Record of experiments ..

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Material Information

Title:
Record of experiments .. in the manufacture of sugar from sorghum at Rio Grande, New Jersey; Kenner, Louisiana; Conway Springs, Douglass, and Sterling, Kansas. 1888
Series Title:
United States. Dept. of agriculture. Division of chemistry. Bulletin ;
Physical Description:
162 p. : incl. tables. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Wiley, Harvey Washington, 1844-1930
Publisher:
Govt. print. off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sorghum sugar   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by H.W. Wiley.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029705710
oclc - 24398547
Classification:
lcc - S584 .A3 no.20
System ID:
AA00024990:00001

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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF..AGRICULTURE.
DIVISION OF CHE4 MISTRY.

BULLETIN No. 20.




RECORD OF EXPERIMENTS

CONDUCTED BY THlE


COMMISSIONER' OF AGRLCULTU11h""

1N THE


MANUFACTURE OF SUGAR FROMl SORGHUM~l

AT


RIO GRANDE, NEW.JERSEY; KENNERZ, LOUISIANA; CONWAY
SPRINGS, DOUGLAS S, ANI) STERLING, KANSAS.




11Y

H. W. WILEY, *Cherit.









AS HTN GTO()N:
GOVERNMENT PEINTiN'G O)FFIcE,

14050-Bull. 20-A




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013














http://archive.org/details/experimeOOwile


























LETTER OF SUBAITTAL,


DEC1-"11BEl'L 191 ISSIS. SIR: I liave the lionor to sul)init ijerewitii t1w umnusciip ()t* B11111cl ill No. 901 being thereport of ( xperimei Its I I It I I e I I lat I I I I'let I Ire ot''s I I ','I r frk ) I) I sorghtim conducted by your directionn darin(,- t1w sw-tswu ot,



Hon. J. COLMAN,
Commissioner oj' Agriculture.



















EXPERIAIB.'TS, IN THE MANUFACTUPE OF SUGAR 11110-Ni SORIGHUTH.



ASSIGNME"N't, 01" WORK.

The bill in-Aina Iin appropri,ition for expennients ill the manufactilre of sugar did not become a l;t\N- unt I It lie, 19th ot'Ju Iy, I S(")S. A-t- th-it I i I ne it was maitifestl %y intpossible for the Department to 111,11-C aliv arrallovments of its own for tjIC (1-,()jljIIjCt of eXpel-illIelltS (1111,111(r the pj-v:-.eIIt manufactunh)(r se;IS011. It Iv"Is Ijecesstll"VI It' any experinicuts Nvere to
y sliouldbe u-ninged forincomiectimi witit work be made at .Ill tli-,it the t I I
already in progress eitlier 1) v 1ndividm(-II.,.;, private corponitioits, or State, experimejit stations. The Followillo. arrancronicitts were thorefowo made
for the experimental wol.]%
(1) Acontinnation of' i lie cxperimelltL] Nvorkat Jio Grande, N'. J.,under flic direction of' Mr. 11. A. lInglies.
A serlus of' exiwi-iments at Keimer, La., mider the direction of Prof. W. C. Stubbs.
(3) Experimental woik af Domplass, Kan.-., under the direction of tho Dmi-lass Sugar Compauy.
(4) Experimental work at Conway Sprill-4, I'kalls., 111](1cl. flit. (Illectioll of' MI.. E. W. Deminv.
(5) Ex1wriments ill Ole impr()vclIlcllt ill Ille varieties of calic at siclAill"', jx 'llls.y mider the diicctloii ot'.Mr. A. A. Dciitoii.
Ill a(blitioll to tll(, .111ove 'll-nillgelm-lits wele Ilmde I'm. alml t ical
re.searc-lies tilld(T 11) .V di YCO im I at I )m I.- I ass, CoI I Nvky Iwi I Ig S a 1141 stc.,lill(,. It was d(villcd 11h,1416sahle it 111A, Lito (hite niclItImIcIl 1,01,
tile Dep'll-tilwilt 6) sm"I"c-st ml\ expel'Illwilkil. \\orl%- ()I. 1ISSIMIC MI\ (,oiltrol. fliciv(4. Having 1well lilt Iml-lZed to 1(w Stich work, ill a
indmincr \N liicli scem(A most ;1(1 va lit ;I --cmi's I Ilk, (111-ccl it)lls \\ vngivell. 'I'lle wol-k1 :It I'll) G I m ldc \\ 'Is policed cXcIw l\ civ Ill cljav, c (11' 1\11 11. A I 1 14) ho cm indicted ill slich I 111,111lit'l. ;I,, lie sa\N lit Im t1w 1)(.110 it ()I* t1w M A111"t I v. T hr \\.Ali k- \ IlIcIl M 1% 11 11"lics 111-4)JI(I.-w il I do w IS (ill a sc.11cl it It I lic ull im ate PIca it llos 111!c tAwl,
ftarillen'; 'Illd w 1lel t(I Illa"Ilit"Irt Ill A. \vIt Im ilt I 11c cxPoll."k, ()I* l'It lis 11'sw ill.N. cm isidelc(l 1,01, T i I ( I-( .-N I A S ( I
111% 11"11c,"s w m 1%, 11"1 ve I w ell Iv I w i-I A-(I I )Y 111 In I'l I I I 'Ilk, i ol I III ( Ill,, Im ilct Ill.
and a discussion (d' tliviij wilil In. gIV011 Ill cMllIcvtl ml \ ILI[ 111-S IVI)MI.






