Hydrocyanic acid gas as a fumigant for the Japanese beetle

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Material Information

Title:
Hydrocyanic acid gas as a fumigant for the Japanese beetle
Physical Description:
13 p. : ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Fleming, Walter E ( Walter Ernest ), 1899-
Burgess, Emory D ( Emory Dwight ), 1907-
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Hydrocyanic acid gas   ( lcsh )
Japanese beetle -- Control   ( lcsh )
Fumigants   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Walter E. Fleming and Emory D. Burgess.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
"October 1943 ; E-604."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030285555
oclc - 779491044
System ID:
AA00025082:00001

Full Text
LIBRARY
STATE PLANT BOARD


October 1943 -
"N,TITED S7.,'. ._ "'... OF 1,1. .. .
A;-ricultural .Research Administratiorn
Bureau of ,-.oriolom and Plant Q-,..rantine
1'T r .. IT T","'ra -7 7r!-, 71.-_' JAp -
H'lRPOY.7,IC ACID AS A F.:T.? TC. .. JA...:2 _::Lz

_.., '.Iter E. Flerin:. and Enory D. Burgess,
Division of Fruit insect Investi-ations 1


Contents


Introduction .............,............,.,......... 1-2
H 'crocyanic acid used .. ...... . . .... . .......... 2
Fu 'i^.tier eq i ".'"t * ... ... .... ...* *. 3
..inii.:.,. +. ,eratures and e xpoc.ie ,c r..e.'red for ciffer nt
amounts of h,''.-ocyanic acid to kill+ tl beetles ....... 5-7
Effectivene,:s in empty refri.- rator c ................ -10
Effectiverness in refrigerator cars loaded viith cold v'et
bananas .......... ...... ..... ... .*........... ..... .... 11-12
Summary and conclusions .....* o.......................... 13

Introduction

In 1935 Osburn and Li' -/ re orted. tlat the adult Japanese
beetle ("o:li, .oic "c.:-) cold be :killed in a refr:9 ,-rator
oar b' introducTi-. n ouncos of hydrocyanic acid and holdirn th !,'-
in the car for 2 hours at a 7-. .eb.re of 75, F.* >urirn t-e
s i'ru-i-r of 1.'37 it was found that this trvtY.ent vw, as ot --I ays
corr-letely effective, p, ,'ticularly wh. the r. ;re i the cnrc
was below 75, and the question 'vas raise b te v of
Japanese 'etler, Control how the tye.n t mi ght b odifie. to
make it ef'' active .



1/ ...rt tion oi C. L. 1 'o'b.'; ] ,.r:l ot 'i. of 0t



oooo
Di-.s.in of *l' ancse ", 1!. Control and 1' :'e .
S-.....rioa~ n id and Chetica! >oror0 fci .o, the : t Iro ":
Express Coopa' ', and 4the ;' .'t i\ atch Cor *;- i >]i: i i. :a-
tion is "" ,tly a' reciato ..'ri rs r !z vl ic to ac'. rio l'"-dA
th-' acstance of C. !.* Libl., f.'1 .., i' c
invest *.tion dur.r,. the su f 7 d 1...

J Osbuirn, .". K,, and Li :, J. Fii -ation of :" *s fruit
to destroy" thc ad ;lt Ja..' ;*e beetle. S, ep-.. h* C" r. '7 J,
2.,"', ., iilns. I.,.:"..






2 -


During 1937 and in 1938 an investigation was carried on at
_.oorestown, N. J., Wilmington, Del., and New York, N. Y., to establish
more definitely the relationship between the various factors and the
effectiveness of hydrocyanic acid against the adult beetle, and to
determine how the treatment might be modified under the different con-
ditions to obtain satisfactory results.

Hydrocyanic Acid Used

The hydrocyanic acid used in this investigation was of the
commercial grade, containing 98 to 98 percent of JHC-. In most of the
experiments sealed cans containing definite amounts of hydroc,,: n3c
acid absorbed in fiber discs were used, but in some experiments the
desired amount of liquid >y.yrocyanic acid Vwas measured before being
introduced into the refrigerator car.

