and dust gave no mortality in 8 days on fourth instars of (Mamestraj
An anonymous writer (5) in 1937 wrote that this species is sensitive
to derris powder (0.75 percent rotenone). Care should be taken to reach
the caterpillars in their hiding places.
According to Etablissements Rotenia in 1938, in a letter to R. C. Roo
a product containing 12 percent of powdered Lonchocarpus nicou root (6 pei
cent rotenone) and 88 percent of talcum mitigated this insect on cauliflov
Warwick (471) in 1938 reported that derris dust and, preferably derri
spray is suitable for the control of cabbage moths.
Cameron (59) in 1939 recommended derris dust for destroying cabbage
moth larvae in Scotland.
Spcyer, Read, and Orchard (383) in 1940 reported that sprays contains
ing derris or Lonchocarpus powders were very, effoctivo in rendering foliage
of cauliflower and broccoli distasteful to both tomato and cabbage moth
caterpillars. In many experiments but fmew caterpillars actually died frcM
contact vith the powders or from eating treated foliage. The deterrent
action of these powders, however, obviated serious injury to the plants
and also prevented the caterpillars from obtaining sufficient nourishment
to enable them to pupate. Caterpillars of cabbage butterflies were usually
killed, by contact with the powders. Derris powder (proprietary brands col
training a spreader) was applied at the tate of 1 pound to 20 gallons watex
Lonchocarpus powder prevented feeding by the caterpillars vhon used at a
strength equivalent to 1 pound to 40 imperial gallons of water, with 4
pounds of soft soap or 3 to 4 fluid ounces of liquid Agral as a spreader.
Saponin, sulfonated Lorol, and casein did not wet the foliage of vegetable
so adequately as did the soap or Agral.
Brithys crini '(F.)
A derris dust containing 0.5 percent of rotenone gave complete contrc
of this larvae. -- Van der Vecht (454) in 1936.
Brithys pancratii (Cyr.)
Worsley (500) in 1936 reported that a concentration of 2.45 percent
for both derris and TTundulea bark killed 100 Ie recent of caterpillars of
this species dipped for 10 seconds in the solution.
Brotolomia meticulosa (L.)
This pest on roses was killed b:,, a product containing 12 percent cf
powdered Lonchocarpus nicou root (6 percent rotenone content) and 88 per-
cent of talcum,according to Etablissements Potenia in 1938, in a letter to
R. C. Roark.
The Experimental and Research Station, Cheshunt, England (113), in
1939 stated that derris dust prevented the feeding of caterpillars of the
Busseola fusca (Fuller)
Ripley (349) in 1926 reported results of tests with proprietary derris
products against the maize stalk borer in South Africa. Kymac at 1:300
burned the plants and did not control the borer; it was recorn.ended that,
to avoid burning the young maize, Derrisol be used at 1:150, the highest
concentration practicable for large-scale use. In 1927 t'lis author (350)
reported that a case of delayed plant poisoning had followed the use of
Derrisol, but that this did not occur in the Cedara experimental plots,
even when Derrisol vas used at much stronger concentrations than those
recommended for trial. For other purposes Derrisol v.as found to be an ex-
cellent insecticide. The Union of South Africa Department of Agriculture
(424) in 1927 referred to work by 'ipley against the stalkborer and stated
that the sheep dip Kymac at 1:200 proved safe for top-dressin- young maize
plants. In 1928 Ripley (351) reported that I:ym.c at 1:250 is a safe top
-dressing for maize if used at the rate cf 10 cc. cf liquid per plant. At
1:100, Kymac caused severe burning and reduced the yield 25 to 38 percent.
Ripley and Hepburn (352) in 1928 reported that .a :ater suspension of
powdered derris root (l:90-7-vas much more effective than dry powder (1:12)
as top-dressing against this insect. Pulvex (v-round derris root) at 1:450
by weight, and Kymac (sheep dip containing ',leriis extract) at 1:250 are
about equal in effectiveness and in cost. vulvex does nCt injure maize
foliage but, according to those authors ($53) in 1929, lymac at concen-
trations greater than 1:250 burns maize foliaLe. It vwas concluded that
Pulvex in water 1:450 by v'eight was the most suitable of the dcrris products
studied. The same authors (354) in 1930 reported that Pulvex, 1 pound to
40 imperial gallons of "-ater-'ued as a top-rirc"cin-: a.air-st the insect,
increased the corn yield 13 percent and wvas hrLnlcss to thi- fcliac.; Kyrrnc,
1 pound to 25 imperial gallons, rave an increase of 27 rereent in yield
but injured the foliage. Derrisol, 1 part tc 1,000 parts of rater b:r-
measure, was recommended. Preliminary cxrerirv'-in vith ,. Dcrrisol-cryolite
mixture gave promising results.
Pulvex has been tried, but in 193,.) Riu]cy and Hcpburn (354) fou-.d th.t
Derrisol gave bettor results. It does not hr-rTn tUhe ol:-,ts, 'vcn in L'C:'s-
sive strength and has superior penetration and ad.csic,:.. Dcrrls-l sliculd
be diluted 1:1,000 in water un'l about 1 dessert spoe':'u' of T-'c lic]q'idi rut
into the crown or top of the maize plant. The ccrrt'-ti-': t, nr-kc :to
first application is when a small percenta,-c of planlF r.'.. prfQrtCU
inner leaves and about 33 Fercont show mottle:1 Trhavcs. Cn1 .;:-]lo" of
Derrisol is sufficient to top-dress 415 ucres n'f -tizc ,:d one r.:tive car.
top-dress from 1 to 3 acres per day. Those authors (*.._i) 111 lEZ,34 rportod
on adhesives for cryolite suspensions. Derrisol, 0.6 cc. to 1 ginm. of syn-
thetic cryolite (in water suspension), was unsatisfactory as a.n adhesive,
but it increased the adhesiveness of oil-cryolite suspensions about 16 per-
The Southern Rhodesia Department of Agriculture (38-2) in 1929 reported
that some experiments in top-dressing maize against the borer were carried
out with 2 proprietary insecticides and derris powder. All gave a satis-
factory kill, but only derris failed to scorch the plants.
Chorley (72) in 1952 stated that Derrisol showed a 91-percent kill of
the young larvae in a trap crop of small maize plants. Further tests showed
treated rows to be infested to the extent of 16 percent with an average of
0.25 larva per plant, while untreated plants were 97 percent infested, with
an average of 5.38 larvae per plant.
