Weights of various woods grown in the United States

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Title:
Weights of various woods grown in the United States
Series Title:
Technical note ;
Physical Description:
8 p. : chiefly tables ; 21 cm.
Language:
English
Publisher:
Forest Products Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Madison, Wis
Publication Date:
Edition:
Rev.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Wood -- Weight   ( lcsh )
Timber -- Weight -- Mathematical models -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available online.
General Note:
"September 1949."
General Note:
Cover title.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029723010
oclc - 761392112
System ID:
AA00025033:00001

Full Text




TECHNICAL NOTE NUMBER 218
0IODUS LABORATORY UF'VITED STATES FOREST SERVICE
MADION 5 WISONSI if f R 19 49:


R OF VARIOUS WODS GROWN, IN UIfE U[ED STAJp,,

Te ext weght of either swed or ro h ners is best det
by w. Calculated values of weight, S ~ d I -IWj4ss ed
he are necessarily approximate values Durg-to- vraia-ti ns i-n m-Attr c, denity, sapod thickness, and the like that occur in differe pat of the se timber. The calculated average weight obtained by temthod here is, therefore, not accurate enough to afford a
bi fo estimating timber transportat ion costs or other exacting t c On the other hand, the method is useful in making rough
eof timer weights for less exacting purposes, for example,
t c ity neded to haul a given lot of timbers, storing logs under
detrning the possibility of driving or towing logs.

T is eno difference between the weights of sawed and round
tto reure separate methods for estimating their average weights. I of ts note is a-licable to sawed timbers; Part II is applicable


PART I. SAWED TIMERS

]l givs for various wods grown in the United States the avw eh pe cubic foot of sawed timbers at moisture content values
of 8 d 15 percent, and the average weight of 1,000 board feet when air d (15 percent moisture content). Factors for adjusting values for ehI peent cn in mois re content are given.

T 1 i ased on the weights and volumes of 2-by 2-inch, clear
sn the top 4 feet of 16-foot butt logs of typical trees.

I lot of ber of a given species in the air-dry condition at
15 percent mis cotent, the weight per cubic foot will rarely vary
w a 10 percent fro the figure given in table 1. The greatest
bin eight a those that occur in the early stages of drying of
g wood. s in the misture content of air-dry wood are attended
b_ ratively 11 cangs in weight per cubic foot, owing to the
oeffet of chang in voli as a result of accmpanying shrinkage


'e lue given in tble 1 for weight per thousand board feet at
15erentmstue~ content were determ-ined by multiplying the values per c fot at 15 parent by 83.3. The wets per thousand feet given
i5 appl to a bo feet and not to a thousand board feet
1 r. Rough ler is generally oersized and dressed lumber
u i th respect to thick s. The values given in column 5 of
tabl I will geeal, therefore, need to be adjus ted for actual shipte of lmer. The adjm t for 1- by 8-inch boards dressed to
253 inch in thcns and 7-1/2 inches in width is as follows:

25/2x 7-1/2 0.7324.
l1 x 8






Table 1. --Weights of sawed wood of various trees grow in the United States, unde
different conditions of wisture, and accougpanXIng adjusting factors


:Weight In pounds :Factors!: Weight per 1,000
p-r cubic foot : for :board feet air dry
eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee~dus-: (15 percent
:Based on:Based on: ing : moi~sture content) Species (common and botanical names) : weight : weight : values :-:and : and :f or each: Actual : Dressed
: -volume : volume : 1 : board : (1 x8
: at a : at a :percent : feet : dressed
:moisture: nois bare: change : : to
:content :content : in :: 25/32 z
:of 15 : of 8 :maoisture: : 7-1/2)
:percent :percent :content



