STATE PLANT BOARD
UNITED STATES DEPARTMINtT OF AGR. CULTURE
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH ADMINISTRATION
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT ('ARANTIN E
A DIGEST OF THE LITERATURE ON DDT THROUGH APRIL 30, 1944
R. Co Roark and N. 1, Molndoo
Division of Inseotioide Investigationa
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Nomenclature and chemistry
Pharmacology e *
Effect on plants .
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0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0000 0 O @ 0 0
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The purpose of this digest is to abstract +he Inf.- on .-,'.i
in the 174 publicationsa IlAted in a bibliography r '' t
by this Bureau in June 1944. :'-.ny of thefj _--.w r, el erl
not readily available to etomologists interested' hi ethod of
inseot control. It is believed that the issuance of is h. et will.
be helpful to all persona havLag an interest in tJ.: ti .
measures fo- injurious insects or in the manufacture of II I '. I ;. ,t .,.
in parentheses refer to the puilii,-,ti,.iri sted in the bib' r
Information on the insc'ticidRl vnl'.e .-" r.rorl,: s
not usually given out by the B tr, i 'itO m- loant t
However, the urgent need to find substitutes for insecticides of h
the available supplies are insufficient to mot the r -iremts
made it desirable to test materials that were Li": ,t ,pron or
available, incldiang those covered by private pants oi ete y
* 8 8
trade-nprk names. DDT, or 2,2-bis(j -chlorophenyl)-l,l,l-trichloroet- --e,
is one of h-e chemical compounds tested in recent months, the use of
which as an insecticide is patented. Brief reports on preliminary tests
at the various laboratories of the Bureau were published in -h b
February 1944 issue of the Journal of Economic Entomology (51, 60, 61).
Because of the successful large-scale use of dust- containing DDT
in delousing civilians in Naples and North Africa and its adoption by
the Army for use in louse powder, it has received wide publicity in the
popular press, over the radio, and on the screen. The interest of the
public has been aroused in its possibilities for control of insects
commonly found in houses, gardens, and orchards. This digest of the
published information on the use of DDT in insecticidal combinations
provides a medium for determining what the literature oont'ins on this
subject up to April 30, 1944.
A large number of nontechnical, or popular, referenots, whioh
ordinarily are not included in a technical review, are added in order
to present a complete historical record of the subject. The general
public has obtained its information on DDT largely from anonymous and
eitherr popular articles, some of which contain erroneous or ina'`quAt-
information. Since most of the statements in the populs press are
based upon the technical reports of experimental work, in this digest
such references containing similar statements have been j!cup.z an.
designated as nontechnical references, in order that r`- %ders .i ,'
distinguish them from the original articles, and evaluate them accordrnyvil,.
It should also be emphasized that most of the testing of DDT in-e''-
cides reported in this digest has been done under laboratory 1iro 6mall-
field-plot conditions. The results should therefore be oomei. I "qd as
preliminary and subject to modification as the investigations ,roceed.
At present the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine o.ies not
recommend DDT insecticides for the control of any species of insects
injurious to agricultural crops. The insecticidal action of DJT is not
universal; that is, while it is highly toxic to many species o insects,
it is relatively nontoxic to others. Before it can be reconnriad- :d to
farmers, many more tests must be conducted to determine whethe- it
injures plants; to establish the tolerance for DDT residues on fruits
end vegetables; to learn the minimum lethal dose to a large n'.nber of
le':ects, injurious and beneficial; to learn how it is best applied and
best prepared for different types of application; and to find out its
stability when mixed with various diluents, wetters, spreaders, and
stickers. All this will take considerable time.
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ii0MBCL.ATrhR AND' CMA3 *'
o/Ahr-uo~iphr.7ltrlchI.s^*Jyhi~, f~v'. .-'ci-. the (eeaigr-ation Dt>1 i
derived oaa xist in mw~y isaorio forms iepui2ing uc-u the. position
of the dnloriLe subgtituents. The product madis by oondn=sxs monoohloro"
benzene e @ :h'iuid according to .h4 prooeas oeiginB.lly desr-ibed by
Zeidler (171), ocasists largely ot Z,2-bis(--ahlorophen-l)-l,l,l-tri-
ohloroetha-e, soze of the ortho-para' Isomer, a:id their subatauaes Thbio
paduxt is known as teohmiaal DLDT a"d is of somewhat variable utmwpoaition
depending an thei tvwiperatur-e i cl't:,- w.-'>'t,.. duiij-,g its sthesi.l.
A refinead gade :' DDT, .. ois i v4.'t 1olly f -2-.ls(.I'.l.O-5
phy l.l) -l^IIl -.orootha s, is ." a pWure DDT.
DDT 'A an ingredient of aeru.. tr m.-r&rk'd ..seotlc ides, such as
-^A, Gi8b-_aD,',, Neoold, Geas-rol, and Ge;rvuex. Th"ee trade-marks ara
the property of the Geigy Company ( 2, b2-h6), It is inoorreot, as
soe, writer haviwao, to *st&i.p vAMt L'TI and .'s aea'rol are synoAymAus.
DDT ib a cia..tituant of Getsool j-.at i t- & constituent of
Blaok Leaf 40.
Before r'DT w" suggested in th Sunr of .:I as a asuitble
abLrevlation for dichlorodiphsnyltrcohiore,.h
base (7?). The product made in the "rnii-sd states was called GMB-A.
DDT h"a alao been referred to as '*tT oLntfIate* and "Gesfrol conoemtrat- ,'
wollowtig Zeldler's (174) description of its synthesis in 1874
no further zamrtion -f this oounpod is found in the literatus iu.:til
1942. In that year a British patent aeigaed to J. R. Geigy A.-G. (81),
was i auied which states that p,D'-diohlorodiphenyltriohloroathan'i may
be produced as follows
"225 partA of chlorobenzene are mixed with 147 parts of ohloral
ar the oorreaponding aouwnt of chlor .hydrate and then 1000 parts
of sulphuric acid monohydrate are added. Whilst stirring well
the teapera. ur rises to 80 Co and tkie silnk slowly down to
room temperature, '.he mass then oonta1ainp solid par-s. It is
ourad Into a prer.t deal of w-%ir, uih *-'_ ^n 1he procuot *epaakt,.:
Li solid fornt. It is well waas d :-'i c.ryst*a!tled from et.h-l
alcohol formiar fine white ory&ta,&, .avIlu. r weak f.u.t-l.ke
The pr p. r ts pP-rs' a .onpoufL.n I '' -iJ8 C., bt uo:^.,er.lfi
DDTMe I m p*ie to the Ar my If it 1.h a set+:i point of ot lea.i thbi
DOT La inrsoALble in w iter uut .a rcadil a.lu.hle in oj-ranio solvoiuta,
suoh as toluene, chloroform, tetraoloroethm.3X, bu'tyl aoetetf., ethyl
acetate, aeetone, ethyl alcohol, and methyl c. -lohexanol (so).
The mixturoi of alkylated nftphtr.,lene sold a Velsicols AR-5C
and AR-60 (158) are also rood solvents for 1o-0, evn Ot 0 0C,
The use of zinc ohlo'ide in plr.oe of b,!i:'urlo aoid as a oondensing
agent In the synthesis of PDT has boen tric.i r-v a student at the
Fresno (Calif.) State College.--Anon. (37).
The Association of Official Agricultural Chemists at its 1943
meeting reoommended that DDT be studied (92).
DDT was first manufactured in the United States in 1943 at the two
plants of the Cincinnati Chemical Works, a subsidiary of the Geigy
Company (5). Early in 1944 E. I* du Pont de Nemours and Company (19,
20, 21, 2g, 31, 38, 44, 49 109, 120, 153), Merck (23, 26, 31. 4,46. ,
4" _), and"the Herouls P e-Compay (25, 28, 5!, 4', T2o)-tegan
3Ts manufacture. "
DDT has been under allocation by the War Production Board (124, 156)
since January 1, 1944, and the supplied have gone to the Army anTdavy.
None is available for civilian use (24, 54).
The effect of DDT on man and other warm-blooded animals has been
investigated by three groups of pharmacologist* namely, the U. 8. Food
and Drug Administration, the U. 8. Publico Health Service, and the
Kettering Laboratory of Applied Physiology of the University of Cincinnati,
the last mentioned being sponsored by the Geigy Company. Because of war
restrictions none of the results of these pharmaoologioal investigations
have been published. However, entomologists engaged in testing the
insecticidal possibilities of DDT have made the following observations
on its effect on man and other warm-blooded animals:
No deleterious effects were noted from the handling of DDT or
from the breathing of the atomized spray.--Tenhet (151).
None of the dogs treated with DDT dusts and emulsions showed
any ill effects from the treatment.--Gouck and Smith (90).
None of the dogs dusted with 4 or 5 percent of DDT in pyro-
phyllite showed any ill effects from the treatment.--Lindquist,
Madden, and Knipling (108).
DDT even in concentrated emulsions apparently had no effect
upon the fiber or skin of goats.--Babcock (64).
The ears of 303 range cattle were treated with mixtures con-
taining 2 and 5 percent of DDT for destruction of ticks with no
apparent injury to the animals.--Rude and Smith (ISO).
DDT, administered for 10 days to mice, O500 mg., and to rabbits,
100 mg. per kilogram of body weight, produced no ill effects. Two cows
and 6 sheep were fed grass sprayed with 1-peroent DDT solution for 1
week, with not the slightest disturbance in their health. The pre-
paration was tolerated also in a 2-percent emulsion, as a dipping
solution of nursing sheep and their lambs, without any reaction. The
repeated application of a 5-peroent solution to the cornea of a rabbit
produced no injurious phenomenon during 7 days of observation.-.8ohldd (134
In addition the ffect of D of V o n iisa noted in. various rConieim_ eal
In powdereoJ form (as iuta r.wr) it Fpej to be
to human skin (7, 15, 20, 30, 665.
For use as an in&eo-'. oidD DT' io harmless t: j'.ians I
warm-Llooded aenlBalr. (11, 13, 16, 18, 33, 41. 47. 118. 162.
163., 164) -- -- -
Tk.'e queotici oi' *umuvtiw i offffcts has not yl'; been afnvmw-l
It lri reported as bbng omewhere be+vean three and five ti-eE ,
toxio as phenol when tairen by mouth (66).
It is distinctly toxic to higher animals whan taken by mout
DDT is poinsoous to human beings (32, 91).
EFFBCT ON PLANTS
Alfalfa. No burning of foliage was observed folltinrg the
application of a 50-50 DMT-pyrophyllite dust.-Wilson (171).
Apple* Single applications of the following sortys (poun'8 ,-'.i
100 gal-Is) with a hand sprayer on y-oung Rome apple tree grcwig.
outdoors gave the following results: DDT 4 plus pyron-.yllite 4,, 1..
injury DDT 3 plus bordeaux (4-8-100), moderate injury DD' T 3pl i
wettable sulfur 6 plus hydrated lime 6, no injury .--,S-eler (139),
No injury oeamrred on any of the 11 WiLesap treeqi. hat had --
sprayed with DDT (l.5 pounds per 100 nllona), but all the Grlfte,
Golden trees developed injury which may have been oaus.-l by the F",.
Irregular dead patches developed between th.e veins of nierly 2E' u,... -.
leaves, which turnumed yellow or dropped. All the olitage on these .
gradually became a 11gter green U'e.: th.t Lm ier..'ed r.zeso 'L-j.
waeg no asuooiation between th i.jcet.,n or vi, iile oIf'dld c ...-T .
injured areas The lajury ap.iarx-x f.:' ui.ofe of the tr-..a zy Ak,,ait
but cin 2 trees that had been *pr-a.', .- ",h uiootin," ,rnto.Aite pri-.
July 6 athe iaJury dji .-.t A .'il, .'... i t a. B ,. .'- I 1 +.15 ti "r
loss on all 9 trees eppTorimated "v f .o',r-,., eodr' with a 10 1--.
loss = unasprayed t e.. h ,: :, V f.. be a, L. i jr ig.,av t
by the inacreaaed mite pop0ulat, ,". .. .ini .,, wU"c i
orovaillbd btween Ju iy 6 d c. ; 2.
The lnju-ry was qa serious :-i 4 --. -; 1t oiived 'a'tc ?ppli3nti
cof riOT at 1 *.*)a'i per 100 9 ] 9 I ,3 t.hd ...- r.. on July F 1, 5 01 C1 u.
tret ihat was given :i :-. i:-'',,,-i 1ons, t..-i. L-., ..'n uA,;-it 12. u,1tA l
the phytooldal effect of this uateriAl. on all varieties ein be in-
vestigated under different olimstio conditions it ehoulid be used '.
caution.-Steiner, Arnold, and 8ummerlarni (147).
b.4-iaina of apple foliage was noticeable only when 3 or 4 percent
of Gesarol was used, whereas the normal strength of 1 percent in no
case produced any burning effeot.-Wiesmann (164).
Beans. A spray suspension of 8 pounds of 5-percent DDT per 100
gallons of water in two applications 7 days apart and two applications
of a 1-percent suspension of DDT concentrate caused no injury to young
plants.--Swingle and Mayer (149).
Bac plants were not injured by 3 or 10 percent DDT-pyrophyllite
Aerosol mixtures containing 2 percent of DDT (with and without 4
percent of orthodiohlorobenzene, in methyl chloride) did not injure been
plants. No injury was apparent following the application of a spray
containing 4 pounds of 5-percent DDT per 100 gallons of water.--Weigel (159).
Citrus, No plant injury was observed following the spraying of
orange and lemon trees with light-medium grade petroleum spray oil or
with kerosene, each of which contained GNB-A.--Lindgren and Boyoe (104).
No injury to tender lemon leaves has been detected from Gesarol
dusts. In one instance, injury to very tender lemon leaves followed an
application of a Gesarol emulsion containing 0*2 percent by weight of
Gesarol [DDT, not Gesarol, was used.--R.C.R.J. It was emulsified in
water with trichloroethylene, oleico acid, and potassium hydwrxide.-MoGregor
Coleus. Slight injury to a coleus cutting was caused by the appli-
Oation o aerosol mixtures obtaining 2 percent of DDT and 4 percent of
orthodichlorobentene in methyl chloride.--W7eigel (159).
