Chemical composition of the carcasses of pigs

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Title:
Chemical composition of the carcasses of pigs
Series Title:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Division of chemistry. Bulletin
Physical Description:
80 p. : incl. tables. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Wiley, Harvey Washington, 1844-1930
Publisher:
Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Pork   ( lcsh )
Swine   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by H.W. Wiley ... With the collaboration of E.E. Ewell, W.H. Krug, T.C. Trescot, and others.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029706055
oclc - 28969102
lccn - agr09001089
Classification:
lcc - S584 .A3 no.53
System ID:
AA00024994:00001

Full Text















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BULLETIN No. 53.

U., S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.







CHEMICAL COMPOSITION



OF THE





CARCASSES OF PIGS.


BY



H. W. WILEY,
CHIEF OF THE DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.


WITH THE COLLABORATION OF


E. E. EWELL, W. H. KRUG, T. C. TRESCOT,
AND OTHERS.



















WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1898.




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013














http://archive.org/details/chempositOOwile












LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DriPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE?
DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY
Washington, D. C., June 27,1898.
Sum: I transmit herewith for your inspection and approval the maiiuscript containing the results of our investigations, undertaken at your suggestion, on the chemical composition of the carcasses of pigs grown at the agricultural experiment station of Iowa.
The scope of these investigations has extended so much farther than was at first anticipated as to render the results thereof worthy of publication as a separate bulletin of this Division. A study of the character of the data obtained will reveal at once their great importance, both from a scientific point of view and as a basis for economic studies. The carcasses, as receivect by us, represented practically only those portions of the whole carcass which are subjects of commerce. The blood, hair, entrails, heads, kidneys, and kidney fats of the animals were removed before they were transmitted to us. The data, therefore, do not represent the composition of the whole animal, but what, perhaps, is of equal importance, the composition of the animal as sent into commerce for food.
In view of the great importance of investigations of this kind, I would venture to suggest that when the facilities for work in the chemical laboratories are extended by the completion of the new building now in course of construction, it would be well for you to direct that further studies of this kind be undertaken. It would be advisable, if ossible, that in studies of this kind, the animals be slaughtered at or near the point where the chemical examination is to be made, or if this be not convenient, that a representative of the Chemical Division be present at the time of the slaughtering for the purpose of ascertaining the quantities of blood, hair, and excreta from the different animals and obtaining representative sarnples thereof for chemical examination.
I have the honor to be, respectfully,
IT. W. WILEY,
Chief of Division.
Hoy). JAmEs WILSON, Secretary.
3

















CONTE NTS.


Page.
Analytical work-------------------------------------------------------- 7
Inception of the investigation------------------------------------- 7
Correspondence ------------------------------------------------- 7
Breeds of hogs studied ---------------------------------------------- 8
Preparation of samples for analysis----------------------------------- 9
Samples of meat ---------------------------------- -------------- 9
Samples of skin ------------------------------------------------ 10
Samples of bones and marrow ----------------------------------- 11
Samples of spinal cord ------------------------------------------ 11
Samples of tendons --------------------------------------------- 11
Samples of hoofs ----------------------------------------------- 11
Methods of analysis used ------------------------------ ------------- 12
Results of the investigation --------------------------------------------- 13
Description of tables ----------------------------------------------- 13
Tables-------------------------------------------------------- 15-64
Discussion of the data ---------------------------------------------- 65
Composition of the same cuts from the different animals ------------- 65
Clear bellies------------------------------------------------ 66
Short-cut hams --------------------------------------------- 66
New York shoulders----------------------------------------- 67
Feet--------------------------------------------- ---------- 67
Spareribs--------------------------------------------------- 68
Ten derloins ------------------------------------------------ 68
Neck bones------------------------------------------------- 68
Backbones-------------------------------------------------- 68
Trimmings ------------------------------------------------- 69
Tails ..------------ --- ------------------ 69
Average of all cuts------------------------------------------ 69
Av-erage of bones---- ------ ------- ---- --------------------- 70
Average of marrow ------- -- -------------------------------- 71
Average of skin------------- --- w-------------- ----------- 71
Average of spinal cord-------------------------------------.... 73
Average of tendons--------------------------------.....-------73
Average of hoofs..........*-------------------------------------7:3
Loss of weight in transportation--------------------------------.... 74
Ratios of meat, bones, etc., to total weight------------------------.. 74
Percentag-es of the several constituents---------------------------- 75
Comparison of breeds----------------------------------..... 7
L ecithin ...... ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ .......Physiological imiportance-----------------------------------------.... 76
Discussion of the lecithin iin particular sampljes-----------------------.. 77
Lecithin in the mieat------------------------------------------.... 7 7
Lecithin in the bones-----------------------------------------..... 77
Lecithin i the inarrow----------------------------------------... 77
Lecithin in the skins------------------------------------------....... 77
Lecithin i the spinal cord..................----- ---- .------77
Lecithin in the tendons----------------------------------------..... 77






6

Concluding observations -- 78
Appendix ------------------------------------------------------------------- 79
Precipitation of proteins soluble in water by chlorin and bromin ---- 79
Nitrogen in meat extracts ------------------------------------------ 80
Problems solved by the bromin method ............................. 80
















CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CARCASSES OF PIGS.



ANALYTICAL WORK.

INCEPTION OF THE INVESTIGATION.

Following instructions received from the Secretary of Agriculture, the Division of Chemistry, in November, 1897, undertook a study of the chemical composition of the carcasses of pigs. These pigs were grown at the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station under standard conditions of diet, and a comparison of their carcasses reveals, therefore, the influence of breed and heredity on the character of the meat. In the following correspondence will be found the data connected with the history of the animals before they were delivered to the Division of Chemistry.
CORRESPONDENCE.

EXPERIMENT STATION, IOWA AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, Ames, Iowa, October 8, 1897.
My DEAR SIR: We have, as you are aware, a very interesting and instructive experiment nearing completion, in which we have grown carefully selected representatives of six of the leading breeds of hogs since birth in lots of ten each. These pigs are now weighing nearly 200 pounds, and will be forwarded to market for the test in determining the relative market value and the results in slaughtering and on the block, and the meat will be carefully compared and rated by experts. This experiment includes the Poland China, Berkshire, Duroc Jersey, Chester White, Tamwortb, and. Yorkshire. It has occurred to us that a careful and exhaustive chemical analysis of representative carcasses selected froiu each lot after slaughtering would be a valuable feature of this investigation, and I write to know if the Department of Agriculture can not cooperate with us in this work. We will gladly furnish you such material as may be needed and in any form desired. I will be glad to hear from you in reference to this point, and trusting that such arrangements can be made, I am,
Very truly, yours,
C. F. CURriss.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.


EXPERIMENT STATION, IOWA AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, Ames, Iowa, October 29, 1897.
My DEAR Mr. WILSON: Your esteemed favor of the 26th instant is at hand and I note what you say about cooperation of the Department with us in our hog-feeding experiments. The final weighing of the pigs will be taken Monday, and they will arrive in Chicago Tuesday morning. I have arranged to place them on exhibition
7






8

in the Coliseum Building during the fat-stock show, and will take them to the stock yards for slaughter and block tests immediately following. After the carcasses have been cooled down I will have a committee of the expert meat dealers select one or two representative carcasses from each lot and forward to Dr. Wiley for investigation. Probably it will be a week or ten days before the carcasses reach Washington.
Very truly, yours,
C. F. CURTISS.
Hion. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D). G.


EXPERIMENT STATION, IOWA AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, Ames, Iowa, Norember 13, 2897.
DEAR SIR: Your valued favor of the 3d instant came to hand while I was in Chicago having the slaughter test made of the pigs used in our experiments. Owing to the machinery used in the packing house where the hogs were killed, it was not practicable to obtain the weight of the hair, and the blood could not be collected and weighed without considerable difficulty. I had taken this matter up with Swift & Co. before receiving your letter, but was obliged, under the circumstances, to omit these items. The weight of the intestines and other internal organs was obtained. I returned this morning from superintending the block test yesterday, and have had a good representative carcass from each lot selected and cut according to the prevailing method of cutting pork for the American market, and each piece weighed amlnd properly tagged, giving commercial names. I think, however, that the names are appended only to one set of cuts, but you will be able to apply these names to corresponding cuts of the other carcasses. I have directed Swift & Co. to forward this material to you, including all scraps and trimmings made in cutting, and to deliver it to you at their earliest convenienitce. They stated that they would probably have one of their refrigerator cars leaving for Washington to-day, and that they would notify you upon its arrival at their house in Washington and deliver the pork upon your order.
Very truly, yours,
C. F. CURTISS.
Dr. II. W. W:ILEY,,
Chief of Dirision of Chemistry, Washington, I). C.


BREEDS OF IIOAS STUDIED.

In accordance with the plan outlined in the above letters, on November 16, 1897, Swift & Co., of Chicago, shipped to the Department of Agriculture the carcasses of eight pigs which had been slaughtered under the direction of Profe'ssor Curtiss. These pigs were of the following breeds, each animal being designated by a number, which is used for its identification throughout the following pages:
1, Berkshire; 2, Tamworth; 3, Chester White; 4, Poland China; 5, )uro: Jersey; 6, l)uroc Jersey; 7, l)uroc Jersey; 8, Yorkshire.
On the receipt of the animals in Washington, they were immediately placed in cold storage, where they were kept until they were removed one by one tor the purpose of dissecting and preparing the samples for analysis.

The expert labor of assistants in the meat markets of Washington was secured for the purpose of properly dissecting the animals and




9

separating each portion as carefully as possible from the others. The greatest care was exercised in this preliminary work, inasmuch as the value of the analytical data rests largely on the proper preparation of the materials for examination.

PREPARATION OF SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS.
The methods of preliminary treatment, together with the methods of chemical analysis employed, are detailed in the following pages. Before leaving Chicago each animal was cut up into the following cuts, the head, leaf lard, and kidneys being retained in Chicago:
Two American clear backs; two clear bellies; two short-cut hams; two New York shoulders; four feet; spare ribs; tenderloins; neck bones; back bones; trimmings, fat and lean; tail.
These cuts were all weighed on leaving Chicago, and again in Washington just preceding their analysis. All of these weights appear in the accompanying tables, pages 15 to 64. The weighings in Washington were made on a large counter scale for the larger cuts, and on a torsion balance in the case of the smaller cuts. The cuts were then separated into the following parts: Meat (including both fat and lean), bones. marrow, skin, spinal cord, tendons, and hoofs.
Each of the parts, except the meit, was carefully weighed, and the weight of the meat obtained by subtracting the sum of the other weights from the total weight of the cut before cutting up.
SAMPLES OF MEAT.
The meat obtained from all of the cuts of the same kind in each animal was passed through a meat chopper two or more times in order to bring the sample into a finely divided condition. A weighed portion was then placed in a weighed casserole or evaporating dish. A glass rod was also weighed with the casserole. In the case of small samples, as the tenderloins, the entire quantity was taken; in the case of the larger cuts, from 400 to 600 grams of the fresh material were taken for the 1)reparation of the air-dried sample. After the removal of these portions for the preparation of the air-dried sample, duplicate portions of 5 grams each were weighed for the direct d(letermination of water and fat. These small samples were placed in aluminum dishes and dried in vacuo for six hours at 105 degrees. The residues were extracted for sixteen hours with ether, and the extracts dried in an air bath at 100 degrees. These direct determinations of fat and water were used as a check on the data obtained in the preparation of the air-dry samples. The larger portions, which had been weighed out as described above for the preparation of the air-dried samples, were placed in a steam oven at a temperature of 100 degrees or slightly more and heated until the fat had thoroughly separated(l, when the fat was poured off into a flask, care being taken not to pour with it any of the aqueous portion of the meat which formed a layer underneath the fat. After





10

as much fat hbad been poured off as was possible, the drying was continued in the steam oven until the weight had become approximately constant. As there was still too much fat contained in the samples to permit of their being powdered, it was necessary to extract them with ether before proceeding with the grinding. The extraction with ether was done in the following way.
Large funnels were placed in hot-water jackets, and in the funnels were placed filters of parchmentized paper. The smooth surface of this paper greatly facilitated the removal of the insoluble residue of the sample. The portion of fat from each sample, which had been poured off as above described, was first passed through this filter and collected in a weighed flask and its weight taken. The remainder of the sample was then treated with ether and brought on to the filter and the washing with ether continued until the fat was sufficiently removed for the sample to be easily pulverized and brought into proper conditioni for subsequent analytical operations. The ether solution of the fiat was also received in a weighed flask. The ether was removed by distillation and the residue heated to constant weight and weighed. There was considerable annoyance from the breaking of the flasks containing the fat while on the steam bath. When there was an evident loss of fat, the fat determinations were recorded as lost. When the flask wvas discovered with only a slight crack, the results are marked in the following tables with a (f) mark. The portion of the meat on the filter was returned to the dish which had previously contained it, andl was again dried to approximately constant weight and then left exposed to the air for at least twenty-four hours in order to establish an equilibrium of its moisture content. The weight of the sample was then taken and recorded as the air-dry weight of the material.
The difference obtained by subtracting the sum of the weights of the air-dry material, fat obtained by pouring, and fat obtained by ether extraction from the original weight of the sampl)le taken was recorded as the weight of water removed in the preparation of the sample. From these data were calculated:
Percentage of water removed in the preparation of the sample;
Percentage of fat removed in the preparation of the sample; and
Percentage of air-dry sampl)le obtained.
All three of these were expressed in percentages of the original material.
The air-dry samples were then ground, so as to pass a sieve having circular operations milhmeter in diameter, and placed in closely stop)pered bottles.
SAMPLES OF SKIN.
The portions of skin obtained from each cut were united to make one sample of skin for the entire animal. The united sample of skin from each-pig was passed through the meat chopper, and the finely divided and thoroughly mixed sample was treated in exactly the same way as





11

described above for the samples of meat. The samples of meat from each cut were kept separate, however, while only one sample of skin was prepared for each animal.
SAMPLES OF BONES AND OF MARROW.
The bones from each cut were weighed and were united to make one sample of bones from each animal. They were then chopped up into bits about 1 inch long and the marrow removed. The marrow was weighed in a tared dish and treated as samples of meat, except that no determinations of moisture and fat were made in the original material. The fragments of the bones after the removal of the marrow were thoroughly mixed, and about half the total quantity was weighed in a tared dish and dried to approximately constant weight in a large agate-ware pan. After standing for from twenty-four to forty-eight hours exposed to the air, the weight was again taken and recorded as the weight of air-dried bones equivalent to the portion of fresh bones taken for the drying. The sample thus obtained was passed through a bone cutter, such as is used for poultry food, and from this, 500-gramii portions were weighed and treated with petroleum ether by decantation for the removal of the fat. The solutions of fat were very difficult of filtration, hence were allowed to stand for some time for the almost complete subsidence of the solid matter contained in them, when they were carefully siphoned off and evaporated and the weight of the fat contained in them determined. The residues were again dried and exposed to the air for the establishment of the equilibrium of moisture content, and again weighed, the weight obtained being recorded as the weight of the air-dry, extracted bones. The samples thus obtained were submitted to analysis, and the determinations made are recorded below, all percentages being calculated back to the original material by use of the data obtained in the preparation of the sample.
SAMPLES OF SPINAL CORD.
The spinal cord was carefully separated from the backbones and neck bones, and the material thus obtained united to make one sample of spinal cord for each animal. This sample was prepared for analysis in the manner described for meats, but it was not practicable to nmake a direct determination of fat and moisture in the original sample.
SAMPLES OF TENDONS.
It was not practicable to separate the tendons from other cuts of the animal than the feet and legs, that is, the portion sent to the laboratory under the name ot "feet." The tendons were treated in the same manner as the spinal cord.
SAMPLES OF HOOFS.
The hoofs were separated and weighed. In some cases some of the hoofs had been removed in the process of slaughtering and dressing






12

tlie animal. Tii these cases the whole, weight of boofs was corrected for the defi( Ielley by tisiillo. the average weight of one hoof for the weight ot' each ot'tbe remaiiiiiig hoot's. The hoofis were weighed and dried in the steam oven aiid then left to asstime their air-dry content of Moisture. They were then ground ,And stibmitted to analysis as deseribe(l below for the other parts.

METITODS OF ANALYSIS VSED.

Oil the samples tims prepared the following deterniiiiatiotis were

Water, fat, asli, total nitrocren, nitrouren insoluble ill hot water, iiitm ,"CII soliible in hot water Wit precipitated by bromin, and lecit1iin.
ll'()r tile determinationn Of 7N1O1STURi,,, ai-A FAT 2-grain portions were (11-le(I for six llotils fit a vactialli oven f'(.-)r tile determination of water, and the resi(Ines were extracted for sixteen hours with ether for deterillimatioll ot, the fat.
V01- TOTAL NITROGET duplicate pdrtioiis of one-half grain of the air(Iried sample, Nvere, treateol by the (3ummio- method.
F'01' INS-OLUBLE PROTEIP NITROGEN 1-o-ram portimis were washed NvItli etlier by (lecantation, iisitio, abotit, 50 to 100 C. C. of etiler for each sample,.and (lecanting the ether t1irotio-li filters wliicli were afterward* 1I.Sed to receive the portimis ol'the sample imsohible iii ]lot water. After allowiiig the (Itlier to eNaporafe the saml)les Nvere next treate(l witil. hot water this washino- beiiicralso by decantatioii, and the total -amount of water used bei n (r 300 to 400 c. c., tile resAiies bein (T brought on the filtcr Nvitli tile last portion ofthe water. The filters and residues were divii treated by the Guniihig metliod.
filtnites h-mii tile insoltible, portions of' the meat were received ill Kridalil tl:isks and were iised fOr tile detCrillill,10011 Ot'flIeNITROGEN PRECIPITATEA) BY BROMIN (GELATINoms).' Mteracidulation witli two or three (Inq)s (& str(mg, lipirocloric aci(l, ahmit 2) c. e. of broniiii were addc(l an(l the flasks Nigormisly sliaken. It' tills t1mantity ()f broiniii was all hikeii up more, was ambled aml the sh-aking rel)e.ited until a ("lobille (d abolit I c. (.,. (d brolnill was left Ill tile t1ask aml the liquid '11mve it, was diorotip-lily smitrated with brmnin. Tile mixttire was Illell alltmed to stalld Illitil the llext 11mrilill() Wilell the sill)erilatallt 11(jum. Nv:ls I)assed till-oligji a filter and die resithie ill the flask Nvasheol
(I('( :1111atioll, tile g1t)bIlle ()I' 1111(liss()lved hrmllill ill tile flask sattirating 11w Nvater xvitli brmnin, so I liat, it, Nv:ts millecessary to use
bromill water fi)]. tile Nva"llillur. 'I'lle filter colitainillo. tile resi(Ille was 1,114111 1-vtIll-Iled to t'llc saille 11ask ill NvIiic-li the l)recIj)itatioii had taken place .111d I I-eated hY the Gmillilig Illetilml.
Tile pel-cent"I'4v ()t* 111tn)(rVII ill 1AW fifflil of' V1,ES11 BASES WltS found In, ""1110'ract ing tile still ()I* tile litilliber's relweselithig illsollible 1.1itrogen

Sco Appendix, pagc 79.






13

and nitrogen precipitated by bromin from the number representing t percentage of total nitrogen. The percentage of flesh bases was oaed by multiplying the percentage of nitrogen in that form by
3.12. For the other forms of nitrogen, the tctor 6.25 was used. For the determination of LECITHIN,' 20 grams of the material were allowed to stand for twenty-four hours at from 350 to 400 C. with 200 c. c. of a mixture of equal parts of ether and 95 per cent alcohol. The material was then filtered and the residue extracted repeatedly with the same solvent. The filtrate and washings were evaporated to dryness on the water bath in a platinum dish. The residue was fused with mixed carbonates (equal parts of sodium and potassium carbonates). A little potassium nitrate -was added during the fusion. The flux was dissolved in hot water, filtered, and the phosphoric acid determined in the filtrate by the Kilgore-Pemberton volumetric method. The lecithin was calculated as distearyl lecithin, which contains 8.789 per cent P205.

RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATION.

DESCRIPTION OF TABLES.
The results of this work are presented in the accompanying tables. The first fifty-six tables are in seven groups. Each group gives in a separate table data for each of the eight pigs used. Table 1 shows the weights of the whole cuts as obtained in Chicago and Washington, results of the direct determination of water and tat in the meat from each cut, and data in regard to the preparation of the air-dry sample of the meat from each cut. Tables 2 and 3 show the weights of meat, bones, skin, etc., obtained from each cut, the total for the whole animal, and also the percentages of meat, bones, skin, etc., in each animal. These sheets also contain the data in regard to the preparation of the sample of bones, marrow, skin, spinal cord, tendons, and hoofs. Tables 4 and 5 show all the analytical data, including the data actually obtained on the air-dry material, and also the corresponding data expressed in terms of the original material. In Table 6 the analytical data have been collected in condensed firm for convenience of reference.
In Table 7 are presented the weights of water, fat, nitrogenous sub- stances, lecithin and ash in the meat of each entire animal, and also the
weights. and average percentages of each of these substances for the entire animal, including all its parts-meat, bon es, ski, Ietc. These data were obtained by multiplying the weight of the meat from each cut by the percentage of each one of the constituents, finding the total, and dividing by the number representing the total weight of the meat of the entire animal. The same method was employed for the bones, marrow,
Principles and Practice of Agriculttral Analysis, Vol. III, p. 430.






14

skin, etc. Thus there were obtained the total weight of water for each animal, total weight of fat, etc. These total weights-, divided by the weight of the entire animal, gave the average percentages of the various constituents of the entire animal.
In Tables 8 A to 8 K, have been placed the data which show the chemical composition of the meat of each cut of each pig.
In Table 9 has been placed the average composition of the meat of each aniimal.
Table 10 contains similar data for the bones of each animal, Table 11 for the marrow, Table 12 for the skin, Table 13 for the spinal cord, Table 14 for the tendons, and Table 15 for the hoofs. In Table 16 will be found a r'sum, of the weights of each cut, and also of each entire animal, as found in Chicago and found in Washington, the results being stated in both grams and pounds.
Table 17 shows the percentages of each of the parts for each animal, stated in percentages of the entire dressed animal, less the head, leaf lard, and kidneys.
Table 18 shows the proportion of water, fat, nitrogenous substances, lecithin and ash in each of these animals, stated in percentages of the entire dressed animal, less the head, leaf lard, and kidneys.
There is one obvious omission in the data presented in the tabulation just described. The absence of any information in regard to the manner of the feeding of the pigs has made it impossible to group them properly and make proper averages of the percentages of the various constituents in the animals which have received the same rations and other treatment previous to their slaughter. This missing data will be found in the forthcoming full report of Professor Curtiss, of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Statibn, which should be consulted with the data herewith submitted.











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TABLE No. 4.-Ana

PIG No. 1.-BERKSHIRE.