6

Prof. W. C. Stiild)s itivino- commenced preparations for experimental NVI)lk. \N101 Sol-l"ImIll It the experiment station at. Kenner, lie WaS al.1tll()I.lz(,(t to ComplOv 011"; Nvml% un(ler the auspices of the Department. :N() Histi-tictl()ns ill r( (,;ird to the method of performing the work were sellt Prof" or stllhbs except to do Oita which. seemed best for the promotion of the in(lustry. I lis repoi-t of the restilts of the work and tile (Il.;(.11'Asioll tllcl-( or Nvill fiAlow.
Flic expci-liiwiit il Nvoil.. tit Dougla ;s, 1"Calls., was placed mider the con' tn)l of the Doligliozs sug lr Company. The object was to test thorotighly the wetilml of open diffusion practiced oil a sniall scale by Mr. llll(jles at Eio Gl.alldc aml they miducted the work under the general instnictions to give that system of'diffusion and the apparatus a thor. ollf,11 ,lild hupirtial te ,t. The p-eneral 1-esmlts of' the experimental work at ill(, station are (,iven ill ill(, report of _31r. Edson with a discussion of* the d"Ita there recorded.
The e-xperlinetltal Nvoi k at Conm, iy Springs consisted ill the trial of a ll(,NN- ,.Zystcnl of preparing the exhan cd chips for fuel; and certain new arrangcmeiit. ; of* apparatus connect(,(I Nvith tile diffusion battery and of a iiew sy-stem of handliiii), ;Illd Storillo- the ("like. INO Specific illstructiolis W(11411 (livell to '111% Dcming ill 1,0(,.ard tothe conduct of the worli, ]mt he Nv"Is h4t five to use his oNvii judgment. ill every particular in 11411, '(11d to whia Nvis hcst to he done. Mr. Demingis report, and the (]iscIISSIoll then'(4, \N-111 1,01low.
The expelillientll NNolh ,it Sterling \v.ts of' nn entirely different order. The St(,i-ling- Sugiir Coinp,111Y hnd colilluellced a thorough ex-milinatioll of all ol)t.llilahle vli'let I( s of Ihe pl;ult. By 'till arrallgentelit 11111de \vItll tlil.S CM11j)(Ill.v, 11 'e Doq)(11-tillclit assuilled this Avorh ill tile C"Ilditiml ill Mm"h it \v;ls fimild the Littur p(lrt (If' July and C'uried it to coIIjjl('tIo!1 11110cl. Ill(' :-;l1pvrvISioIl ot, Mcs.sr.- Dell toll and Cram pton, whose lepat mA thcreoll Nvill follow.
The 1 611(m III-' (1111 .1 ;iIIIIIII(Illt OF the chenlical force of' tile division 11-as; Ill-mle fia. I he pill-pose ()I* Secluill.(). '111al.N tical data of' the season's \vorli.
Mr. 1111(dw" il.lvillo- cxprvs ,cd 'm opillion IllIt he could get aloug illdepelidelit1v (d ,mv (Awillical ;is,,istmice frmn thc Department, no assiril111clit Illmle to Rio (Inlilde. Mr. Edson Ivas pitched ill ('haro-v, of Ow (1)('1111c,11 \Norl at Dmil(I'ls."It a."o'Isted by 1%1r. John L. Fliellillg. 1 'vi C. 1". A. N (m Sch wcinil z pl.1ccil ill charter of tile chemical \vork 1! 1 v I I sted 11v M r. Oilla raillptoll
of' the \N-m-k at Stcl-lill-', assistc(l hv Mr. F.-'arl 1'.