Cu lalrd. Sane as on biaens-Swingle and Mayer (149).
Corn. Tolerance tests conducted in the field at rates of 2, 4, 6,
and 8 pounds of 5-percent DDT per 100 gallons of water previous to the
regular spraying season showed no injury to the corn plant at any con-
oentration.--Questel (127, 128).
Gladiolus. On gladiolus foliage DDT spray (7#5 pounds of 5-peroent
DDT per 100 gallons) with or without brown sugar left a slight white
deposit and apn-rently caused scattered ruBty-nbrown syots. The oil
emulsion containing DDT (I percent in deodorized kerosene, emulsified in
water at the rate of 4 gallons to 100 gallons of spray) caused severe
yell%,,Ing and death of many plants of the variety Flaming Sword and less
severe injury to La Paloma. The oil emulsion alone seemed to cause more
injury than did that containing DDT.--Smith (145).
Grape. A test of DDT, 4 pounds per 100 gallons, on Concord grape
showeT seere foliage injury.-Siagler (139).
'There was no evidence of injury to fruit and foliage following
application of DDT, I pound per 100 gallons.*-Fleming and Chisholm (768).
Onion. No 111 effects were observed on onion foliage, although
a, slit"white deposit was left by the treatments with DDT alone and
with brown sugar. DDT was applied at the rate of 7.5 pounds of 5-
peroent DDT per 100 gallons.-Saith (145).
Peach. Single applications of the following sprays (pounds per
100 gallons) with a hand sprayer on flborta peach trees growing out-
doors gave the following results, DDT4 plus pyrophyllite 4, moderate
ianjrys DDT 3 plus wettable sulfur 6 plus hydrated lime 6, no
la jury.-Si31 gl or (l3g).
There was no evidence of injury to fruit and foliage following one
application of DDT, 1 pound per 100 gallons.-Fleming and Chisholm (78).
So injury to the fruit or foliage of four varieties of peaches
(Raritan Rose, Cumberland, Triogem., and Golden East) was observed from
the me spray application of DDT.-Driggers (77), Martin (115)
Kffoet of 6-pereent DDT same as on beas.--Swingle and
Pea plants were not Iajured by pyrophyllite dusts containing 10
percent of DDT.--Harries (8).
Plu.* Same as an peaoh.-lneaing and Chisholm (78).
Potato. Two applications of a 1-peroent suspension of DDT caused
no injury to potato plants.--Swingle and Mayer (149),
A dust of 3-peroent DDT in pyrophyllite caused slight yellowing of
potato leaves within 4 days after treatment, whereas the sprays caused
no injury.-Weigel (159).
Pumpkin. Same as on beans.-Swingle end Mayer (149).
Radish. DDT applied as an aerosol frou methyl chloride solution
caused no injury.--Weigel (159)
Snapdragm* S. injury was apparent following the application of
4 pousa of beront DDT per 100 gallons of water.-Weigel (159).
Swiss hard. Same as on beans.--Swingle and Mayer (149)
Miscellaneous plants. Preliminary observations on DDT indicated
that I mightt be noniinjurious to vegetation harboring tioks.--Smith
and Gouck (143).
DIYT wars tested for injury to the foliage of upland cotton, cowpea,
peanut, seybean, tomato, velvetbean, and 11 species herbaceous
flowers and weeds. Both a 60-50 DDT-pyrophyllite dust and a spray
obtaining 0.5 pound of DDT and 3 pints of raw linsoed oil per 100 gallons
of water were used. No rain occurred for 10 days or more after the
applications, and no foliage injury was observed on any of these plants.-
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DDT does not seem to be harmful to plants (56).
EOT has been tested against 132 identified species of insects and
other arthropods belonging to S13 orders and 63 families.
Camnula pellueida (Souddo), the clear-winged grasshopper
Melnopls bivittatus (Say), the two-striped grasshopper
elano s devastaor (Soudd.), the devastating grasshopper
Field trials were conducted against infestations consisting of 10
t6 30 adults per square yard in alfalfa is Nevada and California. A
50-percent DDT-pyrophyllite dust killed 90 percent in 24 hours and &
10-peroent dust killed only 15 percent in dense' alfalfa and none in the
open. Bait containing 3 pounds of DDT in 50-percent DDT-pyrophyllite
mixture per 100 pounds of bran was equal in efficiency to bait con-
taining 1 to 1* quarts of sodium arsenite (32 percent of As2O3) to 100
pounds of carrier. In other field tests this DDT bait was 24 percent
more effective in green alfalfa than 3 pounds of sodium fluosilicate.
The DDT bait killed the grasshoppers much more quickly than sodium
arsenite bait, the rapidity of its action resembling that of sodium
Melanoplus mWeeoanus mexicanus (Sauss.), the lesser migratory grasshopper
Meianoplu's fiMrrubrum 7Deg-), the red-legged grasshopper
M. medxicanus mexicanus was the mosie abundant species tested, bat
small-num"bers of "M. biviatus and M. femur-rubrum were also present*
In cage tests baiTs prepared with D1T (Tounds pejr 100 pounds of brman)
were definitely toxic but were inferior to the sodium fluosilioate bait
applied at the same rate. The DDT bait killed 33 percent is 1 day and
57 percent in 3 days, while the sodium fluosilioate bAit killed 78
percent in 1 day and 100 percent in 3 days. When DDT was dissolved Ian
acetone before being mixed with bran, the mortality was greater than
when dry DDT was mixed with branj 4 pounds of DDT in acetone in 100
pounds of bran killed 35 percent in 1 day and 83 percent in S days.-
Blattella germanica (L.), the German cockroach
Four insecticides were tested as dusts, the base of which was a
50-50 mixture of talc and soybean flour-sodium fluoride (C.P.), DDT
(C.P.), derris (5 percent rotenone), and pyrethrum (1 percent pyre-
thrina). The roaches were tested in 1-gallon glass jars, 20 to 30
adults 10 weeks old being put into each jar. The insides of the jars
were dusted thoroughly and the excess- dust was then shaken out. Pro-
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liminary determinations had shown that approximately 14(0 mg. of dust
was required to cover one jar, or about 0.8 mg. per square inch. Seven
percent of DDT and 33 percent of sodium fluoride were the minimum con-
centrations required to kill 100 percent in 48 hours. DDT appears
therefore to be about five times as toxic to roaches as is sodium
fluoride. Dusts containing 33 percent of derris or pyrethrum gave 30
and 90 percent kill in 48 hours, respectively. Thus, D'T is vastly
more toxic to roaches than are sodium fluoride, derris, and pyrethrum.--
When DDT (100 percent), mixed with dog biscuit or mouse food (1-
100), was fed for 3 weeks to cockroaches, all the German cockroaches
died. Other tests were made with a 50-50 mixture of dog biscuit and
mouse food to which was added DDT at 1 gm. to 50, 100, 500, and 1,000
gm. of the food mixture. Five adult roaches (German and American)
were placed in each of 20 jars. After 10 days 6, 14, 25, and 25 Ger-
man roaches were found alive with the respective mixtures.--Yorrill (116).
In laboratory tests 5 percent of DDT in talc was applied as a
band an inch wide across the center of a pan 14 inches square. Roaches
exposed continuously to this dust were all killed within 48 hours. Of
roaches allowed to run once across this band 30 and 40 percent were
killed in 96 hours. In practical tests in Army mess halls a 5-percent
spray, made by dissolving DDT in an equal weight of cyclohexanone and
mixing 1 gallon of this stock with 12.5 gallons of kerosene, was used
in two buildings. A water emulsion containing 5 percent of DDT, 15
percent of xylene, and 5 percent of Triton NE was sprayed in a third
building. Six buildings were dusted, four with 25 percent of DDT mixed
with tale and two with 10 percent of DDT in talc. The sprays applied were
18 to 95 g.* of DDT per 100 square feet and the dusts 19 to 29 gn.
Large numbers of cockroaches were killed by all these treatments.
Almost instant results were obtained with the sprays, whereas delayed
action was observed in the case of the dusts. In one building 2,000
dead roaches were on the floor within 30 minutes after spraying. The
dusts were also highly toxic, and similar results were obtained with
the 25- and 10-percent mixtures. In each of three buildings at least
4,000 dead adults and large nymphs were seen on the floor. Complete
eradication of these pests was not obtained in any of these buildings,
but their populations were satisfactorily decreased, with the greatest
reductions in the buildings that were dusted. A theater which had dif-
ficulty in controlling roeches was sprayed at the rate of 1 gallon to
300 seats with a wate- emulsion containing 2.5 percent of DDT, 5 percent
of xylene, and 0.1 percent of Triton NE. Fourteen days later the pop-
ulation was noticeably decressel.--Gahan and Knipling (79).
In prelimlnary tests by the pendulum meBhod, a deodorized kerosene
spray containinK 2 percent, (w./v.) of DnT applied to the dorsal surface
of German roaches was less effective than a snmillr spr-y containing
0.4 percent (w./v.) of pyrethrins. A proprietary powder containing 3
percent of DDT, scattered over the floor of glss cylinders, caused
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mortalities approximately equal to that obtained with a pyrethrum powder
containing 0.66 percent of pyrethrins. A dust containing 10 perce;It of
DDT in pyrophyllite was less effective than a finely ground commercial
grade (95 percent) of sodium fluoride, but on the basis of the amount
of toxicant in each powder the DDT was more effective.--McGovran,
Richardson, and Piquett (110).
Peripleneta americana (L.), the American cockroach
DDT mixed with bait (1 to 100) was fed for 3 weeks to 50 cockroaches
(10 in each of 5 jars) all but 1 of which died. In other tests the food
consisted of dog biscuit and mouse food (50-50) to which was added DDT
at rates of 1 gm. to 50, 100, 500, and 1,000 gm. of food mixture. Five
adult roaches were put in each of 20 jars and each rate was replicated
five times. Ten days after the respective mixtures had been given them
I, 4, 7, and 20 roaches were found alive.--Y'orrill (116).
In laboratory tests, when 5 percent of DDT in talc was applied an
a bend an inch wide across the center of a pen 14 inches square, all
the roaches exposed were killed within 48, hours. DDT in concentrations
as low as 0.1 percent was completely effective in 96 hours. When 5
percent DDT and undiluted sodium fluoride were compared in peans 10 feet
square, all roaches that had been placed with DDT were on their backs
within 48 hours and 24 hours later were dead, while only 60 percent of
those placed with sodium fluoride were dead after 144 hours. In a more
severe test in which roaches were allowed to run across a narrow band
of 5-percent DDT, mortalities of 100 percent in 48 and 72 hours were
obtained. A dust containing 0.1 percent of DDT was ineffective. In a
practical test in a dairy a spray containing 2 percent of DDT, 2 per-
cent of Nopoo 1216, and 10 percent of acetone was applied to control
flies. Two days -later 982 dead and dying cockroaches were counted and
two weeks later dead roaches were still being found on the floor.--
Gahan and Knipling (79).
Deodorized kerosene containing 2 percent (w./v.) of DDT was in-
effective when tested by the pendulum method. When this spray was
tested by confining roaches in a rising mist of spray, it was less
effective than a similar spray containing 0.2 percent (w./v.) of pyre-
thrins. The roaches were not knocked down rapidly by the DDT sprays.
A 3-percent DDT powder was less effective than a pyrethrum powder con-
taining 0.66 percent of pyrethrins. A dust containing 10 percent of DDT
in pyrophyllite was less effective than a finely ground commercial grade
(95 percent) of sodium fluoride, but on the basis of the amount of tox-
icant in each powder the DDT was more effective.--McGovran, Richardson,
and Piquett (110).
In laboratory tests 100 percent mortality was obtained in 18
hours when adult American roaches were confined on a surface treated
with a 5-percent DDT dust, and in 48 hours when a 1-percent dust was
used. A 10-percent dilution of sodium fluoride caused no mortality,
and 5 percent of pyrethrum (1.2 percent of pyrethrins) killed only
65 percent in 72 hours. When large nymphs were confined for 3 days
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on 8 deposit from s 1-percent spray suspension of DDT concentrate,
92 percent mortality was obtained.--Swingle and Mayer (149).
.Nontechnical references on cockroaches
DDT is effective against the American cockroach (55) but ant
saainst the German cockroach (55, 91, 129).
DPT has been found toxic to cockroaches (7, 18, 20, 38, 54, 72,
122, 123, 129, 154). -
Reticulitermes flavipes (Kol.), the subterranean termite
When termites were confined in an artificial ohanber dusted lightly
with the 5-percent DDT mixture, they succumbed within 2 days. In field
test, however, they avoided it wherever possible. Pi-es of paper
toweling, strips of fabric, and small pine plant markers treated with
1 or 5 percent DDT in acetone and exposed out of doors were attacked
little or not at all, although owing to the severe drought the results
were not conclusive.--St. George (132).
A S-percent DDT dust mixed with sand (1-10,000) oaused no mortality
within 2 days of adult termites placed on the surface of the treated
sand. However, the treatment repelled the termites and prevented their
entrance into the sand. In 5 days 97 percent were dead, but this mortal-
ity must have been caused by excessive exposure to the eir.--Svingle
and Mayer (149).
DT)DT has been employed successfully against twrrItes (J8, 19, 65, 70).
Bovicola caprae (Gurlt), the red goat louse
t-chodcfM hoTrmei Kellogg and Nakayma, the yellow Coe Suse
ichodeotes T isus Gervais
Angora goats infested with these lice were dipped in 0.3 ad 0.6
percent of DDT in a water emulsion. In every case all the lice were
killed soon after hatching And no reinfestation developed ki 26 days.
In another test Angora goats were dipped in water emulsioms ooateining
0.3, 0.15, 0.07, and 0.04 percent of DDT. All oonoientratiens killed
all red and yellow lice, and there was no reinfeetation in 25 days.
Tests with DDT combined with wettable sulfur in dips suggested that
neither chemical influenced the effectiveness of the other. These
limited tests indicated that a single dipping in DDT may serve as an
effective control for goat lice. These biting lice (Mallophaga) are
more susceptible than are the sucking lice (Anoplura). The DDT, even
in concentrated emulsions, apparently had no effect upon the fiber or
skin of the animals.-Babcock (64).