The Kenya Colony Department of Agriculture (235) in 1931 stated that
experiments had been conducted with Derrisol during the preceding season.
At a dilution of 1:1,000 Derrisol had been recommended in South Africa. It
was found necessary to use a strength of 1:600 before complete success wvas
attained. laize growers suffering losses from this pest are strongly
reconnmended to use Derrisol as a top dressing.
Andries (13) in 1932 wrote that this product is the most efficient
top-dressing against the borer in maize. At least 24 hours after applica-
tion must be allowed before the maximum killing results can be observed.
Haines (178) in 1933 reported that in South Africa top-dressing is
one of the effective and practical control methods. Top-dressing means
applying an insecticide to the top or crowvrn of the maize plant for the
purpose of destroying the young larvae, or grubs.
Lefevre (249) in 1935 referred to experiments in South Africa. The
control measures recommended included top-dressing with Derrisol (1:150)
at the rate of 10 cc. per plant.
Du Plessis (103) in 1936 stated that in South Africa the average
annual loss caused by this insect, the most serious pest with which the
maize farmer has to contend, is about $1,500,000. Under intensive systems
of farming, top-dressing with Derrisol and the cutting out of infested
plants are very effective methods of control.
The Kenya Colony Department of agriculture e (236) in 1936 reported
that complete control was obtained by the application of Derrisol.
Calogramma festival (Donov.)
A derris dust containing 0.5 percent of rotenone .Pve complete control
of the larvae. -- Van der Vecht (454) in 1936.
beramica picta (Harr.), the zebra caterpillar
The United States qareh Agriculture, Bureau of Sntomology and
Plant Quarantine (437) /s Ythe 934 meeting of the American Association of
Economic EntomologistsCory led a discussion of field results -.with arseni-
cal substitutes for the control of vegetable insects. Huckett and Hervey
of New York stated that the zebra caterpillar had been practically unaffec-
ted by applications of derris, cube, or pyrethrum powder. These results
, were also published by Huckett and Hervey (204) in 1935.
Hervey, Huckett, and Glasgow (189) in 1935 reported that this insect
' is very resistant to derris dust.
* Howard, in a typewritten report to the Division of Truck Crop and Gar-
den Insect Investigations, of the Bureau, in 1935 reported that derris root
Mixed with talc, infusorial earth, or tobacco dust so as to contain from
:. 0.5 to 0,75 percent of rotenone, and used at intervals of 7 to 10 days at
Sdosages of 25 to 30 pounds per acre per application, was not very effective.
: Howard, Mason, and Davidson (197) in 1935 reported that derris dust vas
]: not very effective.
White (480) in 1935 stated that derris .ras ineffective.
Huckett (202) in 1936 reported insectary tests with pyrethrum., derris,
t and nicotine against third instars. The derris contained 4.5 percent rote-
none and 16 to 18 percent total extractivcs. The results r were as follou..q:
I Mortality after
Spray formula 96 hours
S Derris powder 2.5 gin., skim-milk powder 1Q.2
2.5 gin,, vater 500 cc.
I Derris powder 2 gin., skim-milk powder 2.7
2.5 gin., vater 500 cc.
-Derris powvdor 1.25 gin., skim-milk po-,'der 7.8
2.5 gin., vater 500 cc.
Powdered derris root (4.5 percent rotcnono, 15 to 18 percent teotl.l
extractives) at strengths compLrable to 4, 3, and 2 pounds of pod'.,r per
100 gallons of water, was ineffective against the zebra cat:-rpillhr.
Huckett (203) in 1938 stated that, in recent dovclopm.ents in c(bba;'. .',rm
control onTong Island, the larvae of the zebra catr.rrill:Lr r.L:r lLarey
immune to deorris povdor butthat pyrethrumn dust v,'rs effective.
The TTei; York State Agricultu.ral. Experiment Station (Z01) in 1936 repor-
ted that not all cabbage worms were killed'by rotenone-containing powders,
for example the zebra caterpillar. Contact dusts containing pyrethrum or
nicotine were highly toxic to the early s'.a-es of larval development of this
Cirphis unipuncta (Haw.), the armywvorm
The Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture (310) in 1938 reported that
derris as a poison bait -was ineffective.
Earias fabia (Stoll)
Butac (58) in 1938, reporting on the life history and habits of the
cotton bollworms in the Philippines with suggestions for their control,
stated that on March 2, 1936, 5 caterpillars of the spotted bollworm were
dusted in the laboratory with a 50:50 mixture (by weight) of derris dust
(rotenone about 3 percent) and "gawgaw." One hour after dusting the cater-
pillars were paralyzed and all died within a day. On'larch 24, the test
was repeated on 10 caterpillars. It was observed, too, that the larvae
were paralyzed within 1 hour after dusting and all were dead on the second
day. Cotton plants in one of the plots at the Philippine Carnival Exposi-
tion were dusted in 1936 with derris-gawgavw, mainly to control leaf-eating
caterpillars, which were abundant on the plants. The dusting was done at
about 9 a.m. Between 2 and, 3 p.m. the plants, were examined and the insects
collected, especially those affected by the treater.ment. They included five
caterpillars of Earias fabia, all of which were paralyzed and died after 2
Heliothis armigera (Hbn.), the corn earworm; the bollworm; the tomato fruit-
Ditman and Cory (99) in 1931 reported tests w ith proprietary derris
products for the control of the corn earworm. Derrisol at 1:100 permitted
a 95-percent infestation, seriously burned 16 percent of the plants, and
produced a trace of burning in an additional 59 percent. Pulvex was harm-
less to the vegetation but permitted a 95-percent infestation.
Burdette (53) in 1932 reported results of tests in which the moths,
after feeding on an invert sugar sirup (Syrline) containing rotenone, were
placed in cages. No moths were dead at the end of 48 hours. Similar re-
sults were obtained with lead arsenate, zinc arsenite, sodium arsenite,
and arsenious acid. Rotonone, sodium arsonite, and arsenious acid made
the sirup spray slightly less attractive. In 1934 he (54) reported that
the moths could be attracted to Syrline (8 lb. to 50 gal. of water) sprayed
on the corn foliage. An acetone extract of derris added to the sirup vas
ineffective in producing kill but did act as a repellent.