Per cent air-dry material.

-Nitrogen.



Nanes of cuts.





d 0


16667 2 American backs................. 13. 16 3.14 20. 55 11. 32 8.51, 0.62 2.19 1.16 3.89

16069 2 lear bellies ...................... 14.33 3.14 21.59 11.15 7.78 0.65 2.72 0.99 3.85

16671 2 short-cut hanis .................. 22.95 4.14 15.43 11.85 9.77 0.48 1.60 1.10 4.18
17165 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 1(.58 ...... ...... 0.22...... ...... 2.43 ......


16673 2 New York shoulders ............ 17. 65 2.31 2.10 13.76 10.22 0.73 2.81 0.85 5.03

16675 4 fhet.............................. 25.10 0.46 6.32 13.73' 7.75 3.00 2.98 0.75 3.28
17174 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 15. 20...... ...... 0.13 ...... 2.68......


16677 Spareribs ......................... 20.81 3.66 8.23 13.03 10.31 0.89 1.83 1.68 4.80

101679 Tendherloins....................... 27. 11 5.14 9.47 12.50 10.95 0.28 1.27 1.82 4.30

16680 Neck bones ....................... 20.02 7.23 10.93 12.25 9.97 0.59 1.69 1.33 4.02
17159 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 18.69 ...... ...... 0. 21.... .... 2.17 ......


16682 Bakhones ........................ 22.24 3. 36 6. 88 13. 03 10. 36 0.62 2.05 1.20 5.59

16684 Trimmings........................ 9.72 3.69 8.34 13 09 8.54 1.11 3.44 1.16 4.23

186 Tail............................... 8.73 4.30 6.97 13.45 10.56 0.98 1.91 1.98 4.41


PIG No. 2.-TAMWORTH.


16696 2 American clear backs............ 10.48 3.46 12.22 12.61 8.74 1.08 2.79 1.23 4.06

16698 2 Am rican clear bellies........... 12.12 4.27 14.91 12.44 9.19 0.86 2.39 1.23 3.90

I670o 2 short-cut haus ...................... 19. 99 5. 38 8.79 12.92 10.41 0.50 2.01 1. 11 4.22

161702 2 New York shoulers.............20.36 3. 54 19.93 11.44 8. 80 0.70 1.88 1.20 3.86
17242 (Fat extrcte wili-s ...h...... 1,0.....0. 1.. 0.87
167114 4 ft'et.............................. 23.85 6.24 4.59 14. 04' 7.$j 2.25 3.98 1.57 3.60
1701 19 ( Fut (,\Itra ted W ith (,her) ......... 15.50 ...... ...... p.141...... .... .. 0 87 ......


10i1 Sparerhs ......................... 19.67 5,49 8.51 12.75 9.38 1.06 2.31 1.27 4.75

1670$ Tend'rloin .................... 24.12 4.74 8.38 12.92 11.37 0.37 1.18 1.46 4.40
17131 F t extrue'ld with ether) ........ 11. 49 ..... ...... o.22 ...... ..... ...... 2.O8......


1071! Neck bones ............ 20.95 5,44 6.40 13.36 10.24 0.98 2.14 1.24 4.88
171 1t extracted whethere. .... 19.4..... ...... 0. 14............ 2.91.








35


lytical data for meats.

PIG No. 1.-BERKSHIRE.

Per cent original material.

Water. Fat. Nitrogen. Nitrogenous substances.







o 984
iP













'31. 86 0. 41 32. 27 54. 98, 2. 71 57. 69 0. 15' 1. 49 1. 121 0. 08 0. 29 7. 00 0. 50 0. 91 8. 41, 0. 51f984

86. 82 0. 45 37. 27 48. 84 3. 09 51. 93, 0. 141 1. 60 1. 12 0. 09 0. 39 7. 00 0. 56 1. 22 8. 78 0. 55!19-1

60. 47 0. 95 61. 42 16. 58 3. 54 20. 121 0. 25 2. 72' 2. 24 0. 11 0. 37 14. 00 0. 69 1. 15, 15. 84 0.96f092
...... ..... ...... ...... ..... ...... 0.40 0.041 ...... ..... .. . . .....--- - . .
0.
iiiiii_













1 8.4199.46
53.64 0.41 54.04 28.71 0. 37 29.08 0.15 2 43 1. 80 0.13 0.50 11.25 0. 81 1.56 13.62 0. 8
5.66 1. 62 61.28 15. 24 1. 59 16. 83 0.20 3.45 1.95 0.75 0.75 12.19 4.69 2. 3 19.22 0.82
98. 14



.....- .. ..-...--.. ...... 0.41 0.02 ...... ..... ..... ...... ..... ..... ........... ......

0.61
51.78 0.76 52.54 27.39 1.71 29.10 0.35 2.71 2.15 0.18 0.38 13.44 1.13 1.56 115. 76 1. 00
S97.657
,66.6 1. 39 68.206 65. 21 2.57 8. 78 0.49 3.39 1.97 0. 0.8 .34 129.56 0. 50 1.06 20.12 1. 17 9
98.13

0.6197.14O


54.25 1.45' 55.70 25.73 2.19 27.92 0. 27 2.45 1.99 0.12 0. 34 12. 44 0. 75 1.06 14. 25 0.81 9
9 98.68
............ ...... ...... ..... ...... 0.41 0.04 ...... ..... ..... ...... ------...... .......

0.68
52.08 0.75 52.83 25.69 1.53 27.22 0.26 2.90 2.30 0.14 0.46 14. 38 0.87 1.44 16. 69 1.974 9. 98

29.11 0.36 29.47 61.17 0. 81 61.98 0.11 1.27 0. 83 0. 11 0.33 5.19 0. 69 1.03 6. 91 0.41 99.0
3 1 98. 77
23. 64 0.38 24.02 67.62 0.61 68.23 0.17 1.17 0.92 0.09 0.16 5.75 0.56 0.50 6.81 0.39 100.44
99.45


PIG No. 2.-TAMWORTH.


41.48 0.36 41. 84 48.04 1. 28 49. 32 0.13 1.32 0.92 0. 11 0.29 5.75 0.69 0. 91 7.35 0.43
0.313 09 .10.9 57 06 .3 98.94
















33.17 0.52 33.69 54.71 1. 81 56.52 0.15 1.51 1.12 0. 10 0.29 7.00 0.63 0. 91 8. 54 0. 47 N1, 81
6 [ 98.490














1.08 ...... ....... 1.76 ...... 0.22 2.58 2.08 0.10 0.40 13.00 11.63 1.25 14.88 0.84 98.10

0.72............ 4.06...... 0.24 2.33 1.80 0.14 0.38 11.25 0.87 1.19 13.31 0.79 7

58. 309 1.49 59.88 17.76 1.09 18.85 0.37 3. 35 1. 86 0.54 0. 95 11.63 3.38 2. 96 17.97 0.86 .
...... ..... ...... ...... ..... 0.14 0.03 ............... ........ .................. .....

0.51
48.12 1.08 49.20 32.21 1.67 33. 88 0.25 2.51 1.85 0.21 0.45 11. 56 1.31 1.40 14.27 0. 9834.57
k 98. 28
64.38 1.14 65. 52 11.49 2.02 13.51 0.35 3.12 2. 74 0. 09 0.29 17. 13 0.56 0.91 18. 60 1. 97.27

0.. 9891
272 0.56 0.0...............30 10 1.8.87 .1.6.. 24.....















54.8 1.14 55.52 24. 67 1. 3 26. 03 0.26 2.80 2.14 0.21 0.45 13. 38 1.31 1.40 16. 09 1. 9802
...... ..... .6. 0.57 0.03 ...... ..... ..... ...... .......... ...... ..... 0......
9. 83

In this column the totals obtained by both the direct and the indirect determination of water and fat are given. The upper number in each cast was obtained by use of the results of direct deIermn tions of these constituents; for thw lower number in each cast the results obtained during the prepatr. ation of the sample, and in the analysis of the dry-air sample, were used. Lecithin is not inlded in the totals given in this table.








36


TABLE NO. 4.-Atla

PIG No. 2.-TAMWORTH1-Continued.

Per cent air-dry material.

Nitrogen.



Names of cits.





oC



16711 Backbones .......................20. 9 6. 59 36 12.95 10.44 0.68 1.83 1. 19 5. 25

16713 T riminin........................ 10. 53 4.83 14.61 12.41 8.08 1.24 3.09 0.98 4.05

16715 Tail............................... 9.53 4.83 20.15 10.90 7.13 1.15 2.62 1.09 3.15


PIG No. :3.-CHESTER WHITE.


Ii660 2 Amerinn dlear hacks.10.09 2.18 22.71 10. 17 7.12 0.73 2.32 1.23 3.47

16611 2 American clear bellies .......... .9.81 2. 23 8.75 13. 20 8.82 1.01 3. 37 0.85 4.31

11X13 2 short-cut harns ................. 24. 30 2. 65 32. 10 10. 34 7.34 0.42 2.58 1.42 3. 28

16615 2 New York shoulders............ 17.75 9.86 12.01 11.69 8.50 0.78 2.41 1.57 4.01

16617 4 feet ............................. 20.71 4.00 3.32 14.21 7.64 4.92 1.65 0.93 4.08

1661. Spareribs......................... 26.69 2.95 26. 47 10.67 8.17 0.52 1. 98 1.04 3. 45

16621 Tenderloins....................... 25.88 3.89 16.65 11.88 10.32 0.27 1.29 1.55 4.01

16622 Neck hones...................... 19. 30 2. 79 9. 24 12. 89 10. 11 0.59 2. 19 1.28 4.51

16624 Backhones........................ 19. 39 1.88 5.53 13.73 11.05 0.48 2.20 1. 19 5. 43

16626 TrimInings........................ 7.20 3.87 13.38 11.99 7.16 1.15 3.68 0.99 4.29

16628 Tail ............................... 5. 65 3, 78 9. 14 13. 29 8. 42 1.25 3. 62 1. 33 4.19


PIG N. 4.-POLAN) CHINA.


16638 2 American clear hacks ........... 9.8 3. 21 16. 05 12. 10 8.50 0.93 2.67 ...... 3.89

16641) 2 A muerican *let r hellies........... 9. 43 4. 26 5.34 13. 23 8. 14 1.09 4.00 1.31 4.53

1664 2 ,ho4prt-cnt hae ................. 17.00 4.79 6.381 13.23 10.07 0.75 2.41 1.33 4.48
IGGI1 2 Ncvw York shoulders ............ ......15.28 8.00 11.34 8.112 068 2.04 1.45 4.07
17152 (Fat extracted with ether) a ..... ....... 0.09 .................. 2. 03......

166416 4 Ieet .... ....................... 19.57 7.29 0.59 14.01 .02 3.42 1.57 0.77 4.64

u4 p 4reribs ..................... 23.03 4.83 16.65 11.71 6.99 0.42 4.301 1.33 4.11

I16650 Tenderlains ....................... 26.8 5.88 13.40 11.8. 10.53 0.41 0.91 1.45 4.22

111651....... .............. 19. :7 5. 16 8. 89 12.27 8. 46 0.89 4. 71
171 3 (Fat e tra cd w ith other) ... .... 20.7 ... ...... 0.24 ........... ...... 1.30


Iffi3 lackhones ................... 21.2.. 3.68 12.07 12.42 9.77 0.62 2.03 1.21 4.95

l 'I.5 TrinII ingI;s....................... 8.05 3.54 21.29 10.98 7.39 0.87 2.72 0.80 3.91

16657 Tail .............................. 6.41 5.48 5.21 13.23 8.61 1.32 3.30 1.1 90


a Fat extracl lost.







37


lytical data for meats-Continued.

PIG No. 2.-TAMWORTH-Continued.

Per cent original material.

ater. Fat. Nitrogen. Nitrogenous substances.




aa




.97.66 49.68 1.38 51. 06 2.34 1.33 30. 67 0.25 2. 72 2.19 0.14 0.39 13.69 0.87 1.22 15.78 1.10 97. 66
98.61
101.30
28.34 0.51 28.85 61. 13 1.54 62.67 0.10 1.31 0. 85 0. 13 0.33 5. 31 0. 81 1.03 7. 15 0. 43 99. 10

25. 31 0.46 25.77 65.16 1.92 67.08 0.10 1.04 0.68 0.11 0.25 4.25 0.69 0. 785.72 0.30
98.87


PIG No. 3.-CHESTER WHITE.


71.88 0.22 72.10 18. 02 2.29 20.31 0.12 1.03 0.72 0.07 0.24 4.50 0.44 0.75 5.69 0.35 2
98.45
30.32 0.22 30.54 59.87 0.86 60.730.08 1.30 0.87 0.10 0.33 5.440.631.037.100.42 99.
98.79
'. 97.93
52.51 0.64 53.15 23.19 7.80 30.99 0.35 2.51 1.78 0.10 0.63 11.13 0.63 1.97 13.73 0. 80 7
98. 67
...... 1.75 ............ 2.13 ...... 0.28 2.08 1.51 0.14 0.43 9.44 0.87 1.34 11.65 0.71 99.14

0. 83 ...... ...... 9 ...... 0.19 2.94 1.58 1.02 0.34 9.88 6.38 1.06 17.32 0.84 .95

52.44 0.79 53.23 20. 87 7.06 27.93 0.28 2.85 2.18 0.14 0.53 13.63 0.87 1.65 16.15 0.92 97.67
9T 98.2
64.96 1.01 65.97 9.16 4.31 13.47 0.40 3.07 2.67 0.07 0.33 16.69 0.44 1.03 181 1.06 "
98. 6
52.96 0.54 53.50 27.74 1.78 29. 52 0. 25 2. 49 1. 95 0.12 0. 42 12.19 0. 73 1.31 14. 23 0. 87 6.35
198. 14
50.03 0.36 50.39 30.58 1.07 31.65 0.23 2.66 2.14 0.09 0.43 13.38 0.56 1.34 15.28 1.05 98:17
22, 21 0.28 22.49 70.59 0.96 71.55 0.07 0.87 0.52 0.08 0. 27 3.25 0.50 0. 84 4. 59 0.31 98.1
1.98. 94
...... 0.21............ 0.52...... 0.08 0.75 0.48 0.07 0.20 3.00 0.44 0.62 4.06 0.24 99.65


PIG No. 4.-POLAND CHINA.


29. 22 0.31 29.53 61.10 1. 55 62.651...... 1.17 0.82 0.01 0.26 5. 13 0. 56 0. 81 6.So 0 38 !9.
.....99. 06
30.38 0.40 30. 78 60. 19 0.50 60. 69 0.12 1.25 0.77 0. 10 0. 38 4.81 0. 63 1.19 6.63 0.43 96,93
t98. 53
53.97 0.81 54.78 29.03 1.09 30.12 0.23 2.25 1.71 0. 13 0.41 10.69 0.81 1.28 12.78 0.76 98. o00
t 98. 44
.....51.72 .......... 33.74 0.30 1.65 1.25 0.10 0.30 7.81 0.63 0.94 .38 0. 9 95 43


49.23 1.43 50. 66 31720 0.12 31.32 0.15 2.74 1.76 0.67 0.31 11.00 4. 19 0.97 16.16 0.91 {

55. 53 1.11 56.64 22.44 3. 8:3 26.27 0. 31 2.70 161 0. 10 0. 99 1I.06 0. 3. 13. 8 0. 97.23
97. 64
65. 85 1.58 67.43 7.36 3. 59 10.95 0.39 3. 18 2.82 0.11 0.25 17. 6: 0.69 t. 78 19. 10 1. 13
98.61
54.08 1.15 55.23 26. 55 1.72 28. 27 0.17 2.38 1. 64 0.18 0.56 10.25 1.13 1.75 13.13 0.91
97. 5
........ .................0.28 0.05 .......... ...... ..... ......

0.45
48.65 0,78 49.43 30.14 2.56 32.70 0.27 2.603 2.07 0.13 0.43 12.94 0. 81 1.34 15.09 1.05 98.2
98.27
22.14 0. 29 22.43 69.81 1.71 71.52 0. 06 0. 88 0. 59 0. 07 0.22 3. 69 0. 44 0. 69 4. 82 0.32

16.15 0.35 16.50 77.44 0.33 77.77 0.08 0.85 0.55 0.09 0. 21 3. 44 0. 56 .6 6 4. 66 0. 31 1 100.;6







38


TABLE NO. 4.-Ala

PIG No. 5.-DUROC JERSEY.

Per cent air-dry material.


Nitrogen.



Names of cuts.
-. 0








16579 2 American clear backs-........ 9. 37 9. 69 24.48 10.47 6.76 0. 81 2.90 0.82 3.14

16581 2 clear bellies....-........-...-... 11.71 3.05 28.08 10.39 6.84 0.80 2.75 0.83 3.57

165i3: 2 abort-cut hanis.................. 21.39 3.48 32.93 7.75 6.25 0.73 0.77 0.16 3.34

16585 2 New York shoulders............ ........3.98 4.39 13.82 10.11 0.83 2.88 0.84 4.57

1(587 4 feet ............................. 23.36 5.21 7.88 12.47 6.97 1.52 3.98 ...... 3.27

16589 Spareribs ......................... 22. 23 3. 21 11.30 12.92 10.14 0.56 2. 22 0. 53 4.67

16591 Tenderloins..................... 28.54 4.23 18.53 11. 69 10.25 0.22 1.22 1.22 3 98

16592 Neck bones....................... 19.46 3.93 7.58 13.20 10.28 0.61 2.31 1.5 4.85

16594 Bpackbones........................ 25.94 3. 44 12.41 12.64 10.08 0.50 2.06 1.52 4.75

16596 Trimmings ........................ 6.80 3. 98 10.90 12. 77 7. 66 .0.95 4. 16 1. 14 4.38

16598 Tail............................... 4.70 4.37 13.88 12.19 6.85 1.1 4.24 1.39 4.30



PIG No. 6.-DIIRO(' JERSEY.


16725 2 Ameriran clear h acks ........... 6.99 6.75 6.71 12.89 8. 59 1.07 3.23 0.97 4.17
17133 ( Fat'xt racted with ot her) ........ 20. o5 ...... .......0.13...................0.5..


16727 2 clear hellies...................... 8.30 4.96 16.65 11.79 8.44 1.04 2.31 0.97 2.59
17134 1Fat extracted with ether)......... 6.17 ...... ...... 0. 09 ... ...... ...... 0.51


11729 2 shortciut hams................... 27.63 5.49 8.95 12.75 10.05 0.73 1.97 1.28 4.76

16731 2 New York shioulders ............ 12.91 6.58 5. 39 13.09 9. 30 1. 12 2.67 0. 92 6.53

16733 4 fect............................. 21,84 7.68 6.72 13J.23 7.72 2,11 3.40 0.74 3.,44
17142 (Fat extracted w ith 1 ther)........ 16. 13 ...... ...... 0.12 ...... 1. 15......


I1; 73 5 Spawri41-b's ......................... 22.009 5. 71 11.79) 12.2-7 9.89 0.80O 1.58 1.51 4.96

16737 Tenderloins ....................... 26. 77 5, 67 14. 03 11. 77 10.35 0. 38 1.04 2.09 3.93

16738 Neck bones...................... 17.37 6l.02 3.11 13.5l 10.77 0.89 1.93 1.61 4.98

16740 1 khon s .. ...................... 21.13 4.99 11.98 12.27 9.68s 0.82 1.77 1.69 4.35

161742 Trian1uing s........................ 5. 85 3. 96 15.48 12. 19 8.44 1.07 2.68 1. 15 4. 18

11171 Tal ............................... 6.371 0.12 23.97 10.70 7.53 1.11 2.06 0.92 3.68







39

lytical data for meat-Continued.

PIG No. 5.-DUROC JERSEY.

Per cent original material.

'Water. Fat. Nitroae Nitrogenous subWate. Fa. ;ltroenstances.






Cz d A .;4 -4 Q




0.91 2.29 ...... 0.08 0.98 0.63 0.08 27 3.94 0.50 0.84 5.28 0. 29
13~~~~0. 06O 9 2K" .. 28.77, 0.36 29.131 59.50 3.31 62 831 0 10 1.22 0. 81 0.9 0.32 5.06 0.56 1. 00 6.62 0* 41 100. 06
. 1I 1.3 99.00
491'0.46.7)95. 89
4 750.45 28.90 7.04 35.94 031.66 1 634 0.16 8.38 1.00 0.50 9.88 0 71 96.98
....... 44.161-...... -43.74 0.10 1.67 1.22 0.10 0.35 7.63 0.63 1.09 9.35 0.55
25.1~ 2.11 96.39
53.37 1.22 54.59 23.27...... 91 1.63 0.35 0.93 10.19 2.19 2.90 15.28 0.76
I $7 98.41
53.38 0.71 54.09 24.39 2.51 26.90 0.12 2.87 2.25 0. 13 0.49 14.06 1.53 16.40 4
10~98.43
98.86
65.34 1.21 66.55 6.12 5.29: 11.41 0.35 3.341 2.93 0.06 0.35 18.31 0.38 1.09 19.78 1.14 88
~98.86 51.71 0.77 52.48 28.83 1.48 30.31 0.20 2.57 2.00 0.12 0.45 12.50 0.75 1.40 14.65 0.94 83
4718 0.8 48.7 2618 322 6 10.50

47.88 0.89 48.77 26.18 3.22 29.40 0.41 3.28 2.62 0. 13 0.53 16.38 0. 81 1.65 18.84 1.23 102. 50
0741 7412045 08 4. 56'0 0 989
19.81 0.27 20.08 73.39 0. 74.13 0.08 0.87 0.52 0.07 0.28 3. 0.44 0.87 .0.307 9889
3 021 154i 9.4
11.33 0.21 11.54 83.97 0.65 84.62 0.07 0.57 0.32 0.05 0.20 2.00 0.31 0.62 2.93 0.20 99.46
~99. 29
~ I I __ _ _ _


PIG No. 6.-DUROC JERSEY.

i 0. ....... ... 0. ..... .... .. .. .. .. .. ..... ...... .
I.-... . 0.12 0.03.. .. "I. t" 91... . ... .