DDT has been found effective against goat lice (59, 154).
Trichodectes equi (L.), the horse biting-louse
Geigy's preparation No. 1859 [contains DDT] in powder form proved
to be a satisfactory remedy for the destruction of lice and nits on
Neocidol, either as a powder or an emulsion, does not irritate
the skin of sensitive animals and kills all lice and nits within 2
days. About 150 to 300 gin. of the powder is required per horse.--
Frankliniella fusoa (Hinds), the tobacco thrips
In preliminary plot tests a S-percent DDT-pyrophyllite dust was
very much superior to a 2-percent dinitrooyclohexylphenol-sulfur dust
for control of this thrips on cotton.-Shiller and Richmond (138).
Heliothris haemorrhoidalis (Bouohe), the greenhouse thrips
irtothrips citri Yoult.), the citrus thrips
DDT sprays and dusts have given promising results in field tests
against these thrips.-Boyce (66, 67).
Emulsions of Gesarol [DDT, not Gesarol, was used.] carrying 2, 0.5,
and 0.2 percent by weight of this compound, applied to lemon leaves in
laboratory tests, killed all citrus thrips in 1 day when the insects
were place', on freshly dried residues, and in 1 or 2 days on residues
1 day old. When adults were placed on lemon leaves dusted with Gesarol
and talc (2+98) Pt the rate of 1.4, 3.4, and 9.8 micrograms per square
centimeter of leaf surface, the mortality was 91 to 100 percent in 24
hours, and 100 percent in 41 to 48 hours. A dust containing 20 percent
of Gesarol in talc, applied so as to deposit 98 micrograms of Gesarol
per square centimeter, killed all adult thrips in 4 hours.--McGregor (111).
Taeniothrips simplex (Morison), the gladiolus thrips
Sprays containing 7.5 pounds of 5-percent DDT, with and without 4
- 15 -
pounds of brown sugar, and ea spray containing 1 percent of DDT in 4 gal-
lons of deodorized kerosene and 8 pounds of soap, were compared with a
standard tartar emetic sprey (2 pounds plus brown sugar 4 pounds), all
quantities per 100 gallons of water. The tartar emetic-brown su&ar
spray was superior in all treatments. The DDT-brown sugar spray was
inferior to the DDT alone or to the DDT-oil emulsion.--Smith (145).
Thrips tabaci Lind., the onion thripe
Same as for Frankliniellp fusca (Hinds).
Same as for Taeniothribpe smleex (Iorison).
Gesarol is used against thrips.--Kotte (103).
Aphi ossypii Glov., the cotton aphid
A 2-percent DDT-pyrophyllite dust killed 15.4 percent of aphids
in laboratory tests as compared with 81 percent in similar tests with
2-percent nicotine dusts.--Ivy (101).
In a small plot of cotton dusted with 2-peroent DDT, temperature
87F., 41 percent of the aphids were dead after 48 hours. A 2-percent
frse-niootine dust killed 76 percent. In another plot, temperature
82 F., the DDT dust killed only 5 percent of the aphids, as compared
with 86 percent for nicotine.--Stevenson, Sheets, and Breazeale (148).
Ahis pruni ( A. prunifoliae Fitch), the prune aphid
The southern sides of six plum trees were sprayed with 1-percent
Gesarol mixture, while the northern sides were left unsprayed as con-
trols. Later no aphids were found on the treated sides, but they were
very numerous on the control sides. Gesarol afforded a 19stlnr pro-
tection against the sphids.--Wiesmann (169).
Aphis spireacola Patch, the spirea aphid
A 3-percent DDT dust killed all stages of this aphid on young
orange, but not so quickly as did a 0.25-percent nicotine sulfate
spray.--Swingle and Mayer (149).
Macrosiphum pisi (Kltb.), the pen aphid
Results on wingless adults in laboratory tests indicated that, in
equal concentrations, MDT in pyrophyllite is at least as toxic as rote-
none in derris-root mixtures with the same diluent. DDT killed faster
than derris. A concentration of DDT as low as 0.0781 percent gave 88
percent mortality of aphids.--Harries (93).
- 16 -
Myzus persicae (Sulz.), the preen peach aphid
Rsdish plants infested with aphids were exposed for 21 hours in
a 16-cubic-foot fumigation chamber in which 34 gm. of an aerosol
mixture containing 2 percent by weight of DDT in methyl chloride had
been released. After 48 hours 86 percent of the aphids were dead.
An aerosol containing 2 percent of DDT and 4 percent of orthodichloro-
benzene in methyl chloride killed 98 percent within 3 days* In a
greenhouse test a spray containing 4 pounds of 5-percent DDT per 100
gallons of water killed only 38 percent of the treated aphids within
48 hours after treatment. A 3-percent DDT dust killed only 51 percent
of the aphids within 4 days.--Weigel (159).
Phorodon humuli (Schrank), the hop aphid
The control of this aphid in Germany with Gesarol is discussed.--
Rhopa-losiphum psecdobrassicae (Davis), the turnip aphid
Small plots of turnips heavily infested with aphids were dusted
twice with 1 percent of DDT in pyrophyllite while other plots were
dusted with standard insecticides. The DDT mixture was applied at the
rate of 119 pounds per acre per application, the derris dust (l percent
rotenone and 2 percent oil) at 98 pounds, and the nicotine sulfate
dust (3 percent nicotine) at 65 pounds. The numbers of aphids sur-
viving on four leaf sections after 48 hours were 43 for DDT, 18 for
derris, 8 for nicotine, and 412 for the control (undusted).--Howard (98).
Sipha flava Forbes, the yellow sugarcane aphid
Sugarcane dusted four times with a 50-50 DDT-pyrophyllite mixture
at the rate of 8 pounds per acre for the control of the sugarcane borer
was examined 3 days after each of the last two dustings to determine
the effect of DDT on the abundance of the yellow sugarcane aphid. The
number of aphid-infested leaves in the DDT plots was about six times
as great as in the undusted check plots. The great increase of aphids
resulting from the use of DDT would thus be a serious drawback to its
use in control of the sugarcane borer.-Ingram (100).
If used with a wetting agent Gesarol is very effective against
DDT is effective against aphids (20, 44, 150).
Empoasca fabae (Harr.), the potato leafhopper
- 17 -
In experiments on small plots of beans and potatoes a mixture
containing 1 percent of DDT, 19 percent of Bancroft clay, and 80
percent of sulfur was as effective as a pyrethrunr-sulfur mixture
(0.025 percent pyrethrins). Some of the counts showed less than
one leef'hopper surviving per leaf.--Toward (9R).
Peregrinus maidis Ashm., corn leafhopper
A 5-percent DDT dust caused 100 peroeit mortality of large nymphs
infesting a corn leaf within 24 hours. The pyrethrum standard (1.2
percent pyrethrins) diluted to 10 percent in talc gave similar re-
sults.--Swingle and Mayer (149).
Aonidiella aurantli (Mask.), the California red scale
In laboratory tests DDT in petroleum spray oils, applied as emulsions,
has not only given increased kill of adult females and younger stages
over the oils alone, but has been strikingly effective in preventing
young crawlers from settling and developing on citrus fruits for as long
as 60 days after spraying. Emulsions of xylene or benzene containing
DDT had little effect on the adult female scales, but the residue in-
hibited the settling and development of the young for at least 45 days.
Deposits from water suspensions of technical DDT, used at the rate of
2 pounds to 100 gallons of water, inhibited more than 95 percent of the
young crawlers from developing( on citrus fruits. In many of the tests
with DDT-oil sprays the young crawlers were killed before they emerged
from beneath the waxy covering of the mother insects. Oil sprays con-
taining DDT plus cube powder or derris extract were also promising.--
Lindgren and Boyce (104); Poyce (66, 67); LindFrAn, LeDue, end Dow
(105). This work is -referred to in ( .)
Pseudococcus citri (Risso), the citrus mealv1u7
Mealybugs were exposed for 21- hours in a 16-cubic-foot fumigation
chamber in which 34 gin. of an aerosol mixture containing 2 percent of
DDT in methyl chloride had been released. Only 6 percent of the mealy-
bugs on the coleus were killed after 48 hours. In another test with
an aerosol containing 2 percent of DDT and 4 percent of orthodiohloro-
benzene in methyl chloride, only 25 percent of the rmenlybugs (mostly
nymphs) were dead 3 days later. The errs were unaffected.--Weigel (159).
Stiotooephala festina (Say), the three-cornered alfalfa hopper
Three days after the application of DTT--yr phyllite dust (1-10)
to cabbage plants at the rate of 18 pounds per acre, 1 d-nd three-
cornered alfalfa hopper was observed.--Smith an.i Iarrison (142).
- is -
Cimex lectularius L., the bedbug
emipterus (F.), the tropical bedbug
In approximately 1,500 laboratory tests with about 100 materials
against a mixed population of these two species, DDT was found to be the
most outstanding, with pyrethrumn somewhat less effective. No difference
in resistance was detected between the two species. In jar tests 5 per-
cent of DDT in a mixture with dimethyl phthalate and acetone and 1 per-
cent of DDT in deodorized kerosene gave complete mortality up to 39 days
after application. In order to simulate natural conditions, cages con-
taining miniature mattresses were next used. Spray was applied to the
mattress and lower half of the cage at the rate of 100 to 150 mg. per
square foot of surface. Fresh bedbugs were introduced weekly after
spraying and exposed for 48 hours. In these tests 20 percent of DDT in
orthodichlorobenzene applied at the rate of 100 mg. per square foot gave
complete mortality after 73 days. A cage receiving this treatment, but
scrubbed with hot water and soap 8 days later, gave 100 percent mortality
after 78 days. A spray containing 0.5 percent of pyrethrins plus 2 per-
cent of N-isobutylundecylenamide in deodorized kerosene applied at the
rate of 2.5 mg. of pyrethrins per square foot gave kills from 60 to 80
percent up to 22 days after treatment and after that time was practically
worthless. In practical tests 20 percent of DDT plus 40 percent of ortho-
dichlorobenzene in kerosene applied at the rate of 140 ml. per bed gave
100 percent kill up to the 281st day and 5 percent of DDT in kerosene
applied at the rate of 195 ml. per bed killed 100 percent up to the
64th day. In several small tests in Army barracks in Florida 5 percent
of DDT in kerosene was effective for several months. In a large-scale
practical test involving 80 barracks complete freedom from bedbugs was
recorded for nearly 4 months. It was concluded that, from a practical
standpoint, 5 percent of DDT in crude kerosene is probably the most
satisfactory to use, particularly under military conditions.--Madden,
Lindquist- and Knipling (112).
Tests to determine whether insecticidal action can be effected
through the blood of the host by oral administration of insecticides
were conducted with these two species of bedbugs on rabbits. Mortality
as high as 100 percent occurred when the bugs were allowed to feed 3
to 5 hours after DDT was administered to the rabbits in dosages of
from 228 to 400 mg. per kilogram of body weight. Pyrethrum extract
gave similar results, but the knock-down of the bedbugs was faster.--
Lindquist, Knipling, Jones, and Madden (106).
DDT in deodorized kerosene was.highly toxic to both species of bed-
bugs, when applied directly as a contact spray by the turntable method.
At a concentration of 0.18 percent in deodorized kerosene DDT was as
toxic as the same concentration of pyrethrins, although the lethal ef-
fect was not complete until 2 to 4 days after treatment as compared with
1 dey for pyrethrum. The DDT sprays appeared to have little effect on
- 19 -
bedbug eggs.-McGovran, Richardson, and Piquett (II0).
DDT kills bedbugs and bugproofs mattresses for several months
(6, 7, 18, 20, 29, 30, 5, 65. 63, 7O, 72, 152).
Anasa tristis (Deg*), the squash bug
A S-percent DDT dust applied to first and fourth insaters on pumpkin
foliage caused 100 percent mortality in 2 days in laboratory tests. The
pyrethrua standard (1.2 percent pyrethrins) gave the same results against
fourth instars.-Swingle and Mayer (149).
In insectary ages 10-peroent DDT-pyrophyllite dust killed 100 per-
cent of Anasa app. adults and nymphs in 2 days, in another teat 94 per-
cent in 7y"s, and in a third test 100 percent in 6 dpy.* Derris (0.75
percent rotenone) killed 96 percent in 7 days.-Harriaon (94).
Creontiados fmoralis Ten D.
In sage tests 2-peroent DDT-pyrophyllite dust killed all (20) the
mirids on cotton in 24 hours.-Stevenson, Sheets, and Broazeale (148).
Haltious bracteatus (Say), a flet hopper
A 3-peroenmt D3 duat ga excellent control in weekly applieoationa
to small celery plants in outdoor plote A oommnercial pyrethru dust
was relatively ineffective in sai'weekly applications* A suspension of
8 pounds of 6-peroent DDT in 100 gallons of water also gave eoellent
control.-Swingle and Mayer (149).
Lygus obliaeatus (Say), the tarnished plant bug
In laboratory experiments a 10-peroent DDT dust killed 96 percent
of the nymphs and 99 percent of the adults in 24 hours, and all were
dead in 48 hours.-Hilla (96).
See Creontiades femoralis.
Chloroahroa ligata (Say), the oonchuela in the Southwest
In tests in which screen oages were placed over cotton plants, 5-
peroent DDT-pyrophyllite dust killed 80 percent and 2-percent dust
6--.,p6d 5 t~r'sI '14'- It Vs 5 dayv *- ark ("4).
T1oroohroa *ia. 171.., the st-I2.ug
In two ,r-x -,-.- :T-t. with th-.bugs confiid in small screen cages,
10-percent DDT dust killed a large per:,antqge, but its action was slow,
the mortal't.. no'- : lte until 4d to 6 d.-r,, after application.--
In cage tests 2-percint DDT-pyrophyllite dust killed all (29) the
bugs tested in 96 hours '-t only 10 percent in 24 hours and 80 percent
in 48 hours*--Stevenson, Sheets, and Breaseale (148).