The sealed cans used in the experiments at 1oorestown contained
exactly 2 ounces or 6 ounces of IHICIT. In the experiments at Y1i7mington,
in cooperation with the Division of Japanese Beetle Control, the
inspectors used cans containing slightly more than 6 ounces of 1'!' in
order to compensate for the losses that might occur in introducing
the material into the refrigerator cars. The fiber discs in the cans
were attached at their median points by means of a. cord so that a
chain of discs could be suspended. Tv'o chains, each with 5 or 6
discs, were in each 6-ounce can. The discs in the cans contaiui"gS 2
ounces were in one chain or were not attached to one another.

Fumigation Equipment

A 1,000-cubic-foot fumigation chamber at Toorestown, N. J.,
was used in the major study of the relation between the mortality of
the insect and the various factors. This chamber was lined with gal-
vanized iron with all joints soldered, and gaskets were on the door
and the ventilating window. The temperature of the chamber was raised
by means of a hot-water system, thermostatically controlled, but there
was no provision for cooling the chamber. It was necessary to conduct
all the experiments at or above the temperature prevailing outside.
Fans were provided for circulating the air in the chamber throughout
the experimental periods and for removing the gas at the completion of
a treatment. This chamber was not absolutely gas-tight but it was
believed to be at least as ti-ht as most chambers of its type. The
work ,was done when the *velocity of the wind vwas comparatively lov,
in order to min.nimize the factor of leakage.




- 3 -


The experiments in the refri -.rator cars were conducted vith
empty cars that were prepared for loadf'.i.- with fruit or ve~-tables
and with cars loaded with bananas. T..e averare volume of these cars,
including the load s,-.ce and-the ice Hurnlers, was about 2,4C(. ) cubic
feet. The average air soace in a car loadcV with bananas was
estimated to be about 1,600 cubic feet. A slat floor w'as laid in the
load space. Grills at the top and thie botto-. of thc partitions between
the load '..-'ce and the bunkers permitted air from the load space to
circulate through the burlcers.

Although every precaution was taken to try to make these c rs
gas-ti-ht--sealing the drains from the ice bun-kers an securin' the
hatches and doors firmly in place--the refri-erator cars were ler
gas-tight .-.n 1,he chamber. No chemical analyses have been made to
determine the leakage of gas tr.. the cars, but it was not uncommon
to find a very pronounced odor -of hydrocyanic acid in the vic of
.a. car co':1I ;.*s, particularly around tie doors and hatch s.

Minimum 'femperaturms and Exposures Required for Dif'erent
,-- ...' .ts of Hiycroc .d c +ci_ to Kill the Beectles

The experiments with- the 'alt J.panerse beetle were conducted
during a 6-vreek period in the su-mmer when thi stance was a undant in
the vicinity of Moorestow.n, H. J. 7s rioed is too short for ,x-
tensive experimentation, arnd the lack of refrK- ration in th chamber
made it i ,-ssible to obtain any information at t' ratur s below 70 F,
when the beetles were present. It was decided, therefore, to conduct
as many experiments as possible .ith the adults and then to c-nt .e
the experiments throughout th-- year, usi third instars as t-st insects

In the experiments with the adults in the .f nationn chamber,
the beetles were collected in the field from unspra'-} tree's and shrubs
before 7 a.m. of the day they were to be treated, divided into groups
of 200, an! placed in wire c,; es. Tlh ree es were use, i.n. each ex-
perinment. One c, '. was placed 4 inches 'ebove the floor, a:ot> r 5
feet albove the floor, and the third 9 feet above ie flor ... r the
ca^es wr in `1e c-haber, the circilai>" r cr oi rae e or i p.
least 1 ,"ur b :ore t e 's Y-.S ii.nt*d c. ... -: r "
a record v:oas nde of che tipercttre, nd one or ore c,-s of0 . n'ic
acia vere open0 u and the fiber discs 'ere .re. i cnl 'r rn a
pan on he lr, 8 feeto aay frn the nar sI o fans i e,
opera ed tlhrou hou%. the e(Xperi icn'al a eriod. 1 r 'cor- ..\. :, .v .--
t.-. : reture in t the c" r a i ras of 1 "1'
-:Cosure of th'e beetles to ';he s. At tix en.' o9 the
e:-i'or ;,*e the ?' *es wore removed .*:,n pla~c the betles were kept u fndr obs rvation uni thAir read irn : be
deter mined. A~S the moertality' of an'iarte heIle in ler te'Cs r'lZ
tions .a.. *.d fr-,. 0 to 25 rcent at Ie c o 24 our e: :,,e
increased rapidly thereaf te r, thei final obhervi.; furr tit
beetles wvre made 24 hours aft r their remr i th 'r
the co'riletion of a tr ati nt the chan r as arat fr a
hours before another eoeri fnt was II .