0.20
34.11 0.41 34.52 57.5 1.38 58.97 0.08 0.98 0.70 0.09t 0.191 4.38 0.56 0.59 5.53 0.22 80.36
.......... ...... ..... ...... 0.04 0.01 ...... ......................................
0.12
35.7- 1.52 37.26 36.63 2.47 39.10 0. 35 3.52 2.78 0.20 0.54 17.38 1.25 1.69 20.32 1.32
2. .2 054173 .2 ,o~ ,., ~al98.00

38.61 0.85 39.46 48.48 0.70 49.18 0.12 1.69 1.20 0.15 0.341 7.50 0.94 1. 06 9.50' 084 91.62
3 98. 98
50.16 1.68 51.84 28.00 1.47 29.47 0.16 2. e9 1.69 0.46 0.74 10.56 88 2. 1 15.7 0f.. 98. 14
1. 9781
..0.1 0.02................................. .. .......
0.35
48.56 1.28 49. 84 29. 35 2.60 31.95 0.33 2.71 2.18 0.18 0.35 13.63 1.13 1.09 Il.85 1. 1 9 4
62. 34i 1.52 63.,86 10. 89 3.92 14.81 0. 56 :3.15 2.77 0. 10 0.28 17.31 0.63 0I.87 18.81 1.05 9,2
48.25 1.05 49.30 34.38 0.54 31.92 0.28 2.36 1.87 0.15 0.34 11.69 0.94 1.06 13.69 0.87
', 8 o.09 6 1. 8 .7 8

26.09 .05 27.14 52.78 2.53 55.31 0.36 2. 59 2. 05 6.17 0.37 12.81 1. 1.,15 15.02 0. 9 .44
16.28 0.23 16.51 7 7.80.91 78.78 0.07 0.71 0.49 0.06 0.1 6 0 0. 0.50 3.94 0.25 99245
99.47
13.93 0.01 13.94 79.70 1.53, 81.23 0.06 0.68 0.48 0.07 0.1:1 3.00 0.44 0.41 3 85
___________________~ ~~ 21_ 5__ _ I I i _







40


TABLE No. 4.-A n

PIG No. 7.-DUROC JERSEY.

0 Per cent air-dry material.

o.. Nitrogen.


Names o f 4 11 .C



17154F -- ,






17155 (Fat extracted with other) ........ 20.82............ 9.05 ...... .. ...... 1.83......


16756 2 clear bellies............................. 5.2 15.79 12.44 9.12 1.18 2.14 1.52 4.29
17156 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 21.18 ....0.06 ............ .....3.28 ......


16758 2 short cut hams ................. 14.73 8.23 2.11 13.11 10.39 0.95 1.77 1.25 4.44
17158 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 24.80 ............ 0.14 ...... ....1.09 ......
II
16760 2 New Yorlk shoulders ............. 14.90 6.28 8.25 12.58 9.72 1.00 1.86 1.66 6.13
17137 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 26.49...... ...... 0.11 ..................1.38 ......


16762 4 fe et............................. 21.46 6.13 6. 39 13. 48 9.24 1.94 2.30 084 3.63
17141 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 18. 12 ....... 0. .11 ...... .......... 1.00 ......


16764 Sparerihs ....................... 21.77 5.46 5.94 13.14 10.72 0.80 1.62 1.67 4.4
17154 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 20.12 ...... .... 0.07 ............ 2.35


16766 Tenderloins....................... 20.76 4.35 9.84 12. 58 11.32 0.38 0.88 1.55 4.16

1677 Neck bones ...................... 20.09 5.65 9.79 11.74 9.83 0.89 1.02 1.23 4.69
17145 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 22.72 .......... 0.14 .............. 1.30......


16769 Backbones -...................... 22.45 4. 89 11.19 12.33 9.87 0.75 1.71 1.26 4.55
17144 (Fat extracted w ith ether) ........ 20. 33 ...... ..... 0. 12 ................. 77 ......


16771 Triimmings ....................... 7. 35 5. 88 13. 23:1 11.97 7. 30 1. 42 3. 25 ...... 3. 84
17139 (Fat extracted with other) ........ 18. 10 ....... ...... 0. ...... .......... 0.63 ......
16773 Tail............................. 5.94 5.00 18.81 11.24 7.65 1.30 2.29 3.02 4.49
17138 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 27. 46 ..... ...... 0.09 1.......10 ......






41

lytical data for meats-Continued.
PIG No. 7.--DUROC JERSEY.

Per cent original material.

Water. Fat. Nitrogen. Nitrogenous substances.
,Z 4






195O. 6202373.03i 0.92 73 0. 0.65 0.09 0.16 4.06 0.56 0.50 5.12 0. 2910"5
S99. 59 ....... -- -.--- .-- -- 0. 38b .01 -- - - - -- --.- --..... ......
o0,48
........ 215 ----- 73.56: 0.320.01 0.45 0.06 0.10[ 2.81 0.38, 0.31 3. 5Q 0. 21( 88
.. . . .... ... .... ...... 0.16 0.61 ------...... ..... ...... ..... ..... ....... ..... ......
0. 48
42 71. 21 440 2.4)0.31 42.71 0. 18 1.: 9 .1 .5 0.14 0. 26 9.56, 0.8T 0. 811. U 0.65 99.53
~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ t... .7.4...... ...... 98.68

43.68 0.94 44. 62 414 1. 23 42 50.2518..... 1 98 0.142 0. 2&89OW 0. *87 10. 87 0. 91 (0.059.4
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0. 37 0. 03 ------ .. ... .. .. ...... ..

1. 2. 62 i
54.6 132155.8 2.881.3 2.2 0.18'.89 1. 8 4 0.4912.:;8 2.63 1.53 16.:.54 0. 78[ 85
I 1 98.55
..0.180.02 ...... - -. -

0 6.2. 6 1.13 29 27.51 6 01 98 0
----- ....... ...... 0.470.01 ............................... .... ......
.....2153---------735610.48








30.90 72.83 7.31 2.04 9.35 0.322.61 2.35 0.08 0. 14.69 0 50 0.36 15. 75 0. 86 9
5.9'1. 14, 52. 10i 28.95 1.97 30.92i 0.252.36 1. 98' 0.18 0.20 12.38 1.13, 0.62 14.13 0.4 f 9. 01
.0.300.03............................................
0. 55
42.87 1.210 4.08 2.56 231 2.7 0.282.77 1.3 0.14 0.26 19.58:.8.06.119 16.13 0.L
..... .0.160.02 ...... ..... ........... ............ ..........
0.45








~99.75 43.6 0.4310 44. 9 .42 1.3-52.65 -0-211.4 0.15 0.248 0.63 0.75 4.7 0.128 9
3 .4 0. 49 S.5: .97. 7 0.... 00 1. 2
..... ..... ........ . ... .. 30 ) o ...................... ..... .......................


0, 4S ),:122
7.30.90 72.83 70.3 2.04 9.35 0.322.61 2.35 0.08 0.18 2.14. 0 5 0.56 13.75 0., 99 498

.... ... ... ... ....... 0.30/0.025........... ..... ...... ..... i..... ...... ..... .......






42

TABLE No. 4.-Ana

PIG No. 8.-YORKSHIRE.

Per cent air-dry material.

Nitrogen.


Naines of cuts.















Sparrib..................2.26 .2211.81 9.7 .71.9.. 1.4 .72.
16783 2neclear bis....................... 67,4.75 14.86 13.16 9. 3 1.5 1. 211 1.15 4.21
17160 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 29. ........... ... ..... ...... .2.0......







16798 N cek belies........................1.9 6.363.5 333 5 .9 185 1 1 .945
17140 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 17111 ..............15................. 0. 7'


16789 2 New York shoulders .................. 8.1 3. 67 12. 92 9.46 0. 98 2. 48 1.16 4.37
16791 4 fett ............................. 7.00 6.28 13.48 4 2.25 4.24 0. 67 3.49
.69 Saeis........................ 22.26 22 11081 12. 47 9. 76 0.78 1.93 1. 47 4.72







167950(1 ne n ............ 10.23 5.5 15.726 11.6 10 10.59 2.94 1.20 3.80
1714 (Fat extracted with ether) ....... 9. .3 0.14 2...


168 i ................. 19.92 6. 3 2.50 10.8 10.71 1.08 1.27 1. 33 4.98


16798 Backbones ........................ 23. 5.5 ..6 1.5 12. 19 9.90.84 1.7 1.48 4.99
17 157 (Fat e~xtractedI with ether) .... 16. 68 ........0. 12 ............... 2.6( ....

l ;J r.mns....................... 10.25 5.57 15. 72 11. 63 7. 10 1.59 1203
17,151 (F,,t v\xtracte tw1 \ith other) ........ 30. 31 o..... .09 ...... I.......... 1. o5 ......


16802 Tail 1..,............ 9. 96 4. 83 23. 55 10.81 T.8)1.68 1.2 1.01) 3.33
17147 (Fat extracted with ether)........ 43,40 ............ 0.08 .. ........... 1.0 2










0







43'

Zytcal data for meats-Continued.

PIG No. 8.-YORKSHIRE.

Per cent original material.

Water. Fat. Nitrogen. Nitrogenous substances.


.






.99. 91

. .. . . .... . . . . 0 2 1 10 0 3 - . . . . . . . .
~0.32
33.08 0.133,.79 55. 831 0.39 56. 22, 0. 124. 49 1.80. 20 0. 21' 6. 75 1.25 0.66 8. 66, 0.48j 96
1 99. 15
.. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . - - 1 3 o 3 .. . . . . . ... .. .... . - - --.. .

58.02 1.l2 9.141 20.01 5.22 25.,23 o .282.33 1.84 0.14 0.35 11.5 0o.87 1. 09 13. 6; 0.7' 98:7.64
.. .. .. .. ...... ...... ..... ... 0. 4 1 ...... ..... ..... .... .. 98o... .57

0 4 0--{ --
2.9Oi25 62.34 30. 62.53 .1.57 0.95 0.17 0.20 5.94 1.063 0.62 7.62 0.41 1.913







5.9 1.38 52.31' 26.81 2.471 29.28 0.332.78 2.17i 0.18 0.43 13.56 1.13 1.34 16.0 1.05 98.81
65.45 1.20 66. 65 9. 32 3. 75 113.07 10.47 3. 02 2. 56 0. 13, 0. 31 16.0 0.81 1. 03 17.84 1.04 9.0
l 9.11








..:... ......... ... .................... ......
(1.31.3 11.1
0.258





53.87 1.26 55.14 26.21 0.50 26.71 0.262.66 2.13 0.1 0.35 11.30 0 1.15 15.46 0.99 98.59
----- .... .. ... ...... .8. 2 ...... .... ...... .. ... ..... .. ... .......

4. 98.26
21.38 52.31 26.81 2.49 29.61 0.352.87 2.17 0.20 0.41 14.56 1.13 1.28 16.66 1.05 9867
645 .2 666 .23731.7 0430 2.56 01 .31.01.110 78 .4



0.02..98.60
.. ...... .. ...... ..... ...... 0.410 02 ...... ...... ..... . .. ..- -. . . .
0.78
25.55 0.57 26. 1 6.20 1.61 65.8 0.121.19 23 0.16 0.37 1.31 1.00 1.15 15.46 0.99 989
...... ~~~~~0.20.026 . .. .. .. .. . .



0.544 1i9.72 18.33 0.48 18.50 72.021 2. 35 74.37 0.111.08 0.78 0.17 0.13 4.88 1.25 .41 6.35 1. 33 99.10
................. ..... .. 0........... .... ..... ................
0.3240.0327...... ..... ..... ...... ...... ........

o.99.55








44


TABLE No. 5.-Analytical data for bone,,

PIG No. 1.L-BERKSHIRE.

Per cent air.-dry material.


.. Nitrogen.



Names of parts. C+








16419uA (Fat extracted ..............with ether) ........ 11. 40 (0.61) ... .. 0.29 .... .... ....5.... (04.28)
16ti91 M1arrow............... 4.44 6.68 0.19 8.31"7.08 0.65" 0.48....:.......
17169 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 17. 36 ...... ...... 0. 07 ............. 2.64...
004



166088 Skin es............................. 36.93 8.31 3.2 6.8 5. 32 0.11 0.7518 0.33 1.759
16190A (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 11.40 ...61) ...... 0.29 ...... ...... .........(0.28)

1663 Spinal cord ....................... 8.4480 6.601 8. 280.19 8. 8531 7.08 0.65 0.4857...
17-1 0 (Fat extractedt with ether)......... 17.36 ...... ...... 0. 07 ...,..... ...... 2.64..
1668$ kinu............................. 30. 93 8.31 3.28 15.02 10.95 2.89 1.18 0.33 1.70
17175 (Fat extracted with ether) .........15. 90 ...... ...... 0. 151 .. 1. 85;..

1601 13 S ia );IICOrId ....................... 8.80 C. 01 8.28 8. 85 7.02 1.26 0. 57 ........
16695 Tendons........................... 31.93 10.23 1.5? 14.10 11.26 2.22 0.62 0. 39 3.71
17168 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 14.81............ 0.23...... ...........6.65 .....

17177 lool's ........................... 63.44 7.14 1.35 14.63 .................. 1.46

PIG No. 2.-TAf WORTH.

16719 hBones ........................... 50.71 7.10 0.45 6.18 5.41 0.22 0.51 0.07, 49,98
16719A (Fat extracted with ether)........ 14.83 (0.68) ...... 0.34 .................. (0.59)

16720 Marrow ........................... 2.39 6.91 0.44 10.56 8.98 0.56 1.02..........
17146 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 15.53 ...... ...... 0.14 ...... ...... 31 ......

16717 Skin .............................. 34.28 7.08 4.04 14.88 7.75 4.21 2.92 0.34 1.89
17132 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 14. 27 ............0. 16 .......0......

16722 Spinal cord ....................... 8.88 6.41 1.65 9.63 7.30 1.12 1.21... 2.54
1716i (Fat extracted with ether) ....... 32. 24 ............0.44 ...... ......9...... 15 .....
16724 Tendons .......................... 33. 67 9.01 0.83 14.86 11. 49 2.05 1.32 0.31 3.24
17171 (Fat extrantel with ether;) ........ 2 55 .3 ...... ....... .31 ........
17178 Hoo ............................. 60.73 6.92 1.01 14.65 ....................... 1.61

PIG No. 3.-CHESTER WHITE.

16630 Bones ............................. 45. 56 6. 46 0.45 6.94 6. 04 0.17 0.73 0.13 47.61
If63J(A (Fat Pxtracted with ether) 1.... 10.97 (0.602) ...... 0.34 ...... ...... ...... ..... (0.37)

16631 Marrow ......................... .... 4.4 ...... ...... 7.16 6.46 0.28 0.42..........
1i:: Skin.............................. 28.05 3.37 3.93 15.02 2.56 3.46 9.00 0.35 1.88
166 S i l c rd a ...................... ........ ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...
166 1'37 Indi,,s ........................... 34.22 13.03 0.84 14.10 11.34 1.53 1.23 0.81 2.48
117179 lI Js ............................. 65.38 7.18 1.07 14.74 ...... ............ ..... 1.36

PIG No. 4.-P(LANI) (CHINA.

I II
16663 Bones............................. 50. :37 4.90 0. 93 6.74 5.20 0.56 0.98 1.05 50.13
166 3A (Fat e xtracted with ther)........ 9.40 (0.62) ...... 0.21 ...... ...... ...... ..... (0.32)


1665 Marrow ............................. 5.28 6. 66 0.43 8.28 7.12 0.42 0.14...........
Ill65i Skin ............................. 33.41 6.93 3.063 14.86 4.24 5.48 5.14 0.74 1.89
1661 Spin al ord........... ........... 12.25 0.58 10. 15 9.12 7.16 1.40 0.56..... 4.57
166012 (a extracted with ether) ........ 23.32 .-.. ..... 0. 17 ...... ............ 4.70 ......
1664 Tendons ....................... 35.22 9.48 0.67 14.163 11.24 2.50 0.89 0.29 4.21
11717 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 4.77 ... .. ... 0. .11 -..
17180 ioof .. .. ......... ..... ........ 56.55 7.19 1. 14.80 ...... 1.43

aLost.








45

marow, 8ki, 8pinal cord, tendon 8, and hoof8.
PIG No. 1.-BERKSHIRE.

Per cent original material.

Water. Fat. Nitrogen. Nitrogenous substances.

~ I





14 0 3 .. 0.6.0 .. . .. . . . . ..

,-0 90 2 0 L
... . .. .. . ... . .. .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .: . .
p. 0. 1 :** .~ ~
p4517 0.3 -57 260 0.7 67 .....07 0.201 .5388.601643...9,9
;q Ca








35.93 3.01 38.94 12.1.91,40 0.4..07 0.243.22.24804040600.40217.50 0.38 1.2006.29.86
.(7.......................0. 03 ...... ......................0.o.3.......

..... ..... ~ 0 6... 1................... .0 0.


47.17I 3.0 0 .24 15.83 1. 23. 17.11o 0. 1 4.04 1.0 01 .4 2 1. 25 6.69 1.3 3.1 .6.35 970.22
... (0101.............. l.. 29..0.024.......... ]..... .31....... ...... .......
0.41





65.17 0.531 65.70 26.03 0.73I 26.76...... 0.78 0.62 0.1 0.05 3.88 0.6 0.16 4.73 .......97.19
6, &- EL4 6f981
55.91 3.27 58.3 12.1 0 1.9 1340 0.143.50 2.59 60.71 0.20 1. 44 4.44 0.2 27.50 16.18 50.51


36.. 40,. .. 0.....86 0. ...... ..-.. ......--580 90.93 1.8
34.46 030 136 14.83 0.23150 0.37 0.116.0 0.2 17.2 0.69 0.81 18.725.35-- 97.22







................ ... ....... ...... ...... ........09 .31
1.38 ~ ~ ~ 01 000.6159.29







.......... ..... .... 02 7. 19.. 06 97.......
5.14 0.7 1.3 4.4 0.1 49 .0, 0.4 80.5 0. 0.2 l 4.44. 0.34 50 1. 97.1
.... .....-. 0.0 ...... ..... ...........................
------ ~~~0. 30 0 -K ....- -- -- --








0.25O
36. 56 .531 1109 ---.---95.28........................... ........5 .........8


PI r No. o.--TAMWOR. ViT.




384. 3.0 61.55 17.81 0.28 18.09 0.10'3 1 2. 76 0.69 0.44 17.19 4.31 1.6 3 9.87 8 1.09 9.0
...... ....... ...... ........... ...... 0.0 ..... .......... ,. ...30.0 .31
13.27 4.2 43.4 .......7 .............8. 0....5.....01.0.021.80.060.06 1.. 5.63 9.69




3.7 2.94 40.4,1 16.7 0. 1.18 0.10.12 .75 0.0 8.531 4.62 9.00,8 18.2 22.4 9 00




55.66/'4.46"6i"0.12 10.12 0.29 10.41 "0.284.82 "3.889,60.52 0.42 24.25 3.25 1.31 28.81 0.85 100.19
34.62 4.6 ...31 ...... ..... 0 .7 1 9.62 ...... ..... ..... ...... ..... ......60.25 0.89 101.15

PIG No. 4.-P)LAND INA.

40.23 2 .4 42.7.4 0.47 9 0.15 3. 2 0.28 0. 1.3175 1.56 19.8925.25 97.51
(0,06)..................... ......0..02........... ... 0 13...........3... 1...
7 0 T .. ... .. 0 6 .. .9 .. .. ... .. .. 13.. ..... ..... 0 61; (0.098 o) 0 1




117.,11. 9,0 97,64S



15.39 0.35 16.74 7878.35.......044 0.41 0.,02 0.01 2.56 0.13 0.03 2.72 ..... 97.81


44.49 2.32 468 21 .123.31 0.25 4.97 1,42 1.83i 1.72 8.8 114 5.3 2568 0.63 6
8.8t11,4 o. 25 0,6 "!96.43
46.05 0.81. 4 41.70 1.2 42.94. .....21.12 0.82 0.17 .7 53 50 106 7.22 1.78 0.5 9. 14
.......... ................. ...... -1.10 0.04 ..... ..... ......................... .......
55.614.4 60 12 It 1 0.9 0. 1 U -1 4.82 3.96S 0. 52 0.1 24. '15 3.5 1.931 ,2 8 1.4 ll5 O 1





53.34 3.34 56.68 1.4 0.24 11.68 0.10 5.15 088 0.31 4. 75 5 0.97 1.485101.05
...... 4.07 47.. ..... .. .. ........... 0.. ..1 .8 .2








46


TABLE NO. 5.-Analytical data for bones,

PIG No. 5.-DUROC JERSEY.

Per cent air-dry material.

.N itrogen.



Names of parts. z



0 O




16600 Bones ........................... 53.64 4.69 0.86 6.77 5.93 0.17 0.67 0.93 49.70
16600A (Fat extracted with ether)........ 11.58 7.30 ...... 0.34..................... (0.61)

16601 Marrow .......................... 6.25 6.73 0.28 8,26 7.30 0.45 0.51 .... ......
16603 Skin .............................. a26.35 5.08 5.46 15.13 2.22 6.91 6.00 0.33 1.82
16605 Spinal cord ........................ 18. 07 6. 54 0.07 9. 26 7.58 0.84 0.84 ..... .....
16607 Tendons b ......................... ........ ...... ...... ......
17181 Hoofs ............................. 70.03 7.33 1.05 14.77 ............ ..... 1.22


PIG No. 6.-DUROC JERSEY.


16748 Bones ............................. 51.74 5.79 0.31 6. 46' 5.39 0.31 0.76... 50. 36
16748A (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 17.48 (0.43) ...... 0.21 ...... ............ ....(0.23)


16751 Marrowe......................... ........ 4.83 0.27 8. 14 6.89 0.56 0.69 ......
16746 Skin ........................... a34. 21 7.78 3.63 14.83 6.32 2.81 5.70 0. 18 1.83
ile id r . . . ...... .0
16749 Spinal cord c.............. .... ...... 19.97 7.72 1. 12 1. 13.........
17162 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 34.91 ...... ...... 0. 20 ...... ...... .. 8..12
16753 Te o- ......................... 4.51 9. 78 0.21 15.05 11.71 2.13 1.21 0.24 2.79
1717:1 (Fat extracted with ether) ........ 4.11...... ...... 0.12................ ....
17182 Hoofs ............................ 58. 83 5.97 1.18 14.55 ...... ..... ..... ..... 1.73


PIG No. 7-DI)UROC JERSEY.


16775 Bones............................ 53.50 6. 52 0. 66 6.44 5.59 0.17 0.68 0. 15 50.59
16775A (Fat extracted with ether)........ 12.88 3.63 ...... .32.................2.72 ......

16776 Marrow c................................. 6.35 0.48 7.02 6.32 0.56 0. 14 ...........
16778 Skin .............................. 39.18 9.80 3.78 14.69 7.84 4.13 2.72 0.20 2.00
17148 (Fat extracted with ether)........ 11.95. .......... 0.18 ...... ........... 0.55 .....


16780 Spinal cord ........................ 12.76 6.43 0.76 9.55 7.58 1. 26 0.71.........
17167 (Fat extracted with other) ........ 50. 36 ...... ...... 0.37 ...... ...... ...... 5.50.
16782 Tendons .......................... 31.94 11.65 0.47 14.43 11.49 1.91 0.98 0.36 2.71
17183 lnos............................. 60.06 6. ..... 83......83 .......................
......8 3.......................... ...........................


PIG No. 8.- 1 ORKSIIIRE.