Eurydema oleraceum (L.)
Gesarol is used against this bug on truck orops.-Kotte (103)o
r' a.chistus impietiventris Stal, the brown cotton bug
In cage tests 2-percent DDT-pyrophyllite dust killed all (60) the
t 's tested in 96 hours but only 50 percent in 24 hc'1rS and 80 percent
_4. 1rs-,- ever a ci, Sheets, and Breazeale (I )
Murgantia higtr 1onio q HaKa), tha harl'.ii.n bug
In laboratory tests a 1-percent DDT dust killed 90 percent of the
Faults within 2 days* Four other concentrations rancina from 3 to 100
iroent as well as the undiluted pyrethrum stndeLrd 'lt' percent pyre-
thrins) gave about the saew rel3Ilta.-Swingle and Mayer (149).
Tests conducted in insectary showed that bVth 10-pereent
DDT-pyrophyllite dust and derris a (0.75 percent rotenone) killed
100 percent of the adults in 2 days.--Harrison (94).
Nezara viridula (Le), the southern green stinkbug
In cage tests a 3-percent DPT dust killed 86 percent of adults in
3 days, but in two later tests only 75 and 72 percent in 5 days*-.
A 10-percent DDT-pyrophyllite dust killed 100 percent of the adults
and nymphs in 2 days in one series of laboratory tests but only 76 per-
cent in 4 days in another series.--Harrison (94).
Three days after the application of DDT-pyrophyllite dust (1-10)
to cabbage plants at the rate of 18 pounds per acre, I live southern
green stinkbug was observed.--Smith and Harrison (142).
Tfaematopinus eurysternus Nitz., the short-nosed cattle louse
A spray C rtlLn 0.5 ^arcej-it ofnr 5. a- 1 : S
active stages. It persistsj on ..e .ir of I t: -. lo
kill the yonmn lice that hatc:hed frown the .._ -. cited tes eau
of Entomology and Plant uLu-tiitie- (1.4).
Linognathus stenop2sis (Burn,.), the blue eoat louse
Angora goats infested with lice were dii-o in wter ..sions in
strengths of 0.3, 0.15, 0.07, and 0.04 percent of I..'. .:.i blue lice
were killed with all concentrations except the 0. AJ perct there
was no evidence of a reinfestation in 25 daya, ?ixtui. of D .T and wet-
table sulfur were also tesatd.--Baboook (64. 154).
DDT has been employed suocesafully againe-t livestor!L lice by
Agriculture Department researchers (18, 29, 63, 70).
Pedioulua humans corporis Deg., the body louse
Pediou S umsanus KhiimMius Lo,the head louse
.iI() g- orab louse
The first sample, a commercial dust [couteLi,. a. .0 ]
proved far more promising in preliminary tests meain..i ,' e a lcelci
any of the hundreds of synthetic organic compou ds pr' *.ily b.'J
Later tests confirmed the initial observations that DDT a a highly
effective lousicide. DDT has no ovioidal propertied. ,.o -pi ce, 5;-
percent-wool underwear impregnated with a solution "Y 'I when not
washed remained el'feotive for 3 to 6 weeks' weRprin. 1ie similar us
when washed once a week were oiiective for 2 to 3 weeks., ois im-
pregnated with a higher percentage of D wT when washed once a week re-
mained completely effective through five washingB and were still moder-
ately effective after six washings. With a still largei ptrc-mtage of
DDT, garments gave complete control of lice after nine w,shin,-s ind 9
weeks' wearing. Impregnation has been ac,.'mpliahed by dippin- the
clothing in solutions of DDT in a volatile solvent or 'n pqieous errl-
sion, with no difference in effectiveness.--ushlrid, Mc.1 st r, F..I.l.,
and Jones (68).
Nontechnical references to lice affecting wan
The effectiveness of DDT against lice on man has tne6i mmitioned by
many other writers (15, I7, 18, 29, 53, 37, 3 8, 41, 42, 46, 5[i, 59, 62,
63, 70, 72, 75, g91g IT8,297l.^77 iT, T77)7 -
The use of DDT as the active Ingredient of the Ar.. 's nie louse
powder has been widely heralded (i -h, 10, 11,l, 14, 16, 17, l'-25,
25-30, 32, 36, 41, 43, 44, 45, 0 59, l7 T),
Th Rs been creiiTt w i't wip-in~gouJ--thie*t. -u3 US ip ef i c '* I Te TE3
the winter of 1943-44 (27, 34, 50, 55, 131)
- 22 -
The erroneous statement that the German army had a DDT louse powder
before the Americana knew about it appears in certain articles (3, 35,
Lasioderma serrioorne (Fe), the cigarette beetle
Newly emerged beetles, confined in a modified Peet-Grady chamber,
were sprayed with DDT in a light, volatile, highly refined oil of the
kerosene type at the rate of 75 oo* per 1,000 cubic feet*. The tfel-
lowing results are recorded&
Insecticide in oil spray Moribund after Mortality after
24 hour a days
DDT, 3 percent 28 44
DDT, 5 percent 50 66
Pyrethrum extract, 0.2 percent
total pyrethrins 24 B6
Unsprayed 2 19
The residual effect upon beetles placed in wire-gause cages that had
been sprayed with 5 percent of DDT in oil is Jndioated as follows
Interval between spraying Time insects Mortality
of cage and exposure of were exposed .....__.
In sprayed In unsprayed
Ds Ds Percent Percent
0.2 2 100 24
9 3 96 0
37 5 92 8
Ph aopertha dominiesa (F.), the lesser grain borer
Of a large number of chemicals tested for impregnating paper bags,
a 10-percent solution of DDT in acetone showed the greatest efficiency
in preventing beetles from cutting through the bags. Paper impregnated
with DDT and exposed for 2 months to the attack of this insect suffered
no damage.*-Cotton, Balser, and Young (76).
Bruohus pisorum (L.), the pea weevil
In laboratory tests adults were dusted with two strength& of DDT
and then held 10 days in a cabinet at 86OF0 Only 62 percent mortality
was obtained with 0.3 gmp. of 10-peroent DDT, end only 11 percent mor-
tality with 016 ga*. of 2-percent DDT.-Schopp and Brindley (136).
DDT proved Ineffedtive (55).
Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), the cowpea weevil
In laboratory tests a 3-peroant DDT dust mixed with Crowder peas
(1-10,000) gave oomplete control of adults confined in the peas with-
ina 2 days. The derris standard (4.8 percent rotenone) gave similar
results in the same period.*-Swingle and Mayer (149).
Agrilus spe, a fruit-tree borer
In a preliminary test in Switserland a 1-peroent Gesarol prepara-
tion [about 0.4 pound of DDT per 100 U. S. gallons] sprayed on fruit
trees killed all the borers within 3 dayso--Wiesmann (164).
Byturus tomentosus (Doge), the raspberry beetle
cr. urbanus 7Ind.) (a B. fumatu_)
Small-scale tests in 8witzerland showed that the beetles perish
within 24 hours of coming in contact with Gesarol spray deposits. In
tests made out-of-doors one-half of the raspberry bushes in cultivation
wewe sprayed with a 1-percent Gesarol mixture [about 0.4 pound of DDT
per 100 U. 8. gallons] shortly before the blossoms opened and a second
time when they were fNlly open. On the untreated bushes the vorminees
was 17.1, 26.2, 54.7, and 42.5 percent, while on the treated bushes it
was 0.5, 1.6, 2.3, and 3.0 percent. These results were considered Very
STATE PLANT BOARD
- 24 -
satisfactory. Also additional tests were partly very good and partly
satisfactory. There was not a single failure, and it can be stated
that an effective control of raspberry beetles can be obtained with
two applications of Gesarol, whereas three or four applications of
derris are required to obtain satisfactory results.--Wiesmann (169).
In a preliminary test all the beetles treated with a mixture con-
taining 1 percent of Gesarol were killed within 3 days.--Wiesmann (164).
Gesarol was effective against raspberry beetles.--Kotte (103).
Cassida spp., tortoise beetles
In field tests in Switzerland Gesarol proved suitable for the con-
trol of these beetles on turnips.--Wiesmann (164).
Crioceris aeparagi (Lo), the asparagus beetle
Gesarol is used against this beetle.-Kotte (103).
Diabrotioa balteata Leo., the banded cucumber beetle
In small-plot field tests an application of DDT-pyrophyllite dust
(1-10) on cabbage at the rate of 18 pounds per acre killed 91 percent
of adult beetles in 3 days*.-Smith and Harrison (142).
Diabrotica duodeoinpunctata (F.), the spotted cucumber beetle
Three days after the application of DDT-pyrophyllite dust (1-10)
to cabbage plants at the rate of 18 pounds per acre, two spotted cu-
cumber beetles were observed, one of which was nearly dead.--Smith and
Epitrix cucumeris (Harr.), the potato flea beetle
In cage tests 10 adults were put on a potato-plant cutting that
had been sprayed or dusted with DDT. Complete mortality was obtained
in 24 hours with a 3-percent dust and in 72 hours with a spray con-
taining 4 pounds of 5-percent DDT per 10,0 gallons of water.--Weigel (159)
Epitrix hirtipennis (Melsh.), the tobacco flea beetle
In cage tests complete mortality of 100 adults was obtained in
24 hours with a 6-pereoant DDT dust mixture. The insects were confined
to small tobacco plants unler four lantern globes, and the dust was
applied by means of a precision duster.-Chamberlin (73).
Leptinotarsa deoemlineata (Say), the Colorado potato beetle
A spray made of 1 pouvmd of DDT concentrate per 100 gallons of water
- 25 -
caused complete mortality of all instars infesting potato plants in an
outdoor garden.--Swingle and Mayer (149).
In greenhouse tests potato cuttings were sprayed or dusted with
DDT. When the 3-percent dust was applied, all but one of the beetles
were killed in 48 hours, end all were dead after 72 hours. With a
spray containing 8 pounds of 5-percent DDT per 100 gallons, ell the
beetles were dead in 4 to 7 days. At 6 pounds per 100 gallons the
spray was less effective. In a number of tests that followed in the
greenhouse and in outdoor cages, results similar to those above were
obtained on the adults, but the larvae were killed more easily.--
In field tests in Switzerland Geaarol proved suitable for the con-
trol of this pest.--Wiesmann (163, 164).
Gesarol was *ffeotive.-Kotte (103S).
DDT is highly effective against the Colorado potato beetle (20,
Geaarol is used against flea beetles (72, 103).
Epilaohna varivestis Muls., the Mexican bean beetle
In laboratory tests DDT at 8 pounds to 100 gallons of water, with
0.8 pound of acacia as wetting agent, was sprayed on excised been leaves,
which when dried were put in unsprayed cages and infested with fourth
instars. The mortality in 6 days was 45 percent. One pound of derris
root (4.8 percent rotenone) in 100 gallons of water caused 67 percent
mortality in the same time.--McGovran, Richardson, and Piquett (110).
When applied to growing plants in the greenhouse, neither the 3-
percent dust nor a spray containing 8 pounds of the 6-percent DDT per
100 gallons caused any mortality of adults and larvae within 24 hours
after application. The test insects were put on the plants after the
Insecticide was applied. None of the larvae died within 7 to 10 days.
Coworkers who used DDT dusts and sprays against this insect on bush
beans growing in their Victory gardens reported poor sucoess.--Weigel
In laboratory tests a S-peroent DDT pyrophylllte mixture killed
only 36 percent of the third instars tested, while a derris mixture
(0o5 percent rotenone) killed 70 percent within S days. In later
tests 10-percent DDT killed fewer larvae than did the derris mixture.
DDT had no appreciable repellent effeot.--Harries (93).
A 10-percent DDT-pyrophyllite dust was tried in two field ex-
periments. The results were very poor in comparison with the stand-
ard cube dust (0.5 percent rotenone).-- Nelson (119).
- 26 -
DDT is apparently not effective in controlling the Mexican bean
beetle (55, 59).
Lady beetles (unidentified species)
Three days after the application of DDT-pyrophyllite dust (1-10)
to cabbage plants at the rate of 18 pounds per acre, 1 dead lady
beetle was observed.--Smith and Harrison (142).
DDT kills the aphid's natural enemy, the ladybird beetle, with
much more certainty than it does the aphid (55).
Anthonomus grandis Boh., the boll weevil
In cage tests 2-percent DDT-pyrophyllite .dust applied at the rate of
32 pounds per acre was comparatively ineffective, the mortality being
only 18.5 percent.--Ivy (101).
In cage tests using 1- and 2-percent DDT-pyrophyllite mixtures, the
mortality after 96 hours was 16 percent with each mixture, as compared
with 77 percent when calcium arsenate was used. The weevils were re-
leased on the caged cotton plants, which were then thoroughly dusted
with a hand gun.--Smith (146).
The boll weevil is little affected by DDT (72).
Anthonomus pomoru (L.), the apple blossom weevil
Weevils collected out-of-doors in Switzerland were put in Petri
dishes containing shoots of apple trees sprayed with Gesarol. The
weevils that moved on the shoots showed symptoms of paralysis with-
in 1 to 2 hours and died in 1 to 2 days. Small apple trees were
sprayed with a mixture containing 1 percent of Gesarol and 1 percent
of lime-sulfur, and 10 weevils were then put on each sprayed tree.
After 8 days all the weevils were dead. This test indicated that an
effective control may be obtained by spraying apple trees with a
1-percent concentration of'Gesarol with or without lime-sulfur solu-
tion at the time of oviposition.--Wiesmann (169).
Gesarol was effective.--Kotte (103); Anon. (2).
Anthonomus rubi (Hbst.j the raspberry blossom weevil
In the raspberry cultivations sprayed with Gesarol in Switzerland
only a few blossoms per thousand were destroyed by this weevil, while
- 27 -
in the untreated cultivation the demnage amounted to 8 to 10 peroent.-
Gesarol was effeetove.-Kotte (103).