Alder red (Alnuz rubra.) :28.2 :27.7 : .075 :2,350 : 1,720
Apple, wild Malus ptu11a) var. : 4.7.2 4 16.8 :.050 :3,930 : 2,880
Ash, black (Frainus, nigr) : 34.5 :33.9 :.092 : 2,870 : 2,100
Ash, commercial vhitei_5"Frsxinus .): 4o.6 : 39.6 :.137 : 3,380 : 2,4.8o
Aspen.. commercia. (Popul ) : 26.6 : 26.0o 08 2,220: 1,630

Baldcypress (Taxodium disticui) : 32.0 : 31.1 :.129 : 2,67o : 1,96o
Basswood, Ame1FinTii'lia americana) : 25.3 : 25.1 :.029 : 2, U0 : 1,550
Beech,. American (Fgu grandifolia) : 1.3.3 :42.6 :.095 : 3,610 : 2,64.0
Birch, Alsappr eula paii:fea : 37.9 :37.5 :.5 :3,160 : 2,310
var. neoalaskana) :
Birch, paper (Beta Papyrfera): 37.9 :37.7 :.029 :3,160 2,310

Birch, sweet (Betula lenta.) :46.2 4,15.4. .108 :385o 2,820
Birch, yellow (Betula -lutea) :42.1. :41.9 :.071 :3,530 :2,590
Buckeye, yellow_(Aesc=uusoctandra) 24.9 :24.1. : o067 :2,070 :1,520
Butternut ( cinerea) 27.0 :26.2 : .117 :2,250 :~1,650
California-laurel (Uthellularia californica.) 38.8 :37.8 : .137 :3,230 :2,370

Cherry,, black (Prunus serotim) 3.5 :34.5 : .145 2,960 :2,170
Chestnut, Amer i;7Caetaea dentata) :30.0 :29.2 : .108 :2,500 :1,830
Chinquapin, golden (astanopsis chysph :l. 31.7 :31.0 : .104. 2,640: 1,930
Cottonwood,, black (Pnuu trdtoc: 24.0 : 23.5 : .071 :2,000 :1,1.6o
Cottonwood, eastern (Populus- deltoides) :28.3 : 27.7 : .087 :2,360o 1,730

Cucwniertree (M i acuminala) :33.6 : 32.9 : .095 :2,800 :2,050
Dogwood, flowering( Cornus florid&) :50.0 : 4.9.8 : .025 : 4,160 :3,050
Dogwood,. Pacific (Cornus nittalii) :44.8 : 4.4.3 : .071 : 3,730 :2,730
Dougla-fir (Pseudotse taxifolia) :33.9 : 33.0 : .129 : 2,82 2,,070
oas t type
Douglas-fir (Pseudotsu tazifolia sgi ) 31.2 :30.5 :.100 :2,600: 1,900
Inland EZpire type

Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga tazifolia glauca) 30.1 :29.0 :.154 :2,510 :1,84oQ
mountain type
Mat, rockl(us thomasi) 4.3.4 :412.3 :.158 :3,620o 2,650
EM,4 soft;- isla F !2. 36.3 :35.7 :.083 3 ,020: 2,210
Fir,~pa apn Ais :2.3 : .2 :.154 :1,860: 1,360
Fir, balsam, (Abies baleamiY : 26.1 :26.0 :.021 :2,170 :1,3590

Fir, noble (Able. Prca :26.6: 25.9 :.095 :2,220 :1630
Fir, Cal ifori redm (Ai.ica) 27.9 : T 2.0 :.129 :2,320 : 1,700
Fir, cinrclal vhita2TX-iesp) 27.0 :26,3 :.095 :2,250 : 1,630
Nackberry (Celtis occldetalls 36.8 ; 35.9 :.133 : 3, 070 : 2,250
Helok ea.;-z(Nua a;d-i ) :28.5 : 27.7 :.117 : 2,370 : 1,74.0
(Sheet 1 of 3)





1al --WO ights of saved wood of variou trees grow in the United States, under
different conditions of moisture, and accompanying adjusting factors (continued)

