A review of the insecticidal uses of rotenone and rotenoids from derris, lonchocarpus (cube and timbo), tephrosia, and r...

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Material Information

Title:
A review of the insecticidal uses of rotenone and rotenoids from derris, lonchocarpus (cube and timbo), tephrosia, and related plants
Physical Description:
121 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Roark, R. C ( Ruric Creegan )
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. -- Division of Insecticide Investigations
Publisher:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Biological insecticides   ( lcsh )
Homoptera -- Control   ( lcsh )
Rotenone -- Industrial applications   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 93-119) and indexes.
Statement of Responsibility:
R. C. Roark.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
"May 1943 ; E-593."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030284754
oclc - 499755317
System ID:
AA00025071:00001

Full Text






may 943E- 593



UThITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICuL T UPE
AGRI CVLTRAL RESEARCH ADMINISTBATIO-I
TRA.U OF ENTOMOLQ GY 3DThiT JAWII


A RF7I 0-7 OF THE I NSECTICIDAiL USES OF R0TaEN0Y'E AM~
ROTEN.OIDS FRC-,i DERRIS, L0117CHOCAI'US (CUJBE ANDT
TIMMB), TrEHLOsLIi, ANDM RELATED PLANTS

PART III. HCEOPTE'Pl

By R. C. Roark, Division of Insecticide Investigations


CON.TEKTS

Page
SIntroduction -- ---------------2
Itvmoptera------------------2
4Lleyr%0diadu -- -- -- ------------2
2Aphi.idae-----------------4
Cercopidae----------------63
Chermid-ae- ---------- -----64
Cicadellidae --- ------65
Cioeadidae----------------72
Cocoidae-----------------72
Filgoridae---------------82
N epb ra c ida e---------------82
Psyll idae- ----------- ----83
insect, index-- --- ------- -----85
Literature cited - -- -- --- --93
Junior-author index -- ----------120





The manuscript of thiis publication imas read by the follo-viing ledrs oif research divisions of the Bureau, 'who contributed helpful sugeston: D. L. Van Dine, Fruit Insect Investigations; ... ii.Thte Tmic Crp a~nd Garden TIsect Investigations, R. 7% Harried, Cotton In-sect Inett ions; F. C. Bishopp, assistant chief of Bureau, formerly in ca!e of Insects Affecting- laen anid Animals; C. F. W. 7. ueselbeck, Insect Idetifca.tion; L. A~. Hawkins, Control Investig-at ions; arnd C. i.Pack-ard,, Cerel ad Forage Insect Investigationc. The assistance of specialists
inte Diision of Insect Identification ir class-ifying, the insects .-entioed erin a~s to order and family is gratefu',,lly ackjno-wledged.




,7, 71

2

I'M RC DU OT I MIT

T",_is is the third in a series of paner-, designed to review all avall ..
-ble in'ormntion on the insocticiOlal uses of rotenone ana the rot-enoids. Part I re-Nriewe ,_ test!-, witi Derris cube tim-bo, Te-r)hrosia, Mundule and thr- ir constituents nonmembers of thp or lers Ivollembola, Ortho-,otera, I)ermaD- terp., C .Onn.ta, Isortera, Corrodentia, and Mallophaga, Ap7warently no tests
-,ith 'L"-Ie rotenone T_,lants on Thysanura, ET)hemero-oterp,, or Plecoptera have bee,-. recor" e,0. 1:1n.rt II reviewee- the tests mad.e on T-hysano-ptera. Part III,;." tac -.-)reser.t -or-.er, rPviei,,s the tests on LomopterA.

HC'MPTERA

Aleyr6didae
.'j
Di-aletirodes chittendeni Laing, a rhododond.ron wrhitefly

(70q) in 1929 renortea thr t snrays containing nicotine
eerris were four_, to be les- toxic t ip.n a 2-Dercent oil snray to nymphs Of this whitc-fl," infesting lo--ves of Rhodod-endron jacl,:soni and R. ronticun ir. Enr

Dialeurodes citri (Ashm.), the citrus whitefly e.,I,) *fie, -p o
-1 -7. in ,ater with wd
vl be extract in oil, -ered. milk (clibe
extr,-ct :75,0010) oil 0.31 -)ercen-), '-illee. 97.4 percent of the larvae I co7,,IP.re0 with 79.9 recent '/--ille6 b- the checl-, oil; of the eggs 27. rerc -',.'. -ere killed_ by c,,;.oe extr-ct in oil (C .77;e extract I:P0,000, oil 0.5 rjerce-t', ns cc-a)-,rea with 10.5 percent by the check oil. --Turner (271) in 19'42.

The Al;ibama T-_-_,1ti-.ute in 193S rc.norted on the cffectiven.s5 of e!erri- roveLer with various carriers against the citrus wh i t e f 1,,r I: -x .eri.mentq ,Tith --owe-ered- Clerriq adeled to soaps, sulfated al c Cho 1 s sulfur itpe_ castor oil so -i salts of alkylated aryl com-pounds oil en- llsions, ,-.na other materlp.lq -1-he elilute oil emulsions N.5 and 1.0
-oercent) -formed more effective co-.ibi-nntions 1,,rith C.erri-, than the Taore q-,-)ecific leettinp- rtgents. T'-,r, effective -.qs of derri- w-qs elepressed in both acia ana all'aline wetting media anrl in liquid lime sulfur. With qo_'I_), (Lerriv. w.as raore effective.' t mn nicotine -iilfate ana organic thioc t e s -) r nvs

Anderson ar d W I'-'er (9),ir IQ7q re-Jorted or. the control of whiteflies 'on j ardenias. Immature of the citrus ,Thitefly on a tropical
hibiscus nlant in an 9-inch floie---)ot in the VIr-inia Tr-,).ck Exneriment ,reenhouse were not controlle(I b ,r dins of -otine sulfate -olus
q onn o r To.I,ane 440. T-n-: the leaves of this hibiscus -olant were heavily infested -ith all stage of the i-hitefly and some of the leaves were turning, one-half of the nlant wnq ainne for 70 seconds in a
solution containing 1 recent O-C -1 60 -,-)ercent Stqntex Dis-rersing Oil (P. Aneral oil contain all -oercentage ot oleic aciO and a certain
s' readerr) and 40 i-ercent of a C-.erris extract, in cFmr.hor-sassafras base oil containing 5 &n. of rotenone in 100 cc., 1 percent t of liq ui(I Red "All Soa-o (containing 40 perc.ent- of dry -oan) ana qS -nercent of water. Vrie






-3

othr hlf f te plant was di-ped for a similar length of time in a 1-oerentmixureof 9O percent of 2Pyrole ne M. P. (a sodiumr salt of a synthetio a r-ared from a vegetable )b.se)_and 20 percent of the derris
etat described above.

'Both treatments gave TOO-pDercent control of all stage's, except for afew adult whitefJies that escaped before the plant was submerged. The paxitsuffered no a-pparent ill effects from the treatments an~d within a few weeks the dead bodies and cast skino of the Wbhiteflies came off the 'eaves, and the plant wras restored to a normal thrifty condition. Tests ae also recorded with Sta-ntex R (90 percent of Stantex D-isopersing Oil ad20 percent of derris extract in camp.hor-sassafra 's base oil containing 5gin. of rotenone -oer 100 cc.). The citrus whitef1, y was satisfactorily controlled on gardenias by thorouGhLy- s-nraying with I- and 2-percent soluIlios of Stantex R~emulsified with soap.

Tileurodes va-oorariorum (Westw.), the greenhouse whitefly

D)avidson (6z 614) it 19,30 made careful 'tests i~n a greenhouse, with Our'e rotenone, raceric deguelin, tenhrosin, and. toxicarol. These were Susended in water -by adding an acet one solution of each to water without teaddaition of a. wetter or s'nreader. Results were as follows:



,Thsect ide : Concentration ; Mortality of whitefly stages
(.gm. :cc.) E ggs..; Larvae :Pupae
Percent. Percent le 'ce

Rten.one- -- ------1:25F0 0
Do - - - - 1: 2,000 '99.1--Do - - - - 1:20.,000 92.0 --
1:0Do0- 94.9
Do -- u- 1:60,000 --.
o- - --- 1:100)000 9.6 9)4.7
Racmic deguelin 1:30)000 -- 23.0
Tproini--------1:201000 1)4.o --
Toxieexol -- ------1:500 25..0


Tiburec and,: Mattnzr (268) i.n 1939-, reported that in experiments
with the :greenhouse whitefly all1 the adults were dead in 30 to 38 minutes after 'being dusted with a poowder of derrig and nyrethrun mixed with chloropQicriii~at the rate of 3 cc. per 1000 grams. The wfhiteflies became very active bef ore t-ao y dlied, which indicated that chloro-icrin itself does not i05Cs -e any -articular insecticid.al -ronerty but, by accelerating the reabolic nrecesses in the insects, rendlers them more suscerotible, to the toxic effects of other substances.

~Alyroeidae (uidentified. species)

Davis (66) in- 1032 stated that with renetr,.tinp, miscible oils derri,- has -orovee very effective against whiteflies.







~Species of ,Aloyrodaes are not affected-'b errs --Vn k a (178~) in 1936; also ae Busoy et al.(3)

Etablissoemnents Rotenia in 1939 re-ported in a. letter toR -R~k that Tria~leurodos sp. on tomatoes in hothouses was killed by a rpiea~ dust containing 12 -perccnt of..cube having a -percon.t rotenone otei.

Aphiidae

Anuranphis cardul (L.), the thistle aphid

ITeoton (derris extract in fish oil) 112.5 9'1. ul~s twiceits weih of soap killed 100 Dercent. --Institute of Physical and Chemnical Reeac (162) in 1927.0

Anuranhis maidi-radicis (Forbes), the corn root aphid

The Solith Carolina' Agricultural Zxcpriment Station (i2) in t annual re-port for 1937 reportedly that cotton root ainhias cause reat damage in the Coastal Plains area of South Carolina. Three species~ of
aphids are usually prescant. Yamed in the order of their abunai.nce ths are A. mad-adcs rifidaphis phascoli _(Pass.), and. flhonalosi-ou p
[~robabl'y R.'subterrancum M asonl

The most -oractical aoroc toy-ar. controlling these roo t ~P,?ids appears to be in mixing some insecticide or re-nellent 1 4th the fertiliV.e and applying the mixture directly to the-. soil. With thiq in -view, 36 ..lots irere laid out in each of 14 fields, anid each field, or exrerimenIt was treated. with 6 different insecticides re-)licate, IS times.. One ofth in-secticides was derris powder (14 percent rot~enone) a-opliecd at th tt of S0 roii.nds per ac-toe. Each insecticide was thoroughly- mixed'with the fertilizer and ar-_ liead to the soil p-rior to planting. Pounts- waere then made of the number of aphiel colonies recentnt on 100 linear feet in ec rlot after the cotton came up, also of the total number of plants that. cam~e un on 100 linear foet in' each nlot and later of the number that were living just before- cho7,-mi o thinning,. The -ocrcentage of redluctiini stane urns then commuted for each tre;a)tn-ent. At the enC. of the frut~rneriokft lohen all the 'eoll-q were set, counts 'were mad~e of all. th'e bolls
--resen~t on the twio center rows i n eac ~1t os~iiat fference
bet-eri anl? of th;-e treatments soirepareL in the number of arphidl col.onies~ in t'he .-ercentage reduction in st-and., or in the boll counts. No harm u or undesirable eff'Eects were noteft in the growth of the nlant'. from th use of any of thecqe insecticik'.es when a-oTlieed to the soil in theamut


T2estc coneeucte. against the root a-:-hids 2 phaseoli ,R. subterranea~,.. n A. m6iL~-radicis on cotton were renorteO. in June 1939 by Ran
waer(225). Tn the first series of ex-.eriment- derris -van mixed. in th soil of the seedThe. from 2 to 3 weeks before planting, at the rate of10
-oou-nds ner aicre. TIhe seedl came u--r to a good, stan., On the Cerris-treae
-)lotrn 2.5 colonies *oer 10.0 ro-w feet were -nresent, in dorin'arison 1w-it1 7.5 arid. 10.5 in the check-s. Ir nohe series of test, cond,'4ctoa' in a fed
weethe cotton had. been kil 'b-- the a~isand 't i-Tns necessary to
renlaqnt, the -materials were lihl m Tixc(d. with the soil and the see. wa






-5

immditel panted. TW;o hundred. pounds of tobacco dust, to which 0.25
'Oecen ofroenone from debris -oowdler had been added, was ured per acre.
he obgco-derris -plot camre up 'to a good. sta!nd_. In the third series of tet .6 noituis of elerris Was mixe4 with 100 pounds of cotton seed just befoepnanting. The seed treated with derris germinate& more quickly ,- ws -, 24 hours earlier than t~he checks. There was very little reduct i.i the n-umber of apnhid colonies.

vxuaphis persicae-niger (Sm-ith), the black peach an Thid7

In the fielO. the mortaldity of this s-oecies when sprayed with a
su-ension o~f nure rotenone in water. 1:14o0000, was 98.3 percent.
Da.TiLFon (J) in 1930.

Aua-ohi roseus Baker, the ros- app'le apohid

T e .ew York Agricultural Ex-oeriment Station (211) in, 1928 reporte. tha rosyv phid, infestation of a-'-rle trees w,,as noticeably reduced by Derriol Nan 3uren (307) in 1928 reported flerriso. to be effective. Parrott
gtabout 9 -oercent of the rosy anhiCL% or, Rome treep whllen Derrisol at1:90 was used, as compareC it a little less than 1 percent on -)lats s-orayee.,~ith lime-sulfur and. nicotine sulfate. In thp field the mortality of this insect when -pared ith a suusnension of pure rotenonie in ,,rater Was 96.3 -oercent -at a concentration of 1:140,7000 and. 90.2 nrercent at a cncentration of 1:60,000. --Davidson ()in1930.

Parrott a Glasgow (220) in 1930 reporteE trials of Eifferehit insticid.es against the rosy% aphiC, in ITew- York. The results with the derris
-ennration, 2errisol, were as follows:

InsecticidLe Ahi-attac1.ea angles t'ner tree
Percent

Lie-sul-ohur l:LWQ + Jerrisol 1:800C 22.17
Lie-salnhur 1:4~0 + Derri!7ol 1:1600
+ nicotine qulrnhate 1: i6oo 7.39
Borde,.u 4- h50 + Derrisol 1:S00 43-.90
Cece-7 --lot 51.65

In npst seasons sme of Derrigo1,* although consistently inferior to nicotine c~a~ reatly, redu'_ced the a'Thied populat ion.

Both rotenone and. aerri-, extract -oroveOd much more toxic than --,,rethrumn extrict to th-is s-oecies (cf. Anhis nomi Deg.). The tests were made bl i-o-An,- apple twigs infested with these aphids in solutions of various concentrations. --Ginsburg anC Scbmr~itt (125 ) in 1932,

knurpa- his tuliae (Fonqo.), the tui~p bulbO a-phie,

Duistintg the bulb-, with- d.erris is effective ir controlling infestati~ons of thle tulin a-hid. --Wilson (309) in 1938.
~ goefpti Glov, the cotton rmlo pi

I!clndoo et al. (199) in 1919 re-oorted that th-e alcoholic extract




........
T_



fro_-l Derris elli-)tica roots in the ratio of I -oound of rootsto 200 gallons-.
of water lus 4 nounc-s o7 fish-oil soar _"rille6L 100 percent of this "hM in 1--i,_-UorPtor-,- tests. Extrtct-- o- several s,Iecies of-Derris were tested.,
a-, well as a derris (lust r hica killed 99 -nercent.
De-nnis (77 621 24o issued March 15,
74' in '.Tnitecl States Patent ly
1927, a -' in Reis 7u7e-10, 667, isquek love,7ber 22, 1932, state, that an 'd times as effective as-similar derri
- lco'--,l c extrP.ct of cube is eighl 4- s
extr-ct an& 'is also sli-r-.ntly nore effective thar. nicotine slilfate when
on. the cotton arME.

vrhe7, A. gossy2ii on celer, Iin a grocnhouse was Olusted with a mix.&-,trc of '2 -.7a.rts, of rotenone an(i 99 narts of d.iato-na:ceous earth 69.9 nercent i,!erc Is: i 11 c d, --Da7ie, 7oa in 1930.

Little (193) in 1931 --! ve a detn.ilcd account of the ins-ect iciclal
r4
Levills-s'-oo-,tinr, (Tenhrosia virCiniana'. Dried. 0.
oroncrt.cs o an powdered.
(lOO-zcf1h) roots werc su nenrIeL in ..rater and testeeL -ag,-Iinl;t many kinds of insects. 'ihen s-!ora-eE on A. _o i -),t a. dilution of 1:3,200 'without T,read.er devills-s ioe .trin- --av, a kill of 64. percent -.s com-oared.'With82.9 norcent for nicotine 73.1 rerccAt fo. d.erris.

,4iel& tests by Little (192) with A. gossL,2ii showed th,-).t Eevillsstring mz cop.q-*, 6.erable -T ntact s-oroZ,.
,ho e h- 7ro:nise as a cc,

lhiz i--easil, ,- controllc6 b- snrarin- with Derrisol at 1:900
or Katak.illa at 5 -Oou,-,eL s -oor 100 imperial r--allons. --Andricq (10) in 1932.

Goff P.rk' Tispot (123) in 1972 rcnortea t',a,;.t the molon a-phi(I Tnay be controlled by trep.ting tho infested nlant- with one of the liquid aphicont, -iininc- extracts of nicotine nyrethriLm or derris.

41erino ane. Ct! nes (197) in 1937 recom:-,ene.ee_, a. aerris-soap spray for the control of. this species o- cotton in the Philippine Islands.

1-Tille, Ocan-00, Weberbauer, Pmd Schofield. (307) of the AgricultuTlal Experiment Stntiloxn at TMolina, Teru, in 1937 rbnorte ._ that qnrays of cube
J.
extr-).,cV cont,-_Anin .0t
9.0-05 or 0.01 percent of r en-one -oroveE as effective a,. ,Anst this species as a O.r--percelat solution of nicotine sulfate.

Gun."erson* (l14) in 1939' re'comienCe t the u-e of derris against nelon an h i il

Gaines (114) in 1939 re-)orte the tests of derri or cube-aadedto
fluorine conn.noua(15 Pund a-oniie as dustg.
Relative
Treatment arhia nonulation

Ca 1 c 4. tim a r s e na t e 100
S-Pthetic cr-,.rolite alone 100
Synthetic cryolite + d-errip(0-r- -oercent rotenore' 14
Bar inn fluoq1liepte alone 103
Barium fluosilicate + derris
(0-5 ercent rotenone) 23








hen derris or be was added to calcium arsenate, in no case did.
a damaging aphid popuation develop ho ever, at Tallulah a dust containing rotenone 0.6 percent, Avirol 1 percent, water 1 percent, and peanut oil 0.5-percent, th talc as a carrier, appliedafter the infestations became heay, failed to give satisfactory control. The heavy infestations were satisfactorily controlled with one application of lime and nicotine sulfate containing 3 percent of nicotine.

Eaude (144) in 1939 wrote that there is considerable unpublished evidence indicating that the cotton aphid may be effectively held in
check with rotenone-bearing dusts.

Tiburec and Blattny (268) in 1939 reported that in tests with A., Gossypii a dust of derris and chloropicrin (3 cc. chloropicrin per 1,000 gm. of derris powder) proved as ineffective as a dust of derris alone.

The United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (2C4) in 1933 reported good control of cotton aphids atlorence, S. C., with the following rotenone dusts: 11.2 pounds of derris-tobacco-sulfur dust (1 percent rotenone) per acre; and 1lg.4 pounds of cube-sulfur dust (1 percent rotenone) per acre. From these and other observations it appears that rotenone may be more effective in the presence of moisture. At Tallulah, L!., three plots with a medium aphid infestation were dusted by M. T. Yonmg with a derris-clay mixture containing
1 percent of rotenone at a rate of 10 to 13 pounds per acre. To one of the mixtures was added 1 percent of Aresket, to another 1 percent ofVatsol, while the third contained no wetting agent. Very little, if any, control was obtained from any of these applications. Another series of heavily infested clats at Tallulah was dusted by G. L. Smith with these mixtures about the same time, also with negative results. Similar lack of control of cotton aphids with dusts containing rotenone resulted on lots dusted. by K. P. Eiing at Port Lavaca, Tex., in July.

Aphis helianthi Mon.

4cndoo, Sievers, and Abbott (189) in 1919 reported that 96.6 percent of these aphids were killed when sprayed with derris powder soaked for half an hour in soap solution consisting of 1 pound of powder to 100 gallons of water plus 2 pounds of fish-oil soap.

Aphi llinoisensis Shim., the gra-pevine a-hid

Dickey and Loucks (SG) in 193S recommende derris spray for the co-trol of (Macrosinhum) Ais illinoisensis Shim. attacking grapes in Flo ridLa.

Anhis medicaginis Koch, the covpen aphid

Ca'stillo (1S) in 1926 reported the results of studies on the insecticidal nronerties of three species of Derris growing in the Philirines, namely, D. nolyantha Perk. D. philip-ninensis Merr., and D. elli~tica (Roxb.) 5enth. The roots were cut into thin, transverse slice and, dried in an oven at 40O C. until the weight remained fairly constant~. The dried material was then com-iinuted in a mortar and the








lolAr .,ering finally a -eat grln .er. The fine powder was
Ir i, the f er !7 1 b,- -_7ft4,n& A, o t h In' the
s e 7n r P. t e cl -L o
comnar, ,t i ve s tu _i e T o f th e' 61 -r6 ct of ra' t io ns -phillppinezz sis _ira iased beca-a -,4 it -rtis re-lati, 4eYr-tcriie n: bunda-ntj hence mo re thb.
eqsil,,- -nrocurable than o thers., -To,, ,ts ,vrf_ r'6 T ade.-bn' mdsavito -larvae 'The'' cbncefttr',tLnrr Vf t. --oh
pnd or, I i:li-o-oineftsig which
e P, t n u- nb e'r a's
brought about th P7rg, of' 6 'a t,,h-,4, _o f 'a h i d q w m u dI i h I g h e r
thp., thn 0 larvaO '"nanely, '4:1,
,t rooiaireL for -.-noscluit 000. Th6 lowest
cucent'ration of D. rhilip7inen -is used., 0.5:1)000, caused -a notice.0patage of mortality among as compared idtk'the' control .
,'ble per C

G-a i n e s (114) in 1939 re -)orted_ t'e'st'S ag,-.in.-t A. meaidagini's of derris, or cube added to fluarine com-rounds, and aorlied as dusts (see d.1'scussion under-A. gossypii, p. 6)

A-Phi.,4 -nerii Fonsc.

A 'commercial derris extract at J,:500 gave 13 rerce *t'control. DeCrig, ) n& White ( (0) in 1924.

khis o dinae, (van der GootY.'

T h e ksore, India De-nartment of Agriculture (2 in 1939 -'reparted susnension.s and alcoholic extract s of derris to be ef ecti-,re against, th i s species.,

his naraveris F.

Establissements Rotenia in 1539, in a letter to R. 0. Roark,- Stated
that this Species on cherry treer is killed! by a. rroprietary-aust containinp 12 percent, of cube of 6 percent roteao .e,.content.

A ?his nomi De,,-. the a-pple aphid, qr green anple anhid

McIndoo, Sievprs, and Abbott (199-) in 1919 re.-ported that derris .
-oovder used as a dust under -crp.ctical conditions was effective against greenapple aphids.

Kel Sall' 'e, t ai. (162), il'1 1926 re.-, )orted that the green apple anhiil clerris pounds in 100 imperial gallons of rather without soap, gave -oractic-i.lly co-m-plete, control bein,- a little superior to 1 pound of nicotine sulfate (4o percent) With the acIeLition of a little- s.o.ap'tothe Solution derriv. as low ns 2-11'2 ncqn ,s to 100 imperial g-q.llons* of r6tbr ov,,,e- 100-i percent mortality, arE iq su-Derior to 1 -poi.ILTICI of nicot-ine SU-1fa4v-e' (40' )erc6n' t) A C'.Ust contuaininc- as high Pz 20 -r percent of C erris plus 90 -)ercent of hydrate.0 line: ,Proved ineffective against the green an-,)le aphi& wher. applied to.dry folip--e. Derris 6,ust re uiresmoisture to P,,W. :e its toxic properties effec'tiv'c n.gainst this anhie

Cut ri ht (60)'.*n
1 -L:,.3 Q r e 1 orte t.I),at Derri.1-1.ol _.S-thebe.,t of the derri -o 'oducts triec. a,7.-J_-not a- 7)le arhi _--. The efficacy of lime-sulf r
ag ndn, t c-q-s wt,),s 'blzt little imrroverlb-, the addit
or oil'- s]tra, a--)h.i a i qn
of Derrisol. At 1:900 Darrisol sa t i s f a c t or i'l,, tilled arhi if-they were thoroughly








In the field 99 percent of the apple aphids were killed when
sprayed with a suspension of rotenone 1:60,000: and 77.2 percent were
killed by a dust containing 1 part of rotenone and 99 parts of diatomaceous earth. --Davidson (6) in 1930. Fulmer (113) in 1930 wrote that the green apple aphid can be effectively controlled by spraying with derris ower, 5 pounds per 100 imperial gallons.

Ginsburg and Schmitt (i25) in 1932 compared the contact insecticidal action of rotenone and the pyrethrins on apple aphids. Apple twigs infested with these aphids were dipped in solutions of various concentrations of rotenone derris, and pyrethrum extracts. Both rotenone and derris extract proved much more toxic to aphids than did pyrethrum extract. Rotenone at 1:10,000 killed 93.4 percent of the apple aphids in 24 hours; derris extract (rotenone equivalent to 1:13,200) killed 93 percent.

Ginsburg and Granett (122, 123) in 1934 tested on the green apple aphi untreated derris powder and also the marc after extraction with acetone or with acetone followed by water. The materials were applied in the form of coarsely and finely ground dusts. Derris-root dust (rotenone
4.1 percent) was more toxic against aphids when applied on wet than on dry foliage. Residues from aerris root extracted with acetone possess practically no toxicity to aphids. In 1935 the same workers (124) studied th comatibility of derris in combination with other materials in tests on A. oi. The addition of lime, lead arsenate, or sulfur, singly or combined, tended to reduce the aphicidal properties. It also appeared tht witha good wetting agent a suspension of fine derris root was as efficient as a dispersion of a commercial acetone extract. Liouid limesulfur appeared to exert a deleterious effect on the aphicidal properties of derris. Nevertheless the combination of derris root and lime-sulfur with a spreader gave sufficiently good results against the green apple aphid to warrant tests as a substitute for nicotine-lime-sulfur in the field.

Ginsburg, Schmitt, and Granett (126 127) in 1934 reported on the toxicity of various extracts of derris root to sucking and chewing insects. Two extracts of derris root, one containing a high percentage of rotenone, the other no rotenone, were equally toxic to anhids in dilutions of 1:20,000 or lower. Based on tests of extracts with different species of insects, including the green apple aphid, the following conclusions were drawn:

Water-soluble organic solvents such as acetone and alcohol
are able to extract nraotically all of the water-soluble and water-insoluble ingredients of derris root that are toxic to sucking insects. Either continuous distillation, or soaking
with subsequent filtration and washing, extracts all the active
p rinciples that act as contact poison when acetone or alcohol
is used. Water does not extract all the toxic trincinles of
derris root. At low dilutions the water extracts compared
well in toxicity with acetone and alcohol extracts, but proved
inferior to them in high dilutions. Water extracts rapidly
deteriorate on standing, with resultant loss of toxicity.
Alcohol extracts slowly lose toxicity upon standing. Acetone extracts do not show anly appreciable changes in toxicity uon







standing. The toxicity of d.rris extract vaiswtdfern snecies of' insects. Derrs~ exracts were moe oxct iscs
thtan w-ere solutions of pure rotnone~ klhougi 'the conenra tion of~ rotenone was practically the same in eac case. -oe ,none alone is not an adecuate criterion to- evauae thetoic
it, of derris root to insects.'

Farrar (99) in 193 6 reported that tests made in~ Illinois shoe thait extracts of pyrethrum, derris, or cube were not' so efficien aais A. -oomi as was nicotine rnixed with oil emul~sion. The 'addition~ ofsa increased the killihg? power of an oil containiin~g such extracts- but-o enough to- warrant the added 'cost of the extracts.

Etablissemneits 1 otenia in 1939 re-ported insecticide tests aais A. pomi on apple and near trees (see discussion under A. paaeri o


The insin Agricultural Experiment Stqtion (32) in 193
-oorted 'veryr good results with an experimental derris dust applied t h rate of About 1l'nound ne tree. The mixture was made un- of 12 pcoud of ground derris root '5 percent rotenone); 214 pounds of talc 12'pud of dlustin.g sulfur, and 12 round~s of Goulac. Within a week afterths mixture was used practical all the aphids had been destroye. Th only~apohias f oun. were P.. f ew winged adults that narently, had lw from other trees, and. 'some offs-pring of such insects. A dust maeu of ,10 pounds of 140 nercent nicotine, -ulfate to 125 pDouncls of lm;s as to give about A 3 -percont nicotine content, was also tested. We uiseO, at the rate of an-roximatell 1/2 poun. per tree, this materilgv only fa,)ir control. Two days after treatment the nicotine-14.memitr seemed to be gi'~ing about as good control as derris, 'out a "eek at dusting the comparison was very much in favor of derris.

Anhi s rumicis L., the bean aphid

.1c~hdoo, Sievers', and Abbo.tt (~)in 1919 reported that d.eri owl~der, useed As A dust, under practical condItions, was effectiveagis benn aphids.' M~c~ndoo and Sievers (199) in 1924 renort'ed cube powdrt be effective against bean aphids, both as a dlust and a's an infuion.

lryer et al.. (107) in 1923 used A. r'umicis as one of the tes insects to determine the insecticidal value of diifferent mples o Derris elli-otica roots. AphDMC. were less susceptible than werecrti cater'llars. Broadbeans heavily infe-,ted with bean aphids werespae with em-,lsions of the root extr--ct of strengths of 4+ 2 1 ,and 05 e cent of the root. The toxic action was extremely! slow and ixicerta while nicotine oleato in a dose containing 0.05 percent of docotinews immediately and almost completely effective.

Gimnlette (120) in 1923 re-oorted work that H. E. Durham did it derris in 1903. Derris had no effect as a contact poison on. ic~s

Tattersfiela -.n& Roach (264) in 1923 referred to Durham's wr on clerri-_ in. which he found. thae bear. apohid resistant to iet appliain

The Rothamsted Eh merimental Station (2) in 19214 re-oed ha








the seeds and leaves of Tphrosia vogelii were about as toxic as nicotine,
V !V
t set presumaby being the bean aphid.

Tattersfield (256, 2 ) in 1925 reported that extracts prepared from black ad white haiari (Lonchocarpus spp.) with water and organic solvents (particularly the latter) had been found highly poisonous to aphids [presumably A. rumicis as contact insecticides. In 1927 he reported that the roots and stems of both black and white haiari were toxic to A. rumicis but that the leaves ,ere not. Tubatoxin (rotenone) from Derri ellitica, at a concentration of 0.25 percent, was almost completely toxic to bean aphids. Six species of. Tephrosia were also tested againr-st bean aphids, with the following results:



Species Parts tested Result

T. vogelii------ Leaves Toxic
Do, - - --- Seeds Do
Do. - - - - Stems Less toxic than leaves and seeds

T. toxicaria - - Do Toxic
Do--------------Roots Do.

Do - - - - Stems Do.
Do. - - - - Leaves Not toxic
T. macrpoda - - Roots Toxic
Do. --- - --- Stems Do.
T>. candida - - - Low toxicity
T. hookeriana - - -- Do.
T. purpurea- ----- Do.



Tattersfield, Gilmingham and Morris (261, 262) in 1925 reported that both alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Tephrosia vogelii Hook. were found to have high toxicity to A. rumicis as contact poisons. The toxic effect of the concentrated extracts on this insect was about the same as that of nicotine. Aqueous extracts of the leaves and seed proved very toxic when a suitable wetting reagent was used with them and were preferable to those made with organic solvents: the latter on drying tended to become somewhat insoluble, and the aqueous extracts had about the same toxicity. The acueous and alcoholic extracts of a given weight of seed also had. an equal toxicity, but the dried extracts prepared by means of organic solvents were more readily worked up into an emulsion. The stems were less poisonous than either leaves or seeds, The same authors in 1926 reported that alcoholic extracts of the roots and stems of white haiari and the stems of black haiari (both species of Lonchocarpus from British Guiana) possess notable insecticidal properties when tested on the bean aphid. Crystals isolated from these plants "ere identical with tubatoxin (= rotenone) from Derris elliptica. Rotenone at a concentration of 2.5 to 0.075 gim. per liter killed all aphids; 0.01 gm. per liter caused 20'percent to be moribund. Rotenone proved to be several times more toxic than nicotine. The alcoholic extracts of the roots of Tephrosia toxicaria and the leaves of T..vogelii also possess notable insecticidal properties when tested on A. ruamicis. The roots and stems of T. candida are less toxic. The most toxic substances isolated from T.







taxicarie and T. vogelii were resinous. rystals closely corresponding to tephrosin, as isolated by Hanriot, were less toxic.

Tattersfield and Gningham (259 260) in 1927 referred to their previous work with white and.black haiari and -stated that the tubatoxin (rotenone) these plants contain is unauestionably one of the most potent insecticides. The toxicity to the black bean aphid of products isolated from haiari, compared with nicotine, is shown in graphs. In 1932 they reported that samples of roots, stems, and leaves of Derris scandens fr British Guiana and branches, roots, and leaves of D. trifoliata (uligin from India and Siam showed little or no toxicity to bean aphids.

In preliminary trials the nlant material was ground fine, extract with alcohol or water, and the extracts diluted with a 0.5 nercent sol of nontoxic saponin. A high concentration (equivalent to 1 to 5 percent of the nlant material) was tried first. The insect used in most of the experiments was A. rumicis, feeding on broadbean plants, and bred so far as possible, under standardized conditions. The alcohol or aqueous extracts of Tephrosia candida, T. purpurea, T. heckmannana, and T. hook eriana showed little or no toxicity. The seeds of T. hookeriana showed some toxicity. The alcoholic extracts of the roots, and to a less extent of the stems, of T. macropoda from Natal possess considerable contactinsecticidal value. The leaves are of little value. The bark of Millet tia pachyearpa Benth. was not toxic, but the alcoholic extracts of stems seeds, and pods of Mundulea suberosa Benth. from India showed definite activity as contact insecticides. One specimen of the seeds and pod of Lonchocarpus latifolius from Trinidad showed slight toxicity.

A. rumicis is not appreciably controlled by sprays of derris whi according to Durham (91) in 1926, is essentially a stomach poisoned In an insectary experiment it was killed completely but slowly by &erris, 5 pounds to 100oo imperial gallons of water, according to Kelsall et al. (169) in 1926.