1114, 14111cl, pm-f ()FJIIl.v T vi:,- itcd the thi've locnlitieshist ilailledalld
11 h I he pI*4)P(1l1 1)(111SWIS fOr the est lblisjjment of, the 1,ahora;111(1 pel 1,4,cted Ille fi)r the chemical control \vllich
JS I lc ,l I (A. In Seph-1111w). '111d )(10hN, I visited (':Ich of' the Lthora.111M c 1111,111 ltmvd. '111d ";pellt with the chemists Ill ch.-Irge
C()w,111 k -it II)II COliC(Tilill". tile pl.w lv. s ()I, ill(. j\.ol.l%:. ,m d any chm iges or




7

alterations therein which seemed necessary. The results of the chemical work in each case will be found in connection with the reports of the respective stations.

EXPERIMENTS AT RIO GRANDE, N. J.

The result of the work at Rio Grande is disappointing in its nature. For some reason the cane grown in that locality has failed to improve, although it appears that it has had.the benefit of careful attention and fertilization. There has been upon the whole, as indicated in Bulletin 18, a deterioration of the cane at Rio Grande, the crops which were raised six or seven years ago showing a higher percentage of sucrose than those of the present time. This deterioration has been caused either by admixture of a non-saccharine variety with the seed, by the method of culture, or by the influence of the soil and climate of that locality. I am inclined to attribute much of the depreciation to a fault of the seed; whether or not it has been mixed with broom-corn I am unable to say. The almost total failure.of the am ber cane at Rio Grande would seem to indicate that some such accident had happened to it. While amber cane in other localities has continued to show a high percentage of sucrose in the juice, at Rio Grande it has become a worthless variety for sugar-making or even the production of sirup. The importance of seed selection is emphasized by this fathct, since there is every reason to believe that if seed of the early amber, such as was planted at Rio Grande seven or eight years ago, were again planted in that locality it would produce an equally rich crop of cane. It would be a useless task, however, for any one to attempl)t the successful manufacture of sugar by any process from juices no richer than those reported by Mr. Hughes during the present year; such canes at best could only make molasses, and that probably of an inferior character. These agricultural results are the more discouraging because of the systematic attempts which have been made at Rio (Irande in cot.junction with the New Jersey experiment station for the production of a high-grade cane; these are not, however, sufficiently discouraging to justify abandonment of similar attempts in other localities. In respect of the climate at Rio Grande, I can see nothing which would lead me to believe that it is unfavorable to the growth of sorghum. On the other hand, the climatic conditions appear extremely tavorable, unless it he true that sorghui will not develop a maximum content (fit slugarl i localities(1 favored with ablundimnit summ81111111er rains. Aside front this, the ftlvorlble conditions for growth and the practical immunilility from early frosts render the locality a most favorable one fir the production land nmanifacture of a crop of sorghum cane. The soil oft this locality, it is true. is not naturally as fertile as the soils of Kansas, but w ith the judicious frtili zation which has been practiced, the tonnage per acre has been fully as great, if not greater, at Rio Grande than in most other localities.