:Weigt in pounds :Factorsi: Weight per 1,000 per cubic foot : for :board feet air dry
- ---:adw : (15 percent
:Based on:h@sed on: ing : mnoistue content) Species (coamo and botani~cal names) weight weight : values
and : and -for each.- Actul Dressed :voluevolume: 1 :board :(Ix 8
at a :at a !percent :feet :dressed :moisture- moisture: change :to :content :content in ::25/32 x : of 15 : of 8 :moisture: :7-1/2)
:percent .-percent :cctent
o- -- -------- ------------------ ---------

Helok vestrp (Tug heerpy: 29.1 :28A4 0.095 : 2,1420 :1,770
Hikris tre- Raraa 50.3 : 0.2 :.021 : 4,190: 3,070
Hickory,,~ wae ami#a 4.2 :42.0 :.308 : 3,680: 2,700
Holy, mercan opaa)38.9: 38.4 :.071 : 3,240o 2,370
Nonylocut (4Ueditla triacntos) :44.7T 43.2 :.208 :3,720 :2,720

..hraemestern(Osrp vigii:a 48.9 :48.3 :.067 :4,070: 2,980
InesecdaCaio ~ Libocedrus :25.3 2k~.1 :.170 :2,1_10 :1,550

Jtmiper,~ ~ ~ ~ ~ aliao3Jieu hplp)6.1 Y5 .1 :.137 :3,010 :2,200
wacvstsmn (I~riz occietai) :38.3 :37.7 :.092 :3,190 :2,340*
Iacst, back(Bb peuacai: 48.6 :46.5 M 29 4,050: 2,970

M~o, Pific (Arbu ioniesii) :44.-5 :43.9 :.079 :3,710 :2,720
T__ U~r gm : 34.~9 : 34.1 :.120 :2,910 :2,130
Mhqrov (Eizohor mogl: 68.3 : 67. -i .133 :5,690: 4,170
Jkle, ~g (ce mcrphllm)33.5 : 3.8 .100 2,790 2,040
Ifpl, hrL Acr!2)41-7 141.1 .087 3,470 2,540

1 34.9 :33.9 :.137 :2,910: 2,130
isnanIm*7ad atifolia) :47.7 :47.1 :.083 :3,070 :2,910
Oa, ~Z(uru .): 43.4 :42.8 :.079 :3,620 2,650
Oak whta-w Quecu. _.)45.9 : 45.4 :.071 :3,820 2,800
Owq6-csqp(j urapomfe56.7 :54.7 :.291 :4,720: 3,460

Ptmtt, cabg (Sabal palett) :28.9 :28.6 :.042 : 2,410 :1,770
P (CM_________is 4.5.6 U 4.5 .154 : 3,800: 2,78D
P47IMU(Dcayrs irinan)49.5 49.0 x075 :4,120: 3,020
Pine eastr white -Pnu :tob 25.1 2 4.0 : .1.50 : 2,090: 1,530
Pins Jc (Pima b~k :nT 29.9 :29.0 : .129 : 2,490: 1,820

ftne, 2oftqo (Flas ccutorta latifolia) : 28.7 :27.9 :.108 : 2,390: 1,750 Pins, pitch (Pinu rai"I : 34.3 :33.5 :.108 : 2,860 :2,090
Pine, jo asa(inuevnwos : 28.3 :27.3 :.142 : 2,360 : 1,730
Pine, red (Pin= reioa : 30.9 :30.2 :.104 : 2,570 : 1,880
slash Ph ue caribmsa) : 43.1 :42. : 120 : 3,590 : 2,630
Pins, sothrn -elv
Lboy Pnnts.ds) : 35.6 :34.8 : o18 : 2,970 : 2,180
L_____ as (:_ palm2 :ri 08 3. .128 : 2,920 : 2,140
Shotlef 11-us chnat) :340 : 39.92 .129 : 3,990 : 2,920
Pio. 94~r(Pnu rI&A):25.8 24.8 :.145 : 2,150 : 1,570

Pola, b~m (oa t~c ) :-t- 22,7 22.2 .071 :1,890: 1,380
Reodw eate (Jnprmvrgn 33.1 :2.0 k 358 : 2,760: 2,020

