The dependence of agriculture on the beekeeping industry -

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Title:
The dependence of agriculture on the beekeeping industry - a review
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39 p. : ; 26 cm.
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English
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United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. -- Division of Bee Culture
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Subjects / Keywords:
Pollination by insects   ( lcsh )
Fertilization of plants by insects   ( lcsh )
Bee culture -- Bibliography -- United States   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by the Division of Bee Culture.
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Caption title.
General Note:
"December 1942 ; E-584."

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University of Florida
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Full Text
Ll Ry
JTATE LN BFF



December 1942 E-584
U.S.
DE1MRTUENT
OF
UAGRICULTURE
W)fEAU OF
ENTOMOLOG~Y AND
rt.LANT QJAUAN1IUE



THE DEPENDENCE OF AGRICULTURE ON THE BEEKEEPING INDUSTRY---A REVIEW

Prepared by the Division of Bee Culture



CONTENTS
Page
Introduction ........................... ..... ......_.................. ............ 1
Pollination requirements of plants .. ............................. 4
Reasons for inadequacy of wild pollinating insects............... 6
Increased areas under cultivation .................................... 8
Concentrated plantings.................................................... 12
Rail-fence elimination and heavy grazing_........................ 14
Forest, brush, and grass fires ......... ............................. 15
The automobile and paved roads....................................... 16
Poisoning from insecticides .........................................16
Value of the honeybee in pollinating crops .. ........... ...... .. 17
Fruit crops ........................ .......... ....... ................... 18
Seed crops ..... .. .......... I ...I....................... ...... 30%.
Forage crops grown for seed in Oregon..................... ..... 3 8
Truck-crop plants grown for seed in California ............... 39


INTRODUCTION

Most people have some appreciation that honeybees are the only source
of honey and beeswax. Few realize, hoxvever, that, although the beekeeping
industry produces in excess of 200 million pounds of honey and 4 million pounds of beeswax annually, these are merely byproducts, and that its principal role is in the pollination of the many agricultural crops for the production of seed and fruit. Without the help of insects to effect pollination, many species of plants will not set seed or produce fruit no matter how well they are cultivated, fertilized, and protected from diseases
and pests.

Although the honeybee is the most important pollinating insect, it
is but one of many species of the Apoidea group so necessary for the perpetuation of flow, ering plants. Various species of flies, beetles, and









as 2

other insects also visit flowers and to some extent pollinate them. Nectar
and pollen are rarely the principal food of such insects, -whereas these substances supply the entire nourishment of both the young and adults of honeybees and wild bees.

When nature shows a proper balance between plants and pollinating insects, both the plants and the insects flourish. Agricultural development, however, has seriously interfered with this balance. It has demanded
the growing of certain plants in enormous acreages and unwittingly destroyed native pollinating insects as well as their nesting places. As a result the burden of pollination has been increased to such an extent that wild bees are no longer adequate or dependable, particularly where agriculture is h-Jghly developed. Both the reduction in wild beneficial insects and the increase in the crops requiring insect pollination have been gradual. While
these changes were occurring commercial beekeeping had its inception, and fortunately so, since the presence of honeybees in most areas has not only overcome the shortage of wild pollinators but has permitted more thorough pollination than would have been possible under natural conditions. Consequently, plant growers and farmers generally have not been greatly concerned about pollination simply because someone else has taken care of the bees. No State or Federal agency has assumed the responsibility for conserving wild pollinating insects, although some species, bee for bee, are more efficient than honeybees and will work under more adverse conditions. For this reason measures should be taken to conserve our native pollinating insects.

In practically all agricultural regions honeybees are the most numerous flower--visiting insects, and in many places the depletion of wild pollinators i's so acute that honeybees have to be brought in especially for pollillation. The fertilization of plant flowers is so essential that beekeeping iriust be carried on to maintain a profitable agriculture, and it way be necessary to subsidize the keeping of bees, since there is no practical substitute for honeybees in the transfer of pollen from flower to flower and plant to plant.

Owing to conditions brought about by the present war the beekeeping
industry miist be safeguarded. Beekeeping can be mastered only through years of experience. it cannot be learned as a trade is learned, and there is no floating population of persons seeking employment in beekeeping. The fact that bees have a propensity for stinging discourages many persons from. keeping bees, and only certain persons possess the proper
temperament to be beekeepers. For these reasons every experienced beekeeper should be encouraged to continue with his bees. Since only exper-' enced persons can handle bees, it is almost impossible to find anyone capab7.e of taking care of an apiary in the absence of the owner. Therefore, beekeepers called into the military service often have no other choice than
to kill the bees, melt the combs, and sell the wax and used equipment. Bees are not good collateral, for neither the banks nor the Government will., accept them as security for loans.










The present ceiling on honey prices aind 1 -2c~ the hcne;- :-,.Frket are proving- highly d-Iu., ~ o okcpI
cbsl~:> i~the K if fi _uIt y of obtaining eocu >Lpis TI
co~~no 'wi th -the high wages ob-7-.tl Y~ ZI T~ Cre
22.> 2CQC~sido!llac beekeepers,ha,>Q Iv, --,: colil CS,
thel: :< and takh ermploy.,eint 'n factcjr'> Su 2ch
of th1.c b..eke-epin~g induzotr-' wiill not only 'OViwUC t n prout Oa
beeswax but -.eriously interfere with adeciu-ate po;liiatlion.

'Ai the followiing pages literature is 1> --~otC
(1) t hat vi ld pc II nat ing inse c ts are L ~f~n OILb~ &
pollinate our agricultural crops, and 2)that I C
crops Ciepand upon hcQ.ie3bees fo1olnt4 f L
bees are plentiful.l/ The specific fruit and.cr Vpc~~c~
references are tabulated below:

Fruit Crops Seed Crops

Almond Alfalfa H c)h 1r:
Apple Asparagus oC
Ap ricot Broccoli n.
Avocado Brussels sprouts
Blackberry ~cwetC.j
Blueberry and huckleberry Cabbage nOK
Cherry Cantaloup Co
Cranbe rry Carrot aLK
Cucumber Cauliflower
Goosebe rry Clovers alikek, crimseon,
Grape red, ztrawiiberry, whi tc, uK'c
Muskmelon and Ladino, white)
Peach and nectarine CollardPear Cotton nn
Persno~o, naiveCucumiber
Pluza an-d prune Kale N
Strawberry
Tung
Walnut
Watermelon







j/ These quotations are for the -most part rcii. plant with only a few from authorities on apiculture.,








4

POLLINATION REQUIREMENTS OF PLANTS

Fletcher, S. W.
1941.' Pollination. Standard cyclopedia of horticulture, by L. H.
Bailey. v. 3, pp. 2734-2737. New York.

p. 2734: ... it is well known that while the flowers of many
7a1t2 mey be readily fertilized by their own pollen, the offspring re stronger when pollen from another plant or another variety has Uad access to the flower. Sometimes pollen from a foreign variety is c2solutely essential to the best fruit-formation. This is particularly true of certain varieties of the pear. A poor quality of fruit can b prevented only by growing together different varieties. Again, : ough a plant may readily pollinate itself, yet the pollen from 01:e-r iant or variety may be prepotent over its own. This is to
i-f ,e plant beLoIlinated b its own pollen along with that of a *riety, that of the foreign variety will usually effect ferpp. 2734-5: The flowers of insect-pollinated plants, on the
t r hnd, are usually showy, and have nectar or fragrance, or both, e pocilen is more or less moist or sticky, so that it is not easily .i:0i xa.ay... As the insect reaches down for the nectar, which is near he bottom of the flower, some parts of its body are sure to become
ed .th pollen... Thus cross-pollination, or the transfer of pollen
:0o< the anthers of one flower to the pistil of another, is accomplished.

[Bees collecting pollen are just as valuable as those gathering
n T. In visiting large flowers they mray be more effective, as they go
directly to the reproductive organs.]

The value of crossing to plants was first clearly proved by
.rle s Carwin in 1859... From the observations of Kolreuter, Sprengel,
igh, and his own exhaustive experiments, Darwin showed that con1n. salf-rtilization is likel to result in inferior offspring.; ie cross-fertilization, within certain limits, gives greater vigor
Sthe offspring. Cross-fertilization between different flowers on
the .ue plant usually has no appreciable advantage.

p. 2736: In the selection of a pollinizer, several points must
Considered: (1) The two sorts must blossom approximately at the te time in order that cross-pollination may be possible. The trans:_r of pollen from one variety to another is performed mainly by .msects. Waugh and Backhouse have shown that practically none of the pollen of the plum and other stone-fruits is carried by wind, it being moist and sticky. The same is true of pears, but apple pollen

The underlining in the references does not appear in the original
io. but has been added for emphasis.












rr.4 7)


S e 't s .


c CD V
noe t then in this county,
cultl.;.--, d are as t:
g r, r o' the percentn&e C
must be aven higher.]

pp "17 5 17 27 Crchard polninat c,,,-,
t-he i ofe c election of var .e -,,
pl a' one, J-scoverJ,-1 g VJ r
t h
t
or
W t is dJ-+-,i,
t L L no t e d a dteci6ed i-iprovc;7.E)--.t .;. n
C r e z3 pollen s used upon it. 1-11 e c c C
f a, m-) I ? E aa d r i r
0-1 bv
tlaem a2__E)I!i11izers.I,

su4v,0v of tlle I Lera- Lure that
confin--d 'to ,['ruit but i,: applicable to ilan-i;, JMacDaniels, L. H.
192:9 ?ollinati-oi-i studies in Ne-,v York Stat -, H,:) L S, i
Proc. 1928: 129-137.

1,1 e of liavinz

Y_ _,_, )a c i S :,i -, t') ry,__,o-1 been
71
and .,ere not c*o-,,e
for cros--pollination that
-A t 1
Y
,)7- t i-.? n ly



tion s

MacDaniels, L. H.
193M Practical aspects of the poTlinatio,-_ 1j Y Q'I
Soc. Proc. 1930: 195-202.

p 2 0.1 in the foregoing p_,i--Tthe liriiitati ons of bees in pollen di,_ Liil_







-6

in mind, however, that for all that, bees are still the-most effective pollen carriers there are and that they-are the only insect that can
be managed by the orchardist.