16804 me ............................ .51 11.16 0.68 6.60 5.73 0.28 0.59 0.40 50. 08
1680tA (Fal extracted with ether) ........ 13. 74 (0. 53) ...... 0. 29 ...... ... ..... ..... (0.26)

1681,)5 Ma1rrow ......................... 4.41 6.21 0.19 7.75 6,85 0.79 0.11 ...........
1715.: (Fal traced ith ot her) ........ .2 ...... 2 ..... 11.04 ..... ...... .. .... 0.22 ...
1407 Skil c ...... ...................... ........ ...... ..... ...... .......
1-18- i l- -l 0r 1c ........ ............ ..... .... .. ...... .... ...... ....- ..
17111 ( Fat extracted willt ether) ........ 30. :0 ...... ...... 0.27 .... ... ......5 .. .
Ixil Te ons ,............... .............. .. 11.65 0.67 13.96 12.29 1. 43 0.24 0.24 2. 96
17184 ,, I11m is ............................ 51.03 6.44 0.16 14. 65 ..... ...... ..... ..... 1.39

a Fat .fre and waler-fre. b Samile lost. Lost.








47


marrow, skin, spinal cord, tendons, and hoofs-Continued.

PIG No. 5.-DUJROC JERSEY.

Per cent original material.

Water. Fat. Nitrogen. Nitogenous substances.






2. .6 4 04I
*Z

C1 -9- z-4


.78558 0.46 12.89 0.50 3.63 3.18 0.09 0.36 19.88 0.56 1.12 21.5626.66 97.56

0.85 ... 4.................. 0.04 ------ .0.25.......... 0.25(0.07) 0.25
20.13 21.81 97.81
12.80 0.42 13.22 80. 95 0.02 80.97----. 0.52 0.46 0.03 0.03 2.88 0.19 0.09 3.16 ..... 97.35
7-------35.49............38.16 0.09 3.99 0.59 1.82 1.58 3.6911.38 4.93 20.00 0.48 94.13
58.32 1.18 59.50 23.61 0.01 23.62 ...... 1.67 1.37 0.15i 0.15 8.56 0.94 0.47 9.97 .....-93.09
---- .-.---- --------------------------------------010.34.. .: ::::::... .. ..... 64. 63 0.85 101.32
2.97 5.3 35. ..... ..... 0. 74 ------1(.4---------------46 .5113
J I i i

PIG No. 6.-DUROC JERSEY.

30.78 3.00 33.78 17.48 0.16 17.64----3.34 2.79 0.16 0.39 17.44 1.00 1.22 19.6626.06 97.14

..(0.08) ...... .. ........25............2.23(0.04) 0.25
11.919. 91 97.39

45.20 .2059 0.06 5.07 2.16 0.96 1.95 13.50 6.00 6.08 25.58 0.63 92.00
.. 2.51 0.07 ...... ...... ............ ......

56.24 3.38 59."62 9.25 0.07 9.32 0.08 5.20 4.04 0.74 0.42 25.25 4.63 1.31 31.19 0.96 101.09
..... .... ...... 0.005 ........ ...... ................... ........
41.17 3.51 44.68 ...... -0.69 ...... 8.56 ....... ................... .53.0 1.02 99.89


PIG No. 7.-DUROC JERSEY.


33.62' 3.49,.......12.88 0.35......-0.08 3.45 2.99 0.09 0.37 18.69 0.56 1.15 20.4027.07 97.81
...0.47 36.64-.---- -13.70 0.35 0.04.......... ..... 0. 25 ........... 0. 25 (0.04) 0.25

0.43 8.94 20.65 98.
... .. .. ... .... . ..... ...... ..... ..... ...... ..... ..... ------ ------------46.55....50. 39 14.271......15.75 0.08 5.76 3. 07 1. 62 1. 07 19.19 10.13 3.34 3)2.66 0.$
3.4 ...... ..... 1.48 -------0.07..... .................... ..... ..... ..................
00.15
67.22 0.10 67 32 1.22 0.97 0. 16 0.09 6. 06 1.00 0.28 7.34- 95-0
-"--- -...- ........- 0. 19 ...... I....... ..................................
54.19 3.72 57.91 13.i7 0.15 14.02 0.11 4.61 3.67, 0.63 0.31 22.94 3.94 0.97 27.85 0.87 100.65
39.94 4.18 44.12 ...... .8.91............. ......... ......... 5569 ............


PIG No. 8.-YO()KSIIE.


35.75 5. 64 41.39 13.74 0.34 14.0O 0.20 3.33 2.89 0.14 0.30 18. 07 0.87 u. 941 1 9s 25. 100.65
-... (0.07) ......... ......004..... .......... 0.25 .... ... u. 25 o.0) 0.25
18. 32 20. 11 I,,,. ,
14.02 0.27 14.29 81.57 0.01 81.58----- 0. 34 0.30 0.0 0.01 1. 88 0 19 0.03 210. 97. 97
.. . . ...... ..... ..... ...... 0. 06 0. 1 .... ..... ..... ...... .... ..... . .. .... .......
------ .. ...... ...... .. ...... ; ;, ...... ..... ..... ..... . ..... .. ...... .......
-.....--......O0 Y .......9.... .
1.60..0.08..................................... ........

48.97i 3.29 52.26 ...... ..... 0.49.. 7.48 ...... ..... ..... ...... .......... 46.71 0.7] 100.21
I I __ _ __ __ _








48


TABLE NO. 6-Rerised analytical data.

PIG No. 1.-BERKSHIRE.

[Per cents original material.]

Nitrogenous substances.

Pro
Serial Names of cuts and parts. Water. Fat. teids' Gela. Ash. Total.
No. insolu- ti. Flesh Total. thin.a
ble ill <. bases.
ht noids.
hot
water.

Meat:
16667 American backs..... 32. 27 57. 69 7.00 0.50 0.91 8.41 0.15 0.51 99.03
16669 American bellies .... 37.27 51.93 7.00 0.56 1.22 8.78 0.14 0.55 98.67
16671 t-hort-cut hums...... b 60.29 22. 10 14.00 0.69 1.15 15.84 0.65 0.96 99.93
16673 New York shoulders. b 54. 97 29. 01 11. 25 0. 81 1. 56 13. 62 0. 15 0, 89 98.64
16675 Four fet........... 61. 28 16. 83 12. 19 4. 69 2.34 19.22 0.61 0.82 98.76
16677 Sparerihs............ 52. 54 29. 10 13.44 1.13 1.19 15. 76 0.35 1.00 98. 75
1667 Tenderloins.........68. 06 8.78 18. 56 0.50 1. 06 20. 12 0.49 1.17 98.62
16680 Neck bones .......... 55. 70 27. 92 12. 44 0. 75 1. 06 14. 25 0. 68 0. 81 99. 36
16682 Back bones .......... 52. 83 27. 22 14. 38 0.87 1.44 18.69 0.26 1.24 98.24
164184 Trinuings......... b29.68 62.00 5. 19 0.69 1. 03 6. 91 0.11 0.41 99.11
1086 Tail ...... .-..... 24. 02 68. 23 5.75 0.56 0.50 6.81 0. 17 0. 3 91W.62
16610 ones .................. 38.94 11. 67 17.50 0. 38 1.25 19. 13 0.44 26.12 96.30
16691 Marrow ................. 14. 36 81.51 2.00 0. 19 0.06 2.25 c0.46 ....... 98.58
16688 Skin.................... 50.24 17.11 25.25 6.69 1.37 33.31 0.41 0.63 101.70
1ti9:1 Spinal cord.............. 65.70 26.76 3.88 0.69 0.16 4.73 d1.47 e0.40 97.19
16i693 Tendons................. 58.43 13.40 22.44 4.44 0.62 27.50 0.45 1.18 100.96
17177 1oo .................. 41.09 0.86 ...... ....... .......58.00 ....... 0.93 100.88

PIG No. 2.-TAM WORTH.

Meat:
16696 American backs... b 29. 13 61. 76 5.75 0.69 0.91 7.35 0.13 0. 43 98.80
166198 Amerwoin bellies 33. 69 56. 52 7. 00 0. 63 0.91 8, 54 0. 15 0. 47 99. 37
16700 Short -cat huas.... b57.93 24. 45 13.00 0. 63 1.25 14.88 0.22 0.84 98.32
16702 New York shoulders. b35.07 20 29. 98 11. 25 0. 87 1. 19 13. 31 0. 24 0. 79 99. 39
16704 Four feet............ 6 58. 66 21. 23 11. 63 3.38 2. 96 17.97 0.51 0.86 99. 23
161706 Spareribs............ 49. 20 :33. 88 11. 56 1.31 1.40 14.27 0.25 0.93 98.53
16708 Tenderloius......... 65. 52 13. 51 17. 13 0.56 0. 91 18.60 0.91 1.06 99. 60
16709 Neck bones.......... 55. 52 26. 03 13.38 1.31 1.40 16.09 0.83 1.02 99.49
11,711 lIckhoies .......... 51.06 30.67 13.69 0.87 1.22 15.78 0.25 1.10 98.86
1671 F Trimu1iniigS.......... 28. 85 62. fi7 5. 31 0.81 1. 03 7. 15 0. 10 0.43 99.20
1371 Tail................25.77 67.08 4.25 0. 69 0.78 5.72 0.10 0.30 98.97
1711 hones. ................... 38. 06 15. 06 17. 5t; 0. 69 0.81 19. 06 0.04 25.35 97.57
16720 amurrow ................ 13.31 84.48 1.38 0.06 0.01i 1.50 f0.05 ,...... 99.34
11;717 Skin .................... 55.38 14. 15 16.62 9.00 3. 12 28.74 0.25 0.65 99, 17
11722 Spinal cord............. 46. 45 15. 39 4. 06 0.63 0.34 5. 03 f 2.95 0.23 100,05
16724 Tendonm ................. 61. 55 8. (lp 24. 19 4. 31 1. 37 29. 87 0. 10 1.09 100.70
17178 Iloot ................... 43.47 0.61 ........ ............. 55.63 .......0.98 100.69

PIG No. 3,- CIESTElt WI ITE.



1609 American bncks .... 23.72 70.16 4.50 0.44 0.7 5 5. 69 0.12 0.35 100.04
16611 A meric:n hellies. :01. 54 60. 73 5. 44 0. 63 1. 03 7. 10 0.08 0. 42 98. 87
Ifil3 Short-,ut hams .....53 15 30. 99 11. 13 0.63 1.97 13.73 0.35 0.80 99.02
16615 NewYorkshoulders b49. 16 37. 62 9.44 0.87 1.34 11.i65 0.28 0.71 99.42
1617 Four feet..-........ 65:;. 05 26. 74 9. -8 6. 38 1. 06 17. 32 0. 19 0.84 98.04
1619 9atrris .......... 53, 23 27. 93 13. G 87 1. 65 16. 15 0.28 0.92 98.51
16621 Tcnilerloin s ........ i. 97 13. 47 16. 69 0.44 1.03 18. 16 0. 40 1.06 99. 06
166f22 Nes k bodies ......... 3,.50 29. 52 12. 19 0.75 1.31 14. 25 0.25\ 0.87 98.39
16.24 t hihones .... 50. 65 31, 65 13. 38 0. 56 1. 3-1 15.28 0.23 1. 05 98. 60
1T,6.4 T lrit aIi]-"gs.. .. 22.49 71.55! 3.25 0.50 0.84 1 4.59 0.07 0.31 09.01
1662$ Tail ................ b 15. 66 79. 69 3. 00 0.44 0.62 4.06 0.08 0.24 99.73
lId:;O ] 40.41 17.18 17.57 0.50 1.03 1.10 0.06 21.09 98.44
10631 Marm ................ 15.50 79.86 1.88 0.06 0.06) 2.00 e0.19 ....... 97.42
Inc3: Skmi ................ 640.78 31.17 4.50 6.04M 7.89 18.45 0.10 0.53 91.03
I60:s5 Sinmal coid ............. f48,27 e1.21 e '5.6l c0.86 v0.30 e6.77 cl.47 -0.40 98.12
1)::7 TI-donms .. .......... 60. 12 10. 41 24. 25 3. 25 1. 31 28. 81 0.28 0.85 100.47
17179 lio'm ., .............. 39.31 0.70 .... ,.. ...... )60.25 ....... 0.89 101.15

a Lecithin ii extracld smile only, unless otherwise noted.
6 klrl It oft iret iet T illi1intll ill: O.iglial, Iatel Mh. ter uil.ber8 it this column represent the MtiI (11 ti0' per 'Ilt il walt*r I'llolvd I the jripaltration of NatinIplo and the per elnt of Water retlBi ill (lit I I Fi ) M ltsia l.
In fat ext ract.
d 1n fat extract caleIated from average for like cuts.
a C alulated from4 averages of like IutH.
fin rusnie and l fat extra.








49

TABLE No. 6-Revised analytical data-Continued.

PIG No. 4.-POLAND CHINA.

[Per cents original material.]

Nitrogenous substances.

Pro
Serial Names of cuts and parts. Water. Fat. teids Gela. thin. Ash. Total.
ble in ti bases.
hot DoidS.
water.

Meat:
16638 American backs ... 26.13 66. 33 5. 13 0.56 0. 81 6. 50 a0. 21 0. 38 99.34
16640 American bellies .... 30. 78 60.69 4.81 0. 63 1.19 6. 63 0. 12 0. 43 98. 65
16642 Short-cut hams ......54. 78 30. 12 10. 69 0. 81 1.28 12.78 0.23 0. 76 98. 67
16644 New York shoulders b 51.72 33.74 7.81 0. 63 0. 94 9. 38 0.30 0. 59 95. 73
16646 Four feet......... 50. 66 31.32 11.00 4. 19 0. 97 16. 16 0. 15 0.91 99. 20
16648 Spareribs ........... b 52. 95 29. 55 10. 06 0. 63 3. 09 13.78 0. 31 0.95 97.51
16650 Tenderloins.........67.43 10. 95 17.63 0. 69 0. 78 19. 10 0. 39 1. 13 99. 00
16651 Neck bones ......... 55. 23 28.27 10.25 1. 13 1.75 13. 13 0.45 0.91 97.99
16653 Backbones ......... b 51.26 30.98 12.94 0.81 1.34 15. 09 0.27 1.05 98. 65
16655 Trimmings .......... 22.43 71.52 3.69 0.44 0.69 4.82 0.06 0.32 99.15
16657 Tail ................ 16.50 77.77 3.44 0. 56 0.66 4.66 0.09 0. 31 99. 33
16663 Bones ................... 42.70 9.87 16.51 1.75 1.56 19.82 (1.53 25.25 98.17
16665 Marrow ................. 16.74 78.35 2.56 0.13 0.03 2.72 cO.19 ------- 97.87
16659 Skin ................... 46.81 23.31 8.87 11.44 5. 37 25.68 0.25 0.63 96.68
16661 Spinal cord ............. 48. 86 42. 94 5.50 1.06 0. 22 6. 1.10 0. 56 100.24
16664 Tendons ............... 56.68 11.68 24.75 5.50 0.97 31. 20 1.48 101.16
17180 Hoofs ................... 47.52 0.60 ............... ......52.3 0.81 101.24

PIG No. 5.-DUROC JERSEY.

Meat:
16579 American backs., b 20. 75 73. 25 3.94 0. 50 0. 84 5. 28 0.08 0.29 99. 65
16581 American bellies. 29. 13 62. 83 5. 06 0.56 L 00 6. 62 0. 10 0.42 99. 10
16583 Short-cut hams.... 50.45 35.94 8.38 1.00 0.50 9.88 0.03 0.71 97, 01
16585 New York shoulders, b 44. 16 43.74 7.63 0. 63 1.09 9. 35 0. 10 0.55 97.90
16587 Four feet ............ b 54.16 26.19 10.19 2.19 2.90 15.28 aO.32 0.76 96.39
16589 Sareribs ............54.09 26.90 14.06 0.81 1.53 16.40 0.12 1.04 98.55
16591 Tenderloins ......... 66. 55 11.41 18. 31 0. 38 1.09 19. 78 0. 35 1.14 99. 23
16592 Neck bones .......... 52.48 30.31 12.50 0.75 1.40 14.65 0.20 0.94 98.58
16594 Backbones ........... 48. 77 29.40 16.38 0. 81 1. 65 18.84 0. 41 1. 23 98. 65
16596 Trimmings .......... 20.08 74.13 3. 25 0. 44 0.87 4. 56 0.08 0. 30 99. 15
16598 Tail ................ 11.54 84.62 2.00 0. 31 0.62 2.93 0. 07 0. 20 99. 36
16600 Bones .................. 36.45 12.89 20. 13 0.56 1.12 21.81 0.50 26. 66 98.31
16601 Marrow ................ 13.22 80.97 2.88 0. 19 0.09 3. 16 do. 19 ...... 97.41
16603 Skin .................. b35.49 38. 16 3.69 11.38 4.93 20.00 0.09 0.48 91.22
16605 Spinal cord ............. 59. 50 23.62 8.56 0.94 0.47 9.97 1.47 a0. 40 93.09
16607 Tendons .............. a59.05 all.15 a23.97 a4.35 al.09 a29.41 aO.19 al.07 100.68
17181 Hoofs ................... 35. 10 0.74 ..........64.63........ 0. 85 101.32

PIG No. 6.-DUROC JERSEY.

Meat:
16725 American backs ......20. 32 73.63 3.75 0. 44 0.72 4. 91 0. 20 0. 29 99. 35
16727 American bellies .... 34.52 58.97 4.38 0. 56 0. 59 5.53 0. 12 0.22 99.36
16729 Short-cut hans .......37.26 39. 10 17.38 1.25 1.69 20. 32 0. 35 1.32 98.35
16731 New York shoulders. 39.46 49. 18 7. 50 0. 94 1.06 9. 50 0. 12 0.84 99. 10
16733 Four feet ............ 51.84 29.47 10.56 2.88 2. 31 15.75 o. 35 0.75 98. 16
16735 Spareribs ............ 49. 84 31. 95 13.63 1. 13 1.09 15.85 o. 33 1.10 99.07
16737 Tenderloins .........63. 86 14.81 17.31 0. 63 0.87 18.81 0.56 1.5 99.09
16738 Neck bones .......... 49.30 34.92 11.69 0.94 1.06 13.69 0. 28 0.,87 99. 06
16740 Backbones ........... b47. 54 35.96 12.81 1. 06 1. 15 15.02 0.36 0 92 99.80
16742 Trimming's .......... 16. 51 78. 78 3. 06 0.38 0. 50 3.94 0. 07 0. 25 99.54
16744 Tail ................ 13.94 81. 23 3. 00 0.44 0.41 3.85 0. 06 1). 23 99.31
16748 Bones- ....................33.78 17.64 17.69 1.00 1.22 19.91 a 0.31 26. 06 97.39
16751 Marrow ............... a14.57 a81. 13 a2.09 a0. 14 ao. 06 a2.29 d0. 19 .......97.99
16746 Skin ..................... b 45. 20 20. 59 13. 50 6, 00 6. 08 25. 58 0. o6 0. 63 92. o6
16749 Spinal cord .............. a48. 27 u41. 21 a5. 61 a.80.86 a0.30 a 6.77 ,151 a.41J 99. 16
16753 Tendons ................. 59.62 9. 32 25. 25 4.63 1.:31 31. 19 0.08 0.96 101. 17
17182 Hoofs .................... 44.68 0.69 ....... 53.50 ....... 1. 02 991. 89

a Calculated from averages of like cuts.
b Result of direct determination on original material. Other numbers in this column represent the sum of the per cent of water removed in tihe preparation of sample and (Ie poIr cent qt water remuainl ing in the air-dry sample.
c In fat extract.
dIn residue and fat extract, calculated from averages of like cuts. eln residue and fat extract.
3020 -No. 53- 4








50


TAlBLE No. 6.-Rerised analytical data-ColQtinuled.

PIG No. T.-DUROC JERSEY.

[Per cents original material.]

-Nitirogenous substances.

Pro
Serial Nales of cuts and parts. Water. Fat. Gela, lees T Ash. Total.
1is~~ ti- Totas. thinlla
ble in o ides.
hot
water.

Meat:
16754 A inerican backs...... 20. 23 73. 95 4.06 0. 56 0. 50 5. 12 0. 48 0. 29 100.07
16756 American hellies... a 21. 53 73. 56 2.81 0.38 0.31 3. 50 0.48 0.21 00.28
16758 Short-cnlt has-...... a 44. 26 43. 38 9. 56 0.87 0.81 11 24 0.45 0. 63 00.98
1670 New York shoulders. 44. 62 42. 65 9. 06 0. 94 0. 87 10.87 0.02 0. 91 99.67
16762 Four tret .......--... 55. 98 25. 25 12. 38 2. 63 1.53 16. 54 0.36 0.78 98.91
16764 Spai(ribs............ 53.20 27.51 14.56 1.13 1.09 16.78 0.83 1.01 90.33
1676 Tenderloins ......... 72. 83 9. 35 14. 69 0.50 0. 56 15.75 0. 32 0.86 99. 11
16767 Neck bones.......... 52. 10 30. 92 12. 38 1. 13 0.62 14. 13 6. 55 0. 94 98.64
161769 ackbones........... 53.09 28.07 13.88 1.00 1. 19 16. 13 0.44 1.02 98.75
16771 Trinings .......... 20.49 73.56 3.38 0.63 0.75 4.76 1>0.11 0.28 99.20
16773 Tail ................. 13. 73 81.74 2.81 0.50 0.44 3. 75 0.48 0.27 99.97
1(6775 Bones.................... 36.64 13. 70 18.94 0.56 1.15 20.65 0. 43 27.07 98.49
16776 Marrow.................. c14.57 c81. 13 c2.09 c0. 14 cO.06 c2.29 (10. 19 ....... 97.99
16778 Skin .................... 50.39 15.75 19. 19 10. 13 3.34 32.66 0. 15 0.78 9.73
16780 Spinal cord.............. 20.84 67.32 6.06 1.00 0.28 7.34 b0.70 co.40 96.20
16782 Tendons................. 57.91 14.02 22.94 3.94 0.97 27.85 0.11 0.87 100.76
17183 Hoofs.................... 44.12 co.67 .....................55.69 ........ c0.89 101.37


PIG No. 8.-YORKSIHIRE.