(Shoot 2 of 3)









Table 1. -We rights of saved wood of vearious trees grown in the United States,une different conditions of moisture, and accoWanying adjuting factors (continued)

:Weiht -in- pounds :Factorsl: Weight per 14000 per cubic foot : for :boerd feet air dry
--------------------------------a3~t: (15 percent
:Based on:Based on:. ing moisture content) Species (commoui and botanical names) : eight : wight : values--and : and :f or each: Actual : Dressed 'Volue :volume: 1 : board : (l x8
*at a : at a :percent : foot : dressed :aoisture:moisture: change to
:content :content : ini : 25/ 2 z
of 15 : of 8 :moisture: :7-1/2)
:percent : percent : content



Badcadar- western (Th licata) : 23.1 :22.3 :0.117 : 1,20 : 1,410
Redwood!:I (Se uois ammrvre : 25.4A 24..5 :.129 .2,120 : 1,550
Spruce, -SR (F~ices P2. : 28.A 27.6 .18 2 2370 : 1,740
Spruce, Engeimann (Picea enem i : 23.7 :23.0 wh10 1,970o 1,440
Spruce, Sitka (Picea sitchniis) : 27.8 :27.0 :.120 :2,320 :1,700

Sugaberry (Celtis laevigsta 3.9 : 5.0 :.125 :2,990 2,190
Sweetgu (~4q4 is tyracif lum): 4.l 33.6 : 07:2,840 : 2,080
Sycawire, A ican (7Platanue occidentalis) : 34.9 : 311.3 :.087 :2,91.0 : 2,130 Lina (Larix laariimT : 37.1 :36.0 :.150 3,090k 2,260
Tupeo2 (JjE a 35.0 : 311.3 :.095 :2,920 2,140
Walnutbck(uas ): 8. 367: .204 :%3170 :2,320
White-cedar, Atlantic (Chamsecyparis tboides): 23.4 : 22.7 : .095 : 1,950 : 1,430 White-cedar, northern (Thua occidentalis, 21.6 : 20.7 : .129 : 1,800 : 1,320
White-cedar, Port Orford (Caa a 29.8 : 28.7 : .154 : 2t480 : 1,820
lasoniasj
Wiflov, black (8mhz i 26.1 : 25.8 : .0116 : 2, X70 : 1,590
efocenAlaska J : 31.1 : 30.1 : .142 : 2, 590: 1, 900
nootkatezasia) :
!eUlo-poplar (Lfriodendron 2 iferz) :28.3 : 27.5 : .112 : 2,360 : 1,730
Yew, Pacific (Tams brevifolia) : 45.1 : 43.7 : .204 : 3,760 : 2,750

h'o adjust value to amy desired Moisture content, add factor to be adjusted for each
1 percent Increase In moisture content; subtract factor from value to be adjusted for
each 1 percent decrease in mixture content. These factors take shrinkage or swelling
with moisture chsages, Into consideration. gIncludes blue ash, green ash, and white ash. 2rncludeu bigtooth aspen and quaking aspen. .Incudes American ela and slippery elm.
2lneludas grand fir, Pacific silver fir, and white fir. Includes mockernat hickory, pignut hickory,. sheagbark hickory, and sbellbark hickory. llncludes black mple and sugar maple. QIncludes red maple and silver aple. 2Iuclndes black oak, laurel oak, northern red oak, southern red oak, swamp red oak,
uatd oak, and vif-lo oak,
19Includes bar oak, post oak, evazp chestnut oak, and white oak.
lhncudesvirgin redwomod and seoond-grovth redwood.
L2Includss black spruce, red spruce, and white spruce.
"Incudesblack tupelo and water tupelo.