Marshall, R. E., Johnston, Stanley, Hootman, H. D., and Wells, H. M.
1929. Pollination of orchard fruits in Michigan. Mich. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Spec. Bul. 188, 38 pp.

p. 38: The commercial fruit grower is almost entirely dependentL on the common honey bee for the transfer of pollen from one variety to another.

There are not enough bees in many orchards to insure the setting
of a full crop of fruit in years when weather conditions are not
favorable for maximum insect activity at blooming time.

REASONS FOR INADEQUACY OF WILD POLLINATING INSECTS

Authorities universally admit the importance of wild insects in pollinating agricultural crops; yet no State or Federal organization is especially concerned with the conservation of beneficial insects. It is
apparent, therefore, that the destruction of pollinating insects has not been fully recognized as the important cause of decreased seed and fruit production in many crops that are benefited by insect pollination.

In considering the part played by wild pollinating insects, it should be borne in mind that most species, with the exception of bumblebees, are solitary insects and reproduce slowly, and since the females have to fly 4n search of food they are subjected to such hazards as weather, fastmoving automobiles, natural enemies, etc. Many of the solitary bees are
ground-nesting and are consequently easily destroyed in areas where agricultural practices demand frequent cultivation of the soil.

Certain species of flies, beetles, and other insects effect pollination but are considered of minor importance.

Megee, C. R., and Kelty, R. M.
1932. The influence of bees upon clover and alfalfa seed production.
Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta. Quart. Bul. 14: 271-277.

p. 271: It is common observation that along with the decrease
in the numbers of bumble bees and other wild bees there has been a
decrease in the production of clover seed.

p. 277: Bumble bees are effective pollinating agents, but, due
to their relative scarcity in the clover and alfalfa seed producing districts of northern Michigan cannot be depended on for pollination
purposes.








-7

Metcalf, C. L,., and Flint, W,. P.

New York.







1?d 12 tO L'212 >0.>1 O h2 .'.
_: fa. I. P2 e'- CI.3 n22 0
c it o, cp nI s..1I un ulti-~~ .c
qu 4t e, 6 Li p eE i, r: C iv i'oa> cP
in drained bottoin lanns.

Vansell, G. H.
i941 D K.tr 2.2. .. Ing ho efuinessn Of 1',, n 0 o ~
U.S. Dept. Agr. Cir. 611O3, 31 pp.


f lanked Ion b. c 12. ,c tvtc 2..u
and maznt~caohsbrucuh.

pp C T 2: aU iric oeb'







cs-I iny they?1 tdo nhi o12 tba c 1.

*2.Ui2b' l10 S r, (-- C~~i I at



in~ taing al-i nd in pitrnbl itho do no E,1


before the petals had fallen a~y




t o w in d i.: e.et .o hunt to 7 c a rd. 3. 2 3
to a gentle v'inci the 1, ~ e:o e. y2
ai(feo;tad by a b1reozc cf 7Uf&.~ -J e i.> t .) .
Wild bees were i-orn in a vdie near .utx.1Kne 2.
were extreiaiiely actire on pea> b.- r> bd I. o.hours before aran hyaC pe:i; b >12].3
t runks and la~ n e r- c2241C~n K

fed rrore- or- Ie2 on tbcpclen, u h K1:2
general was in nectar.







-8

Note the abundance of the honeybee as compared with the
other insects.

1- 2.--Comparison of insect visitors observed on apple, cherry,
pear, and plum blossoms at Camino, Calif., during the
seasons of 1932 and 1933


insects Number Percent of
of insects total visitors

Honeybees ...................... 10,774 82.3
Diow ,flies ...................... 926 7.1
,-a I wild bees ..........: 759 5.8
)yrphid flies .............. 200 1.5
7o ibliid flies .... 164 1.3
Laaf-cutter bees ........ 33 .2
Others ................230 1.8

Total ........................ 13,086 100.0



Increased Areas under Cultivation

Cutivation of the land destroys the nests of beneficial insects a d cod:r-.ges iehabitation. The 1940 census reports a decrease in farm
-od ott citingg sites) of over 53 million acres since 1910.

Drittain, W. H.
.... ppie pollination studies in the Annapolis Valley, N.S., Canada,
1923-1932. Canada Dept. Agr. Bul, 162, 198 pp.

p. 92: Observations were made by Hooper (1929 and 1931) over
sewera1 Years on the numbers of various insects visiting apple blossoms, ,,,nCd the numbers added up. The district contained many cherry, apple and other fruit plantations and numbers of hive bees were kept. The land not in orchard was either ploughed land or sheep pasture, not rery suitable for pollinating insects. The counts on apple were as
follows:

Hive bees ................ 374 Beetles .................. 104
Burm ble bees ............ 37 Ants ........................ 51
Halicti, etc ........ 21 Earwigs .................. 3
Flies ...................... 23 Thrips .................. 2

p. 93: Bumble bees are a variable quantity. They are numerous
n the region of the North Mountain, and especially in certain seasons, as in 1930, were a decided factor in pollination of an orchard at lor:icon, but in 1931 were much less numerous. In 1932 there was an Apparent increase at some points, but, taking the area as a whole, they

















otherfacto, b c ddehi<-t-ercwjc _1in l 7


o"her Uato' Qac2 -p' dt1~jIU





j'Ieat CM,-> inC bi r tepc'l a 2 ctwe





thre _o n1ayii it J he ~ rh of cU f



the nests fo11c2i11 vet weather.

Hutson, R.
1922. 1elatieo of' the honeybee to frt p tc0tio I o Joi.N.J. Agr. E.-:pt. Sta. Bul. 434, 32 pp.

pp 10-1 l. '71e UJiI~jFeMIce in 'the L.'a0 :2
inf -he cut n2>2:1LA pl et p2 Li li
landl, andl in t'he cul t StaodOri: pl>2ntin LQ2 e i.
land is quite marked.

Family Triangle

hinoiae-ido.......... ....... 27 12j,
Bomb idae--bu>..blbe ....4 1
Syrph-idae--syrphuz-_- fies ....-.....25 0-7
Scarabaeidae--beele........ .............1.-- 4

.p. 2?. It hi engenerallydoc.;teL ha 72
pecially hone-;b-ecs_, a-re fac tors in tha seL of fruit.

Anothor factor is the c -,p.ratively 1Pct o ul
obtaining in th-c or,'_al-ding disz-t r i ct s hKdcr I
places. The Ciwtn do n,'t Obtin ntec ~i

giving a tl tie for breeding.








10

p. 29: The number of species of insects acting as fruit pol,enators in southern New Jersey is small; the number of individuals othor than honeybees is small; the lack of pollenizers being most ser.ou In apple and pear orchards situated in cultured areas, less ~arous adjacent to uncultivated land, and not a problem at all on ranberry bogs, surrounded, as they are, with woodland, and blooming
tvo months later than apple and pear.

Honeybees and bumblebees are the most important insect pollenier:. in :southern New Jersey. The ease with which honeybees can be
.uppld as needed is the deciding factor in making them the most
dependable pollenizers.

Johnston, S.
C 7r. Foiination, an important factor in successful pear production.
1ich. State Hort. Soc. Ann. Rpt. 1927: 196-199.

p 199: Bees or other suitable insects are therefore necessary
p oll*.en transfer. While other insects carry pollen to some extent,
t ho~be has no equal in this respect. Unfortunately, tame bees
La k beeIn greatly reduced in numbers throughout the State by foulcod a very serious disease of bees, while the wild bees have been
cre vreluced in numbers through the extermination of our fore ts
.. houht.ess cutting and robbing of bee trees.

Legazse, F. S.
F: Proper pollination of fruit blossoms. Del. Univ. Agr. Ext. Bul.
15, 20 pp.

p. 5: Poor sets of fruit have long been associated with rainy
either during the blossoming season. We have learned that this is due to the fact that honey bees, particularly the domesticated ones, do sot fly extensively during rainy, cool, and windy weather, rather -an to the effect of the rain on the blossoms themselves. This is
other condition over which we have little control. The only possible
r:i-: Ties in the harborin Sgreater numbers of certain wild ins s. such as the wild honey bee which fl under weather conditions t cause the domesticated bee to clingclos to the hive. However vet system of clean cultivation and cover crops,_ furnishes
n -esttnz, lace for the wild bees and is not conducive to their multiplication in our orchards.

,,urneek, A. E.
193O. Fruit pollination. Mo. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 283, 14 pp.

p. 1: Almost all fruit grown in Missouri are pollinated by
insects. Wind is no factor in fruit pollination. When the orchard is ,mall and there is a great deal of waste land in close proximity, e enough wild bees, bumble bees and other insects may be present in the
pring to be of benefit in pollination. But in a region where most of











the t
to rell_11pon. Thl" ";re IY: only polle-'-,Murneek, A. E.
19%77. Pollinatic', fruit setting, lv'o Ag' Sta.
28 pp.

P, 13: Oi' Oic vario-o ., klnd of i A" 11
early in the springg, the --oi-" D:- hon:.';ybec
Micreover, it becr. d .--,-Aratcd ir
V J--' 411 pojlj ,, ,tiojj are of great
and many other 1.its, T!)I is
w-st of the
,vaste land left

Phillips, E. F.
1933, Inse(As ( oilect( d on apple blos:3c;;' -j i,
Agr. Res. 46: 851-862

P. 8,31 Tt that th
+


wid

Y
ther
possible t h
in scive degree sciv-- -F,:) dc Aroy 4i.14, d JL v
beneficial Eeekeei-)- have obocrvod
bees, and it iz; prol:;ably equally cliz-astrous z7,-- 1 t

Tysdal, H. M.
1940 Is trippiiig fo r s c e d :i c t t i n j, T a ?
Agron. Jour. 570-585.

