Chemical analyses of wood

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Material Information

Title:
Chemical analyses of wood
Series Title:
Technical note ;
Physical Description:
4 p. : ; 21 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Madison, Wis
Publication Date:
Edition:
Rev. Oct. 1952.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Wood -- Chemistry   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available online.
General Note:
Caption title.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029724011
oclc - 61326501
Classification:
lcc - TA419 .U45 no.235 rev.1952
System ID:
AA00025045:00001

Full Text


T3 E C. H N I 3





MADISON5. WISONSIN R E'V I S E D- G0ctob 19 2





Not infrequently the Forest Products Laboratory receives requests for
copete chemical analyses of. wood, when inquiry shows that the informain wanted is not general but specific, as for instance- Will this wodspoil the flavor of foods? Will it make a good storage battery searator? How can it be bleached? Is it resistant to acid? What is the coloring matter in this wood ? Why won't our make of water -proof ing
copound stick to this wood?

Ordinrily, analyses of wood are expressed in such terms as cellulose, lignn methoxyl, water-soluble content, and pentosans. The most elabortfigures on such constituents, obtained after much time and trouble, may not give the desired answer to a specific question about a piece of
woodwhereas some simple practical test or one or two specific (partial) chemial determinations would yield all the information needed; or the answer to the particular question may already be known.

Value of Chemical Analysis. ~ "Complete" analyses of wood are of impor tance in the study of changes that occur in wood subjected to various conditions. They have furnished valuable information on the processes of wood decay, and on the manner of damage wrought by marine wood
boera and by white ants. Similar data on wood attacked by other pests would probably be of use in the work of control or suppression. Wood, analyses have thrown light on the gradual conversion of wood into coal, and on differences between various parts of the tree structure. By aiding the study of pulping reactions at successive stages they lead to closer control of and better technique in pulping.

Specific chemical determination may serve important needs. The proportion of alpha-cellulose in a given wood may indicate its value as raw material for rayon, cellophane, and the like. Determination of extractive matter (gums, oils, resins, etc. ) is often of first importance. High ether-soluble content denotes resin, as in southern pine "lightwood. Water-soluble material may indicate tannins, dye components, or valube carbohydrates. The amount of water-soluble or alkali-soluble extractives may determine the usefulness of a wood for various types of tanks and c ontaine rs. Methoxyl conte nt i s of inter e st to the wood di S tiller.











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Question of Species. -It is impossible by chemical analysis of wood substance to identify the exact species of a piece of wood. The determination-of extractives may aid in identifying a species, but this is seldom conclusive in itself. In identifying species, wood structure is more decisive than the chemistry of wood.

Hardwoods and Softwoods. --Between the two broad clas ses of hardwoods and softwoods, however, the chemist can distinguish. Reference to the table on the inside pages will show that hardwoods are about twice as high in pentosan content as softwoods, and that they give a higher yield of acetic acid on hydrolysis. Usually, also, hardwoods are higher in methoxyl content than softwoods.

Heartwood and Sapwood. --In softwoods, the water-soluble and ethersoluble extractives are all higher in the heartwood than in the sapwood, while the cellulose and lignin percentages are generally lower. In the case of hardwoods it is less easy to generalize. In some species, as the oaks, extractives run higher and cellulose lower in the heartwood than in the sapwood; in others, as pignut hickory, the opposite is the case.

Springwood generally has more lignin and less cellulose than has summeywood.




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