The South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station (380) in 1932 re-
ported that dusting every other day with Kubatox gave no control in sweet
corn. This station (381) in 1935 reported that experiments of the 1934-35
sf-son indicated that-adust mixture consisting of derris powder and clay
and containing 0.5 percent of rotenone was not so effective against corn
earverorms on cabbage as were the arsenicals.
The United States Departmnent of Agriculture, Bureau-of Fntomology and
Plant Quarantine (437) reported that at the 1S34 meeting of the A'erican
Association of Economic EntomologistsCory led a discussion of field results
with arsenical substitutes for the control of vegetable insects. Roney and
Thomas, of Texas, reported that derris-sulfur dust (0.5 percent rotenone)
successfully controlled this species on tomatoes. Huckett and Hervey, of
New York, reported that neither derris nor cube vwas satisfactory for use
against the corn earworm. Headlee, of Neu Jersey, stated that of all the
insects that have been tested the only one which decidedly does not respond
to derris is the. corn earworm. Walker and Anderson, of the Virginia Truck
Experiment Station, reported that derris dust had practically no effect on
the corn earworm. Wymore of Davis, Calif., reported very little benefit
from one application of rotenone dust for control of this species on toma-
toes. Shropshire, of Des Plaines, Ill., reported tests against tomato
fruitworms. A 0.5-percent rotenone dust with a gypsum carrier gave no kill
of worms in the laboratory when fed to worms. In field tests this dust
with a talc carrier gave a slight decrease in initial vorm population, pre-
vented further infestation, and gave a fair reduction in fruit injury. A
0,5-percent-gypsum dust, when applied to wet worms, thoroughly costing the
body, gave a greater kill than the same dust fed to woms in the laboratory.
Dipping worms in a Derrisol-Penetrol mixture gave similar results. ;!either
materially affected the feeding of the worms except for the first day. The
Bureau (443) in 1937 reported that cube and derris dusts gave negative re-
sults against the corn earworm on lima beans.
Currie (88) in 1934 reported that in the Salinas, Calif., area dorris
dust gave good results against small corn earr.'.orms.
Headlee (186) in 1935 reported that the corn eanr-orm ,as/to withstand
large dosages of derris taken internally, and the caterpillar may be rolled
in ground derris, yet be apparently unhurt. However, this lack of response
is apparently due to the failure of the dorris extract to get into the
caterpillar's tissues, because it yields to hypodermic injection of derris
Huckett and Hervey (204) in 1935 reported thc.t neither derris nor cube
were satisfactory for use against the corn carworm.
Roney and Thomas (358) in 1935 reported excellent control of tho tomato
fruitvworm in Galveston County, Tcx., ..ith pyrct!]ruw a-nd dcrrjs dusts. Dil-
uents used were 300-mesh sulfur, : finely ground clay, and fuller's cr.arth.
Tests wore made with the following dcrris mixtures: (1) 10 parts of derris
and 90 parts of sulfur; (2) 10 parts of denrris, 15 p:.rts of Fowco A, and 75
parts of sulfur; and (3) 10 parts of dqrris, 15 parts of Po':co ni, :.nd 75
parts of fuller's earth. Each of thes'-- mixtures contriincd 0.5 percent of
rotenone. The authors concluded th-.t a d!:st containing 10 percc--.t of dr-
ris or 0.5 percent of rotenonc and 90 percent of 300-mcsh cor.nit'on.cd sul-
fur was more effective and economricul than c.ny other dust or ror.binr.;: tion
used for controlling cabbage worms. Dorrs is slo-'rr thnr. pyrctl.run in its
reaction oh insects and little benefit ca.n be seen -.-ithin 48 hz'urs fc.llc':-
ing an application. The experiments also indicated tla-.t pyr,.thrun is mero
limited than deorris in rcgrrd to its usefulness in dry cr irrigated ircas.
F. L. Thomas (410) in 1935 recommended 1 part of derris (5 percent
rotenone) mixed with 9 parts of finely ground conditioned sulfur for the
control of the tomato fruitworm. Mr. Thomas (411) in 1936 reported that
in Texas derris-sulfur dust (0.5 percent roteno-ne) gave good results in
the control of the tomato fruitworm, reducing the injury from 50 to 7 per-
cent when applied at the rate of 20 to 25 pounds per acre.
Tischler (413) in 1935 studied the mechanism of how derris kills in-
sects. Tests made with insects such as corn earworms led to the conclusion
that derris inhibits oxygen utilization by the tissues and that its detri-
mental effects are general, rather than specific to any organ.
Veitch (457) in 1935 reported that in Queensland no really satisfac-
tory spray was available for dealing with this pest, although the derris
used for the cabbage moth and center-grub control may hav.re had a slight
adverse influence on corn earworm infestations.
Yalker and Anderson (465) in 1935 reported that derris and pyrethrum
dusts had practically no effect on the corn earworm.
White (480, 481) in 1935 wrote that derris is ineffective against the
corn earworm. In 1937 he (482) stated that neither derris nor pyrethrum,
at the dilutions tested, was effective in combating the corn earworm on
App, in a typewritten report to the Division of Cereal and Forage In-
sect Investigations, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United
States Department of Agriculture, said that in 1936 he had tested a derris-
talc dust containing 1 percent of rotenone against the corn earviorm in
Puerto Rico. Four applications of dust at 3-day intervals on December 27,
December 30, January 2, and January 5 were necessary to keep the silks
covered from the time the -first silks appeared until they had dried up.
This rotenone dust gave 35.51-percent control, as compared with 1.78-percent
control from a lead arsenate-talc (8 + 2) dust.