Neoton (derris extract in fish oil),,197.5 gim. plus an equal weight of soap in 40 imperial gallons of water, killed from 50 to 100 percent of bean aphids. --Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (162) in 1927.

Turner (271) in 1932 reported the results of work carried on during lq28 to 1931, inclusive, with cube extract and with rotenone obtain from cube.

Davidson (6, 64) in 1930 reported the following results of tests of aoueous suspensions of pure rotenone upon the bean aphid:

Concentration Mortality
(gm.:cC.) (percent)

1:100,000 99.5
1:200,000 100.0
1:300,000 97.0

A dust composed of 2 arts of rotenone and 9 parts of diatomaceos




. .. .. ..






-13

earth killed 100 percent of these aphids on nasturtium in a greenhouse.
Racemic deguelin killed 100 percent at 1:10,000; tephrosin 100 percent
at 1:5,000 and toxicarol 94.5 percent at 1:500.

Shepard, using the bean aphid as the test insect, noted that in acetone or in alcohol rotenone decomposes only very slowly, but in aqueous suspensions made from these solutions it suffers a loss in toxicity on standing. --Davidson and Jones (65) in 1931.

Shepard (241) in 1931 tested the relative toxicity of rotenone
and nicotine to the bean aphid. The rotenone was first dissolved in 95 percent alcohol (0.25 gm. in 100 co.). It was found necessary to warm the mixture somewhat in a water bath -to dissolve the rotenone entirely. On dilution with distilled water a stable milky suspension resulted.
oonies of A. rumicis on nasturtium plants were. sprayed with the various dilutions. Both rotenone and nicotine were tested in duplicate at the same concentration on the same day, all the tests being made within as few days as possible. The spray mixtures were made fresh each day. ponin ~at 1-percent concentration was used as spreader, the required amount of stock solution of 5- to 10-percent saponin being added after the rotenone suspension was diluted somewhat with water. At concentrations of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.02 gm. per 100 cc. rotenone was more toxic tha nicotine. Rotenone sprays prepared from acetone and alcohol stock solutions were equally toxic against A. rumicis. A suspension of rotenone (0.01 percent) in 0.01 normal sodium hydroxide when fresh killed 71.2 percent of bean aphids, as compared with 38.7 percent at the end of Sdays. In distilled water the drop in mortality was from 93.4 to 79.9 and in 0.01 normal sulfuric acid from 93.9 to 67.0 percent in the same time. Acid caused a clotting of the rotenone particles. Cube extract in potasiuxm oleate at 1:50,000 killed 94.5 percent of A. rumicis, but aft~ standing 18 days th e kill at 1:60,000 dropped from 76.1 to 6.7 percent, indicating deterioration of the cube extract within this time. Cbe extract in oil emulsified in water with a sulfonate emulsifier (cube 1:200,000 and oil 0.5 percent) killed-80.3 percent of bean aphids, whereas the oil alone killed 18.5 percent.

Gaan (117).in 1934 reported laboratory and greenhouse tests of commercial extracts of derris and of cube against the bean aphid on nasturtiums. Five commercial rotenone preparations and two commercial pyrethruim-rotenone combinations were tested. It was found that the rotenone or pyrethrin content of these preparations must be increased if they are to compare favorably as aphicides with nicotine and anabasine products.

Gimingham (119) in 1934 described recent work on insecticides in Great Britain. Several s-ecies of the genus Tephrosia showed marked insectici~dal properties. against aphids Lprobably A. rumicis], the leaves and seeds of T. ogelii, the rets of T. toxicaria, and the roots and stems of T. macropoda all yielding highly toxic extracts. Extracts of whit and black haiari (Lonchocarpus spp.) from British Guiana proved highly toxic to aphids.

The bean aphid' was used as a test insect by Badertscher and Wotherspoon (11) in 1Q935 in testing the decomposition of derris and pyrethrum podors when exposed to the light from a Uviare mercury-vapor lamp. An







acueous suspension (rotenone 1:40,000) made b adding an acetone extract of derris to water killed. 67.1 percent of these ahids in24-hours.

Granett (133) in 1935 used bean aphids in testing the insedticida values of derris marc extracted with certain water-soluble and. waterinsoluble solvents. Ethyl alcohol was the only solvent which removed pr-.ctically all the insecticidal substances from derris.

Ginsburg and Granett (124) in 1935 reported on the aphicidal
-ronerties of derris and cube root: Derris and cube, as finely ground .usts, water suspensions, and extracts, were tested against various speccies of aphids. Tests against A. rumicis with derris samples ranging from 0 to 9 percent rotenone showed that the toxicity was in the order of thp rotc none content, but did not bear a direct relationshi to it.. It ,wa, stated. that a Rorris sample containing 5-percent of rotenone and high total acetone extractives should prove as efficient for practical purposes as roots of higher rotenone content. The rate of kill was slower when derris was applied as a dust than when used as either water suspension or extract. Tests were made against A. ruicis of a samle of derris root and a sample of cubc root to comare the aphicidal proper ties of these materials. The derris root selected contained 5 percent of rotenone and 17.9 percent of acetone extractives while the cube root contained 5 percent of rotenone and 16.7 percent of acetone extractive, The samples were compared as (usts, water'suspensions and acetone extracts. On the whole the differences in toxicity to aphids observed wer too small to warrant a definite distinction between the two samples. Apparently derris and cube provided, they have the same rotenone and total-extractive content, are equally toxic to aphids. Roark (2 in
1938, in a review of the comparative value of derris and cube, referred to the work of these investigators.

Lever (181) in 1935 published the results of tests of Derris trifoliata from the 3ritish Solomon Islands. Specimens of roots, stems, and leaves were examined by the Rothamsted Experimental Station by spray ing alcoholic extracts on A. rumicis. Results were as follows:


Concentration of
Derris s-ecies Sample alcoholic extractives Mortl4ality
Percent Percent

D. trifoliata Roots from Savo: 4 o.46 4o
Do. - - Stems from Savo: 3 1.17 6o
Do. - -- Roots from Gizo: 4 0.46 45
Do. - - Stems from Savo: 6 1. 58 71
Do. - - Leaves from Savo: 7 1.37 85
D. ellirtica Roots from Malaya: 7 0.07 62


Martin (192) in 1936 reported finding about o.4 percent of roteno in a specimen of Tephrosia macropoda Harv. from the Natal Herbarium, Department of Agriculture, Durban. Qualitative insecticide tests using
a cold alcoholic extract of the finely, ground root diluted with saponin solution were made on A. rumicis. At concentrations equivalent to 0.25






-15

and 0.1 percent of the root, the percentages of moribund and dead insects
recorded on the' third day after spraying were 95 and 50 percent respectively. The root thus- shows a decided toxic action to this insect.

Foliafume (a pyrethrum-derris spray with spreader) at 1:0hO0 killed p percent in 49 hours. --Penick and Company (223) in 1936.

Van der Vecht (298) in 1937 tested the method of Jones and Smith
(165), usiQ the results obtained by Tattersfield and Martin with different speci'& of derris against A. rumicis'. This method gives good results in evaluating derris containing more than 4 percent of rotenone; the t ic vi e of Derris nalaccensis (containing from 0 to 2.7 percent rotenone) i~s best expresse& by the formula: Value = rotenone content + 1/ remainder of extract.

Craufurd-Benson (57) in 1938 experimented with field-collected A. rumicis, but re sults> were comple.tely unreliable. These aphids were also roared in a greenhouse under standard conditions and used {or laboratory testing of liquid contact insecticides, especially derris oreparations. The results of trials on any one day were comparable and indicated the cominarative toxicities of the insecticides tested, but when the same insecticide was tested. on different days the results were incoordinate.

Gunderson (14) in 1938 recommended derris against bean aphids. Howes (156) in 193 reorted tests made at the Rothamsted Experimental Station on insects [presumably the bean aphid] with alcoholic extracts of the roots of Tephrosia macropoda cultivated in atal. A concentration of 0.25 percent of a 2-year-old root killed 100 percent of the insects.

Tattersfield and Martin (263) in 193S rernorted on the toxicity to the bean aphid of certain products isolated from derris root. The toxicities to A. rumicis of rotenone, toxicarol Precursor, sumatrol, toxicarol, and the residual resins from the Sumatra-type and Derris elliptica roots were determined. The toxicity in descending order was rotenone > elliptica resin > Sumatra-type resin > sumatrol = toxicarol precursor ) native toxicarol. Rotenone was 6 times as toxic as-the Sunatra-type resin, E times as toxic as that derived from D. elliptica, and from 13 to15 times as toxic as the toxicarol precursor.

Achis sambuci L., a bl-ack aphid

Derris or rotenone suspensions at a concentration of 1:5000 or 1:6250 were effective. --DeBissy et al. (3g), in 1935.

Anhis spiraecola Patch, the spirea aphid, or.green citrus aphid

MxIndoo, Sievers, and Abbott (19) in 1919 reported that an alcoholic extract of derris added to water at the rate of extract from 1 pound of powder to 100 gallons of after, ,lus 2 ounds of fish-oil soap, killed only 30 percent of this aphid. When derris powder was soaked. in soap solution 2 days and the mixture sprayed, 50 percent of the aphidls were killed.





-i6

lictncoo and gevezs (199) in 1.924 repoed ha claachoi
ex tract .of culbe T~V~soap in water (1 + 2 + 100) kill-eft9 PT~ f thi,3s pcis-' withini 241 hour~s. The drZJ ciibcesi h i s~ovd. alol and s-hrtiyed- 1wit '. a-p in water (1 + 2 + '100) killed. onl~y 60 pret ih i n 2 days.

Watson (302) in 'iD25 wrote that "Derri~s oil". [Derrisol?] 1< tabe s-Doon to a gallon of water was an effective dipo for the control ofth c it rus' anhid in .Florida. ,The infested t ermirial growth was bent over it bucket cont Ani n- the Solut ion.

The Florida Agricultural Experimpnt -Station- (102, 103, 104+) re
-nortod in 1926..that flerrisol wi-as tri&'4. against the Qitriis aphid4, in Cm )azrison 1-ithl n-icotine sulfat'e. Its action was miuch slower but it see to have a relpellent effect for a day or two. It did not penetrate h curl-d leaves so well as did nicotine sulfate. This station in 1931 r nortc& that an extract of TcnThroqia virginiana-:wa-_ inoffective agins this s-ppcies; ane, in its annual roeOort for .1934 stated that good.conro of the green citrus aphid was obtai-ned w,,ith a product containing50nr cent of-iwhite oil and 0.33 percent of rotenone.

r. er (los) it. 1925 gave~the following directions for the~ useo D-orrisol: Dorrisol, should be diluted with water 1:10 and this solto then added to water to make n final dilution of 1 pint of Dorrisol 7 100 gallons. The Derrisol should never be Paded directly to the wate in the spray, tank, as a dilution of unif orm strength is difficult to obtain in this manner. -Soap may be used. w-ith Derrisol, but its uei une-cessary. Derrisol can be used as a mixed spray with oil emulsion lirno-gulfur, bordeaux, an& rsenato-s, care being taken that the Derio is added only to the diluted insecticides. It is most important nott add,7 the Derrisol, to the concentrated spray material when mixed sp~rayi i.s doc'ireed, bece~use somec of the active ingredient may bo thrown ou~t of solution and. the final efficiency- of the -.pray mixture be thereby imare. Derrisol was effective against the citrus ~a-hid, and'also against aphd and other insect posts on hops, and: fruits in Znglandl.

lenfest (ISO) ir. 1926 mentioned Derriso. and Black Leaf 4C)0as about the two~ 'vest contact-insectioides for .uqc again-st citrus aphid
in Florida. Derrisol's-oroads well without soa-p. Lime'-sualfur mixedUit Derrisol will kill rust mitc~s and red spidlers, as Well as aphids.

ililler (202) in 1929 reporter! test-, to control the green citru
aphid in Florida. Derris extr3.ct, at any of the ordinary spraying stegh was not toxic to lat.Whcn used against aphids at ~1 -part'.t~o 900 it
av qq9-Dcrccnt kcill, and_ at 1 pert to 1,000 a 95-nercent- kill,. Ths
insecticide, however, is a slow-acting material and will not kill all th anhiec in 2~4 hours, but 'show-, its 'real effectiveness, in 36 to 49 hors Mille1-r was not able to find that derris extracts had anyv more lasting effect or ro-eellent-action than'nicotine sulfa~e.

Ti-,sot' an 1. Thompson (26) in 193,0 recorded the results of 1aoatr tests w,,ith nicotine-i pyrvthrun, and. derris, nerarations made at Gai esyule', ~Fla. Against the green- citrus aphid Toon, 1-1/1oudo gallons of water, plus Grand-pal s WondOcr Spray, 5 pounds to 100 gallos







\ / -17gave a mortality of 92.4 percent. Most a-hids that, survived were inside curled leaves. Heoton at the same concentration, plus Octagon laundry soap, 2-1/2 pounds to 100 gallons, gave a mortality of 81.9 percent, and ps 5 ponds Octagon laundry soap, a mort-lity of 94.4 percent. Peoton at 2-1/2 ounds -per 100 gallons, ~lus Octagon laundry soap, 5. pounds oer 100 gallons, gave a mortality of 96.2 percent. The highest kill (98.8 percent) in this series of tests was obtained with 50 percent of free nicotine at 1:1,000 plus 0.5-percent Penetrol. Reference to these results was made b, Thompson (267) before the Florida State Horticultural Society at its 1930 meeting. Derrisol also was stated to give good control.

Darley (62) in 1931 rcportod laboratory tosts using this species. Rotnone at 1:100,000 as a contact spray compared favorabl, with nicotine at 1:10,000 and pyrethrins at 1:74,800 1ith Ponotrol (1:200) in each spray.

Hamilton and Gemmell (137) in 1934 com-pared the effectiveness of
derris, py-rethrum, and hellebore powders against different insects. Dusts containing derris root powder (air-floated, 4 4 percent rotenone), pyrethrum powder (1.16 percent pyrethrins), mixtures of derris root powder, pyrethrum powder, and hellebore powder (0.8 percent activ-e principle) were tested. Inert clay was used as a diluent. Laboratory tests with A. spiraecola showed that diluted derris powder (rotenone, 1 percent), pyrethrum powder, or mixtures of the two were effective, but hellebore was not effective. Derris powder a-opeared to be more effective when mixed with water and applied as a spray, whereas the pyrethrum was more effective when applied as a dust. [Miixtures of derris and pyrethrun powders were slightly more effective when applied as dusts than when applied as sprays.]

Farrar (9S) in 1936 reported that extracts of pyrethrum, derris, or cube were not so efficient against A. sniraecola as nicotine mixed with oil emulsion. The addition of soap increased the killing power of arn oil containing such extracts, but not enough to warrant the added cost of the extracts.

Aphis tavaresi DelG. an orange aphid

Easily controlled by Dorrisol 1:800 or by Katakilla 5 pounds per 100 imperial gallons of water. --Andries (10) in 1932.

'orsley (324) in 1936 reported that bark of Mundulea suberona Benth. (0.9 percent rotenone) from loa district, Tanganyika Territory, East Africa, was almost ecnual to derris root (5.4 percent rotenone) in toxicity to this aphid. Concentrations necessar: to give 100-percent kill of A. tavaresi were 0.25 percent for nicotine, 0.29 percent for derris root, and
0.33 percent for Mundulea bark.

Bhatta and Harayanan (15) in 1937' stated that in small-scale field trials extracts of seeds of Tephrosia candida and of the stem bark of "undulea sericea were effective at 0.25- and 0.5-percent concentrations, resctively, against A. tavaresi on citrus.

Y.n der Vecht (298) in 1937 tested, the method of Jones and Smith (190) using the results obtained by Worsley with different species of
derris against A. tavaesi. This method gives good result -







derris containing more than ~4 percent of rotenvon;teoxcvle0
Derris malaccensiss (from 0 to 2.7 nercen rotenone) isbs xpesdb
the following formula: Value.,= rotonone content + 113 reaneoetat,

Brevicoryne, brassicae (L.), the cabbage aphidI

Veoton 197.5 gmn., plup -an equal4 weight of soap in 40 impera
ions of rater killed. 100 nercent. -:-Institutte Physical and Cheica
Research (l62 in 1927.

D~avidson (63. 64) in 1930 re-ported the following results:


:Percentage of ap3hids k illeO, by spraying 'wit Conc~nrai~no~ ~pay Rotenone : Bacemic : TJehrosin T oxiao
:dogueolin :


1:500------------- 0-1:5,000 ---------- ------ .94.o 0
1:10,000---------- -- -- -
1:20,000o--------------1-"30,000-----------*-
11100)000----------0 lob,
1:200)000- ------ -----97).4.


-T11ho cabbage anhid was used as a tcst insect by Davidson andJoe 4(65) in 1031 in studying the loss of toxicity suffered. 'b,- roten~one i
certain solvents and in aqjueous suspension. Rotenone at 1:0,00QOO-o
99*w5 -per-cent of this speci.es.

Shenard (2141) in 1931 referred to u-npublished work by Davidsn
who founeL that individuals tests on the cabbage aphiecwith rotenonesSTrn Rions at 1:100,000, but treated in different w-ays, resultecl in' 99.4s.
64-i.o, 22.4, an. 46.5-percent mortality at the end of 1 d6, 'but atth tn,,
of 14 d.ays the same ex-oeriinents, respectively, gave 95.6, 99.1, 9545, 00 arnd 9C'.7-rercent mortalityy' These daashow the desirability of -follwn
the, course of -poi'soning until the act-ion is compl1ete.

Ramilton and G-eimell'(37) in 10314 reported thiat jyrethrum us n
mixture of derris and p rethrum. ,Tere. e~active i,., laboratory tests
ag-ainst the cabbage aphid, yhile derris (1-nerc'ent roten'one) w,'as les o

,G&insburg and Granet t (124) in 1935 reported that several ude
young cabbage xolants infested. 1,. ith tlhe cabbage apohid. were-s-prayed t r
oughly- on both surfaces of the leaf iwith a comnerciaa.cetoiae extrato derris at a. concentration of 0.5 pint -per 100 gallons-of watert plui..2 percent of soapo. Aroitey90- to 100- -percent kill -was noted 2dy later., -.oug;hton and Byrne in 1935-- stated. in a letter to the chiefofte bureau -of, Entoiology and. Plant quarartino that they fail&a~to cotro h
cabbage a-phid. ti a dust containing- 2.92- percentt of tbftrcie
but no rotenono. THoward ot al. (154) in 1-935 reported C.crri.s to e es
c f-foctivc t'ha-n.nicotine for control of the cabbage apiid,. Huc1kettan








7 1) in 1935 reported that cabbage aphids were not satis-...
factorily controlled by derris or cube dust mixtures.

The Yew York State Agricultural Experiment Station (212, 21.) in
1935 reported that derris (dust (0.5-percent rotenone) had little.value in protecting Danish cabbage against the cabbage aphid. In 1936 this stationn reported that aphids in the cauliflower seedbed were effectively controlled with dusts containing 0.5 and 0.33 percent of rotenone, the applications being made late in the evening under calmr conditions, in anticipation of period of high relative humidity during the night.

7eitch (290) in 1935 reported that derris sprays are highly effective for the control of the cabbage aphid.

Walker and Anderson (296) in 1935 reported the following results when cabbage plants were dipped in concentrations of derris preparations strng enough to control cabbage aphids:


Percentage survival of plants
Material Concentration Tops Tops and roots
di-ned dipped

Pysol - - - - 1:100 96 74
Red Arrow--- ---1:100 96 95
Super Agricultural Spray 1:100 931


Derris dust failed to give satisfactory control. --Walker and Anderson (297) in 1935; also reported by Cory (277) in 1935.

In laboratory tests a dust containing 50 parts of derris (3.95
percent rotenone) and. 50 parts of g-sum caused 20-percent mortality in
2 days. In field experiments dust- containing 25 percent of derris proved unstisfactory. --Kelsall and Stultz (170) in 1937.
College
Dibble, of Michigan State/, in advertising literature in 1938, recomeded derris or pyrethrum dust or spray for the control of cabbage aphids. arly control keeps the population low and prevents much difficulty later. Says 6o not stick well on cabbage, and dusts are often given first choice. In large patches spraying is cheaper if good equipment is available.

Gunderson (134) of lo,,a State College Extension Service in 193S
recommended derris or cube dust for the control of cabbage aphids. Petherbridge and Wright (226) in 1939 reported derris dusts to be inferior to a 3 ercernt -nicotine Oust for the control of the cabbage aphid. Howard and elso (155) in 1939 reported that a nicotine-hydrated-lime dust mixture (2.14 percent nicotine) was much more toxic to this insect in southern Ohio than were dust mixtures containing 1 percent of rotenone derived from cube and containing~ either sodium 1oleyl sulfate or peanut oil as conditioners and either tale or a mixture of eoual -arts of tobacco dust and sulfur as diluents. None of the dust mixtures containing cube gave satisfactory control of this aphid.






III111111W 20
Derris or cube dusts have given unsatisfactory results in tes $ for the control of the cabbage aphid.. --Walker and Anderson ( 99)'.in
Augi.ist 1939.

Howard (152) in 1940 re-ported. t ha i: a nicotine'-dust mixture was su-Perlor for cabbage aphid. control to the rotenor.e-tobacco-sulfur mixture& recommended for turninaphid control in the South (of. report on si-phum paeudobrass icae p-. 47). A4

TheVisconsin Agriculti.-tral Exreriment Stption (321) in lq4G rerortea that a -.qixture of aerris 2' )bunds, h:-d-r-tecl lime 37.5 !)Oundsy Listing sulfur 37.5 poun"'g, ana nicotine (Bln.c' Leaf 4o) 5 pounds gave
_,ool_ control of both cab-bage worm-- anO. cabbage, aphids. The sulfur kept everi 1-houga the re-action of
t1le "erris, effective ag,-,.inst cabbal!-,e -orms,
V
the mixture was sufficiently all,4:aline to release 'the nicotine necessary
4
or a 6- 0 nt rol

Cap i t onho rus fragarias (Theo.), the strawberry arhid of Englan&

King,- ana '"assee (276) in 1Q q 'kerorte& that -for the conRogers,
trol of -C. frttgari; e in Brigl.n.ne, aerris sprn.ys an'" dusts, nicotine dust..
yret ,rum ;spray have been tried extensively but 'Lo not give suf i P'ftt control to warrant their use con-acrcially.

Capitophorus ribi (L.)- the currant arhi6The currant arhi& i, ra S! not control ,C,_ bz, a. ,_,jst of coual parts of derris and hyarn.ted lime., accor,";Aag to X-elsall et al. (169) in 1926. Al~ though derriq and soap it-, highl, toxic to'a.-,)hi,!q and. similar scft-bodied sucking i-rlsects) a 'd.r',r r
__)O, 16.er aonren.rs to be less efficacious. Thus a (lerriq aus-11. failed to control a b.q.0- attack of C. ribis on ree, currants in a -ar6en in June 19.3 ;7 but when a wet snray was used! satisfactory results were obtaineE.

Ca-ito-horus rosarum (Kalt'.

The, ro -dered rootQ o-f'four species Of aerris ar-olied P,-, dusts killed from 63 to 92 percentt of these anl-iiO.P on rose.-, in 4 aays. --DeOng .75) in 10-40.

afun -re1!iru:-i-"erri- rz-nray 1,r +-_i q-nreacler) at 1:400 killecl
Foli e (a 7).
91 percent in 48 hours'. --Ponicl- an f an (223) in 1936.

CavRriellp, sr.

Britt .An (21.) In lq2 re-- o rt e -1 thpt ffic!CL tc-sts to control Cavari ella sn. cn -ere mn ,e -,ith -Ierri, (2-1/2 -ocunds of derr'i and
of' soar, polvC-er rer 100 im-perial gF,11ons of water) an( a coTim e r c al. nrenarati'on of d-erri7,
Polvo (2-112 noun !s -r)er 100 imperial -allons) Each recluc'ec7. the infestation ver,-,,7 little, ever, when ooap was added.. In the insectarv infeste(I paves 1,,rere ; irPctl;r into :,ifferent insecti-. cides. Derris killed only lo.4 p ercent; e-erris 2-1/2 poun,',s ner i-ineri- ,l ;F7allons -nluz 4 poiinas McDoug R111 P soar rowd.ery killE4 01 percent.








Cinara sabinae (Gillett & Palmer), a red cedar aphid

cDaniel (187) in 193 reported that this red aphid can be controlled
by derris srays used according to the directions of the maker.

Eriooma lanigerum (Hausm.), the woolly apple aphid

The derris preparations Contraphin and Katakilla were useless
against this insect. --Wahl and Muller (294) in 1915. Gimlett.e (120) in 192 reTorted work that H. E. Durham did with derris in 1903. Derris had no efect as a contact poison on the woolly apple aphid. Tattersfield and Roach (264) in 1923 also referred to unpublished results of work by Durham who found the woolly aphid resistant to the wet application of erri Durham (91) in 1926 gave an interesting account of his early work with derri, which started in the Malay States in 1902 and continued in England in 190L. An extensive series of trials on the woolly aphid were carried on throughout the summer, both with spraying and with careful use o a camel's-hair brush so as to get thorough wetting of the patches, which had a milky apeqrance when treated. The woolly aphid is difficult to uet, but in no case was there any appreciable diminution. Durham exresed the opinion that, whether or not there may be a contact effect, the main utility of the drug must be as a stomach poison.

Neoton 375 gm. plus 1,125 gm. of soap in 40 imperial gallons of wAter killed 100 percent. --Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (162) in 1927.

DeOng (7) in 1930 usee. this as a test insect in determining the inecticidal value of four species of derris (powdered stems applied as ust). The results after 30 days' exoosure were as follows:

Derris species Mortality
Percent

D. elliotica 100
D. trifolia--ta 100
D. ,heptaphylla 55
D. polyantha g84
Check (no treatment) 41S

The Fandelsmuseum of the Koloniaal Instituut of Amsterdam (8) in 1930 reported that derris was an exceptional material for control of aphids on flowers and fruits in the greenhouse, but that the woolly aphid was rotected by its covering.

Overley and Overholser (218) in 1932 reported that apple trees in Washington that had been sprayed with rotenone were free from woolly ~phid.s, whereas on other plots there was a general infestation. Rotenone it oil (l:25,00o) was highly effective in laboratory, tests. --Turner )1 in 1932. Derris or rotenone suspensions at a concentration of 1:5,000 or 1:6,250 were effective. --DeBussy et al. (32) in 1935.

Roteno-ne and dihydrorotenone were about eaounally toxic to this species on apples, when used as a spray containing 0.1 to 0.5 -ercent of Agral. At 1:5,000 retenone killed from 80 to 90 nercant and at the







same conce-ntration di~i-1rorotencne killed-from 65to7pecn'-Vadr Lahan (177 in 1935.

Etablisse'n-ents Rotenia in 1q9S, in a letter to R. 0. Rarktate that this --recies i-- rebelled by, a -pror-rietary Dioet containing 2pr cent of cube of 6 Dpercenit rotenone content.

H-alopterus ar-unOdinis (F.) (H. mruni (F.)), the mealy plumahd.

Garnan (116) in 1q9 reporteO, experiments made in Connetiu ih insecticides offered. as substitutes. for nicotine sulfate. One~o th commercial preparations of derris was tried. in 1927 against the meal? nlxn aphid. and showed good k-illing power. It w as evid-ent that soapo casein lime was needed in combination. The product invest igted d~o mix well with li-me-sulfur solution of winter strength. Tests with.cmmr cial pore-Parations of derris and p)yrethrun against the mealy plumapi E; ve the following results:



Material Dilution Mortalit
Perent
flerris ioreppration------1 l"". to 100 gal. - - 99-3
D ----------- 2 lb.tol100gal. -
Pyetrm on 53----- lb. to 100 ga.4.4ITicotine sulfate - -- 1 lb. to 100,, gal. -- 92.2
Ce',no treatment 0

Derris or rotenone rsspensions at a concentration of 1:5,00or 1:6,250 were effective --De~us~zy et al1. (3) in 1935.

Hrysteroneura setariae (Thos.), t;-i~ ruiqt.r plm a-,hid.

Farrar (99) in 1P36 reportedL th;ai t extracts of Pyre thrunm, derri s, or cube were not so efficient HgistI. setariae as was nicotine mied with oil em~ulsion. The diinoff soa-n increased the killing power o an oil containi-.g_ such ex-tract, 'but not e-nou-h to warrant the addedc& of the ext r a ct s

!% .ac-cs ibhoni ell a sanfoorni (G'ill.), thechyanheu a.-hid.

Derris dust Was effective. -cnooan-,' Sieveri, (199) in 1924

Girnsburg -ncL_ Granett. (124) in 1935- rpporte. res~,lts with a o~ ? cinl acetone extract'of &erris. This extract contained 5-percent of rot-no-e .nO. 1S -percent of tot-il extractiveq. About 2,000 chrysanthm
-Olfnts inz -* tecl with 14T. anoi e snrnryed with tlhs commercials actn extract of I3erris at diltitions of: 1/3 -int to 100. ga--llons of wateran
0.2 percent of coconut-oil soa~r. Obs ervations 2 days later showedpaci cally 1O0_-nerce.-t- ki'l' o-- this i-ns ect.

1Macro si-ohw liriociendiri (1Mon.) the, tuliptrpe aphid

Mclneoo, Sievers, and Abbott (19) in 1919 re'iorte&. that the alco






-23

holic extracts of various species of derris plus soap were effective against this aphid. Derris applied as a dust killed 92.3 percent. In 1924 McIndoo and Sievers (188) reported the cold alcoholic extract of cube used with soap to be effective. A dust of 2 arts of rotenone and 9 -oprts of diatomaceous earth killed 98.h percent of these aphids on a tuliptree. --Davidson (63) in 1930.

Macrosi hum nisi (Kalt.), the pea aphid

Cory (53, 5~4) reported in 1923 that lime to which 5 percent of Derrisine was added, used at the rate of 50 pounds oer acre, killed only 10 percent of (Illinoia) Macrosiphum 2jpii. In 193S he reported that rotenone Aust was especially efficient in the control of the pea aphid.

Rockwood and Chamberlin (25) in May 193L4 reported on the action of d.erris Rust on the pea aphid at Forest Grove, Oreg. Austrian field peas infested by aphids were dusted on April 16 with derris dust containing a silica filler, the rotenone content being 0.5 and 0.7 percent. The maximum reduction of aphids in the best parts of these plots was not over 50 percent and nothing approaching practical control was obtained.

dley (z4), of the Madison, Wis., laboratory of the Bureau, in December 1935 reported insecticide tests against the pea aphid. After the pea vines became heavily infested, the application of derris sprays containing 0.014S percent of rotenone reduced the aphid population approximately 95 percent, in comparison with the untreated plots, and resulted. in a profitable yield o, peas. Most of the derris sprays were applied with comnercially prepared sulfonated phenyl phenol (1:600), which functioned as a spreader and wetting agent. In comparative tests with this agent, sodium lnuryl sulfate (1:1,500), and sodium oleyl sulfate (1:600) no significant difference could be determined in the performance of the three materials. Derris sprays without spreaders or wetting agents caused slower but eventually as good reductions in aphid population- as when spreaders and wetting agents were used. Derris dust containing 0.5 percent of rotenone applied in a heavy infestation gave erratic results, inferior to those from the derris sprays.

Bronson (22, 2, 2, 25 26, 27) in 1936 reported the results of greenhouse tests of derris against the pea aphid made at Madison, Wis. Tests in which whid-infested plants were treated with various dust mixtures and placed in a chamber where the relative humidity remained at approximately 100 percent for a -neriod of 16 hours after treatment gave much more effective control than in comparable tests in which the dusted plants were left in an open greenhouse. Derris-dust mixtures containing 0.f percent of rotenone, with talc as the diluent, plus sodium oleyl sulfpte as a conditioner, were more effective in greenhouse experiments than were derriF-dust mixtures with kaolin or gypsun as the diluent, plus sodium oley1 sulfate as the conditioner, when the plants were left in the open. When treated plants were placed in a moist chamber, where the prevailing relative humidity ws approximately 100 percent, no significant differences could be*detected between the performance of each of the three dust mixtures with different diluents. Better results were obtained with derris-dust mixtures containing a conditioner (i.e., sodium oleyl sulfate special) than with the unconditioned dusts. During the winter of





2

1935 :patted. -oea -olants were sprayed with derris an aeInetdwt aphi'd.s. --The spi' -tea~d d'f > 1r' n adri!A"o t3. -percetrtnn and 13 -0ercent tbtal '6:ltraict1ve~s) 1.'dN~t~ to.btain,-11. percent of roten6ne(3 'nTds 6 water> and on of'
sPre'a)dier, and wet ting ageiits' -ith4er fa~ e butylated di-phenol LAresket-2L10] at a &4lt dAI ii:6oo 407percent-arneouq solution)
or -a sodium oleyl sulfate, special, at. t~ Ii~oto': O0
un1infested potted -ea plants were s-rye. thoroughly, allowed. to dryfo 24 hours, th en lightly_ infested ith- th'ii~ Ad. fourth'nea aphid instrs and: pro erly caged, there being an average of four -plrnnts to the o Broinson concluded that clerris spray, cfintainihg ei the" of the tospedn and 'weting, agents '.Used in -these experinienits, protectss pnotted-pea~pat artificially infested with the nea aphid for a pieriodf7(asaant any building up of the original infestation.

In,1936 3Drons5on described a ball mill for mixing cube or-derr n de' wi th, A diluent and with an activator or' conditioner. Ths~dst hare prov&' to, be toxic a-ainst the peca aphid and it is believed hathorbugh mixing -reatly increased. their effectiveness. In 1937, he de7 cribed an irr -av~ aci- mraratus fo'r mixing -aer'ris- or cube pvwder jith-a crliuent 'aa ', '~cozd&itioner.- One hundred pounds of dust containing 1 I -cn of rotenonec for use against the rep, aphid is mae by mixing 25 0o derri. o-rl cub'e root -oowdei (4 percent rotenone), 72 pounds of. talc o other Pui'tabl'e diluent, 1 pon.o odtioner (wetter and spreading~ agent), an+d 2 -pounds~ of water. Satisfactory- conditioners are sodium oleyl sulfate and an. alkyl-ohhnylbenzenesulfonic acid. Tests were md in ~.greenhouse at Madison, Wis. with 'diff erent s-oreading, w~etting,an stick ing agents used with de-rris spisagainst the pDea aphid.. -A comhr cially prepared n~roduct containing a sodium oleyl alcohol sulfatewa t he I most effective agent used with derris, -and. resins or other dheslv agents were not effective in protecting the active ingredient-s of-deri f~roTa loss either through decompos ition or from being.,-washed witl wte
s~ta~' he tea~lats ere first -sprayed with a derris solution conta in'g 'one of -the s-Treading, wetting, or~sticking agents. Some of these.
reate Tnlants were- hand-inf este.&4 hours after they had been s-prayd' others were washed twice with water and inf-ested. 5 days after being > spra-ed. The results showed some residual effect of 'derris-in alil the tests in which plants were infested with the pea aphid. 24 hours after
.eig sprayed,, but probably no residual effect of derris was anparxA
th'e "lant's washed twice after being frayed, ane. then infested with the pea atohid.