'7) -7
p e f 1, e C J, v 0 P ', IL 4
been -ci..le ";-)-;-ia severe '
observeCA -orking o lCtifa. Other
wou'd app-ar th- A f thc
crop of alfa] 'L; otilJ, of
hard-working
t2-ce to encotlr-',



the entire nY

p 3 8 4: Eln to D7- o o h a vc
insect pcpulatic -'








12

that there are fewer colonies of Nomia species and fewer of Megachile species s than formerly. It is possible that cultivation and settlement h:s disturbed the wild bees and thus reduced their number. Hence, it
SsuigCested that a decrease in the population of these beneficial
ects, together with a possible increase in harmful insects, may be
explanation for the uncertainty in alfalfa seed production in
.or.,erly good seed-producing areas.

concentrated Plantings

Y pollinating insects apparently do not range widely for food, C by ,do not store an appreciable amount of food, concentrated P: o one crop are not favorable for their development.

Lrittain, W. H.
".ppe pollination studies in the Annapolis Valley, N.S., Canada,
28-1932 Canada Dept Agr. Bul. 162, 198 pp.

p. 9: It should be emphasized, however, that a few colonies
ha ply l d- uc1 in an large acreagsdevoid of
3 r 1ittls or no value. IT such situations it magy be necessary
3U rc n0entration of from 35 to 50 colonies in order to ensure linton of the particular orchard in which the bees are
d n districts where beekeeping is general, however, and neigh-> o -rchards are similarly supplied, one colony to the acre or
0 3 .olony to four acres may be sufficient. Owing to the many
tm: involved more exact figures cannot be given. It must suffice
.t that the provision cf as many colonies as practicable is
....- of insurance _..ginst unfavourable weather and a
:/:tYof wild pollinators, since it is only the hive bees that can o irosed in numbers at will and placed where needed in the orchards.
.yi._ atthe present tthei th>re is no adequate local su/y
-_iua- in hbeekeepingand the danger of .pis ning prevents many
rcpvin this practice who w,,u ld otherwise do so.

JiootO:"h, D, H,
.I fh- iT..portance of pollination and the honey-bee in fruit yields.
N.Y. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 1930: 49-58.

o location and size of the individual orchard are apparently
c L ers that determine whether or not bees are needed. Orchards
e in size with varitia well mixed, located near woods,
r unultivated land where wild insects can winter over in
S .. e'rs. usually_ set a satisfactory cropwithout additional
bTh th3 conditions that exist in commercial fruit sections
ile communities are enga-ed in fruit growing and where or_...ve been planted by the suare mile the wild insects are
>17 i te tpollinate effectively the vast expse of bloom.
it is i these locations especially that commercial fruit growers are iLrge.y dependent upon the honeybee--the only insect admirably adapted lo pollinating fruit bloom that can be readily controlled by man.











Kearney, T. H.
1923. Seffriiavinand cross-fertil-:zatb.'.n in oio cto n -S
Dept. Agr. Dept. Bul. 1134, 68 pp,

p. 49: Oservt ion: i n ";.rin hn1 Zh :u t1tKe>
ef fiit poll-,ii> 1, ne c si f fe a r' I's. 2~u oii >
T2'?02 an oth~r ~xi' _ cinators acnr: Q dn rJ~7
-cotn flwesat2c ontroughout tecn ~ '~tr
o f th In g~a rin sloc twoiby~i oco ihpiInn
after the con- >1n, opood On teehr
Sal i -er V,_ ,r i'ace f2 oI o onSnctn 'n
shown; that ineoc, t p ol i aIn of co-ttonte>in,7niU1I Cn ih
an -c-picto. Tho probe lexozplanato n hti oot>
extonsive1 and l;.oe continuous acreage c>ho patdt s i>
th'e insect pop;I' i'o,_ ise not la,:6e eohtonurthorcul. 1:icin-ation of- all the flowers.

Thus, on July IC, 1919, in a field snI-tuc Led near euin o
heart of the cotngotgdistrict, no pollIen grains wae_ oL "_,
upon the extrasEtaa portion of the stzL'.us a 9 aim. and vr .
at 10 a.m.. Late the afternoon of July0 00 npeinc h
-same field sho,,.od th ext rastaminal portion ofC oh tig:n t
free from pollen in nost of the flowteno-:, while thoniiihby a few ineeact-trLanspor ,ted gi-ainrs. None of thie fcr nnniows 'thorough pollination of the %,,hole stigioatic srae Tooe sLrally lo'cated feldc,, one at Phoeni-x a> nd no o nhe v
e:nDa'ied at 5 p.m. on August 5 and at 4 m. on U ut6 hvc
similarly deficient pollination. On the other hand, in fe~ ic>c
on the outskirts of the valley, -t Litchfieldcc. at CooderW
were examined at noon on the s.ame days>, bees end otCher polli.tr>
were abundant, ancl the stigmas of the cottoli flowors were fcund, to be
well covered with pollen,

p. 50: -in the-, mean number of eed e 0 foes
whit.h mtegrat i te poceo.tago of lbe11_ of seools per boll. th nraedeto at ilIpliainrnutc
to 72 per cent, n tn ht s">l11j



Rie Aly pr ot oui-ell5 ciin -thebiv-r


a t d ifCe reat I o ali t e:nc .as the pl/ll ro "At the 3c f n te fL~n tccno
notable d'feeo w> i;o tei n lc.>
SpeCies3 of large v>h.thtore idW ~ ~ tn h ~,~n
Yumia in Septaicbor wecnot- en a.t all at Sac-~~








-14

Luce, W. A., and Morris, 0. M.
1928. Pollination of deciduous fruits. Wash. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul.
223, 22 pp.

p. 21: Observations made at Wenatchee in the spring of 1926
and .27 developed the fact that there are relatively few insects visiting the apple blossom in many orchards. These examinations showed that there was a lack of insect activity necessary to perform the cross-pollinizing in commercial orchards. In orchards where there weorc still plenty of trees of several different varieties the failure of a crop was apparently due to lack of insect activity at blossom ti e- Orchards nearest the foot hills or open country produced the hoayie t set of fruit. The native bees and insects came in abundance
r: the rocky or hilly around near these crchards. This condition as been known t. aevailn mn local districts for several differon Lyea rs.

.!here wild bees and other insects are abundant, a minimum
arount of help is needed from the honey bee, but in the large closely
platd commercial section s,- ere the are ve few wild bees and
other ins~cts vts..ting the blossoms_more honey bees should be provided.

Rail- Fence Elimination and Heavy Grazing

FLail fences constitute ideal nesting places for many species of pollirating insects. The replacement of rail by wire fences has destroyed :':uch eatingg place, for wire fences permit clean, close cultivation. The i:Lncrease in the output of wire fences and their relative cheapness has facilitated the use of stock for cleaning up fence rows and out-of-the way patches of land which would otherwise harbor pollinating insects.

It is an a-:iom in beekeeping that bees starve on sheep ranges. The ,heep fracple the ground and eat the vegetation into the ground, leaving few flowering plants.

There has been an increase of more than 4 million head of sheep on farms since 1910.

The practice of pasturing sheep in woodlands is detrimental to the pi'opagation of wild pollinating insects.

Sims, I. H., Munns, E. N., and Auten, J. T.
1938. management of forest soils. U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook (Soils
and Men) 1938: 737-750.

p. 744: The number of livestock grazing the farm woods in the
Central States is estimated to be five times the actual carrying capacity and is maintained largely by supplementary feeding of crop
feeds.








-15

Spencer, D. A., and Potts, C. G.
1L933 Sheep ra1i in inl U. S. >i < 1 io.
U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook 19-33: 264,-2'-73.

*b 6.o~ of4 B.i o~ .~1
.1 ~ ~



nkee ping fie!s~. 7'7CVCS(2~.> 7 K ~:,'~g
so well adapted to other livestock.

p.- 27: E _x c,, i7r I-O Kp .7
Spoca. a' p~ C arCPL- To g~row f r

and remn n hr 'iz i kiI.~ Kt >
uualyve S la vu1 te 1"e .I 722 1 .
weeds, a ndre;i eioui12oi l r o 7v :'7
the winter on hay., aid Coa of th-,e us~l~ ~guo < 1
no grain.

Forest Brushan rss ires

Forest, brush, ant" gi-ass fires dc-x troy fb I~d a :I& 1
including pollinating i~ob. The ra& of >vrgKmoy
road right-of -ay hatrs 4t. sh1~ Id 1;. "Ito*
ating insects, most of wlhnstin or near the go

Simrs, T. H Munns, E. N. and] Auten, J. TP
19Z8 14anagerient of foir-ot soii2 U, S2 L'pt g: 1,~o? Ki
and Men) 1933: 737-750.

p. 741: Heavy c-.u ting h-~o~ ~ .
exai..p!es of serious z:oA d et er~ i (( o7 rK i
treatments; can be un inQ21P'I2~ 7 ~
country. Sol- e> 0E, ~~so aI ~ pl I
astated by this .71.yo1 Lt hya; Kc<
a ad nL u _-t b e ila,~ I tta, is 1': i .g 17
addition o' E?,G(r cc year., mo u ~ iK
formerly occupied by conifer stands.

Wihen cut-ovel- land is burned the K~
the degree of litter rov that ol2heaK0; 2
after several year ..Ti udnv e17 .
living population :'Im. ohnooa.o :. 7
deterioration or loss of thle, soil.

p. 743: Extreai,e vi tisperutu...:>,Lthe great confIljrat.,ion ndhwi n-i pprz
immediately. Th 1,liea soi ha 212 i ignited in a f urn, ac Al-runian r'K
itni ty that the so il i s s ei i e d fK C &







-16

The Automobile and Paved Roads

Fast-trav~eling automobiles kill large numbers of' pollinating insects. 'or every slow, awkward female bumblebee killed in the spring there is one less nest of pollinating insects later in the year. Improved, well-kept
roads offer little refuge for wild pollinating insects.