Barber, in typewritten reports to the same Division, stated that in
1936 he made tests in southern Florida with dusts consisting of derris plus
sulfur, derris plus talc, and derris sprays (2 or 4 lb. per 100 gal.), plus
sodium lauryl sulfate or sodium butyl phenyl phenol sulfonate as a wetting
agent and bentonite (4 lb. per 100 gal.) as a sticker. All tests indicated
poor control of the corn earworm by derris. In 1937 he reported the results
of laboratory tests in dusting'or spraying corn ears to prevent attack by
earworm larvae. Powdered derris (rotenone 4 percent) and derris extract (5
gm. rotenone per 100 cc. alcohol) were tested. Powdered derris was used in
11 tests, diluted with talc to 1:10 and with sulfur to 1:9. It proved to
be the least effective of the dusts studied, only 20.2 percent of the ears
being protected, and only 33.2 percent of the larvae being destroyed. Der-
ris was used in 15 tests at the rates of 2 or 4 pounds per 100 gallons of
water, with stickers or a spreader alone, or in combination. This material
was wholly ineffective in protecting ears or destroying larvae. An alco-
holic extract of rotenone was used in 12 tests, 5 with spreaders and 7 with
stickers. Used with spreaders, the material was ineffective, but it seemed
to be more effective when used with stickers, an average of 23.9 percent of
the oars boinp protected, and an avw*rage of 37.5 percent of larvae being
destroyed. Then used with spreaders no ears were protected and no larvae
killed. Barber also reported on tests on insecticides against the ccrn
earworm at Homestead, Fla., from February to April 1937. Soybean oil and
Sderrls (100 cc. of oil plus 1 level teaspoonful of derris powder), injec-
ted into the corn ears with a needle nozzle according to the procedure
described in United States Department of Agriculture ET-92, was slightly
more effective than oil alone. Soybean oil plus solid derris extract was
applied to corn ears rith a needle nozzle. The percentage of ears infested
was 12,as compared with 45.8 in the check]: and 8 for ears treated with soy-
bean oil plus phenothiazine. Soybean oil plus solid derris extract, ap-
plied with an oil can, gave perfect control. V.hen used alone and applied
with a needle nozzle, soybean oil gave the poorest control (56 percent of
ears infested) of any of the 5 oils tested. lujol plus solid derris extract,
applied by means of an oil can, destroyed 100 percent of the larvae; Nujol
alone permitted 8 percent of the ears to become infested. In all c.-ses 1
level teaspoonful of solid derris extract resinatee) vas added to 100 cc.
of oil. Barber also reported tests made in Dade Ccunty, Fla., during
February and March 1939 with insecticides for the control of the corn ear-
worm in sweet corn. Derris extract plus mineral oil; derris extract plus
cottonseed oil; and rotenone in pine oil, derris powder, timbo powder, and
Foliafume were tested; also pyrethrins plus rotenone plus cuprous cyanide.
Oil containing rotenone was not effective, nor was Foliafume. Pyrethrins
in oil were effective.
Brannon (46) in 1936 reported that no significant control of the corn
earworm on lima beans on the Eastern Shore of Vir-inia was obtained with
derris-talc dusts containing 0.75 or 1.0 percent of rotenone, and that
sprays of powdered derris and cube roots containing 0.025 percent of rote-
none gave even poorer control.
Essig and Ilichelbacher (112) in 1936 reported on tomato insects of
California. In order to avoid the deposit of a residue, a few growers had
used a derris dust for the control of Heliothis annigera. In places it
was the only material applied; in others it followed an application of an
arsenical or fluosilicate dust. The authors stated: "there used alone,
we were unable to detect any wvrorthwhile protection but, since so fewr fields
were dusted and the observations "vere ro limited, .e are not in a position
to judge its effectiveness."
Fenton (129) in 1936 called attention to rcrk done by Roney at the
Texas Truck Crop Experiment Station. Successful control i:as obtained by
the use of a dust consisting of 15 pounds of pyrcthrun A 'lust; 10 pounds
of a 5 percent rotonone-bearing powvcr; and 75 pounds of 99 perc(.nt of
325-mesh conditioned dusting sulfur, '.rplied at the rate of 20 to 25
pounds to the acre at intervals of -.icek or 10 days beginning as soon-
as the tomato plants wvero placed in tLe field. ',ie important factors
seem to be early application cind complotc cuvorage.
Hansberry and Richardson (183) in 1936 reported the median lo.th:l doso
of rotenone in mg. per gn. of body weight for corn cin/r'rm lhrvao to be
more than 0.49.
Derris was ineffective against the corn earworm. Hutson (208, 209)
in 1936 and 1937.
E. P. Jones (223) in 1936 reported that in laboratory tests 4 pounds
of Derridis plus 8 ounces of spreader to 177 imperial gallons of spray
killed 54 percent of the first instars in 24 hours and 80 percent in 48
hours. Of the second instars.20 percent were killed in 24 hours and 44
percent in 48 hours. In another test Derridis, 4 pounds, plug 8 ounces of
spreader to 100 imperial gallons of spray,killed 5.3 percent of the first
instars in 24 hours and 42 percent in 48 hours. Derrisol proved a complete
failure either as a contact or a stomach insecticide. In field tests Der-
ridis at 4 pounds to 100.imperial gallons gave a control of 4.93 percent
during 2 weeks and 7,64 percent during 1 month against Heliothis obsoleta
on citrus trees. Derrisol at 1:500 was-very disappointing.
Reid (345) in 1936 reported that the strengths of derris- or pyrethrum
-dust mixtures recommended for the common species of cabbage worms were not
effective in controlling the larvae of the corn earworm. In summarizing
results obtained at Charleston, S. C., during the fall and winter of 1937-
38, Reid (346) stated that a population consisting of the cabbage looper
and various Agrotinae (principally the corn earworm and several species of
climbing cutworms) can be controlled effectively by the use of a dust mix-
ture consisting of calcium arsenate and hydrated lime (3:1) prior to the
heading of the plants, followed by applications of a pyrethrum-talc-dust
mixture containing 0.3 percent of total pyrethrins, or a derris-clay-dust
mixture containing 1.0 percent of rotenone, at lO-day intervals after the
plants have headed, provided the plants had been well protected against
cabbage worms before being thinned or transplanted. The pyrethrum-dust
mixture and the derris-dust mixture were most effective age-inst the cabbage
looper, and the calcium arsenate-dust mixture most effective against the
Agrotinae. These results are also reported by the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant.Quarantine (446) in
Turner (420) in 1936 reported that the derris spray recommended for
European corn borer control will not affect the corn earworm.
Laboratory and field tests led to the conclusion that "one can safely
give up hope of controlling this species by means of derris powder." Lar-
vae having more than one-third of the body length covered with rotenone
did not die and developed normally. -- Van der Vecht (454) in 1936.
The Georgia Experiment Station (156) in 1938 reported that during the
early summer of 1937, in several parts of the State, tomatoes suffered
severe injury from the corn earworm. Some growers resorted to rotenone
dusts, "but the corn earworm is known to be peculiarly resistant to this
Gunderson (173) in 1938 recommended derris for the control of the corn
earworm. Flour, sulfur, pearl dust, gypsum, and other carriers are given
as diluents. A 1-percent-rotenone dust was generally strong enough for all
needs. Dorris spray, 5 pounds per 100 gallons, also controlled this pest.