1 ;78: Amerivnn backs..... 28.55 62. 53 5. 94 1. 06 0. 62 7.62 0. 32 0.41 99.43
16785 American hellies..... 33, 79 56. 22 6. 75 1.25 0. 66 8.66 0.25 0.48 99.40
161787 Short-enthais ...59.14 25.23 11.50 0.87 1.09 13.46 0.42 0.74 98.99
16789 New Yorkshoulders. a49.57 36M.09 8.50 0.87 1.09 10.46 0.17 0.63 96.92
16791 Four fcet...........( 57. 47 30. 86 5. 13 1. 63 1. 53 8.29 0. 08 0.41 97. 11
16793 Sparermis............ 52.31 29.28 13.56 1.13 1.34 16.03 0.33 1.05 99.00
16795 enderloins ....... 6. 65 13. 07 16. 00 0.81 1.03 17.84 0.68 1.04 99.28
16796 Neck bone.. ..... 55.13 26.71 13. 31 1.00 1. 15 15.46 0.54 0.99 98.83
16798 1 linckhone'........... 50.65 29.61 14. 13 1.25 1.28 16.66 0.78 1.18 98.88
1800 Trilmings.......... 26. 12 65. 81 4. 56 1.00 0. 94 6. 50 0.44 0.39 99. 26
16802 Tail ................. 18.50 74.37 4.88 1.00 0.41 6.35 0.55 0.33 100.10
16804 Bimes.............. .. 41. 39 14. 08 18. 32 0. 87 0.94 20. 13 0.20 25.30 101. 10
1685 Marrow.................. 14.29 81.58 1.88 0.19 0.03 2.10 bo.06 ...... 98.03
16807 Skin..................... c46.33 c22.88 v13.09 c8.67 c4.59 c26.35 co.19 c.fl2 96.18
16809 Spinal cord............ c48. 27 c41.21 15.61 cO.86 co. 30 c0.77 el. 47 co.40 96.73
16811 Tendlons............... c59.(5 cll.15 c23.97 r4.35 c1.09 c29.41 O.19 cl.07 100.68
17181 Hoofs.................... 52.26 0.49 ...................... 46.75 ....... 0.71 100.21

a Result of direct determination on original imterial. Other umnher in this colu n represent the swn of the per cent of w ater removed in the preparation of a ple and the per cent of water remailning in t h air.dry sample.
1, In residue and fat extract.
c I calculated from averages of 1ik1v cuts.
I1In fat ext r t, calculated front averages for like cuts. III fla extiact.











51



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M "* 10 Ll.) I-NI C; t. 4 to- -4, 11R OL- ::4 tCCOO CO tcq "t W -'D t X -1 W

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00 .4
r-4

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AM t- cc Oo .o
-w un QQ Lr L:l X X
I- t- -4 1- t ICZ cc L_ Iz
r_4 -4 r.4 -4 r f-i V-4











56



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-- DCjva ~ ~










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-q 4-C "4 M MO
rz2 ci '.4 C4 4-1.0
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~~taa aaaa) C-0~0~~ ttf e aa.a.a.a. . ..







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CC0 if aa aa
~ 2 : .l a..... a... a .....



0 i~~i-cvmo~ct


~ ~ ~ ~ -t~ a a a a a







a a a a a a, a a a a

a~~~~~t raa-aa a a aa a



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1* t~
k~;i A a a a a a a a a a a aq
a a *aa aaaa *ata aaX








57


TABLE 8 A.-Chemical contposition of the meat of the pigs, by cuts.

AMERICAN CLEAR BACKS.

[Data are stated in percentages of the original material.]

Nitrogenous substances.

SerialProSerial Pig, number and Water. Fat. teids Fn- Leci- Ash. Total.
No. variety. soluble Gelati- Fles thin. a
Din hot oid(. bases.
water.

16667 1. Berkshire.......... 32.27 57.69 7.00 0.50 0.91 8.41 0.15 0.51 99.03
16t96 2. Tamworth--....... 29.13 61.76 5.75 0.69 0.91 7.35 0.13 0.43 98.80
16603 3. Chester White...... 23.72 70.16 4.50 0.44 0.75 5.69 0.12 0.35 100.04
16638 4. Poland China...... 26. 13 66.33 5.13 0.56 0.81 6.50 b 0. 21 0.38 99.55
16579 5. Duroc Jersey ......20. 75 73. 25 3. 94 0. 50 0. 84 5. 28 o. 08 0. 2) 99. 65
16725 6. Duroc Jersey ......20. 32 73. 63 3. 75 0. 44 0. 72 4. 91 cO. 20 0. 29 99. 35
16751 7. Duroc Jersey ...... 20.23 73.95 4.06 0.56 0.50 5.12 cO. 48 0.29 100.07
16783 8. Yorkshire ......... 28. 55 62. 53 5. 94 1. 06 0. 62 7. 62 cO. 32 0. 41 99. 43

Means .......... 25.14 67.41 5. 01 0.59 0.76 6. 36 0.21 0. 37 99.49
Maxima ........ 32.27 73.95 7.00 1.06 0.91 8.41 0.48 0.51 100.07
Minima......... 20.23 57.69 3.75 0.44 0.50 4.91 0.08 0.29 98.80


TABLE 8 1.-Chemical compositOa of the 1eat of the pigs, by cHIN.

AMERICAN CLEAR BELLIES.

[Data are stated in percentages of the original material.]

Nitrogenous substances.

Serial~ Pig number and PrLIeci.
g~ Water. Fat. teidginl"Ah.Ttl
io. variety, sole Gelati- Flesh Total tliin.a Ash. otal.
in hot noids. bases.
water.

16669 1. Berkshire.......... 37. 27 51. 93 7. 00 0. 56 1. 22 8. 78 0. 14 0. 55 98. 67
16698 2. Tamworth ......... 33.69 56.52 7.00 0.63 0.91 8.54 0.15 0.47 99. 37
16611 3. Chester White..... 30.54 60.73 5.44 0.63 1.03 7.10 0.08 0.42 98.87
16640 4. Poland China...... 30.78 60.69 4.81 0.63 1.19 6.63 0.12 0.43 98.63
16581 5. Duroc Jersey ...... 29. 13 62.83 5.06 0.56 1.00 6.62 0. 10 0.42 99. 10
16727 6. DUroc Jersey ...... 34. 52 58. 97 4. 38 0. 56 0. 59 5. 53 c 0. 12 0. 22 99. 30
16756 7. Duroc Jersey ...... 21.53 73. 56 2.81 0. 38 0. 1 3. 30 c 0. 48 0. 21 99. 28
16785 8. Yorkshire ......... 33. 79 56. 22 6.75 1.25 0. 66 8.66 c 0. 25 0. 48 99. 40

Means .......... 31. 41 60. 18 5.41 0. 65 0.86 6. 92 0. 18 0. 48 99. 09
Maxima........ 37.27 73. 56 7.00 1.25 1.22 8. 78 1,0.48 0. 55 99. 40
Minima......... 21. 53 51. 93 2.81 0. 38 0. 31 3. 50 0. 08 0. 21 98. 65


TABLE 8 C.-Chemical composition of the meat Of the pip, by cntf.

SHORT CUT HAM1S.

[Data are stated in percentages of the original material.

Nitrogenous tihatances.

Seril 1'- 11111bur:11dPr o'
Serial Pig number and t roid- Lei \sh nTotal.
No. variety. Walubl (:lat i Fl I), ti i.
solu l Ii (1-) Yo 1; t
in hlot staids. halses,


16671 1. Berkshire........... 0.29 22. 19 14,00 649 1. 13 1584 co. tin 0.94 99.93
16700 2. Tamworlh......... 57.9 24.45 13.00 0. 63 1.25 14 88 0.22 0.81 98. 12
16613 3. Chester White..... 53. 1 30. 99 11.11 0.63 1.97 13.7.3 i. 3 0 Mo 09,02
16642 4. Poland China ...... 54.78 30. 12 10.69 0.81 1.28 12.78 0.62 0776 08 67
16583 5. 1uroc JerseN ...... 50. 45 :5, 91 8. :8 1. 00 U. So 88 o. tI 0I 71 17 of
16729 6. 1)roc J ersey ....... 37. 26 39. 10 17. 38 1. 25 1. 69 21.:32 0.:"3 1. :" 98 .15
1758 7. 1)Uroc Jersey ....... 44.26 43.:8 9. 56 0. 0. I1. 24 0. 0, 4 ,o 99 98R
16787 8. Yorkshire .......... 59. 14 25. 23 11.S .087 1. 09 1, 46 t ; 2 10. I 98

M eans.......... 52. 16 30. 18 11, i 0. 84 1 22 14. i.2 o. 1:4 7 !1 o
Maxima. 60, 29 43.38 17.:38 1.23 1. 97 20.32 6 I,..12 RU.' c0s
M inilima......... 37. 26 22. 1) 8. :18 o. 13 0 81 0..N. 0 0 .G ." 97. 01

aIn extracted sample. b Calculated fron aver arms of like cnts. c iu residue aind It i utlt.







58


TAlIl.E 8 .-C6hemical composition of the meat of the pigs, by cuts.

NEW YORK SHOULDERS.

[Data are stated in percentages of the original material.]

Nitrogenous substances.

Serkil ig, numer audPro- Li
Serial Pig nmner and Water. Fat. teids Lec- Ash. Total.
No. variety. solb eat Total. thin, a
noidg. bases.
in hot
water.

16673 1. Berkshire.......... 54.97 29.01 11.25 0.81 1.56 13.62 0.15 0.89 98.64
167 02 2. TamNworth........ 55.07 29.98 11.25 0.87 1.19 13.31 0.24 0.79 99.39
1W615 3. Chester White... 49.16 37.62 9.44 0.87 1.34 11.05 0.28 0.71 99.42
16644 4. Poland China...... 1. 72 33.74 7.81 0.63 0.94 9.38 0.30 0.59 95.73
16585 j 5. Durou jersey ....... 44. 16 43. 74 7.63 0.63 1.09 9.35 0.10 0.55 97. 90
16731 6. 1uroe Jersey ....... 39. 46 49. 18 7.50 0.94 1. 00 9.50 0.12 0.84 99.10
16760 7 Duroc Jersey ...... 44 62 42.65 9.06 0.94 0.87 10.87 b 0.62 0.91 99.67
16789 8. Yorkshire ......... 49.57 36.09 8.50 0.87 1.09 10.46 0.17 0.63 96.92

Means.......... 48.59 37.75 9. 06 0.82 1.14 11.02 0.25 0.74 98.35
Maxima ........ 55.07 49.18 11.25 0.94 1.56 13.62 bO.62 0.91 99.67
Minina......... 39.46 29.01 7.50 0.63 0.87 9.35 0.10 0.55 95.73


'LAlILE 8 E.-Chentical composition of the meat of the pigs, by cuts.

FEET.

[Data are stated in percentages of the original material.]

Nitrogenous substances.

Serial Pig, number and Water. Fat. ar- lei Ash. Total.
Ned in- Gaiey.at i- Flesh T l.thln.a
o.vret.Solluble iioids. bass. lo'l in hot
water.

16075 1. Berkshire.......... 61. 28 16. 83 12. 19 4. 69 2. 34 19.22 b 0. 61 0. 82 98.76
16704 2. Tain worth ......... 58. 66 21. 23 11. 03 3. 38 2. 96 17. 97 b 0. 51 0. 86 99. 23
16617 3. Chester hite......53. 05 26.74 9. 88 6.38 1.06 17.32 0. 19 0.84 98.04
16646 4. Poland China ...... 50. 66 31.32 11.00 4. 19 0.97 16. 16 0.15 0.91 99.20
16587 5. Unro Jersey ....... 54. 16 26. 19 10. 19 2. 19 2.90 15.28 c0. 32 0. 76 96. 71
16733 6. 1)uroc J-rsey ....... 51. 84 29. 47 10. 56 2. 88 2. 31 15. 75 b 0. 35 0.75 98. 16
16762 7. l)uroc Jersey ....... 55.98 25.25 12.38 I 2. 63 1.53 16. 54 b 0.30 0.78 98.91
16791 8. Yorkshire.......... 57. 47 30. 86; 5. 13 1. 63 1. 53 8. 29 0. 08 0.41 97. 11

Means.......... 55.39 25.99 10.37 3.50 1.95 15.82 0.32 0.77 98.28
Maxima ........ 61.28 31.32 12.38 6.38 2.96 19.22 b0.61 0. 91 99.23
Minina......... 50. 66 16.83 5. 13 1. 63 0.97 8.29 0.08 0.41 96.71


'I'AlBLE S F.-Chemical complitioll of the mcat of the pigs, by cits.

S PA IEKRIBS.

I Data arv stated in percentages of the original material.]

Nitrogenous substances.

Serial Pg, wiaa r and WatPor. Fat. i L-h l Ash. Total.
o. o ret V: I r.1 't eidls in-llt- Flesh ArotI I.tTotl.
io. hot lnoids. bases.


16677 1. Herkshire..........52. 54 29. 10 13.44 1.13 1.19 1.7(1 0.35 1.00 98.75
16701; 2. Turnworth ......... 41. 20 33. 8 11.5f 1.31 1.40 14.27 0.25 0.93 98. 53
1619 3 Clestvr Whitw ... 5:.23 27. 3 13,63 0.87 1.65 16.15 0.28 0., 98,51
11648 4. Pubohd China.... 52. 95 29. 55 10.06 0.6l3 3.09 1:1. 78 0.31 0. 95 97.54
16589 5. lilroc Jerse...... 54.00 21.90 14.Of 0.81 1.53 16.40 0.12 1.04 98.55
16735 Co. 1)uroc lervv -.... 49.84 31 .95 13.63 1. 13 1.09 15.85 0.33 1. 10 09.07
167641 7. 1)rii r Joer y ...... 53 .20 27. 51 14.5f6 1. 13 1.09 6. I 78 b 0.83 1.01 99.33
14793 Yorkshire------ .. 52. 31 29.28 13. 54 1. 13 1. 34 16. 03 0.33 1.05 99.00

Means......... 52. 17 29. 51 13. 016 1.02 1.55 15. 63 0. 3 1.00 08.66
Maxima ........ '.09 33. 88 11. 56 1.31 3.009 16.78 b 0.83 1. 10 99.33
Minina........ -4.,20 26.90 10,11 0. 63 1.09 13.78 0.12 1 0.92 97.54

a In extrmtted S:nu1le. b in residue and fat et riVt e C Ilkulated frm averages of like cuts.







59


TABLE 8 G.-Chemical composition of the meat of the pigs, by cuts.

TENDERLOINS.

[Data are stated in percentages of the original material.]

Nitrogenous substances.

Pro
Serial Pig, number and Water. Fat. teidsin- elati- Flesh thi Ash. Total.
No. variety, soluble Gt.- Flesh Total. .a
in hot noids. bases.
water.

16679 1. Berkshire .......... 68. 06 8.78 18.56 0. 50 1.06 20. 12 0.49 1. 17 98.62
16708 2. Tanmworth......... 65.52 13.51 17.13 0.56 0. 51 18.60 b 0.91 1.06 99. 60
16621 3. Chester White ..... 65.97 13.47 16.69 0.44 1.03 18.16 0.40 1.06 99.06
16650 4. Poland China ...... 67. 43 10. 95 17. 63 0. 69 0. 78 19. 10 0. 39 1.13 99.00
16591 5. Duroc Jersey ...... 66.55 11.41 18.31 0.38 1.09 19.78 0.35 1.14 99.23
16737 6. Duroc Jersey ...... 63. 86 14. 81 17. 31 0. 63 0. 87 18. 81 0. 56 1.05 99. 09
16766 7. Duroc Jersey ...... 72. 83 9. 35 14. 69 0. 50 0. 56 15. 75 0.32 0.86 99. 11
16795 8. Yorkshire ......... 66.65 13.07 16. 00 0.81 1.03 17.84 b 0. 68 1.04 99.28

Means.......... 67.11 11.92 17.04 0.56 0.92 18.52 0.51 1.06 99.12
Maxima ........ --------72. 83 14.81 18.56 '0.81 1.09 20.12 b 0. 91 1.17 99.60
Minima........ 63. 86 8. 78 14.69 0.44 0.56 15. 73 0.32 0.86 98.62


TABLE 8 H.-Chemical composition of the meat of the pigs, by cuts.

NECK BONES.

[Data are stated in percentages of the original material.]

Nitrogenous substances.

Serial Pi-,and Pro- lo LeciS Pig, number Water. Fat. teids in- Leci- Ash. Total.
No. variety soluble Gelati- Flesh thin.a
in hot nolds. bases.
water.

16680 1. Berkshire.......... 55.70 27.92 12.44 0.75 1.06 14.25 b 0.68 0. 81 99.36
16709 2. Tamworth ......... 55. 52 26. 03 13.38 1.31 1.40 16. 09 b 0. 83 1. 02 99. 49
16622 3. Chester White .... 53. 50 29. 52 12. 19 0.75 1. 31 14. 25 0.25 0. 87 98.39
16651 4. Poland China ...... 55.23 28.27 10.25 1.13 1.73 13.13 b 0. 45 0.91 97. 99
16592 5. Duroc Jersey ..... -52.48 30.31 12.50 0.75 1.40 14. 65 0. 20 0. 94 98. 58
16738 6. Duroc Jersey ...... 49. 30 34.92 11.69 0.94 1.06 13. 69 0. 28 0. 87 99. of06
16767 7. Duroc Jersey ...... 52. 10 30. 92 12. 38 1.13 0. 62 14. 13 b 0. 55 0. 94 98. 64
16796 8. Yorkshire.......... 55.13 26.71 13.31 1.00 1.15 13.46 b 0.54 0.99 98.83

Means.......... 53.62 29.33 12.27 0.97 1.22 14.46 0.47 0.92 98.79
Maxima ........ 55. 70 34.92 13. 38 1.31 1.75 16.09 b 0.83 1. 02 99. 49
Minima........ 49.30 26.03 10.25 0.75 0. 62 13.13 0.20 0.81 97.9


TABLE 8 J.-Chemical composition of the meat of the pig.s, by euts.

BACKBONES.

[Data are stated in percentages of the original material.

Nitrogenous substances.
SPro
Serial Pig, number and Water. Fat. tei l, G F TLe i. Ash. Total.
noidsa. hases,
No! variety, soluble elt-lhtina

in hot noids. ases.
water.

16682 1. B'erkshire .......... 52.83 27.22 14.38 0.87 1.44 16. 69 0. 26 1.24 98. 24
16711 2. Tamworth......... 51.06 30. 67 13. 69 0., 7 1.22 15.78 0.25 1.11) 9. (
16624 3. Chester White ..... 50.39 31.t65 13.38 0.1.6 1.34 15.28 0 23 1.05 98, 6i
16653 4, Polaiid China ...... 51. 2( 30.98 12. 94 0. 81 1.34 15. "9 0 27 I. 05 98. 65
16594 5. )Duroc Jersey ...... 48.77 29. 40 1i. 38 0. 81 1.65 1. 84 0. 41 1.23 S i5
16740 6. Duroc Jersey ...... 47.54 35. 96 12. 81 1.06 1. 15 15.02 0. 3 92 i. so
16769 7. I)uroc Jers y ......33.09 28. 07 13. 88 1.0 1.19 1i. 1: b 44 1. 02 9. 73
16798 8. Yorkshire..........50.65 29.61 14.13 1.23 1.,28 16.6 fi b. 7 1.18 98 S

Means .......... 50. 70 30.45 13.95 0. 91 1.33 16. 1 19 8 1. 11! 9. $1
Maxima ....... 53.09 35.96 16.3 1.25 1.65 18.84 bO.78 1,24 iso
Mininia ........ 47.54 27.22 12.81 ,56 1.13 15. 02 0. 2 13 092 98. 24

ain extracted sample. b uIn residue and fat extract.










TABLE 8 .J.-Chernical compowtioii of the meat of the pigs, by cuts.

TRI1MMIKGS-.

[Data tre stated in percentages of t he origiiual material.]

itogenlous suibstaInces.


Serial iPig, 1iium1ber :111( Pror-~1 Leci- s.Ttl
ts it. ehtibFes Total.
~'a~itySl~ll()id81. b)a1SeIs.
inl hot
water.

16081 1. Pwrkshire ........... 29. G 2.00t 5, 19 0. 69 1.03 6.91 0. 11 0.41 99. 11
167 1: 2. Ta iwoN4rl t ...........2s.85 62.6C7 5. 31 0.sl 1.-03 7. 15 0.101 0. 43 99. 20
110;621 3. ('hetetr Whit( ...... 22-.49) 71. 55 :1.25 0.50 0. 84 4.59 0.07 0.31 99. o1
II1iG5 5 4. Pioland~ China, ... 22.4:1 71. 52 3. 69 0, 44 0. 69 4.8S2 006 0.32 99). 15
165196 .5. L- ro J e.....201 74. 13: 3 27 0.44 0, s87 4. 56 0.08 0. 3to 9.1
16742 6. )uroc J erse ........16. 51 78. 78 06 (; 03s' 0,5o 3;.914 0.07 0.25 99-54
16771 7. i )rov- .e rs e N....... 20. 49 7 13. 56( 3.38,_ 0).63 0.73 4. 76 b 0. 11 0.28 99. 20
16800) 8. orkShIIi re...........26. 12 65. 81 4.56 1.00 0.94 6. 5 0 bO0.44 0. 39 99.26

.en..........23. 3 )7. 00 3. 96 0.61, 0. 83 5. 40 0. 1:3 0. 34 99. 20
Ma x imIa..........29. 68 7,78 5.311 1.00 1. 03 7.15 bo.44 0.,43 99.54
M inilm..........16. 51 62:00 3. 06 0.38i 0. 50 3.94 0.06 0.25 99.01


TAHLF: 8 K.-Chernical compo~itioii oCfike meeat of the pigs, by cub;,.

TAIL.

[D~ata are1" stated in percentages of the origial im-terial1.]

N it rogeiiots siflstanees.


Serial', Iig ii~le aer. Yt ttc:idil ei Ashi. TFoIt1.
iiTotho.
water.

1;M*6 1. BerkhShin ........... 24. 112 (18. 231 5.7 73) 0. 56 0. 50 6. 8 1 0, 17 .39 99. 62
1T(17.5 2. Taim\\orth ...........25. 77 G7. 08 4. 25 069 0.7 S 5. 72 0.10 0.30 9s.97
16628 3., Che-ster White...156 796 3.0 0.4 0. G2 4. 06 01.018 02 97
1 Gf;5 7 4. 1 1olanI(d ii hiaI.. .. ...16G. .50( 77. 77 3.44 0). 56 0l. 66 4. 66 0. 09 (0,3;1 911.33
I1I15! 8 5. IDnotm .1is.......11.5 8) 4. 62 2.00 0l.31) 0, 62 2. 93 0.071 0.2o 99, 36
16744 I 1)iro~w. .1er --- 1:i. 94 S81. 23 1. 00 0.41 0.41 3. 85 0. 00 023 99.3 1
1677-:1 70. 1)uroc \J sy.......13;. 73 81. -74 2.S 81 0.5 0 0. 44 3).75 bO. 4 0.27 99. 97
168j,-02 8. Yokh ...........18. 50 741.7 4; 8s 1. 06 0. 41 6. 35 1)0.55 0.33;: 1001. 10

NIeans .. .. .. ....17. 46; 7 6. 84 3. 04 0. 57 0. 56 4, 77 (.,20 0. 2 8 99.55
MN1a x imIIaI..........25.7T7 84. 62 5.7.5 1. o o 17S G. S,1 10.55 0. 39. 100, 10
Minimat..........11 5 4 67.0 2S 00 0,31 0.41 2. 93 OAOG 0.20,( .31


'VAIE 9.-APIerfleo tcoipositiml of I /Ie mrats fIo ill the ('14 s of each animal.