In july 1038 Bronson issued revised directions for mixing rteon dus ts (slee 26) 1, nv a" cement mixer. *The derris or cube root powder shoul b e of su a~ degree'. of finenes- that -not less than 90 percent of it il .-ass through-' 200-ne-sh sieve anL, all the material (100 percent) shol pass' through-anq '-me 'h sieve. The talc or other diluent used shol be o'f suchlx'-degreeof finenes's tvhat ,all the material will vaats throg a 7OO-meslh sieve.', 'Inio st _of .-the e: p rirnent s a~nd f ield. t est s against the poea a-6hid' thbiq far, -a'I soqiu~n oleyl sulfate (Avirol, I1N-439).was se and proved satis'fa'6tory._ 0thr -pro-orie.1tary conditioners also proved. sati sfactozy -udeB s





ults of test made 1935 at Madison withderris (rotenone 3.7 pert total carbon tetrachloride extractives 16.1 percent) against the
pe ahid. Three series of experiments were conducted: (1) In a greenhouse late in the winter and early inthe spring, (2) in the field during
the normal ea-growing season, and (3) in the field late in the season
on late-planted neas. The greenhouse tests demonstrated that ground derris spray applied at'the rate of from 1-2 to 5 ounds per 100 gallons as a s -1/2 to 5 poundsprI0 aln
of water (0~006 to 0.022 percent rotenone), with a spreader and wetting agent, kileld nearly 100 percent of the aphids on the treated plants. The aphids died. throughout a period of from 3 to*5 days, and.practically no reproduction occurred in the interim.

Many summer field tests on both small and large plots demonstrated that grou derris as a spray, applied at the rate of from 1/4 pound to pounds per 100 gallons (0.0009 to 0.022 -percent rotenone), with-a spreader and wetting agent, killed more than 90 percent of the aphids on the treated plants; that from 3 to 5 days were required to obtain the maximum mortality; and that little or no reproduction occurred during pthat eriod. In these tests the application of derris sprays increased the yield. of shelled peas approximately 88 percent over that of untreated checks.

A large number of tests on late-planted peas revealed that derris at a sray, with a spreader and wetting agent, applied orior to aphid infestation protected the plants from appreciable damage for several week and resulted in an ultimate infestation considerably lower than that in the untreated checks: that heavy applications of derris sprays after the incidece of an infestation protected peas from damage from a commercial standpoint for nearly a month, enabling them to 'produce a normal crop of -ods; that heavy applications of derri s sprays with any one of several readerss and wetting agents, made after the infestation had become heavy, killed approximately 95 percent of the aphids; that der-ris sprays controlled the aphid more quickly and to a higher degree than di>~d erris dusts (rotenone o.4 percent); and that concentrations of derris as lowi&as 1/4 to /12 pound (0.0009 to 0.0019 percent rotenone) per 100 gallons, with spreaders and wetting agents, killed approximately as large a percentage of aphids as did 3 pounds per 100 gallons. Getting and read ing agents tested included a pine-oil product, diphenyl butyl sodium sulfonate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and sodium oleyl -sulfate.
In 1937 the same authors summarized: the results of field experiments with derris and cube against the"pea aphid. Dusts tried included erris Wder plus talc, cube pow-der p-lus talc, and derris powder plus talc and sodium oleyl sulfate, all diluted to a content of 1 percent rotenone. In order to be effective a spray of cube or derris should contain at least 0.005 percent of rotenone. The dusts were applied at the average rate of 146 pounds per acre; the sprays, at the average rate of 144 gallons per acre. Increases in yield from five dusting tests ranged from 59 t 240 percent and averaged 13$ percent. Increases in yield from three spraying tests ranged from 96 to 100 percent and averaged 101 percent. A limited number of tests indicated no difference between the effect of derris and of cube' srays. In the s, rays various wetting agents were tried including butyl diphenyl sodium sulfonate. In comparable dusting tests the special derris-talc dust-was appreciably better than






the regular dust in reducing the infestation on entire plants, but both dusts were equally effective in reducing the infestation in blossom clus ters. This special derris-talc duat was made by atomizing into the derr talc, while it was being mixed, a solutibn composed of percent of sodium oleyl alcohol sulfate and 2 percent of watet. Conidring both sprnyine and dusting tests together, the special derris-talc dust appear slightly better than the sprays in reducing the infestation on entire plants. Dusts and sprays reduced the infestation in blossom custers equally well. These results were referred to by Roark (2) in his review of the comparative value of derris and cube.

Bronson and Dudley (29) in 1938 reported. on conditioning agents for increasing the effectiveness of rotenone-bearing dusts against the pea aphid. They concluded that, in bobh the greenhouse and the field derris- or cube-dust mixtures conditioned with a spreading and wetting agent have been shown to be superior, as insecticides against the pea aphid, to plain derris- or cube-dust mixtures. Under field conditions this superiority of the conditioned dust mixtures has amounted to avorox imately 12 percent, which may be the difference between satisfactory and unsatisfactory aphid control. In general, conditioned derris- or cubedust mixtures reinforced by the addition of nicotine or an alihatic thi cyanate have been superior to conditioned dust mixtures. Field data ind cated that derris and cube were equally effective against the pea aphid.

Dudley and Bronson (85) reported results of experiments against the pea aphid in southern Wisconsin in 193$, wherein dust mixtures and sprays containing rotenone, as well as nicotine vapor, applied to largescale experimental plots, indicated that all these insecticides resulted in an increase in yield, as compared with the untreated checkplotS, and that, owing to the conditions of pea aphid infestation existing that ea there were no, outstanding differences between these treatments. From th 1938 work against the pea aphid they concluded-that, even with excellent growing conditions and a light aphid infestation, an adequate financial return was obtained by treating the peas with the above-named insecticid

Dudley and Bronson also reported (222) that in a large replicated plot experiment satisfactory aphid control was obtained. by treatment wit derris spray, derris-dust mixture, and nicotine vapor, but not with nico tine dust. The largest increase in the yield of shelled peas resulted from the derris-dust treatments, with the nicotine-vapor treatment secon and the derris-snray treatment third. The plots treated with nicotine dust yielded less than the checks. Derris spray was used at a rotenone concentration of 0.01 percent plus sodium oleyl sulfate and in some case also 1 percent aliphatic thiocyanate.

In February 1939 Dudley and Bronson (86) reported that an analysis of the wind velocities at the experimental plots at Waunakee, Wis., duri the 2h-hour period of each day during June for the 3 years 1936-3 showe that on an average during this period, when dusting operations against the pea aphid are usually performed in Wisconsin, there was a total of 65-hours of daylight when the wind velocities ranged from 0 to 4 miles ner hour as compared with a total of 223 nocturnal hours when the wind was in the same velocity range. It is within this velocity range that dusting operations against the pea aphid can be most effectively perform


us ffci!






under consin conditions. The aalysis demonstrated further that the
wind velocities remained within a range of from 0 to 4 miles ner hour for
consecutive eriods of 3 hours or more at a time approximately two and
one-half times as often during the night as during daylight hours. These
data indicate the desirability of applying dust mixtures for pea aphid control during the night, whenever conditions will permit.

Bronson and Stone (2) in 1938 reported that, in an extensive
series of greenhouse tests with several combinations of derris-dust mixtures against the pea aphid, a derris-dust mixture containing 0o. percent of rotenone, with talc as the diluent and conditioned with sodium oleyl Sulfate as a.wetter and spreader (1 percent), plus a crude peanut-oil emulsion (2 percent), gave a satisfactory mortality of the pea aphid through all the ranges of relative humidity from 20 to 95 percent. The application of d.orris-ust mixtures that did not contain any conditioning materials resulted in a low mortality of the pea aphid at all the ranges of relative humidity encountered. The application of derris-dust mixtures containing sodium oleyl sulfate (1 percent) as a wetter and spreader, but without crude peanut-oil emulsion, gave a low mortality of the pea aphid at low relative humidity and a satisfactory mortality of the test insects after the expiration of 4 days in instances when the relative humidity was 50 percent or higher. It wae concluded, on the basis of
these tests in the greenhouse, that derris-dust mixtures containing the sodium olyl sulfate as a wetter and. -preader were decidedly more toxic to the pea aphid than a dust mixture not containing this ingredient; whereas the dust mixture containing this same wetter and spreader, plus
a crude neanut-oil emulsion, was greatly superior to the dust mixture that did not contain this vegetable oil. These results corroborate previously reported findings of Howard and Fulton of the Columbus, Ohio, laboratory, that the addition of peanut-oil emulsions to sprays or dust mixtures greatly increased their efficiency against large plant bugs. If the reilts of these greenhouse tests are borne out under field conditions the effectiveness of dust mixtures containing rotenone for use against the pea aphid may be increased greatly by the addition of oeanutoil emulsion; but thus far results in the field have varied with humidity.

The Secretary of Agriculture (274) in his 1936 annual report wrote as follows:

Laboratory and field tests with organic insecticides,
particularly derris and cube, have brought many modifications
in the recommendations for.the control of certain insect nests.
It has been demonstrated that these insecticides, which do not
leave residues objectionable from the standpoint of humanshel4th, can be effectively used against a number of different truck-cror
pests. * The further usefulness of these recently developed
materials is evidenced by the determination that one application
of sprays or dusts of derris or cube is effective against the
pea ~aphid over a longer period than. other recommended material,
uch as pyrethrum and nicotine.

This statement also appears in the Yearbook of the Derartment of Agriculture'(299) for 1937.




F-77 29

Vnite (301;) in April 1976 issued suggp stio'ns Gn the, us e, Of 5 s-prays for -control of thp pea arhid. For t'h is -cur-ooze derriq s h 0 c on _. tain 4 recent of, rotenone and be used. at the r at P. o rounds p dr 100
7
ga 110 r S At least 150 gallons of the s:)r- y s'nQu2d "be ap- er acre un,:' e r, a nre,7sure of7' not- less thqn 2 '1; 0 -o oun d. when the plants are dry. A wetting ,;ho,_)I be u--ed at the r, te of abou4- 1/2 pouncl dry i, eight
per 100 gallonz of water. 9adii= lauryl sulfate and. so, 'Iium oleyl sulfate, are su --esteell a:, a nd a sulfated vhenylphenol at
1:1 5GO ("dry basis' has been -7ra succes

T' he Yevr York E c r im n t Station 21 214) in 1936
r en o rt e t hat d e r -A i s w- ng t e -fo V:ie control of thp -oea aphia. In 1,937 thi-, st-iti-)n t rct -,_nonc sprtyss, T)roperly a )pliea with
ade-Cuate e-u-.-prn ,rt -orc ,-: 1-:,-I,-7--y -p id but
..vc in killing the pepthat rotc non: lhad liCt -u, n 'U s d in th field. suffficic-ntly to brIng
out all thpir n 012ZS;"I" limitat*
bureau of Entcmolo
The UrLit, Stateg -o!7,_rt,.Innt o--" Agricultur n, gy
and Plant Quarantin-c (27tq) in its t3n-ual r- rort for 10- _- stat -d that the pea a-phid caused hcavy lossr s to 'L'h,- rea -ro- ,,ers in Wisconsin Yeu, York and OI ;o. TIae, invc.st _'F,- ion-, cnn, i zt-cdl primarily of fi,,:111--plot test's with -cverall inse-titio-'s + h roqull-s to J. P, t are only preliminary and cannot be us -" -- P for roccm i -nd itionscn pea aphid co11trol') the indications are t),i,- t a derris-pow. I or s-oray may bt useful ngainet the -nea -aphid.

The 3uro-ai) of Entomolog,- and Planz Quarantine (280) in its anniial re-port for 19 36 stated- th-t Pnco,,_rgi-,Ii.c, results in 'he control of the pea aphid wrre obtained in 197 with containi.-_ 7 de-rri -, ---nd special
fiold, ex-oerim.ent., werp condacte( with derris sprigs tnd derris dust. in California,. -.nd Virginia late in the wi-nter end in the, spring of
of these ffielCI indic- .ted th + derr's q-rr
_L vs were
effective, 7 t1n- th,-_t, u-nder fpvornble C'cnd.it i r) n s 1 ns c o n, t in i n-- r o t e no n r- t'i,-- icti-e iniTredient of d-erris and! cubel r-si., u-l cff, ct th _,_t --rol,_-_t,-d. th- treated pl-- nts from
Severe en -er-LoJ_. It -af3 determined that in general
c.-.- nicotine havp -,ore action against the
C 4 -QI IL i r r, t Y, 0 1, t t the latte-r pep. -v, ns,3etl contn r i nl - el 1- ilp.v
niuch e- '-_1: -ec'. ef'Pect of' rot enone-bontaf ning
ipq(-Ct, C U -Z) in Ii-I to-, -eaq qub7t, ,-tiatea -by laboratory
wor--c Tate i--- thr ST)rinp of demonstrated 7,
that a dor-i- co-.t -_,inin- s-orc-ad-ing agcnt yielded
cC- I_,rIC')J_ -to tho c -P-rom a q-,3ray the dupt bpin,- prepared by %to a sod 'uin olcyl c;uifatt -_-Lito th(, derris-dr-t mi7-ture v-hiie it
wa :; b, irg r volved 4r n steel-I, L.u:.1 'call mixer. The 13-areau (291) in itq 197 annual report rti- -Li thpt cube or derris 0-usts -olus sodium oleyl sulfate are effecti- 7e -,g-ninst -oea aphi, q an l leave To rce.- ne o- other onstituent's in peas taken fro-i treated i lants. Tn it s 103S ann-dal report the Bu.reau the req-aItI:; Of MUC'_I ',,To-rk wit-h rotenone r.roducts.
Dur"na the spring I v trouble
: s of IQ77 a d 107 the nea ephift vas particularly so-ne. in Tlarylandi Ye,T ILTerqe-. Inve--ti.--.tinns were continupd..I.i
in Wi,3cc--_,-,in on the cc-ntr -_. cf this -orst. In these control tesstq P.mphaoiSA vras 71aced on thc, tim of trcqt--n', for : inximl= benEfit in rrote-ction of ",he crop. Fiel(I an6 laboral7ory t,-st-, wero with der.ris an-Tcube-







25

s sprays and the resultss showed that these materials, applied
r spray or dust, appeared to be the most satisfactory ones develped-thus fr for the. control of this aphid.' Adequate spraying or dusting equipment is essential to aphid control as is proper material and e of treatment. In 1939 the Bureau ( reported that insecticides
taking rotenone had proved effective,

In 193S the Bureau (292) published suggestions for the control of
e pea aphid, prepared by a committee of entomologists at the annual
mting of the American Association of Economic Entomologists at Indianolis, Ind. on December 27, 1937.' The following recommendations were
ed on observations and data accumulated from experimental work done
t of the Rocky Mountains:

Satisfactory control of the pea aphid has been accomplished by several methods. These include, without suggestion of preference (1) dusting, (2) use of nicotine vaporizer, and (3) spraying. Success in the use of any of these methods
will depend entirely upon adeo'uate and efficient equipment
and roperly timed, thorough application. (1) Dusting with
10 derris or cube: Field experiments with derris or cube dust mixtures containing talc or other suitable carriers, conditioned with a liquid spreading and wetting agent, have resulted in satisfactory control. Such dust should contain
approximately' 1 percent of rotenone. In applying these dusts,
the boom should be completely enclosed and a trailer 25 feet
or more in length should be used. Dusts should be applied at the rate of 35 to 40 pounds per acre. The speed of the machine should not exceed 3 miles per hour or 300 feet per
minute. Dusting is much less effective when the wind velocity
exceeds 9 to 10 miles per hour. Spraying is an effective
method of control, but its economic usefulness is conditioned
by the nearness of an adequate water supply. On the basis of ground derris or cube root containing 4 percent of rotenone 3 pounds should be used per 100 gallons of water, with 7 corresponding dilutions where the content is greater or less
than 4 percent of rotenone. A spreading and wetting akent,
in either liquid or dry form, is necessary. The application per acre should be from 125 to 200 gallons. Pressure should be from 225 to 300 pounds, and depends on size of-disc apertures, type of nozzle, and pump capacity. An infestation of 35 aphids per sweep of a standard collecting net, for an average of 5 sweeps in different parts of the field, usually
indicates that treatment should be begun.

The Bureau in February l938 distributed: a summary of the remarks
m at the Pea Aphid Conference (222) at Indianapolis, Ind., in December 937. Shropshire of Illinois reported on the efficiency of the numerous ting agents offered for use with derris and cube. Over 50 of these c inations and dilutions were tested in replicated plots, and it was
onthat'some of the best wetting agents were the poorest for use with
rri orocube for aphid control on peas. Results of experimental work I 1937 tended to verify results obtained in 1936 with both nicotine and 4s or cube for pea aphid control. They further show that cube is as






effective as derris auming that the rtene ttal extractives
are approximately the same in both samples. Deris or be with a rte
none content of 4 percent was effective for pea aphid control whe used at the rate of 2 or 3 pounds per 100I gallons of ray, assuming thate spray was applied at the rate of 125 to 150 gallons per acre. Aresket liquidd) used at the rate of 1 to 600 was used as a standard fo'4r compaq son with other spreaders.

An extensive set of dust trials was planned& for 1937 following limited work in 1936. Most of the duists were made up to contain 1 percent of rotenone, other ingredients being varied as desired. Variables included diluents, wetting agents, some suggestec by Dudley and roson and irritants such as nicotine and certain thiocyanates. Results with rotenone-bearing dusts varied in 1937, as in 1936. In many instances the results were excellent, but in certain experiments they were unsati factory. Apparently the poor performance was due to some weather condi tion, such as absence of free moisture (dew or rain) on the plants, No withstanding some very poor results obtained with rotenone-bearing dust it is believed that they have sufficient merit to warrant recommendato with reservation. The use of wetting agents or irritants in dust. for use on peas was not recommended.

A committee of entomologists representing a number of the State experiment stations and the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine of the United States Department of Agriculture (27), at the December 1936 meeting of the American Association of Economic Entomologists at Atlantic City, issued the following suggestions for control of the pea aphid:

Dusting with derris or cube: Preliminary experiments
with these materials, with a carrier such as talc, conditioned
with a spreader and wetting agent, have given satisfactory
control. Their use is suggested only on an experimental
basis. Such dust should contain approximately 1 percent of
rotenone.

Spraying with derris or cube: On the basis of gr ound
derris or cube root containing 4 percent of rotenone, 3 pounds should be used per 100"gallons of water. Corresponding dilutions should be used with derris or cube containing more or
less than 4 percent of rotenone. A spreader and wetting
agent is necessary. The application per acre should be from
150 to 200 gallons. Pressure should not be less than 300
pounds.

Cory and Graham (j) in 1936 reported that-derris with~zout
spreader gave poor control of the pea aphid, but with sodium lauryl su fate good control was obtained. Ten pounds of rotenone material (0.009 percent rotenone in the finished spray) plus 1/2 pound of sodium laury sulfate were used to 100 gallons of spra~. Rotenone remained effective against the aphids longer than did nicotine and soap. One years expert ence in Maryland with rotenone (without spreader) showed. a slight decre in aphid infestation andr no increase in yield of peas, over the unspray plots, The next year's experience with rotenone (with spreader) showed






a decrease in aphidifestation in plots that had an initial infestation and an increase in dof eas ranging from 128,3 to 40 L.0 percent ov the frayed s. The highest yields, however, had no initial
infestation.

Grihm (130) in 1937 reported that in 1932 Pyrote (a pyrethrunmrotenone product), 1 gallon to 400 gallons of spray, gave an 89.79 percent kill of pea aphids in Maryland. In 1935 in the same field where the nicotine and soap tests were conducted, plots of the same size were laid out and a 3 percent rotenone-derris dust, without a spreader, at the rate of 4 pounds per 100 gallons of spray, was applied at the same time as the above-mentioned nicotine spray. Records were made on yield and aphid infestation. The results showed a slight decrease in aphid infestation and no increase in yield of peas over the check plot.

In 1936 derris plus sodium lauryl sulfate was tested. Plot 5received one application of derris dust containing 0.75 percent of rotenone at the rate of 10 p-oounds plus 1/2 pound of sodium lauryl sulfate spreader to 100 gallons of spray at the beginning of the blooming period. This plot produced 742 pounds of shelled peas per acre, an increase of 128.3 percent over the check. The aphid infestation before the peas were
sprayed was 15 per tip but 2h hours after the peas were sprayed it was only 2 per tip.

Plot 7 received one application of derris du-t containing rotenone at the rate of 6 pounds (active derris extractive material, including rotenone, g percent) plus 1/2 pound of sodium lauryl sulfate spreader per 100 gallons of spray. This application was applied 10 days before the peas began to bloom, and produced 1,128 pounds of shelled peas per Sacre, an increase of 2147 percent over the check plot. No aphids were present when the spray was applied but 12 days later the infestation averaged 0,5 aphid per tip.

Plot 8 received two applications of a similar derris dust, the first 10 dayi before blooming started, the second when the peas began to bloom. The yield in shelled peas per acre was 1,638 pounds, or an increase of 404 -nercent over the check. 17o aphids were present before the first application nor 2 days after the second.

Plot 9 received one application of derris containing rotenone, the same strength and spreader as in Plots 7 and 8. Application was
made when the peas first came into bloom. The yield in shelled oeas per acre was $17 pounds, or 151.3 percent increase over the check. The
aphid infestation just before the spray was applied was 14 per tip, but 24 hours after the application it was 7 per tip.

At harvest time the rotonone-treated plots were green and succulent and the pods well formed and tender: whereas check plots and nicotinesulfate-treated plots were practically dead'and the pods poorly developed. Another index to the efficiency of derris dust containing rotenone over nicotine sulfate was the number of aphids on the ground after harvest. Under the derris-rotenone-sprayed plots only an occasional aphid could be found on the plot that received two applications, and a few more on the plots that received one alication whereas under the nicotineteplots that received one application, whereas under the nicotine-




A
32

sulfate-wc.a.,;,ed. Dlots ard- ch-eclk: -rlo's the groun(I it s literallY aliya IfiT I th aT)hids. Tfic, rotenone rf-. T 11 9.lneC effi:,ctilre gainst the arhids over a much
1 -Y)e ri o -d th-F n di cl ni cot i ne -ul f atc a..ncl soap
_,- .m an! of (222) rc.: I I
--ortea that in 1937 derris
ai-A cub--. aT)-;)Iie:1, p7avo -cod. results. 17icotine
fw..-14;qtiorL r ,,ost com- I-tr- a-rl ruickcst 'kill. Derris dusti 6 sro
sibly because vf ap-.Iicntio., seemed I-so effective than' sprays.
Deri-is -nowder tctal ,.as Used at the rate of 2
.or 4 pounds' -oer !GO L,-,!Ions, Iis src.iu7 qulfatp (1./4 or 1/2 :pound) or Orthex a agent.

re-ortecl on the practical aspects of pea aphi" control. 7-a--r- ,T"-h ci'--- or der-_-io (1 T)Crcent rotenone
proon, 7 t ie, most 'ro,-,A-r,-n+ for tl-e central of the ,pea
aphi,1- b-- Mary]-ar-,! grol. r-vs. On!,, vorY smali acroaEo was- treated with t:'-,-Le nicoti-ne an"L no nicotine eaisu wes Tho evidence
from the o' reservations on exweri,.ientnI and co-innercial treatments indicate th--Iv- cube srr-v rs if-ere, not -,o eff; ci-nt 9,s derris srrn --, for pea a chift cc-trol and that the ad lotion: _! cost of derris oi, or cube will oro"br).1 Pr-,_ -ood dividends. on commercial control irdic-tte that
dcrr; s is better th,an cube th,-ill a- derris 0_-a7,t of 1 rercent-rotpnone content should ba used 'by tho- 1-ho -"refc r -Iuc ting to spraying. A 11 dus+.'.n- should be do.-c !:,.t whon the air is sti'l ancl when -vines are ,eavy with.dei.r.

D -ian Ccrv, and Gi- ham (92) in 1935 -renorted tests on
it! Y
the control of the nea aphie- in 71-2:a7rxylan .. in lc 3 The following were tested as s-prays: berries + AreskP- (rotenone 2.6 percent'; Cube; cube plus Vatsol CS (rotbno'ne, 3.5 -nerc.ent; ; A ;ilcide (1')3- -6ack stunted to contain 1,--perce-at- rot.ennneN. T'- dari-ii7, n,! cube -o.rr lised at the rate of
r S g_, v C, a e,
r, on ds 'per 1CO -ql 1 o' s ri r i e- re ,Luction
of anhiels ner swcor C.n"_ T, e r ti-p th-in did- c-:,be. ks lcile gnvo a slightly higher kill'. of either -erris -)r vi._bc in derris, gavc, a. bett-er
kill thar 'by all three of menthol 'a' s of rcloulation estirmtion.
Further cxa'mi-_,.,-ation of tho resuIts -hoi-,F- th, t trer ,tme-ntcz Ineld. the aphiC4 porulntion in check for a -eriocl rf ely 10 aays, thou ,-h
the percent,- ,-P of infe-sted ti-q slightly in riots treated with
A 7ici&e an," dube, de--r-*s rE ,mai-inz -,.bcut same. Thi s increase in the n=ber of tj-p- L'I'LeSted after t-ey--ds, to d-i courtt the iclc. -I of any
resiaunI. effect of the scrny.

Inthe severe anne. exten -L U of the I ea aphid of 1938
one i U e- 4-0 0 d. CC -t olpplicp.tion of irsecticidc not su:'!'J i t cbtain- o n t, There wrs' little Eiffere-ncc yicid of' n'Ints rcc eivi ie a sin-rle e--1.rly application of cube anf'- th-se rccciving i a neither
treatment g ..C ry contro b r of a-)Inici -)er sweep,
gave sat; sf to 1 1"h e --- i,_m
aphids pe'r tip, an& the Yereenta,7e of ti-oF! inf ested w ,r'e snt.isf,-.ctory indices to the deg,rep, of control obtril-r-ed by various v(..ray tre., ,tmcnts. Sometimes however, ooants of r,11. -hids on Intire rl nts sIaowed that the nbove estimates of poyj.'L-. ,tions L.dic-!,ted a ,ret)ter percentage reduc.tion, thp.n aqt,;,-tlI6y' o c vir r c d.





-33

Graham (l) in 1939 recommended the following for control of the pea aphid in Maryland:

Spra .--Three pounds of micronized cube or derris
(-percent rotenone), plus spreader, to 100
gallons of water at 150 gallons per acre and
500 pounds pressure.

Dust.-- Finely ground derris or cube (0.75- to 1.0percent rotenone) at 35 to 40 pounds per acre.
The machine should not exceed 3 miles and the
wind velocity 8 or 9 miles per hour.

Rotenone-bearing materials used as sprays give satisfactory control of the pea aphid when timely and properly applied. Rotenone-bearing dusts are equal to rotenone sprays in reducing aphid infestation under extremely hot and dry conditions. The first application should be made when the aphid infestation is 10 per sweep of the net, with another application J1O days later if the infestation increases.

Graham and Cory (13) in August 1939 reported that recent experimentq, consisting of large field plots, on the control of the pea aphid in Maryland indicate that rotenone-bearing materials have great possibilities in pea aphid control. In 1936 plots sprayed with derris containing 2.9 percent of rotenone gave a maximum increase of 404 percent yield over unsprayed plots. Further tests with rotenone-bearing materials in 1937 and 1938 confirm, in general the results obtained in 1936. In 1937 and 1938 tests were made with -Derris (rotenone 2.9 percent) 2 or 4 pounds per 100
gallons + sodium lauryl sulfate 1/4 or 1/2 pound
per 100 gallons
Ditto, 14 pounds pedr 100 gallons + Orthpx spreader (1:800) Ditto, 1 pound per 100 gallons + nicotine sulfate 1:3200
+ soap 1:1600
Derris (rotenone 3.8 percent) 3 pounds per 100 gallons
Agicide 1:200
Bonide (rotenone 2 percent) 1:300
u'Oube (rotenone 4.4, percent) 3 pounds per 100 gallons
+ sodium lauryl sulfate 1/4 pound per 100 gallons
Fixed (stabilized) derris 3 pounds per 100 gallons
Dust containing 0.75 percent rotenone.

The authors concluded that 3 years- of experience with derri s as
an insecticide for pea aphid control in large field plots indicated that when the application is timely and thorough the results are satisfactory. One year' s experience with cube in comparison with derris indicated that, even though the rotenone content of cube is higher than that of derris, the latter gives better control. Several years of experience on the timing of sprays for pea aphid control show that the best results are obtained when the aphid. infestation is not greater than 1 per tip or 10 per sweep when the first application is made. If the first spray is







applied 6 or 8 days before blooming, a~ late aplctoni iel ei
necessary. One year of' experiments within rotenone (due) dus14gsoe it to be inferior to rotenone sprays. In general, dusting ws ss~f
fective thpn spraying, .

How.,ard -n~l taqon (153) in 1937 sumaiizia information on th~eus of ierriv anx cvbc &~rays ana1 dusts. It "a~y be necessary to use a ts contalanig; 1 Per~cnt of' rot enone in thTcoentrol of' the pea aphid. A~ spray cornining 3 rountds of d.erri~s or cule powi~er W~ percent rotoen, is effective. A wcttin6 agent is necospary.

Kfnow, lton ark. Sorrnsan Q 77) in April 1937 rcncomren&A aerriqo cubc (4 percent rctpnon > v. pounds per 100 gallons of' water aple at a pressure of at lpst 100 pounds for the control of~ the pea ap~i in 7tah. To be most effrctive Puch a spray should be eppli&. on a quit wprm toay ann before the peoa aphM~ causes noticeable injury to theplns

The Maine Agricultural Experiment Station (190) in 197 disuer' the use of' rotenone against pea nphiics in that State., Ref'erencewa mad~e to the use of highly concentrated'rotonone or of' nicotine in a liquid base, the base often being a light) highly refin&. oil, an t their distribution from air 1anns. Preliminary experiments with hn apparatus strongly indicated thnt an effective better and snreader i necessary for satisfactory control. The percentage of rotenone, th fineness of' Saterinls; the presence of' an effective adhesive wettor~o
sprederthoron~hrnens of apolicatioi, pro'por timing of appicatic; o tho insecticide in relation to the Tpqpncc of ahils on the pn n.
weather conditions all may influence the aff'ectivonesq of' thr dust or spray. Obnervntions in Main, cdurinf the last 3 years have led to th, conclusion that the stap'e of Crowth of the tea vines is an important cn sideration in timing the srrayo. If aphids are present when the pengar in bloom they are a lotrntlaj thront to the crop. Potenone aprlied te will r-?pa:n effecti-'& for about a weck) and under Mainr conditions a sc orA favnlic'ntion is rarely necpssary.

Th, Orc'gor Ajicnlturaln reirr.n Stnticn (217) in 1077 r'opor that~ prliminprij obsc:-pticns innicnt, tnr rot-:onr blaring sPrays to b of value in CernoatiT, the pPa rmhik. Tha nHcol.n, sul2fate, soap is als of vrlJuc 27t itq -fects to not arjo'ar to last as leng as those of the rote~onc-braring sprays. 'Various new sp~radfg'an! w~'tirng aentq wer also used.

Walker (29t) in 1037 roportPA thot 1/2 ncunA of 7ltro wet ad~lt
3 on~of cubP P4 pernt rotr-nonr .anf pecnt tot-! -Ytr-cti-ps)
in 100 ynl'ons of -rtpr incr-ns'd the control of the nroaphid from 9a5 to 98.7 Percent, PW' 1 rount of Ultrowet plus 3 jounO. of' cole gaF control of TO6. n-rcent.

Craufur e-nson i5~ n 1?79 rr'-crtnj th!t on, a7)fli0n w~ro r~ in a gren1_qous~r vner -tynor? conitiona r'nc ns&. for tne laborqtor testing of licuid contact i~cctiiV.e, ?Snlcio3y dorris rre aratiop The results of trirn2s on pn7 one '-y were connfa'abe an.A in~icate".th conrAtive toxicities of the insectici'les tested., b~.t Yien the s-)m insecticiJ~e was testeA~ on Vifferent >nys the results were incoorninte





-35

When aphids were collected in the field the results were completely unreliable.

Dunlap and Turner (90) in 1930 recommended cube of 4 percent
rotenone content, 4 pounds per 100 gallons, with a spreader such as Ultrawet (1/2 pound) or Areskap (6 ounces) for combating the pea aphid. Gunderson (14) in 1938 recommended derris aga in st pca aphids.

Knowlton, Smith, and Harmston (172) in 1938 reported on the control of the pea aphid in northern Utah in 1937. "Vapo Fumer" mixture (nicotine) fumigation gave about 99-percent control.

Sprays.-- Agicide semifluid spray concentrate was used as a sray at dilutions of 1:50, 1:100, 1:150, and 1:200 with good pea aphid kills, even under hand-spraycer conditions. An analJsis of the data indicated that there was no significant difference between the four concentrations suplied. Spray tests with derris and cube used at the rate of 3 pounds of a 4-percent rotenone-bearing dust to 100 gallons of water, to which Lethane spreader was added, gave eouaally good results, there being no sipificant difference between these and. the Agicide sprays. Use of higher concentrations did. not appear to be justified by the results obtained.

Duists.-- Aplications of 1-, 2- and 3-percent rotenone-bearing Derricide produced rather heavy kills of the pea anhi', comparable in effect to the spray applications listed a"bovo. Agicide 1-percent rotenone
dust usually gave good results. Applications of a 0.5-percent rotenone dust did not give significant control.

Knowlton, of Utah (222), rep-orted that in 1037 ground cube and derris root gave good control as a spray when diluted at the rate of 3 pounds of 4-percent rotenone-bearing dust (or equivalent) to each 100 gallons of water, to which a liquid spreading and wetting agent was added. "Agicidel semifluid spray concentrate also was effective, no significant difference in control being noted between applications at strengths of 1:50, 1:100, 1:1510, and 1:200. Cube- and derris-dust mixtures containing f rom 1 to 2 percent of rotenone usually gave good control, but the results were less consistent than with the derris- and cube-spray treatments.

Parks and Pierstorff (21) in 19378 recommended rotenone spray for the control of the pea aphid on peas. They stated that a little Kayso or powdered skim milk should be added as a spreader.