8

In regard to the methods of manufacture employed at this station, it is necessary to speak with some degree of caution. In the report of Mr. Hughes we have, from his stand-point, a brief but graphic descrip. tion of the method employed. I have never been of the opinion that sugar making from sorghum could be successfully practiced on a small scale, and the experiments carried on by the Department of Agriculture for two successive seasons at Rio Grande have only served to confirm me in this belief. The nature of the processes employed, the character of machinery required, and the kind of skilled labor needed, all coinmbine to render the manufacture of sugar on a small scale commercially unsuccessful. I do not see any favorable result in this direction from the two years' trial at Rio Grande. For the present manufacturing season Mr. Hughes does not give the total amount of sugar made, except from a portion of the crop, and this is no evidence whatever that its cost has been sufficiently low to enable it to be put upon the market in competition with other sugars. I should have been glad had the result been otherwise, for the successful inauguration of an era of sugarmaking conducted by farmers would have been a great blessing to vast agricultural regions.
In regard to the machinery employed my opinion has already been expressed. I have said repeatedly, both in official publications and in other places, that I regarded the system of cutting and preparing the cane devised by Mr. Hughes, and now in use in every sorghum factory in the United States and in at least one cane.sugar factory, as the very best which has yet been invented. I have long been convinced that for the extraction of sugar from cane of both kinds the greater the degree of comminution of the chips the more successful the process will be. The system of double shredding inaugurated by Mr. Hughes during the past season tends to secure this end. It was in this direction also that urged last year for sugar-cane the construction of a shreddingmachine on the principle of the shredder built by the 'Newell Universal Mill Company of NewV York, for the l)purpose of preparing the pieces of cane properly for the diffusion battery. This shredder I suggested should be furnished with very line steel knives, of the general pattern of the shlredder nlow in use, with short cylinders of large diameter, driven at a very much higher rate of speed. Last year I suggested to Mr. Fiske, the inventor of the machine above mentioned, the advisab)ility of building such a machine in duplicate for the purpose of reduing the cane to as fine pieces as possible. The advantage of such a shrehler as this over the one used by Mr. Hughes would be principally in its greater strength, and in the assurance that it could be run for days, and' pe:haps a whole season throughN, without any necessity for repairs. It is of the highest importance that ithe apparatus for cutting and piullping the cane shouhl be as effective as possible and built in two sets, so that if one should be out of order the second could still be used.





9

In regard to the system of diffusion practiced at the Rio G rande Station, and described in Bulletin 18, further experience only leads me to Mphasiz what was said in that bulletin, viz:Te defects of the system were both mechanical andl chemical.
The mechanical difficulty is the sam~ie as that -whichi attends all nllethods of d11ifsion in which the cane chips are mioved instead of the diffusion liquors. From a ineclianical point of view it is far easier and more economical to mnove a liquid in a series of vessels than a mass of chips. In the Hughes system the whole lilaiss of chips nder going diffusion, together with adhering liquor, and baskets and suispendilig apparlatulsare lifted vertically a distance of several feet, varying with the depth of the diffiision, tanks, every few minutes. The mechanical energyN required to dlo this work is eniormous, and with large batteries the process would prov-e almost impossible.
The truth of this view will be farther illustrated in the report, of the .Douglass Sugar Company. For very small batteries workingp oly) a few tons a day this system afight possibly be einployed, but I (lollbt even then if it could be economically worked. This opiiiionl of m1inle1 as will be seen, is at total variance with that expressed by Mr. llugrlte., and those who proposed to become practically interestedI ini the tiimitter will have to decide upon the merits of the two systems of (Iifftisloili fter a personal investigation.
Mr. Hubert EdISOu, who has had two years' experience with the opent systemn of diffusion, made the following statemnenits relatitig thiereto in thieLousiana Planter and Sugar Manitufacetur-er of D~eemtber- 1, S8. Ills report refers to the battery used at Douglass, Kams., during the season of 1888:
The battery was built from plans secured directly fron .Mlr. Ilughes, andl with one or two slighit changes was worked throughlouit the seasonl. The 1ma11n baItteryN consisted of ten cells, openly at the top to adit the b),akes ill which the chi1,S were placed for dliffusion. These baskets, mlad-e of' str-ong boilcr-iiron, wNere attawcd to 11c armis of a crane, which was rai-sed, rotatedl, atnd loweredl till the', reqjuisite imumilr ()I ijmnmerSionIS As, obtainled. Bcsides" these tenl cells there was iln exta; ()ne( of, I1 st, amei dlimensions Placed just outside and within rciach of' thc am-s fromIl the large 1cr 0ne This arrangement wa.,s intended to secure a denlse dIiffusion jui1ce, :illm\ ;I, s te Uifusionl progressed, the heie"N'st jile fromi tw\o of' thle cells oft itle 111,1bttey t be dIrawn into fte outside cell, anld which there reccee two b;askets od, fresh chlipsbefore being emiptiedl.
This manner of operating thle batey\ill, It I's claimed by the nvn ogv
julice almost as dense 'Is a1 corre-sponiding mIill "juice. Ill Ilily I)pnolhween greater advantaget is secured( by the vxleventh cell being outside tile m1ain1 b:Lter tbau1 by the Same numbe11r aragdIl regular1 orderI. Certa inly aIt 1 )mo'ilas 1c r-slits claimed by the inv\ento(r wele not ('\(-n appim latefd. Thet iimiid evi :11o entailed anl extra a11munt ofl labour inl trnlsfeingi" tlh bsket frn1t. sial lie to which itwa attachedl during11 its4 IlimIerIon.,1I to) thlarg crane of-m & ilwe mainl battery\.
so mnch forI 0the manniler of1 working t11bttry No fu theN t,11 lung"s tha:t air oif actual \-alue to the sug-ar planta1hrs, Hte results obtained, and1 11 the ePenlIWe incet"11 to) Such results.
A;(]IIIch ry of an(1,11y kInd(I toI b( efcI kk.t I \ e 'sh d rIur a Imnani of Iu a lab.or.1 1 1 11 111tII I ,iIizI Lot uis see ho(\\ t he I I Ihes ba 1t ter q -I mparesI II wit I h Iria~ Ib Iin 1.1\141. At I Io I:I s thle ba1ttery wa:Is de(signedI to ta ork Iut tIi~ of 1:111 daly and t do t I-, at leat Illt ]]enl Wtre nvcessary t(o Shif1t t Il1w l baet t t li ir d1lee t lae1 11,11of1b, uuu ber wouldl run a cliose- battery \ andl lin- it.l ~ir air i theya ol aven baskets weighing- l1tIU( poundrls ea1chI to h1anlle.