- 4 -


The experiments with. the third instar were conducted in prac-
tically the same manner. The larvae were removed from soil and placed
without soil in perforated metal cages, which were divided into 100
compartments to prevent the larvae from injuring one another. Three
cages with 300 larvae were used" in each experiment. After the treat-
ment was completed the larvae were removed from the cages and placed
for observation on the surface of moist sifted peat in cross-sectional
trays. As the natural mortality of the larvae under these conditions
was very low, it was possible to keep the fumigated individuals under
observation for a relatively long period--l to 2 weeles--until the effect
of the treatment could.be definitely established,

In conducting this investigation, 261 experiments, involving
118,500 fumigated insects and 10,000 unfumigated individuals, were per-
formed in the chamber. The adults were exposed for periods of 0.5 to
3 hours to concentrations of hydrocyanic acid ranging from 2 to 6
ounces per 1,000 cubic feet at temperatures of from 700 to 100' F.;
the larvae were exposed for these periods to treatments of from 2 to
10 ounces at' temperatures of from 45 to 100'. In these experiments
it was possible to maintain the temperature within 1 I1 during the
treatments, but it was not possible to perform the experiments at 'fixed
intervals between 45' and 100.

It was evident that there was a changing relationship between
the mortality and the temperature and exposure to a given concentrate on
of gas. The mortality varied with the joint effect of temperature and
exposure. The joint functional relation between the mortality and these
factors was determined according to the procedure outlined by Ezekiel ., ?
using the results obtained with 80,400 adults and 38,100 larvae. It
was found that the values obtained from the joint functional curves were
in very close agreement with the experimentally determined mortalities,
the standard error of estimate being about 1 percent. Tbithji. the range
of the experimental data, the most probable mortalities that wduld be
expected with the different concentrations of hydrocyanic acid and ex-
posures were determined at 5-degrce intervals for tem:peratures ranging
from 45' to 100 F, The results are surmrarized in tables 1. and 2.

iAs the joint functional values are based on the reactions of
several thousands of insects, each value in the tables may be considered
as being the most probable mortality of several thousand individuals,
It is believed that these values are more reliable and closer to the
true mortality than the results of an individual experiment with ;O0
or 600 individuals. It would be expected, however, that when the
tabula.r value of the treatment is 99 percentt there will be many cases
in which the treatment will kill all the insects.


3/ Ezekiel, 1. methodss of correlation analysis, 42.7 pp., illus.
John Wiley and Sons, :..V; York. 1930.




5 -

A careful study of the d-ata in table's 1 and 2 indicates that tLe
mortality curves for the adults and the larvae tend- to coincide as they
approach 100 percent. As no low mortalities were obtained at era-
tures above 70 F. in the identical treatments alied o h staes,
it is not possible to determine' hoe these carves wouldl d :0o'Dare at
lower levels of 'nort-ali"' 1owCver, since this close relationship
exists with mortalities approa". 10 rccnt in `.e oer a; ex-
periments at 70 and above, it seemed reasonable to expect that th!,e
same relationship would prevail at tem:-ratures below 70. It would
seem Dro'er under these conditions to assume that a treatment tha" "as
effective in 1illinic all the larvae at the lower tempenratures wo"l be
equally e[r:ctive a j'-_ir st the- adults. Based on the data ;iven 1 tables
1 and 2, the nimu ex..osure and tem -rature at which 4, 2, and 8
ounces of h. roc'a-.c acid would be expected to kill practically all the
beetles were determined. It would be expected that these treatment
would produce 100 percent mortality in many cases, but occasionally 1
percent of the beetles 'mig>t survive. mm,. inimux. require:,elnts for
these treatments are presented in table 3.