LiUstroderes obliquus Klug, the vegetable weevil
Three days after the application of DDT-pyrophyllite dust (1-10)
to cabbage plants at the rate of 18 pounds per acre, 3 vegetable wee-
vils were observed, 1 dead, 1 living, and 1 affeoted.-Smith and
Pantomorus leucoloma (Boh.), the white-fringed beetle
In insectary and field-plot tests DDT was the most potent in-
secticide ever tested against the adults. In cage tests as a stomach
poison a 2.5-percent DDT-pyrophyllite dust on cotton foliage killed
94 percent in 72 hours and on peanut foliage 100 percent in 48 hours*
Comparative mortalities for the same periods with other poisons are
12 percent for synthetic cryolite on cotton, 55 for calcium arsenate
on cotton, and 63 for oryolite on peanut. Sprays containing DDT
(0.26 pound to 100 gallons of water) were equally good. DDT was also
effective as a contact poison. It was very effective in field-plot
otechmnio al references
IMT was highly effective against the white-fringed beetle (55,
5hlcbiue oons (Lo), the graft weevil
In Switzerland Petri dishes were sprayed with a 1-percent Gesarol
mixture and allowed to dry for 24 hours. Wee-ils were put in these
treated dishes for 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes and then removed to un-
treated dishes for observation. All the weevils except those exposed
for 5 minutes became paralyzed and later died.-Wiesman (164).
Gesarol spray works well and rapldly.--Anon. (1).
Gesarol had a lasting lethal effect by oontmct,--WiesmKr.n (169).
Gessarol was effective in the laboratory and in the open.--Kotti (i0b).
itophilu oM a (LW), the rice weevil
In laboratory tests a S-peroont TIDT dust mixed with wheat (l-10,OC<)
caused 0 and 82 percent mortality of adults in 3 and 6 -Anys, reap'tiv 1I,
Derris (4.8 percent rotenone) at 1-200 killed 56 and 100 -.rcent of the
weevils in 4 and 7 days, rompeotively.-41wingle and Mayer (149).
= 28 -
ifreworms (unidentified species)
Gesapon containss DDT and an emilifying agent] produced ap-
**.'ble results.-Kotte (103).
.pi-art. lenmimta (F7),g a blister beetle
In laboratory -eAa 3-peroant DDT duet on Swiss chard leaves
!'illed all adults within 3 days. Undiluted barium fluosilicate killed
:6 percent under similar conditions. A 4-100 suspension of the 5-per-
cent spray maaterial on swiss chard killed 0, 71, and 96 peroant in
Z, 4, and 6 days, respectively. A 4-100 suspetiai.n of the undiluted
oryolite killed only 26 and 75 peroaent in 4 and 8 days, respectively.--
Swingle and Mayer (149).
'4iigethes brassicae (soop.)
Gesarol may be effectively applied against this speoele on field
-'*nebroides meturitanius (L.), the cadelle
Same as for Rhiperths, dominioa.--Cotton, Bala-er, end Young (7).
.elolontha vulgaris L., the May beetle
If the beetles are put in large containers provided with food.
r yed with Gesarol, the insects eat vex7 little end soon show symp-
cae of paralysis, and after 2 or 3 days die. Contact with the spray
.s..it for 1 to S hours oasees moderate paralysis, and if removed froa
'-.e poisoned food the beetles recover on the second day. If they are
outnsotc with the spray deposit for 5 hours or more, severe paralysis
-oaee._ta and death occurs on the fifth day* Three large branches of
;eol_, and oak trees were sprayed with a 1-pero-amt Gesarol mixture in a
greobhouse in Switierlond. Subsequently 300 beetles were released in
-'he same compartments Within a short time all untreated branches were
Sn.inely covered with beetles. A number of beetlea flew onto the treated
an ohes but left theis quickly. The test was repeated three tilnei with
the same result. The oontrul food was always completely eaten, but the
createdd food was eaten little or not at all. Testa on a large scale
showed that fruit trees may be protected against defoliation by a spray
of ';aarol prior to the flying period of May beetlea.--*fesmann (169).
- 29 -
Gesarol when*used at a concentration stronger than usual was
Phyllopertha hortioola (L.), the oookehafer
In a preliminary test in Switzerland all the beetles treated with
a 1-percent Gesarol mixture were killed within 2 days.--Wiesaann (164).
Gesarol was effective as a deterrent.--Wiesmann (169).
Geosarol spray works well and rapidly.--Anon. (_).
Popillia Jonioa NMew., the Japanese beetle
DDT was the most effective of the protective materials tested. In
laboratory tests sprays containing 0.25 pound of DDT per 100 gallons
were consistently as effective as those containing 6 pounds of 1sead
arsenate. In field test one application protected fruit and foliage
of early varieties of peach trees for about 10 days, which was the
same protection as that given by two applications of the recommended
derris-rosin residue emulsion. A single application of a spray con-
taining 1 pound of DDT to 100 gallons protected the fruit and foliage
during the period when the beetles were attacking the peach trees, and
also destroyed the infestation on heavily infested plum trees and kept
the trees free from beetles for the remainder of the season. This spray
also protected grapsi. DDT acted both as a poison and as a repellent
and appeared very promising as a substitute for the derris, line-aluminum
malate, and lead arsenate sprays reooimended for control of this in-
seeot It reuained effective longer than did derris and left no oon-
spiuous rvsidue on the fruit and foliage.- -Fleming and Chisholm (78).
DDT is highly poisonous to the Japanese beetle (18, 29, 56 66,
!9# L5# M# 722 .1S4) -
Rhitotrogus solstitialis (LU)
Gesarol was effeotive.-K-tte (103).
oolytus pruni. Rats., the fruit-tree bark beetle
In Switzerland small apple twigs sprayed with a 1-percent Gesarol
mixture were put in large Petri dishes, and when the twigs were dry 6
beetles were placed in each dish. After 2 to 3 hours the insects ap-
peared paralyzed and within a day they died. In other tests beetles
were placed in dishes that had beae sprayed a month earlier. The in-
seoots showed severe symptoms of paralysis after 16 minutes and died
within 24 hours.--WIesmann (169)*.
Gesarol at a heavier dosage than usual was effective against bark
beetles on fruit trees.--Kotte (103).
Gesarol may be effectively applied against this insect oni field
Tribolium eastaneua (Hbst.), the red flour beetle
In laboratory tests a 3-percent DDT dust mixed with wheat at a
dilution of 1 to 10,000 parts by weight caused 100 percent mortality
of adults confined in the treated grain for 2 days.-Swingle and Mayer
Bombyx mori (L.), the silkworm
In laboratory tests against silk moth larvae on mulberry leaves,
DDT, when applied as a 10-percent dust, was at least as toxic as lead
Diatraea saooharalis (F.), the sugarcane borer
Small plots of sugarcane were dusted four times with DDT-pyro-
phyllite (50-50) at the rate of 8 pounds per acre per application.
This mixture gave a lower degree of borer control than did synthetic
cryolite, although not significantly so,-Ingrain (100),
Alsophila ometaria (Harr), the fall cankerorm
The following field tests were made (1) Seven trees were banded
with burlap that had been saturated with 5-percent MOT walsioans (2)
the trunks of four trees from the base up to about 4 feet above the
ground were sprayed with a similar emualsion; (3) the trunks of five
trees were dusted for the sane distance with a 50-50 DDT-pyrophyllite
mixture. DDT-pyrophyllite dust killed all female mother that came in
contact with it. The moths did not die immediately but quickly lost
all power of locomotion. DDT emulsion was not very effective in the
field, but moths confined in cloth-covered cages the inside of which
- S31 -
had been sprayed with the emulsion soon lost all power of locomotion
and died within 24 to 48 hours.-Sohaffner (133).
Cheimatobia brumata (L.), the winter moth
Geaarol was effective.--Kotte (103).
Hibernia aurantiaria (gsp.)
Gesarol spray works well and rapidly.--Anon. (I).
In a preliminary test in Switzerland a 1-percent Gesarol spray on
fruit trees killed all these insects within 2 days.-Wiesuann (164).
Urbanus proteus (L.), the bean leaf roller
In laboratory tests a 3-percent DDT-pyrophyllito dust on bean foliage
killed 100 percent of third instars within 2 days, with almost no feeding.
The pyrethrum standards (1.2 percent pyrethrns) killed 96 percent in the
same period. A spray containing 4 pounds of DDT per 100 gallons of water
gave excellent control of the first three instars in an outdoor garden.-
Swin.le and Mayer (149).
Aorolepia assectella (Zell.)
Gesarol is used against this insect on truck crops.--Kotte (103).
Hyponomeuta malinellus Zell., the ermine moth
Several branches on apple trees in Switzerland were sprayed with
a ndxture containing 1 percent of Gesarol and 2 percent of lime-sulfur.
After 2 days the caterpillars on the sprayed branches were dead, and the
result was at least equally as good as that obtained with the arseniol
oopoumd formerly used.--WTiesmann (164).
The southern sides of six plum trees in Switzerland were sprayed
with a fixture containing 1 percent of Gesarol and 1 percent of lime-
sulfur, while the northern sides were left unsprayed as controls.
Later there were nine nests of caterpillars on the control sides and
none em the sprayed sides.-Wiesmann (169).
Oeearol was effeotive.-Kotte (103).
Plutella slaclipannis (Curte), the diammtck moth
In small-plot field tests with two applications of DDT-pyrophyllite
- 32 -
(1-10) on cabbage at the rate of 14 pounds per acre, 1 caterpillar sur-
vived per 100 plants, while 10 survived applications of pyrethrum (0.3
percent pyrethrins) dust, and 4 of derris (0.5 percent rotenone) dust.--
Smith and Harrison (142).
Gesarol is used against this species on truck orops.--Kotte (103).
Carpocapsa pomonella (LU), the codling moth
In preliminary laboratory spray tests DDT (1 pound to 100 gallons
of water) appeared significantly more effective than lead arsenate (8
pounds to 100 gallons), giving nearly perfect control. In laboratory-
field tests DDT at the same strength was highly effective, even after
long periods of weathering. Other tests suggested that DDT could probe.
ab&ly be used effectively after first-brood sprays of either nicotine
bentonite with soybean oil or lead arsenate and lime with mineral oil.
In field tests not only did the DDT at 1.5 pounds prevent worm entrances,
but there were no new stings at harvest and less than 3 percent of the
picked apples were wormy. DDT did not repel ovipositing moths.--
Steiner, Arnold, and Sumnerland (147)
When tested by the apple-plug method, DDT showed excellent promise
when used alone at concentrations of 1 or more pounds per 100 gallons*
It showed little to no loss in effectiveness when combined with bordeaux
mixture, neutral soap, or pyrophyllite, but the addition of hydrated lime,
bentonite, and lime-sulfur reduced its toxicity somewhat. One pound of
DDT per 100 gallons of water gave 16 percent of wormy and 12 percent of
stung apple plugs, whereas lead arsenate (4 pounds to 100 gallons) gave
44 percent of wormy and 5 percent of stung plugs.--Siegler (139).
Gesarol, applied as a 1-percent spray mixture, acted both as a
stomach and a contact insecticide on codling moth larvae. It was
miscible with all kinds of fungicides and after being sprayed produced
an adhesive, whitish deposit, which resisted the rain fairly well and
remained visible up to 3 weeks.--Witesmann (164).
In tests on a smell scale Gesarol was first found inferior to lead
arsenate, but later tests showed it to be effective. Apples sprayed
with Gesarol were suspended in cages, where female moths laid eggs on
them. Only 2.3 percent of the larvae resulting from 128 eggs deposited
on 26 sprayed apples were able to eat their way into the apples, where-
as the infestation of the check apples was 97.5 percent. Tests were con-
ducted in orchards in three localities in Switzerland. In WAlenswil
lead arsenate generally effected a greater reduction of infestation,
but Gesarol was equally effective in some oases. The spray mixture con-
tained 1 percent of Gesarol or 1 percent of lead arsenate plus 1 percent
of lime-sulfur solution (32 Be.). The Gesarol-lime-sulfur mixture
formed a suspension which had to be constantly stirred, the resistance
to rain of its white deposit on the fruits was not entirely satis-
factory, and its wetting and spr'dding properties were also poor. In
Herrenhof this mixture was equally effective as 0.5 percent of lead
arsenate plus lime-sulfur. In the third locality, Oeschberg, tests
were carried out in three towns comparing 1 percent of Gesarol with
0.5 percent of lead arsenate, each mixed with 1 percent of lime-
sulfur. At Lindenhof end St. Niklaus Gesarol was unsatisfactory on
one variety of apple after two treatments, but on a second variety it
was half as effective as the lead arsenate. The results obtained at
Utsenstorf were conclusive.--Wiesmann (169).
Gesarol sprays were inferior to those of lead arsenate in tests
made in 1941.--Anon. (1).
DDT has been found to be very poisonous to the codling moth (16,
20, 22, 55. 59, 72. 113, 118, 150, 154).
Grapholitha funebrana (Treit.), the plum tortricid moth
Four prune trees in a large orchard in Switzerland were sprayed
with 1 percent of Gesarol in water, on June 17, 1942, and the records
were taken at harvesttime, September 3. The spray deposit on the
leaves was good and fairly ccimpacot, but on the fruits spotlike and
not uniform. The sin-le a Plication reduced the infestation about
30 to 40 percent, which corresponded somewhat to the reduction ob-
tained by two applications of nicotine sprays. As Gessrol showed a
lasting effect, which nicotine preparations lacked, the spraying with
Gesarol might be used during the first third of July and thus coin-
cide with the *zond codling moth treatment.--Wiesmann (169).
Grapholitha molests (Buick), the oriental fruit moth
DDT (1 pound to 100 gallons of water) caused a marked reduction
in moth injury to peaches after one spraying, and the treatment ap-
parently was effective for 3 to 4 weeks.--Driggers (77).
In the laboratory DDT in all the forms tested was highly toxic
to the newly hatched larvae. DDT was Very effective when dissolved
in oil and other organic solvents or when prepared in dust mixtures.
Deposits on fruit prevented the entry of large numbers of these larvae.
DDT was also highly toxic to the moths when they were confined in
cages with sprayed peace, foliage or the sides of the cages were sprayed
or dusted.--Carmen and Fleachner (71).
DDT was effective in laboratory tests.--Boyce (67).
DIT is effective against the oriental fruit moth (55, 115).