Stearns (251) in 1938 recommended nicotine sulfate dust or a spray of derris or cube for the control of the rea aphid in Delaware. The dust should be applied under a trailer 100 feet long, made of air-tight material, and a wetting and spreading agent should be used in the sprays. In trials of 12 spray and dust combinations, sprays reduced infestation more than dusts. Combinations including derris were more satisfactory than those including nicotine, the best being 3 pounds of derris (4 percent rotenone), with 1 pint of sulfated fatty alcohol containing a synthetic adhesive per 100 gallons *of spray, which reduced the population by about 85 percent, as compared with that on an untreated plot.






'7- of 222), n 1 c7 7 r e-, c r t a 0- orler o f e f -4e C
oi I n E- c + i c fr ,_, the cc-itr, of the -r)en- to be p,-, folnicotinP CU
lows: ,, _cOtin,_ rr and roter-on- dx s t F,
r o., r 7,
d. t sts in 1'37 With erris
-nov'(1or 3-1,_ co n t E', n t o f, 1 -ncrce-nt ITIien the
wineL L o il n t t h of
tion, th.- tc !Do ior rf--c-ctivc. t-apn aid
the dcrris-roc.-a-ast mi:-_turo In u- e r i r 0 t witl.ac-at La ccnditiorngent -provcd- --o .--c re ef f'sctive t]-_ 7,n t"ie deri-is-root ftust contRin-a -0 C 3' C e,..- t 71,is w-,- also true in a series of
770 7 i Csmall-plot expcri.r c_-, t- fences coul '_ be noted in
the ', : i 11 o If c n r, -n L o, t r. c 0 3. r, o r. t -fr) I i c ) D. nd
n o C C C-, e r r o D t t -n thE. -e- vrn no t e.. The
dorl, c -2rv nn, 'L u r,--, 1 c r -, 3i, i
an;-. I
C a] so cor(iactc with 2; ccl o i Tr 9.,, ,s
D i E 1'r o i ar a i r-f, I E n e 7he oil f c o ar r c: c o n r. L 7 ,n 1 n s t i
T.,,-(, insecticides testedin t'-'. r- v v -.orizp '. oil v,,err, nicotine, derris extr Ct -P-,:1ret, 'h. r, -Lm rxtra'ct, ,A:.d -.,ixturc! of (ierriq Pn" extract.n.
periniental rlot- showed a 'kill of a ; r r C%1:
d- ,ta from the ex- I. 7P t
Tc-, e of the o 11- s r c i ae co mb r- a.' i o r o Derris-noot du! t
irom a ,. airt]_,ne tctall-T un iat-.,ifnctor,- as a control. for
t'--- P en. *'-'- i d.

S of "ev York (222), renorterl ha i r. caso of the
"Usus 'he initial -,ill in 10 7 was often ur-riczingly t t' at th' 11 vris n, t ale-,,.-- cio consic.-terA oi,
ly rs where e -r rol-erono spr,,y-. or nicotine prep,- t
'form rat ions
ware uqecL wac qc-Slewhat
Hnudf in 19*7 r r i -as t ( 1 T)ercent
recomm-n,,)_o v,,bi: or a,
rr, t on ...Xv to 1 -e--c-nt .-,cttzz;r 7 1-- 1c) 111 yoand- -ce-- r
a- h 1 -1'1 hxmi dity: a-I.sc a sprn.y, 3 T)ounLs of -pow&er
of -rCtCnC,-C-- co.-t,- nt Me- 100 g-110-s pluo 1,retter, at 12 to,
2CO -tcrc 250 to60C oou-n'-sl prc-ssure; also a derris extract
In oil as a 7'1.r, ., from

I C 6 i n, the l*l,_ o nul- 1 4- s S--,A ri- ry 19 39 iefor the
-1 1030 wro+e th--).t recent e per- 4 o f S 0 -a th on. 7 o 1 na i v
_),v-1cs (205
1!,n e n t ir tHe 17orth P'n d -,est sho-r t'hat derziq is n. -,)ro.mi, in.- material for t.he control. o-P the ,,rlen pea 1-it n o t I, e (F1 r t e s t e a P, s y e t
in tho Sout"la.

Cr- s b"- 01 iu-) P ana Leib~ ru r 31 -ote that a aust
contain i, 1 percent, of -rotenone be su7,stItuted. ior t,-e
-s, f or t con' r-)", rD -7 t 1- e p en an,
lime wit- ,C (I r e sul t should
b e i e 6 t th,_- r a IV e o f 7,0 to 50 to --cre.. Rotenone n,-t.-,- also
be u, !-c% -ns, Us a, 3 t c 4 -'00 1). -1,-; 7, o ,I -terinl ccnt -inin;r )I to P perce,-t of rotenO'._E' er 1G"./ -a r -,"Icz t.o 10 ounces o c-ie of
tl-i sul 4 n.te L al or r

Ifn.lkqr -ind An person (2 Ail 1 P t 10'17) re7ort,- O, th- t va-crized





-37

nicotine applied ile the plants were dry gave the most satisfactory control of the pea aphid under field conditions by the pea growers in the Norfolk, Va., area. Derris and cube sprays in combination with suitable wetting and spreading agents have given good control of the pea aphid in experimental tests but failed to give satisfactory results in some field trials by pea growers. Santex R, containing a derris extract, has given promising results as a spray, in comparison with sprays containing cube powder. In general derris and cube have not given so good control of the pea aphid when used as dusts as when used as snra-s. Tests were made with cube powder 4 pounds or 8 pounds p-er 100 gallons plus SS-3, 1:600; cube-talc dust (rotenone 1 percent); cube-walnut-shell flour (rotenone 1 percent): also the same plus-1 percent of Vatsol OS or
1 percentt of Gresselli INI-1l1 P.

Stantex-R (no- called Stantex R 50) is a mixture of 0SO percent of Stantex Dispersing Oil1 and 20 percent of a derris extract containing 5 gm. of rotenone in 100 cc. of a camphor-sassafras-base oil. Stma.tex Dispersing Oil is a mineral oil containing a small percentage of oleic acid and a wetting agent. Both are made by Standard Chemical Products, Inc., Koboken, U. 3. SS-} (now called Grasselli Soreader-Sticker) contains sodium oleyl sulfate as the spreader and a synthetic plastic as the sticker. Grasselli I7-181 P contains sodium lauryl sulfate in a powdered form. Other wetting agents tested with cube were Areskap, Dry Aresket, Elgete (emulsified peanut oil), Grasselli IN-434 (sodium oleyl sulfate), Santomerse, Stantex Spreader Soap, and Ultrawet. A dust containing 0.75 percent of rotenone and 0.098 percent of pyrethrins gave best results when applied late in the evenin, and vpeorizca nicotine gave best results when the plants were free from dew.

Wilson and Dieter (311), of Wisconsin, reported in 1939 that the results obtained against the pea aphid with rotenone-bearing materials. althou-' variable because of widely different climatic conditions in 1937 and 193Z were reasonably satisfactory in both year<. Such materials were effective vhen sufficient moisture was present and the temperature sufficiently high (approximately 700 F.). Observations indicate that in general it is possible to obtain commercial control of pea aphids on pea vines with one properly timed treatment. In 1935 field tests were run with all the commercial dusts sold in Wisconsin and, when the temperatures were high, satisfactory results wer- obtained from each dust after 24 hours. Self-mixed dusts were also used. Derris (5 percent rotenone and 14 percent total ether extractives), and cube were mixed with various diluents so that the final mixture contained '1 percent of rotenone, 1 percent of liquid wetting and spreading agert, and 2 percent of water by weight. These dusts were applied at 30 pounds per acre and all were effective in reducing the pea aphid population more than 90 percent on treated plots after 2h hours.

Rotenone dusts are most effective when applied to neas wet with dew or rain and when the weather is fairly warm (above 70 F.). Keavy rain following as early as 5 or 6 hours after the dust is applied does not seriously injure the effectiveness of the treatment, provided the peas are moist when dusted. Under favorable conditions 20 pounds per acre of a dust containing 1 percent-of rotenone gives good results, but it is safer to use 25 to 30 pounds per acre. --Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station (220) in 1939.






Grc-uu-icl C-erris dr crbp ro )t -,_-rored ef-'ective i r. k I 11 i V %PU dS
a n fi!, t h c adv n. n -15 e o f I i c 1-.e ,7er to nicoti ne- va-,0jr,' -Rote- I
_ 10]1_ e I s C C, i C s e i C! e i4 r f orn ,,,J th n.lnQst
.ooC, result but dmst-7 -,enerally rreferrec. bec -,_use thel
n-L -c it _r necp ,.F o 1 -Ir e s of wat er 7111c begt -oractice
'is t,) tref-' t,-,e 7e- 7 i-hum 'irst flol-or b, _as c s t s rn n'
are 7i-:;t iffcctive:
11 t dcw or.
Or i.!_ ..,-a o n c e
of qc: is in 7or-inc, -la'e
a-fter,,.oo", or err--L-,-; Th c, f---).ct that night :,n-01i c. A-are effecu'i-7G 1. to "be larLely bec-iusp. there
:3 g on e r -- 1 Iv r--)T i ci el l 01'- "IP t 7 I t tu 1 71, e ) b7,7-t absence ot' iTina at night = y alc, ) frorl bI(nr-_.L

knrA-her i- roter.one J usts Pre iore ,ffectiveAr t'-,,-c o ,,- e 7 0 1,n 1 C),
I V -,t re'-.cc t-,, number of
a-phids mtil after s soon "em-,neratures bccam, higher
roocL control resulted Cne ru Z z I i C f C t '0 T, 1 i CI ha s n 0 t
i!-- th'at --ctfI.n-)rc -ec-F! to thr, so:- C -rotection
i -in o r, -,-o -p 1 i e d, _ring:- cool- C t h,-, -.7.z"I C', T)h i a' -, a r not immoaiatcl: lcillee,. For this it I, not rerchl t- o s a, Ecfinit,7,,- i t 1 1 s c, t o i- a i lintil the
ture is ab---!,e -00 befo.-e. uzin,:7- rctenore r ,;sts.

T'.,Ie -on in 193 'reported excel en. cert_--ol C- t',-,- r "I i
root. 1,. cre no-I of -7car, as recorderl a'. factor--. 07-. owe-I ra:- -in1- f-0-1 r9 to 131 recent with
tIIE' 10 -C !7, t C as com-,,-),rt d -vitr. u- treAcd, --lots. Tap average
J-4 Ln c, s t",jrc a 'r percentage
of S- 11 s e n -.S i-": cl,. ,c,- n tr,?-i I p nicts. Trials
werc ra"If- 0- tI-. (, I E) t p la q conccntratio--2 of 7' per
10C cm1lons i-, t:,i,,- ci" E I I - I t c n o 1 t:' was a6ain
oo t p
1 41 -1 47 1 7, r n r 1 c! t o n f c r thc anhid inf t, .L t i on to r,,-4
M CC a,- f o r -nearly a
o 1, t, I r j, _L OW 1/1 to 1/2
-r- -,nd 1-c' '-n:, killed
L il _nk rc;- "I PI Cli, ,,- nor ICO
A!) o C of "."117 1-C 0 r i c, r cr c.. Dcrris con- ,
t i nI ovci n. -of or
rorro6: t i c n &-riri r -peri-,e_ iy Were
wher klr-rris -e:- rc-pin(-C Vr.infe,,ti d. -for a
e 1. -0 C. r 4
f t e r r e t t t'-. -an 77 c, t- r- rtIiEr -oi, cns tested.

IMI 0 1*71 -z' 71 i i t nu ,I 'c-,r lrl--7 st-_).ted.
t,,-,u derri A-t,-LIC., c'--st, 7. -5-.rcent o-; rotenoniE ra.... c, ntaiy
i_ ,- from' 0.00- to -,ooa control the pea.
an %1. S *1 n,-l e b-fil-r in largc inin -,7-i c l e t. r t n t P, 'I C b o 2- C I-T Jn PKI) fivc dustil f test-, -0-od'IceI r r 17,V I T acress thr'&
tests n-er, ,-,e i r e o f e r c n t Diphenyl







39
ixmi~~~ sufnt dsdum o~y ufte were used as wetting agents.
For the control of th-e nee a-'h-id, canners now have'a choice of' tw~o efective insecticides--nicotine in a : as forn and rotenone in either wet sprays or dusts. Nicotine as nowi- used -ives. excellent coim-,ercial coontrcl under proper codaios nd, rotenone materials also are frood
if careff'lly ap- 'lied. Any jnsi ticide containing at least 1 percent of~ rotenone will probably be-, effecti-e, applied'either as a spray or a Dust, and all the I -percent rotenone materials tested, as wr~ell as the Snicotine-gas method, reduced pea aphid population 'y 90 to, 95 percent within a day or tw-,o in'trials conducted by Wilson at Columnbus in 1937. ~Field treatz.aents in this and other' areas in many instances gave equ ally good control where the insecticides wore properly a-pplied.

The conditions under which rotenone dusts are used nay have some bearing on the ancunt needed. About 30 pounds per acre of a dust containing 1 percent of rotenone is a safe amount under most circumstances. As little as 20 pounds i'was tised with good results in trials in 1938, but it -may be risky to try,, economizing to this extent, particularly if ~weather condit'Cions are not such as to make the, rotenone i:mnediately eff~tie~~WiconinAgriQultural ExperiLment Station (~ n May 1939.

The Wisconsiin Agricultural Experimnent Station (32) in 1940 reported that 2-year trials have indicated that if a properly mixed dust containing
0.75 to 1 percent of' rotenone is stored in a dry -warehouse, it will us-ually, be about as effective the second year as it is the first. In ~ Ieton god cum~rcalds 4-e.ld over from tbhe 1917 season gave
excellent results in 1938 and also satisfactory results in 1939. Three others rmi'xed- in 1938 proved sutisfacoryO in 1939. Experim-ents in pea aphid control carrie ou-t on 57 1./4A~-acrer plots on a farm nea-r Yraunakee, Dane county, in 1939 brought out esoocia lly favorable results With 4erris-dust .mixtu,-res. Althou-.h aphid inif,.stations'-,;erc very ligh.-t at thyis location, derris-dustb mix tures appeared to increase yields in several of theP t -ests. Average, yield in-creases in three cx-ocr~ra nt s were 612, 555, and 555 pounds per acre, respectively.

Roten-one dusts cause relatively s1i ghtl injtor to ladybeetles, inportant E -hid p:redators, Only adult bec7tles w -ere rather consistently injured by rotenone dust, and even the'adults often were able to lay large numbers of eggs after lbeling duistedf. Lar-va e were seldom. insJuread unless they had just molted-atl the tiethe diust' Tzps anplied. The Cogs of lady beetles were uninjured, even wh- _en heavily coated with dust,-.,

)acrosiplun solani*folii (Ash-m.), the potato aphid

KcIndoo and Sievers (188) in 1924 rep--orted tha-t cube as a dust and as an infusion v'was effe-ctive, but- -Lsed as a -cold-,-.te.r extract .d'th, soap t hadpractcall no effect. The cold alcoholic extracts of cube and debris plus soap were effective.

Kelsall. et al. (169) in 1926 repor_-te th resu lts of tests wi.th derris a:--ainst the,, 'otato aphid in t ,- ins-ctary. The presence of moisture h-td a marked effect in increa: sing- t'he toxicit- of derris.




4!

40

A dust containing 2.5 parts of derris and 97.~5 parts of hydrated lime gave 100-percent control in 5 days when the foliage vas first dipped in v.ater and the dust then blown on. Derris in spray form required 5 pounds per 100 imperial gallons of waterr toproduce 100-percent mortality, while nicotine sulfate (40 percent), 1/2 pint to 100 gallons, gave the same control. In all tots derris ~as much slower in action than nicotine.

'McDaniel (186) in 1928 wrote that the potato aphid -as controled Derrisol.

Derris dust failed to give satisfactory control in the field.--al and Anderson (298); also reported by Cory (277) in 1935.

Manschke (191) in 1937 reported that 96.5 percent of red and green potato aphids on tomato were killed by a spray consisting of 2 pounds of derris poder (4 percent rotenone) per 100 gallons of water plus abo 3/4 ounce of coconut-oil soap (40 percent dry soap) per gallon.

The rotenone preparations Cvbor, Fiagron, and Kubatox and derris were effective.--Massachusetts Agricultural Experi3ent Station (194) in 1937,

Perper (224) in 1937 reported on the control of pink and gre-n aphids, M. solanifolii, on toniatoes in New Jersey. Nicotine as more effective than derris or pyrethrum. The estimated results of pyrethru derris, and mixtures of pyrethrum-derris dust, as compared raith 4 pece nicotine dust, are tabulated as follows:

Treatment Estimated
control,


Pyrethrum-talc (25:75) 60
Derris dust (0.75 percent rotenone) 35
Pyrethrum 50 pounds, derris root (4 percent
rotenone) 20 pounds, and talc 30 pounds 70
A comnercial mixture of derris and pyrethru(0.5 percent rotenone and 0.2 Dercont pyrethrins) 60
Four percent-nicotine dust 95

Approximately 30 to 35 pounds of the above mixtures ws applied pe acre. Oils impregnated vith pyrethrun and derris extract were sprayed from an airplane. Poor kill (about 25 percent) :as obtained from the application of regular kerosene 10 gallons, concentrate of pyrothrn pl derris 1 gallon, and highly refined petroleum distillate 10 gallons plu concentrate of pyrethrum-derris 1 gallon. There vas little diffetre between the treated plots; and, since the percentage kill of aphids as so low and time was limited, actual counts woere not made. The airplane sprayer did net break up the spray as fine as was expected. Poor distribution of the fog or oil particles tas, no doubt, a part of the caus of poor results.







41

After adjusting the airplane spraying equipment so as to produce a fine fog, 1 gallon of pyrethr~-derris concentrate to 30 gallons of oil reduced the aphid population 40.1 percent. A later count indicated a reduction of 71.4 percent. Nicotine ( gallon of 50 percent free nicotine to 27 gall6ps oil) reduce the population in the t-.o counts 68.3 and 94.3 percent.respeptively.

Smith (244) in 193 reported that derris power (4 percent rotenone)
at 2 pounds pr 100 gallons of water plus 1-1/4 pounds (dry basis) coconutoil soap or 1/2 pound Dry Aresket 300 caused a reduction of 96.5 percent in the population of pink and green potato aphids on tomato plants. Counts vere made at the end of 24 hours.

Craufurd-Benson (57) in 1938 experimented with M. solanifolii
collected in the field as a test insect for determining the value of liquid contact insecticides, especially derris preparations, but found the results to be completely unreliable.

Gunderson (134) in 1938 recommended derris against potato aphids.

Cube or derris dust is ineffective.--Eaude (144) in 1939.

Macrosiphum rosae (L.), the rose aphid

McIndoo and Sievers (188) in 1924 reported that a cold alcoholic,
and also a benzene extract of cube were effective when used with soap.

Neoton (derris extract in fish oil) 75 gm. plus twice its weight of soap in 40 imperial gallons killed 100 percent.--Institute of
Physical and Chemical Research (162) in 1927.

Foliafume (a pyrethrum-derris spray with spreader) at 1:400 killed 94 percent in 48 hours.--Penick and Company (223) in 1936.

A bed of about 40 rose plants infested with M. rosae vias divided
into two parts and sprayed with 0.25 and 0.5 point of commercial acetone derris extract containing 5 percent of rotenore per 100 gallons, respectively, 0.2 percent of soap being used in each case. Complete control of this insect was obtained with the 0.5-pint concentration and about 80 to 90 percent uith the 0.25-pint spray mixture.--Ginsburg and Granett (124) in 1935.

Siphonophora Macrosiphu-m rosae (L.) is killed by a proprietary dust containing 12 percent of cube of 6 percent rotenone content.-Etablissements Eotenia in a letter to C. Roark in 1938.

Macrosiphun rudbeckiae (Fitch), the goldenrlow aphid; or cone flower aphid

Darley (62) in 1931 reported comparative tests with rotenone, nicotine, and pyrethrum on aphids. Rotenone was used in two stock solutions, one consisting of 0.2 a. of rotenone, 5 cc. of benzol, and 95 cc. of Penetrol; the other of 1 gn. of rotenone in 50 cc. of acetone. A f vw preliminary tests against M. rudbeckiae on goldenrod gave the following results: Black Leaf 40 at 1:1.00 nicotine 1:2, 500) reduced a








mortality of 58 percent; Nictrol at 1:200 (nicotine 1:10,000) percent; Penethrum at 1:200 (pyrethrins 1:74,800), 80 percent; No. at 1:200 (rotenone 1:100,000), 96.9 percent. The check mortality Was 23.2 percent.

Turner (2.) ip 192 reported that cube extract dissolved in mine oil and emulsified with sodium oleate deteriorated during the 5 days following preparation. Applications ma de at a dilution of 1:25,000 cube extract against M. rudbeckiae killed from 42.7 to 91.6 percent Cube extract in minerl oil emulsified with powdered skinned milk did not decompose on 2 weeks' standing, a dilution of cube extract of 1:300,000 killing from 54.8 to 74.1 percent of the aphids.

Macrosiphum solidaginis (F.)

Turner (271) in 1932 reported that cube extract in oil, emulsifi with a sulfonate emulsifier, at a dilution of 1:40,000 killed 81.7 p cent of k,. solidaginis, whereas a solution of nicotine sulfate (40percent nicotine)- at 1:800 killed only 41.2 percent.

Macrosiphum spp.

McIndoo and Sievers (188) in 1924 reported numerous tests of cub and derris in the form of dusts and alcoholic and aqueous extracts ag unidentified aphids designated as acraosiphe spp. "A" -and "C10 The alcoholic extracts were the most toxic. The smoke from burning derri and cube powders was offoctive ag-ainst the. species "C."

Mlyzus cerasi (FP), the black cherry aphid

The ilichigan Agricultural Experiment Station (199) in 1925 repor that 4crris sprays had given encouraging but not conclusive results against the black cherry aphid.
The Viisconsin Agricultural Experient Station (313) in 1926 repo that the petal spray is probably the best for cherry aphid control, a Derriscl, imported from gland, socmed to possess superior qualities; and in its .nnuxl report for 1927 (314) stated that both Dorrisol and nicotine sulfate wvcr effective at dilutions of 1:800 parts ofiater. They were about equally efficient, but Dorrisol was cheaper. ore pleasant to apply, and gave better coverage, although it took from 24 48 hours after spraying for aphids to die.

The sajmc station (315) in 1929 reported that Dorrisol applied-ea in the season before the cherry leaves unfold gave commercial control. the cherry aphid; in 1938 (318) reported that the black cherry aphids Door County were controlled by varici insecticides, including >seven products containing rotenone; and in 1940 (322) reported that the evi of the past season was that derris and bordeaux could be used together for control of'the black cherry aphid. Good control resulted when Dri Spray, a proprietary derris powder, was used at 3-1/4 pounds to 100 gallons of half-strength bordeaux (made up of 1-1/2 pounds of coper sulfate and 2 pounds of lime in 50 gallons of water). Dri-Spray also




I Vr:



gave goat reewits V-i n ci" 1po!.-rc, S to 100 xallcrs
mater in Mq-ehyerinent, hut e wyaorcial KerV entirely satiifenzory wntr& 2f 124M 4xn Ve I AW VAis s n OnitWrt during a ocs! spell, Wth temoarhiLres nruurd aO* tc EV F. T h in,
indleetos that Orris arriys to awArM ohc=7 u Ws WAR bn us-I
dirigr lain ywcOrT to 7v noon -onrltr, ns in Qe case v n rvah IS insocticider arc rs V f.r nun rcl Q -a aphids.

Eyzus persicae Sul 7. the 7re,-il -p? K, spinach aphid, or tobAcco arAR'

McAdoo, Sie7ern, ond MoM (759) > 191C rajbrtod UK t n jn6hnlic
extract of derris -plus scaj (I y-70ar to ICE gallcrs 22 ntrr
plus 2 pounds or fish-oil boap) killed 00.5 percent of thesc njAl's. Arris
powder bsei a2 a dust under nract!c"! cvn Aicw aso In
1924 AcIndne nnd Sievers (M) rojort& Ant cervis uscd Ay L fnni7vzt
(burneO) ruF effective.

DeOn,-] -.nd 17hito (76) in 1924 reported that a commercial dorris extract diluted 1:590 gave a N-jerceat, control of the Creep wna ? n-hij.
Diluted 1:300 a maxLvum control of 62 yerowt vas obtained;

Vai. der Yeer Vchr (196) in 1027 reported tHat V persicae is
n Deli, .-Si-r-,-Latra. TAe seeMis are infestw! serious pest o? tobacco i.
from the Mawnt forests, anj thG Yung plants in U; field are cithor
infested in thr! or by tA7 intrAuction of Wrsted 7ecdl'rKs
from thn Lads, 1i the OcAs irc wry Wil invest& thn sad7iryn cnn4id
bo dostroycd or d1pucd in durris solution, wyoripa-As
this does not harr tham. In the yOrtaii-na a daQ;l w Vn should ue
kept for the ArV traces of' Tnfehaticn, S7ruy,PS Tn a solution of derris is advice. The apOlcation Tunt be rewatA ftnr 4 to 5 days.

Tns Deli iroefstAi n of Yeja7, Suratra, (CC) ir 1420
info-.natio on tAe use o tuba Morris) root An"OrpcA a ainot M. -rrsicae
ch tobacco. _01 1 ,1 Pk j ri 15 2 ? -,:-a s C r s c j r t y o v c r;7o
lurge scale for compti-g Ws Wort, Aven &-. -sun in excessive
quantities it eid no' Ynn w he tVows 'w 7y. 7uV. rout nxtrcat is
made as follo7w: Thn APO, runt j- c -V 1,02V 1 W 2 QRcs
lonS and mix,:-d ,.j7 tKyrs M 1 t, r; Onn in L f rvshn.cCnd-'_tin loss -V:- ,tcr I a jKA, n 1 ywl ic crrwed in 20 to 30 minutes
by wrtically runpiar Mistorcs, ji n Tnvrcu,& Ycvud, art VA
rusiluc prarsw jy a hydraulic p7.s,, 1 _., - i, -' -, I i q1,1 i Cl :)C S S C :3
throuOh r Tino sinvo aW is nlx& i tv n Arst cnirnot. The Aquid,
is thon Hsinf.c A Ith 0.5 pcrcQA of OrmaQA ano, i vn T7t V:
tightly sc OR clsks, may kccp for cmo mLrths. Ain 7nAcd in wntisActory low the Ali canditOns bccarsc tL cntr"nt is mAy wly Rnrin
tho plwtinF season and us7d -1.:-ithin a sEort tKa, This iv by fnr tH chrnpcst Orwfickdo for tho DAT Plunters. Tho ranufactorc is undur
contiruors control c! the entrows'str c' the -x7erimert station.
Am average of 60,CDO liters n We stmcn snlutiar is sent yourIv to
the tobnow Wanters. Dervii is Psi so-vricr to nicotine sulwtc !n killing R. plyricne, AIMOD- or soap Mrs not ffvct tnc aw ]&Qal
qualities.




A

-44

The proefstation (70) in 1931 reported that M,. persicae was unusually abundant on tobacco, and large amounts of derris extract were used to combat it. Neoton at 0.1 percent rwas more effective and cheaper than the :45 skar toeba (derris) of the proefstation; however, it was necessary 16 use a small proportion of soap to prevent the separaW tion of oil frrm the Neoton, which otherwise leads to unequal distributi of the spray. n 1933 &the name station (7) report yeomp arative e periments made at two places wi~h Nooton and akar toeba, to see rhther these insecticides had any influence on the quality of tobacco to whi6h they were applied. THe Neoton was used at 0.1 percent, together with some soap; the akar toeba, at a dilution of 1:40 in a 0.1 percent soap soluti Neither treatment had any marked effect on quality. From the inscticid standpoint, the akar toeba extract was not inferior and there is no roas for replacing it with Nooton. Derrothan as a dust was effective in laboratory testo but Derrothan emulsion burned 'the tobacco plants. Duri the 4 months Janvary-April, inclusive, 1932 the akar toeba factory at Sikambing, Sumatra, distributed 708,000 liters of aqueous extract of derrs

Davidson (63) in 1930 killed 8.2 percent of these aphids in '
greenhouse with rotenone suspended in water at a concentration of 1:100 and 94,3 percent at a concentration of 1:200,000. A dust containing 2 parts of rotenone and 98 parts of diatomaceous earth killed 76.6 percent.

This aphid was used as a test insect by Davidson and Jones (65) i 1931 in studying the loss of toxicity suffered by rotenone in certain solvents and in aqueous suspension. A freshly prepared suspension of rotenone made by adding an acetone solution of it to water at 1:50,000 killed more than 95 percent.

The green peach aphid vas used byDavidson as a test insect and referred to by Shepard (241) in 1931 (see Brevicoryne brassicae L., page 18.

Tattersfield (258) in 1932 discussed laboratory methods for evaluating inseaticAies. Results of tests with two samples of derris root against K. proicao arc stated as follows:

The r tiw samples had the same rotenone content, and
over a definite range of concentrations (up to 0.05 percent), expressed in terms of root, the results for
equivalent concentrations do not differ by more than the experimental error, although sample F is always slightly
less effective. The results are normal up to a certain
concentration (0.05 percent), and then, above that strength,
both samples are shown to be less effective than below it.
In the case of root B, the results are scarcely significant, but in the case of root F definitely significant. Obviously
two factors are working in opposite directions.

In discussing how far the factor of time should be taken into account in judging toxic effects quantitatively, Tattersfield wote:









If the acti,,)n haJ onl ,,, beer, I nuo
account i.n khe a _)I e in C C C i j
would never ha-;-o corle rc is st, tlin,
t.ir, raT idit- ,f o ff- c of' th
diffo o betwe&i pyrethrins
Ni oia th one hard and or tl, othor; f.'or ,-Aieroas the
ra-Pid narcosis -oroC ucc ,. yrotl ...rino riay xar aff at concentrations bolow t, cortL, in "Lovcjl, narcotic. effect
of rotrnon, doo7oo7c Tvith

Turnc-. (271) in 1,232 mportod the ri sults of work carried on durin
1928-31, inclusive, c,,lbe ( extractt and rotonono obtained from cube.
Cube ex-tr-nt v.as incorporated in a sulfoiiate(l -,iroral oil cqlled "ollsoluble s,,_,1fonate'1 dissolvir;,- -grol)er &_,7,wnt of cube -2--tract i,,.-i
benzol, L-i:-inF, -E-iis i-J-11h t'l-Le uil-soluble s ul:, cnf,,te, ,tnd the
-ior 1 200, 0,
bcnzol at lov! temper7,'ure. This prep.ar-tic.n LA a dilut oof tc.-tal ex.trL .ct of cube killed 37.5 percent o' 1,7. Per,-,cae. Fi7ve
months 1L ter this prenara-Linii gavc the san.e perccnta ;o of kill, indicating
no decorirositir.,_-1 (-f the roucneno' in that time.

77. DuR. Thorne, kn.crican Vice Consul at Ifedcan, Suratra, reported in
1933 that thc Deli Fxr, ri.-_crtal Station buys dorris not on a basis of
rotenone content bu -. on c, baGis of' other. extract to co-mbpt M. porsicao on tobacco. Tho ooncontr,,J- c : c q,,Acoiis extract in diluted 1:10 for uso.

Garman (117) in 1934 reported that a com racial rotenone preparation
at 1:1,000 pl-Lzs lical soap at 1:1,000- gave relatively poor results against
the E;reen peac,-i aphid.

Trappmann an,,' .-,itsche (270) in 1935 reported 100-pereent mortality
in zl day's of Ihorodon (1Tyzode7) D,-,rzus persicae when, spr-.- yed -.-Ath a 2
suszension of rotenone TO-f __,j_)OrcC2].U rotenone) plus Turkoy-red oil.
Thc dosaLe -..!aF, r-(--u10,,-Dd to mive a dv)osit of 0.18 of rotenone per
D
500 on.

Dorris dust failn i -'Go Jv,: in the field.-and Andcrsc-n (2 a 1 s o r-_-,D,,)rtcd by Cory (277) in 1935.
J

Desh- )ande ( 71 ) in 19437 reported that usually V,o species of aphids,
11"zus -p! rsicae and -- hoco'rine-irdobr,, x ,icae Das) Rhopalosiphum,
pseiidobra03.1c7ae 'Da-ii-S7 are Tound attacAhirg cabb"-ge and t1hat both of them
-1 \ 0
ra e of mabbage.a-phid. In 1.932 D'errisol at 1:800 go under Ti co:-:,i-ion
killed 100 percent of' tlic a-cLIds. Derz-isol is not no-.. ir-mnufactu red,
I r Va .:
hence 2-S -fio 1crigel Ilable,

Durt containing 0.75 T)-rce- t rotenone -ay )e used to control this
insect on Sniiiacil, cabloago unc! ca-, ,liflo-:,,er on Lo.n, Island. It is
advisable to ,ia ,:c t ,e latc in -Uhc -aftcrnoon or earlier in
the cv, nir, 7.fhen dc)-.; is expect,, d.--Cro-,J)7r, Chu-p, and Leiby (58) in 1 PID

Harde (144) in 2 3 rec-ormanded cube or derris dusk" (0.75 percc,'nt
rotenone) --)lus 0.5 to 1 T_)crc,-.--t (,f a -::ottcr, to be a-)-lied-at 30 to
pounds pcr c:-crc witH a oanw.s trcaili r 'he plants arc dry








46

Pentalonia nigronervosa Coq.

Ocfemia (215) in 1931 wrote on bunchy-top of abaca in the Philip pines and its control. This disease is caused by a virus which i
Periphyllus lyropictus (Kess.), the Norway-maple aphid

Hamilton and Cemmell (137) in 1934 reported that in nursery tests against the Norway-maple aphid derris dust (1 percent rotenone) killed 40 percent.

Phorodon humuli (Schr.), the hop aphid

Winston (312) in 1926 reviewed information on Derrisol for the benefit of Florida citrus growers. Reference wvs made to its use again hop aphids in England. Derrisol should be diluted 1:800 for use against aphids.

Derris or rotenone suspensions at concentrations of 1:5,000 or 1:6,250 vrere effective.--DeBussy et al. (32) in 1935.

Hampp and Jeh1 (139) in 1938 reported that sprays of derris alon and with pyrethrum gave excellent results against hop aphids on h i Germany. It rwas recommended that nicotine be used until blossom time, and derris or derris with pyrethrun from then on.

Warwick (300) in 1938 reported that in England derris products are used very effectively against the hop aphid.

Pterochlorus tropicalis Van der Goot

Neoton (derris extract in fish oil) 225 pn. plus an equal weight of soap, in 40 imperial gallons'of water, killed 100 percent.--Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (162) in 1927.

Rhopalosiphum prunifoliae (Fitch), the apple grain aphid

Headlee (145) in 1926 reported that Derrisine diluted 1:100 in t tests permitted 52 and 32 percent of the eggs of (Aphis avenae F.) Rhopalosiphum prunifoliae to hatch as compared with an average of 58.8 percent in the checks.