(Sheet 3 of 3)





The value given in column 5 of table 1 (actual board feet 15 percent
m.c.) multiplied by this adjustment factor, gives the weight of the dressed lumber. 'The adjustment for rough oversized lumber is made in
s similar f as hi on., that is., actual size divided by nominal size. In like man r constants for any dressed size may be worked out and the weight
per 1.000 board feet computed.

Column (6) is an example of the weight per 1,000 board feet of 1by 8-inch boards dressed to 25/32 inch in thickness and 7-1/2 inches in width for various species. It has been computed by multiplying the values in column 5 by the foregoing constant 0.7324.

PART 32. ROUND TDMERS

The weight per unit volume of green round timbers,, such a-S logs,
pulpwood., posts., poles, and piling., may be estimated by means of tables 2,, 3,, and 4. Table 2 gives the average specific gravity and moisture content of sapwood and heartwood of round timbers of various species in the green condition. Table 3 gives the percentage of sapwood. in round timbers for various thicknesses, and diameters. Table 4 gives the weight per cubic foot of green wood at various specific gravities and
moisture content values.

All three tables are necessary for estimating the weight per cubic foot of round timbers because in round timbers the proportions of sapwood and heartwood in the total volume often differ widely. Furthermore, the sapwood generally contains more water than the heartwood and both the sapwood and heartwood contain more moisture in the butt logs than in the top logs.

The following example illustrates how to determine the approximate weight per cubic foot of green round timber-using tables 2., 3., and 4:
Example:
Given a species, say, black tupelo. The average specific gravity
for the species is found from table 2 to be 0.46. The moisture content of the sapwood can be determined by actual measurement or estimated from
table 2 as 61 percent. The moisture content of the heartwood can be determined by actual measurement or estimated from table 2 as 50 percent.

Next measure the average diameter of the timber and average width
of sapwood. If the average diameter is, say, 10 inches and average sapwood thickness is 1-3/4 inches, then frcm table 3 the percentage of the volume of the round timber occupied by the salywood is found to be 3 percent. The percentage of the volume occupied by the heartwood wiLl therefore be, 100 percent minus 58 percent, or 42 percent.

Turning to table 4., and looking under a spec if ic gravity of 0. 40
for a sapwood moisture content of 61 percent, the weight per cubic foot is estimated to be half way between that given for moisture content values of 60 percent and 62 percent, or 46.2 pounds per cubic foot. Under the same specific gravity value and a moisture content of 50 percent the weight of the heartwood is found to be 43.1 pounds per cubic foot. (Moisture content values in the left column may be applied to
either sapwood or heartwood.)





Table 2.--Average moisture content and specific
gravity of green timbers

: Moisture content : Average Species :---------------------: specific
: Heartwood : Sapwood : gravit
: Percent : Percent :
Softwoods: : : :
Baldcypress : 121 : 171 : 0.42
Cedar, western red : 58 : 249 : .31
Douglas-fir (coast) : 37 : 115 : .45
Fir, grand : 91 : 136 : .37
Fir, white : 98 : 160 : .35
Hemlock, eastern : 97 : 119 : .38
Hemlock, western : 85 : 170 : .38
Larch, western : 54 : 119 : .50
Pine, loblolly : 33 : 110 : .47
Pine, lodgepole : 41 : 120 : .38
Pine, longleaf : 31 : 106 : .54
Pine, ponderosa : 40 : 148 : .38
Pine, eastern white :. ..........:......... : 34
Pine, western white : 62 : 148 : .6 Pine, red : 32 : 134 : .41
Pine, shortleaf : 32 : 122 : .46
Pine, sugar : ff e* :.121- : .35
Redwood (virgin) : 86 : 210 : .38
Spruce, EDgelmann : 51 : 173 : .32
Spruce, Sitka : 4 : 142 : .37
Hardwoods : : :
Ash, green :......... ..: 58 : .53
Ash, white : 46 : 44 : .55
Beech, American : 55 : 72 : .56
Birch, sweet : 75 : 70 : .60
Birch, yellow : 74 : 72 : .55
Chestnut, Anmerican : 120 :.........: .40 Elm, American : 95 : 92 : .46
Elm, cedar : 66 : 61 : .60
Hickory, water : 97 : 62 : .61
Maple, silver : 60 : 88 : .44
Maple, sugar : 65 : 72 : .56
Oak, black : 76 : 75 : .56
Oak, northern red : 80 : 69 : .56
Oak, southern red : 83 : 75 : .52
Oak, swamp red : 79 : 66 : .61
Oak, water : 81 : 81 : .56
Oak, white : 64 : 78 : .60
Oak, wilow : 82 : 74 : .56
Tqpelo, black : 7 5 : //5 6- : .46
Tupelo, water : 158 :.........: .46
Sweetgum : 79 : 137 : .44
Sycamore, Aerican : 114 : 130 : .46 Yellow-poplar : 83 : 106 : .38