10

M',kles 1111S 111 1111;al Ialmr tile whole ten ba,,,kets bad to b*3 raised every tinio ono
%"Is fille(I ol c1l1p11(-(I. A I;ll,1,-c hy(Ii-aulic lotimp is used for this Nvork a;1d of it-self
ill(Q11 po\vul- thall is 11(!C:Cssary to run a battery of closed cells. This exti-a pimi railit I;ihor Noul(l not neucssailly condemn the apparatus if such superiorresults N (.ro ol)t;illIvd as to ovel-Conle the expense. But illstead of this, exactly the reverse W41S t1cc"111pli6lied. Not much better extraction. was secured than is obtained by
I I Jill,\- C.MC-111ili of Louisiana, and this only m-Ith. a dilution of nearly 50 per cclit., callsill", 111 exti'l cxpeuse of lio small aniount for evapmation. Then, also, the (111,111tY of' flic julce O1)kl1lIc(1 Nvis extremely poor. The almost constatit exposure to IIIc mt- alld (_."pecially UI 11,011 V(11-S(lis blackened it to such a degree that no -ood
COUld he 111ade I 1,0111 it. Clai lfication Nvas nearly impossible Nvith any of the 01,0ill,11w re-zi-ellts ill tile S11-m-house. This was extrentely unfortmiate ill Kansas, as tlic 4)lcatcst 101.0fits m' 111,1(le oil material sold to the home iuirket.
I'till reports of the eliemieil work at Rio Gratide are contained iti Bulletin 517 New Jersey Experilylellt Station.
11 LA.
EXPERIMENTS AT KENTNER3