A block of 10 young De3liciols apple trees was spr yed with a
mixture consisting of 3 pounds of colloidal copper fungicide, 1 pomd of derris (5 percent rotenone), commercial oil emulsion to give 3 percent actual oi1, and 100 gallons of water. The sprays were applied during t






47

+ last days of April, -..Iien most of the leaves Y.-ere abnut 1/2 incl, cut.
Subsequent observations ciiscl_ cs d tl-.at a- -te-l to 95 Dercen u
of the hatched aphids (SiT)hor,-or-no avenap.) were C.ead on this block
within 48 hours after spray and Granett (124)
in 1935,

[AQ<-ordinp; to F. 17. Nason, t' e to ixi 11he t-oro
preceding paragraphs probabll!- are R. prunif'oliac.1

r(hopalosiphizn pseu(Iobrasslcae (,-avis),O the turn-:1p aphid; false cabbage aphid, Indian mustard aphid, or
turner leiise

UcIrdoo, Sievers and Abbott (189.) in 101C killed 100 perce, it of
this species in laboratory tr?s-LS i,,Atli deriis dust.

Darle-y (62) in 1931 fc-und tl-iat iy in the field, 'rotenote at
a concentration of 1:1001000 as a contact poison in spray form compared
favorably in toxicity vvith nicotine at 1:10,000 and pyreihrins at 1:74,800.
Penetrol at the sazie cone entraticn (1:200) -Aras used in each spray.
Roterone at 1:100,000 kilTed j8.5 percent cf these aphidd. in 48 hours.

Little (183) in 1931, re-ortcd that Pield c:,c -perim-ents on thif; species
with the powdered root aC[C -acelR] Tephrosia virf..-iriana showed that t1le
plant has considerable rr'omise a, crx,,t c- spnay. At 1:400 in water a
spray of the powdered root of T. virginiana 1--illed 93 percent of the turnip tLphids.

Turner (271) in 1932 repo rtc d that rotenone dissolved in oilsolu.ble sulfona=aid applied -t tic rutc (,f gave
1 part in 40,000
excellent control of (-k-phis) P iopalcsirhix.i ps -.'11 lobrassiccle on radishes
in C" recnhousos. At Vic ratc-'s of 1 :'-')1
t:1 'OO and. 1:60..000 results -vvore
not so

In Yovcmber 1933 A]le-n (5) Iiat at Eaton Roup. _,e, La..,
rotenone, in additi(,,. to ,filiinx t e Ourl-1-11, aplhid, protected the tLrnip
plants for severi.1 6ays from at-back by i-nsoctz. Derris dust
diluted vrith tobacco '"list cf --gradc to 0.5 r ,rcen-:. rotenon-- content, and
derris Oust dili_,ted vith suI'A r Idust t,-, 0.5 rotenone content,
protected plants fron. frO7 6 to S' days.

Foliaftrie (a spray ;Titl, at 1:400 killed
88 per,3ont.--Fe-:-iac!c and' Coraparr (223) -'n 1936.

Allrn (6) in Octobi-r 11:,34 rr. Ior- ed ",:,at a dust conta-ini-,- I percent
d o r.
of rotenone, -prcnising r, si_,lts for t,,-c control of t11--c ti- _ni-,-) acni
turnips and Ustard. Eau.,L] oEi.rts ..)f -L'ir-Jl to.,...cco du.st --rd -5C)Omesh d,_,stin sulil'iir were u.-c-d as a T: i c ,, 1-2 t'ic, s t a --h,'- thc derris-root-dust nixture sl, ould bc ----lied ir s,.,ch a n-, n,- r
that -a lijit of it roachcs 'u- ic, un1Jcr-id,,s of thc 1c_-.vcs. I t may
be supplied to ifct or Jrr plants prefc--abl-,; in 1L.te ,.ftornoon. F;o o(
results havr;. been o):)-L-a.n_-d by making ,.pplic-ltions aft,--r rains.







48

The dust should be applied at the rate of 20 to 25 pounds per are, base on 3-1/2-to 4-foot rows with two rows of plants to each field row Ordi narily treatments should be made at 7- to 10-day intervals for best re Under field conditions sprays have not been so satisfactory as dusts against the turnip aphid on turnip and mustard. It is difficult to rea the lice on the undersides of the leaves, especially on large plants a spray is preferred, a nicotine .lfpte-soap solution is recommended

The United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (278) in its annual report for 1935 stated that experiments on the turnip aphid in Louisiana indicate that derris dust may satisfactorily prote e turnip crop from damage. In its annual
report for 1936 the Bure asated that in tests directed against the tuM aphid in Louisiana insecticides containing rotenone, wvrith sulfur and tal as diluents, were in general more effective in producing a satisfac market product that wore insecticides containing nicotine. In 1939 the (268) reported that insecticides containing rotenone had proved effective'

Fenton (101) in 1936 referred to the report of Allen (6) and to unpublished work by Roney of Texas, who reported very good reults at Dickinson with a dust containing 10 pounds of powdered derris or cube (5 percent rotenone), 15 pounds of pyrothrun dust (0.5 percent pyrethrins), and 75 pounds of 300-mesh conditioned sulfur. The dust did not cause any burn of the turnips and when applied early in the morning or the afternoon, when dew was present and very little wind, it controlled this insect. It was effective at temperatures as low as 450 F.

Harrison (141) in September 1936 reported the results of field t with insecticides against the turnip aphid on Purple-top Globe turnips Florida broadleaf mustard, at the Baton Rouge, La., laboratory, of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. A dust mixture containing 1 percent of rotenone, with equal parts of tobacco dust and sulfur as diluents, was superior to derris sprays, and dust mixtures containing nicotine sulfate. The dust mixture containing rotenone not only gave satisfactory reduction in the aphid population immediately after treatment but continued to inhibit the increase of aphids for a period of at least 6 days. Derris sprays ranked second in effectiveness against the aphids. A nicotine sulfate-dust mixture containing 3 percent of nicotine was effective against the aphids for a short period after application bu did not afford adequate protection for so long a period as did the derri dusts or sprays.

The Texes Agricultural Experiment Station (265) in 1936 reported that for the control of R. pseudobrassicae a sulfur dust containing 0.075 percent of pyrethrins and also 0.5 percent of rotenone gave results inferior to Nicotrol (a nicotine product) at a dilution of 1:300, applied by means of a fan-shaped nozzle.

.Deshpande (77) in 1937 reported that usually two species of, aphida Myzus peraicae and"Siphocoryne indobrassicae Das) Rhopalosiphum pseudo brassicae, are found attacking cabbage. in India and t at both of them go under the common name of cabbage aphid. In 1932 Derrisol at 1:800 kill 100 percent of the aphids. Derrisol is not now manufactured, hence is no longer available.







49

The Louisiana (184) ir. 2""' rco-,2mended derri- di ,ob,,: ccc, d--c-- clay, or talc
il one content of 1. pcrcci -,. for tl-e o-" turnip P phid.

The Texas Ar ricult,. ra'. Station (266) in 19%37 reported
A that the standard spray !"cr-ula j sulfate plus penetrol) was
stiperior to thp. cf ,rbiration in du,,-t and
remained -- icre effcotdve for P. w-ck or 10 dlay.; a-Cter the applications were
mad e

Harriso-n (142) ',)f the Baton Foute, La., laboratory, reported in 1939
that Vsts initl-i 20 different+ Ynixti rt s' tilp use of (141.11111 ic:.-.s
't 1-14KInt.9 and
of 1.0 and 0.5 Percent of roterone vjih various $
resulted ir. no 3igni-ficant in yield botwecn -Lhe tmI-A-.-r 11_1 &
This indicator that thc pres,3rt re C omrordati or frr tilrnlp Jpl--id
ccrt-rGl (roter.onc:-dust mixtiir j oontalnii r 1-porccn.t ,f rot.,rone Vi4-h rqual,
pa, o of "t V1,
-+- tobacco Oist -_rcl sulfiii-) -Ir, not by 4-- addi-T
tion n-f any o-1, the mcr con7;.oi' ccn agorts u;5cd -in con )avi.rf'
uphids. C o nd j- t i on i n', wr,-c: Ono or 2 parcont of p -,,-)Lnut oil,
4 porcort of soyhEar fl(,-ur, and 1 -r)f .rcont er ch of peanut c,-Aton:, ccd Oil, piTr rJ1, clcic a-id, Oas ;cr cil, sodiiam oleyl sulfate, -- ,d
an alk-vlated

Eaiide (14zL-) in P 39 blube ar derr-is diist
rotenone) pli s 0.5- to I-pe-rec-rit a ,rctter, fp'plie'd 30 to 50 pc'u ":Ids
per acre. -v! -Lln a car_-,- as Y,-her are dry.

Phoi)alcsir)hiz-t subterranelin Mason

Rho-cal s -, -,'h1_uTn s T). rob,_ ,j R. s-bterrar, Cu,TI.

(S, e r-ports of, -'-e Sou- '- "Larolins- '!7ricultur,-l
E j ). k; I A. C).
Experi7ne;n!_- St-ati(,n (2413" (228) unler Anuraphis maidi-radicis
Forbcs, pp 4-5.)
Toxopt -!ra rv ; aphid
I- L ci

1-T r.-r "A) In 1034 -Uj.t?-), Dorri s, To.T hrosia,
j7T icultvral
and cit r d tll-ie 3:
R e S r EF' a T iT 7. D r 41 r,.: un -i a f-! r i I va s en in tab'-!Clt'ito alcol-Iol
(cc cc. _-lcohr l fcr oP for "41 filtered, 9--nd
u-o to I') cc. iz;io 5 (-' r i f, 1 the 1il"er
th ,, I C G I T- i s 11 d e::i -t c)f' t 1. c la n
T h P n. P v-. c (I r) a C C' S 4 h e f'I'e Y.
Z.
lor rach a:r(, to U"ICM L.prrc, .nt of so,;.p (:,r I T,-, rc- ?-.t I
et f( r s ,, c S f r .P, s s r
made wi t i the root P Dcri, ,s
stens, and rcot.s. cl' Te',.4-_ -orla vo L
T. toxicaria; the leave-, s,3e-Is, _,nc' ocd,- or
seeds., E.n,.! root-, of T. candirla; t. -; c'U
and the le,-_ves -,.- -d &7"I-.s )i' ,:-I B
41,
Extract-.,3 oi D I rris J111-ptica rc ( t,- "7
MOSt toxiC3 k i 11 iT-r 10.0 Perccrt (-,f' t --






Van der Scheer (239) in 1935 r'eported tat r eo -e- n
(1 gm. rotenone, 20 cc. benzene, and 30 cc. water contaiin 0.t Igepon T) at a concentrations of 1:5,000 gave e 100-pereentkilothb citrus aphid on tea foliage.
Worsicy (324) i,-a 1936 reported th.at )[undulea suberosa Benth. ar (0.9 percent rotenone) fror. Yioa district, Tanganyika Territory, EastA i 'wvas even more toxic than derris root (5.4 percent rotenone) to tis ee Conc entrations necessary to, rive 100-percont ki11 of Toxoptera aurati were 0.06 percent for nicotinec G-125 percent -for Mundule ar, ad percent for derris.

Trifidaphis phasooli (1 aas.)'

See ropcrt of tests made 'by the South Carolina Agricultual ment Station (249) and IRainwater (228) under A.nuraphis xnaidi-radii Forbes, p. 4.

Derris applied to the seedbed before planting, and aroundth f,
hastonod the gorauination of cotton by 24 hours, but did not control species of root aphids of iv which T. phaseoli causes the mrost severe dmg' United States Departmontof. AricultLurc :'urcau of Entomology andPln Quarantine (285) in 1939,

Aphiidae (unidentified species')

Aphids on apple

dKrsIopp (176) in 1924 reported that a spray consisting of I poudo derispowrder plus 1 kg. of soap in 800 liters of water g~.ve excelen
results against apple aphids,.

The IMfichigan Agricultural Experiment Station (199) in 1925 eot that derris sprays had given encouraging but not conclusive results aai
various a-phids or~ apple.

Derris spray gives a good measure of control of aphids on apl trees in England.--Kearns, Marsh, and Pearce (168) in 1932.

These insects were killed 'by dorris dust (1. pe rc emt rotenone&>-D Bussy et al. (32) in 1935.,

Aphids on bea~at

Plant lice on lima beans, along '~ihthe Nexican bean boee and mildew or pod mold are controlled by a rotenone preparation added toth bordeaux spray.--Suffolk County, N. Y., Farm Bureau (254) in 1933.'

Aphids on-~birch

Derris, 1-1/2_pounds per 100 imperial gallons of i,,atcr, viithh addition of soap, was uscd a_-gainst aphids on a cut-leaf birch butthy did not anpear to be affected duLring the first 12 hours. Two days'lae the tree was found to be completely free of aphids.--Kolsall et .1. (168) in 1926.








Aphids on cabbage

White (304) in 1935 and again (306) in 1936 stated that tests have xidioated that derris dusts. may aid in the control of certain aphids that infest cabbage and related crops.

DeBussy et al. (31),in 1936 stated that aphids can be readily controlled by spraying wit-a suspension of derris having a rotenone concentration of 1:10,000 or by spraying with a pure-rotenone suspension containing rotenone at a concentration of 1:5,000. During 1935 deBussy and associates used derris dusting powders (.0.5 percent rotenone plus 1.2 percent ether extract) against several varieties of leaf lice, including gray aphids on cabbage seed. There as no kill of these insects. From this it is concluded that in only a few cases can satisfactory results against aphids be expected when derris powder is used as a dust. Spraying with derris extracts 1: to be favored.

Derris dusts effective against cabbage worms do not give satisfactory control of plant lice,--Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station (50) in 1938.

The New South Wales Entomological Branch-:(209) in 1936 reported
that, where derris dust is applied throughout the season at 7- to 10-day in tervals for the control of Plutella maculipenhis (Curt.), it will also check green aphid infestation but does not control the slaty-gray aphids.

Merino and Otanes (197) in 1938 recommended a derris-soap spray
for the control. of aphids on obbage. Either dried or fresh derris roots may be used.

Aphids on cauliflower

Infestations of aphids in the cauliflower seedbed during July were
effectively controlled by dusts containing 0.5 and 0.33 percent of rotenone. The applications were made late in the evening under calm conditions, in anticipation of high relative humidity during the night.--New York Agricultural Experiment Station (213) in 1937.

Aphids on Ceylon ironwood

Miller (201) in 1935 tried aphids or Ceylon ironwood (Mesua ferrea L.) as test insects in determining the insecticidal value of various species of derris, but they proved too susceptible and difficult to handle; 100percent mortality vwas obtained each time, not only with the insecticide but also with the control fluid.

Aphids on cherry

DBarfoot (12) .in 1935 stated that the cherry an4 pear growers of the Bay district of California used several tons of cube dust for the control of aphids and other insects.









Aphids on chestnut trees

Black plant lice on chestnut trees fell off in a few minutes whe sprayed with a commercial derris product [probably Neoton].--Anonymous
in 1927.

Aphids on chrysanthemum

Compton (51) in 1930 recommended Derrisol for the control of aphi on chrysanthemums.

Aphids on chrysanthemum were controlled by a rotenone spray of 1:5,000 plus O,1 percent of Agral I.--Wageringen Plantenziektenkundigen
Dienst (293) in 1934.

Aphids on citrus

Symes (255) in 1924 reported that two proprietary derris extracts gave highly satisfactory results against the black citrus aphid in Rhode

Winston (313) in 1926 reviewed information on Derrisol for the benefit of Florida citrus growers. Derrisol should be diluted 1:800 for
use against aphids. Should a grower be spraying with lime and sulfur solution for rust mites, oil emulsion for scale, bordeaux mixture or fungus diseases, or lead arsenate for chewing insects, and any aphids be present, an addition of Derrisol 1:800 will pay handsomely, enabling
this pest to be controlled with the one spraying; or if aphids are prse and no other application is to be made, Dorrisol mixed with water without soap will be the cheapest efficient liquid aphicide that can be applied.

Rhoads and Debusk (230) in 1931 recommended derris preparations a the rate of 1 pint to 100 1lons of water for spring applications for the control of aphids on citrus in Florida. These should be applied at
* the time of first flush of growth. By employing some of the more efficient spreaders (certain oxidized oil derivatives, oleates, or pine-oil
soaps) the quantity of nicotine sulfate or derris compounds required
for 100 gallons of spray mixture may be cut down to 1/4 pint at a5ee
saving in cost. For the spray to be applied late in winter, 1 tablespoonful of derris compound to 2 gallons of ter is recommended.

Basinger and Boyce (13) in 1936 reported that cryolite and barium fluosilicate may be combined with derris preparations for citrus aphid
control. Organic compounds used alone were ineffective.

The California Fruit Growers Exchange, Bureau of Pest Control (351 in August 1936 reported that Ortho Derris and Tox-X with from 1/2 to 2
percent of light medium oil have given good results against aphids.

The Leffinvgwell Company in 1937, in a letter to R. C. Roark, state that Tox-X (2.5 percent rotenone plus a spreader) plus oil has givon
promising results against aphids on citrus in California.








.Boyce and Prendergast (19) in 1938 wrote that the oil rotenone
mixtures are relatively ex~ensivo when considered for the control of the
rod spider alone; however, when considered for the combined control of aphids, the red spider, and "off-hatch" black scale during the spring,
they arc very practical.

The California Fruit Grovwers' Exchange, Bureau of Pest Control
(38, 39, 40), in 1938 recommended oil-rotenone combinations for combating Sthe citrus aphid. A 'suitable spray is made from 0.5 to 0,75 gallon of
light medium oil, 1 to 4 pounds (depending on brand) of rotenone powdor, and wator.to make 100 gallons. This formula may best be used whero the
rod spider and black scale are present along with the aphids. One of the
rotenone oil sprays such as Botano-R, Tox-X, or Rotox with 0.5 percent
light medium oil will control both aphids and red spiders on citrus. The
rotenone-oil combinations used effectively against the red spider on
oranges in the coastal Valencia area also cares for any aphids present.

Aphids on corn

Miller (202) in 1935 tried aphids on corn as test insects in determining the ins e Ecidal value of various species of Derris, but they proved too'susceptible and difficult to handle; 100-percent mortality wras obtained
each time, not only with the insecticide but also with the control fluid.

Aphids on currant

The currant aphid was not controlled by a dust of equal parts of derris and hydrated lime.--Kelsall et al. (170) in 1926.

Aphids on dwarf spruce

Thd Wageningen Plantenziektenklundigen Dienst (293) in 1933 reported
that a suspension of rotenone in -ater (1:5,000) made by adding an acetone solution of rotenone to -,water and also derris powder in water 1:50 (equivalent to rotenone at 1:2,500) plus 1 percent of soap gave satisfactory control of leaf aphids on dwarf spruce in Holland.

Aphids on eggplant

The Japan Seed and Plant Company, Ltd., of Tokyo, Japan, in
advertising Derri-Homi (a proprietary derris product), stated [n.d.]
that the Agricultural Experiment Station of Saitama Prefecture, Japan,
> found that this product at about 1:320 killed 100 percent of aphids on
eggplant.

Aphids on flowers and fruit

The Handelsmuseum of the Koloniaal Instituut of Amsterdam (8) in S1930 reported derris to be an exceptional material for control of aphids on flowers and fruit in the greenhouse.

Fryer (108) in 1926 referred to the use of Derrisol in England for
the control of aphids on fruit.







54

Aphids on goldenrod

A red aphid on goldenrod v.as not controlled by a dust of equal parts of derris and hydrated lime.--Kelsall et al. (169) in 1926.

Aphids on head lettuce

The aphids that could be reached were killed by spraying with r none at 1:5,000. It is impossible to reach all the aphids convenientl therefore the results remained incomplete.--DeBussy, et al. (32) in 19

Aphids on hops

Fryer (108) in 1926 referred to the use of Derrisol in England the control of aphids on hops.

Aphids on Japanese maple

The Wageningen Plantenziektenkundigen Dienst (292) in 1933 repo that a suspension of rotenone in water (1:5,000) made by adding an at solution of rotenone to water, and also derris powder in water, 1:50 (equivalent to rotenone at 1:2,500), plus 1 percent of soap gave satis factory control of leaf aphids on Japanese maple in Holland.

Aphids on lotus

The Japan Seed and Plant Company, Ltd., reported [n.d.] that at about 1:190 Derri-Homi killed 100 percent of aphids on lotus at Saitma Prefecture. According to the manufacturers, this product contains der extractives and spreading and sticking agents.

Aphids on nasturtium

Fulmer (113) in 1930 v.wrote that the nasturtium aphid can be eff tively controlled by spraying with derris powder, 5 pounds per 100 imperial gallons.

Aphids on ornamental cherry

The Wageningen Plantenziektenkundigen Dienst (292) in 1933 repo that a suspension of rotenone in water (1:5,000) made by adding an ace solution of rotenone to .water and also derris powder in water, 1:50 (equivalent to rotenone 1:2,500) plus 1 percent of soap gave satisfactr control of leaf aphids on ornamental cherry in Holland.

Aphids on ox-eye daisy

The Wageningen Plantenziektenkundigen Dienst (292) in 1933 repr that derris powder (2 percent rotenone) when added to 50 parts of 1 pe cent soap solution (1 part rotenone to 2,500 parts water) and also a s pension of rotenone in water (1:5,000) made "by adding an acetone soluti of rotenone to vater gave satisfactory control of leaf aphids on ox-eyzdaisy in Holland.





4- 55

Aphids on peanut

Miller (201) in 1935 tried aphids or. peanut as test insects in deter mining the insecticidal value of various species of derris but they proved too susceptible and difficult to handle: 100-percent mortality ias obtained each time, not only with the insecticide but also with the control fluid.

Aphids on pear

Neoton, 110 gin. plus 450 ginm, of soap in 40 imperial gallons of
water killed 100 percent.--Institute Physical and Chemical Research (162) in 1927.Aphids on pear were controlled by a rotenone spray 1:5,000 plus
0.1 percent Agral I.--Wageningen Plantenziektenkundigen Dienst (293) in 193

Aphids on plum

At Saitama Prefecture, Japan, Derri-Homi at about 1:476 killed 100 percent of aphids on plum trees, according to the Japan Seed and Plant onpany, Ltd. [n.d.].

Neoton, 1 pound in 60 imperial gallons of water, killed 100 percent;
1 pound in 100 gallons killed 99.1 percent.--Institute Physical and Chemical Research (162) in 1927.

Aphids on plum were controlled by a rotenone spray 1:5,000 plus
0.1 percent Agral I.--Wageningen Plantenziektenkundigen Dienst (293) in 1934.

Aphids on raspberries

Kearns and Marsh (182) in 1937 reported that derris spray (0.004 percent rotenone) is preferable to dorris dust (0.18 percent rotenone), as it provides a control for aphids on raspberry as well as for the raspberry beetle.

Aphids on rose

The Saitama Prefecture, Japan, Experiment Station reported that at about 1:238 Derri-Homi killed 100 percent of aphids on rose tree.--Japan Seed and Plant Company, Ltd., in advertising literature [n.d.].

Rosebush aphids were quickly killed by a spray of a commercial derris product [probably Neoton).--Anonymous (1) in 1927.

Cory (54) in 1938 issued a schedule of treatments for the control
of rose pests. Rotenone dust is used for the control of aphids but is not
so effective as nicotine dust.

Hamilton (136) in 1938 reported cube and derris powders (4 percent rotenone and 16 to 18 percent total extractives) applied as a spray at ~the rate of 4 pounds per 100 gallons, with the addition of 4 pounds of
rosin-rosidue emulsion, gave a good kill of anhids on roses.








Dusts containing'O.75 r rccnt -cteronc -.re satisfactcry.--Tiaude (1,13) ir 1939.

-,--Iiids on

Vs.--_ d-r Sch-.er in 1935,r-T3rted tiiat rote none-ben zen e emulsion q) e taJa-inL, 0.1 to 0.15 gm.
rrI-, If -.-_'jne, 20 cc., )'_ rzr cc. .,;atcr conu
T) at a cone eni;ra' 14,o-n of ave !foor, cc-vllrol of t'lie sesame esZ aT)hid.

Aphids on soybean

'Miller (201) i-.,, 1 tried on scyberin as tcst insects in
_7- rris but t ey
determ'.'.nin : the insec c -,,Jue u pardons F,' es o D .proved tOo suscej,-,tible lf"C; Ult 4-c handle; -.aart' .lity -v.-as IPO recent in each test, no'l- f)nl- r -v, 'rc i-I-_Cc-jUcT_de but also with the control fluid.

Aphids on, spirea

The Olkiio A-ric,jItural .Fxperiment Stat.ion (216) in 1922 reported that 80 -(,- rcent oY VL) o arhids on Spirea vanhoutteiv-ere killed by Derrisene at


Aphids on strawberry

Brooks-, 7_._'_1tson, anO '1&--iry (30) in '1932 reported that derris prepara-. tions may be uzse irstF ad o-' nicoV.rie S111f 4 ,1a,e for spraying aT;hids attacking the above-ground parts of stra ,,.Tberry plants.

Aphids on tobacco

Vfestermai-i (003) in 1901 reconni-iiended a solution of derris root as a spray 'i'or use agains-c lice on tobacco crt the east coast.o' Siu.-;atra.

hollrrng (1,18) -in IS25 wrote that in Sumatra. the fcllov.ring prPparation had ivcn -ood results against leaf lice or. tobacco: 1-1 /2 kg. of fresh tubc root mashed in 20 liters of Yrtter and diluted -vi'uh .n eqlqal volume of %-:a'Ger foi- use.

Fulnek (109, 110) i _n 192,1, in. discussing insecticides for use against tobacco posts listed akar tuba (derris) LLs D, contact insecticide.
The addition of 0.30 to 0.113 percent of soar to sol-Utiors of der-is is advised, and akar tuba is rccoi:,.mcndcJ for leaf lice or. tobacco at th( r-,te of 1 Izg. in 100 liters ol" water.t*o :,'Jch 0.6 lcg. of soar is adacd. Fulrick (112) in 1925 Tare directions for sproying, -gainst lca' Iioe d ,rrls. The, a'! a r ub&. (derris), 100 lJters o' -vjater,
formula is I kg# o -11 I
of soap. Tn 191,17 Fulnek (112) reported the use of a I-pcrcent -juter extract of tho roots of' Derris oili-ptica for the control of plar-'C on tobacco in su=atra.

Boureart. (17) in his book, 11 Insectic ides, 7un!Ticidcs, --nd Weed Killer stated that a s-Prair containing I pound of d ,rris, 10 impc-ricl -allcns of wat and 5 ounces of-so ft soap is cffeotivo against a-,Dhids iiifestinc, tobacco in





7 W

-57

Sumatra. The derris roots, which may be dry or fresh, are cut into small pieces, placed in a little water, and then pounded into a paste, ihich is diluted with a gallon of water and left standing overnight in a wooden vat. The dregs are then pressed, and all the fluid is strained through a cotton cloth. The resultant concentrate is a milk-white solution, which keeps for a few days only. It is diluted with 9 parts of nater for spraying. About 16 imperial gallons of solution are needed for 1,000 tobacco plants that have been from 25 to 30 days in the field. Trice this quantity is needed for full-grown plants. If derris ro9ts are to be stored they must be kept dry.

The Deli Proefstation at 1Medan (67) in 1926 reported that akar toeba extract gave excellent control of aphids on tobacco. Some difficulty -as experienced in obtaining a uniform extract, so this was prepared with the machinery of the Delische Kleiindustrie. Fonrmalin was added, to a concentration of 2.5 percent as a preservative. The proefstation (68) in 1927 reported that derris extracts (suspensions of the milky sap in ;ater), supplied by the proefstation to -tobacco growers, retain their toxicity for at least 1 year hen kept in well-closed barrels. Decomposition occurs in open vessels and in-those not hermetically closed. The suspension becomes gray or nearly black, develops the odor of hydrogen sulfide, and loses effectiveness. Contact vith iron is stated to be undesirable.

Redecker (229) in 1926 called attention to the large-scale usc of aqueous derris extract in Sumatra for dostroying aphids on tobacco.

W. A. Foote, American Consul at Leedan, Sumatra, in May 1929 submitted a report to the United States Eureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce on the use of derris in fighting tobacco plant pests. Against tobacco lice an aqueous extract of fresh derris root at 1:40 is more
effective but sloiVer than 3 percent of nicotine with soap. In 1931 Foote (JL06) reported that a liquid contact insecticide prepared from derris was used against the tobacco aphid in Sumatra. Hand pumps were
more effective than power sprayers in applying it.

Braddock (20), American Vice Consul at Medan, Sumatra, in 1930 reported that derris is used on practically all the tobacco estates to combat aphids. The insecticide is prepared by the Deli Proefstation and supplied to the planters at cost. The station supplied the following quantities (expressed in liters) of derris extract to the tobacco growers: In 1926, 35,000; in 1927, 77,000; in 1928, 56,000; and in 1929, 65,000.

The Wageningen Plantenziektenkundigen Dienst (292) in 1933 reported that derris extract had long been used for tfe control of leaf aphids in the Deli tobacco fields, and for some time had been a constituent of proprietary extracts.

Hendren (146), American Trad C6mmi ssione r- at -.Batavia, Java, :in 1931 reported that tub~a(derris) extract is an excellent remedy for aphids on tobacco in Java.









Aphids on tomato

Aphids on tomato plants were killed by Cubor 75 dust (0.75 peroe rotenone),. and derris-gypsum dust (0.4 percent rotenone).--Herman and Hockey (147) in 1936.

Rotenone dust is ineffective.--Haude (144) in 1939.

Aphids on viburnum /

Aphids on viburnum were controlled by a rotenone spray 1:5,000 plus 0.1 percent of Agral I.--Wageningen Plantenziektenkundigen Dienst (293) in 1934.

Aphids on violets

Compton (51) in 1930 recomrmended Derrisol (1 ounce to 4 or 5 gall of water) for the control of aphids on violets and pansies.

Aphids on white pine

Hamilton (136) in 1938 reported that cube and derris powders (4 cent rotenone and from 16 to 18 percent total extractives) applied as a spray at the rate of 4 pounds per 100 gallons, with the addition of 4 pounds rosin-residue emulsion, gave a poor kill of aphids on white pine.

Aphids in general

Epp (95) in 1851 described the use of derris as an insecticide i Banka (an island lying east of Sumatra). It vwas used for destroying tr lice. For this purpose the root ias cut into pieces, soaked for some dd in water and sprinkled on the plants.

Wahl and Muller (294) in 1915 reported that the derris preparati Contraphin and Katakille are effective against plant lice at concentrati of 1:250 and 1:200, respectively.

The Annual Report of the Bureau of Entomology, United States
Department of Agriculture for 1919 (275) stated that if derris can be obtained in sufficient quantities it vill prove an important addition t our list of substances that kill soft-bodied insects, such as plant lic.,

The California Agricultural Exer ent Station (33) in its annual report for 1922-23 stated that Derrisire (an extract of erris) was unsatisfactory as an aphicide. Dilutions of 1:300 wre68 percent efficie ivhereas 1:500 gave a control of but 50.5 percent.

An undiluted powdered derris root w-hen ,dusted on aphids .as 100 percent effective in 8 hours.--De0ng and Thite (75) in 1924.
The Federated Malay'States Department of Agriculture (99) in 1924 recommended for sucking insects a spray made by adding 8 to 10 pounds of derris root and 4 pounds of soap to 100 imperial gallons of 7ater.


I:








MoIndoo and Sievers (188) in 1924 reported numerous tests of cube
and derris in the form of dusET, and alcoholic and aqueous extracts, agains unidentified aphids designated as Aphis spp. A, B, C, D, and E. In general these preparations were highly effective.

Carlos (47) in 1926 reported that .derris as a contact or external
poison, vith or ~ithout the use of soap as a spreading agent, had been found effective against aphids in. as low a dilution as 1 pound of root to 400 gallons of water, which represents a proportion of 0.025 percent. Aphids are some of the chief insect pests which can be easily exterminated by the application of insecticides containing derris or its
products. One interesting property of derris as a killing agent is that the offect lasts for a considerable time. Leaves sprayed -ith a solution containing derris preparations will remain poisonous to insects for many days,

Williamn Cooper and Nephews, in the February 1926 issue of Florida Entomologist, advertised Derrisol, stating that it was a new aphid spray having no odor, being nonpoisonous and pleasant to use, did not require soap, could be mixed.with other sprays, and could be used .rith hard or soft ater.

The Deli Proefstation (68) in Medan, Sumatra, in 1927 reported that
derris was satisfactory for the control of aphids, but Derrisol Vas found ineffective at 1:400, although it wvas claimed to be effective at 1:800.

Neoton at 110 gn. plus 220 gn. of soap per 40 imperial gallons
killed 100 percent of arrowhead aphids, and at half this concentration nearly all were killed. Neoton at 1/2 pound per .40 imperial gallons of water killed 100 percent of unidentified aphids.--Institute Physical and Chemical Research (162) in 1927.

lcDaniel (186) in 1928 recommended Derrisol as a contact spray for use against aphids and Metcalf anid Flint (198) in 1928 summarized current information on derris, which they recommended for aphid control.

Dammerman (61) in his book, "The Agricultural Zoology of the Malay Archipelago,' published in Amsterdam in 1929, mentions derris as having come much into use as an insecticide.

To prepare the insecticide the roots of derris are powdered, and the product.is now on the market. It is not of
such a high value as ,as first expected, but being cheap in our region it may be found a useful substance. For making a
spray, fresh roots are macerated with water, as a rule a 1percent solution of derris is found most satisfactory; a
stock solution is made by placing 1 kg. of comminuted roots
in 10 liters of water in a wooden vessel, the solution
* standing over for 1 night; the stock solution after being
'strained through a cloth is diluted 1:10. But as it is
impossible to ascertain the exact content of the toxic substance in a solution this insecticide is somewhat unreliable.




.. .... ... ... .....






60

In Deli, Sumatra, a 1-percent solution, to vtich is added
0.5 percent of soap, is used successfully against aphids.
The liquid, however, keeps its efficiency for a few days only. The Dytch proprietary insecticide known as Phytophiline probably also conritains derris, but it is far too
expensive.

According to an anonymous writer (2) in 1930, a spray containing as little as 0.025 percent of derris extract (obtained by extracting with water) is effective as a contact poison for aphids.

Corbett (52), entomologist for the Federated Malay States Department of Agriculture, in 1930 reported that plants regularly sprayed ith tuba at the rate of 1 pound to 10 imperial gallons of water will be kept comparatively free from aphids and similar insects.

Peyer (228) in 130 recommended a spray made by adding 1 kg. of derris powder and 1/2 kg. of soap in 100 kg. water for control of sucking insects. Schmitt (240) in 1930 in a discussion of derris stated that different kinds of Teaf lice were controlled by derris dust or by derris extract spray.

The Wageningen Plantenziekternkundigen Dienst (291) in 1931 report that derris was unsatisfactory for the control of leaf lice on various plants in the field at Aalsmeer.