G. D. Jones (224) stated that in 1938 in instructions issued for the
Control of garden pests a dust containing 0.5 to 1.0 percent of rotencne
had proved satisfactory in controlling the tomato fruitwvorm. AS diluents
use clay, talc, cheap flour, or sulfur, and prepare by mixing 1 part of
derris to 4 to 8 parts of the carrier. Hydrated lime cannot be used as a
carrier because of harmful chemical reactions.
The Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station (258) in 1938 published
a summary of entomological progress, in vhich C. E. ST'th reported that
against larvae of the corn earworm the inorganic materials (paris green,
calcium arsenate, and cryolite) were superior to the organic materials
(derris-root powder and pyrethrui-flovers powderr.
Michelbacher and Essig (274) in 1938 described tests against the
fruitworm on tomatoes. The materials, replicated twice, were applied to
plots approximately 0.1 acre in area and w-ere placed along the edge cf the
experimental series located at San Jose and Sanita Clara, Calif. A dust
containing 80 percent of sulfur and 20 percent of derris (0.75 percent
rotenone) vas ineffective.
Against the corn earworm, none of the synthetic or plant insecticides,
including derris, compared in toxicity to lead arsenate. -- New Jersey
Agricultural Experiment Station (294) in 1938.
The North Central States Entomologists (309) in 1938 discussed the
control of certain insects by the use of cube and derris. ;v. H. Whitc re-
marked that cube and derris do not control the corn earnvorm.
Wilcox and Stone (483) in 1938 reported that cube-dust mixtures con-
taining as high as 2 percent of rotenone a.ve inferior results anrl c-re not
recommended for use against tlhe tomato fruitror.n.
Haude, in advertising literature by John Fovell and Co., New: York, N. Y.,
in 1939,wvrrote that preliminary tests indicated that rctcnonc d'ilsts arc ef-
fective for the control of the young cotton boll-.orms, especial'., if rul-
fur is used as the diluent. A 0.5-perccnt-rotenone dust ttppliud before
the infestation became heavy was effective against youn- tomato fruit-. orrms.
Early applications at 20 to 25 pounds per acre, repeated at weekly :r lO-ih-y
intervals, and complete coverage are essential.
Although rotenone dust has beenr. recor-mcnded for controllinr, this in-
sect on corn, tomato, and eggplant, exporimcntal results have been v'rv in-
consistent. The Texas and Illinois State Experir -nt Stal.lons hr-vo sho-.-n
that a 0.5-percont-rotenono dust is effective against the early stL.-KCs, but
this has not been substantiated by "'ork in Mmr York, Tlc-I: J.rsey, un.nd Cali-
fornia. When the vworms are in the oarly stages, a dust ontii'unirr 0.,5 ocr-
cent of rotonono rith sulfur as the diluent is roco.rnmcndcd.
Moreland and Gaines (281) in 1939 reporte.i tlic results of tests '.ie
in 1936 in the Brazes River bottoms, Tax., -.ith dust insecticidos f.r the
control of the bollworm on cotton. Calcium arcrni.to-, culciul-l arsqunat,'
plus paris green (5 and 10 percent), calcium (Lrsuntit PIs rb's (O0. p-r-
cent rotenone in the mixture), and calcitui arsenatc plus 50 'orc.:nt of
sulfur were equally effective against the bollwon-ia. All plots received
calciu-n arsenate in the fore ci n mixtir-.s at the rate of 7.76 +o 9
pounds per acre. '.1hen the rate of application of calcium arsenate -uas
reduced to 7 pounds per acre,*as in the mixture of calcium arsenr-.t? plus
lime, the yield vas likewise reduced. Pyrethrum plus sulfur dust (0.09
percent total pyrethrii-s) did not prove effective against these pests.
Wilcox and Stone (484)
1937 at Costa Mesa, Calif.,
applications :eree made June
in 1940 reported that cube dusts were tried in
for control of the tomato fruitworm. Three
10, June 24, and July 8. Results were as
Exiiinod Injured Injured
Cube (1 percent rotenone)
Cube (1.5 percent rotenone)
Cube (2 percent rotenone)
Natural cryolite 60 percent
+ talc 40 percent (best
Numb e r
Heliothis assulta Guon.
Van der Laan (245) in 1938 reported that in laboratory cxicriments
this species was only slightly affected by derris dust.
Holiothis virescens (F,), the tobacco budworm
Chamberlin and iT.:lden (67) in 1937 reported that cube exerts only a
very limited control.
Laphygma exigua (Hbn.), the beet arT.'TworM
One of the materials tested for the control of the asparagus cater-
pill',r vas rotenone. Undiluted lead arsenate dust was the most effective
of the materials tried. -- Florida Agricultural Experiment Station (136)
Dusting or spraying with derris had only slight effect on -his species
Dusts containing 0.5 percent of rotenone killed 20 to 30 percent' of the
hal]- to nearly full-gro'in larvae. -- Van der Vecht (454) in 1956.
Bouhelic'-r (4il) int 1940 report' on the control of this species on var-
ious cultivated plants in Ilcroccco. Since the use of arsenicals on narket-
garden crops is prohibited, sprc:,s containing derris ex'ra'ct, nicotine, or
nicotine sulfate -.ere tested mn infested tomatoes, but the results wero
,amestra oleraceae (L.)
An anonm-ous .-riter (5) in 1937 wrote that this species has been ef-
fectively checked with a concentration of 0.75 percent of rotenone.
Haranga aenescens (Moore)
The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (214) Tokyo, J-tp-.n,
in 1927 reported that !'eoton at the rate of 1 pound in 0 imperial _-llons
of waber, sprayed on the ejgs soon after oviposition and kept from rainr.,
gave a mortality of 4.6 percent.
Nephelodes eniedonia (Cram.), the bronzed cutworm
Kelsall and Stultz (234) in 1937 reported that derris-yopsuin dust
(0.4 percent rotenrione) killed 21 percent in 2 'ays. After 2 weeks a con-
siderable number of derris-tro'.tted caterpillars were still alive. These
cutvorms v.were collected in the field and treated in the laboratory.
Ophiusa mclicerta Drury
The larvae are remarkably sensitive to derris rowd'er. A duct contain-
ing 0.5 percent of rotenone YAs completely effective against almost full-
groin larvae. -- Van der Vecht (454) in I -,
Fanolis flai.oa (Schiff.)