Gesarol was effectlve.--Kotte (103).
- 34 -
apilonota ocellana (D.. & S.), eye-spotted budmoth
In a preliminary test in Switzerland a 1-percent Gesarol prepara-
tion sprayed on fruit.trees killed all the budmoths within 3 days.--
Five days after the second application of DDT-pyrophyllite dust
(1-10) at the rate of 14 pounds per acre, all these caterpillars on
cabbage plants were killed.--Smith and Harrison (142).
Alabama argillacea QHbn.), the cotton leafwormn
Two-percent DDT-pyrophyllite dust applied in cage tests at the
rate of 32 pounds per acre of cotton gave only 35.5 percent net mor-
In a field test using 2-percent DDT-pyrophyllite dust at rates of
5 and 10 pounds per acre, no mortality was observed after 6 days.-
Antioarsia gemmatilis (Hbn.), the velvetbean caterpillar
,In a laboratory cage test of a 2.5-percent DDT-pyrophyllite dust
and a cryolite-wheat flour dust (9-1) against half-grown caterpillars
on peanut foliage, 48 hours were required for DDT and 96 hours for
cryolite to cause 100 percent mortality. A field plot of velvetbeans
was sprayed twice with 0.5 pound of DDT plus 3 pints of raw linseed
oil per 100 gallons of water. The first application was made at the
rate of 58 gallons per acre and gave good control. The second ap-
plication protected the new foliage from the hordes of caterpillars
that were moving in from the surrounding -mtreated area.--Young (172).
Barathra brassioae (L.)
Gesarol is used against this species on truck crops.--Kotti (103).
Heliothis armigera (Hbn.), bollworm, corn earworm, tomato fruitworm
A water suspension of 2-percent DDT-pyrophyllite killed bollworms
when put on the dorsum with a pipette. The median lethal dose of DDT
applied in this manner to 240 fifth instars was 0.299 mg. per gram of
body weight. This mixture, applied as a dust at 32 pounds per acre of
cotton in cage tests, killed 96 percent of third instars, whereas basic
copper arsenate-sulfur (l-l) at 16 pounds per acre killed 86 percent.
In another series of cage tests DDT caused 97 percent mortality at 32
pounds, 82 percent at 16 pounds, and 63 percent at 8 pounds per acre.
Calcium arsenate at 8 pounds per acre killed 62 percent. DDT acts both
as a stomach poison and as a contact insecticide, the latter being the
- 35 -
more important. Bollworms were readily killed by exposure to dust
clouds of this material. Following a 30-second exposure 40 percent
kill was obtained with fifth instars, 90 percent with fourth instars,
and 100 percent with third instars. Larvae were also killed when put
on sheets of blotting paper and dusted at the rate of 32 pounds per
acre. Larvae fed on dusted leaf sandwich consumed a lethal dose after 2
to 4 days' exposure.--Ivy (101).
Screen cages were placed over cotton plants on which bollworms
had been released, and the plants were then dusted with 2-percent
DDT-pyrophyllite dust. The mortality was 100 percent in 46 hours in
one test, but poor in another.--Stevenson, Sheets, and Breazeale (148).
In small field plots tomato plants dusted with 3 and 1 percent
of DDT in pyrophyllite and with undiluted calcium arsenate produced,
respectively, 4, 8, and 6*5 percent of worm-injured tomatoes, as com-
pared with 28.5 percent on untreated check plants. The results showed
good promise for DDT in the control of the tomato fruitworm. In labora-
tory tests complete mortality was obtained of 30 larvae fed leaves dusted
with the 3 percent of DDT. Of 30 others fed leaves dusted with the 5-
percent mixture 29 died. In comparable tests with calcium arsenate 25
larvae died. The respective deposits were 69, 42, and 15 micrograms per
square centimeter. More feeding took place on the calcium arsenate than
on the DDT.--Johnson (102).
DDT has been tested against the bollworm. (20).
A dust of DDT-pyrophyllite (1-10) applied at the rate of 18 pounds
per acre caused a tomato fruitworm to regurgitate and quiver 2 hours
after the treatment*-Smith and Harrison (142).
Prodenia eridania (Cram.), the southern armyworm
In laboratory tests a 3-percent DDT-pyrophyllite dust on collard
leaves killed 100 perce.'t of fourth instars within 2 days. Pyrethrnu
(1.2 percent pyrethrins) killed only 48 percent in the some time. An
8-100 suspension of the 5 percent DDT, applied as a spray to collard
plants, caused 100 percent mortality within 2 days. This foliage was
equally toxic to larvae 8 days after application of the spray. Un-
diluted lead arsenate at 8-100 killed 97 percent in 2 days.--Swingle
and Mayer (149).
Pseudoplusia (: Aitographa) rotationis (Gueno), a looper
In laboratory tests DDT dust dilutions as low as 1 percent killed
90 to 100 percent of fourth instars within 2 days, and 0.6-percent DDT
dust killed 100 percent in 3 days. A derris dust (0.96 percent rotenone)
killed 89 percent in 3 days. A 8-100 suspension of the 5-percent DDT
applied to collard plants killed 33, 85, and 96 percent of fourth in-
stars in 2, 4, and 6 days, respectively. A 4-100 spray killed only 62
percent in 6 days. Lead arsenate at 8-100 caused 100 percent mortality
within 4 days, and derris (4.8 percent rotenone) at 4-100 killed 46
percent in 6 days.--Swingle and Mayer (149).
- 36 -
Trichoplusia ni (Hbn.) (= Autographa brassicae (Riley)), the cabbage
In laboratory tests a 3-percent DDT-pyrophyllite dust on collard
leaves killed 100 percent of fourth instars within 2 days. The pyre-
thrum standard (1.2 percent pyrethrins) killed 96 percent in the same
time.--Swingle and Mayer (149)
In small-plot field tests with two applications of DDT-pyrophyllite
dust (1-10) on cabbage at the rate of 14 pounds per acre, 5 loopers mur-
vived per 100 plants, as compared with 51 on plants treated with pyre-
thrium (OS3 percent pyrethrins) and 70 on plants treated with derris-
pyrophyllite (0.5 percent rotenone) --Smith and Harrison (142).
Phalonia ambiguella (Hbn.), a European vine moth
In Switzerland Gesarol applied as a spray at a concentration of
1 percent [8 pounds per 100 U. S. gallons] proved effective against
the second-generation larvae.--Wiesmann (162, 163).
Ephestia elutella (Hbn.), the tobacco moth
Newly emerged adults, confined in a modified Peet-Grady chamber,
were sprayed with DDT dissolved in a light, volatile, highly refined
oil of the kerosene type at the rate of 75 cc. per 1,000 cubic feet.
Results were as follows:
Moribund Mortality Eggs
after 24 after 3 deposited
Insecticide in oil spray hours days in 3 days
Percent Percent Number
DDT, 3 percent 90 94 1298
DDT, 5 percent 98 100 1039
Pyrethrum extract, 0.2 percent
total pyrethrins 95 96 1202
None, unsprayed 4 16 380
- 37 -
Moths '*- .ed for 3 days in wire-gause cages that had been sprayed
with 5 per c- .LDT in oil and allowed to air for 2 days were all killed,
and after J. ys' exposure (introduced 14 days after spraying) 20 percent
of the larvae were dead.--Tenhet (15i).
PFieri brassicae (L.), the cabbage white butterfly
Gesarol is used against this species on truck crops.--Kotte (103).
Pieris rpa (L.), the imported cabbage worm
In laboratory tests a 5-peroent DDT dust on collard leaves killed
all fourth instars within 2 days. The derris standard (4.8 percent
rotenone) gave the same results.--Swingle and Mayer (149).
In small-plot field tests with two applications of DDT-pyrophyllite
(1-10) on cabbage at the rate of 14 pounds per acre all larvae were
killed. The same was true for pyrethrum (0.3 percent pyrethrins) and
derris (0.6 percent rotenone) dusts.--Smith and Harrison (142).
Larvae one-third to nearly grown confined on cabbage plants in
insectary cages were dusted with 10 percent DDT-pyrophyllite and with
derris (0.75 percent rotenone). In 3 days the respective mortalities
were 90 and 100 percent.--Harrison (94).
SDiaphani alinata (Le), the melon worm
Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll), the piokleworm
In laboratory tests all dilutions of DDT dusts down to 0.6 percent
caused 90 to 100 percent mortality of fourth instars of melon worms on
pumpkin foll age, and 100 percent of pickleworms. Derris dust (0.96 per-
oent rotenone) killed only 56 percent of melon worms and 24 percent of
pickleworms in 2 days. An 8-100 DDT spray caused 100 percent mortality
of the piokleworm in 2 days and a 4-100 spray in 4 days. The respective
mortalities of the melon worm with an 8-100 spray were 65 and 100 percent.
Derris (4.8 percent rotenone) at 4 pounds per 100 gallons killed 100 per-
cent of piokleworms in 4 days, but only 77 percent of melon worms in 6
days at 8-100.--Swingle and Mayer (149).
Brergestis rimosalis (Guen.), the aross-striped cabbage worm
In laboratory tests a 3-percent DDT dust applied to collard leaves
killed all fourth instars within 2 days. The pyrethrum (1.2 percent
pyrethrins) standard gave similar results. At 4 pounds per 100 gallons
the 5-percent spray killed 90 and 100 percent of third instars in 2 and
4 days, respectively. Derris (4.8 percent rotenone) at 8 pounds per 100
gallons killed 3 and 100 percent in 2 and 4 days.--Swinrple and Y'ayer (149).
- 38 -
Larvae, one-third to nearly grown, confined on cabbage plants in
cages in an insectary were dusted with 10-percent DDT-pyrophyllite. In
3 days the mortality was 100 percent, while for derris (0.75 percent
rotenone) the mortality was only 80 percent.--Harrison (94).
Pyrausta nubilalis (Hbn.), the Buropean corn borer
In laboratory and field tests DDT was the only one of many mate-
rials tested that held promise of becoming a satisfactory substitute for
ground derris or cube, because of its relatively high reduction of borers
in both corn ears and plants without injury to the corn. A proprietary
i-oduct containing 5 percent of DDT applied as a spray at the rate of 4
pounds per 100 gallons killed all the borers.--Questel (128).
In small plots at Toledo, Ohio, a powder containing 5 percent of
DDT used as a spray at the rRte of 6 pounds per 100 gallons reduced the
borers in the plants 91e9 percent and in the ears 96.1 percent.*-Questel
Protoparc'e sexta (Johani.), the tobacco hornworm
Second and third instars on tobacco plants in cages were dusted.
Complete mortality of 70 larvae was obtained in 48 hours with a 3-per-
:ent DDT dust applied at the rate of 15 to 20 pounds per acre, and all
of 50 larvae treated with lead arsenate were dead in 48 hours. The
larvae consumed very little of the foliage dusted with DDT.--Chanmberlin
Clothes moths (unidentified species)
A milky emulsion suitable for use as a spray for the destruction of
moths is made by dissolving 15 parts of DDT in a warm mixture of 30 parts
:f toluene and 15 parts of methyl hexaline [methyl cyclohexanol], adding
;t; parts of sulfonated castor oil and 4 parts of ammonia, stirring well
for some time, and diluting the resulting clear solution with 50 to 100
times its quantity of water.*-Geigy (80).
Pumice stone, charcoal, kieselguhr, or other natural or artificial
porous mass is steeped with a solution of 10 parts of DDT in 20 parts of
-enzene and dried under reduced pressure. The product is suitable for
use as a moth-repelling end a moth-destroying agent.--Geigy (81).
Moths are destroyed witnin a very short time by a spray of DDT in
alcohol, petroleum, or similar solvent or in an aqueous emulsion. DDT
0can be used for the preparation of solid mothproofing agents, such as
moth balls, and in combination with compounds already employed for the
same purpose.--Muller (117).
- ?9 -
DDT was originally developed in Switzerland as a moth repellent for
clothing (11ii, 15, 20, 21, 44, 72) and its effectiveness as a mothproofing
agent has been reported in the Uni'e-i States (55, 154).
Arohips fumiferana (Clem.), spruce budworm
"I think there are possibilities with the use of DDT for budworm."--
Gesarol spray worlos well and rapidly against budworms and web-
Apis mellifera L., the honeybee
In Switzerland 10 bees taken from the combs at the back of the hive
were placed in small closed capes and fed a spray mixture containing 10
percent of sugar, 2 percent of honey, and 1 percent of Gesarol on pads
of cotton. The bees would not eat the usual spray mixture containing 1
percent of Gesarol, but they readily accepted this sweetened mixture.
These trials were repeated three times, and in order to keep the bees
as lively as possible the ca-es were kept at 28 0C. Not one of the bees
fed Gesarol or the control bees died within 10 days, but all the bees
fed a 0.5-percent lead arsenate solution were dead within 3 days and
all fed 1-percent lead arsenate died within 2 dpys.--WYlesmann (163, 164).
In order to test the effect of Gesarol spray deposits as R contact
poison on bees, an old comb was thnrourhly snrarvnd with a 1-percent mix-
ture. When the spray had dried, the comb was put in a one-frame ob-
servation hive and 50 bees were introduced. Within 6 days 4 bees in
this hive died while 5 died in the control hive. Therefore, the dried
Gesarol deposits did not harm the bees that crossed the treated comb
hundreds of times. These results indicate that the spray deposits on
fruit trees would not be injurious to bees. To determine whether a
direct wetting of the bees with a spray of Gesarol would poison them,
20 bees were sprayed with a 1-percent mixture. The insects were com-
pletely paralyzed in 1 hour and dead in 4 hours. To test the effect
of Gesarol dust, a comb was dusted and then put in the one-frame ob-
servation hive. Within 4 hours all 50 bees were dead.--Wiesmann (164).
The bee experiment in rearing frames proves unequivocally that dried
residues of resarol sprays are unobjectionable to bees coming in contact
with them. Therefore, a preblossom sprn.,ing of fruit trees with GesArol
is harmless to the bees visiting the blossoms. Bees are killed by direct
wetting with a Gesarol spray.--Wiesmann (165).