1942. Animal mortality on three miles of Yorkshire roads. Jour. Anim.
Ecol. 11: 37-43.

p. 38: As with the Coleoptera, the Hymenoptera, chiefly bees,
have met their deaths either by being crushed by the wheels of the
vehicles, or in the manner indicated above.

p. 40: A busy road passing through a country district has
a big effect on the animal life in its vicinity.

Throughout the year 1938, the total number of animals [insects]
killed on the 3 miles of road under observation was 687... This is
229 per mile; of which 113.3 were Hymienoptera.

pp. 41-42: Altogether, there were 42 different species of
animals killed on the roads. [The Hymenioptera included were as follows:]

Bombus terrestris L. Apis mellifera L.
B. laoictarius L. Colletes succinata L.
B, inusoorum L. Andrena armata Gmel.
B. agrorum F. Vespula vulgaris L.
B. ruderatus F. V. germanica F.

Poisoning from Insecticides

Hundreds of colonies of honeybees are killed each year by arsenical sprays and dusts. Often the losses occur long after the insecticides have been applied, when brood is fed stored poisoned pollen. Under such conditions bees gradually dwindle and die, and often the owner is not aware of the true cause.

At one tire poisoning of honeybees was confined largely to the fruitblossoming period, when bees took poison from open blossoms, but now the poisoning continues throughout most the summer because many cover sprays are applied to control injurious insects, particularly the codling moth. Sprays and dusts falling on cover crops in orchards kill both honeybees and native bees.

From the knowledge of the habits of wild pollinating insects and the
fact that the queens obtain their food directly from flowers, they would appear to be even more susceptible to insecticides than honeybees, since the queen's food is not nectar and pollen but royal jelly. Brittain made observations on this point, but came -to no definite conclusions as to the over-all









17

effect of the use of insecticdiftez- on %,:ild pollinatini)" T -1 E" ( 4L Jk
find, however, 1-thal aiiiount3 of arsenic in polllei in 'U'le nest s of ;:ild bees.

VALUE OF THE HONEYBEE IN POLLINATING CROPS

,n the fo11owing pages will bo found c, ,elected fafferci ,Ces to
the value of the honeybee in pollinating crops:, ;iientiufied in artic"Les b recognized authorities in horticulture and agrono,,,-.y.

Dietz, H. F.
19126 Pollination and the honey bee. Ind. C C 1 S erv coil;n Pub. 1-52
20 pp.

pp. 19--20: On.- thing i.7,
t t 'ClhaL
P-212 A-nator. Its Dy :,-ibjAii t e L I
n eith,?r
1--iad floix-_ r It a tOr t 1'13 11 LI11 ijlSeCt t1lat ViS t 111 fl
Y
0 1 li CCt P01
.Aid fin ,,Ily the honc,,,bee is the 'V1_\/ 2 1',
tOF5 th,-:,t i ..an 'has ui-Ider his Or d 0
Al i7( ,t aie -0)ject to -C17 t,110 tal,
unfavofiible weathel- conditions, fcod s.jci, 2,
t
P.Lied, 'he n
S 7,1! 1:
t Ci i S t,
.ij. L pa, pri e n o ri e m,
y the -ir
111 wavs f n a t i, i-..e often i, 1, 6 c t s
e i e r 11 f 1 o w e r D t,,, r I i y

Vansell, G. H., and deOng, E. R.
S 1.1 r V y Of bE117"Ae opi-,ig J,:l 0 1 i -f 0 r Z, 1 d the ho-eybee P0717J-,,JZer. ,.gr. Expt. Sta. Cir. 297, 22 pp.

f)p. 17-: 6 0 al I t ho i n s o c t -s t i t f 10 e, Ile 'ov tlie stroct,,1,rc- of tl. _- "y le.n. T-1,e body and legs -:)rc coverc,,c A
br _-_ -] ,, ,l or feathers lRe.
y are brushed nto a "po' leit
carri_, ,r the load of pol len i 3
bee are not of equal valuo &s pol_'J.11176 4'
types Of f O 0 rS. 7he hono-ybee aid 'I
aLi .ost all f lowers ,17ith little restrict tion -pt ev.-,, 1-t1-.confine themselves to a single species on aay ci7ia trip.

have .,,.any i-iative Specless of
pentoi, L ee, leaf cutters and others, ou'
any OIL these active during the earl, I 7=lyl
restricted numbers.










The bumblebee is one of the earliest of the native bees to
feed in the spring, but the entire colony, except the queen, perishes
during the winter.

In the spring the whole responsibility of rebuilding the colony
devolves upon the queen. She lays and incubates the eggs, seven to
sixteen in number, feeds the newly hatched larvae and only after the first brood matures can she give her strength entirely to brood rearing.
By fall the colony may have grown to a size of from one to five hundred individuals. Certain of the mining bees, Halictus, which nest in certain cliffs, have one or two generations a year. The spring generation consists of hibernating, fertilized females which give rise to a summer generation. The leaf-cutting bee, Megachile spp., apparently
has but one generation a year and includes but a small number of individuals. The carpenter-bee, Ceratina dula, has two broods a year which
are very restricted in numbers.

These examples are typical of the life history of our common
native species of bees that have from one to five or six brood c ylces annually, while the number of individuals range from a score to a few hundred. Comparing this with the honeybee's record of from twelve to fifteen brond clrs a year, all the descendants of e single queen, which may reach a hundred thousand bees annually, or more, we realize the wonderful reproductive powers of this insect. It should also be noted that instead of the death of all the workers, the winter's mortality among honey bees is usually very slight. From five hundred to sixty thousand may be present in a single colony at the close of winter and two or more brood cycies may be reared in the spring before many of
the fruit trees bloom.

Fruit Crops

Gould, H. P.
1939. Why fruit trees fail to bear. U.S. Dept. Agr. Leaflet 172,
5 pp.

pp. 3-4: Self-sterility is very common. It occurs in many
varieties of apples, molst varieties of pears, probably in all varieties of sweet cherries, in most if not all varieties of the native and Japanese plums, and in some varieties of European or domestic plums and runes. Sour cherries are considered largely self-fertile, although there is some evidence of partial self-sterility. Most peach varieties are self-fertile; the J. H. Hale and June Elberta (Mikado) are notable exceptions, as they require cross-pollination. Sterility
in plums, cherries, and perhaps other fruits may sometimes be due to deformed or imperfect pistils. Some grape varieties must be crosspollinated in order to be fruitful.

There is every conceivable degree of self-sterility, from one
extreme where no fruit sets without cross-pollination to that where it









19

is so sl ight a; not to be a serious factor- ih fruit rcu +v h
opinion is h-1:1~Wil that evnthevritiesc ,id-d

~2s-mi~let~ cus. :jt sef-Ster,4I it--y preailin to s ag
a: extent illonosin t variaties the A no o hrad

e+t im it is en1 the tha It the_C,,fU4L 1:7~ami~ ipy1~ )rl e
ly for the cross-pollination of his fruits.


t rees of different va-raii.is of the nr'r5 > a :1
i ns ur e t a aSqITIf ho_--es from one tc k hr.i )i1 mn
that trees blossomt but d'o not set fruit.

When the tree to be eros- -poilinated ic in blocillL. scao P eoao
blo-csoming branches fromii a tree of another varic Ly of the ccreh~ f
fruit and place them in a pail or other ,v'-ter con.-tainor in Ietpo
the tree. The bees, visit~gj~ -rIs wilAo IsiL~cs
on the branches and will-therebv transfer -the pDOlen is
the blossoms on~ the tree.

Murneek, A. E.
1930. Fruit pollination. Mo. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bu1. 233, 12 pp,

p. 1: With proper care bees A rover in large i-~r and
are very active in the spring. They are eepecially w-ell ocateTt
car Iplen. Their bodies and legs are covered %with har- ho wic h
the pollen grains --dhere -in large nurl.ers,~ ro~~,_h 6oye
visits-oniv one lrin,_i of flower. l 1kc th- ama]l_o or tIn.m" at a
time. Thus they arel ve,--y ef Icc
p. 9: ItL ',as t.e consrate, aroN or-4i-~ 'n

sour cherries. and oDtler fruits. I f ch iahil~ ao rd.L S kr h
own bees and there orer none in the :a~h~od c.0sot, c~r I nly
it will pay to secure several hives.

Philp, G. L., and Vansell, G. H.
1932. Pollination of deciduous fruits by boes Calif. Agr. Col. IEx I
Cir, 62, 27 pp.

p. 4: The fruit grower has a pollinati-ol preble.-.it
cherries, plums and prunes aLpples, eqLara i aI) berrie -a F;nm1a,
apricots, peacq-hes, and walnuts set %-oll with their coa pO-l:cur
hence present no diLff-iculties from this standpoint.+~ ~l
peach, however, is self-unfruitful and ;--,ust be inc-pthed A
some other variety. Recent stu'Iies Indicate that, Fon Iartea of walnuts in certain yezsrs do not mature th.uaia ma A late
flowers at t%,he samue ti :e arnd therefore, nne -lIm io-~ t c rl- 1 :n o
pollinate themselves.








20

1). 5: Bees are the most important insects for this work. The
grower should 'therefore have plenty of bees in the orchiard during the
blossoming period.

[Honeybees are rented for the pollination of almionC21s, apples, avo-cados, cranberries, pears, plums, prunes and cherries, as -iell as cucumbers and alsike clover,]
Almond

Tufts, W, P., and Philp, Guy L.
1922. Almond pollination. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 343. 35 pp.

P. 241: -volleniz ing agencies, such as the honey boe, are ne-s
sary to the Fet of a good crop of fruit. One colon-,J of honey bees
should be provided for each acre of orchard.

Crane, H, L., and Reed, C. A.
1937. Nut breeding. U.S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook 1937: 3YK~9

p P-7: The pollom of alc'mond and tung trees is carried by
insects.