Weis (477) in 1931 reported that third instars woreo very sensitive to
Polvo; 0.09 mr^. per caterpillar ms fatal in 2 to 3 d..ys. Fourth ii.srtrs
vrerc more resistant. Dusting of mouth parts had no result buce-uso the
large particles adhered poorly and foil off. Polvo possessed ro'.'llont
properties against the second instars and nost of the fourth instar2.
Schwerdtfoso-.r (566) in 1932 ropor'..' eoxperi-nonts on the control of
this speci es with several propric"'.ary insecticides, incl: :'In one emrlsion
(Dorrothan) and tr o'.'d.rs (Dorrotho.n I ,,* -rroth.n II) cof .'.i dr-
ris or extracts thereof. Th.o powders, tested at 5.' kg. per hectaro, !od
100-porc-.rt mortality in 24 hours; *"''. .: emulsion .l0.o .v.s -.:.-, .c'ctive,
Panolis grisoovarioegata (Goozo)
Tragardh (416) in 1'735 repor.'e,- that the principal forest 1', idor'.er-
ous insects in Europe duit-d with arsenicals or o. r insecticides '-.,r.
1925 to 1934 are, in decroeiv:i,,: extent: > .olis ar -.., ,s
piniarius (L.), Lyna: ria monacha (L,), T:r'rY virl.,'.F (I. :iiroi >-:s
pini. (L.), and )ittrin, T F(L.). I'uii'. dtrie 'I .out
100,000 hectares in Europe had been dusted either from aeroplanes or from
the 7rc'.nd, the former method being used about twice a's often as the lat-
ter. The use of a ground duster presupposes that the ground is fairly
even and also that the trees are planted in rows between which the v,,ehicle
can move. It is used when the areas are fairly small, not exceeding 100
hectares. In Germany several preparations containing a mixture of pyreth-
rum and rotenone were used during the last 2 years with great success.
Peridroma margaritosa (Haw.),' the variegated cutwrorm
Washburn (472) in 1934 reported that derris vwas ineffective as a stom-
ach poison to last instars cf (Lycophotia) Peridroma margaritosa. Kale
leaves were dusted and made into sandwiches, so that there w ould be no
contact between the dust and the bodies of the larvae. Thirty larvae were
fed sandwiches of 10 percent ground derris dust (6 percent rctcnone) in
diatomaceous earth, with no ill effects whatever; 30 larvae were fed pure
ground derris dust (6 percent rotenone) .with no ill effects; 30 fourth
instars were fe& derris dust (6 percent rotenone) with no ill effects; 20
fourth instars were put on leaves freshly dusted with pure derris dust and
showed no ill effects. The only effect noted was that the derris seemed
to be somewhat repellent, as the larvae did not eat so freely of the treated
material as they did of the untreated.
Plathypena scabra (F.), the green clover worm
Brannon (47) in 1937 reported that recent experiments at the norfolk,
Va., laboratorTy, designed to determine the relative effectiveness of der-
ris, derris-sulfur, cube, cube-sulfur, pyrethrum-sulfur, and sulfur alone,
applied as dusts or as sprays for the control of the Mlexican bean beeotle in
association with the green clover worm infesting snap beans, showed that
in general the dusts were more effective than sprays for the control of the
latter insect on beans. The derris and cube-dust mixtures contained 0.5
percent of rotenone, the derris and cube sprays contained 0.015 percent of
rotenone, and the pyrethrum-sulfur dust mixture contained 0.1 percent of
total pyrethrins. Wcttabl sulfur :ias used as a spray at the rate of 2
pounds to 50 gallons of water. It was also noted that sulfur dust alone
ga~jc foliage protection against the green clover worm comparable with that
obtained when sulfur was used in combination with derris, cube, or pyreth-
rum, and that a derris-sulfur dust gave better protection than a derris-
talc mixture. These results indicate that sulfur acts as a repellent
I uainst this species and that in instances where this pest occurs in assoc-
iation with a Mexican bean beetle infestation, sulfur should be used as a
diluent for derris or cube for the combined control of the two insects.
Haude in 1939 stated in advertising literature published by the John
Powell Co., Ihewr York, HI. Y. that rotenone dusts may be used to control
green clover worms where it is desired to avoid poisonous residues.
Polia oleracea (L.)
Lloyd (256) in 1920 reported tests of preparations made by Tattersfield
of tuba root -derris) against larvae of the glasshouse tomato moth, (1) as
a dry dust alone and in dilution with powdered earth; (2) with sapcnin in
water s-jsponsions at various strengths from 0.25 percent to 10 percent by
weight of the powdered root, mixed and strained through muslin; (3) with
saponin in water suspensions of an alcoholic extract (6 times the strength
of the powdered root) at various strengths from 0.08 percent to 2 percent
by weight. Tomato plants in pots were dusted or sprayed with these, then
infested with larvae collected in nurseries. The dusting was unsatisfac-
tory, as it soiled the plants and encouraged the growth of molds. The
water suspensions of the powdered root killed the larvae at a 10-percent
strength, but a 5-percent strength failed to do so within a reasonable time.
These strong mixtures also soiled the foliage. Suspensions of the alco-
holic extract proved to be very satisfactory sprays on an experimental
scale. A series of 18 experiments showed that 1 part of this substance by
weight in 1,000 parts of water is a sufficiently potent spray. A plant
sprayed with this was infested -.dith 12 half-grovm larvae confined to 1 leaf
by means of a slecvo. Two days later 7 of these were dead, and 8 days
-1Ter confinoment- they were all dead. Ten more half-grown larvae were th.-n
placed on another loaf, and 10 days later all these were dead. The spray
therefore remained potent for 20 days. The foliage of the plant vwas not
damaged, and the fruit set normally. This plant at the end of the experi-
ment .was photographed with a control plant of the same age which, without
spraying, was infested with 10 half-groin larvae at the time the second lot
was released on the sprayed plant. They ate an entire leaf each day and
had destroyed the plant by the time those on the protected leaf wore all
dead. Similar experiments were carried out with strengths of 5, 2-1/2,
1-2/3, 1-1/4, and 5/8 pound of the alcoholic extract in 100 imperial gal-
lons of water, respectively, and each plant was infested with 22 larvae as
described above. The results varied little from those detailed, except
thiat with the weakest strength the death rate mas somewhat slovaer. None of
the plants were damaged, and the substance appears to be safe to use, but
no large-scale experiments were carried out.