- 40 -
Three days after the application of DDT-pyrophyllite dust (1-10) to
cabbage plants at the rate of 18 pounds per acre, 1 dead honeybee was
observed.--Smith and Harrison (142).
DDT (0.05 percent) in dilute honey and in queen-cage candy was fed
to caged honeybees, at least 20 young bees per cage. In 6 such trials
the majority of the bees were dead within 17 to 42 hours, whereas few
or no bees in the 6 control cages were dead. Both drones and worker bees
were affected. Several hours after taking candy or sirup containing DDT
the bees became agitated, and later died. No contact-poisoning effect
was demonstrated when bees were kept in cages previously sprayed with
0.05 percent DDT or when the bees were sprayed directly. However, when
1 or 2 percent DDT spray was used,within 6 hours most of the bees were
dead and the rest were poisoned. Therefore, DDT is a stomach poison for
honeybees at 0.05 percent concentration, and at 1 percent it also acts
as a contact poison.--Holst (97).
DDT kills bees as readily as it does other insects (55). The Swiss
work with Gesarol against bees is mentioned (a).
Formica sp., an ant
DDT applied in relatively low concentrations in an artificial cham-
ber was toxic to ants. They had considerable difficulty in walking with-
in a few minutes after coming in contact with the residue of the 5 percent
DDT-aoetone solution and died several hours later. The 5 percent mixture,
when applied as a dust, acted a little more slowly, and the 1 percent
solution in acetone still more slowly, but both were effective.--St.
Iridomyrmex humilis Mayr, the Argentine ant
A thin line of DDT was placed across an ant trail in a greenhouse,
but the ants did not detour to avoid crossing it. They apparently suf-
fered no ill effects from contact with it. Several puffs of undiluted
DDT dust were blown into a nest of ants. For 9 days thereafter no ants
were observed; therefore, they either abandoned the nest or all were
DDT appears to be effective against ants (72).
Hoplocampa flava (L.), the plum fruit sawfly
Hoplocampa minuta (Christ.), continental plum sawfly
- 41 -
The southern sides of six plum trees in Switzerland were sprayed
with a mixture containing 1 percent each of Gesarol and lime-sulfur,
while the northern sides of these trees were left unsprayed as controls.
The infestation was reduced in the worst case to one-third and in the
beat case to one-tenth; the first was considered acceptable and the
second, good.-Wiesmann (169).
Hploap testudinea (Klug), apple sawfly
rteronsde ribesii (Soop.e), imported currant worm, gooseberry sawfly
Gesarol was effective against these species.--Kotte (103).
Hylemya antiqua (Meig.), onion maggot
U-.... brassioae (Bouohi), cabbage maggot
Gesapon [DDT and ma emulsifying agent] has produced appreciable
results against these larvae.--Kotte (103).
Mosquitoes. Nontechnical references
DDT offers wide potential use in mosquito control (7, 15, 18, 20,
32, 37, 45, 56, 114, 123S, lZ6, 10). and particularly as a MrvToide
TU1.79,.Ti5, 2T7ls7 -
Contarinia torguais Meij.
Gesarol is used against this fly on truck oropse-Kotte (103).
Musoa domestioa L., the housefly
DDT "reacts surely against flies by spraying 5 com. of an alcoholic
solution of 5 percent strength per cubic meter of room." The flies are
killed within 2 hours, and after 10-15 minutes nearly all flies are so
paralyzed that they can no longer fly.--Muller (117).
In Switzerland houseflies were confined for various periods in Petri
dishes that had been sprayed with a 1-percent prepprstion of Gesarol and
allowed to dry. Contact with the dry spray deposits for only 30 seconds
within 35 hours of the treatment was fatal to the flies. A 60-niinute
contact caused paralysis in 10 minutes mnd killed them within 3 to 4
hours. The longer the exposure the sooner severe convulsions took place,
followed by a quicker death. The dried Gesarol deposits upon the glass
- 42 -
retained their potency for at least 3 months. Since flies have sense
organs in their tarsi, these organs were probably first affected, then
paralysis of the legs resulted, followed by rapid injury to the nervous
system, and finally death.--Wiesmann (167, 168, 170).
When sprayed on surfaces in suitable solvents, DDT remains as a
nearly invisible deposit after the liquid has volatilized, and acts as
a contact insecticide. When applied in unpainted wooden cages at the
rate of 25 mg. of DDT per square foot, DDT in dibutyl phthalate was less
effective than in ethylene dichloride or kerosene. Of all the solvents
tested, kerosene appeared to be the most desirable for the immediate use
of the armed services. In cages sprayed with 5 percent of DDT in kero-
sene the time required for complete knock-down ranged from 15 minutes
for flies introduced after 15 days to 300 minutes for flies exposed
after 93 days. These cages were still effective on the 265th day after
spraying. There were differences in knock-down by DDT on different
surfaces and at different temperatures. Flies have been knocked down
and killed by dosages as low as 0.25 mg. per square foot. The walls
and ceilings of the milk barn end feed room of several dairies were
sprayed once with 5 percent DDT in kerosene. The immediate reduction
of flies was approximately 95 percent, and for several months the
population continued to be much lower than in untreated barns.--
Lindquist, Madden, Wilson, and Jones (107).
Experiments were conducted to ascertain how long DDT can be depended
on to prevent an accumulation of houseflies. Small cages sprayed inside
with 2 percent of DDT in kerosene or a 1 percent suspension in water
killed all the flies put into them for nearly 5 months. Large cages
sprayed inside with a 1 percent suspension of DDT in water knocked down
all the flies put into them in 60 to 120 minutes over a period of 4 months,
and none recovered. A small dairy barn was treated inside with 1 percent
each of DDT and pyrophyllite and 0.5 percent of sodium lauryl sulfate in
water. Flies were released in this room a week later and at irregular
intervals for 3 months. The first releases required 75 minutes for com-
plete knock-down, whereas the last release required 120 minutes. All
the flies succumbed. The residue on the walls retained its toxicity for
103 days. A large dairy barn, heavily infested with flies, was sprayed
with the 1 percent aqueous suspension of DDT and 38 observations were
made from June 29 to October 8. The maximum number of flies at any one
time was 56, the minimum 0, and the average for the entire period was
10.8. In 9 other barns treated with DDT the infestations were completely
destroyed and no considerable numbers of flies accumulated after the
treatments.-Van Leeuwen (157).
Effective control of housefly breeding can be obtained in manure,
when it is thoroughly treated (0.6 gallon per oublc foot) with DDT-water
emulsions in concentration as low as 0.1 percent.--Simmons and Wright
In laboratory tests by the spray-tunnel method a spray containing
0.26 gm. of rotenone per liter of deodorized kerosene left the same per-
centage of flies active at the end of 6 hours as a spray containing 1
- 43 -
p.o of DDT, and 1 gm. of rotenone was about as effective as 2.5 gnm. of
DDT. Therefore, rotenone is 2.5 to 4 times as effective as DDT against
flies when applied by this method. The rotenone was in the form of an
extract containing 5.04 gu. of rotenone per 100 ml. plus other extrac-
Tests by the turntable method showed that DDT at concentrations
above 0.2 percent (w./v.) in deodorized kerosene caused a pronounced
knock-down of houseflies in 10 minutes but at lower concentrations the
knock-down was negligible. The toxicity of DDT increased much more
rapidly with increase in concentration than did that of the pyrethrins.
Consequently, below 0.7 mg. per milliliter, at which concentration the
two materials had the same toxicity to these houseflies, the pyrethrins
were more toxic, and above this concentration DDT was more toxic. When
the results were plotted on log-probability paper, it was found that the
concentration required to give 50 percent mortality was 1.65 ag. per
milliliter for pyrethrins and 0.95 mg. for DDT. In tests by the Peet-
Grady method when 12 ml. were used per test, 0.2 percent of DDT in
deodorized kerosene, combined with 0.03 percent of pyrethrins, 1 per-
cenat of fenchyl thiocyanoacetate, or 1.5 percent of commercial beta-
butoxy-beta'-thiooyanodiethyl ether, knocked down and killed all the
flies. DDT alone in deodorized kerosene caused less than 50 percent
knock-down in 10 minutes when 0.5 percent or less was used) at 1 end
2 percent of DDT much higher knockdown was obtained, but even at 2 per-
cent all the insects were not knocked down in 10 minutes.--Gersdorff and
Samples of housefly breeding media (23 gm. each) were treated with
DDT and infested with third-instar houseflies. The cultures were then
held until the adults emerged. In samples treated with 60 and 50 mg. of
DDT 88 and 77 percent of the larvae died, as compared with 92 percent
when 60 mg. of borax was added to similar culture. Thiourea is much
more toxic, for only 7.5 mg. added to each 23 gm. of media caused 92
percent mortality.-McGovran, Richardson, and Piquett (110).
DDT is highly effective against flies (7, 15, 20, 26, 46, 75, 89,
115, 118, 123, 150, 152, 154), and surfaces Tsprayed witT'-it remi-rn Toxio
TOW siveraTion 113 (T,7 l'7718, 20, 29, 32, 33, 40, 41, 4 55 56, 59, 63,
702 72, 121. 129, 4 -- -1
Siphon irritans (L.), the horn fly
Tests were conducted with DDT in aerosols and emulsions for the con-
trol of horn flies on beef cattle undur ranch conditions. Tests with
aerosols containing 5 percent of DDT, 10 percent of sesame oil (or aoe-
tophenone), 20 percent of Freon 113 (triohlorotrifluoroethane), and 65
percent of methyl chloride indicate that satisfactory control may be
obtained for 2 weeks by a single spraying. Equally satisfactory con-
trol was obtained when DDT in emulsions was applied to range cattle
with a power sprayer at 300 pounds' pressure. In one operation 90
- 44 -
cattle were sprayed all over with one nozzle in 1 hour. The best emul-
sion formula contained DDT 100 gmn., benzene 140 ml., dibutyl phthalate
140 ml., and Triton NE 12 gmn. Water was added to make 1 liter. The
emulsions were found to stand indefinitely and to mix readily with
DDT is highly effective for killing horn flies (59, 72, 154).
Stom calcitrans (L.), the stablefly, the dog fly
Tests were made in Switzerland in which stableflies were ostfined
in Petri dishes that had been sprayed with Gesarol. Contact with the
dry spray deposit for 60 minutes was fatal to them within 4 hours and
a 30-minute contact was fatal in 35 hours. A small horse stable and a
cow barn with 10 cows and 2 heifers were sprayed with a 1 percent Gesarol
[about 0.4 pound DDT per 100 U. S. gallons] preparation at the rate of
1 liter per square meter of surface. The flies dropped at once from the
ceiling and landed in a paralyzed state on the floor, where.they soon
succumbed. The cow barn soon became free from flies and remained prac-
tically free for 36 days. It was concluded that spraying the stables
early in June and again at the beginning of August will eliminate flies
for the whole sunmer.--Wiesmann (166, 167, 168).
Three applications, 10 to 12 days apart, were made to each of two
screened horse barns with DT)T in white kerosene (2 gm. to 100 ml.).
The spray was applied as a mist with a small knapsack sprayer. Ap-
proximately 8 gallons 6f material was applied to 2,000 square feet of
wall surface, which was enough to wet it without run-off. Previous
to this treatment the 44 horses were held inside during bad fly out-
breaks and a commercial fly spray was used. After the DDT applications
no further sprays were necessary to protect the horses,. although the
spraying did not apparently reduce the number of flies outside the
barns. In another barn a single window screen was sprayed with DDT in
kerosene (5 gm. per 100 ml.). At the end of 13 days this window was
still killing flies. At another barn 100 percent kill was obtained for
12 dayb in eight unoccupied stalls sprayed with 2 gmn. of DDT per 100 ml.
of kerosene. Sprays containing DDT in various solvents applied to hor-
ses in 4-ounce doses, twice daily for as many as 35 applications, gave
a 100 percent knockdown end kill of flies alighting on the animals.
No repellent effect was obtained with DDT. The most efficient repel-
lent combination used was DDT in Indalone at 2 gmn. per 100 ml. When
used as a spray on horses this solution gave 100 percent kill, I hour
of complete protection, from 2 to 4 hours of satisfactory partial pro-
tection, and a residual deposit on the animal that remained toxic for
a few days.--Blakeslee (66).
Effective control of the stablefly breeding in peanut litter was
obtained when it was thoroughly treated with a DDT-water emulsion in
concentrations as low as 0.26 percent of DDT. The emulsion was made
by diluting a stock formula containing 10 gm. of DDT, 12.5 ml. of
- 45 -
benzene, 2.5 ml. of B-1956 emulsifier, and 75 ml. of water.--Simnons
and Wright (140).
DDT, especially if a wetting agent is added to the spray, is very
effective in the control of flies in stables.--Kotte (103).
Otites fulmninans (Meig.)
Pails rosae (F.), the carrot rust fly
Gesapon roontains DDT and an emulsifying sent] has shown appreci-
able results against the larvae of these two species.--Kotte (103).
Three days after the application of DDT-pyrophyllite dust (1-10)
to cabbage plants at the rate of 18 pounds per acre, 1 live syrphid fly
larva was observed which was active and apparently unaffected.--Smith
and Harrison (142).
Anastrepha ludenes (Loew), the Mexican fruitfly
DDT at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 pounds per 100 gallons
was tested against adult flies confined in cages. These solutions were
made by dissolving the DDT in 20 ml. of acetone and diluting to 200 ml.
by the addition of a solution containing 20 pounds of sugar and 1 pound
of dried Chinese egg albumen in 100 gallons of water. The toxicity was
very erratic. All the flies died upon exposure to 2 and 4 pounds, but
some of the flies survived when exposed to the other concentrations.
Two pounds of tartar emetic was considerably more toxic than any of
these concentrations of DDT tested.--Plummer (126).
Rhagoletis cernasi (L.), the European cherry fruitfly
The tops and bottoms of Petri dishes were sprAyed with 1 percent
Gesarol and allowed to dry, and then flies were put in the dishes. To
effect was observed within 2 hours, but the flies were completely para-
lyzed after 6 hours and dead within 9 to 20 hours. Branches of cherry
trees in cages were sprayed with 1 percent Jesarol and allowed to dry.