Based on weight when oven ary and volume when green.







Find the weight in pounds per cubic foot of the round timber it
is necessary to multiply the weight of sapwood by the percentage of sapwood divided by 100. Similarly for heartwood. Their sum gives the weight of the round timber in pounds per cubic foot.

Thus: 46.2 x 58/100 = 26.8 pounds

43.1 x 42/100 = 18.1 pounds

Total weight of round timber per cubic foot = 26.8 + 18.1 = 44.9 pounds.






Table 3,--Sapwood, in percent of volume, of round timbers

S ood: Average diameter of timber in inches
th ickes s: ------- -
4 : 5 : 6 : 7 8 9 10 11 12 : 13 14 15 16
........ 4-S---..---... ..... -........ ..... ...... .............
Inches: : :
1/4 :23 :19 :16 : 14 : 12 : U : 10: 9: 8: 8: 7: 7: 6
1/2: : 464: 31 : 27 : 23 : 21 : 19 : 17 :16: 15: 14 :13 : 12
3/4 61 :51 :44 :38 : 34 : 31 : 28 : 25: 23 :22 : 20 :19 : 18 1 : :6: 56: 49 : 44 : 40 : 36 : 33 :31 :28 : 27: 25 : 23
1-1/4 : 86: 75:66: 59 : 53 : 48 : 44 : 40 37 : 35 : 13 : 31 : 29
1-1/2: 9: 84: 75: 67: 61: 56: 51:7 : 44 : 41 :15 36 :34
1-3/4: : 91: 83 : 75 : 68: 65 : 58 : 54: 50 : : : 44 : 41: 39
2 :100 :96 : 2:75 : 6 : 6 : :56 : 49: 46:44
2-i,4 : ... : 99 : 94 : 87 : 81 : 75 : 7o : 65 : 61 : 57 : 54 : 51 : 48 2-1/2 :..:100 : 97: 92: 86 : 80: 75 : 70 : 66 6 : 9: 56
231/4 : --- : --. : 99 : 95 : 90 : 85 : 80 : 75 : 71 : 67 : 63 : 60 : 57 3 1...... !00 : : 89: 8 : 79 : 75 :71 :67 :b4: 61
3-l/ : : : ... : 99: 96: 92 : 88 : 8 : 79 : 75 : 71 : 6 : 31/2 : ........... .100 : 98 : 95 : 91 : 87 : 83 : 79 : 75 : 72 : 68
3-3/4 : .. : : : ... : 100 : 97 : 94 : 90 : 86 : 82 : 78 : 7 : 7 4 : .... ........ .. : 100 : 99 : 96 : 93 : 89 : 85 : 2 : 78 : 75
1 l 9 5 : 9 8 8 --. T
4-1/2 : ...:...:...:...:...: 10O: 98 : 95 : 91 : 88 : : 81 : 78
4-3/4 : ..:...:..... : ....... ..100 : 98 96 : 95 : 90 : 7 : 81
5 :,...........:...:..:,...:0O : 99: 0,7 95: 2 :A89:3










ATLANTAP GEORGIA





U.S. DEPARTMENT
F UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


JAN 2 3 1262 09216 7880


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