The Experimental and Research station of the Nursery and Market Garden
Industries' Development Society Ltd., of Cheshunt, England (113), in 1939
stated that in order to obtain complete control of all instars of the tomato
moth a rotenone content of 0.007 percent in the spray vas necessary.
Speyer, Read, and Orchard (583) in 1940 reported that sprays contain-
ing derris or Lonchocarpus powders '-ore very effective in rendering foliage
of cauliflowemr and broccoli distasteful to caterpillars of tomato and cab-
bago moths. In many experiments carried out but few: caterpillars actually
died as the result of contact with the po.,ders, or of eating foliTe upon
which they had been deposited. The deterrent action of the pocdicrs, how-
ever, obviated any serious injury to the plants and also prevented the
caterpillars from obtaining sufficient nourishment to enable them to pupate.
-"orris powder .was applied in the fcrr of proprietary brands ccntainir.U a
spreader at the rate of 1 pound to 20 gallons of watcr. In sr.mll-scalo
experiments Lonchocarpus po.d.cr pr::cntt-1 f.eecding by tho caterpill-rs when
used at a strength equivalent to 1 pound to 4) Pallons cf water -..ith 4
pounds of soft soap or 3 to 4 fluid ounmces of liquid Agral as a spreaJer.
SaponJn, sulfonated lorol, and casein lid not we+ the foliate of vegetables
so adequately as did the latter ag.ents.
Pro'enia eridania (Cram,), the southern arm.eorm
Wisecup (489) compared the relative value of derris and cube, both as
sprays and as dusts, against the southern armyworm at Sanford, Fla., in
1933. Small and large larvae were introduced into cages with the follow-
ing rotenone-containing dusts or sprays on sweetpotato leaves:i
Derris spray, 5 percent of rotenone, 1 part in 200
Derris dust, 3 percent of rotenone, 0.3 mg. per square inch
Proprietary cube extract, 1.6 percent of rotenone, I part in 200
Proprietary cube dust, 0.57 percent of rotenone, 0.3 mg. per
The derris, with the greater rotenone-content, appeared somewhat more
repellent showing less feeding at the end of 2 days, whenall the larvae
were removed to fresh, untreated food. The end results after a week's time
were disappointing, as no material had given a kill of over 33 percent;
however, the derris gave consistently better kills, both as dust and spray,
indicating that the rotenone must be taken into account when a derris or
cube product is being recommended. Wisecup (491) in 1936 reported that
laboratory tests made at Sanford with'half-grovn larvae indicated in gen-
eral, that poisoned-bait mixtures consisting of bran, cottonseed meal, or
corn meal, paris green, cryolite, phenothiazine, or cube, with sirup and
ground lemons, wore not sufficient to overcome the attractiveness
of the natural green food of these larvae. Paris green and synthetic
cryolite were much superior to cube.
Stahl (390) in 1934 reported that derris dust had a repellent effect.
The feeding of the armyworm decreased as the concentration of rotenone in
the dust increased from 0.1 to 3.0 percent, but there was some feeding in
The United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine (441) in 1935 reported that toxicity tests in the labora-
tory indicated that this insect, vdhile repelled by derris, was not other-
wise affected. The Division of Control Investigations, of the Bureau (444)
has made many tests with derris and cube dusts. The results may be sum-
marized as follows:
Instar Rotenone con- Minimtnu dosage of dust containing 100-per-
tent of dust cent mortality in 48 hours.
Percent Micrograms per cm.
First 4.5 90
Second 4.5 120 (21 percent mortality)
Third 4.5 100 (14 percent mortality)
Fourth 1.0 110 (3 percent mortality)
Fifth 5.4 125 (20 percent mortality)
The Department in a press release dated January 13, 1936, called attention
to certain disadvantages that bar the use of rotenone insecticides for
sone types of insects. Derris is not effective against all insects. It
repels, but has no other effect on the southern ar y/or.io.
Sullivan, Phillips, and ElcGovran (396) in 1938 reported that a single
spray test indicated that an extract of-- e fruit of the Amur cork tree
(Phellodendron amurense) of China and Japan possessed low, toxicity to the
larvae, but this also applies to derris and pyrethrum.
Wisecup and Reed (493) in 1938 reported tests made at Sanford, Fla.,
':tiich showed that poisoned baits containing 1, 2.5, or 7 pounds of cube
per 100 pounds of standard bait (50 lbs. bran, 50 lbs. cottonseed meal,
1 gal. molasses and water as needed to moisten) were ineffective against
southern arnmyT.orn larvae.
Jok-e (495) in 1938 reported studies on the action of insecticides on
the alimentary canal of insects. The epithelial cells of larvae that were
killed 60 to 80 hours after they had ingested rotenone or phenothiazine
presented no abnormalities definitely attributable to the action of the
poisons, whereas the arsenicals caused marked disintegration of the epith-
elial cells, and barium fluosilicate caused the epithelial layer to be
thrown into characteristic folds, probably as a result of an action of
barium on the unstriated muscle fibers. Woke (496) in 1938 also reported
the results of expurimDnts to determine the biological disposition of ro-
tenone after its ingestion using sixth instars reared on turnip plants and
cut lettuce, Roterono wvas fed to the larvae in sandwiches and, after in-
tervaes ol tine, acetone extracts of the tissues, gut contents, and feces
were pop .. an. tested against moriquito larvae for the determination of
toxic c-' ,v stable checks were employed. The results showed that the
larvoi.; afber ingesting 5 mg. of rotenone, eliminates all or most of the
substance -ith its feces. This result was substantiated by chemical tests.
Prodenia litura (F.)
DeBussy (56) in 1922 reported the results of tests of various mater-
ials on the larvae. This lepidopterous insect is of great importance in
relating to t-obacco culture in Deli, Sumatra. The finely ground root of
De2.-j. elliitica (toeba) was used as a decoction in water up to l0 gin. per
O ,yet in no case did it kill more than two out of five half-growni
Dusting or spraying with derris had only slight effect. The dusts
contained from 0.5 to 2.8 percent of rotenone; the spray, 0.11 percent of
rotenone. -- Van der Vocht (454) in 1936.
Sonan (379) in 1937 reported that derris dusts were ineffective against
the gray-streaked moth in Formosa.
Butac (58) in 1938 reported that in 1936 cotton plants in one of the
plots at the Philippine Carnival Exposition were dusted with derris-gawgaw
(50:50, rot-none 1.5 percent), mainly to control the leaf-eating caterpil-
lar vljhich ,rore abunddant on the plants. The dusting was done about 9 a.m.
