The nailing of wood boxes

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
The nailing of wood boxes
Series Title:
Technical note ;
Physical Description:
4 p. : ; 21 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
Publisher:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Madison, Wis
Publication Date:
Edition:
Rev. June 1953.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Nails and spikes   ( lcsh )
Wooden boxes -- Design and construction   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available on the World Wide Web.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
Earlier editions (1919 & 1931) titled "The nailing of boxes".

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029720474
oclc - 60884810
Classification:
lcc - TA419 .U45 no. B-10 rev.1953
System ID:
AA00025002:00001

Full Text



TECHNICAL NOTE NU M BE R B-10
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREST SERVICE
FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY
MADISON 5. WISCONSIN REI~-June 1953



THE NAILING OF *00 BOXES


Teats of shipping boxes and observations _ockage i-hat, ha-4re failed_ in service, made by the Forest Products Laboratory, have shown that the most common defect inbox construction is inadequate nailing. Attempts to strengthen boxes by the use of thicker lumber without regard for- nailing often only waste material. The extra -wood may not be needed so much as a few more nails. As an aid in determining whether or not a box is adequately nailed, the Laboratory offers the following information.

Kind of Nails


Cement-coated nails have a holding power considerably greater than that of uncoated, and consequently 25 percent more nails of the same size are Needed when smooth nails are used in place of cement coated. During recent years new developments in nail design have resulted in the deformed shank nails such as the annular grooved, spiral grooved, and screw -shan~knail. These nails are not gene-rally used forbox construction but have more or less special applications.


Size of Nails


The penny size of the nail to be used is determined by the thickness of ends, sides, top, and bottom of the box, and the species of wood holding the point of the nail. The various tables on the following pages give the information necessary for such determination.


Spacing of Nails

Although the spacing designated in the nailing schedules may appear to be too clos-e, experience has shown conclusively that the number of nails specified does not cause excessive splitting of the ends, and that the nail ing is still the weakest part of the ordinary box.







Table l.--Established nailing schedule. Thickness of sides, top, and
bottom from 5/8 to 7/S that of the piece holding the nail
points.

Maximum size- of cement-coated cooler or sinker nails

Species : Thickness of ends or cleats to which sides, top, and bottom
of are nailed, in inches
wood : ------------------------------------------------------------holding : 3/S or less: 7/16: 1/2 : 9/16: 5/8 :11/16: 3,4 :13/16: 7/8
nails : Penny : Penny: Penny: Penny: Penny: Penny: Penny: Penny: Penny
-------- ----------------- -- 9- -- -Group I: 4 : :5:6 :7 : 7 : : : 9
Group 1: 4 : : 5: 5 : 6 : 6 : 7 7:S
Group 11: 3 :4 :4 : : : 6 : 6 : 7 7
Group IV 3 3 4 5 : 5 6 7


Spacing of cement-coated nails, in inches
-------------------------------------------------------Points of nail held in
Size of nail -- penny : End grain : Side grain
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -------3 : 1 ii,
4 : 1- : 1-I

5 1-1/2 : 1-3AI
6 : 1-34 2
7 : 2 :
S 2-1, 2-1/2
9 : 2-1/2 : 2-3,4


1
-Nails one size smaller than the size designated may be used, but should
be spaced 1/2 inch closer.







Table 2.--Modified nailing schedule. thiness of sides, top, and bottom less
than 5/8 that of the piece holding the nail points.
aximam size. of oment-coated cooler or sinker nails

Thickness of ends or cleats to which sides, top, and bottom
Species of t are nailed, in inches
wood I -- -- -- ----------- --------- --e----holding t 3/8 or loses 7/16: 1/2 : 9/16: 5/9 :11/16: 3/4 :13/16: 7/4
nails a Penny :Penny:Penny, Penny:Penny Penny:eynnyPeny: Penny

Group I 3 4 : 4 6 6 7 7 :
GrouplI : 3 3 : 4 5 6 6 t 7
Group II : 2 : 3 : 3 6 : 6
Group!'! : 2 :2 : 3 3 : 3 :t 5 6

psoing of oeaent-ocated nails, in inches

Points of nail held in -Size of nail -- penny : End grain : Side grain
------------------ --------- --------- -----------------
2 ; .1
3 : 1 : 1
J s 1 : 1
5 : 1 : 1-1/4
6 : 1-1/4 : 1-1/2
7 : 1-1/2 : 1-/
8: 1-3/4 : 2

Table 3.--Modified nailing schedule. Thickness of sides, top, and bottom more than 7/8 that of the piece holding the nail points.
)bximum size1.of cement-coated cooler or sinker nails

a thickness of ends or cleat. to which sides, top, and bottom
Species of : are nailed, in inches
wood :- - -- - -- - -- - -- - - -- -
holding a 3/8 or less s 7/16: 1/2 : 9/16: 5/8 :11/16: 3/4 :13/16: 7/$
nails : Penny a:enmy a Penny;a Penny:a Penny:a Penny:a Penny:a Penny; Penny
---- -- -- -- s- -- --- --s --e-- ------s-----: ---:a---- -- -s
Group I : 5 : 6 :s6:s7:s a : a9 :9: a10
Group! II : 5 : 5:a6:s6 : 7 : 7:$:5:a9
Group III : 4 :5p: 5 :6:s6 : 7:s7:8:$s
GroupIV : 14 4 : 5 :=5 :=5:a6 :6:s7:$

Spacing of oement-coated nails, in inches

:Points of nail held in -* Sise of nail --penny : End grain a Side grain


5 : 1-1/2 : 1-3/4
6 1-3/4 : 2
7 : 2 2-1/4
8a 2-1/4 a 2-1/4
9 : 2-1/2 1 2-3/4
10 : 2-3/4 : 3





DIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 09216 7039
Box Woods Grouped According to .Nai-Holding
Qualities and Other Properties


The wood commonly used in box construction may be divided, according to nail-holding ability and other desirable properties, into four groups. All the species within each group can be used interchangeably as far as the thickness of material and the size and spacing of nails are concerned.

Group I

Aspen (popple) Fir, alpine Pine, lodgepole
Baldcypress Fir, balsam Pine, ponderosa
Basswood Fir, California red Pine, red (Norway)
Buckeye Fir, grand Pine, sugar
Butternut Fir, noble Pine, white
Cedar Fir, silver Redwood
Chestnut Fir, white Spruce
Cottonwood Magnolia Willow
Cucumbertree Pine, jack Yellowpoplar


Group II Group III Group IV

Douglas -fir Ash, black Ash, white
Hemlock Ash, pumpkin Beech
Larch (tamarack) Blackgum Birch
Pine, southern yellow Elm, white Elm, rock
Maple, soft Hackberry
Sweetgum (red gum) Hickory
Sycamore Maple, hard
Tupelo, water Oak
Pecan











Z M 0876 F Agr tcu Iture-Mad Ison