Table l.--::ortality of adult Jpanese beetles exposed to hydrocyanic acid
in a 1, "D-culbic-foot fumigation chamber, as dc.termi.ne.d
by the joint functior 1-l ro!c 7ion between mortality rnd the
t'.-.L:rature, and exposure

Ournc-s
of HC.
to 1,000 E:-osure Percent mortality -/ at indicated teper:ture in C F
cubic feet in hours .... ...

2 0.5 8.7 73. 7. 7.3 .,1 1 n,3 ..C 3.
1 9 2 '7.7 3.2 23 .6.0 .0
1. F7.7 7 .C 9).$ .... 1.'0
2 t','. .. 9j; 100.0 C O 1.".0 70. 100.0
3 10000. 100.0 !'0.0 100.0 10.0 00.0 1 '. l.0.

0.5 IV.2 Q8.3 98.9 <91 92 "2 2
1 99.6 ,.83 .9 100.0 1 .0 I." lc'.0
1.5 10.0 1' .0 Y .0 10.0 !i '.0 1,0.0 1 .0
2 10. 100.0 10':0 .0 1:).9 1 1 .0 l.o
3 1 1.0 '"'" .0 100.0 100.0 1090. 1C .30 00

6 0.5 1.:.0 10.,0 1. ).0 10 .0 1) .0 ) I 1.0 1 0.0
1 100.0 1 k.0 1:'.0 1, .* lC ., 100. 1 0.0

*/ Sta:ndar error vtith th: 2-oune tnot V.. 14- 2 2rWr '4:
with the 4-ounce trut*et it v'as 1.0 r- t










0 0
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- 7


Table 5.--T-he- niniurnm temperature and exposure
required for different concentrations
of hydrocyacnic acid to kill the n'uult
Japanc-se buotle


Ounces of
lieW; per
1,00
cubic
feet

2





4





6



B


Minimum
effective
exposure
in hours

1
1.5
2
3

0.5





0,5
1
1.5

1


Ylri.n
.-,1 i 1; T-.l
offoctive
tenpQraturc
in F.

95
20
75
65

85
35

45

70
55
45

45


.'h.: h.l.roc ..: .ic acid is us.d a4 the rate of 2 ounc0uzs to '.,O '
cubic feet, it appears that a minimuni teuperature of 75' F. is necessary
to kill all the adults viJ'h a 2-hour expo ure. At higher tmpera' the
period of exposure could be reduced to I.C hours at 80' acnd to 1 hour at
95'. '..rithiin a 3-hour exposure thio mli.:.m ffectlve tenperature for the
2-ounce treatmiLnt a,?,: rs to be -5.

If it is nrot practical to prolonS the priod of treafmt for more
than 2 hours in the -jcor'rci" tr'R, i '.d E nec str t o in-
crease th amount of hydrocyanic aci to / ou ces to I, D cubic fe in
order to destroy the beetle, at tc!p-a'.ur, c "' F It uld b
expected that a 2-hour x. ,-sure to the d-ounce tr at.-nt voul. be effo-
tive at a minimum tenperautre of 4",






Effectiveness in Empty Refrigerator Cars


During the summers of 1937 and 1938 experiments were conducted
in empty refrigerator cars at Moorestownvm, N. J., and Til!mington, Del.,
with 6 and 12 ounces of hydrocyanic acid per car to determine the
effectiveness of the treatments under commercial conditions. In the
experiments at Moorestown 11 cages, each containing approximately 200
beetles, were placed throughout the car--at the bottom of each ice
bunker, on the floor, 3 feet above the floor, and 6 feet above the floor
of the load space; at Wilmington 4 cages containing 50 beetles wvrere
placed on the floor between the loading doors. 'Then the cages were in
position, a record was made of the temperature in the car and the fumigant
was applied. In applying the fumigant 2 men worked together to expedite
the operation; one man raised and lowered the hatches of the bunkers,
the other handled the hydrocyanic acid. A chilled can of hydrocyanic aoid
was opened on the roof of the car near a hatch, and a string of fiber
discs impregnated with hydrocyanic acid was removed quickly and suspended
in the bunker. The can was covered immediately with a fiber cap provided
for the purpose, and the hatch was closed and secured in place. Then
the remaining string of discs was suspended in the other burnker at the
opposite end of the car. At the completion of the predetermined exposure,
the hatches were opened and the cages of beetles were reoi.oved from the car
and taken to the insectary at l-oorestovn for observation. fho effectiveness
of the treatments in 31 empty refrigerator cars is summarized in table 4.