Apple

Auchter, E. C.
1924. The i'Lportace of picoper pollin3.ation in fruit yiel(Is. N. J. State
Hart. Soc. Proc. 1924: 133-142.

pp. L40-141: The value of bees in pollination. 3'h- carrying of
pollen fro:; orie variety to a _nother J accomplished b- and 'd bees.
It has beeni fou'n., however, that pollen is carried anly very short distances by wind, but that lbes play a very important part in carrying
the pollen,

'nl \ OSJhino e blos;-ou6 to ge*t he ne tur, their bcc.'res
becorie 6ot withl the polen,. This pollen iJs then lof on the ,t4ga
of other bl~swhen they are vi:-, ited. TIn Californic-', 2:c investigators are rpcomwn ending one hive of bees per acre for pollination
purposes.

A few~ years ago, the writer helped to con duct. a pe ial test to
prove the -value of cross-pollination Rad bees in P, bearing \oeBeauty orchard in -et Virgirnia. This orch.ar'd consisted of approximately twenty acres and was planted atquite a distance fo:any other orchards. Alt! ough it biosomod weleach year, the-: set wal ways very light. Touring the blossoming time for two years beoss wore placed under sixteen re in the center of the orchard and bloEssomiing limb4 of other varieties weesecured and placed in pails of water, which were hung in the Rome Reauty trees. The bees worked back and f.ortl. threnlih thesc








-21.

b~l-ssomTS j irA aI n exeln.Set %r:3- So r-, c v2r(H '.
trs The re I h rehnq rdl t-IJitV~'~I n 1 c.;
only a light crop.

A similar test ( nndiicted in inVhri
orchiard in Maryl-and ;,,ere~ bees em p c'Iih o u
w', th bloeser agnv bran hes of the YorkT p o cA i p'1 20
c s i ite d in laf orpf frulit__hip: r.~~1
.1l1favonable tor _Po1 ninn uRSSU .:7.~i~t
we athL) T re v r>S3O ~Wt2.1s N t~ i y~1! ~sos ery ittle f rui "sat" ntog ~
blossoms and the weather was favorale.

In 1923 sith good pollination -'cte :rc i a:bc
about the bee hives, a good sell of iruil anodd ot ocnc

In some special tests at the pL_ S ~ tatJ C-1 if. i t,;-o
trees, one a Crimes and one a Sta,_o~f2~p '0O fe at 'ipO ,-Ire
enclosed iln large muslin frame 1,1 'Ac. ife 1 : ft hlih and 55
feet long.

A mauslin partition .,ias built th on he ntr n W knt
(Long ,aays) so that one--half of each -tree, c-, n2 C, 0 h partition and one-half of each tree sac th other z i d.. 'lno'vr
placed in one .ioof the tent, so that tJho,-, :culd 2 bfly n irh between the ha 1-zes of the 'Grimes and S ta.anWc.p tr~er ,
,;ere placed in t'he other side of the tent. 71, th1c Cid hU e
wor pace, r1t set on the hbe ofbth the 2a~~n" c Crimes trees. inthe other,_ siCeo WKn;wti.,
set on the halves of thYoeSorn cnptn l>m
GrinosbiU aelf7,rlvdio.i jtS~o~~~i~ :~al
in the on'?-half of th-e te-nt. Lthe Cr-'ije iy"'r a; to th-e Staymai Wiuecsa~, -iin 3 set, Whil LOIn the otlw 'I ..te
Grimes pollen did not reach the Stayman biossofas.

Another test of the value of bees wvas niae o oeopr
nients carried on atthe College in 1923, T-- udndcd 2rvho o each of Baldwin,_ Lawy,;er, Stayman Winer'ap ,;&'inidyr n'i~u
and left. unbagged or open to cross-poli'Iwwio -aiu-all of the petals had been removed by t:to n' 1, thebc
attracted to these blossoms. Ac- i eslnt abeno ua o
the emasculated blooms "set.' OtheLr nrj- alTedl 7o~no
their petals expanded) on the -I..b nre Lppiorcnt orc ~W
bees so that cross-pollination tech- p',,. 1: ,:C~o '. a
cent of the Lawyer blossoms, G.4 per :clofth in'ad 2&Cpe
cent of the Baldwin, and 5.3 per, cent of 11h1e taymn2n.a nt
fruit.

From the above experima_:nts ii o es&'_o m
for 2nchardis-1ts to have~ several hives f Sct r V A r
orchards. The Ics ac ) m:t also LS~1.-tat' rotm:VT'








22

might be killed if poisonous sprays are used when the petals of the
blossoms are showing.

MacDaniels, L. H., and Heinicke, A. J.
1929. Pollination and other factors affecting the set of fruit, with
special reference to the apple. N. Y. (Cornell) Agr. Expt. Sta.
Bul. 497, 47 pp.

pp. 4-5: The flowers of the apple and of most of our fruit
plants are adapted by their structure to insect pollination. The
showy petals, the odor, and the nectar-secreting glands have the function of attracting insects which carry the pollen from flower to flower. The pollen itself is of the sticky type that adheres to the hairy coat of insects which visit the blossoms ... rather than of the light dry type that is adapted to wind dissemination. When it is
ap2reciated that it would take_approximately 400 apple-pollen grains placed side by side to reach from one end of a bee to the other, and that the number carried s.ingle bee might easily aiLoximate
10,000, some idea of the possible effectiveness of insect pollination
can be gained.

Overholser, E. L,
1927. Apple pollination studies in California. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Bul. 426, 17 pp.

p. 15: The use of bees as a means of effecting pollination
in an apple orchard greatly increased the set of fruit when contrasted
with the normal set.

Cross-pollination increased the set of fruit, even with selffruitful varieties like the Yellow Newtown.

Swinson, C. R., Weaver, F. P., Dadisman, A. J., Vernon, J. J., Gould, H. P.,
and Lincer, J. B.
1927. Factors influencing the yield of apples in the Cumberland-Shenandoah region of Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia. U.S.
Dept. Agr. Tech. Bul. 54, 25 pp.

p. 21: A number of growers attributed low yields to failure
of fruit to set. It was commonly observed that the low yields of the Winesap and varieties of the Winesap family were ascribed to this factor. These varieties are largely self-sterile and must be crosspollinated by soie other variety. Self-sterile varieties should not be planted in solid blocks or isolated from other orchards. Where selfsterile varieties have been so planted the results may be improved by top-working every fourth or fifth tree in every fourth or fifth row with some variety that is a good cross-pollinizer. Bees are essential in anDy orchard and are effective in securing pollination even during
cold, wet seasons.








-23

Avocado

Stout, A, B.
1933. The pollination of avocados. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. DuL. 257,
44 pp.

p. 42: It ithout doub;)t ncdvl-Isso; e (1) to napat vcco
on th basi-s o" th-4- flowe-)hyop' nsj~j bec s III abu-Indallco
to effect-pollinatlon.

Traub, H.- P. Pome roy C. S. Robinson, T. F... and Aldrich. ';. 71.
1941. Avocado production in the United Stat.es. U. S. Dept. Agr. oir.
620, 28 pp.

p. 5: W.it-h soine vari ,t-4 as Fuavrte, tchore -s su-,.l coent
overlap of the two sets o., flov.esz to rendi n e&-orK ;7/t
zathIe r -Varie tias, a qufficient percentage of "Ig-cc lo;r
(com-pletiing their anthe.i .s 4 one opieninj ) are ~rccdt e&o
Sel f-pc1 iaot Jon easy of' accoirplishcienL. th only ruiret cc
case being~ the activity of bees or other insocts

h'~p~gbes nor about the isia;~ also cnside-red. j-s
provys!,cn duriigthe blooiig ~iubj OorainsInd:ct W~~I
len is Carried Considefable distances 1-% bee-s &--d doubtless byother
flying insects.

Blackberry

Darrow, G. M.
1937, Blackberry and raspberry ii.provement. U.S. Dept. i'gi. Yearbook
1937: 496-533.

p. 498: Nor)-,c ily. the wl-d bl-fckborries of the East a re eunti rely
o r iie a rl1y s e IfS t e rl J.1 a d thos 0 o f .1 F aCijfi os h(' Ia LI an.1 d
,,l rgeo on ,cepa-rate pleats. All rn-ed + ospliaion. TTa th-e
ci earings acvpd pastures bees iand otheP-r -,q cts aecosd h qrk
berry species for the last 100 to 300 years.

Blueberry and Huckioborry

Merrill, T. A. /I
1936. Pollination of the highbush b1-eborry, llob.h Agr Expt. Sta.
Tech. Bul. 151, 34 pp.

p. .33: Of much greater importance t'haci self or oross-polliinaicthough it receives little c-pace in this, report, L- th: ~do
inspiring sonle (any) sort of pol..' -.-at ion. Wechanicl-. aid -'.is",- ) abslae]L
necessary to a good set,, from self as well as fron- crs-oli ion

Butnfi1-beqs and i.a xbsQ aL~ y~b 4
pollination.








-24

Phipps, C. R.
1930. Blueberry and huckleberry insects. Maine Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul.
356, pp. 107-232.

p. 116: In conclusion, then, the investigations thus far
have shown: (1) that various species of insects, especially_honey-bees bimble-bees and other bees, collect blueberry pollen; (2) that such insects undoubtedly exert a marked influence on blueberry pollination
since their exclusion affects yields so strikingly.

Cherry

Lagasse, F. S.
1928. Proper pollination of fruit blossoms. Del. Univ. Agr. Ext.
Bul. 15, 20 pp.

p. 10: The experimental results obtained in different sections
of the country on the sour cherry with respect to its self-fertility do not entirely agree. The majority of evidence, however, indicates
that cst varieties will set commercial crops thru the use of their own pollen. Shoemaker ... has recently shown that the set of Montmorency is increased under Ohio conditions by the use of early Richmond pollen, but it is doubtful whether the increased set will compensate for the space occupied by the trees of the inferior pollinating variety.
interplanting of several varieties, better cultural practices, and the plscement of bes in the s2ur cherry orchard is recommended for increasinR the set of fruit.

Schuster, C. E.
1925. Pollination and growing of the cherry. Oreg. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Bul. 212, 40 pp.

p. 23: With fruit so dependent upon cross-pollination as are
cherries, the agents responsible for this transfer of pollen need to be considered. The number and presence of wild insects can be controlled very little, but the honey-bee can be controlled to a great extent. It is becoming the practice for cherry growers either to keep their own bees or to hire stands of bees during the blooming season. One hive to one or two acres of cherries is sufficient if the
stands of bees are strong.