Bet v1ce 2 arip Z p, the plants were examined and the insects found -jore
collected, cs c';/. l those affected by the treatment. Sixteen vigorous
larvae of wO... t ....ra wore collected and none died.
Van der La' () reported in 2938 that in comparative field tests
at Deli, 3ur.::r!, I A7 derris dusts co1il':ining 1.5 and 2.5 percent of
rotenone po ,'ud :.-.,.4 Lor to a 5-percent lead arsenate dust in protecting
tobacco arwi umt lepidoptsrous larvae. In experiments against the larvae
in soed bods, a dorris-dust i".'::turn containing 3 percent of rotenone gave
better rn ults than a spray of derris pow,,der mixed with water to give a
rotenone content of 1 in 10,000, but was less effective than a spray of
1.5 percent of load arsenate. In laboratory experiments the larvae proved
almnos4: insensitive to dorris dust.
Merino and Otanes (273) in 1938 recommended derris powder for dusting
and spraying against cabbage caterpillars, except this cutworm.
Derris spray is not effective against Frodenia larvae. -- Deli Prcef-
station (94) at Viedan, Sumatra, in 1939.
Spodoptera mauritia (Boisd.)
The Federated Malay States Department of Agriculture (123) in 1934
reported that during the previous year 78 spraying experiments, 9 dusting
experiments, and 145 other experiments wvrith derris extracts had been car-
ried out. Spraying and dusting experiments were made on 6,010 larvae of
this species. These insects thrive well in captivity and are easily ob-
tained when the question of replenishment of stock arises.
Spodoptera pecten Guen.
Miller (279) in 1935 published a report on the toxic value of differ-
ent species of Derris, describing 347 tests in which aqueous solutions,
extracts, and dusts of 3 types of Derris root and 3 constituents of drris
were tested against several species of insects and against fish and rats.
The samples consisted of Derris elliptica grown at two localities and of
D. malacccnsis var. sara-a',ersis. The D. elliptica from one locality had
a higher roononc and ether-extract content than that groam at the other.
In the D. malacccnsis var. sar:ar-cnsis the rotcnorn content was lowv but
the ether extract was hig}.il. One of the principal test insects was the lar-
va of the noctuid moth Spodoptera pecten. Stock solutions of the 3 kinds
of derris roots were prepared at the rate of 75 gn. of fresh root per liter
of water, this amounting to from 21 to 29 n. of dry root per liter. These
solutions .-ere preserved by the addition e-' formalin. By the addition of
barium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide to these aqueous solutions the solids
were precipitated. This sludge, when dried and pov dered, was used in the
dusting experiments. The insect tests were made Iy spraying, dusting and
immersion. In most of the tests the ncrtality counts were basz:d on exami-
nation of the insects on the third day after the test. The results of 4the
spraying and immersion tests indicated that the insecticidal properties of
the 3 kinds of derris tested vw' .rc about the same. The conclusion v-.s
dra-.,a from these tests that the rotenone content is not necessarily a roli-
ablo index to the toxic value of derris root. Rotenone, doguolin, and
toxicarol vore only moderately toxic to the insects. The ,Ouc.cus solutions
of dcrris root or crushed freshly harvested roots wore toxic to the larvae
without actual contact, indicating that dorris ray ,ild a volatile toxic
substance. Fluids obtained from derris by steam distillation were also
toxic to l?.rvao of the same 2 species hen ri.-v.rsed therein, 'rUli.- ir' per-
cent of S. pecten. The indications vwere that derris ay effect the nervous
system o2 insects through the integurn'.t an na, also act as a repellent,
The Imperial Institute (211) in 1938 reported information on derris
taken from a half-yearly report of the Federated MUalay States Department
of Agriculture. Repetitions of earlier experiments on the asphyxiant
properties of derris had been carried out. Fresh crushed roots of derris
from 3 localities all exerted a lethal distance effect on larvae of this
species. The rotenone content, dry basis, of the roots used ranged from
7.04 to 0.34 percent, but this did not appear to affect its killing power.
Fresh-vater extract of derris roots gave negative results, as did pure
rotenone 13.25 percent, ether extract 30.2 percent (dry basis) also gave
negative results; but when this powder was ground to a paste with water it
exerted an action similar to fresh crushed roots, but slightly less rap-
idly. Controls to all these experiments gave negative results. Spraying
experiments with derris extracts were temporarily discontinued owing to
inaccuracies of the apparatus. Dusting was tried with more- success and
1,000 larvae were dusted, with fairly consistent results. The best dilu-
tion of dust appeared to be 10 percent of powdered derris and 90 percent
of talc. Results have been expressed as weight of dust projected and re-
ducod to weight of derris powder in the mixture and plotted against per-
centage kill, thus giving a more accurate picture.
Taeniocampa gothica (L.)
Gimingham and Tattersfield (161) in 1928 reported the results of lab-
oratory tests with nonarsenical insecticides for control of biting insects.
An extract of black haiari stems was tested on (Monima) 'Taeniocampa
gothica. The insects were slightly affected; there was appreciable feed-
ing but very little growth. Soap, 0.25 percent, was added to this extract.
Tattersfield and Gimingham (401) reported that young larvae of this noctuid
moth were highly resistant to an old extract of black haiari stems.
Triphaena pronuba (L.)
The Experimental and Research Station of the Nursery and Market Gar-
den Industries' Development Society Ltd., of Cheshunt, England (113), in
1939 reported .that derris dust was effective against caterpillars of the
yellow underwing moth on carnations.
Phalaenidae (unidentified sp.)
Derris was not effective in a bait fed to cutworms, either in the in-
sectary or in the field; but derris' spray was observed to kill certain
noctuid moths. -- Kolsall et al. (233) in 1926.
The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (214) Tokyo, Japan,
in 1927 reported that 1 pound of Neotdn in 24 imperial gallons of water
had no effect on cutworms.
Campbell (60) in 1932 reported experiments by Reynolds, who fed cab-
bLge-lc(.f sandwiches containing an unknown quantity of rotenone to undeter-
mined species of cutworms. Although the loaf disks were treated ,with ro-
tenono suspension up to 1:200, the larvae fed freely and were not affected
by rotonono. This unidentified cutworm is the only lopidopterous larva so
far tested that sccfiz resistant to rotenone as a stomach poison.