It is evident that there was considerable variation in thie
effectiveness of the treatments in the different cars or applied at
different times in the same car. In some cases with the 6-ounce treatment
complete mortality was obtained at temperatures well below 75 F. or with
exposures of less than 2 hours, but the results appear to demonstrate that
practically complete destruction of the beetles can be expected consis-
tently with this treatment only when the average temperature is 75 or
above and the exposure is 2 hours.

The results obtained with the 6-ounce treatment for 3 hours were
no better than those with the 2-hour treatment. In fact, in the tests
of the 6-ounce treatment for 3 hours at 720 and 73' F. the rates of
mortality were abnormally low. It appears that the refriger-,ttor c'ars
are not sufficiently gastight to be used for prolonged exposures.

The data obtained with the 12 -ounce treatment were rather : er
but they seem to indicate that better results can be obt.Ained with this
treatment than with the 6-ounce treatment.




- 9 -


Table 4.--Effectiveness of hydroc.' :.ic acid against the adAlt
Japanese beetle in emty refrigerator cars


Ounces Avera-e
of fCIF Exposure temperature
per car in hours in '?_
6 0.5 80.0


Location of car
"Dorestovn, &:.J.*


beetles
in car
1 "75
2,l j

Percent
mortality
60.0


1






1.5




2


75.8
77.8
70,5
3 .5

88.5

73.5
70.0
81.0

40.0

52. 0
52.0
52.0
52.0
5 21 0


54.0
55.0
55.0
1500

56.0
57.0
57.0
53.0
53.0

50.0
5'_j. o

60.0
62.0
6S.0
6. *.0

67.0
70.0
7 *.0
71.0
71.0


:o crest otwn,

' restov.'T
!Iaoore;' term',
'.oorestov2n,


::oorest own,

1i;? io re 7 t ovn,

Vii* l ir .."to



". 'i l"1 lg! nr"1 ^
,rjllm : "'f,


! f" .. ..ton,


Vfi imi n' st -'or,,
*l F-o ,



""_]'"' t-^n
2 r' rJ"
U1f 1. wly ^4 ^^






,i3lr.i "K5 01
Y i 1. ^i i ''1 P to ri,


1. l r.-i * >1'*': Lon ,




Vrtllnf-or,
*.*lri ''-,o

V .i2i. -n'^ n
7in~tn

,. i 1 :1i 'or
v.".l"*i XLo^,


1.
.4.


STATE PLANT BOARD


*. J.

U.J.
i'I T





IT





Del.
el J.

DEl.




Dc, 1,.
Del.
Del.
}T"J


Del.
Del.
Decl.

Dcl.
Del.

Del.
Dcl.

Del..
Del.
De1.

Del.
Del.


Del.


Dnei.


2, 209
2,184
2,214
2,112
2,201


2,097
2,190

200
200


200


MD

2 0
200

20CD



2100
L2?
;"p. ',.




200
20C

200

r?
200
200


83.2
99.1
8 O. 2

99.1
97.5

100.0
96.1
99.9
)9. 9

81.0
; .0
85.5
9. .5
100.0

t00.0
100.0
30.0
7 :.0
100.0

09 '9

99 .0
19 0
1 .0



94.0
77.5






1 >.'
87.0
", ',?






- 10 -


Table 4 cont.