The sour cherry may be self-sterile, self-fertile, or partly
self-fertile, depending on the variety.

Tufts, W. P., and Philp, G. L.
1925. Pollination of the sweet cherry. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul.
385, 28 pp.

p. 26: Pollinizing agencies, such as honey bees, are necessary
to set a good fruit crop.








-25

At latone ::tjmcl of bees hould bo provided for oach acorc of

orchard.

Cranberry

Darrou,,, G. I., Frani~lia, H. J., and Malde, (). G.
1924. Establishing cranberrS fields, U. S. 'Dept. Agr, FailerW Bul,
1400, 37 pp.

pp. 9-11O: F~rsults of %,h,--gio .eC3 -l ts Agri.culrlExperi1..cn-.t Station indicate th in that 3to crrnbe:ry
blossom aire PolJ in itac1 by hoes. Zvh bc~ ITI hne <'b
thc', chief agc-n s of Poili nati,). AZ t'c fcrimer are i cly bn
dant man: y growers keep small apiai-ies.

Bees are not coam r, on in the cicaborry r-egjon ofC, ~ :im
experiments and observations by rcpf'c- itetiv e; of t., C>oc
AgriciiJ tural Experiiwent Station ;rndicanto 'hat tiiough they he-lp in
pollination they are not necessary in thot 0 ate uinCcer ic. ml oi
ditions. The cranberry biossoiv-s thresc: o be pra,"ticci11y solffertile. After the flower bud opens .t opistil grors 1--t -a
anathers and r..ay be fertilized then or 3mtLer as the fi07OT -r l O C
by the %a'inrd. Fven~ in Wi sconsin bees i~b r&vinL
11. ~j~1la t ion, thus insurini iniforn~tvIr~' n~i '1" i
maturiw the fruit. Without i n sc t po1 7 7+i
extend over a long Period, and the fru t lieyto nature ni

Cucumber

Beattie, W. R.
1942. Cucumber growing. U.S. Dept. Agr. Fan-lers' Bul. 1363, 235 pip

pp. 12-13: Pollination, or the setting of' frit, oi 2Ih-b-vines is dependent uLpon sonae 7uid C)~ohc 7os 7h' 0Ih~o
flowers are found or. every fruiting cuici_--hr lt-th ioe
which supply the pollen, and the fei'eone's.. Thic'K rdUce 'heF
oucur,hers. They ca.n he readily dIistingini hed, as tLhe ,iJfl'r
borne on the outer end of' the 11 ttlc cucurber Usually th Irl ?o appear in great abundance in advance of e @r feae 7-ros
leads to the erroneous notion that the- cu1-,11..bsrs are u-ngt
fruit. Later, the female 12.owers appea-r. n 'uti fe '.u~
!hers frw ith fild are -Il fr,-, Mh ogbo Under favorable' Jcondi Lins, C u '~ "m'~i
f rams may b e pola~dby naturalme i c a ien'.-mune
Lorow&i5 of T, h,' __Vro :I tmC 5'V~I' o n~
frames when thL n'ubr are 2ti~.h re .i~r xh.' J
1 ination. Wli thl-, ut r)f.r21 itinthe2'lb c :J r

itic whor be--s orescr- i-,, is ,dvsal C + <""'r' bp -7 i~n fields to keep in~ ~ order om -' ale








26

Gooseberry

Hooper, C. H.
1939. Hive bees in relation to commercial fruit production. Southeast.
Agr. Col. Jour. 44: 103-108, illus.

p. 106: There is an opinion that blossoms that have been
pollinated resist frost better than those that have not been pollinated ... In England a Cambridgeshire grower who had a large acreage of gooseberries and had hives of bee placed amotgtheminayear in wlich frost damaged his neighbours' croshad a good crop which he
attributed to his bees.

Grape

Fletcher, S. W.
1941. Pollination. Standard cyclopedia of horticulture, by L. H.
Bailey. v. 3, pp. 2734-2737. New York.

p. 2736: Of one hundred and forty-five varieties of grapes
tested by Beach, thirty-one were self-fertile, forty-one self-sterile,
and seventy-three uncertain.

Snyder, E.
1937. Grape development and improvement. U.S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook
1937: 631-664.

pp. 639-40: The blossoms of Vitis are arranged in a pyramidal,
loosely branched cluster known as a panicle. In the wild state some vines may bear only male or staminate flowers, while others bear perfect or hermaphrodite flowers that have both stamens and pistils.
American native species bear male flowers and hermaphrodite flowers on separate vines, while most European vines of Vitis vinifera bear only
hermaphrodite flowers.

The hermaphrodite blossoms range from flowers having reflexed,
very poorly developed stamens ... to perfect flowers with upright stamens ... Varieties with reflexed stamens usually do not set fruit, or set only very loose clusters, unless they are cross-pollinated,
either naturally or artificially.

The pollen grains are deposited on the stigma through natural
or artificial means.

Dearing, C.
1938. Muscadine grapes. U.S. Dept. Agr. Farmers' Bul. 1785, 36 pp.

p. 17: The pollen is carried from the male to the pistillate
flowers almost entirely by insects.








27

While the honeybee is a 101 S S eciv polI la ti i q' t,
for miuscadine tha.. for fruits viL t K'ky pollen01, such s ppe
it awp,-ars to hiv,,! ffic' ent value to warratpla hfln S s.-d be
in large vineyards during the blossominKgseason.

Muskmelion

Beattie, WN. R.
192G. Muskelnons. U.S. Dept. Agr. Farmers' Sul, 1468, 38 pp

p. 21: G r c) c r 17f:quently 1cjcirc y the early bozss
o n thaIi ~ ne in I Ccrii( nc)t Se t r Ui swk. io tis !.:, a:i o + w
kinds, tni1n iip '1K or F'~n eaI olilo,, W
natural tence-Ln'cy fall vine crops, a1 ug numberI of, iaebesm
appear in adva).nce 01* the vJi7;aF, to se'l 'ri At the as f h
pist "Illate or fellale blossomIrs located the esail bryonic melon fornied before the blossom opened. and i t ]s teosayhat the n)ol 1cm from,, '1' male flower be {rarnsfe'ner by beien o- ter Ilec'ts tote fole
flower. Wlharc, mcea re m rcvn in" Orce~ .ni o in closed 'rar, j is essentials. that ivison be nade f tI nraince of hen-s i- me
that the pollen be transferred.

Peach and Nectarine

Cuilinan, F. P.
1937. TIprovement of stone fruits. U.S. Dept. Agr, Yearbook 1937:
665-748.

p. 675: The nectarine -was formerly thought -to be a differen-t
Speci-es fromt the peach. It is now kno ,,n that the nectarine is simply a smooth-skin peach. The trcs &-ilfor in no respect from'n thei peac.,
and it is impossible to -tell a peach tree Li-or;- a nectarine tree.

p. 6,95: -Vs ~a r.-L 0t ie SoQ pace C r. ;clf-fruitfui Oerlall1y failure to produce-, crops -may be due: c polleni sterility, WshK ei~hibited in a few cc mrrcial variEties, such,,' a-s J. H. Hale, lbw.
Candoka, Mikado, and Chinese Cling.

Marshal 1, R. E Johnston, Stanley, 7-octmu H C ,and Viell H. Y,
1929 Pollination of orChard fruitsL -n Mi.jchigao. Mich, Agr, Expt. Sta
Spec. Bul. 188, 38 pp.

p,'2 A JI H. F,,1- peach, orchard7 favorably luot-dOiI


of the vaiete..hodpro"uce butr 'n s re at
1917. V,'hen it ,:- icrneci that ib-,is var> y*a cl2uer> ot
H ,:rn End Cha ro eep~ lP1 aeceaa olnnr
for the J. H. 4Vale. in spite of this pros 'o the ocadpoue
lesthan 10 bushels of peaches in 12.F'nothe su-,C' Ia
soin c r jo d 20 clne s of be r Utdin the ocadadi
pachduccd the first crop of fruit in 11 yea.e








28

Pear

Kinman, C. F., and Magness, J. R.
1940. Pear growing in the Pacific Coast States. U.S. Dept. Agr. Farmers'
Bul. 1739, 38 pp.

p. 24: That cross-pollination is advantageous to setting fruit
of practically all varieties is now generally conceded. Provisions for cross-pollination should be made, notwithstanding the fact that such varieties as Bartlett, Anjou, and others may, under favorable
conditions, set fair crops when planted alone.

One tree is considered sufficient to pollinize eight others
if bees are provided to carry the pollen.

Tufts, W. P., and Philp, G. L.
1923. Pear pollination. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 373, 36 pp.

p. 35: Pear fruits resulting from cross-pollination do not
appear to exhibit the same tendency to fall after the June drop as do
those resulting from self-pollination.

Pollinating agencies such as honey bees are necessary to set a
good crop of fruit.

Persimmon, Native

Fletcher, W. F.
1942. The native persimmon. U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmers' Bul. 685, 22 pp.

pp. 3-4: The trees are generally dioecious; that is, the
pollen-bearing and fruit-producing flowers are borne on separate trees. The pistillate or fruit-producing flowers are borne singly, whereas the staminate or pollen-bearing flowers are generally produced in threes. The pollen is very light and powdery, and, although it is generallyy distributed bbees that frequent the trees in great numbers during blossoming time, it can also be carried to great distances by
the wind.

Plum and Prune

Hendrickson, A. H.
1918. The common honey bee as an agent in prune pollination. Calif.
Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 291, pp. 215-236.

p. 236: The results of the two seasons' work seem to warrant
the following conclusions:

Both the French and IM3ria! prunes may be aided in setting
fruit by the use of bees in the orchard during the blossoming- period,
provided the trees are in a normal, healthy condition.







29

The absence of bees in the orhqrd L, m ean a low pcenti-o of
set with both of these varieties.