Betrem (14) in 1931 compared imported ground derris with nicotine as a control for black aphids in the entomological laboratory in
Wageningen, Holland. No details were given, but the results were very disappointing. The author pointed out that this was probably due to poo quality of sample, and discussed the need of judging derris by its ro-enone content, and not by its total ether extract, because there is no correlation between them, according to figures from Spoon. He also discussed briefly the methods of using derris, the advisability of adding soap, and the manner in which it kills insects. Dorris is entirely harmless to plants, whereas nicotine sometimes "ourns. Betrom believes that derris is the coming insecticide for greenhouse use.

Katakilla should be applied as a spray at 0.6 to 0.75 percent con centration against aphids.--Deutscher Pflanzenschutzdienst (78) in 1931i,

Andries (10) in 1932 recommended Derrisol and Katakilla for us-e against "green fly" (aphids).

Goff and Tissot (129) in 1932 reported that extracts of derris are scarcely more effective than nicotine against aphids, and as there is little difference in cost their use has not become general. Like the pyrethrun sprays, the derris extracts are somewhat more effective than nicotine against some of the larger, more resistant insects. Certain activators, such as sodium and potassium oleates, pine tar soaps and a sulfonated oil product, increase the effectiveness of the derris
sprays slightly.








Ginsbur- (121) in 19{3 stated_ th-at when only aphids are present,
/2pnto n ctneetrc f -e~is (5 percent rotenone, 20 percent
ttal extractives) to 100 alrsof ',,iter, containing about 0.25 percent of oooonuit oil coap, ,s 7uf fic--nt.

Gnadiiger (128', In Th first edition -of Ihis hook, "Pyrethrum
Flowers," c n_ -dat the-, onl'p'ncic ad-vantap; in adding rotenone
to yrtrmS' rfas is to i crease_ 1:r toxicity to ap.-hids. Tjripubl ishod work, b-, insburc is ctc.uihindicates th,' .t rotenenoe is more toxic than the_ -pyrothnrins to pi

~iamiltk-on (136) in 19"3 stat-,d that derris and cube powvderq have a distinct re-pellent e ffect i,-e:efuiti effect a-ainst certain
insects suc U a, s polaiitc lice.

Spoon (250) in 1:5r ,:)rted Fpr,- spreader (rotocOne io~etatc' :2,5110 and 1:5,000, respectively) to bo
offeot-'-io agaic lc:. absin HLolla: d.

$Jenkert and Company, !nc., 1of ie York, N. Y. in Mlarch 193,1 stated in advertisingr literature that derris dust is effective against plant lice.

Anr alcoh-olic extract of dorris Plus soap vas effective against plant lice.--9ocl: (16) in 10,34,

The lubber Sevi r aboratories, Inc. (238), in.19304 reported that a spray containilng 7 pars o derris resin, 35 parts ofL dry Lres co, and 60 -parts of' pine oil (or olcic acid) is cf'ective against &Tphids at 1:8000

The Alaba'na Polytechnic Institute (3) in 1935 reported that derris dust alone is ioc' ve ry effective in con trolling plant lice but ;ihen mixed with sulfur is of so- c. value in repelling thes.-e insects,

Delussy et al., (32) in 1935 reportedi that aenhids can readily be controlled by spay lguih a suspension. of der.ris having a rotenone conce-ntra-tion of' 1:10,000 or by sprayi-i- .ith a pi:rP-rotenone suspe-nsion coitain-in.- rotenone A a con o- tr-Ai (-r-cf 1:5,000. Durinig 1055 deussy and associ-at-Ies used dcrrisl~ ilnwus against ;,recn and black
aph ,ids 4 ith th focrn result1







62



Host plant : Strength of dusting mixture: Mortality
: Rotenone : Ether extract : Percent Percent Percent
Green aphids:
Rose - - -: 0.25 0.6 59
Do- ------- : 1.50 1,2 74
Do- - - -: 1.00 2.4 89
Plum - - - .50 1.2 0
Black aphids:
Garden beans - 50 1.2 70
Cherry - : 1.00 2.4 67
Poppy- - - -: .50 1.2 5
Dahlia _- -- .50 1.2 2

The authors concluded that satisfactory results by dusting with derris powder against aphids can be expected in only a few caSe s. Sra ing with derris extracts is to be favored.

Van der Laan (177) in 1935 reported dihydrorotenone to be less toxic than rotenone to red and green aphids.

Miles and Miles (200) in 1935 discussed insect pests of glassho crops. They stated that aphids can be destroyed with 1 pound of derris pov'der per 100 imperial gallons of water, and about 8 gallons per 50 square yards of crop should be applied as a drench.

The New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (206) in 1935
reported that derris and cube are practically equal in their toxicity t aphids, provided they contain about the same amounts of rotenone and to extractives.

The Lubber Service Laboratories Company, Inc. (238) (a subsidiar of Monsanto Chemical Company), in 1935 recommended a mixture of 7 parts of derris resin, 33 parts of dry Areskap, and 60 parts of either pine oil or oleic acid at 1:800 for aphids.

Van der Scheer (239) in 1.035 reported that rotenone-benzene a (1 gin. rotenone, 20 cc. benzene, and 30 cc. water containing 0.1 to 0.1 gm. Igopon T) at a concentration of 1:5,000 gave good control of thegr aphid.

The Deli Experiment Station, as reported by the Koloniaal Instit of Amsterdanm (174, 175) in 1936, found undiluted ground Tephrosia toxi root to have slight effect on leaf aphids, but derris mwas nuch more effective.

Aphids in general are sensitive to derris.--Van der Laan (178 1936.

Van der Vecht (287) in 1936 wrote that for the control of Aphidi [=Aphiidae] spraying :ith rotenone suspensions containing 0.005 to-002 percent of rotenone can be reconiended. Adding a spreader improves the effectiveness of the spray.






63

The American Association of EcOnOMic E 'ntomolo--ists, ..,,astern : ranch
-Itoma a dir -ctcry o, inseQt-restccnt 17), in 1937 pu.-Dlishod "El rcl. InforrnT'.ion or, the aheiistry, sta'oility, rAn'! i- '--?Cti C dal 11ses 0.11, dorr- s 'a-nu cube is given an4 thc -- rinc -al manuf"aC_. F,_irers o' derri- and cube, products are listed. Plant s r:,rarz c.--" rLA;enone and, 4 percent
of total ac -tone extractives oi, derris i-,:)ct will give good !-ill of plant lice at a dil'Litioin ol" 1 part to 800 part-- of water. This gives EL dilution of rotencr!c cq,,al 1-c 0.00125 percent.
-18),in 1937 reco, ended rotenone for cortBourne a_-- ,-! ,')c)-vd in,
batin -lant licc i-I '-je '-,oine garden.

Dib,)le (79) j_., jr,3- __jiCotiej(, .-ulfate is bett -r than
derris or for -,.-Lost .lant lice.

Fa-,Illton (136) in 1i38 rep c rte d ',;ests of cubo and derris poludors (z poreciat rotercnc 10' to 18 p,,rcen- e:?.tractivc) applied as a si)ray at- tnc ra-'U-I of r er -allons, -.-IV, the -6.,"ition of 4 povinds of rosin-rcsie ue "icolly (various of
kiomoi-)tera, on bccc'-, cla-,', 1,-.rch, anr_ --., -iitc -pine tur( c3 -uerc not
satisfactorily controll,A.

Aphids can b: c(:ntrollod by sprays of derris powder suspondcd in i,;zater containirc7, (-vcn 1, ss than 0.02 pcrc _-nt of rotononc.-Var, der Vocht (289) in 19380

Zaaijor (325) in. 1030 rofcrrud to 1"unduloa, s-ub(,,rosa rotenonee 5.4 pcrc nt) as a-t oxccllont ins,_-ctic.ide for the T "Tr7 of a-chids.

Dibblo, of ','T"itc d St-It(Ls Npartmont of Agricultvrets Ext .-asion Service, in a "Eiil- Flash" in 1.940 r-. _' Drtcd that rotcnono (dcrris-cubc) dusts arc aftcia sati.,3iactor- -),I-i x -Ads stil'. respond best to nicotinc sulfate -pltis ho" soa-c-,Cerco,,-i d e

Aphrophora nernutata stra-wtcrry spittle bu:Ed7nrds (93) in 1 H reco,_nzende i-)awdered d- rris or c,,-.be diluted to 0.5 perce ,-_t o- r, to)n,--ne dj-Ltc-.,aceous th-e control of spittle buCs or i1,_ Cre-on. La c )".cn shc-ld be made 18 days
after the first -,-.y-q)'hs a-)pcar, ancl 2 later -. seco-I a-prilication zhoi'-Id be n.--de. i 'bc-ot 1-51C rovmds cf s1nouid 'r-)e lood.
2 -,-.crccn-' of -nicotine is but nyreti,,rum is rom 30- to 50-porc, ,nt control,
(1, A; in 1 a dust
'nin, 0. erc it of
rotonono.

Clastoptora. sT). c rarb s-74-t-tic

A s-pra-- o-. 5 ) o ir s of' dcr- is (4
pounds of -,ish-oil soa-, -in 100 ;al_ ('2 ap-11cd of
4CO gallons :,crc on June 16, -avr '-,,: A n 1 s i r t 1 i r









spittle- but, 6 pcinds of derris po-wder (4 percent rotenone~ an oud. of fish-Qil soap in 100 gallons of' wa 'ter, applied~ at the rate of4 a per acre gave a fair kill; and '8 pounds of derris Powder (4 pecn rotenone and 3 pounds of fiholsoap in 100 gallons of w,,ater, uxsed the rate of -0gallons per acre on une 16, killed nearly all tie h This 1ast spray selms to compete on even ter-us with nicotine suilfaei both -cost arld ofrectivenies as 'a i~e Ltrent Tfor thIs post and, &d' t c of derris 3-E in times li11 to fall mi~ nore than that 6f ri~o1n- suati$'shdula, perliaps Le referrcd.--MAassachusetts Ag_ aI Experiment Station 1194) in 1037.

Philaenus loucophthalmus (L.)('P. .sptnrarius (L.)) spittle bug

Adults are only- slightly sensitive to der-ris.--De~unsy et a. in 19Z6.

Ed-nards (93) in 1936 recommended a dust containing 0.5 percent rotenone (see also under Aphrophora perivtata Uhl41.).

This insect on carnations and --trawberries is repelled by a pro prietary dust containing 12 percent of cube of 6 percent rotenonecotn
accordLincr to a letter from Rtablissements Poten-Ia to R. C. Foark in 93

?hilaenus leucophthalmus Lallen. (V.D.) (P. spv-'arius falleni V.D.)

Philaenus leucophthalmus gibbuj (Fall.) (P. spumia ius. Fibbus 'all.)

Philaenus leucophthalrn-us vstbulatus (F'all.) (P. spumarius. ustulails Fal

Hansoni and Webster (140) in- 1938 recommended a dus3t contaiig,0 percent of rotenione for the control of these spittle bugs on srwere

Cercopidae (unidentified species)

Massachusetts State College ini its 1937 insect and disease conr chart should the uxse of 8 pounds of derri4s ro-wder (4 percent rotenoqne plus 2 Dounda of, soar in 100 gallons it.-ter on Juno 13 to 15, for' spile insects on cranberries.

Smith (Z45) in 1940 reported that rotono-nk- dus-t was being u~se in Skamania Cointy, Wash... "or the control of spittle buigs,

Chorlmidac

Cherms abietis L., 'eastorn spruce gall alphid

Gamnbrell (115) in 19301 reported that (Adolges) Chermres abieti is an important enemy of Norray spruce in New York~ nurserio-s. Miscil oils and-oil emulsions havc given'"good corntrol but have injured some r' Lino sulfur 1:40 gave 100-p 'roont control; nicotine 1-:800 -vi t' 5 poud: laundry soap pi~r 100 gallons or i%-ith Ponctrol 1:200 gave 99.9-porcem control; 5 pounds of' laundry soap per 100 gallkns alono gave 96.1-p control. Derrisol 1:800 'gave. 54.72-percont control. In no caseast. any,, foliage injury.








Rotencne in oi I -j.-i -,--ter rcte- -i1-25.COCI; 011 1,0 -(,rcert c-,'
of ti,,Js 1 rn.r

Chem



7 1- e e-s o- Cher-,3 1 on Pine 'w-re not Ikilied Iwi th a si 7 n s o o- *

Der --is or s ns i -.nz were ineff cc'i ve.--De ,- s s-(32) -:n 19 3 5.

affected by derris.---7an der Laan (176) 0,56.

Kelsall et al, (166) in 10 26 'reported that dor:C4S dust d eyltI., no ef.'ect ni

Ci-cadellidae

Dn-.ca-sca fabae (Harr.), potato leafhopper, bcom leafhoppcr

Do Lon- ( 7 in "1 26 r-IP,7r-,D t a comrorciai- dorris CL d 4 U t C.d 1:2 10 T)II07ccl 7 the pot, .to lo-fhcp- : r.
_0 TI"C .3 U
in Mar h 1 9'4- s-'-aed
in ad-ver-L-1--s-M7 4toratlire d -rr-*- 3 di,s I- is e.fec-,.-.ive aCairst b,, ,an leaf
hopr)cro.

'Timner 27.5) in 1.-35 reported that- three a-)nlications of derrick
dust 0.4 recent of rotenone reduced tfle- !- -urv caused by the
bean

T h r- Y a s s ar !-Lu s etAs Agricultural Exneri.:ieni.- -S---ation 1193** in 10.36 report-e-I C-uibc-- a-i-I If,-ibatox (C).3 percent rotenore), ea ah pi,, s bordcal x 5-5-110, ircreaSed t7-e -leld of potatces, because of lealhcp r


(191) in 19- 7 r -;,ported t1riat C41 percent of rs on bean-, --e l'-J7-ler-', 'C,:- stinr, of 2 Pounds of derr-Ls dcr (' pcrcen' -,D-r 100 F- -,!,&t--r abcut 2
U gallons 1
(dry bas-s' o' cocoln-,:-c-c-il sov, :). 7otenone -Or- )ara"Gns -mre accorJ n,. tc the Yassachusct -Ic --ricvltural Statfon (YIz,)


Der--I-s di- st-s have .,-ive--- res-ults.-F-aw Jers -, J'irricultural E melri-rqcnt Static"il 20-7) 4-n 1 37.
C S ir varterly rt- to t) f Ccreal and
.9 ivis
'4o -a e 1-nvcsT.1 -a+* 0 t-:,-c -I-.reau C -' --- I 1-1 --D-! 0. -1 -1(Zi.,ara-n ir- c, s t a t s a
d* u s f o V e c, t r 11-is







66

Admes to T)ea-nvt vi.%e increase", t'ie t-ield. of neaniits M.4 percent and vas superior to bar ,e-wx an"I d-Lists. On alfalfa 't,1he
tests v: re n04- CG,,.-Cj.U,5jVe (-.f Cry but the roteno-ie-sullf u
dust was .-ferior to +,-.ie py, ---L- l-.LrL,-Y.,-i-s, l-K'lii- d-ust, The tr(3atsd. alfalfa
greener tan the treated.

Sleeqnan (.'343) Cave tu 1, e 1 c r,.,- data cr, the relative 7 op-L lati(,M.. of leafl er nY2 -is or, pota oes r c c e 7'_'1-10US 137rali a,,L(4 cl-ust treatL
ments at, 1.OUuf fey, Chic, ir !C35. The -_,-iu, bers -iven are avera-es of J."ive replications.

Treatment nVifl"l1 7irrb ,r
Sulfur-lime 0:10
Sulf"Ur-derris (0.024 percent. roterone" 13
(0.0-5 -oerce,_, t
SulfFur-D-re+hrum (10.0125 pc,-cent py-Etlirn)
_yrC-' -4
Sul fur-,)- rreth (0.00625 pel-cent 10
6
Bordeaux 8-1-50 8
Bordeaux 12-4-50 10
Gor:ier-li1re dust 20:80 20
Unsiraved 81

Smith (244) in 1937 reported that derris po-.-der ( 4 -nercent rotenone: at 2 -oornds De7_700 -allons of Y:ator ,lus al-ctit 2 T)c),Mds ( Iry-baslis of cocanut-oil soap reduced the leaf7icn-f ,Ior o-- boans 9A porc-nt 72
hours e f t ,: spraying.

TLrne, (274) in 1937 re.,orted that a d _.rris-clay Clust (rotenone
0.6 percertt) not effective aSoinst the pctpto lea'_-ior er on dahlias.

.D!9 reported tlla-V in 19 2 sulfur and iz dils.
Vp e 7- es-' c cl o' the le-,. ':c1--er cyi bears Ohio. -rris
sprays Tl ere comparat, n e e c t i v hen I -eanLit- cil or TP I n e:
c i I th e effective-riess of the derris TT.s 1--,,t c--_rxt oil
caused a c-C the t)ean ?eaves an, and,
al -,hoti,,:,h pi: e -oil causc,2 lesE irjiiry to 'he It a-crcarod to
be too to 'an, f*Gr general uze.

Skan.tason (2-12) Ln IC38 recorded 'some oc-1--po.risons o' -s for rotate leaf ho-r,--)cr control on Long Island, T-., e, the Jrsacts u
-1 _L L n-Lis-Lially'
abiindant, The dis'-s were aprlied -.t t7le rat-e 35 --)C)Unds -, er acre per ap-,plica-- Lon 17116IF, an 8-row 11esser_ -er duster 1--,_ovn (1e on t-.,e ( ra-.,! bar of an
Oliver and operated a no-w-er take-c Th c Cobbler vm
dusted five tine8 and the GA-een 1 curtainss si- i-,iec the season. Lll the rijterials use-j T,-(-,re pre-ar e C 4,.n a Boan self-riix.ing
USL
dv.ster U .rior to eac.:! april
T7.-o rrp,,-Darations contilned roten.
(1) A roixture of 15 lDoi nds of root/ of 5 neroc_,-it roteno--e cnrlte-, t -I-itl-, 851
-Pounds cl Ea-r-crol't clay, and (2) a mirtur cf 10 -o,, -,_ds of pyret.i.r=, is.
-_- nds o" rotrnone-bearin- rootl -xids of' 3arc-,- -ft a-: d 37.5
o v n'd, s o f 6-u s ti n -, s r, r On c o' I e r s., r er o_-. e -:,-a s ra e .- in e ffe c tive in 'k..h e ccritrol cf leafho-,---;er5, ar,-, the -,,)1E.nt1- this treatment die(: a-:.,)oixL 4 or 5 da- ),s after Vne c he cj,- v !.ie7, a 1 6 -7'-ich tii-ne t ic-s 7- _-lso
showed 100--oereent hopperbuirn.






-67

Teplants dusted vrith th"e 3-Way mixt-re cons isting of pyrethrtu,
roeone, anid sulqf-Lr o-otyiolded all th-e others, bot.-h in total yields and with highly significant differences as regards firstL-size potatoes. These -xnterials used seprt~ sd~tsgv nrae in yedoe
+he vundusted ones, but these were large enoiigh tobe si -iificant for firstS 1,Z e ,Dot%,atoes only v.ith pyrethrum. and rotenone. PerhaT;S the FiMple'st
hothesis to account for the success of the 3-Way mixture is that the effect of~ these different materials is independert-1 and additive; therefore, -pyrethrum whlen used al nc.nreased the yield uf first-size r aos as comp ;red vwith the undusted, by- 37.'63 bushels in the acre, the rotenone b~y 26.25 bushels, and the sulfur by 14 bushels, makirCa attlo7.8 bhushels. This is not significantly differn rmte9,8bseso each acre-increase produced by thle combination aaixturo of these three matrials. The arrangement of' the ex-2.,erimiont didI not 'rcmit an cvalualion of the insecticidal-effects of the Bancroft Clay.. On Green VWuI-ntain potatoes both copner-liie and the 3-TWa'T dus t irbdyreduced the numbers of' leafhopers. The untreated vines s' .e,! 100-perce-nt injury by hoppers, whi pants dusted v;ith copper.-lixne shon-,e'L only 2-percent injiu.,r; however, the plants treat ed mrillh the :-ay u~re s.ho07-:e6 only' 10 percent inju,,ry on the sas-re date.

The f inal re sul ts show the highest yields frorm olc-nts dusted -vth the 3-1-Ya- mixture, w,,here lefopr eebest held in checks. A t the peak, of! leafhopper infestation there 7-ere 58 happers per plant on the ~plants treatl'ed i-.th copper-time, -whereas the 3-Wj.ay mixt-ure' had reduced tIhecifstto to 18 nach p--lart. As no lete blight occurred in
~thes-e plots, the hihe ield obtained fro im the 3- T:Rby, mixture co7mpared vth thne copp er-!lme du,2st ,ayv have been d-ue to the control w2 somle insects other t-han leaf llopp-ers, although no appreciable nibers:c other species were apparent, or to the stimulative action of yrethruzm. In 1936 on tlhis sanie field a reduction in yield of 60 busilels on each acre resulted from- the use of bordeaux Taiixtures The results of S1kaptason (242.) are referred to in B13rimstone Brevities (321).- anad Laude (4)in 1939' reco:7nended the 31-?;ay mixture for the cor:trol of the potato leafhopper.
Ho--r (fo s)o'teClmuohio, laborator of the j"ureau, reported in Feb:ruary and 1!arch 1939 that in comnarnq; the efficiency of several dust.mxue and spray.,s ag-ainst M.p-oasca fabae, on' beans during thie course of exp--eriments in. OhiAo in 19/38, it vras snoc'.m conclusively
that duss o' undiluted sulfu-r or a dust mi-.:ture made up at theraeo
90 pounds of' suilfu,,r and 10 p pounds of -7yvret ,hrum containing 0.9 percent of total pyretnr-n -ave best results in controll-._1m thipet Ory
containinmg basic, c oo~rarserate, basic copper s-lfaie, slilfur nitride,
adderris (0.015 percenIt roteaione) -.-ere each iniet~.The addition of-I &Fnut-% butter [n,)ot penu il] to-derris-dust rix-tures incre-:ased their ef-.ect16iveness. These mi,: xres .-ere not se sffici--' as lte svlfur or th uf yrtrm-ut iixturC. !line oil also icrc-ased
the effectiveness of derris s~ray bu a--,cred to be too in4urios t-o bean. foliage to be reccu-nmended for -ceneral. uLso.









Rnpoasca MaLLn (Wialsh), aorle lea-fhopper

Mletcalf and Flint (198) in 1928 su~iarized current information X. derris. Derris sprays are effective in killing the young nymphs ofa
1leaCho ppe r s

The Idaho grclra peintStation (159) in its annual
report for lC32 stated that E. ral isa motntps fte appl
in southwT.estern Idaho. Amnong the materials tested and found satisfc
tory Vias Cubor (pyrethrum and rotenone).

-Err:,throneura pallidif'rons (Edvt:. ), -lasshouse leafhopper

WAilson (310) in 1938 rep,,orte--d that eradication of thie glaassoe leafhopper from heavily infested greenhouses is difficult. It is-o
controlled by repeated fumigation 7rit ncoti.n-e or -.-th h-ydrocyanicai
gas at concentrations suitable for houses of iiXed plants and bothaut and nymphs are very resistant to. s-r-ays. The best control is obtaiedby
dustin- i-,ith nicotine, but the dust renders th',e foliage unsig-htly for some time. Sprays containingL derris, py,,retLhr=z extract, or eucalyptu
oil are m uch less effective.

Er~rthroneura cones suct., not Say,", grape l~af~hoppers.

10 Eyer (97) in 1927 reported tha". Derrisol at the ra-te of 1 pint pr
10gallons killed 100 percent of the nymphs of the c--rape leafhopper,
(Tpho.ba E hroneiura comes. Comibined with bordeaux mix--ture' 8-8-00.
fiEtkiled 98 percent of the nymphs. Foliage caged 5 days after spraying Tith Derrisol, 1 pint to 100 gallons, indicated appro= ximate control f9 percent, and the same combined -i!th an 8-8-100 bordeaux grave a conto of 96. percent. As an ovicide Dorrisol Ti'as not so effective as pyrethusoap e.rulsion.

Runner, at the 1930 Codling~hoth Conference of- the United State Department of A2gricultvre (276), reported a commercial derris extract~
at 1:300 to be effective against grape lcafhopp)---er nymphs but not against
une eggs.

A stisoen s ion of rotenone in w ater at 1:100,000 killed 100 percet. Davidson (63) in 1930.

Used as a test insect by Davidson and Jones (65) in 1931 in stuy inz the lcss oftc::-icity suffered by rotonone in certain solvehts -ax4.di )-aoulcous suspension. In the field a sus-pcnsior o rotI.enon e in -.:ater
S11:100,000 killed 94.2 percent of grape leaffho-rer nymphs.

Currie (52) in' 1934 reported that in tLhe rso Calif., area a retcnone-sulfur. Cdus-7 as ce-:aprjed w.,ith a nicotine dust ag.-inst the
grape 1eafhom per. One -poind of rotenon ,e rderrisl ,-.as mixed -%i th 8, 10 or 12 '~oinds of sulfur. The du.sts --sere a.--,tied at the rate of 20 pord
eracre xt'h a handle dustber drigvery, -Aindy w-eather. At f irst the
n ic o t ine mii ture sh,-o-j-ed the oquiclest and best results, but later thr







wt~~iitlediferece in an,, of the test )lots.. On another ranch one
appicaionof 5. rounds pjer acre of' a derris-dust mi3:ture gave 99pret control of hoppers.

Ham ilton and Geimnell (137) in 134 coirmpared the effectiveness of
deris, pyrethr=~, ard hellebore pgo-wders amainstV d -ifferent insects.
Duts containing derris root ipo--der (air-floated, 4 percent rotenone),
hnz'ethrum poder (1.16 percent yrthrins), mixtures of'these tto, n
hellebore powder (0.t8 percent active principle) Tiere tested. Inert W cly tsused as a diluent. In field tests against the grape leafhoepper, derris poi-wder, pyrethruno powder, and mixtures of thle two g.,ave satisfactory control i-.hen dusted either by hand or by machine. Applicaticns t.it-h the pow,,er duster, at -the rate of 100 pounds per acre, sho-wed tht duists containing dripoereialnto 0.5 percent of rotenone
Tvor- nearly as effective as t-hose containing 1.0 Percent of rotenone.
ilellebore vas ineffective against the grape leafhopper. Heavy ap-lca
tions or a dust containing 1.5 percent of nicotine knocked dov~n the
grape leafrhoppers 'out did not Mill thm anid all stages recovered in 1
to 2 horrs.

The Idaho Agri c-,ltu-v.ra) 1xpE riment Station (160) in 1936 reported
that ciibe-'Iaolin dust (0.2 percent rotenone) r.as effective against this
insect. One thorough dusting of Virginia Creepe~r killedd most of the
n,,mphs and adults of' the grape leafhioTper and a second dusting 10 days
lator produced completo- control. Two dustings 10 days apart controlled
this insect on grapes.

Fol iafume (a pyre th iru-derrls sprayv -itlh spreader) at 1:4 00
killed 95 -:-ercen,-t in 48 hours. --Penick and Cornoanyy (223) in 1936.

Stearns, 17aden, and 7.ilaMs (252) in 11536 reported that-Cubor
(a rotenone an:d pyrethrum liquiid ran )Tht 1:400 or 1:800 gave adequate
control of ErythIroneura sp. in viney,,ards in Delavare.

The Idaho Agricultural Bxneri::ent Station (161) in 1937 reported
that a kill of 94 .31 percent of the grape leafhopper vias obtained with one spray containirr; 0.49 percent of nicotine sulfate and 0.63 percent of sunmer oil. Setter and more lasting results wvere obtained with this
combinate ion than iwith derrjis or cube -powder in either dust or liqllid
for-i or -vith -,,Tethruian spray. Derris as a s-orwv -,as more effective than
as a 'dust.

Park-s and lie--rstorff (219) in: 1938 reccnnended a 0.75 percent
rotenone dust for th7-e control o--- Ieafhoppe rs on grapes.

Thuptcr~jx flavoscuta, var. nig-ra Osb.

lYc_'r-ide (185) in 1926 reported tents iihins ecticides against a
tleafhopper~, EuptJ,-,rx flavoscuta var. nigra ,Osb,, attacking thec leather fern (Polystichiii capense J. sm)in Florida. Five percent extract of 4ors 1o800 2 pou-n-is to 50 gallons, galve satisfactory con~trol. A t the end of 5 hours 93.2 perce-nt -,i.ere dead and the following
dal, 95 nercen~t were dead. Spraying -ith nicot! e suilfto 1:800 plus soap,0j 2 rotids to 50 gallons, plus 5 n(_rccnt extra-ct of derris 1:800







gave 100 percent control. Reinfestatio: occurred from eggs deposited before the application of the spray. Richardson (231), in a review of insecticidal research, referred to LcBriders results,

Eutettix tenellus (Bak.), beet leafhopper

Chamberlin (49) in 1533 reported that prelin-inary tests at Tin Falls, Idaho, shore derris to be approximately as effective as pyrethr when used in oil against the beet leafhopper.

Douglass, Wakeland, and Gillett (83) in 1939 reported on field exoeriments for control of E. tenellus in Idaho. In 1937 tests were made with derris (3 percent rotenone) at 4 pounds per 100 gallons plus 12.8 ounces Aresket, applied 4 times at dcsages ranging from 110 to 150 gallons per acre. The insect population vas decreased only after the fourth application. It vas concluded that, of the materials tested, pyrethrum savs the only insecticide found to be specific against the beet leafhowper.

idiocerus sp., mango hoppers

Bhatta and !Tarayanan (15) in 1937 reported that at concentrations of 0.066 percent, suspensions in water of the orderedd roots of Derris elliptica (harvested after 2 years' growth) resulted in 80-percent mortality of Idiocerus sp. in the field. Tephrosia candida and Mundule sericea were ineffective at low concentrations against this pest. Suspensions of derris in vuter soon lost their toxicity.

Uater suspensions of Derris elliptica roots (rotenone 7 percent and ether extractives 22 percent killed mango hoppers at a concentrati of 0.066 percent. Alcoholic extracts and the no-dered root as a dust "-ere also cffective.--Iysore, India, Department of Agriculture (203) in 1938.

Macrosteles divisus (Uhl.), six-spotted leafhopper

The e'v York Agricultural Experiment, Station at Cornell Uiversi (213) in 1937 reported that dusts containing sulfur, pyrethrum, and ronone roduced the amount of lettuce yellows in experimental plots, thru the control of leafhoppers which spread the disease.

Pepper and Haenseler (225) in April 1939 reported on the control of the si:x-spotted leafhopper, a vector of lettuce yellows. In 1936 rotenone-pyrethrum-sulfur dust and derris-talo-sulfur dust (rotenone 0.75 percent) significantly reduced the leafhopper-nynph population. Derris marc plus sulfur as ineffective. In 1937 derris plus sulfur, derris plus pyrethrum plus sulfur, and pyrethrun plus sulfur dusts gave best control of leafhopper. In 1938 tests 1,ere made tith derris plus sulfur plus talc rotenonee 0.75 percent); derris plus sulfur plus t plus Stemtox D (rotenone 0.50 percent and pyrethrins 0.0125 percent and also :ith yrethruLn plus sulfur. The authors conclude that both rotenone and pyrethrum dusts give good control of the leafhopper.






Tyohl oyba f rogatti Bak.. a canary fly

Evan (98) in 1938 reported that in Tasmania infestations of the
anary fly on hathorn hedges may be reduced with derris dusts, one
aplicaiion being made early in November and a second one, if warranted,
t the end of January,

Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, the white apple leafhopper

The Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station (159) in its annual
eport for 1932 stated that T. pomaria is an important.pest of the apple in southwestern Idaho. Among the materials tested and found to be satisfactory v.as Cubor (pyethrin and rotenone). Cube extract in oil emulsified in vrater with powdered milk (cube 1:25,000; oil 0.5 percent) killed
82 percent of the first-brood nymphs.--Turner (271) in 1932.

A dust containing 25 parts of derris (3.95 percent rotenone) and
715 parts of gypsum :as ineffective in field tests.--Kelsall and Stultz
(170) in 1937.

The Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (195) in 1938
reported the results of tests made at Waltham to control the white apple
leafhopper. In laboratory. experiments cith pyrethrum and cube dust all
leafhoppers ere killed in 24 hours. Experiments at constant temperatures
shoued-a slight but not consistent increase in effectiveness at 800 F.,
but rt at 600 or 700.

Tplocyba rosae (L.), the rose leafhopper

McDaniel (186) in 1928 r.rote that among the other better-knovn contact sprays are Derrisol and some of the pyrethru. extracts. i7ith these, as with nicotine, each insect must be hit in order to be killed. (Empoa)
T. rosae is one of the insects controlled by these contact sprays.

Cicade.1lidae (unidentified species)

Hamilton (135) in 1933 reported that derris and cube ponders have
a distinct repellent effect and some fuAmigating effect against leafhoppers.

The Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station (171) in 1934
reported that in studies with leafhoppers spray combinations containing rotenone, pyrethrum, and pine oil were more toxic than nicotine. Nicotine caused nausea among the laborers in two instances, but the combinations did not.

Derris vas tested against leafhoppers but the infestation vas too
light to permit conclusions to be drawm.--Ho.ard et al. (154) in 1935.

Garman (118) in 1936 reported that leafhoppers, although present
in other parts of an apple orchard, wre absent from the derris-sprayed
plot.







1
J11






The FIlorida -.gricultura1 -periment Statio 15.i 97re
that sulfvir dusts containing nyrcthrum gave an immediate kilofjssd far superior to that obtained. ivth sulfur. dists containing rotenne However, a week af tor the a-7p-oications weire made there Yjas little dfe ende between the poyrethrum- and roteinone-dusted plots, though the adatg i-a s. in f avo r of the peyrethrum.

Cioadidae

Magicicada septendecim (L.), the periodical cicada

Cory and Knight (56)1 in 1937 reported that Red AIrrow at a dilto of 1:400 killed 100 percent of all periodical cicadas hit*, Sprayinga night is ),referable, as cicadas fly too actively during the day to pri of success then. Rotenone [derris?1l alone (4 pounds) and with ?Pnato (1/2 gallon) per 100 gallons of water gave 25-peroent kcill.

Cocci da e

Acnidiella aurantli (MJask.), the California red~scale

R.H. Smith, (246) in 1929 made tests against the California red
scale on lenon trees with nicotine and extracts of pyrethrum, derris, three spoecies of Tephrosia, and two species o~f Lonchocarpus, in a higl refire,_- -e ro sene. -'TJ-6o-nination showed any ~rcl'~i.