Ounces Average h .':er of
of HC1 Exposure temperature beetles Percent
per car in hours in F. Location of car in car mortality

6 2 72.0 WYilmiington, Del. 200 98.5
72.0 WiT ilmington, Del. 200 96.0
72.0 Wilmington, Del. 200 98.5
72.0 Wilmington, Del. 200 97.0
75.0 7Wilmingt o n, Del. 200 96.0
73.0 Y'fi Iirgton, Del. 200 98.5

74.5 Iioorestown, H.J. 2,200 100.0
75.0 MIoorestovmrn, N.J. 2,200 100.0
79.0 Mooresto=vm, N.J. 2,201 99.7
79.0 Ioorestovmn, N.J. 2,200 100.0
82.0 IMoorestovmn, N.J. 2,200 100.0

3 72.0 Mloorestown, N.J. 2,185 58.5
73.0 zoorestown, IT J. 1,100 88.8
75.5 llcorestorm, IT.J. 2,200 100.0
79.5 oorestovm, N.J. 2,200 100.0
84.0 Iloorestovn, N. J. 2,199 98.3

12 1 74,0 1'oorestovm., N.J. 2,200 100.0
80.0 Mloorestovm, N.J. 2,201 99.0

1.5 90.5 MIoorestom, i N.J. 2,005 99.9

2 83.0 "orestovn, .J 2,200 100.0
87.0 Moorestovm, \N.J. 2,200 100.0


At Moorestovmn, N. J., cans containing 6 ounces of HCIJ were opened
by the investigators and half of the charge was introduced into eat.ch
bunker. At Wilmington, Del., cans containing slightly more than 6 ounces
of HC[I,, to compensate fo'r loss during handling, were used by inspectors
of the Division of Japanese Beetle Control.

All tests at 1'.orestovm, N. J., were conducted in.] the same car. The
tests at M''i]-nin-ton were conducted in 30 different cars, only one treat-
ment being applied to a car.




- 11 -


Effectivene'ss in Refrigerator Cars Loaded I. ith Cold, 'et 2.nanas

Osburn and Lipp i/ found that an application of even 1.5 pounds
of '.:rdrocyanic acid in a refrigerator car de vit. 3 rce bananas
caused no injury to the fruit. Records show tha' co'er 100 crloads of
bananas in this condition have been fu"ia"ted under commercial. co: itions,
6 ounces beir.g used per car, without causing_ damae to the fruit, ;-.
situation was ouite different with refrigerated frxit, which quic
became covered with condensed at::-ospheric noist-re durin- ihe prccers of
transferring it from the refrigerate. rooms on the ship to t4 fr
Extensive injury V- s reported as resultin5 from the 6-ounce treatment
undcr these conditions. As the bananas normlly occupy "abot o-third
of the load space in a car, and the nature and the ckin-" of the fruit
are such that the difrusion of the as ot a li:iti fctor, it
appeared that if the amount of hdroc-,":ic acid coul ` reduced to 5
ounces Cper car the injry to the fr it ri rd be lar lyv rovented.

One hundred cares, each cont-imi* aroxiatey beetle, w re
distributed amonc the fruit duri-, ,h pr, rcss o'1 yoadn_ 20 ctr1 o.ith
vet, cold, .recr bananas at the pief in e 'ork, `7 . The t<.pcr.ature
of the air in the cars during t roc of lo-adin- cas .out F. S Lut
when the doors were closed it dropped rapidly to ab-r it 3"2. 1.ftbr the
doors were closed, 5 oiunces of h;' ro c.ric acid "dorc ir'troduc i into
.the ice bunkers of each car--2.5 ounces )r bun-r. The l i "
measured and poured through alo:.- tube into vaporizing 7P-ns- suspended
in the bunkers. At the end of 2 hours the hatches of the cais w:ore
.opened. The cages of beetles were rcoved im-medi:tely from 10 of the
.cars, but the remainder of the ca.s -re not r moved until 2 '.ours
later, after the cars had been transierred on floats from New York to
boehavwkecn, U1. J. The bcctl's were then tak:on to Koorcsto,'r., V. J., for
observation. Thri mortality obtained in the different cars is su marized
in table 5.


J Loc. ci4.






- 12 -


Table 5.--Effectiveness of hydrocyanic acid against the adult Japanese
beetle in refrigerator cars loaded with wet, green bananas
at New York, N. Y.