Hendrickson, A. H.
1922. Further experiments in plum pollination. Calif. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Bul. 352, pp. 247-266.

p. 266: The presence of honey bees materially aided in setting
heavy crops on the following combinations of varieties: Form and Wickson; Beauty and Santa Rosa; Diamond and Grand Duke. Observ ..ons, furthermore, showed that many other combinations were also benefited
by these insects.

Hendrickson, A. H.
1919. Plum pollination. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul, 310, pp. 1-28.

p. 27: A comparison over a number of years between trees xheio
there was an abundance of bees flying and trees where bees were scarce, emphasized the desirability of having bees in the orchard. Even selffertile varieties were immenseljyjenefited by te presence of bees as
an agency for distributing pollen.

Kinman, C. F.
1931. Plum and prune growing in the Pacific States. U. S. Dept. Agr
Farmers' Bul. 1372, 57 pp.

p. 25: The presence of bees in the plum orchard at blossmir
time has been demonstrated to be almost an economic necessity... Poor crops or perhaps failures may be expected of self-sterile variet.Lp where no bees arepresnt, and even with self-fertile varieties thl
presence of bees has caused a decided increase in the crop.

Strawberry

Darrow, G. M.
1937. Strawberry improvement. U. S. Dept, Agr. Yearbook 1937: 445-495.

p. 455: Pollen is carried by bees and other insects, but it is
also thrown out of the stamens as the anthers crack open .. or it is jarred out and blown by the wind and falls on the pistils. A variety having perfect or hermaphrodite flowers can produce fruit when planted by itself, but one with pistillate flowers cannot set fruit unless p:rfeot-flowered Plants are necarbV to furnish -21len through h th
_ency of bees or other insects.

Tung. See Almond.

Watermelon

Goff, C. C.
1937. Importance of bees in the production of watermelons. Fla. Ent.
20(2): 30-31.








30

From these observations it is quite evident that the size of
the melon crop may be greatly influenced by the bees. Observations
in Florida and elsewhere show that certain days are favorable for setting melons while a very poor set will occur on other days, due to weather conditions. If the favorable days are few and the supply
of bees small, the yield may be small,

It is therefore i__portant that a good set be obtained from the
earlier flowers and to insure this an adequate supp lof bees should h _present. Thus, in certain areas at least, the earliness and size of Ield may be increased by ke L2n honeybees near the field during the flowering season. In large fields, the best results should be
obtained by having a hive near the center of the field.

Seed Crops

Alfalfa

Tysdal, H. M.
140. TIs tripping necessary for seed setting in alfalfa? Amer. Soc.
Agron. Jour. 32: 570-585.

p. 582: One factor ... is the effect of constant visits of
honey bees to the same flower. When the bees are extremely numerous the same flower may be visited a great many times, and in this way a higher percentage of flowers are tripped than shown in Table 10.
Actual counts have shown honey bees to trip as much as 12% of the flowers of a given raceme during the course of two or three days.
This would indicate t>at honey bees in abundance might be benefici-al for seed setting. It has also been observed that certain honey bees are much more apt to trip alfalfa flowers than others, thus indicating rather wide differences among individuals in the same species. Plants
also differ in ease of tripping.

Tysdal, H. M., and Westover, H. L.
1937. Alfalfa improvement, U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook 1937: 1122-1153,

p. 1139: The ability of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) to
trio alfalfa flowers is not so easil clarified. Piper et al. found that honey bees tripped only from 0.3 to 4.7 percent of the flowers visited and many visits to the flower were required before tripping ys effected. Dwyer ... of Australia, has found that honey bees cause a considerable amount of tripinand has suggested the use of honey bees in cages in breeding work. Michigan workers have also found the
honey _e to be effective when confined to small areas. Helmbold ...
states that haony_bees collectint_pollen cause rising_ ad attributes
more tripping to them than to bumblebees.








31

Brassica

Magruder, R.
1937. Improvement in the leafy cruciferous vegetables. U. S. Dept.
Agr. Yearbook 1937: 283-299.

p. 283: According to most botanists, cabbage, cauliflower,
broccoli, gran-srouting broccoli, brussels scouts, kale, collard_s, and kohlrabi are very closely related, being horticultural forms of
the species Brassica oleracea L.

p. 291: By planting in alternate rows strains that are selfcompatible but cross-fertile, hybrid seed will result through the action of insects in carrying the pollen from one strain to the Ther.
Bud pollination of a few flower clusters of each strain resuL' in enough seed to perpetuate the strains for later crops. Bees have een found to be very effective agents in the cross transfer of pollen, and by enclosing the individuals or groups of plants under cheesecloth cages the bees may be used in working out the problem of obtaining desirable crosses between different strains or increasing the seed of
a number of desirable crosses for preliminary commercial tests

Broccoli

Pearson, 0. H.
1932. Incompatibility in broccoli and the production of seed under
cages. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 29: 468-471.

p. 469: The results given here indicate that the use of small
numbers of bees under cheesecloth cages is a possible method of producing small quantities of broccoli seed, if the compatibility situation is such that seed can be produced with the pollen available.

Buckwheat

Leighty, C. E.
1919. Buckwheat. U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmers' Bul. 1062, 24 pp.

pp. 21-22: It is not advisable to grow buckwheat for use by
bees alone. Commercial beekeeping in buckwheat-growing sections is advisable, as bees can make use of the flowers produced and m ayi__n turn be of use in fertilizing the flowers. Many buckwheat growers, in fact, believe that the wei ht oer bushel of the seed is heavier where
the crop has-been worked largely by bees.

Cabbage
Pearson, 0. H.
1932. Breeding plants of the cabbage group. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Bul. 532, 22 pp.








32

pp. 4-5: Insects visit the flower (Brassica oleracea) freely.
Honeybees, although usually plentiful, often fail to be very efficient, because they do not work at temperatures below 600 F. Bumble-bees are
not very plentiful in California, but usually a few of them are collecting pollen in nearly every field,

p. 7: Cross-pollination which is the rule in Brassica is
usually brought abit by inse-t visitation. Bees are the active polinatin. a ents.
Clover, Alsike

lagee, C. R.. and Kelty, R. H.
1972. The influence of bees upon clover and alfalfa seed production.
Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta. Quart. Bul. 14 (4): 271-277.

p. 27'7: The honeybee was found to be a very effective pollinating agent for June and aisike clcvers and for alfalfa and the presence of lare numbers of bees resulted in mark-ed increases in tie
seed crops of these legumes.

United States Department of Agriculture.
1942 A much larger harvest of hay crop seeds needed in 1942. U. S.
Dept. Agr., Food for Freed:om Program, Background Information
Series, No. 7, 5 pp.

p. 3: The placement of one hive of h.- eees per acre adjacent
to or in an alsike field will materially increase seed production.

Clover, Crimson

ollo-:ell, E. A.
1938. Crimson clover. U. S. Dept. Agr. Leaflet 160, 8 pp.

p. 8: Crimson clover is a prolific seed-producing plant and
yields of 5 to 10 bushels per acre are common, depending upon the thickness of the stand, the amount of growth that is produced, and the care exercised in harvesting the seed. The florets are self-fertile,
but b'es are effective in trippine and transferring th pollenwith a consequent increase in the number of seedper head. The lacin_ of colonies of hon ybe,'s adicent to blooming fields will effectively_ increase pollination.

Clover, Ladino White

Hollovell, E. A.
1942. Ladino white clover for the Northeastern States. U. S. Dept. Agr.
Farmers' Bul. 1910, 10 pp.

p. 10: Because cross-pollination is necessary for seed formation, it is advisable to move hives of honeybees adjacent to the







33

fields before the plants bloom. A minimum of one hive per acre materially increases seed production.

Clover, Red

Hollowell, E. A.
1932. Red-clover seed production in the Intermountain States. U. S.
Dept. Agr. Leaflet 93, 7 pp.

p. 7: The dependence of seed setting on the number and activity
of honeybees and bumblebees is not realized by most farmers who zrov.
red-clover seed, The red-clover flower is practically self-sterile; that is, the pollen of a flower will not fertilize any other flo :er on any head of the same plant. Therefore, before fertilization can occur, it is necessary that the pollen be transferred between flowers on different plants. This cross llination is done n rincinally by honeybees, bumblebees, and other kinds of bees, ose presence in
large numbers at the time red clover is blooming is essential for large yields of seed. If other nectar and pollen producing plants more liked by the bees than red clover are available, the honeybees in particular will work the other plants in preference to the red-ciover flowers. If only the second growth is saved for seed, the time of cutting the first growth may be regulated so that the second growth will be in full bloom when other flowering plants are scarce and then large numbers of bees are present. There is reason to believe that in sections where an increase in agreaghas been acompanied by d cliig yelds of sed he introduction of addlitional colonies of honeybees would prove profitable. Bumblebee nests should not be destroyed, and every effort should be made to provide desirable nesting places
for queen bumblebees.

Pieters, A. J., and Hollowell, E. A.
1937. Clover improvement. U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook 1937: 1190-1214.

p.1199: Bees visit the red clover florets for nectar and pollen or
both, tripping the florets and transferring pollen from plant to plant,
thus constant maintaining the condition of mixed inherit tancv t
species. Other insects, such as moths, are constantly seen :: red clover heads, but they do not come in contact with the pollen and
therefore do not effect cross-pollination.

There has been considerable controversy as to the extent to
which pollination can be accomplished by honeybees. Discussion has centered upon the fact that the tongue of the honeybee is not long enough to reach the nectar. The literature on this subject is volu inous and cannot be reviewed here. More recent investigation o-1 rl indicate that honybees visit red clovr pr in lly for roller -nI
seldom obtain nectar,_ bu regardless of what is obt .ned, P-llen i
transferred and cross-pollination is effect d.







-34


United States Department of Agriculture.
1942. A much larger harvest of hay crop seeds needed in 1942. U. S.
Dept. Agr., Food for Freedom Program, Background Information
Series, No. 7, 5 pp.

p. C: A lack of sufficient pollination insects when red clover
is blooming is one reason for low seed yields. Houeybees. one of the princip- l 2llinators of red clover, are the only kind that can be readi.y increased and moved. The placement of one hive of honey2ee per acre adjacent to or in a red clover field when blooming will increase seed production.