Nitrogenlous AIsiibst ls.

Pro
N at a1alr a ..d aa~tmv oif pig-. WAter.: Fat. t eidls ill Aeat Si~ ti.c AIa. Total,.
I oluble utd bass. il.



11is~r ,,..,,. 3. 12 43.18; !)S t.2 1 0.6G7 1 .15 11.1)3 025 0,68G 99. 06,
rh............ 41, 0 7, 2 2 8,521.j ). 76 1.017 10. 351 17 0. 60 9,8.94l
:~ '.srW him~ ......... "5. 13 54.8 6.' 84 0,63 1. 1'1 s,0 Go is0 18 052 99. 26
1,1'iaid ( hmi ........ 317. 17 52. ~7 65 A). .13 8 33 0,16 (.2 9.4

1; lluro41. dtrny..... 1~ 4 2 6o1. 5 G.i 95 0.70 0.88 8. 53) 0I 18 0 51 99. 2o

Y. ~o 1 ,-1 ii .,......... JO.l 91 18 V-1 7. W- 1.012 o. ,88 9. 72 .33 0.,56 98. 81

MeNs ........ .5.8 5.1 7. 20 0. 72 0.9 6 8.68 0'. 23 0. 54 918,99
Maa iaia .....~...... 43. l 1 S6.3 1.,21 1,o2 1. 150 11.0 0)1 (.44 0.68N 99. 28
M iniloa ..,.... 29.4, 2 43.9-S 5. 1 o1.6 0.G4 7.1:3 0, 09 0.40 0845

a1li I 1 tard sampe1114. 1)i In residl ate ad fait oxtraot.
r In t Ilie re-sidiw af'tcr thje renov al of, thIs ft.










TABLE 1O.-Averages computed from all the bones of each cut of each animal, without marrow.

[Percentages.]

Nitrogenous substances.

Pro.
Number and name of pig. Water. Fat. teids in- Gelati Flesh Leti-a Ash. Total.
solubl Gelati- Flesh Toa.thin. a:Ah Ttl
soluble 1Total.
in hot noids. bases.
in hot
water.

1. Berkshire .............. 1 38.94 11.67 17.50 0.38 1.25 19.13 0.44 26.12 96.30
2. Taminworth.............. -------------38.06 15.06 17.56 0.69 0.81 19.06 0.04 25.35 97.57
3. Chester White.......... 40.41 17.18 17.57 0.50 1.03 19. 10 0.06 21.69 98.44
4. Poland China ........... 42. 70 9.87 16.51 1.75 1.56 19.82 0.53 25.25 98.17
5. Duroc Jersey........... ---36.45 12.89 20.13 0.56 1.12 21.81 0.530 26.66 98.31
6. Duroc Jersey........... 33.78 17.64 17.69 1.00 1.22 19.91 b 0.31 26.06 97.70
7. Duroc Jersey........... 36. 64 13.70 18. 94 0. 56 1. 15 20. 65 c 0. 43 27.07 98. 49
8. Yorkshire ............. 41.39 14.08 18. 32 0. 87 0.94 20.13 0.20 25.30 101.10

Means .............. 38.55 14.01 18.03 0. 79 1.14 19.95 0. 31 25.44 98. 26
Maxima ............. 42.70 17.64 20.13 1.75 1.56 21.81 0.53 27.07 101.10
Minima............. 33.78 9.87 16.51 0.38 0.81 19.06 0.04 21.69 96.30

aIn the residue after the removal of the fat.
b Calculated from averages of like cuts.
c In residue and fat extract.

TABLE 11.-Analytical data for marrow.

[Percentages.]

Nitrogenous substances.

Pro
Numnber and name of pig. Water. Fat. teids in- elati Flesh ti Ash. Total.
soluble noids. bases. Total. thin a
in hotnids bases.
water.

1. Berkshire .............. 14.36 81.51 2.00 0.19 0. 06 2.25 0.46 ........ 98. 58
2. Tamworth ............. 13.31 84.48 1.38 0.06 0.06 1.50 0.05 ........ 99.34
3. Chester White.......... 15.50 79.86 1.88 0.06 0.06 2.00 (0.06) ........ 97.42
4. Poland China ........... 16.74 78.35 2.56 0.13 0.03 2.72 (0.06) ........ 97.87
5. Duroc Jersey........... 13.22 80.97 2.88 0.19 0.09 3. 16 (0. 06) ........ 97.41
8. Yorkshire ............. 14.29 81.58 1.88 0.19 0.03 2.10 0.06 ........ 98s. 03:1

Means .............. 14.57 81.13 2.10 0.14 0.06 2.29 0.13 ........ 98.11
Maxima ............. 16.74 84.48 2.88 0.19 0.09 3.16 0.46 ........ 99.34
Minima............. 13.22 78.35 1.38 0.06 0.03 1.50 0.03 ....... 97.41

a In the residue after removal of the fat.

TABLE 12.-Analytial data for skin.
[(Percentages. ]

Nitrogenous substances.

Pro
Number and name of pig. Water. Fat. teidsinl- t h tiI Ash. Total.
soluble Gflati- Flesh Total. InIa
induhotenoids. bases.
in hot
water.
o i b


1. Berkshiro" .............. 50.24 17. 11 25.2. 6. 69 1.37 33.;1 b o,. 41 0. 63 101. '0
2. Tanmworth.............. 5 .38 14.15 16.62 9. 0 3.12 28.74 h O. 25 ,.65 99. 17
3. ChesterWhite.......... 40. 78 31, 17 4.50 6. 06 7.89 :1$. 45 0. 10 0. 53 91. 3
4. Poland China........... 46.81 23:.31 8.87 11.44 5.37 25.68 0, 2 o. 3 96 tis
5. DIuroc Jersey........... 35.49 38. 16 3.69 11.38 4.93 20. 00 0. a9 0.48 9.22
6. Duroc Jersey........... 43.20 20.359 13. 50 6.00 6.08 25. 58 o ti 0 0. G; i
7. Duroc Jersey........... 50. :39 15.75 19.19 10. 13 3. 34 3266 6 0.15 78 99.73

Means ............. 46. 33 22. 89 13:. 09 8. 17 4. 59 26. :35 0. 19 0.62 96. 52
Maxima ............. 55. 38 38. 16 25.25 11.44 7.89 3:. 31 k. 41 0, 78 101, 70
Minima............. 35.4o 14. 15 3. 69 6.00 1.3:7 18. 15 0t 0.48 91.03

a In the residue, after removal of the fatt. b In residue and fat extract t.







62


TABLE 13.-A nalytical dlata for- spial cord.

[Percentages.


Nitrol enous subst ances.

Number and name of pig. Water. Fat. teidIs in- Ieai Fls tkn s A1. Tot4al.
soluble Geais bases. Total.thna
ill hot


1. Berksluire .............. 65.7-0 26. 76 3.88 0. 69 0.16 4. 73 b1.47.......... 98.66
2. Tra %otIt.......... 46. 45 45.319 4. 06 0t. 63 0.34 5.03 c2. 95 0.3 Io.1
4. Poland China ........... 4S.8 42.94 5.50 .1. 06 0.22 6.78 c1. 1U 0.56 100. 24
5. 1) 11roc J enr.Ne........... .59. 50 23, 62 8._56 o, 9)4 0. 47 9. 97 b 1. 47 ------- 94. 56
7. Dutoc Jersel% ........... 2). 84 67. 32 6.06 1.00 0.28 7. 34 c0. 7 0 .....,.. 96.20

Mean.-;--............4 8. 27 41.21 5. 61 0.86 0.29 6.77 1. 54 0.39 97.94
'Max imla.............63,70o 67.312 8.56 1.106 0. 47 9.907 c2. 95 0.56 100.,24
M iinia.............2084 23. 62 3. 88 0.63 0. 16 4.73 co. 70 0. 23 94.56


a Ir the residue a ftevr removal of the fat. b Iln fat extract calculated from averages of like cuts.
v Ini fa t extract.


TAB11LE 1.-Aiialytical data for teitdow;.

P'e rcenIIta ges.j


"N it rogenoirs su1)ostances.

Pro
Numberv aind namec of pig. Water. Fa t. teilds in)D lt ~ed a e- Ashi. Total.
soluible Geai-1 bae s. oa. hl.
inl hot lod.bss
a t- --------r.I. Bel kshire .............. 58. 43 13. 40 22. 24 4.44 0.62 27.50 b0. 45 1.18 100.96
T ai w No rthI ............. 61. 55 8 9 2.1 4. 31 1. 37 29.87 0. 10 1. 09 100.70
3ChtrWit.....0.2 10.41 24.25 3.25 1.3 1 28.81 10.28 0.85 100.47
4. Polanid China ...........56. 68 11.6f8 2 4.7-15 5.50 0.97 31. 22 10. 10 1.48 101. 16
6. Duiroc Je-rse\y........... 59. 62 9. 3~2 23. 25 4. 63 1. 31 3 1. 19) 0.(08 0. of6 101.17
7- 1rOC lJersey ........... 57. 91 14. 02 22. 94 :3.1.94 0. 97 27. 85 0. 11 0.87 100.76

Mva its.............. 59. 05 11.15 2:3. 97 4.325 1. 10 29.41 0. 19 1.07' 100.87
Maxima............. 61. 55 14.02 25. 25 5. 50 1. 37 31.2 b.5 14 101.17
M 1ina ............. 56. 68 8. 09 22. 44 3. 25 0. C2 27. 50 0I.08 0 85 100.47

a TIn the residuew aft4Ir t he remiloval of theit fa It. b Ini residueit and fat extract.


1AL 15.-Analltlytical danta f~r hoof's.

I Percentages. 3




Nuiiber ;il( nMe1 (if ])igl, W Itt. I ~ t I (''lti Fls1 Ash. Tot ai.
in hot, noids. ba Ises. Total.
water

I. It- I iksiire,........... 4 1.,o9 0.8s6 ................ 58.00 0.193 100.88
2. A ;miwoi Ih .... ..... 4:1.47 .1 ,.,M ..,.... ...... ...,..... 55.03 0.98 100 61.
...h~r ~i~......... :19.3:1 0170 ...... 600.25 0.89 10 1.15
4. Pohould Chiia ...... 47. 52 .0...,......... .......... 52. 31 0.81 101.24
5. l~uroc.Jerey ......~.,, 35......0.7 .......... ......... 643 .5 11:2
6. o' I it) ...........4..6. .................... .5:31.50 1.02 99.89
7 Diii oo-rv rs....... 47. 12 .......... 55. 69....
8 Yok~ie,,,~ 52 26 0).49) ......,,............ ......... 46. 75 10.71 100.21

Mevan.............. 43,8 2 0. 67 .............. .....,... 55.81 0.88 100.77
Maia..,....... 52,.26 i o,86 .,...,.. ......,........... 64.,63 I1.02 10 1.3:2
Minm ...,,., 51 04 ,......,.,,,,,.. 46. 75 0.71 98







63

TABLE 16.- Weights8 of the entire animals and their rarious cuts, as weighed in Chicago
and in Washington, together with the apparent percentages of gain or loss in transit.

Two clear backs. Two clear bellies. Two short-cut Two New York hTwo clear backs. Two clear elliams. shoulders.
'Number and name
u ae Wasing" hcao Wash'ig-to. ChcgoWlasing- WashingSof pig. Chicago. ahing- Cicao Washing Chicago. W ng- Chicago. W
ton. ton.

1. Berkshire:
Pounds...... 351 34 19 19 23j 23 204 20'
Grams ....... 16,102.8 15,592.5 8,845.2 8, 731. 8 10,659. 6 10,574.6 9,298.8 9,395.5
2. Tamworth:
Pounds...... 41 40j 20 199 26 253 21 201
Grams ....... 18,597.6 18,370.8 9,072.0 8,873.6 11,793.6 11, 680. 2 9,525.6 9.412.2
3. Chester White:
Pounds ...... 36 353 21 21 20 191 21 20}1
Grams-------....... 16, 329. 6 16,216.2 9,525. 6 9,525.6 9,072.0 9, 057. 8 9, 525. 6 9,440.5
4. Poland China:
Pounds...... 40 38) 24 231 26 257 24 23,,
Granms....... -------18,144.0 17,577.0 10,886.2 10,716.1 11,793.6 11, 736.9 10,886.2 10,631.1
5. Duroc Jersey:
Pounds...... 394 39j 24 241 21 21 191 19I4
Grams ....... 17, 917. 2 17, 917.2 10, 886.4 10, 943. 1 9, 525. 6 9, 525. 6 8, 845. 2 8, 97. 0
6. Duroc Jersey:
Pounds ...... 45 444 324 32' ) 27 26k 22 221
Grams ....... 20,412.0 20,185.2 14,742.0 14, 827.1] 12, 247.2 12,190. 5 9,979.2 10,035.9
7. Duroc Jersey:
Pounds ...... 391 38) 284 29 234 2313 194 193
Grams ....... 17, 917.2 17,633.7 12, 927. 6 13, 154.4 10, 659. 6 10, 801. 4 8, 845. 2 8, 958.6
8. Yorkshire:
Pounds ...... 44 430j 221 231 27 27 241 25%
Grams....... 19,958.4 19,873.4 10,206.0 10,461.2 12,247.2 12,3(0.6 11,113.2 12,502.4
1


Four feet. Sjareribs. Tenderloins. Neck bones.
Number and name
of pig. Chicago.Washing- Chicago. Washinlg- Chicago. Washing- Chicago. ashingChcgo,'Chc. Washing- hcg. tn
ton... ton. toil. ton.

1. Berkshire:
Pounds... 31 34 5 44 1 1 2 14
.... 453. 27 2 r.
Grams ....... 1,594.2 1,514. 1 2,268.0 2,212.0 453.6 470.8 907.2 842.5
2. Tamworth:
Pounds...... 44 44 5 4{ 1 1 2 ,
Grams....... 2,057.3 1,974. 1 2,268.0 2, 132.7 453. 6 528. 2 907. 2 886.0
3. Chester White:
Pounds...... 24 27 3 1 1 1 l
Grams....... 1.152. 5 1,236.9 1, 360.8 1,409.0 453.6 453.6 680.4 683.7
4. Poland China:
Pounds...... 3 2lF; 5 44 1 14 1
Grams ....... 1, 360. 8 1,359. 0 2, 268. 0 1,969.5 453.6 419.8 680.4 815.6
5. Duroc Jersey:
Pounds...... 24 2A 34 31 1 14
Grams ....... 1,137.9 1,255.4 1. 587. 6 1,612. 0 453.6 348.5 680. 4 784. 0
6. Duroc Jersey:2
Pounds ...... 34 32 4 3/'s 4 s 2 1/*
Grams ....... 1, 587. 6 1,547.2 1,814.4 1,612.2 226.8 421. 3 907.2 892. 6
7. Duroc Jersey:
Pounds...... 24 3 34 3 2 11}
Grams ....... 1, 134. 0 1,400. 0 1, 587. 6 1,504. 0 340. 2 333. 3 907. 2 96. 5
8. Yorkshire:
Pounds...... 44 4 5 51 1 1 2
Grams ....... 2,041. 2 2,246.0 2,268.0 2,340. 0 453. 6 6132.5 907.2 1,192.3


Backbones. Trinmmings. Tail. Total. '
Number and name
of pig. W -ash W h.
Chicago.C Chicago. is Chicago. Chicago. I
ington ingtonn.nn

1. Berkshire:
Pounds 3..... 3 18 168 132 129 Lo.
Grams ....... 1,587 6 1. 580. o 8, 164.8 7,512.8 113.4 363.0 o 5.995. 2 ,789.6 2.01
2. Tamworth: 1
Pounds ...... 4 4' 18. 16 1 113 140; Lss.
Grains ...... 1,814.4 1,840. 0 8,278.2 7,541.1 11:3. 4 707.5 64, ,80o.9 63,946.4 1.44
3, Chester White:
Pounds ...... 24 2 27 15 1 135 125 Loss.
Grams ....... ,134.0 1, 172. 6 12, 247. 2, 7,144.2 113. 4 740. 2. 6 594.7 57, 080. 3 8.07







04


TABLE 16.- 1Tei.y1etx ()f the entire miimalsv and their rar'iO8 CUt1s, etc,-Coutirnued.



Backbones. Trimmings. Tail. Total.
Numrlii and line
of pigr. - -------
illtto Chcag. Chicag-o ingtn. i 'as
ilg l W Wshl-tol a I tol Chcao -nt 4oil.


4. PoilanI China:
P(unds 31~ 24 2 171 149 1464- Loss.
Gr1am11 s ....... 1. 360. 8 1, 315-. 5 9.,6:39. 0 Of,07-2.0( 113. 4 760.0 67,588.4 66,372.,5 1.80
5. lDuroc Jerso.:
Pons ~ 0 91 1", 136 138 1 Gain.
(ia1.....,6. 14:'..0 9,18S5. 4 8,9:3 0. 3 11:3. 4 68S:. 0 61, 693. 5 62,424. 1 1.18
6. 1IuIom Jer sey'
Pl luids......4 3 7 25 42 1671 167,1, L oss.
(as ........,5 87. 6 1, 546.0U 12,360.6 11,.'A.4 11:3. 4 1, 17;;.0 75,978.0) 7 5, 799. 4 0.27

1~iid' ~24i 23{ 1 1471- 149A Gainl.
(iat........,6. 1. ,-2.0o 11.,2 216. 6' 1,44.7 113.4 759. 0 67,019.4 67, 677. 6 01.98
8. York'Shirv:
Pounds ---- 4 ~ 24 ~ is, 4' 1~ 1594 160,:1 Gainu.
Grmiis ........1, 814. 4!19'. 11,226.6 8, 448.3 11:3.4 051.0 72, 349. 2 72,7o5.7 0.,49



FA.k 17.-Relatire prfpwrhionx of parl)i of piffs, ecrprcssed In percentage, of the, entire
dre.Ned animal, the, Iicad, leaf lard, aind A-iduceys having been removed.


\~ eghtPerentages of' parts.

iNunihei and tnme ot lpg. moius
( Wash- Mecat IBones, A I piilTn
inln.(fat '111dl es s r1owN Skin. cpiral Ten. IIoo Ttl lea n) liarroW cr, dn of.Ttl

1. Berkhire .............. 129.6G 88. 19 7. 44 0. 12 3.80o 0.09 0. 27 0.09 100
2. 1an 1 .l............. 141 ~650 8.18 0.21 4.71 0.09 0 21 0. 10i 100
3Chester White ...........125. 8 87.,94 6.21 0,08 5.52 0.07 0. 12 0. 06 100
4. P~ihlaw Cljitia ............14G.4k 90.6(7 5.310 0. 11 3.63 OAS 0. 14 0.07 100
F.Dr ~ ~17, 6 8$. 0 3 5. 92 0. 11 5.75 0.04 0. 10 0.05 10
G. I1)u roc .Jre...........16 7. 1 90. 93 4.70 0. 10 4.00 0).07 0.,12 0.8 100
7. 1)uroc erx........... 149. 2 89,91w 5.07 0. 11 4. 65 0.08 0. 11 o. O' 100
8. Yorksh ire............... 160. 3 186. 79 7. 41 0. 13 5. 30 0. 09 0. 18s 0 10 100

Men................144. G 88. 12 6.28 0. 12 4. 67 0.08 0. 16 0.08 100
1a1x imaII;I..............167. 1 90. 931 8. 18 0. 21 5. 75 0. 09) 0.27 0. 10 10N
Mi .m............. 125.8 86. 79 4. 71) 0.08 3.63: 0.04 0. 10 0.05 100



TA 11,E 1-F fnatIyit 'ca I data, e,,rprc~vscd In pereenta,,ex, of the entire dremscd animal, the hcad, leaif lard, and k-idncy-( havig beent rem oed.




N ile m iiieWvight Pro- OI
illbe and nme Fa t. tvlds ill GeatI Ii -Flesh Lei.a A sh. Total.
subenoids. base-s.
inl hot
wat Ir.

h, lrkhir ...... l29" 4;. 10 40 4 6 10.415 11.89 1 .16Il 13.0 1 0.27 2. 7 99. 42
141 Ta1rt1, 10 421. 9 .65 11. 15 1 .14 11. 9,. 0. 17 2.63: 98.S85
,(hetiVbie 1-251 iX 5 1. 11 7.3 192 1.50) 9.85 0. 17 L8 98.77
1 'Ini('ia 4 37.8 4:; 'IS11f 7.27 1 .11 1.21 9.606 0. 1I t 81 3 198.4 1
5 ~io~e~~ .. l;7 %2:1 5.7 6.5 1.24 1,.14 8.991 011 2.01 B.S.50
f;. 1iirm Jvrjve ..,. 167," :0. 1 -)I.S1 7. 73 0. 93 1 11 09.80 0. 1W 1.7-45 98.86t
7 11 .on Iese t -4 I0 Mx 57 .68 7.0 1.: 1W 0. 78 8.96 0. 42 1.81 99. 45
V 01 o .i I f .... 1110 10. 4'.9 44,35 8 .8S1. 1. 42 1.08) 11.44 0.1 A 2,140 98,89

Nh alsl,,. 1V 19, G6 3 4.7 8, 12 1. 10 1. 14 10D.46f 0. 23 2.11 98.90
Ill~a... t7 4.1 57. 6$ 110, 45 1. 42 1.50~l 13,.02 0.42 2.863 99. 45
MiWa... 1A 301 4,46 6..55 0,819 0,7 8,906 0.11 1.81 98. 41


(I Ill eraeteIl re-siduv, exetas noted.1 inl preceding tables.






65

DISCUSSION OF THE DATA.

Tables I to 6, inclusive, contain the original analytical data from which the subsequent data showing the details of the composition of the meat were computed. The character of the data in these tables is pretty fully explained in a previous part of this report. These tables are particularly valuable, because they are the records of the data as made at the time the observations were made, and therefore show the extent and nature of the analytical work more elaborately than would be indicated by the details of tabular data shown in subsequent tables, which were obtained from a careful analytical study of Tables 1 to 6. It is believed that with the explanation-previously given the student will be able to understand thoroughly the nature of the tables mentioned.
In Table 7 are found the general data in parts by weight for all the different parts and cuts of each animal. The footings show the total weight, in grams, of each constituent of each animal, and the second horizontal column of footings shows the percentage by weight of each constituent for each animal. The data in Table 7 are calculated from the original data contained in Tables 1 to 6, inclusive. The captions of Table 7 will explain sufficiently the nature of the data.