Period after
Ounces Average fumiigation when numberr of
of HC1! Exposure temperature beetles were beetles Percent
per car in hours in F. removed from car in car mortality
5 2 58 L-mediatIely 256 4. 5
58 243 55.6
60 251 68.1
s0 248 72.2
S62 249 74.7
62 256 80.5
62 247 34.6
62 256 85.6
64 246 85.8
64 251 88.4
Average 61.2 Total /2,5038 Ave. 74.2


Average


59
60
62
62
62
62
62
62
64
65
62.0


T-'ro hours after 250
opening the 245
ventilators 286
247
242
254
252
250
250
252
Total 2,526 Ave.


52.3
67.9
71.0
76.9
77.3
79.5
81.0
83.2
84.4
93.7
76.7


The mortality ranged from 46.5 to 93.7 percent. There was no
evidence that leaving the beetles for 2 hours in the cars after the
hatches were opened increased the effectiveness of the treatment. The
reports from the fruit company indicated that the damage with Ihe 5-
ounce treatment was just as extensive as with the 6-ounce treatment.

It seemed to be impossible to kill all the beetles in cars of wet,
cold, green bananas without causing serious injury to the fruit. The
use of hydrocyanic acid under these conditions is unsatisfactory.





- 15 -


Surnary and Conclusionr:

In 1937 and 1938 an investig-ation vrs made of hydroc"yanic Lcid
as a f' .-ligant for the Jr .'rese beetle (Popillia japonica 'z.aKr) to
establish more definitely the relation betv'en the mortality of the
insect and the concentration of the :as, the duratio- of the trt at+ent,
the temperature, diffusion, and ot'er factors, and to doterrine vi.at
treatments should' be applied. to r'-riz.errtor cars to assure the de-
struction' of the insect, The I- ... con-ducted witVh 1 -K, 500
insects in a l,00-ci.--.;-f : .- : ir. :r:nd re rie rator
cars at I:ooresto:. :. .n.;an Dl. nd .'- "orh, .. Y., vith
various corc tr1,tiokr cf [a : etr>oui..s up o 2 hour.. at t enratures
rau: 'i- front -5 to T)" ,

es leanaf, ab:o" *'* on, and '2 'sKon *-erc not ir.Dortant factors,
as in thle i'iation a'. ... r ts d .te "ch; '.t: ( lte2 de-
struction of t-her beetles_ ca... bC et: e',c'.'e' h.'rr c[ ;c s a the rate
of 2 ounces to i 30 cubic feet of r, it a' : -.'-r o<1 Iour at
'::, 1,5 1' ur at O0 .i-. 7[.. . us7d
at the rat. of 14 ouncs to 1,0 c'llo -t, '-*: r. c '* r
wvoulc'. be r..quired atC 85, ] :' a. ..ors
,mn -D 1 0, 1- "". J ?;r, U ] o r
at 45 F. .h,. 6-ounce tr at>,r. v .on 1 roirc *.5 u-.r r- 70 1 hour
at 55 I, arn 1. hors .t z', 3 -ounc 1 F.

'I.. results indicatta tni th_ introducti4 n of 6 ounces of hydro-
c"a.,.c acid into an emty, refri2 r tor car ca not b; deped. ,('U on to
dest:,:, all the beetles within u 2-hour ,eriod w-hen -he n t (.raturc is
less than 75 F. As it is i-practic l1 to .rolo g theI c .t .xt. of t'2se
cars for m ore t'i-.n 2 hours u i r c e rc1 c Ci tons, S e tr
can be made effective at t .-' ra turcs beloia 7!, F. only >y incr.a'si'.,
the amount of th fiuit.ant, It is su- -ed that :,t raut:'. V
45 and 75' F. the rocyanic aci,' e Ad i or.ty r fr rtor er
at the rati. of 12 ounces per car.

It vwas 'not possible to I'll all the beetlis in refri r.tor c rs
loaded 1 it'. -evt -reer; b.aaas,'" TOth,. causing s.ri-. s a:.: .. to tloe
gr'i t.




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