Clover, Strawberry

Hollowell, E. A.
1939. Strawberry clover. U. S. Dept. Agr. Leaflet 176, 8 pp.

p. 6: The blossoms of strawberry clover are visited by honeybees. Apparently they obtain considerable nectar, whichh indicated
that this is a good honey plant.

Clover, White

Hollowell, E. A.
1936. White clover. U. S. Dept. Agr. Leaflet 119, 8 pp.

p. 7: White clover is naturally a free--blossoming plant in
all parts of the United States, but only in a few sections has seed production developed as a farm enterprise. . Even when blossoms are abundant, roist, cloudy weather i. unfavorable to be ctivity, alnd necessary cross-pollination is, therefore, restricted and seed produc,ion redu-ed. The rresnce of colonies of honeybees in the immediate vi-inity 'J clover-sed orl)jilin fields usuil_1._nsure P. maximum of
cross-poll ination.

Cotton

Allard, H. A.
1510. Preliminary observations concerning natural crossing in cotton.
Amer, Breeders' Mag. 1: 247-261.

pp. 256-257: Honeybees are among the most frequent visitors of
cotton blossoms, but, at the same time, they are very generally visitors of the outer involucral nectaries alone. .. Nearly all bee visitors show a marked tendency to pass from plant to plant up cnd down the rows
rather than across.

p. 258: These casual records are sufficient to show the enormous
number of blossoms a single bee is capable of visiting in a few hours, and the probabilities of intercrossing a great number of these all over







35

the field. Almost before day, bees are forcing their way into the expanding buds, and an examination of these reveals many whose stigmas have been pollinated long before the flowers are fully opened. The writer has observed that in the near vicinity of domestic hi:es in northern Georgia the number of honeybee visitors is enor.,.:ously increased.

p. 261: In cotton fields of northern Georgia the demonstrated
proportion of crossed blossoms is at least 20 per cent, with strong probabilities that approximately 40 per cent of the blossos are crossed. Although crossing may be very detrimental in unselected
cotton, in selected cotton it is probably beneficial.

Kearney, T. H.
1923. Self-fertilization and cross-fertilization in Pima cotton. U. S.
Dept. Agr. Dept. Bul. 1134, 68 pp.

p. 36: There is little doubt that natural cross-pollination
in cotton is effected almost solely by the agency of insects. The nature of the pollen grains of Gossypium is unfavorable to their
transportation by currents of air.

p. 37: Various Hymenoptera are the most efficient carriers
of cotton pollen at Sacaton, Ariz., as is probably the case wherever cotton is grown. The honeybee and the wild bees (Melissdes spp.)
are the most important cotton pollinators in this locality.

The honeybee (Apis mellifica L.) is very assiduous in its
visits to cotton flowers, although sometimes preferring the extrafloral nectaries to those with the flower. Nevertheless, this insect
probably holds first rank at Sacton, Ariz., as a conveyor of cotton pollen, especially among Pima flowers. As was noted on a preceding page, honeybees entering and emerging from the flowers when the petals
are just beginning to unfold almi.ost invariably come in contact with
the reproductive organs.

Meade, R. M.
1918. Bee keeping may increase the cotton crop. Jour. Hered. 9: 282285.

p. 285: No effort was made to exclude insects, and the weather
conditions during the course of the investigation were not unfavorable to their activities. It is evident from the increased yield of bolls secured in the long-pistiled Durango variety through artificial pollination that the presence of additional pollinating insects would aid in reducing the high percentage of shedding. The value of honey bees in this connection is r'cogaized in some localities,_and it would s3em that growers of lon1 staled varieties might find be keeoin: a
distinct advantage to the cotton crop.







36

Cruciferous Root Vegetables

Poole, C. F.
1937. Improving the root vegetables. U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook 1937:
300-325.

p. 310: The cruciferous root vegetables--turnips. rutabagas,
and radishes-have relatively large flowers, which are insect-pollinated.

Onion

Jones, H. A.
1937. Onion improvement. U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook 1937: 233-250.

p. 239: Most of the pollen is shed between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m.
Pollination is effected mainly bv insects that o from flower to flower and visit the nectaries at the base of the three inner stamens.
Interpollination among flowers of the same umbel is no doubt of frequent occurrence, as the same insect has been observed to visit many flowers on an umbel before leaving. In the onion, however, crosspollination is the rule.

Pepper

Odland, M. L., and Porter, A. N.
1941. A study of natural crossing in peppers (Capsicum frutescens).
Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 38: 585-588, tables.

p. 588: The pepper flower is rather inconspicuous and nonfragrant, a fact that would suggest pollination not very likely.
Erwin ... found that the flowers produced nectar and that insects did at times visit them. The writers are of the opinion that honey bees arelargely responsible for the cross pollination that takes place. This insect has been found working on the pepper plant rather often. Theprsence of the bee is rather spasmodic, however, as they are found only on certain warm bright days. The presence of bees in
the vicinity may have a bearing on the amount of crcss pollination.

Soybean

Morse, W. J., and Cartter, J. L.
1937. Improvement in soybeans. U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook 1937: 1154ll1zC9.

p. 1167. Natural crossing in soybeans is undoubtedly brought
aDout by small insects. Thrips have been observed to be very common in the soybean flowers at the Arlington Experiment Farm. Bees and other insects have also been observed working on soyoean flowers.
Studies by many investigators at various places indicate that soybean plants growing in contact with one another are more likely to be
crossed tnan plants separated by a few feet.












-37

Sweetolove r

Pieters, A. J., and Hollow ,ell, E. A.
1937. Clover imiprovo;,,,ent. U. S. Dept. Agi'. Yearbook 1937: ], K10' )114.

p. 1207: Pollination of sweetclover under matiirni cortions
effected principally byhoney~~,ecp insofar &c_; t-h-ixc~s
varieties, or individuals are spontaneously soii-fertilizcd.

United States Departiment ol2 Agricul-ture.
192.A ruhlargmer harvest of hay crop seeds needed in, i9<2 U. 5
Dept. Agr. Food for Freedom Progra-1, BackgroundInc ..nt_*-Ion
Series, No. 7, 5 pp.

p. 3: ... la ck of sufficient pollination lowci7r -Yd ield's.
Honeybees are th ec valuable olhics A minimum c eoil eh o of
honeybees per acre located close to a blossoming field of$O. 1Iocr
will increase the quantity of seed sot.

Trefoil

McKee, R., and Schoth, 11. A.
1941. Birdsfoot trefoil and big trefoil. U. S. Dept. Agr.Cii 625,
13 pp.

p. 5: The ge-,eral concl-ozion 01- investigators vho tie ucdie,
seed setting in Lotios species is that both b-irdsfoottio mlb
trefoil are practicall- Scfceie il.'w .. who has i,=, >-E:ntly
given the subject consideration draws -the following coilclusloA:i

"Lotus corniculatvs is practically self--steie, ;Cazi. occasional plants set a few seu,-ds aiter self-pollination. i1a ts of L. mail r Smiith ( L. ujliisus Schk.) are, on the whole, iiccarpable
of spontaneous self-pollination, but after artificial sal f-po0ina
Lion practically o71l plants arc self-f~ertile, soijie to a Ver'j high degree. T"-is thseLoerennasp,,ies are aleL 1lre e
pendent u-pon insect visitors for seed formation."











38


Forage Crops Grown fo-r &Ied ii Oregon

The following data on forage crops grown for seed which require
for polliLcation wer6 uois~ ~ H. A. Schoth trough F1 S.
c)117z. o t~le Oregn -Agricuitural College, who stated: "All leouzs probubl_)y rI~efit except subterranean clover. Swlnslcwers probably benefit


;IateAcreage


C rops AraeAreas of production
Estimated Goal
1941. 1942

A ji fl fa I/............. 8,000 10,000 Eastern andi southern Oregon.
Glover. alsike.. .. 25,000 30,000 Willamette Valley, Southeastern
Oregon, Klamath and Deschutes
Coun ties.
Uyoi cnrno CD 20 ,000 INhl1amette Valley.
e -.uv e i r ed -1/ 12,000 14000 Willamette Valley, sout-easterii and
Central. Oregon.
Glover. strawberry 4,50 500 iLastern Oregon, Umnatilla, Eaker,
Malheur, Union, and Klamath
Counties.
1: w 1iiLe 1/ ,0 3,000 G00)Wiilafaette Val ley, central and
Ldiio and other) southeastern Oregoni, Umatilla,
Jackson, and Josephine Counties. 0~S...........5 0 500 Jackson County, a little in Clatsop
County.
~~~~D-~~~' YJ 1/........0 1,0 lame tte Valley, valheu- County.
J, o v ~r... .........~ O 500 Willamette Valley, easteiii Oregon.
lc toil, comi-hT1of and
H)tn ga r ia n.. ........ 13,000 130,000 Willamette Valley, southern Oregon.
V/etob, hairy......... 125,000 185,000 W~ilaiette and Umpqua, Valleys, central Oregon, Jackson and
~Josephine Counties.
Vetch, purple......3,000 6,000 Vi~et and Umpqua Valleys,
Coos County.
Vetch, Willamette- 15,000 35,000 Vliliainette Valley.


/ ro)ss-poll iat ion undesirable, especially fium -the stancipoin. of producing certIified seed.











39

Truck-Crop Plants Grown for Seed in California

The following table, showing some truck-crop plants requiring insect pollination for seed production, was furnished by G. C. Hanna, of the University of California:

Plant Time of blossoming Locality

Asparagus ........................ July-August Sacramento Delta
Carrots ............................ June-July Salinas Valley, Cotati
Cauliflower .................... April-June Santa Maria, Halfmoon Bay
Cantaloup
Cucumber
Pumpkin .................. July-August Sacramento and San Joaquin
Squash Valleys
Watermelon






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