After several days flies were introduced, and within several hours they
were paralyzed, fell to the bottom, and usually were inactive after 24
hours. In field experiments the spraying of six cherry trees with 1
percent Gesarol proved to be ineffective, but when a secluded group of
- 46 -
trees was thoroughly sprayed with 1 percent Gesarol by use of a strong
motor sprayer, good spray deposits were had and the flies were suc-
cessfully controlled. The spraying should not be done until 8 to 10
days after the flies begin to fly.--Wiesmann (170).
Echidnophaga gallinacea (Westw.), the sticktight flea
Ctenooephalides eanis (Ourt.), the dog flea
Ctenooephalides feli (Bouoh6), the oat flea
Powders containing DDT diluted to 4 or 5 percent with pyrophyllite
were dusted lightly over 11 dogs, about 10 gm. being used to treat a
medium-sized dog. The dog and oat fleas began to leave the host within
10 to 15 minutes some of them died on the dogs, but most of them died
on the pound within 3 to 6 hours. The sticktight fleas died on the
host* Dogs treated with DDT were completely freed of fleas and pro-
tected from reinfestation for 4 to 7 days, while dogs treated with der-
risa powder (4.8 percent rotenone) were protected for only 2 days* None
of the animals showed any ill effects from the treatment.--Lindquist,
Madden, and Knipling (108)
DDT kills fleas (15, 20, 141, 150, 152).
Ornithodoros megnin Duges, the spinose ear tick
A nondrying adhesive containing 5 percent of DDT was applied to the
inside of the ears of 113 cattle, with no observed injury to the animals.
The material gave a high kill of the ticks present at the time of treat-
ment and afforded some protection from reinfestation.--Rude and Smith (130).
Eriophyee sheldoni Bwing, the citrus bud mite
Spray of DDT have given encouraging results in laboratory tests.-
Amblyoa americanum (L.), the lone star tick
Preliminary observations indicated that DDT might be effective against
ticks on vegetation. Benzene, pine oil, and xylene were each combined with
four emulsifiers, and each combination was tested with three strengths
of DDT--02, 0.1, and 0.05 percent. Adult ticks were dipped in each
lzbotre. In each instance the survival after 6 days was lowest (3 per-
cent) when pine oil was used as the solvent and Areukap 50 as the emul-
sifier, although pine oil and B-1956 gave almost equally good results
(s5 percent survival).-Smith and Gouck (143).
An emulsion containing 5 percent of DDT and B-1956 applied as a
wash controlled larvae of this tick on a heavily infested short-haired
dog* No live ticks were found at any time, and all were dislodged by
the seventhdaj after treatment. A spray containing 20 percent of DDT
in beasyl benasoate applied to a collie was unsatisfactory. The dogs
showed no ill effects from the treatment.--Gouck and Smith (90).
Amblyomma maculatum Koch, the Gulf Coast tick
DDT' incorporated into a nondrying adhesive was applied to the ears
of 303 range cattle, with no apparent injury to the animals. When a
2-percent DDT mixture was used, about 10 percent of the normal number
of adult ticks attached to the ears, but when a 5-percent DDT mixture
was used, few adult ticks were able to attach for engorgement. The 5-
percent material gave a highly satisfactory kill of the ticks present
at the time of treatment and afforded a Mgh degree of protection from
reinfestation for S weeks. This is approximately three times as long
as the protection period afforded by any of the remedies now being used
by the ranohmaen-Rude and Smith (130).
Ixode. rioinuus mZlaris Say, the black-legged tick
Bensene, pine oil, and xylene were each combined with four eul-
sifiers and each combination was tested with two strengths of DDT-
0*02 eand 0.01 percent. Adult ticks were dipped in each mixture. In
each instanee the survival after 6 days was lowest (0 percent) when
4ne oil was used as the solvent and Areskap 60 the emulsifier, al-
though pi*ae oil and B-1966 gave almost equally good results (S per-
oenty.4-Smith and Gouck (145).
Rhiploephalus sanguineu, (Latr.), the brown dog tick
mulsions containing 6 percent of DDT applied as washes gave satis-
factory control of this tiik. The emulsions were prepared by dissolving
5 parts of DDT in 64 parts of bensene, adding 1J parts of an emulsifier
(B-1956), and pouring this slowly into 87J parts of rapidly stirred
water. At the end of 10 days all the ticks on a heavily infested hound
were dead. A month later the same emulsion killed all the ticks on a
wire-haired terrier within 3 days. An emulion containing 5 percent of
DDT with Dreft as the emulsifier killed all the ticks on two short-
haired dogs in 3 days. The same was true with a long-haired dog treAted
with a 6-pernent DDT emulsion containing Vatsol OS. A heavily infested
long-haired dog was washed in an emulsion containing 2 percent of DDT
with B-1966 and Areskap. At the end of 6 days all ticks were dead ex-
cept 14 engorged females (abeut 6 percent of the total). A cooker
- 48 -
spaniel infested with thousands of ticks was dusted with 10 percent of
DDT in pyrophyllite. At the end of 10 days many female ticks were still
alive.-Gouck and Smith (90).
Nontechnical references on ticks
DDT is highly effective against ticks infesting animals.(59), and
gives some protection to man (141).
Paratetranychus pilosus (C. and F.), the European red mite
In July this mite was more abundant on apple trees sprayed with DDT
than on unsprayed trees or on those to which other treatments for the
codling moth had been applied. On August 24 the lady beetle Stethorus
punotum (Lec.), was absent from DDT plots, but later this predator moved
in and checked the threat of a severe mite outbreak.*-Steiner, Arnold,
and Summerland (147).
The application of DDT in the apple orchard has resulted in the
increase of the European mite (59).
Tetranyohus spp., common red spiders
An aerosol mixture containing 2 percent of DDT in methyl chloride
and applied at the rate of 34 gm. in a 16-cubic-foot fumigation chamber
killed only 6 percent of the red spiders on bean plants and 20 percent
on radish leaves within 48 hours. In another test in which 4 percent
of orthodichlorobenzene plus 2 percent of DDT in methyl chloride was
used, 67 percent of the red spiders were killed, but the eggs were un-
affected. A spray containing 4 pounds of 5-percent DDT per 100 gallons
of water killed only 3IS percent within 48 hours, and a S-percent DDT
dust killed only 12 percent of the spiders*--Weigel (159).
The DDT sprays applied to apple trees apparently did not affect
the red spiders. At harvest large populations were found on the fruit
and under bark on all trees sprayed with DDT, while this pest was dif-
ficult to find on all the other trees.--Steiner, Arnold, and Sunmerland
Acarisous masoni Ewing, a chigger
Eutrombicula alfreddugesi (Oud.), the chigger
Both species are pests of man. In tests against the second species
in Georgia, plots 10 feet square were marked off about the bases of in-
fested trees. In tests against the first species in South Carolina, the
plots were 10 by 20 feet and rarely included trees. The materials that
gave the best control for Acariscus masoni were sulfur, dinitro-o-
cresol, and 2 percent of DDT in pyrophyllite. On the first day after dusting
with sulfur, chigger abundance was only 9 to 17 percent of the original
infestation, and it continued to decline thereafter. In two or three
tests all chiggers were eradicated in 8 days. Applications of 5-percent
dinitro-o-cresol and 2-percent DDT were followed by complete absence of
chiggers for 2 days, after which a few reappeared. Similar results were
obtained against E. alfreddugesi.--Smith and Gouck (144).
The effectiveness of DDT against chiggers is mentioned (141, 150).
(List of publications is issued separately.)
- so50 -
INDEX OF COMMON AND SCIENTIFIC NAMES OF INSECTS
Acariscus masoni, 48-49
Acrolepia assectella, 31
Agrilus sp*, 23
Alabama argillacea, 34
Alalf- a hopper, three- cornered, 17
Alsophila pometaria, 30-31
Anasa tristis, 19
Anastrepha ludens, 45
Ant (s), 40
Ar entine, 40
po morum, 26
Ant carsia geminmatilis, 34
Aonidiella aurantii, 17
Aphid (s), 16T
See also specific kind.
pruni (= prumifoliae), 15
Ai mellifera, 39-40
blossom weevil, 26
Arohips fumiferana, 39
Armyiorm., southern, 35
Asparagus beetle, 24
Barathra brassicae, 34
Bark beetle, fruit-tree, 29-30
beetle, Mexican, 25-26
leaf roller, 31
Bedbur (s), 18-19
Beetle. See specific kind
Blattella fermanice, 10-12
Blister beetle, 28
Blitophaga sp., 30
Boll weevil, 26
Bombyx mori, 30
Bovicola caprae, 13-14
Bruchus pisorum, 23
Bud moth., eye-spotted,
urbanus (= fumatus),
white butterfly, 37
Callosobruchus mamcultus, 23
Camnula pel1Iucid, 10
E-erworm, fall, 30-31
Carpocapsa pomonella, 32-33
Carrot rust fly, 45
Cassida spp., 24
t fITea, 46
Cattle louse, short-nosed, 20-21
Cheimatobia brumata, 31
Cherry fruitfly, ropean, 45-46
Cig-r-ete beetle, 22
bud mite, 46
Clothes moths, 38-59
Cockroach (es), 13
Codlig moth, 32-33
Colorado potato beetle, 24-25
Contarinia torquens, 41
borer, European, 38
- 61 -
bug, brown, 20
Cowpea weevil, 23
Creontiades femoralis, 19
Crioceris asparagi, 24
CurraeNt worm, imported, 41
D lamndbaok Boh, l-3 2
Diatraea saooharalis, 30
tick, brown, 47-48
tohidnopha a gallinaeea, 46
t asea fabae, 16-17
Sphoti 0lutella, 36-37
E acbna varivestis, 26-26
E~euta lemnieoata, 2
Wlophyes sheldoni, 46
Wi~rvs m5oths, 91
Nemwa oleraoeum, 20
lbaohiausts iipotve tries 20
l- roembiewl alfreddou ii 48-49
IW*rzTgt Ts W rfmos W 7 8
?I*a beetles, 25
See also speilflo kinds
Flea hopper, 19
Flour beetle, red, 30
Fonrmica sp. 40
Frokniella fusea, 14
See under specific kind.
Fruit moth, oriental, 33
Fruit-tree bark beetle, 29
Fruit-tree borer, 23
Gladiolus thrips, 14
Gooseberry sawfly, 41
Graft weevil, 27
Grain borer, lesser, 23
lesser migratory, 10
Greenhouse thrips, 14
Haematopinus eurysternus, 20-21
HaltiTus braoeatus, '19
Hrlequin ug 20
Heliothis armigera, 34-35
Xeliothrips haemorrhoidalis, 14
Hop aphid, 16
mr--u a. 69-41
Horn fly -44
Hornwori, tobacco, 38
Horse biting-louse, 14
I-ridomyroxi huailiss, 40
TIxodes ricinus soapularis, 47
3ap;209 e beetle 219e
Lady beetle, 26
Lasioderma serricorne, 22
- 52 -
Leafhopper. See under host.
Leptinotarsa decemlineata, 24-25
Linognathus stenopsis, 21
Listroderes obliquus, 27
See also under host.
Maorosiphum Lidsi, 15
Maggot. See under specific kind.
May beetle, 28-29
Mealybug, citrus, 17
mexleoanus mexioanus, 10
Meligetes brassioae, 28
Melolont"a ulgaris, 28-29
Melon worm, 37
Mexican bean beetle, 25-26
Mexican fruitfly, 45
Mite. See under specific kind.
Murgantia histrionics, 20
Musca domestics, 41-43
-yzus persicae, 16
Nezara viridule, 20
Oriental fruit moth, 33
Ornithodoros megnini, 46
Otites fulminans, 45
Pantomorus leucoloma, 27
Paratetranychus pilosus, 48
Peach aphid, green, 16
Sumfanus corporis, 21
humanus humenus, 21
Peregrnnus maidis, 17
Periplaneta americana, 12-13
Phalonia ambiguella, 36
Phorodon humuli, 16
Phthirus pubis, 21
Phyllobius bonus, 27
Phyllopertha horticola, 29
Plant bug, tarnished, 19
fruit sawfly, 40-41
sawfly, continental, 40-41
tortricid moth, 33
Plutella maoulipennis, 31-32
Po pillia japonica, 29
beetle, Colorado, 24--25
flea beetle, 24
Prodania eridania, 35
Protoparce sexta, 38
Prune aphid, 15T
Pseudococcus oitri, 17
Psendoplusia rotationis, 35
Psila rosae, 45
Pteronidea ribesii, 41
Pyrausta nubilalis, 38
blossom, weevil, 26-27
Red flour beetle, 30
Red mite, European, 48
Red scale, California, 17
Red spiders., 48
Rhagoletis cerasi, 45-46
Ripioephalus sanguineus, 47-48
Rhizotrogus solsttijlist 29
Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae, 16
Rhizopertha dominica, 23
Rice weevil, 27
Sawfly. See specific kind.
Scirtothrips citri, 14
Scoly s pruni, 1
Siph, flava, 16
- 53 -
Siphona irritans, 43-44
Sitophilus oryze, 27
Spiders, red, 48
Spilonota ocellana, 34
Spinose *ear tie, 46
Spireo aphid, 15
Spruce budworm, 39
Squash bug, 19
Stietocophala festina, 17
southern green, 20
Stonoxy oaloitrani, 44-45
aphid, yellow, 16
Syrphid flies, 45
Taeniothrips simplex, 14
Tenebroides mauritanicus, 28
Termite V(), 13
Tetra"yohus app., 48
Thrips. See under specific kind.
Thrips tabaci, 15
brown dog, 47-48
Gulf coast, 47
lone star, 46-47
spinose ear, 46
flea beetle, 24
Tomato fruitworm, 34-35
Tortoise beetle, 24
Tortrioid moth, plum, 33
Tribolium castaneum, 30
Triohogluia ni, 36
Turi p aphid, 16
Urbanus proteus, 31
Vegetable weevil, 27
Velvetbean caterpillar, 34
Vine moth, European, 36
White-fringed beetle, 27
Winter moth, 31
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