COMPOSITION OF TIHE SAME CUTS FROM THE DIFFERENT ANIMALS.
Tables 8 A to 8 K, inclusive, contain a comparison of the composition of the meat of the same cuts of each animal. Each table in the caption designates the character of the cut of meat oni which the coinmparison is made. For instanceClear backs.-Table 8 A is a comparison of the composition of the meat of the American clear backs of all the animals. A study of the data reveals quite a variation in the composition of' the mwat front the different animals, and this variation is found in all the series of data. As in the other cases, we find that there is a corresponding relationship between the water and fat, one varying inversely as the other, so that the sum of the two is almost a constant quantity. The extremes of variation in water are found in the Berkshire and 1)uroc Jersey, namely, 32.27 anmd 20.23 per cent, respectively. The extremes of fat are also fImiund in the same animals, namely. 57.69 and r.7U, espectively. In nitrogenous substances, as would naturally be expected, there is a corresponldilng variation, the samles vwhiclh have the most fit, as a rule, having a lower perctage ol nitrogenous bodies, and vice versa. This rule isi niot of rigid applictin. bit must 1e regarded only in a general sense. For instance, in Table 8S A thle largest lercentage of nitrogenmous substance is 11111found i time lerkslire, which also has the smallest percentage of fat, while the smallest p)ercentage o4 nitrogenous matter is found in the Di)urone Jersey, No. 6, which, with one slight exception, has also thie largest quantity of fat. The distri3020-No. 53- 5






66

1-nitioll oi, tiff, nitroo-enotl"! bstances in the meats of' the -,Xinericaii vlciir lmcks is fomid ill the table, where they are divide(l into three classes, namely. the true protei(.18, insoluble ill ]lot water; gelatinoids, which m-e of' a true pi-oteid character, but soluble ill hot water, and of N\ hich gelat ill is tile type., and the flesh bases which -are soluble ill hot Nvater an(l ;ire xiot precipitated by the action of bromin. The ash, as would be expecte(l ill animal products, entirely free of bone. is not very hirge in quantity. It c(nisists chiefly of common salt and the pliosphiltes of tile alkali metals. The sum of the substances obtained oil sllo\\-".; t1lat very little of the whole matter was uiiaccotinted
for. 'llid. whell tile Ilatilre of' the material ()if which. the work was done, i-, collsi(lelv(ll it i-i seell tllaf tile still) matioi I is eminently sati-sfactory.
Clew)- /)c/I ics.-In Table S fl) we find a shidy of the comparison of' the meat 4 American clear bellies exactly analogotis to that which has been (1e,4erl1)ed fiw tile Ameiicin (,]car [)acks. As a, rule it will be seen th-'It the pci-celltao'e of' water ill the cleat- bellies is higher an(I the percelltage of ficit 1mvel. th,111 ill the American clear backs. The general 1 (1111 it alrea(ly made in regard to the clear bachs may be applied to tiji.-;tal)l( NN-itlioiittii,-e,, ouierel)etitioii. The relations bet ween the nitrog-CIMUS 1-11lbstaiwes and the water and fat ,find the ash ire practically I fie Saille -,is for thoseill-st describedd, while tile ;tmmiation of the analyses 'llso -dlows a s"Itisfacton -cottlitill(). for the materials N\ a( -hich the chemist
is fill-nished. It will be lloti(-e(l th;it the, liesh bases ill the clear bellies ave hio-lier than ill I lie clear Imcks. Data, of this kind .ire ot'a practic.0 11;11 Ilre a:- well (as (X a scientific vali.tv, ill illdicatillo. what portion of tile
ot, .111ilwils could best be use(l, for instance, for the maiinfactiff,(, ()I' exti-acts. A similar study applied to beef' cattle Nvotild reveal flata, 4)f itimstial interest Ili this respect. Aptin, we find the largest prcellulge of w-tter ill the case of tit(- Berkshire, and also the simallest percent-'I'l-coffat, NvIlile tile smallest pel-centageof water 'alld thelargest, percent ge of' fiat aie Comid ill the Dtiroc Jeiscv, -No. 7, this showing a ivinarkal-fle collcol-dallce betweell tile ell"ll-acter of tit(, meats ofthe two clits ill the variolls allillials.
,Nhort-co beonN.-Table S C contiiiis a, comparison of t1ie dat.a of* the nle'lt ot, shol-t-clit halls. Ill this cut ()I, Illeat is folill(l -.1, sill-allel. pel-cellf,rill*(, Of fiat, a coi i-espnidin(dy Im-'re pen'elltaae of, water, all(L otcolli-se, ?111 r14 tllf t1
ill 111v 111CITC11se of the 11111scithil. tissllc It Velly hirg-ely increased amotint
Imitlers, Ag-aill. the lal-g-est quantity of Avater alld the
(ill-m itit v ()t' filt- .11-c tolilld ill tit(' illeat of' tile 11),el-hshil-el w hile Ille sm-,111(-4 111laillity (4 Nvatei, is Imin(l. fit flie Dtn-oc Jersey, -No. 6, an(l Hic 1,11"rest (Ili.111tity ()f f-it. if, tile jersey, No). The grenenm tl()Il W walel. illd fiIt is t1m .,; I'm ilid to be, tile :- ,,Illlv ill this cut as 'I'll tile hV() Iffecedill('. m les. In 1-c"';Ird to Ille 11ill't)(O'cliolls silbstalices there is val'i'llioll. 'I'lle percentage of iliti-OgellOus hildics 1 I'Milld ill Dill.m. No. G, NN-1111c tile Smallest Is folind ill flic DItI,()c j(-I-ScY' N(l. #-Jk. It ,eems rather' sti-ange fliat two animals of






67

the same breed show such a remarkable discrepancy in composition. In this instance, however, there is a deficit of material amounting to almost 3 per cent unaccounted for; so that the analytical data do not have the value which they would have did the summation reach more nearly 100. In the short-cut hams there is found a considerable increase in the quantity both of gelatinoid proteids and flesh bases over the amounts in the cuts already described. New York shoulders.-Table 8 D contains comparisons of the meat of the cuts known as New York shoulders. In this cut we have a larger percentage of fat than in the one just described, and a correspondingly smaller quantity of water and a smaller quantity of nitrogenous bodies. The summation of the analyses is not as satisfactory as in most of the preceding cases, and in one case a deficit of 41 per cent is noticed. Working, however, with wet material, and in the manner which was made necessary in such an investigation, it is not to be wondered at that often discrepancies of this nature may occur. These discrepancies are probably due chiefly to the determinations of water and fat, which are the most difficult of all connected with the operation of determining the composition of fresh meats, and inasmuch as the water and fat constitute by far the largest portion of the material it is seen that these difficulties must now and then result in failing to secure in the summation an accounting for all the material present. The largest percentage of water in these cuts is found in the Tamworth, and the smallest percentage of fat in the Berkshire. The smallest percentage of water is found in Duroc Jersey, -No. 6, and the largest percentage of fat in the same animal. The relation between the nitrogenous substances is sufficiently indicated in the table, and calls for no especial comment.
Feet.-Table 8 E contains a comparison of the composition of the meat of the feet of the different animals. In the feet we find a marked difference in the analytical data, and especially on account of the fact that the feet, as is well known, contain large quantities of gelatin, and, as the data show, also considerable quantities of flesh bases. The total quantities of nitrogenous matters, in p)roportioln to the other materials, is much larger in the feet than in the preceding cuts, while the quantity of gelatin is shown with sufficient emphasis in the tables of analytical data. However, a remarkable variation from the type is found in the feet of the Yorkshire pig, where the total amount of nitrogenous matter is only about half of that of the other animls. The summation of this analysis shows approximately 100 per cent, and therefore the feet of this animal must be regarded as diferilg essentially from those of other pigs examined. In regard to the gelatin we find that the largest percentage is found inl the feet of the Chester White, and the smallest in those of the Yorkshire. The largest quantity of nitrogenous matter is found in the feet of th le Berkshire. and the smallest in the f et of the Yorkshire pig. Again, the Berkshire leads






68

all the others in having a maximum quantity of water and a minimum nquantity of fat inll its feet. The smallest quantity of water was found ill the feet of the Poland China, and the smallest quantity of fat in the feet of the Bierkshire.
pareribs.-Table 8 F contains a comparison of the composition of the meat of the spareribs. In this case the largest percentage of water was found in Duroc Jersey, No. 5, and the smallest in the Tamworth. The smallest quantity of fat was found in 1)uroc Jersey, No. 5, and the largest in the Tamworth. The spareribs are rich in nitrogenous matters, mostly of a proteid nature. The content of flesh bases in the Poland China is remarkably high, being nearly double that of the average. The summations of the analyses for this table are satisfactory.
Tenduerloins.-Table S G contains a comparison of the tenderloins of the different animals. The maximum content of water in these cuts was foud in D)uroc Jersey, No. 7, and the minimum in Duroc Jersey, No. G. The maximum content of fat is found in the Duroc Jersey, No. 6, and the minimum in the Berkshire. Thile tenderloins differ from all the preceding cuts in having a largely increased quantity of water and a decreased quantity of tfat. On account of the muscular natume of the tissue the proportion of nitfogenous substances is larger than in any of the cuts preceding. These substances are mostly of a proteid nature, there being only a comparatively small quantity of gelatinoids and flesh bases. The ash of these meats is also quite high, showing a large content of mineral nutritive substances. The summations of the analyses are (luite satisfactory.
Xeck bones.-Table 8 H contains a comparison of the meat from the neck bones of the animal. These meats show quite a uniform composition, there being less variation among the different animals than in almost any of the cuts secured. For instance, the maximum content of water in these meats is 55.70 and the minimum 49.30, while the maximum content of fit is 34.92 and the minimum 26.03. There is also a quite uniformi agreement in the content of nitrogenous substances as a whole and in each particular class, thile variations being only nominal. The ash is also uniform in amount and the sulmatio of thile analyses satisfactory. The Imeat from thle neck bones, therefore, shows the most uniform agreement in comn position of diff rent animals of any of the cuts yet studied.
BIackbours.-TTable S I contains a comparison of the composition of the meat from the backbones. There is also here a quite uniform agreement inll the content of water and that, the maximum content of water being 53.09 anld the minimum 47.54, while in the case of the ftilt thile maxi1umn contellt is 35.196 and t1h minimum 27.22. Th1 whole of the nIitrogenous substances show also a greater uniformity, the only variation being in the case of l)uroc Jersey, No. 5, where the total of tie nitrogenous bodies is considerably higher than the mean of the other animals. Most of tihe nitrogenous matter in the nimeat of the backbones is protein, although the quantity of flesh bases is in every case






69

more than 1 per cent. The ash is also quite high, showing a large proportion of nutritive mineral matters. The summation of the analyses is satisfactory.
Trimnings.-Table 8 J shows the composition of the trimmings from the different animals. These trimmings, as will be seen, consist chiefly of the fatty portions which are rejected in preparing the cuts for market. They are used principally for the manufacture of lard. They therefore show an excessively high content of fat and a comparatively low content of water and of nitrogenous bodies and ash. The summation of the analyses of these materials is therefore eminently satisfactory. The analytical data show that the trimmings from the different animals are quite uniform in composition.
Tails.-Table 8 K shows the composition of the meat cut from the tails of the animals. Here also we see a large excess of fat, a correspondingly small proportion of water and of nitrogenous bodies and of ash. The tail meats are not very concordant in their composition, there being large extremes shown in the proportions of the various constituents. This is in a large measure due to the carelessness of the cutters, as in some cases large quantities of fatty tissue were left connected with the cut designated as "tail," while in other cases the same portions of the animals were placed with the "trimmings." The largest amount of water in the tail meats is in the Tamworth, and the smallest in the Duroc Jersey, No. 5. The largest quantity of fat is found in the Duroc Jersey, No. 5, and the smallest in the Tamworth. The summation of the analyses here is also very satisfactory.
Average of all cuts.--Table 9 contains the average analyses of the meats of all of the cuts from each of the animals. These analyses were calculated from the preceding data, combining all of the meats into one expression for each animal. These data are true averages: that is, each part making up the mean in each case was given a weight according to the actual amount of matter which it represented. The data therefore show in a condensed form the variations between the composition of the meats of the different animals. It would not be fair to ascribe the differences which are noticed in the composition of the meats solely to the influence of the breed, because with the exception of one instance, where there are three animals of one breed, each breed is represented only by a single animal. In the case mentioned, however, where there are three animals representing the )uroc Jersey, it is seen that there is a marked agreement in the meat from each one. It is, therefore, fair to presume that the single animal for the other breeds represents fairly well types of that breed. With this statement the data have a greater value as showing the comparison between the meat of breeds than they would have had had there been only a single 1)urc Jersey in the list. A study of the data shows that the Berkshire pig leads all others in having the maximum percentage of water and the mininum percentage of fat. The BIerkshire, therefore,





70

pound for l)ound, represents the least nutritive value of any of the breeds examined. Notwithstanding this fact, the Berkshire heads the list of all inll its percentage of nitrogenous substances, and this comp)ensates in a large degree for its increased percentage of water. There is quite a satisfactory agreement between the nitrogenous substances in the distribution thereof in the three classes named. The percentage of gelatinoid nitrogenous matters is fairly constant, only in one instance, namely, that of the Yorkshire, rising much above the average. All the other percentages are very near that of the mean.
In regard to the flesh bases, only one falls considerably below the average, namely, the Duroc Jersey, No. 7, the others being very close to the mean. Inl total nitrogen there is a marked deficit in the case of the D)uroc Jersey, No. 7, but this is due not to the influence of breed alone upon the composition, but to the large excess of fat in the meat of this animal.
Thle ash shows a fairly constant number throughout, varying very little from the mean.
The summation of the analyses is fairly satisfactory. In no case is there as much as 2 per cent unaccounted for, the largest deficit being inl the case of the Poland China, where it amounts to 1.55 per cent. When the nature of the material upon which the work was done is consideved, the figures are eminently satisfactory. These data afford, it is believed, a better basis for nutritive studies of the meats of pigs than has heretofore been supplied from any chemical laboratory.
Arerage o' bows.-Table 10 contains the average composition of all the bones of each animal. No separate analyses of the bones from each cut were made. For each pig one composite sample was made, including all the bones of the animal. As is to be expected in a case of this kil(nd, it was found that the composition of the bones is reasonably unifrm in the (lifleiet animals. In regard to water, the largest quantity was funiid in the bones of the Polandl China, namely, 42.70, and the smallest in the bones of the 1)uroc Jersey, No. 6, namely, 33.78 per cent. In regard to the content of fat, the largest quantity was found in the bones of the l)uroc Jersey, No. namely. 17.64 per cent, and the smallest in the bones of the Poland China, namely, 9.87 per cent. The ones are extlrelmely rich illn nitrogenous substances, and these consist mostly of the pwteid matter. insoluble in hot water. The quantity of gelatinous nilatter in bones is not so great as would be expected, being but little more, as a rule, than in the meats. On the other hand, the quantity of flesh bases is larger than would be expected, bejig considerably in excess of the quantity of gelatinous matter. The total quantity of nitrogellnoulls Illmatter Ill ile d(lifferelit allnimllals is remarkably inear the i1emi, hle Ileanll quantity being 19.95 per cent amnd the variation not beilg quite 2 per ceit in any case floiM the mean The ash, naturally, is very highly. Thie suimation of the lanalyse s not aS uniform as Could be wished, ralingi"g from 100.90 )er cent as the maximum to 95.86 per








cent as the minimum, a difference of little over 5 per cent. The difficulty of comminuting the bones into a homogeneous mass, and thus securing anll average sample, probably accounts for a great deal of the discrepancy seen inll the summations of the analyses. It is evident that the bones contain a very large amount of nutrient matter which would be available for digestion if they were sufficiently coniminuited, since the ash consists almost exclusively of tricalcium phosphate, which is insoluble, and thus would not interfere greatly with the process of digestioll. The bones of animals, however, are so.valuable for fertilizing purposes that they have not been used to any extent for feeding, except for poultry.
Average of marrow.-Table 11 contains the average analyses of the samples of marrow from all the bones from each cut of each animal, except in the case of Duroc Jerseys, Nos. 6 and 7, where the samples of marrow were destroyed by mice. On account of the small amount of material at our disposal, the ash in the samples was not determined. The summation, therefore, represents only partially the total ingredients, since it does not include the ash nor the lecithin, which are very important components of the marrow substance. The marrow, as will be seen by the data, is essentially a fat product, more than 93 per cent of the whole weight of the material being composed of fat and water, the mean percentage of fat in the whole sample being 81.13, and of water, 14.57. The nitrogenous constituents. of the marrow, while being extremely important from a physiological point of view, have not much value from a nutritive point. They constitute only 2.29 per cent of the whole, There is a fairly good concordance seen in the composition of the marrow from the different animals. In point of fat, the greatest variations are found in case of the Tamworth, with a mnaximum percentage of fat, and the Poland China, with a minimum percentage, the difference being, in round numbers, 16 per cent. The variations in water are less marked, while inii the total nitrogenous matters only one, namely, the Tamworth, falls tfir below the others in the percentage contained. The summation is as good as could be expected, considering the fact that ingredients of considerable magnitude are omitted.
Average of skin.-Table 12 contains the average analytical data for the skin of all of the cuts of each animal. All the skin from each aniral was mixed together and carefully com.ninuted by passing several times through a meat chopper until a homogeneous mass was obtained. From this mass a suitable sample was taken, representing as nearly as possible the average composition of the whole. On this were performed the analytical operations from which the d(lata represented in Table 12 were secured. The table contains the analytical data for all the animals except No. 8, the Yorkshire, of which the sample was lost. The most remarkable fact in connection with a general view of the data is that the skins have a high rank among the nitrogenous substances of






72

tile aninial. Tile meait percent e of nitrogenous matters in the skin Is 26.335, mid t,, the Slifil Consists ofalinost half its weight of water, it is seen, that the dry sl jn would contain -)0 per cent of its weig t of i itrogeimus, iviatei-ials. The itext most finport-mit ingredient is of course the 1"Ilt. of' Ividelt the avei'age is 22.89. lit the nitroolenous substaiiCes tile 1)ioteid-, compriseabout half of the m-hole. Of the other half two-thirds belono, to tile (Yelatinoids anti oiw-third to the flesh bases. The Ain t1wret'm-e, is preciiiiiiently a gelatiijous body. About one-half of' Hie tot,11 (11-1,111tit V of llill-OgellOlts -sitbstmces it contains is soluble in hot lv;lter, and mie-third of the balf which is soluble is not precipitated by bromin. If the crelatinous matters of the skin could be easily zeparatcd, they would be the most valimble p,trts of tile, animal for the prepara6011 Of t1W fleSlk baSCS. SMIPS of IllilllalS, limvever, are usually Illore 'NT-filitable for the manuftw-Wre of leather than for any other purposes.
To ,,ro a little more into flie detail of the data represe-litino- flie composition of the :-;kin, we find that the skill wbicli had tile largest perteiit.to-c of water belonoled to the Tamworth pig, and the one Nvitli the
-Sillallest to the Duroc Jersey, IS7'o. 5. Of fat the largest aniount was t6mid in the Dnroc Jersey, '-\o. 5, tIms showing again the general relatimi of' the proportions of ivater aiid Rat to which attention has already beeii cdled. The smallest percentage of fat was flound also ill the case 'of tit(, skill of' the Tamm-ortli, where the percentage of water was
lit reo-ard to' niti-o-'enous snbstances the most reiiiarl%able vm-iations are se,en. In the Beilzsfiire, wbich, contained the larg-e-4 propm-tion of nifrogenous -mbst:mces the true proteins comprise by I'll. file lai-ger portion, followed hv the gel"Itinoids, While the flesil bases fim-m a vei-v small percentage of' the wliole- ()It the otlier ]land, in tile 4,-I'11 (4, tit(-, DIII-oc jerscy, No. 1") tite, (Imwitity Of proteins is comparati\.(,]N- vlllle I)oth t1w (YeLitMoids aml fle.,;Ii bases are Iiigh.
tlli-- lllffl e(l 1)eCllliai itv in the compositioil, of the skill is due, to tile illilliellce of, tile bived ()I- to iccidejital crises (,all not be stated. Pr(d),11)l v, 11m vevel.. 'It I's (Ill(, to 'Iceldelital c.111ses; 'As, for install(.e. tile Cliester WIiite md the Dun)(- Jen- v v, No. 5 s1low similar coillpo-sitioll 44 Sl\JI)--;. 1)11t, till.,; is quite (1111,C].vilt- fi-oill flit, composition of* the sl ili ot, Dill.m. Jel-seys, Nos. 1; 111(1 7. It is Imssible'. [111111c1% tilat oNvillcy to the pectillal. sti-lictlin, of' tile Sim) lild tile, difficulty oF 'Secul-ing a 1101110"'(11llcml-, Illixtill-t, (& it. portimis ()I* tit(, skill fi-om different ctits \,.try n"llativelY ill ille salliple, \vIlicAl \vos taken fol. analysis. 'Ilills, fin. ill"-Jallce it* a of ille sl\Iill vevy I-ic,11 ill (reLl t i ]lous m atter alld
flesil Silmild F61.111 ml c\ce"Sive pm.tiol) (W flic", m-liole Sample tal vll
I'm. tit(. effect \vmild be, tit(, same asissecii ill tliedata recoi-ded.
"ll;11111:01oll (d, Ille allalvscs is o-vilel'alk, satisfactm-Y, yet in olle C(ISP I ]wrv P, I deficit., (d, 9 p( r cel"t, \01ile in allotliel. t1lel-v is :ill excess (d, 1.71) per cv]It. 'I'lle-So val-l.1tiolls "ll-c dollbticss (1114, to tile difficulty fff I'm- amd ,tical pm-poses. Aiiotlier
11_ OIIFCC 40, .1111ples of' skill 1,61111d in. tile difficulty
I I ill tile S.