Smith (247) in 1932 described attempts to increase the effectve ness of" highly refined s-prayl oils by incorporating tox-ic substance (called "toxicants't) in- them. Laboratory tests were miade with ker'osn and m~ineral-seal types of oil on ( hxnysomphaluis) Aonidiella aurantil and orchard test-s were made in -hich light-nedium. and medium s pray oil ;rere used. Anon- the toxicants tested in a. highly refined kerosene (viscosity -00 seconds,, 906 percent unsulfonatable, and applied as amehn ical --iix-ture winter -;Trithc-ut a:,wsifier) were nicotine, pyrethrins, rot, none, and vario,,s extracts of pyrethrum, Derris elliptica, three s-pecies !7i- Terhzrosia, Lonci'ocarpus syp., and haiari. Butyl phthalate jincrnascd thelubiit of "rotonone in the oils. Smith co-ncluded tha Th e a utcm-!ts to inocrcase the effectiveness ofr spra-, oils by the use of toxicants, in the cr ernetswth the California red scale, were Lunsuccessfuil.

To.--X or Ortho Dcrris pluss a reduced dosage of oil is decide ly lo-ss cf.,cc-'4vc t~an thc ro,-ll.lar oil s-orays against the red scale.-Cal .i'tvorn :a F ru it G~rowe rs I Exchan,c ( 34) in Novembeor 19 35.

I r the Av.guLst 1936 Gissue of their Pest Control Circular (35)rc ;..rdIJ';- so-called zonoil srnra:7s, the California Fruit G3rowe'rst E:: c'Iallr~ S"tatZ d that Grtho Derris and To;X~ arc composed of a. powdare inisecticide containing derris- added to a lo-r dosage ofL light medium ol usually 1/,- to 2/3 percent. At the lover dosages of oil, these der'is c om-ibinat ions have had little'effect against the red scale. They cost several cents a tree more than oil sprays. 17here used -with light-mdi= oil at strengths as high as 1-1/2 percent, the cost appro::inmtes that





-73.

f igation. However, in orchards where the red scale is a problem,
7i n t~ i-v, ev -n
in thiI ht of present Jnowledge it would appear that these sprays, even ith the higher dosages of oil, should not be substituted for the regular
oil spray and fIumigation program.

The Leffingvrell Company in 1937, in a letter to R. C. Roark, stated
that when To:-X is used -.ith oil it is fairly effective against the citrus
red scale, and is superior to oil alone.

The California Fruit Grow!ers' Exchange, Bureau of Pest Control (43)
in November 1938 reported on the use of rotenone-oil products for the control of the red scale on citrus, The extent of red scale kill has been
directly related to the amound of oil used, without regard to the addition
of botanical powder. On the whole, the minimizing effects of these
lower dosages of oil on water rot of awel oranges has not been particularly pronounced, 1Furthermore, when more than I percent of oil -as used
with rotenone, the cost over regular-dosage oils a~.s increased.

LaDue (179) in 1938 reported that during the printer of 1936-37
tests were made on a number of organic solvents from the standpoint of (1) the solubility of the derris resinate in the solvent: (2) the solubility of solvent in the spray oil; (3) the solubility or suspensibility
of the derris resinate-solvent mixture in the spray oil; (4) the solubility of the solvent in water; and (5) the toxicity of the mixture to certain scale insects. The main groups of the solvents tested were (1)
alechols, (2) alcohol-ethers, (3) ethers, (4) glycols, (5) aldehydes,
(6) ketones, (7) esters, (8) aliphatic anines, (9)chlorinated products
of the saturated hydrocarbons, (10) phenols, (11) benzene and benzene
derivatives, and (12) the essential oils. Cnly a few compounds in each group ere tested. The higher ketones appeared to give the best results
from the standpoint of solubility of the derris resinate, stability of the resulting mixture, and added toxicity to the spray oil. Other compounds such as 2,2'-dichlorethyl ether, sassafras oil, and the higher acetates appeared to be good solvents for derris resinate, and expoerimental data seem to indicate an added toxicity to the spray oil. A.
aurantii was used as the test insect.

Derris resinat-e is not very soluble in highly refined petroleum oil
such as is used in the spraying of citrus. Thus, when an appreciable
amount of the derris resinate-solvent mixture is added to the oil, a suspension of resins and rotenone is for-ed. In the early part of 1937
laboratory experinents were made using methyl isobutyl ketone, methyl-namyl ketone, and 2,21-dichlorethyl ether as intermediary solvents for the derris resinate and tank-nix spray oil, Lemons infested with the California red scale ~ere used for the experiments, Derris resinate
dissolved in methyl-n-amyl ketone appeared to give the best kill of the
three solvents, Ebeling has shown that rthyl-n-amyl ketone incorporated in stray oil increases the toxicity of the oil to the red scale. Further
laboratony and field work by Ebeling during the sumer and fall of 1937
also substantiates the abovo findings vwith regard to the toxicity of
derris resinate to the red scale.





T le 'Unite-;I Dc rjart ,nl cf A-r-7 culture, Bureau of na t on 0 1 0&
a: i d a i v a c r -L -n a 2 5 3 ) i n -1 'G -, 1 3 azn.uaI' r&Dort stated that P -e Ii n, I 7"Orl: Ila,-, 'c-= Ocne ir C ilifor-Ia looking develop -ment of the
cf addcd including rot-e-ric-ne, I.vlt'a oils -for the control ooff tthhee'
Califor,,,,ia soale i htialate ,.as foiind' to L e a Satisfactory Sol
_C 2_0_,__* 1 'r -1-iminar- te-sts
vont for cor-ain crFa-,I
i-wore carri-. 'on vel-,E, -,ablo oils in cori'cination
witla nicotine

The,-California Fruit 'I-rovTei sl 7-:char.-c, ',u,--3a-u o-I' Pest Control 46 in November 1939 reported that.-oi-I-rotenone spraTs at 3/,1 to 1 percent of: light me0iuui nil %dll not control -I'he rod -calo.

'Elbeling.(?2) in 10D O reT)or-'U-ed_ th -.t rpowderod ro4,cno,_--,e-"bear-Ihg roots
-ive lit- le or i_7_inc-c 2e in effectiveness of spray oil -vi,ell used argainsil Vile red 'scale, n0.0s3i' 1-tcs .-Ile ( extraction of U-ic rotenone and othe'
poisonoiis constitucn'-s of lthc root ai d tholr b oing dissolved in the spray' o i H G,_-C ve r, 6 r ri s r e z in s ircrc.s.sc tr e effoctiveness of t1he oil, at
to SC-0 if a s-uitaT)7j_-_ solvcyit is use(L SIch solvents inclii
(3 b v s, ra
,,yl 2 positss 10 galio, is of y; Cardolitc-627, I pin.
.,er 100 ;,-, Ilons; ar d K-58, 1/2 Pint per 100 -'allc ns. ..alnut-slnoll flour
-'-,ith oil-t6-xicant (2 -n'crocnt oil -pl-cs dcrris, cu'u-e, n d t imb o
ros at V C rate of 3 poun-es of flo'-1-7 Cr 2 En.]. _Cns of 0--11-tox icant
100 --alicns -vr:.tcr, has usually rc.-ulted ir si T;stant-Iai increases in !.,-ill: Cardcli- -,o-627 Y,,as used as a -_--,-oxL--ua1 s-urvi-7a-Is vm.r
a s foll 1 c -!t,, Oil allono, 17,6; 7..)- and
shell fiol ,rl A 4.

Aon"diella ciltrina (Coq.), the yello- scale

T, California Frziit Gro--.,ersI 77--cha-IP-P_, _-':vreau of Post Control C41 in U*',-,re T--.' st-ated that. there he. s '.)een incrc-3se of the y--llo-,-,- scale
I 4_11r
"VC7 tl,ra Cc, I j $ Cal if*. in the area aro,_nd Sa,-t_- la-ula and Fill-more. The oT,,r a T- y -1-tl-, res o -sible.
--dos -e oil-rotei .:ie _0 be Ta D
f or 'chi's c ii.. TI-,4o-Exc.hanrre furt-',er re-ported (4_,G) in-Yovember 1939
that s-_ra-,,s at 3/ to 1 percent of oil -will not,
control P,. c r, T a

Asl- idiot-,-o e rr- r, i o sr s Go-m s t. the San Jose. zcale
Cul ,U]. S 4 -Pi ee
-)e ey.-Gract -"L, o j. 1 e in ---!Pter po-.-Tdered nillc (Cube
e--:traot 1. -ercent oil) rei7cent of the cvervlinter'
e. S t',c check- oil 1 _i' led S6,4 (2-2) in 1932

T'i e f -f-_ 1 C onr.an-,- i_-i 1('37, iM a le -tcr to T. C, Roar!-,, s e thZI.t -70: *- 2.5 wrccnt roteroneVpli f c-;.-'L has --d-ven promising results a
is sl.i-oerior to oil alone.

Au 1 a c a s -,,D i s rosae (Douchb),, t'hp. rose scale

Rcto-none in o _l i-.Pas 271) in 1917-20






Gerolases ubes It, 'pink, 'wax scal e

Ishigai (133) i.n 1937 wrote of the useo of derris in Japan, and
arud that~resh derris roots are more effective than dried roots. Ground
fs'. roots plus soap as a spray killed 80 percent of C. rubens or- p-er-, s -.,oni and from 80 to 100 -pereent of various coccidae -in orang and pear. Oth- other ha,-d farmers 1iow; that if the imported dried roots are used teres-ults obtained are neGligible,. SomethinG contained in the fresh crd root a~nd lost in thW11e dried roots ap pears to make the difference.
This is ar aglo not 1ret st udied by scholard, perhaps because~of the bad mel ofL the fresh crude roots.

Chionaspis evuonymi Comst., the evonyrnaus scale

Gotenone, 'in o-1- wias highly -effective in controlling this species on greenhous.,e plants.--Turner (7)i 1932.

llmIL o (A~)in 19,78 reported that cube arnd derris po-w.ders (4 percent rt2t;;&16 to 18 percent total extractives), applied as a spa at tlbc rc-teof ou-nds per 100 gallons -with the addition of 4 pounds
of sn~eId~ emul sion, were satisfactory as a contact poison against
yug scales on euonms tees.

Haude (1441) in March 1939 recommended cube or* derris .Powder spray (4 pounds po-v-der containing 4. percent, of rotenone, plus 4 pounds of rosinresid-ue er7'Ulsiorn p-er 100 gallons) for the control of yoing scales.

Chioas'ns fr-fi.ra, (Fitch),~ the scurfy'jscale,

According to Ha-uner -18) in 193'6 results of -oreliminary tests aans~t C. furfura using po--derod deriis root and a proprietary mixture of ro-ten6ne 6.nd -Pyrethr,,-a extracts were not promising and were not tested -ft-.rther in 1937.

O'hionaspis ninif oliae (Fitch), the i ine needle scale!

:otuenone in oil1 emulsIfied in rater ;ith po-Aiered milk (rotenone
:2,0,2, ce-it- oil) -killed 100 perce nt- of the half-ro-,im .fem,%les, as coc--redl --th ;E percent h-illed by check oil.--Tuner" (271) in 19702.

Ohrysophalusaonidu (L.) the Florida red scale

P~otnonein ol ~ S!gl effective.-Turner (21) 92

LaDuie (179) in lS-38 re-ported thtin the early. part of .11937 laboratory e ".eriments rere -maDfde using- ethyl i sobutyl ke: tone, methyl-n-ariyl keton-e, and' 2,2't-dichlorethyl either as intermediary solvents for the derris
reintead an-mxspray) oil 1. e im3 n ound that thle methyl-n-amyl
ketne-errs-rsintesolution increased the toxicity of the- oil to ~(Anidicli.a) Chnyso3=A-alus andn L)






Coccus ,-seudo)niagnoliarum (Kuw-.)., t'he citricol scal

The Californ~ia -P'rvLii_' Groverst Echance, bureau of Pest Coto (7. in September 1937 reported that. fumniaation tests sho-;.ed the, citrcol scale to be resistant to hydrocyanic acid gas, as in the past. Orchrd Tith any n'ticcabile amount 0: this scale should 'be sprayed -Tith lipht riedium oil. Gro-,recrs desirous o" reducing'th ,e use of oil to aiinu rnigtTh ..'ell, consider the der-ris-oi.l coubiL)nations.

LaDue (179) in 1938*reported th-at -in the early part of 1937 aotory e;:erj-ents were :nade using; methyl isobutyl ketone, methyl-n-ay 1cetone, and 2,21 -dichloroethyl ether as intermediary solvents forth derris resi-ate and tani'-mix, Spray oil. The d.erris resinate-methylnamyl-ketone-oi. mi~ture has been tested on C. pseudonagnoliarua. Th results indicated an added toxicity of the oil to thU!,is insect. Apat formed by the addition of methyl-n-anyl ketone or 2, 2-dic-loroethbyi te to the derris pon.-der seenl~ed to increase the efficiency of the mnaterial
The Exchl-an-e also reported (45, 46) in 1939 that oil-rotenone spraysa 3/4 to 1 -percent of -medium ol 'Jere effective for control of mixed pop lations of citricola scale and the black, scale(Qaissetia oleae (Bern)f

Coccus viridis (Green)

f3hatta, and iarayanan (15). in 1938 repoorted the Yrork done in 10.or on the insecticidal value of _pTant fish -oisons and other forest prodcts
Alcoholic extracts of seed of Te--Throsia candida, barkc of Munduiea serie (sub eros a) s e eds and l eave s of Tenoia -viio s a, an d r0ot s oIY D -ri s Wfli-otica at a concentration of 10 percent in miost cases, but much les for the seeds and derris, gave from GO- to loo-percent moi-tality of (Lecanium) Coccus viridis Green in 3 to 4 dayTS, in iv-hich period the standard insecticides, nicotine sulfate, and ho-,ngay, Pogm glabra., oil-resin scan, both at 2 percent, gave from 80- to 100-percent mority In small-scale field trials, extracts of seeds of Tephrosia candidaan szUCm__" bvar! of kLundulea zericea -tere effective at 2- and 3- percent concn trations, respectively, against C,. v-Iridis on coffee and guava. Wate su.s-oensions and alcoholic- extracts of dTeri s (7 percent rotenone and2 percent cthci' extractives)' Y.e' effective against Coccus (Lecanium) iii Green. -4Tysore, India, .Depar-lent of Agriculture (203 T in 1938.

Dac',,loeius sp.

Schmnitt (240) in- 19Z0 re-ported derris dust to be ineffective agan cocI-irneal -insects.

Diasp-*s cearueli Targ., the juniper scale

E-7amilton (136) in 19,38 reported cube and derris powders (4 peret: rote: one aned 16 to 18 percent total extractives) applied as a spray at th~e rate of 4 pounds per 100 gallons, 7 ,th the addition of 4 pounds of rosin-residue emulsion, to be'satisfactory contact poisons against yon scales on iuniCoer trees.

Spa i-it cub or ,er s ler (4 percent rotenone) at4p
per 100 -allois, plus 4 p oi.unds of rosin-residue enulsion, for the conr.. of young scales.-Haude (14A-) in 1939.






77

Leanium si.)

Derris or rotenone suspensions were ineffective.--De~ussy et al.
(32) i-n 1935; also (31) in 1936,

Not affected by derris.-.-Van der Laan (178) in 1936; also De~lassy
et al. (_31).

~Lepidosaphes beckii (en),the purple scale

En-lish (94) in Auguist lC39 reported on derris as a toxic. supplement to oil (--.,ulsion_-s for the cont rol of the- purple scale on satsma oranges. BI-perLiments were conducted on potted plants and in the field. Emulsions pre ,pare'. froni several oils and emu.qlsifying agents were used as carriers. X0 control attributab~le to derris was obtained with an 83-viscosity tankmix oil sray- as th1,e carrier; however, derris =as effective w ,hen used wv~ith a 41vsoiytarn-mix oil spray and wi-th diglycol laurate. In expori.ments wLih potted plants dorris was an effective supplement to nineralseal oil1 en visions prepared with diglycol laurate, diglycol oloate, sodium oleyrl svl'ate, or powdered skim milk, or writh dried-blood albtumen in a tank-nix spray. Although the tank-_mix erwusion -wth derris wa-s the most effective spray applied to potted -plants, the increase in effectiveness attributalble to derris w.,as low,7, and positive field results -were not obtained. Greater increases in kill attributable to derris were obtained with enulsions pre-pared_ fro.:, diglycol lau rate, di, _lycol oleate, and sodiumn oleyl sulfate. : ot]A derris and Derrisol, vhon u~oas'fppl~ents to a, 2- ereent em-,ulsion prepared from mineral-soal. oil and d.3iglycol oleate, reduced sinificantly, t-he percentage off scaly fruit on field plots. An experiment w ith extracted and unextracted derris show,,ed that derris ,-,as a true toxicant to the puDirple scale.

Lepidosavhes uLm-i (L.), the oystershell. scale

V~clndoo, Sievers, and Abbott (189) in 1919 reported that derris applied as a dust Inas of no value against -"-he crawling young, of the oystersh-ell sc-ale.l

Orth-ezia irsignis Dougl., the greenhouse orthezia, or lantana bug

YIcIndoo, Sievers, and Abbott (189) in 1919 reported that derris applied as a di:st .-as of no value against the orthezia.

Worsley (324) in 1936 reported as follows concerning banl- of
Nhundu lea sui-berosa'Benth. (o.90 percent rotenone) from, Loa district, Tanayika lerrtony, Past Africa, and derris root (5.4 percent rotenone): Both derris and JN1udulea bark killed 100 percent of 0. insignis at a concentration of 2 percent ; but aL concentration of 7.5 percent nicotine ~was required fPor 100.-percent kill.

Phen-acoccus aceris (Signi.),, a mealybug

Derris sprays Trere ineffective.'--Patterson (221) in 1936.





7S

oss-ypii T, L C., t1i,- 71' (-xican r,ea'I-,-rh-LIg

Neisv-a-n- -3r.r204) iv'19 .:5 re, oort- d that. a produ,, .- -,ontai-nirg I percent of rotc--ione at 1:2%C0 I D-ic Foretrol a 1.200 k.'Lll--(' 31 PercenQ 0 1 P
on greenholise chr-vs-Li1ther1--,,7. The oest cantrcl, PI percent, Tv as obtaf.ned Lethane NO. 420 at Fluc Pcnetroi at 1:29C.

Pichardsoii in 1-D75 rewrt, Ia on the I sect-icJdal contr'! of . . '
goss rpii on grcanhol-,Z-2 A de---ris d--ist co-itainirir: 4 perrotenone 7 eA I IDrce_I Of 4-1,- jj- ,M -S,
'Oh )-u-cae, ard aduIts, and
7 nercel"t cf the 2 cxbract (1 -Iv _,ed to coa.ta-Lr, rotcro.-,e
:10,000 b- o c r c r r s c Y r a c t i. -v e s -j( S Tq a x e U -'U'-i Potassimcccollut-oil soa-0 r-c--cent dr,-,r soa-- -L%-ei '-;'his s--ra-?- I:illed
0.5 P-ercent OIL th D --Dae, -nd Th-- s---mc der:-is e:-Aract
plus 0.5 -Dercent Ly of a si-l'cnatcd !'Tare'rol?]
1" ed 15.5 vnae, and
poreont of the -p a -11 lts Tfic bcst control
U7.3 Percont) vx-s obtained lb,- a 1' --pnrc--i-it er.---ulsior o. 4

-Pseudoccccu.s bre%-ipes 'Ckll.) I e ri--ca-p-le ii.ealybuT

rEtanabe (301) ir. 1 )36 re-cr2l'I-ed that der-_,is S7 iloys have proved of sorilc value t ie co4ntrul of 1. or. 1 s L, Formosa.

.Pseudoccccu,,,cVI-ri*, (Risso), th,- c1trir a r:-vll a)ug

.Iclndoo, Sievers, arr: Y ) )Ct- (lP9) ;n 1919 re-.:-rt-3d that dorris u:,cJi-.sG u -s A,,jea-vbvz -= 4 s Iia ( u 3 s c f val,.v D S Civen
2
irroi-rular and r- ,'-Ier s i --T,: o 7 S
4 c t C. r resi-It-. D 4n 192,%

Potenone cuspenL7.-d in -vater (1:250) killeC pn'- 25 percent and a dust of' 2 -parts of rot rone and 26 rarts of Claol-ce-us earth kille
.L .11' I.nono.--Da-ridson (63') in 1930. Rctenonc in a-71 -,-.-as hi.-'-hl-/Turner (271) in ITM.

A rotorone-p-rethrI.-TrZI spray containing 0.75 perccn-I of rotmone
and 1.8 Percent of 1yrr-Idirino at 1:200 rao.uc -I: L e i-i'cstat -m 7.1- percent
I LA
as cciT .T)ar, d with a, 9-,Dercen r:3clucticr Le' ir.ne 1 o. 420 at 1:800 nlr soap 1:260. Three ,.t 7Ttcrv ls of 1 -c.reek..
on t1--e c L 19,150

Psel:k coccus cCr,,,qStocX:i the Co-.Is' to &7 r,-. e-,, 1- "Du g

T i vna v ( 2 7 3 ), j,
.1 jj,"y 93D roporte on t7ie control of P. co:-qtOcICi on citrus in 'Falestina. ii. -crc-oris'--arv --'erris and
: yr,-Ahrum ra-,,e an -Lmsatis'.C'iX. ,- EO (:id alCo brand
cont'-ainin7-derris alc-ne -us--, a4- -U] e ia'e o' 1:K0, as directed.. bjr Une me miifaoturers.

?selldoccccus : P

Rot-e-none sprays vrere ineffectf-ve a ra i s I t, 9, r:.ealyb, g or oarrotfeathe C-1
(T'v r i o ]7)h,/:.- 1 -Lm 0 Eie roter.one siiz-D-nsici-i prc-- qr d Iby aldl-ng a solution...
of 0.2 Pm. rotenrza& 5 cc. berzcne and ,5 cc. Fmct-rcl to v.-ater to makeccnecntration ci ro.encme 1:100,000 plus F :-ictrcl 1:200,.--Darley (62) 11-1 1,c'31.









Foilaftne (a -nvret-hr,-"7,-dcr--s sn-av i--ith srroader 'at 1:400 ,-ij. I
85 percent Ln 18 and, Z'33' 7 9365.

D e r J* s o r r o t r--: e suspensions -,,-!ere ineffective.--DeDi, ssy et al. 32 ir 11- -q

-ot affe,-- -,ed, by derris,,--Van der L--an (117C 1930- DeB-ussy et al.
(31) v

Pulvinaria vitis (L. ), --l- c-- tton-r scale

Hami-Iton (15,7 4-r 1938 ciibe and derris po-,- ers (4 ,e.-cent
rotenone an-i 16 1'--' a-pi lied as a. s- -,ra- at I-rate of I omlmds -oe--- LCLI S itla t1le ad-'-" tion of 4 pounds of rcsirlresic:re a 1"air -)oiso-a a-ainst this insect on -ma-le
treC S. 0 Iy,
--s 1',ctter.

Saissetin. hem -s,,)!iac----ica (Tarm the hentis-Ldherical scale

Rc-"- en-one L7. c J 1 ,-,as e+ I active. --T,,2 rner ( 271 in 1937 Z

Saissetia oleac Bern,), -0-lack scale

The -D-L=a ,,, of P,?st of the California Fruit Gro-v,,ersl
E--clianp- "n e I t
g, 11 -,!ovelwer issue of their Control CJ-'-rcular (34)
reTorted of tc2j.-s 7.,itl- now cities sprays against uni,"O.mly small
black, se-Ics., as follov:s:

Avera ,e
Material and dosape of' oil added mortality
-.Per-'ent
Or-1-.1-o Dcrris,, /-5 lb. 0.5 Oct. li-ht-rledium to per 100 Z- !. 0.67 ret. mcdilm 99.06

Regular cil, snra.Y" 1.67 1-.)ct. soluble or 2 ppt. e-r-ulsion C9.7


0 r t o D r r i s s c I -- "o -,., t, h e C sI i f L- rn i a S r,-.. T C-h e m i c a 3. C o c ny., I'la S
the most -eI17 used s-i-, cv the -nonoil tie r(-gular black
scale scas-.--L. A cc--,si-,erable cX -rove'- -. ere
alt"'icil-t--l-, as sho-..-:i in t'-e lasi -, t',,, il-ablc, it -was
so,-ne-..!-a-'I.. 1 oEs cf.--c live ,he oil s-prays. To 6-%t : -o by
this as 'Dec--- cl-,scrved cn 7a--= or rv.e lr or
Ta- ---% -r, 3rc-e-n ctr-nor1c) at 1 -c- ,rZ .7 ;r 100 Fallons :1-, 3 0.5- '.37
-u--- c oil 1cill c 29.1 percent of s-.all z
sca1c. ',)lac',,- scale---o:c- -,-,,a-- ec,-,al- to Crt-c )errJ-s 'out not o
so effec'ivo ac re, -iJai oil --r-P e Tes'- cr rcl Ci-c-i:"I.r (35)
so-c !Ied nonoil s-,,3n7)YS, s S a C ... ar-c=N-se o j, insectlcic,-- cc-,, t ac= 7 a 0- d sa e
of 14-Eh' m -a d iam D i 1 i- Suaily (,.5 to C.(-7







cooler co-stal ar-a6, 'l'-ese s, ra-s -,ave sl-,- ,isfactor- commercial resrlr
'clac ,c, ,' C'S. Del t i ve U, an
.htly -un-,
jess el,C-c
)-,-E- qcL J c c- s- ra-- at o d i i) a r- d c, s a, e s lit aliChtli h i --,h c r oll (',-)21 1 -s, 1-o I ci- 1,2-' scales were" effec,t i lrillc -:1 J-,-% -,,- c U I a r a Lvaln .a go o f the-s e
Sn -6'- a t red '-a ,e
_j -Ir V,%,-, r-Icy
2 -Cr 121C a C:i t oJ I srrays, -Drodileed'..
C- r e i -d o. o o i e-:- To
da e s-rnys 0 5
oil 0 P-- li-L ,_ to I e a k
.L'osit, no '11 color., a-d abf con-'rol t-,, bl C
scale sat i s -r a c to r i 1,1

T hr Ca 1 i. o r n i a. 7ruit Cro-.-,ers' )Vret-, of Test Ccntrol
36, 7, 41.5, AC il,, 1 37 s atcr --ha-- in V ,rti-ira Ccimtyo.
Cali-L',, 1 d res;s'11'.-- cale a=-, 7 &r,Jsdale and Ojai riay
cn 02' the (! -,,:-is-c-hl s, fc-t,,.,e- adverse effects oil Also .,,,-,ere it -,.s im-rossible to fi,--ii -ate
ove r r -.-.Tithoiit serio,. s danali--,c -L11-ie Clerais--oil spra,,S be usedw.
The in 7ebr-uary co-.-bina-1-- ons ftr
c oTr bat i "ne b1,7cl: scale a-lsociatc,- -1-!-J-'U-h the spider ard -tle citrus anhid. A oi,--41-,-1.',)lc spray is uade frozn 0.5 to G.75 -cll(-)n of light medium oil, 1 tD 4- por-lds of rotenone -ocwdcr, an -' to mal,e lCO --allons. In
irly 1933 groi rers of' in Ventrra -Jer, advised that- lo'YVIdosase derris-oil -vr;_ll 1-andic .he blac. scale a-[-i iS o asier ma the trees and ard in 1938 it reported Vlat oil-rotenone had shoym
definite -- ct on], in 1-ilitnq- small black sc ilc.s 'iJut-, ii-; ol'f-seasoil
in ar-er scales tha' di(3 or
the 011, oil. The 1JXc1aa-a 7-e stat-ed.t at ir. September 1939 light
med-Irn oil, medJam oil, sprays, an,.L funi-ati-n -,,ere i.ae'unods
1,- uscd for con-Urol of S. ol(..ae,. accordir- to -'J e di, tr -ct; -.nd in
lfov--iuer I'z;39 the E---Ic'-ar -e Y:c ) 71, Tthat oil-ro2!,-En(--),,-;e at 0.75 to
1.0 --t of light ediun oil are e-ff'ective for -ii:-,-,d ol'
thc cit, icola, and bl,,,,3k Scales. 'Oil-rotazione s--ray -.10rc effective on aclva iced blacit scales than Tras miscible oil ard and is
les's li'--Cly to retard coloration than straight oil.

VIhen nsed ;,.ith oil'. To,- X is -very ei-fective a Da--s, c -tru.s "clack scale and is sL ilerior to oil alone. accor-',J-n to Leff,!.r- ell C- Comraa-iy in
a letter to 1RL. C. Roar,- in 1907.

Boyce and Premderg st (19) in 1938 -vrolce .T
mix-tiireo are relatively oxnensive -lien considr.red -L"r-r 6'-Le of red
s d. er a] ( n c Ho---ev,-r, when for co--ibj--,Pd co-Atr -l ol'
--: d spider, ard 1-Iach soal,-, d,--,rLi-- the s-crJ:ng, thev are*
ve ry p ra c al

LaDue (179) in 1938 reported tl-iat Pastes of d ,rris J-th 0 U s
orp-anic solvelats addc, d to oil spray's uns )-t -st -D.ctory resi'lts against S. cleae or- 17ashington ravel cmr-e trecs. Aceton, P.--,1 derris e.rtra-ts -,rerealso -used. o7 spray oil, but
S C
ard Coirr- o-u!t of lu .(- o ,l (J V C C, S Ir carly
f r a o t -n '137 1, 1'y c
mcth-,T1L-n-z;i.yl he-'6ono, and 2,21--,1i.ch1orrt'iAT1 ct'i, r a-, int-orfrir-diary solvent




7






for -the derris resina' e anf' tcl- '7-:_ .- dcrris rr ,c Li
n-a2-_.y]-ket= -oil -(-'aac 1 t s
inCicate an aclced of t1I3 Cil 3 S ,,ns cct. Y_ r C T
the ade.JJo-, o
v
C I 10 r e r
derris Do,--6cr e c 0 01 r

K I C I rocts
have _,7-ed in -or C,
cc
tivencss of C-L-, c. i s It 1 7_1110_ n
pessib' a rcd,:-_t*cr, c. o o s a r, 2r a: t_ Iie -c -L a 6- .6 7 p -ce '10
Pcrco-nt or less.

Coscirlao

C 0 C C 1 0 IYI Era not affected ft dcrris.--_v7ar do Laan (Ii
in 1956.

-1 n -1 c r 7, c c ht 2 71 ) in IS3S r0-orted u-lat
,,air--' Cccc d-_e 'had so J"ar falle( to -ive r,-.(-ae cn oran7_1 0-nd
100 Tarcert o f -mrioUs vocci I -)
':)y the of roim-d fre-h rc-ts -p'h-s S c, a s a
19W.

11 e al :,7) 1_, v s

ri
C o r 13 e t t -5 2 r n, I U C n 0 C i s t f 0 r c Fe, 2, a t. C C1 T a 1 y 3 D P a r t
r-ent of: L-r! cu.1 i rc r -cc rt -..'n 1 30 tlat a' Vie ra-I cc 1
ro-Lind to 10 Ln-ocrial c' 7.-I.','eT 1:3 Jnsecticide f'or !-E-,eral
'71 d V, -r' Conmar, ,.en a- ___ 0 it 7'rill '00 '_c
use in LI. (j ? 11 ,' rc.('A ;"Ir
pa r a t-4 v_- I r e f r o C 1_ fer- sir.i.lar are,
of-' -cn 0- _rf L in Cro-.7'uh 131" sprl- .- bc 7T rr
Ln conti:cllin6

jo-nes Davia7son r7_-orted ctcrrls
ext na C t s r C
to

D_-ii o 33-7 in S, 32 c 4 c r s C 1 e oils derrick
ha s -o r c v,,-; C-. v r :j c e c v "S

The _P-L bbc r Sen-ioc L _b o i t, -L-; Cc ------ a s,,iIbsidL:.ry of Lh
I-,cnsa-Ito Chc:-1icL..l C c D a v i Y 1 5 r r c: y c 0 a 7. rI 17
-.Darts o !' dcr---is rc i s zcc, C
(ol- olcic acid) is Cf_- 'Cctivc
1:'JC -r.s 'ovr.d c ',c T
II=-G=C L6 I-Cc-L-Je, r --i s rc sill V -partL,
ht dry 1' reslc r 3- U_ and c-,11 or oloic a G idl C a %IL7


1 01









170 tl or.j, of lc

R. H. &ait'i (241) in 1538 desr-r"'ied a -Ictho( of
_H11
testiliL Oil insr CuCL( CS on Set'.le 111"JI01-ves 3plficing the
oil directl,,- ir-4-o IC-."le SPIracle of Lise-t, or i_ pon --ry ds3ired part Of a.., --e cf f cot by cb,3 er va -- 11--n unde r the ric ro
score. 'Thi e T:,e--_c-1- h,is ')ec-- C r) 7red -.-ith iDart c1,,,1ar su+is"action in 4-ef ne l oils fortified by -L.he ad ,it un of pyrethm.,.., rbluencne, ot'ler substaiices to mal-e t1- e cil.s +(,xio.
11-0u -h the usc Of M-1 CrO
can be exilar-eck t, Ma_ii- -_,,Iatin a.T))Daratus
C.L the ficld of biolo, Zr.

Pulgoride.6

ScFata f,,irc-fera (Horv.)

S-Pru,.--!_n,_- with derris efl'eoted co-nlct,5 cciitrol of "Ms i_,.-iseot a utac! _in,-; rice) in 'tho Federated Lalay States.--Federat, d D)Ialay St-,tes De par-L-- ient of' 'gricilt--,,re (100) in 19,37,

ilenDra ci dae.

Ceresa 7:),ubalvs the bu_-- fa1o tre-. !,(j e r
7 7 's of d err
d-ust- is (3.95 percent rotenone) and
75 parts oA' ov--i --Fel-all ard Stulltz (170) in 937.

t er hopper

1-T I'l t Z On ( 2 5 8 i_ 3,1 re-':orted that nicotiiie, derri-7, -and pyrethr"'m du7ts ha,, no ef:l: Tt '71- V-61:1 6 treohc,).-)ero,- G. ctatae,--', cn nlumi and apple.

S fes-*.ina the threc-ccrncree-_ alftLIPa ho-,--er

and Barber, of the Divis-'on. o f C c i o i Tn s e ct Investigations Durecil o,' E.,.-i u-o-c)lo-y z.nd Plant Q,iiaranti-_,ie, 5.n "T 5 r o r ei t-hat cube dus n a_,71c- 80 -- recent control, 'dsrris drst (4 rercc-." 55 -)P.rcent control, and 0 5 ---)-rcent contrO-L ol J_ n Arizona.
TeZt-s ,adj iii c-,,reo in -field xnd tal s o J_-, lant- .'r. -20lues in the
Thecc, r.-1--.-l-to vrore cii5ed by 1_6-rh (27, !) -in 11, 3 -, comparingg thc incccticf.da' vL _luc o I' darr-s cuiA cu ')c,

1 11 enb ra c. i Iae (i-inidentifiod species)

DIiatta ,n6 Flarayanan (15) in, 1_937 reported thc .-!or' jor.e in Llysorey India, on the insecticidal -ral,.io -f -, lant fish 'Q0-]_S1D1:.S and other forest products ,.nd s-'Gr.tc11_ t". at. an alcoholic e.-tract of thD sDc ds of Teuhrcsia c.-__:-cida3 at 1 ncrccrat concentration, controlled ac- -ults and n- Hs of
on _,vs indicus.







Psyllidae
Fa--natrioza coc ccrelli (Stllc), tI-ic -o- Lato ,)siTllid, or luoi-,--to ps-,'Ilid

The J'.,exico kgri ciilt ,Iral sta Ziml (21,- 8) in 1934 recorded
1#
yl -.ien I-q :,'or cc-trol oi the potato rsylii-,! in
the results of' spr, c; exp(-r : the field. Comparisci-Is -.-,-ere of boreewnx sprays, bordoau:c-oil-nicotine s-orqys, and sprays. Irish Cobtler -)oU,..to-_s C,'ro,:,,n
at N. --iere trea'eC. -v-;th the acid-merCII'T di-O and -r-1-anted
on tl e horticiilt-L ra"L. Stith ,arms on February 27, 1933. section of the potatoes at the Horticul,xral Fanii Tias sprayed threc tLmes Ath a 5-5-50 bordeaux mi-xture, another ,-;dth bordeam: mixture containing 1 -alien of Volck oil and 1- pint of nicotine sulfate to c-_tch 100 gallons of 3 ray material, and the third plot -..-ith a 5-5-50 bor a, ;: mixtu.ro to I'-ad been added 1 pint of rotenone c:_-tract. The potatoes on tlhc Sti-!-7-1 Far -il wore spraycf -v.-ith oil-nicotine and the bordeatix-oil-nicotine. T'ler-e a very noticeable difference in the yield bet7.reen -the sprayed and uns-prayed sect-ions., as sho,;.m by the following data:


Yield of pdl.atocs per acre
T'To.
Treatment giade Ir,-%
-76-Ends icunds Pounds
__,ordea,,= olil-y - - - - 1 iLa 3 919 '777
Cheol_ no, s- Yed, Ij 06 c -c r a,, 392 188
lordea-u,.:, oil, and nicotine- 20478 1.1919 513
ChOch,7 not- sprayed 1,0679 1., 002 229
3ordearx and rotenone - - 2;033 1,101 648
Checl, not s,)r-a:-ed - - 2,112 1 ,16,0 5-76


Psylla pyricola, Foers-10., the pear psylla

Neotoi-_ (derris e-, tract in fish oil), 150 &a. plus t- -, ice its ,reio-ht ol" soa-, in 40 L-eria7 ,Allons -tmter, Ifilled *ILOO 1,-)erQent.--Irs+_itI te Physical and Chc-. cal _,ezearch (162) in IC27.

Van -iiren (286), in ans-.! .r to jue.-Li-,-is sent in T)-y" r-ro-_ners at the
Fe-_, -Y-or' Hor'Gic" ltural Societir __=ual -eet-1_7 in 192%3, sta -ed that Perrisr.l -,-,,as effective for the control ol- ea.- psyllta.

la (1,13) in Ir-JO 41-hai- -!-.ilen a cor -erc 7_,I orc'icu.rd
f fi-,- c' the, pnar I.,s-!]-,7 Ir)
by a large S pral' r,,,, -ovnds
1:533 alo-_-s .us not very effective (55 ,Dorc_-nt killed) i i t- t L C) f ") 0 r a 1, ro - -,ht t'qe -j"ficiency ealual ( 12 percei lt '- )a-:- o' tl-ic- rc,,-,_-Jar --)ra--, consists of 2 -no-m-,ds of co.p 4- o--if te,
z,'O pc.-_--,Cs of I-rdrated li,-_c, an .' 1 pint -oi-E, nicotine siilfate 'Go 100 gallons of water.

Tro--s t-roated a d,,-s cc- 25 -:arts of derris (17.95
e rc cnt rotc-iono) --r.d 75 parts o Most oi t--,p 'ul- s -'lewa-,.-:ay
and e s c a D c -).t .-he t;--e dustii, of tho-se d- 11 r
Fl 7 r -n ) ), S y S I 0 -,- at
late 'e, r e I i 1"I and but fe-u
t rea t t1a e '-rris-trea rof --e ei.,, I 2,' ',o-urs. T,.-ro --eol-s S y
rcr: fro-.,- -Ihs, st;] 1 a" .-_' nt on
Tpract; cal 1, L I L 0
elsail anc (17C,) ir 1237.









Ia sp.

Carlos 47 in, 1926 renortc; Ps-,r7 la is cr q t'le chief
ins cot p z t s a c Ti-le of
derri, oi,

In a'no*n-,-- ovs iziter r c r i c C the aqveoi_77 extract-of
d o r r s r o ot t,., b e l2fe c ti ro

I'lorsley (324) in 1 '36 nonoen, n- b rlc ol i.'ur-idulea subero6i
3enth. (0.9 perc nt -.,otcnoi.e) fru_, "Eca I orri
East Africa, and derris root (5.4 percent rc r-nore), -'Q,)at tlie follo-l'ing ocrc --.,t-_-Lat Lon3 are revuireCl 'U*o 100 pp rc,- rt C a Sneofes of Ia. Luf es t Oit rU S i1h. Ajirtalt"i : 0 .4-5 rcc--- j P Y-u baik, 0 .3 5 :57rc-Dm of der-ric rco' [;, and 0.275 ))( rcmt of niCo-4rje.

Psyllids on :)Co.r trCCS 1--orp, 1"I.11nd by r. -rc ')riotar- cluSt
12 -pc rccnt ol cubo of 6 rercc-'C' rote-Ilo-no to
le tc- to C. Poaric r::7 Uj 19 3 S .









I..ISFCT I DI

Aelges abietis. See Chermes a ietis.
5p, 64
Aleyrodes sp. 4
Aeyrodid ae-------------------------Auraph)iis-maidi-racicis-------------------------persicae-niEger ----- --------- ------------5



aonic hm, See ChrysonphaluIs aonid.rn
aurantii-- -------------------------72, 73
(T irina-- -- -------------------------74
Aphids------------ ------------ ----6 3, 80
Aphqids on-abaca---------------------- -----ap)ple-----------------------------50
beans---------------------------O 62
birch-----------------------------50
brcadbea.---------------------------10
cabbage------------------------18, 4,5, 51
caul i f 1 Le r -- ---------------------45S, 51
celerr- -- ------------- ------- -------Ceyrlon ironwvood------------------------51
clierry -- -- ---------------- -- --------51, 62
chestnut- -- -------------------------52
chrysanthlemua-n,-- -- ----------------------52
c itrus -- -- ---------------------- --52, 53
corn- -- -------- --------------------53
cotton- --------------------------4, 6
currant"----------------------------53
dahlia- ----------------------------62
dwarf sprace----------------- - - -53
egg~~~~~~~~~~~~~)~~ at----------------------- -- -0
flowers -- ------------ ---------------53
fruit-----------------------------53
golderrd----------------------------54
grape-----------------------------7
head lettuce--------------------------54
hops-----------------------------54
Japanesc maple%-- -- -- ---------------------54
lima bL.ns---------------------------50
lotu-s------------ -----------------54
mustard----------------------------47
nastU'1-------------------------13, 54orane -- --------- --------- -- -- -- -- ---5

ox-eyre dais--------------------------54
par-sy ----------------------------58







-86

-~ Me-pear -. - -5




se- ~' - - -- -. 62-sc bar. - 56
s Cn - 4
S7,irea v-Anhou -tei-------------------------w
-. -- - - - - - - -


tCO LC 0o---------------------------3, 44, 5, 57
t crt o- ----------------------------40 58,

tul5.p-ree- -- ------------------------viol~ets-- -----------------------------58
YL itc ~ne --- -- --- -- --- --- -- ---- 5


aveinae. See Rh o pa 1 o s i- prt~mifoliae.
gosr:J------- -- -- -- -------------------hc~ i-nI Whi- -- - - - - - - -7
ilai,-'01el i s -----------------------------7
-- ~ -------------------------------------------7
nerfI----------------------------PC.Paver~s--------------------------DO-Li -- - - - - - - -5. 9, 9 10
o-,eudob ras sica e. S e eh? alosihu ptotasc
nmucx-- -- --------------------------sr2raecola- -----------------------1 17
59
tzava res ------------------------------17
Ap lir o o rv. per-mut8Lta----------------------A pple-aphid-------------------------8, 9 50
leafhcp~er------------------------- 68
Apple Crafn apThid- -- -----------------------46
Arrowhead a-Phids------------------------AsOdiotiis -oern~ciosas --- -- -- -- --- -- --7


3anhi 01

Beleafopper-------------------------











Blck-aphid -1,0, 62
bean api-12 cherry a-,T'I-d- -2
citrus aphdPeachahd 5
plant ic e, See Ap-hid s,
scale -- - - - -' - - - - - 76 W 79 0
reiox:- b-Lussicae --

Cabbaea-phid -2,45
VTrn'eS- 20
California red scale -72-74
Ca n a r y fil 71r------------* - - --r- --e 20
ribis -- 20
rosarr'1 2C
Caterillar --- 10
Cavriella spn.- 20

Ceresa bubalips-----------------------------82
~e~~asrub, )ens -- ----------------- --------75
Chc-rmes-abiet-Is- C---------------------------(4

cooleyi65


Cherry a-'hid----------------------------42, 43
Ohevi-l yi'- nse.cts----------------------,7,2
Chionas-)is--evoinyrni- ------------------------ ---75
i'ur:ura -------------------------------75
pinif'oliae---------------------------75
Chr.Ynsanthem'n,,-i f-ixphid--------------------------22
Chrlysoirphalu- s-aonidu---------------------------------75
a ura-.-t i i See 'onieiella auran4,1.
Cicada,~~~~ peica--------------------------72
Ciraedellidae----------------------------65, 71
Cicadidae-------------------------------72
Cinara sa-bin-ae-----------------------------21


a phid -------------------- -- -1 4, 5 2, 5 3, 80
'black, scale--------------------------rielbg----------------------------78, 81
red scale--------------------------72

CJlact64tera sp.------------------------








-P 38



Coccv.s--

v7ri:cij -Is-7

Conze 2ovmrr"



id'Y - - -
Cottony riescale,-7 Co'.-Oea~ a-lid--
Cri~ rys'7ittle in-lect- -Ci1 rr>chi e, ---------2
D c t -,,s s:?. -- - -- --




~Masis CF: ni.;eli *- 76
T, v-o rosae, S oe T-,rn1o cyba rcsae.






68


-xc~ii -s- -- - - -69




Flriare- scls 75G1css(->n'--e leafhoIa2er

Go'~> I j. c,.- -
GI-ra~c': 72




a&P-.Ae phL- -------------------- -- -- -ol.C' a-h d ----------------------- ----4. Z.
potato apn4 id
r09s e a.-- -41 ---Greceihc--s e-- I

o r~h ez ia 7








Page
Heisheical sca.le- - - - -- -- ---- ----79
Fp aphid- - - -. --- - .46.

arundin is- - 22
prui. See H, arundinis.
Htroceura setate7 22
Iiocerus sp.- 70
Idian mustard aphid -- 4 7
Jassids72 Juniper sc ale e----- -------- ----------------76
La4yb eetles- ---------------------------39
Lantana, bug --------------------------------------- -- 77
Leaf-aphids---------------------53$54,. 57, 61'62
lice--------------------------51, 56,s 60
L~eafhopper-------------------------65-67, 71
Leafhopper on-apple -- ----------------------- -- - 66 71
beans.----------------------------*65-67
beet-- ---------- -- ----------------70
dahlias------------------ -----------66
gi-ape.-----------------------------68-69
potatoes---------------------------65-67
rose -- ----------------------------71

Lecaniumisp -- -- ------------ -- ---- ---77
Lepido saphesbeckil-----------------------------77
ulmi------------------------------77
viridis. See Cocu viridis.
Li-7ee Aphids,
Macrosiphoniclla sanborni -- -------------------22
Lbacro siphtuiillinoiiensis. 'See Aphis illinoisernsis.
liriodeidr5--------------------------22

rosae--------------------- ------- 41
rtidbecktiae -- -- -----------------------41
solanifo~i -- ---------- ---------------39
llda gn - ---------- -----------------42
IMacrosteles divisus ----------- ------------70
Kaiida s -eptendecim --------- ------------72
Mango hopp-ers---------------------------70
Mealybug-------------------------77,78, 81
Ylealy plum aphid--------------------------22
Melon aphid---------------------------5
Meinbracidae- -- --------------- ------- ----82
Mexican-bean beetle- -- ------------------------50
mealybig -- ------------------- -------78
Mosquito larvae- -- ------------------ -- -----8








ceraI S-
persicae
Na Ct u rt il-in aphI.d- ----------------------- 5
'-Torvay maple aphid 6"
Orange aphid ------------------------ 1
Orthe-ia insis-------------------- --- -- -7
Oyster sheI3. scale 77Paratrioza cockerelli -- -------------------Pea aphid--------------------- - ----- --- -- -- -- ---2
Pear psylla -------------------------Pent-,ionia ryjjroriervosa----------------------iz,,riodical cicada------------------------~Perio3uyl_ ly-rorpictus -- --------------- -- -
Phena"Cocus.aceris- ----- ------------------------7
.gossyloij *---- --- -- --- --- -- -- - -Dii1aemisleuopthaVrs---------- --------------- 4
Iallemn------------------------------sp,,,i r See P,1, litc 0p h Vha rau s.
falleni. See P. leiicohtlialmis falleni.
IT S e e 7.;-cjtahspbbs

Pi17rudoxn(LYvzDdos) persicae. See Myz-us persicae.
Pineapple, ealdy~m-OT-------------------------Pine needle scale -7


wamx scale--------------------------- 5
Plant lice, See AphiLds.. *

Potato--.. :
aiYp.iid- 39 - -- - - -- - -
1leafhopper G5
psITllid 83
Pseudococci).s-brcvipes--------------------------citri--------------------------8


Psyl la-rv ,-]icola-------------------------- 3

Psy.lliclae--------------------------F t2-o !>L o r 1is tropicalis,-- -------------------j~- - - 77
Rasjb 'Crr- I&eetle---------









apid 54
cdraphid 21
potato apid-0
scale 72-741
spider -16, 53, 80
Rho.odendron wh-i'teL ---- ----y 2

pif 31i ae -- 46
pseudoorassia----------------------20, 47-49


Root 4, 50

ai:)h-Ld41 lea.-rhopper-----------------------------71

scale-----------------------------74
PLeSY-aphid--------------------------------5
ajple aphid---------------------------5
Ruhst!Inite-----------------------------16,52
Ru~sty pl=. anhid- ------------------------22

hemisphaerica..- ----------------------oleac -- --------------------------76, 79-81
Jo77se scale -- ---------------------------74
Scaeinsects- ------------------2, 73, 75, 76-81
Srfy scale----------- -- -----------------75
SiTporvrze indo:brI-.ss-_cae. Sec hplsphT eorsia Si7rhonophora rosae, S l D o0S rosae
Six-spotted- leafhoppecr-- - - - - - -7
Slaty-grray aphids-- -------------------------51
Soat fuorcif era---------------------------82
Spinhaoh- ap hid- ---------------------------43
~pira apid- ----------------------------15
~Spittlceburs ----------------------------64
Spruce -o.11 aphid---------------------------64
Stictoce- hala festina-------------------------82
Stray~ibrvaprhid--------------------------------20
s-pittle bug-- -- -------------------------63
Suching insects---------------- --- ----9, 58., 60
~Thistle aphid----------------------------Three-corxiered alfalfa, htorper-------------------82
Tobacco-- ,~
aphid--------------------- -- ----- --- -- -431 A44 56,5
Pests--------------------- 57
Tomato psyl1id--------------------------83
Toxoptera au)rantii------------- -- -- ---------Treehoppor----------------------------82
Tree lice - - - - - - - -58
Tial eu rode s

vaporariorum-------------------- ---- -- -- -- -------









Tr.4i daph'is phaseoli -- ---- -------TQI 9Lm7 5





cr -- cm -- s


-y~ -. p - - -71





a-m- - -- -




























-l --- - -2




. ... ....... .............




LIT7PATT 1,7 CIr.ED

1) 1W. IT 121CU S *t Derris ";.einbau U-.
1927. Schadl4n-s1re'KPmpfun- v
Kellerw. 6: 108-109,

(2) ------1930. :"o-.-!dered derris- root. jovr* a-n '. phann. [London]
12 4: & 6 3

3) OUVTECi-K-IC 1,,-7S7'TT'U*TE
19135. The i_ se o-P derris in controlling garden insects. Ala.
!'olytech. Ins'..,'Agr. Expt. Ste., Dept. Zool.-Ent.,
2 pp*, f Processed.]

(4) ------1933. The effective,.'ess, of -po-virdered derris root J-th Various
carriers against citrus vrhitefly, Dialeurodes citri
(Aslm.). --',-la. A-r. Ex.pt. Sta. Ann. Ppt. T92 4_-357
Bul. 46: 2C-22.

5 t' I T_ 1T

.)C3. Results dusts and smays. U. S. Dept. Agr.,
1 'ur. and J-1ant Quar. News iet. 2M: 7. [Processed.]

(6) ------19". The turnip ai I-_id. U. S. 'Pent. Bur. M7,.4- and Plant
r. 3 i p. [.Frocessed.j
(7) A SSO(-- T a rT CC,-7(jIF
E _. 2.70 R___'1,, -)GISTS 1937. "Entoma",, a :'l-i-rectory of ir zecv rest control. Lmer. Assoc.
Econ. !":"nt. --astern Etranclll. FC. C. Exmilton, ed.] Fe .r
Brlmm-icl -' J., .142 pr. [Ctibe-de-rris, pp. 44-41 6;
rotericne. p. 65.1

8 AlL. S --,T! K IYSTITTUT
19 C) o e'-1 a-,-.-c r "el T-_alicA14'-in7-r er orderzoelcingen van de L -k 11"P9. Am_.-t,-?rdan1 Kolon.
j'_'e-'C'd.26 (8): 21-99, illus. (See also Nolor-i-a-1 12-stit-a-ut :-r' s e rC a me
7'-,, T7
G.
Cc_: trol o' I
cn jo-Ur. Econ. a7t.
32: 210-213.

7
(10)
1 32. Pests in Souther- -i'-frica. 10


_-1. F. a--nd
1935. or-_-is and a s-*t'-'-,-C'1y C' t,--'ir 1 ro-'QCCtion
4 1
from in mriciis action c" a
37-89, 111, 11%30








(12 FaRFO 0T, J..
1935. The progress of rotenore .~ Gro-cier andSipe
6 ':13, 18.

(13) BSTJTGP, -A. J.,,Fad lr' ~
19360 Orance msin Cal ifornia, and their control. !Jour.
Econ. T~at. 29:A 16'1-163, 4M


19301. Enkele verdere Zegcven, -s omtrent derris, als een inse
ticide leverernde plan. 7er,-c-ultutres 5: 759-761

(1)BHATA, K. L., and 1\:3A' N T.
19380 ~pr Pur done in TI!ysore [Indial on the irseoticia
value of plant fish-poison-z an2d other forest pro~cs (Fro ko Apr i 11 6 t o Ia rrc-h117 K37, 25 p, NJe Del3hi
[Abstract in Fey.. App iaEt. (A) 25: 36c-.361

(16) BOCK, C.
1934. Derris'elliptica. Deut. Apoth. Ztg. 2: 588-589.

(17) BOUPCART, E0
1925. Insecticides,- Furngicides, and JedKillers, Trans. b
T. R. Burton. English ed. .2, 431 pp., illus. Lonn.

(18) BOUTUTE,, A. I., and BOYD, 0. C.
1937. Post control in the homeo garden. Ulass. Cor Co t.
Leaflet 1,71, 12 pp., illus.

(19) BOYCE, A. 111., and PRFETDETGAST, D. T.
1938. Control of citrus red mite (spider). Calif. Citroz
23: 370, 53-8-400.

(20) BP~DDOCK, D. M.A
1930. The demand for tobacco insecticides in the -1ast Coast
of Sumatra. U. S. Bur. 7orciM_ and Do-r, Cor., CO"
Div. Spec. Cir, 305, 4 p. F1'rocosscd.]

(21) BIRTTAIIN, T. K.
1925., Some miscellaneous. insecticide tests, i*cadian Ent. soo
Proc. (1924) 10: 23-42.

(22) BPO-CTSON, T. E.
1936. Derris dusts impregnate d -V'ith a spreading and vyettin
agent. she;-- increased eff' icncy agintpea a-phid.
U. S. DeIpt. Agr., Bir. En't. and Plant Quiar. Nmewa Let
3 (5): 18. [Processed.]

(23) ---
1936. Effect of grov.nd dermis upion: pea. aph-id 7hninfestin
peas subsoqtmnt1 to s-prayin. Jur Econ. Ent. 29''
1170-1172.




........ .




(24) ------1936. ir- )rcvc uyr ara-, is for mixi-a,'- in 6 0 s
U. S. DuL Bl;r, Pht. a.nd
-1 pp., J1111s. LProoesscd."

(25) ------1T- 37. 2Lr of f 'LcItcrt for m4.xing I ar-c o.- n7_a"' qmant! ties t U.
)f insec' C-al drst.-s cortain-,n, a ccn- -* onorw t. -r., '3-x. Ent. and a -. ET-115, 3
illus. P: -ot es s ed.

(26) ------1937. 0 oT- Pa r 4- ive ef f i c i e no y o, f d i f 'Le en t s n r ead i n :: we tt irl g,
and' st. .cking aEaris vse -zrlth rotencre co,,-xroonds against p-a arh _d. U. S. Dept lkmr,,, Bur. Ent. ai-id _Plant Q,-uar.Let. 4 (2):' 20'. Proccssed.lj

(27' ------L,Q!- irixin 4 insectic4.dalI d,..s-bs cont-aininp a c6r.diticne-_-. U. S. D=F-L r D -ur Er a 6, P 1 an, t QZu 'a r
3 P P. il 3, 1 -1 s Fro c e s s ed.

(26) ------- and DJLIEY. J. jr.
1038. Con.ditio-ln- for increasing t1ne effectiveness of
rot e _, r ir ( i ists 7ains t Q-7e rea walid. Jour.
Econ. LDnt. 131:

(29) ------- a-d ST 0,'TE, P. V.
ic"36. Fearut-o!_" er-, lrion added to derris-d-ust mixture aids in nca :.T)q' f I control U.S. Dept. r. r. Ezit. and
7
6 (5): 18. blay. [Processed.]

(3o) J. R., ard I 0""'71-.-L' H-0
1 3 prod-ction. Fla. Univ. Afrr. Ext. Bul. 63.,
551 P-f.' illus.

(-31 E-JSSSY, L. P. de., T k. van der, and DIA17177077", k.
'! __ C-) n n 1,
Destri d4n va ederlandsche insecte- m,'t erris.
Tijd,,.;c'ir. over Plantenziekten. 412: 77-100, illus.

(32) ------- VA-"- F9 A* v.,n der, a--,-", Z. F.
1 35.. 1esultater- -ro--von.7-- et derris-.0oeder en rotenone oT)
nederlardsc' -_- insecten. Tij ischr. over PlantenzieIrte.n. 41: "'7-501 illus. (Also ir Kolon. Inst. Afd.
7 er. 91, 25 ill-us.; and IndisGhe
I'Iercl-x" E-8: 103-104, 119_ ;_11 1935.1
(33) C,71T W AC7TC UT .-L
7 .- -J" T STAT_-( q
3 Insecticidal nh c o 0,,=is, I-, Calif. x7t. Sta.
Inn.








(34) CT 7P1TI Thu TGOWE' F c BTJP7' LT OF PrS T COI71C
1935. Prel1i-min-ar results of nexir cirus spray-s a,,airrst.blc
scale. Exchi. Pest C"ontrol Cir,, 11: 1-3. Toveiniber

(35) ---
1936. So-called "n-oil" sry. The us,.e of Selocide inth
Rier-D~my-hitirar-ea, Exch. Pest Contr-ol Qir 20: 2, 3, August.

(36) --
1937. The scale control rogrsxam for- August. 1,:ch. Pest Con
trol 0-ir. 32: 4. Augu st.,

(37)--------lc-3.~ Citricola, scale. Exch, Pest Control Cir. 33:-3. Seomie'

(38) --
1938. Importance of w;into r red scale treatment. Exch, Post~
Control Cir. 38: 2-3. February.

(3) --
l%-,8. Y. ater rot a-gain apopcars in oil-sprayed navel orachards
Red spider. ; och. Post Control Cir. 39: 5-6. T.arh

(40) ---
19138. Present spider condition. bcch, ,Pest Control Cir. 41
4 pp. M~fay.

(41) --
1938. General insect conditions in Southern California. Exch
Pest Control Cir. 42,. 4 pp. Juno.

(42)
1938. [Derris-oji] Exch. Pest Control Cir. 43: 4. Ji~ly,

(43)
1938. Low dosage rotenone-cil products for red scale.Exh
Pest Control Cir. 47: 3-4. No vember.

(44) --
1939. Treatment of black scale should be hastened. 7Ex-ch. Pes
Control Cir. 57: 1. September.

(45) --
1939. Black- and citricola scales. Ljxch. .Pest Control. Cit.
58: 2. October,


1939. D2lack and citricola'scale in 41r.t'Irior areas. Excch. Pet:
Control CiJ1r. '59, 4 p,. -o v eor.








(47) CARLCS, A. S.
1926. Derris and its uses as an insec;icide. Fort.,, Feed.
S t ti f s. a i i d 7 a =, S -o T I i e, s J ) i r 11: 161.

(48) CASHLLO, Y.
1'26. Pr e I L-q i na r: -ie propcrti, s of
s udies ont: secticidal
t1=,o species rf .erris in P11ilip'einos.
nine Apr. 10: 2071-275.

(49) CJL I T-T--J ._L ITT, J. C.
ln33. PesiAts rote-nnne dusts and s. :)rays. U. S.Dopt. Agr.
3vr. i nt. Let. 234: 7. [Procossed.]

(50) CGLCR DO 4;i _TL 7' R_'
193GO [?OtCn1-1 -- a-ld. C',"UC-1. Coolo. Sta. P-pt. (193, -35)


(51) CC,'-PTO_-, C. C.
1930. GroGnTiovse T)(-sts, a manual of' -orfictioc ir E--3 cont-rol
!-s,:3c-s an('. ot)^nr -ests nl-rts
1z; 0- azanO_, flowers -,mder glass i,.,l Illinois. 111. iiist. Survey Cir. 12, 112,pp., illus.

(52*'
1030. nutes. ","Lrd Cx-art. 1,230.


53) C( T, V
1-20. Diisti i-- 'c'r t'.o Pev, a- :As. Jour. Boon. Ent. 16:

(54) ------10'US. Sc'- edl-]-- io- tl-- control of rose. -oest-.. 2 ill-us.


(55) and G!'_.%H2, ,, Co.
1,56. Foa cc.--,trol in Peninsi-ila -lort. Soo. (Del.]
Tra--s. 26: 2,'_-2 .

(56)
1D 7 o:,. Bi-ood X o -jerioc ical oicada, in
d nt. 3M: 287-204

(57) C 7 T- -Sl-1, '.I.
1968. T 1 4
r -1 1 a t c, r -,boratory A nt. s. (2)": 119-123.
j

C T F P C ar'] LEK! Y, P.
1 13 5; :T le cen-'l-rol d S -_-, 3 a or ;S -_.-ul. 2780 11,_ j








(59 CUP, J. H
193 14. Potenc'ne, iioeru ew,, insecticide. Pacific 7urPres--s 128 (2:215

(6o CTTGT7.% RC,
19? ype a. in~ i. Ohio. Ohio r.*tSt-a, 1ul. 4
59 pj illus.

(61) D~TWJ ,L
b29~In thr agrici'Jtural zoology of the Malay Arohipela.
473 op., ilus Lsterd.a m. [Derris, pg. 392-393.]

(62) DAP.TJDY, 31.Th
19 tA Some co prtetests r' Jth roterioie, n-icotin-e, an ye


(63) D201IDSO Ur. 11
1930. Rotenone as a contact insecticide. Jorr. Econ. Lnat~.23



1050. The relative value as contact insecticides ofp some cn
stituento of-derris, Jour. Econ. _-t. 23: 877-8i79

(65)------and J077,3, H, A.
1931. Chroin -4-oxicity of rctL--ncne in solution and suspenso."
JoLr. Eon. 1tht. 24: 257-262.

(66) DAVIS, J. J.
1032. Derris. Insecticides and their uses. Purdue Unaiv.,hm
Ext. Ser, I, Bul, 132 (7): 27.

(67) D-7U PFOI-FSTATIO~ T77 1'7DA1T
1926. Bereidiiig van -1aar-toeba extract, Deli Proof'sta. to
AModan Veded. 42 (2): 25-26.

(68) --
1527. Report of' the Deli 21xperi-ient Station f'or Jarny1
to Deember 51, 1926. Deli Proefsta, te Tedan Tted.
45 (2), 56 pp.

(69)
1029, AJkar toeba Dri elliptica) het, bestriidirgsrniddelva
de tab1ksi C1(7,,zs i~r sI Ee) in) Deli, Deli P.roefsaj
te T~ear ~eded. 5T2: -6,ilhi,

(70) ----1931. Verslag van het Deli Proefstation over het JaBar 1930,
Deli Proefsta,,. to .e.da-n Feded. 68 (2), 61 .

(71) --
-1933, Akar toeba. Versia- a het Deli Proefstation overhe
Jaar 1932. Deli Proefs-ta. te Medan VJeded. 84 (2):
30-33P 48.






99

(72) DF LOKG.9 D. M.
1928.- Some obsei-,rations u,-)on the biA:)rv and c-ntrol of the potato leafhop-er (E1,anQasc Karris Jou r.
Econ. Fn-'G. 21:

T
(73) DErITIS, C.; *
1927. Vemiff*e and insecticide. U. S. Patent 1,621.1240; issued blarch 15, L

(74) ------1932. and insecticide. U. S. Patent Re. 18,667,
issued lNove.ber 22, 1932.

75) D7 0--,,TG, 'E. RO
9 7-0. 'De comn-arative insecticidal value of different species of derris. Jo-ar. Econ. Rat. 23: 619-624.

(76) ------- and 75HITE, L. T. W.'
192, F-Lirther of derris as ar Irsecticide.. Jor r. Econ.
Ent. 17:

(77) DES_. TAYDF, G,
19',7. CabDa --a aphid Slphoccryn, indobrassicae, and its
conlr.ol -;.ith Ilore-madc 3i*.co-'1-i,(-_,- s-,-ray. Agr. and Livestoc',-. in India 7: 756-761210
(78) D_ ,TSCI-177-,_ .-L _.
'FlIVI, Z_71,'S ",,T:-'Z7'-r' r-ST
19 1-J 1 F f 1 a,-, z, e---- s czi ii t z:; i t t e I ve r z e -."L c hn -. s d c s d eii t s c h on Pf 1 an z onsc,a-tz J_(-rstcs 117,61 Yittcl regrn and T nl-rauter. Dou-'-. Pfl ,nzons-_hutzdienst
8 (4), 8 pp*

(79) DIBBLE, C. BO
19'8. T ug hc,,1,,se -fc blcs. TAich. Ar r. 1_'Xt. Scrv. 8 pp. [Processed.]

(80) D-.C71K.-Y, P. I L T N Tj
193 Grt, c =cvj _rF in rlorida. Fla. Aer. Sta. Bul. 324,
50 ilhis.

DITA L. P.
193C. Practical aspects of poa a-hirl control Poninsulc. Hort.
Soc. rDol.] '2rans. 28: 136-141.

(82) ------- C.
19 3 9 0 S -!Iudics o. 4 control. To --:cc 0
u r. nt. -2: 537-5-6.

8 3 T -) 0 9_ kS S J. T 7.-Id T '), I IL d 711LI _-T J. A 0 3C_1 Fi Cl d for cc-trol of tI-c b4 ('U in
Idaho, Jour. 3?: '3)C-7 .

(84) D -117Y, j. 7., Jr.
1935. lns_-cticid, ,, tcsts -T=t ap'-1:1. IT. -r.,
lot. 2 (2): 18. rp1_OcOsscd.1 Bur. "r-t. and 111-it L





-100

and 3?0'-SrN, T. B.
3 3 -(.PL arl--d in so-uthorn lli oo n s in.
,J S. nt. an Qjar. NoWs
20-21. [PIoco,,sed.]

(86) ------at i-J favcr for roa ap hidcontrol. U. S. Bur. Lnt. and sk;
Ne..-s Let. 6 2 16. '_Prc3essed.j

(87) ------- BROYISOF, T. D., 9. r C, L 1, F 7
1V36. Ex-p'eriments -..-ith eprris as a control for the pea- anhij.
Dent, Agr, Dur. -Imt, and F7ant Quar, 1--36g


(88) ------- T 13 and CAT"OL T 1,3
1936. E:,Pe-, _ments veLth derris as a cci-itrol for the pea a,?hid.
Jour. --,,.,cor.. 1,nt, 2P: &01-50e. /89 ------- BRO To 1'j, (,.'LRT-nLL, 1,'. E.
1937. of exrer4-n.entS der,_-is L-,nd C-ube arrains'Q- the
pea aphid dklri ,; - -he se--scn c" 1D.36. U. S. Dept. A!7r, Blar. Ent. a-,- fla,,t "Olar. 6 [Prccessr -d.l

(90)- DUY UP, A. A. and TTUT,__.T ,! ]Y.
1935. VogetCole rcst cr)iItrcjl _-chediale Conn. (Sta'.-e) Agr. Exnt-, Sta. Cir. 19.1: 27-10, illus,

(91) DUPT- UT, HT. E.
1926. 'Non-arsenical preparations for garden iise. Gard. Chron.
[Londonj ( 3d Ser. '79: 213-214.


1940. Toxicants and so!-ids in-cil _1sad aEainst red scale.
Calif. Citrog. 25: 98, 1-30.

(93) ED;7 1:PDS.? 7. D .
1936. B t ranb e rr v sp-ittle bu-. Orer. State
Hort. Soo. Proc. 56: 58-65. Nlo-v.

94) EING-1,1STH L. L. A
1939. Derris as a to--ic simrlcrmert 'i-c cil ac ,ml S4. ong for the
control of Dur-ole Ica-!e, JoLr. Eccn, 567,59

(95)
1851. The Island ol' Banka. 7Ytn C4- 11*rorp USCh4 1drriinger- aus Ostindie-_is Arr.,- Joi r. Indi-an h 1 pe 1 a go ai East. Avia 5: 269-291.

(q6) EwIrs, J. w.
1936. T*he pear sl* uge las-manian Jcur. Agr. 9: 130-131.







.......... --- -------------- -