73

of avoiding variations in the amount of the underlying fatty tissue included in the sample. It is practically impossible to remove all of the tissue properly belonging with the skin without including a small quantity of the adjacent fatty tissue.
Average of spinal cord.-Table l3 contains the analytical data obtained in regard to the spinal cords of the different animals. Besides the spinal cords proper, these samples included the layer of fatty matter which surrounds the spinal cord in the spinal canal. In some instances the quantity of material was not sufficient to make a determination of the ash, and in three instances the whole of the material was lost. The data show great variations in the composition of the spinal cords of different animals, especially in the content of fat and water. The Berkshire had a spinal cord in which the water predominated, while in Duroc Jersey, No. 7, the tfat was the predominant constituent. The nitrogenous substances are not so large as would be expected in nerve tissue, and those which are present consist chiefly of the proteids and gelatinoids, the flesh bases being only in relatively small quantity.
Average of tendons.-Table 14 contains the analytical data for the tendons of the animals, with the exception of two cases where the samples were lost. Considerably more than half of the tendons in the fresh state is water, while the fat, as is to be expected, is quite low. The nitrogenous substances, next to the water, constitute the chief material in the tendons, showing the largest percentage of nitrogenous matters of any part of the animal, with the exception of. the hoofs. The true proteids and gelatinoids constitute by far the largest portion of the nitrogenous substances, the flesh bases being in relatively smaller proportion. The ash in the tendons is higher than in the meats. The summation of the analyses shows uniformly more than 100 per cent, which is probably due to the use of too large a factor in computing the proteids of the different classes from the percentage of nitrogen. Variations in the composition of the tendons are sufficiently well shown in the footings of maxima and minima. The variation in the content of water is not great, while in fat the range is a very consi(lderable one, as indicated by the percentages. The agreement in the percentage of nitrogenous substances is quite close, the tendons showing very little variation from a mean composition. The ash is also quite constant, the range of variation not being very great, except in the case of the Poland China.
Average qf hoofs.-Table 15 contains the analytical data relating to the hoofs of the animals. The fat content of the hoof is extremely small, while water constitutes almost half the entire weight of this substance. The nitrogenous substances were not separated into three portions, but were all estimated as proteids by multiplying the nitrogen content by the factor 6.25. Considerably more than half of the total weight of the hoofs in the fresh state consists of nitrogenous material. The ash is not very high, only in one instance exceeding 1 per cent. The summation





74

,it t I, (. ;i it it) every ease morethlin 100, except ill the I it stance
()t, thc ])tit oc Jt!rsev. aml this is doilbtless due to rising, the factor 6.25 Ill 4,111111)[Itilig the total aniotint of' nitroo-enotis stibstal ices inasmuch as the kictoi- t6r the tlesh bases whiell. Nvere not determined ill this ca, ej i coll.-;1(lel'ably IoNver thal) the one just mentiolled.

i w,- ()F NNrytiTrr IN' TRAN' PORTATI()N.
Table D; shows, a comparison ot'tlie m-eights oI' the entire animal and tile various Ctits, as (Icterniiiied in Chicaoo and iii Washinolton, tit(. percemage of (rain or loss iii transit. The weights in. Chicaffo Pr(X stiinablv \vere made \vitli rrveat care but were not controlled by any 4-111ploy('e of the Division of' Cliemistr The weig-l-its in Washington W(Te 111.1(le (lire(.,tl\- by the Division of Chemistry, and can, be. certified ,1- absollite1v colI-ect. Ill five instances tit(, weights ascertained in W'Ishillotoll \vviv le',;s 111m) tllm-;( ascertained ill Chic"ICY07 aild in three iii.-;tances (vre-fater. Tbe larov-st variaticiii between the two weights ivas slimvii in the case of tile Chester 'White, NN'liere the loss was 8.07 per cent of tile whole Nveight. Tile smallest variation was found in tile case of, the I )Ilroc Jersey, -No. 6, with a loss of' 0.27 per cent. The largest 0' Iiii iii Nveio-ht was in, Duroc Jersey, _No. 5, llalnely 1.18 per cent, alia thc -;m-Alest (niin lit Nveio-lit, Nvas foand iii the Yorkshire namely, 0.49 lwl' ce]It. I'lle table contains not only tit(, tot-fl weight of tile animal in pounds tand giallis, btit talso the Wei(dit of each Clit.

RATIO'S t*F NIFATY IWNF'iz. ETC.) TO TOTAL WEIGHT.
Taide 17 cmitains the relative. pereeiitage.s of the different parts of the allilnals exchiding, the head, leatlard, and kidneys, which had beell 1,11,1114)VO(I beCore ,It i I il)in g front C hie:i (vo. This table i ,; of' great pra-etieal :Ll1d 0,0114)MICA 111tel-C-St, 811mvilig the relative percelitoges of' each cOnst it lielit, (d, the allillial b,,ised iil)oii its entire Nvei ght. lit the aninials dressed as i-ecelved by it,,; it is seen tkat nearly 89 I)er cent of' the total \veig]lt of, the mlilll-11 is ineat, (I'at and leall), a little over 6.25 per cent
licarly 1.7.5 per cent Skilil (06 per (,(,lit tendons, 0.12) 1)er cent mal'i-mv, OMS per celit spliiml cord, and 0.08 per ceiit hoofs. There is (Illite a remal-kable ag vvemellt ill the relative prolmi-tions of' these dit*lerk,11t, cmistitlielits Ill tile differelit allimals. For instance, the widest vm-iatioll from ill(" Illeall ill the l)ercentagvs oI* mv,,it ill the aninials ex:11111lied vas, ill roillid illlillbers!! Mlly 2 per cent, vhllv in the cas;e (& I y 114) Llro.er, altholl-11 relatively tit(' variathe Im ill's it, \vas 111111w recall t_ ?tMil \V LS VVI-y 111114,11 lit the case, ol' the -skin also the variation mils not, vvr marked. Ill tile millor constitilents Ille, pelventage of'
(1*1,c:lt, hut the actual variation ill the dillerent animals
Ill reg"Ird to holes. the L11-g-est, Iwi-centag-v \V,18 f'ollad ill the Talil\vorth, ,111d fill, sill.111est ill the lhtroc JCTSCY, 'No. 6. These '51low the V'lllatIMIS7 alld indic'Ite that tit(, Talum-ortil has :I 11111ch
Stioll.-cl. kl ('10 ()It. "o far as shom-11 hY \vv1(1'Jlt :11mle, thall tile Dame Jvv ,ey. Nf). G.





75

PERCENTAGES OF THE SEVERAL CONSTITUENTS.

Table 18 contains the percentages of the different constituents of the entire dressed animal, excluding the head, leaf lard, and kidneys. The data are most interesting from a practical point of view. It is seen that of the entire animals 36.43 per cent was composed of water, 49.67 per cent of fat, 10.46 per cent of nitrogenous matter, and 2.11 per cent of ash. It may excite remark that the percentage of ash in the animal is so small when it is remembered that the whole of the mineral matter of the bones is included with the ash, but by referring to the table of the analyses of the bones it is seen that only about 25 per cent of their total weight is mineral matter, the rest being composed of water and organic substances. The water and the organic substances are included in the other data, and the ash therefore expresses only the mineral matters of the animal, including not only the bones, but also the mineral matters of the other tissues. In regard to the nitrogenous substances, their proportionate division into three classes is-of interest. It is seen that of the whole amount 8.12 per cent belong to the proteids insoluble in hot water, and 1.10 per cent to the proteids of a gelatinoid nature, while 1.14 per cent belongs to the nitrogenous bodies representing the flesh bases. From a nutritive point of view, the true proteids are the most valuable. The gelatinoids are highly nutritious, but on accountt of their smaller quantity do not have so high an economic importance from a nutritive point of view as the other proteids. The flesh bases have a lower nutritive value, but are prized in many cases on account of their ready absorption and their stimulating properties, being already in a state suitable for partial assimilation. The summation of the analyses as a whole is extremely satisfactory, only a little over 1 per cent of the total weight of the animal being unaccounted for in the actual data obtained.
Comparison of breed.-Iu regard to the details of the various constituents, it is seen that the Berkshire leads all the others in the percentage of water, namely, 43.10. The smallest percentage of water is in the Duroc Jersey, No. 6, namely, 30.31. The largest percentage of fat is found in Duroc Jersey, No. 7, namely, 57.68, and the smallest in the Berkshire, namely, 40.46. Of the total nitrogenous substances, the largest quantity is found in the Berkshire, namely, 13.02, and the smallest in the Duroc Jersey, No. 7, namely, 8.96. It is evident from an inspection of the table that the meat of the Berkshire is better tor the production of muscular strength, while that of the Duroc Jersey, No. 7 is best suited for the production of animal heat. The Berkshire meat would be best suited for the use of our army in Cuba, while the meat of the Duroc Jersey, No. 7 would be best suited for the miners of the Klondike. These remarks are made without any expression of opinion concerning the type as a whole, but only on the data obtained from the two animals. The examination of a large number of typical animals of each of the breeds would be necessary to establish a definite rule of that kind. It





6

is fair to presume, however, that the siumle aidmal is to a certain extent typical, and therefore represents to that extent racial ebaracteri sties.

LECITHIN.
The deteritiffiation of lecithin in ineat products is accomplished, as has beeii drea(ly described, by an indirect inethod; itainely, by tile extraction of the lecithin with a mixture of ether aiid alcohol and the determination of the phosphorus in the extract. From the (Itiantity of pbosphortis determined the percentage of lecithin is calculated by factions based upon the percenta.<,)-e compositioii of tile lecithin itself. The data giveii for the lecithiii should be accepted Nvith certain restrictions, based upoil. the difficulty of applviticy the analydeal processes. In the extraction of the fitt by ether a certain quality. of the lecithin is removed. If, now, tl.ie residual lecithin be determined ill the undissolved ni-itters, iianiely, tile dry flesb, the quantity obtained does not represent fully the Nvhole ,unount orighially pmsent, but rather the q11alltity jweseiit in the niuscular tissue itself. Tlierefore, in case of the weats especially, the data must be accepted as showhig the (Itiantity of lecitlifit in the fleshy portions of the ineat, mid not the qtialltity originallv i)resent in the tiesh ?' v y portimis plus tile Fat. In the case of the marrow and spinal cord, aitother difficulty pveseiitts itself; nainely, fliat there was not a sufficient (Inaittity of the material oil which to peil'orm tile whole. ()f the analytical openitions. Inasilinich as tile etliei, extract comprises -t large pereeittage of the 11-110le Weight of these bo(liesl it is evi(lent that the determination of the lecitlihi ill this extract represents approximately the qmantitv preseiit ill the orio-illial material. ()it accolult, of tile palicit v of' t1lis material, therefore, the le(-lthiii \\- is (ieteviiiiiied ill flies cases in the ethei, extract alotie. It, howe\ el-1 the (ji-tantity he desh-ed for the whoh iiiate6al, it is evident t1lat tit(, (Ltta (rivell tre llot sufficielltly large.
PHYSIOD)(4CAT, 1AIP(M-1ANCleFrom a, phy"I(Owric-al poillt of view lecithill i.,q of pl-lille itilpol-tallee. It is (Illih. cert'lill I hal this bO(l v frills I I)(, I I-allsitioll sta-te betweell tile plwspllate., (d' the allillial ho(ly oil tile olle halld alld tile illillelil phos1). p],lilts m l tilt' other. Ill tll(, "'row til of Idallts t1le 111111el"ll pImspil'ites are cmivel-ted, to a cert;lill extellt, illto locithill, NN-111ch is I'm ill(l (',, pcciall N, ill tit(-, sc(A S, t1lo-Se of.111 (Illy llatille pl't'(1o1lliIll tit(. coll.-millptioll ()I* v('gYet,1bl(' fimlls hy '1111111"lls the" lecithill 11 ollht Iess Idlys .111 illillol.t.1111 fillictioll ill Iwilig h.,111stol-111vil a-,1111 illto L 11111ler'll cm ilpoulld, 11"Illiely, t1le t [till pit () ;pl la t (. (4, tit(. Miles. (Wher p(wholls (d, tit(, Iccitilill becoille assillitiI'lted ill the tisslics (d, the 1m)(IN" all4l ("'peciAly ill the braille, spilial ctw(l, '11111 lllal row. In tit(, collstimptimi (d aiiiiiial pro(lucts by otlier
h-c'HI'll plavs all illiport'llif 1-61v ill 1111ti-itioll, fol,111ilig oil
tit(. mle 11"11111 tilt, 1)()113' sti'lictill-v of tile allillial eatilig tile flesh, alld Oil








the other being again stored as lecithin in the tissues above mentioned. The data given, therefore, in the firegoing analyses are of great importance not only from their scientific interest, but also in representing in a general way the distribution of the lecithin in the various tissues of the body.
DISCUSSION OF THE LECITHIN IN PARTICULAR SAMPLES.
Lecithin in the meat.-In Table 9 it is seen, that the mean percentage of lecithin in the residue after extracting the fat from the meats is 0.23. Inasmuch as almost the whole of the lecithin of the meats is fotiid ill the muscular tissues, this represents pretty fully the whole amount present in the original sample. The quantity, however, of lecithin in the fat extracted by the ether must not be neglected if we are to consider the total amount present in the original samples. It is noticed that there is a considerable degree of variation in the percentage of lecithin in the different animals, the minimum quantity being found in the Duroc Jersey, No. 5, and the maximum in the Duroc Jersey, No. It is evident, therefore, that this variation is not to be ascribed to the influence of breed alone.
Lecithin in the bones.-The quantity of lecithin in the bones is considerably greater than that found in the meats, the mean being 0.31 per cent. In one instance, namely, the Duroc Jersey, No. 7, the lecithin was determined both in the residual bony matter and in the fat which was extracted. A great difference is noticed in the distribution of the lecithin among the various animals, the maximum quantity being found in the Poland China and the minimum in the Tamworth.
Lecithin in the marrow.-The quantity of marrow was so small that the only possibility of deterntining the lecithin was in the original ether extract. The data, therefore, are not as reliable as those ascertained by determining the lecithin in the extract after removal of the fat. In each instance the amount of lecithin was very small, except in the case of the Berkshire, where it was quite high.
Lecithin in the skins.-The mean quantity of lecithin in the skill was found to be 0.19; the inaximum being 0.41 and the minimum 0.06. It three instances the lecithin was determined in the samples both after extracting with ether and in the ether extract. These cases are apl)ropriately marked in the analytical tables.
Lecithin in the spinal cord.-Lecithin in the spinal (ord was determined only in the materials extracted by ether. As was to be exl)ccted, the quantity is very high; the meaii percentage being 1.51, the m1taximum 2.95, a~d the minimum 0.70. On account of the small 4111antity of the material it was not possible to determine he lecithin in the residue after the removal of the fat. If this could have been determined it is evident that the quantity of lecithin would have been very materially increased.
Lecithin in the tendons.-In one instance. namely, the Berkshire, the






78

determination was made both in the extracted fat and the residue. In this case the quantity of lecithins is quite high. The mean for all the tendons, as determined, was 0.19, with a maximum of 0.45 and a minimuli of 0.08.
In Table 18 the total percentages of lecithin in the whole animal, with the exceptions noted inll several of the tables, are found. The mean percentage is 0.23, the maximum 0.42, and the minimum 0.11.
In submitting the above discussion it is but just to state that at the commnuencement of the analytical examination it was not our purpose to determine the lecithin at all. Had it been so, the determinations would have been made in a somewhat more satisfactory manner. The data, however, as submitted are, nevertheless, valuable, and with the restrictions noted in the different tables may be relied upon as a basis for economic studies.

CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS.
In conclusion it may be stated that although work of the kind which has just been discussed is extremely onerous and time-consuming, yet it appears from a study of the results obtained to be a further contribution to our knowledge of dietetic science. All systems of true dietetic studies must rest first of all upon well-established chemical data. No valuable conclusions in regard to the dietetic value of any food can be obtained without first having ascertained its exact chemical composition. This hIaving been done, the further study of its dietetic value rests also upon its chemical properties, as, for instance, the coefficients of digestibility. It appears advisable, therefore, considering the character of the data whilich have been presented, to recommend that studies of this kind be continued with all the classes of animals used as foods in this country. It would be advisable, if possible, that in studies of this kind. thie animals be slaughtered at or near the point where the chemical examination is to be made; or, if this be not convenient, that a representative of the Chemical D)ivision be present at the time of the slaughlitering for the purpose of ascertaining the quantities of blood, hair, alid excreta tromi the different animals and obtaining representative samples thereof for chemical examination.
Our systems of feeding and our environment develop types of animals which are quite distinct fIrom those grown in other lands, and theretbfore the data which are obtained on animals in other countries are not strictly applicable to studies of the economic science of food production and food composition in this country.














APPENDIX.



For full particulars relative to the general principles of the separation of the different forms of nitrogenous bodies the reader is referred to the Principles and Practice of Agricultural Analysis. volume 3, and to Bulletin No. 54 of this Division. An abstract of the literature relating to the separation of flesh bases from other nitrogenous bodies is given here.

PRECIPITATION OF PROTEIDS SOLUBLE IN WATER BY (CHLORIN AND BROMIIN.

Rideal and stewart recall some of the experiments made in 1876, in which it was shown that a current of chlorin gas conducted through an aqueous solution of proteid matters produces a precipitate which is of a quite constant composition, and one which can be collected, dried in vacuo, and weighed. They describe particularly the use of this reagent in precipitating gelatin prepared from the high grade commercial article. They show that the total quantity of gelatin can be accounted for from the weight of the precipitate by multiplying the weight of the precipitate obtained by the factor 0.78. The authors also point out the possibility of using bromin in place of chlorin for the precipitation, and state that the studies of the use of bromin are under way. They call attention also to the fact that as early as 18-10 chlorin had been used by Mulder for the precipitation of soluble proteids, and refer to a paper of his published in Berzelius's Jahresbericht, volume 19, page 734, in which he obtained results on precipitation quite similar to those secured by Rideal and Stewart.
Other references to the literature on the subject are also given, viz: De Vrij, Ann. Pharm., lxi, 248; Th6nard, Mdm. d'Arcudil, ii, 38; Mulder, Bulletin en Nerlaude, 1839, 153; and Berzelius' Jahresbericht, xix, 729.
Allen and Searle, acting on the suggestion of Rideal and Stewart, worked out the bromnin method by applying it to various soluble proteids, including the whole range from albumin to peptone. In the application of this test to commercial gelatin 50 grams of commercial gelatin are dissolved in waim water and the solution diluted to half a liter. In 10 c. c. of this solution, corresponding to 1 gramn of the gelatin, the nitrogen is determined directly by the Gunning-lKjeldabl process.
Another portion of 10 c. c. is treated with an excess of bromin. The solution is first brought to a volume of 100 ec. c. with water and placed in a conical beaker with a sufficient quantity of hydrochloric acid to produce distinct acidity. A saturated solution of bromin water is added in considerable excess and the liquid stirred vigorously for some time. The precipitate which separates is flocculent when first formed, but becomes more viscous after stirring and adheres fbr the most part to t he sides of the beaker, which, with its contents, is allowed to stand ifor about half :Ian hour, or until all the precipitate is settled. The supernatant liquor is decantmed through an asbestos filter. The precipitate adhering to the beaker is washed several times with cold distilled water and the washings poured through the filter. Occnsionally. when most of the free bromin is washed out of the precipitate, the liquid

SThe Analyst, 22, pp. 228 and following; also pp. 255 and fibliowing.
79







80

dot-s not filter clear. It is therefore advisable tokeep the washing separated from flic filtratf,. and, it' ilecessar N-, Nvash with sodium sulphate solution or with bromin w a t, r. The nit-o,1-eu iii flie precipit;ite is determined I)y the Gunning-Kjel(ta Ill process a- 1*()Ilows:The precipitate which has beeii collected oii the asl;estos filter, together with the iislwto.s. is returne(I to the beal cr in which the pr ,uipltation took place. Tweuty ciilic ceiitinieters of stron (, sulphuric acid ai-(,- addvd. the weaker covere(l. with a
-vatch -lass and pLiced oil a -\vire gmize over a lainp. NVheu frothiii- has ceased
.11,olit 10 -rallls of poN-N-dered p(&issitun sulphate are zidded aud the liquid boiled mitil colorless. Aft( r cooling it is diluted with Nv.tter and the amnionia distilled off and (leterniiiie(I iii the usual way. The percenta,,,-e of ijitrogen l'ound, -when nitiltiIdled by thc I'actor or, in the case of gclatlii, liv 5.5, gives the aniount of' proteld jwith-r pi-ecipitated by brown. In the coilimercial gelatin above mviitioi)ed the iiitro.-cii conteitt was found to be 11.1 aii(I 14 1)(_ r cent, respectively, on two deteri;iijiatl()ii,,;. Solittions of creatiniii, aspara-iii, and aspartie acid were found to it.ld iio precipitates with hroiiiiii, Imt broviiii NNas fomid to pi I
-ecip tate all alhimlin,
iwid alhuii.,in, and all peptones foriiied by the digestion of ilhumin with pepsill.

NITR06REN IN AlEAT EXTRACTS.

)11 lppI.ViDg the bromin ntethod to commercial iijeat extracts the following results \\,(-re ohtallied. rbe solutions, ofthe Eovril preparati0iis were not previously Jiltere(t uid tbereforu the figure,; contaiii the nitrogen in the. liher prcsviltC

Pelatire amoujits of 06-ogeu ht mcat ca-trauls.
. . ....... ........ ....... ....... . .. - ------Nitro-en in
I- N 1 6.33
preciloital e protvids.
by broluin.

Per rent. Pct. cent.
extract .................................................... 1.41 8. t V-)
;1-ostint-d 1)m 1,ii ............................................................... 1.94 1'). 2S
J)")vril I'm illvali(ls ............................................................ 2. 64 16. 71
...... .......... -. ___ .. .. ....
Koeiii- mid Boeiner bave sliowil. tli.it flie proteld nitrogt-ii in meat extract,, is
nitich m-crestlimited, Thely foinid t tot.il of' 1.17 per ceiit of' protein
Ilitr(p,( 11 ill tile Ijej)1t; ('ollipmy's extract, wbich is equiv.detit to 7.41 per cent of h)t;ll prob-14ts, IllostlY '11bilmose.

PE(MLE.M.,, SOLVED* BY THE, IMONIIN MET1101).

'1111" fil"t that hromill collipletC4 precipitates ,ill protein mid gelathioid matters ill Sollilloll affords :1 coincilielit Ille'llis ()I* solvilig cerHill prohlenis w1lich ha\-() 111tilel-t-4) collsiderable difficulty. For histaiwe, iii a soltitioll which has
hvell -111)jtlchd to (11gi-stioll it. 111,1 V I)o Imssible 14) precipitate all the michanged plotelds I)y S;1tilratioll with Zinc slilldiAc. The pt-I)ttows which liave been formed (1111-111'r di".1-stioll r"lli;iii) '11 Sollition ;111(1 vall be sel);1n ited by lilt r.ItIoll. Ill the lil11.11c thc pi-ptolics 4-:111 he collipletclY precipit:Itcd by brolilill, :11ld 0111,; the total im ;tntl(\- id' these Imilics I'M-111i'd (1,(restm i c;Ill he accilrately deterillilled.
AlIvil 111(1 Scul-11. applied 1111, ]IIIAllod t4) .111 exaIllillatioll of 014. Liellig Collipall y's e\tr.wl, 5 ,raitis oI* wliich wele dj,;s(dvvd ill 100(-.c.of wAcl. :111d the Soliltioll S;1t111"111,41 Nvitil zilic S(Ill)l),It(-. A ltc]. filterilig-, 1)1'41111111 w ater NvIts 41diled to the tiltrato ;11141 pr1-c1l)jt:1tv )II-oillic-A NN'llicli rcdissok-cd 4111 dillitilig with NN"Iter wid t1w addi114)11 411, 11 N'dr,".111ol-ic acill. 'A'lit'll Hit, filtrato froill flie S:011r.'Ited zlu(! Sulphate was 101rVIMI.Sly 4111111i'd with water ;illd widiil;iteii no, precipitate \vts foritied oil the ;111ditiml 'd hr()111ill. This re:ictloii ,It()\%-s thA iio cousidvrable quantities of real











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