As bas been mentioned before, Prof. W. C. Stubbs was pliteed in eb.arge, of the exi)eriments which wue itri-miged for ill connection with thi Lmii.-)hum sugar-experiineiit station it Kellilell 11111d the stations 1-it Batou Rmige aud Calboun. For two previOlis S(IiISMIS Professor Stubbs had lbade extellsive experillielit's with Sol-g-litlill whiell .,uv fully reported ill I he bulletins of the Lotiisi-,um experiment Station .Ind ill 11tilletin No. IS of, this division. A studY of the an;,ilytictil (Lita of the three, yeirs' WOO( ill Lollisiillm ShOWS ill Micillpluttic W(ly the peellli trities Of'sorg-1111111 N011(.11 1mve 1-clidered so difliciitlt the successful immo-tiration of' stigm-111,11illio. from th"It phult. The gueat N"ariations ill tile content of' Sucrose ill the.jiuces ()f the p1mit, it ; ,-;tuseeptibility to injury by storms and Whetmirm,(-sevil callscS7 (irestrikino1v set forth ill the analytivfl figure.,; NN'bich fl) I h) \v. Ill InY ()pillioll the pi-mllictioll of a variety of sm'(2,11 tl Ill-Cil lie sult,1111c to the soil alld clilwlte of' the" stloral. lands ()r Louisiana Nvill be d WMIN of 110 Small difficult v. trolll tile, results of the %vol-li -Ilre'ady 41(mv, and especially t1w Lust:, year, 'm accoullt of which is collt'llm'd ill the appended repm-t of I'l-WCssor Stubbs, it is cle.irly swell th'it a S(I'l-Smi \011(11 lilts prmlilced a stigar cme very rich ill sticl'ose ill till, Slate ()I* I'miP.;1all"I has pi-mlliced 'a Sor"Imill crop which is absollitely \v()it!jlvsS I'm. sugar-mak ing. fim. cmilillel-cial purposes. Another point fl1listrak'(1 hN. thc is hi-mi(jit oul, ill the rel'Crelive to tile past work
4)1, 11](, st;ll i0l), ill which, -'lltilml."ll a cAlk, \1 U, Iffoduccd wilmse.julc(I NVIIIS
rich ill its pl-m-lit-al w(wk111'r ill tit(, factory AN(18
1'(1111141 ilm"t diffic1111. Ill the this Is ascribe(l. t() the presence of' L11,14o (111,111titics (& (Itxtl.lll(, m. dv'%trilielike bmlies Supposed to he dvI I vc I 1 1*1.() 1 it 1114, -1, 1 n. 11 m .] I I I'l I I v 1) resc I I f i I I I I I t, j 11 i co, It is the opinion
jl* Stubbs th,11 ,4,11-ch .11111 sllcr(lse are developed ill the Sol'411111111 P(O'l p(1.,;S1t. ill tljl, c,'ISv it wm ild he foillid tll-,kt the dil-ect pol'.11-i ZIliml 40''1 Ill M-mild Show app'llently a lillich
111ghei. (.1,11teill (11, sm-1-1).st. th,111 \v:vs .1011:111Y pi-esvilt, Since. dextrille "lild








its allied bodies are much more strongly dextro gyratory tha,-n, tucrose. The points developedl by the experiments may be summinarized as follows:
(1) Sorghumu cane develops sometimes in Louisiana a jice con taiiwr a very high percentage of sucrose, but combined with other bodies which reder its separation from the juice difficult.
(2) The occurrence, of a wet summer attended by the severe, windsrms which are so common ill thiat locality prevent thle development of a high sucrose conteiit ill the growing sorghum.
(3) The(, possible utilization of sugpar machinery for a longer muantifacturing season is one of the chief inducements inl the sugar-cane region, for the cultivation of sorghum as a sug-ar-p)rodlieing plant.
(4) Delay inl working the cane after cutting is not as dangerous as has been supposed.
It will be understood that tfiese ae Co1cIluion1s which, I haVe drawnl from reading Professor Stuibbs's report, anid are not formulatdi h above mnner by himself.
The results of attempts to grow sorghumn for sugar-makiing purlpo5s on the low suga r-lands of Louisiana, in myOiinre ne hg lln
couraging to the belief that these lands and their climate are the best suited in the United States for tile production of' sorghm aIs I)rofe'ssorl Stubibs says. On the other hnd~, I believe the re are few localities ini the United States,,, vhtere sorghum grows at atll, inl which a better crop for sugar-making purposes ca n niot be produced. Experience has showli that the dry climate of southern and western Kanlsas produlces the lmost uniformn crop of sorghum11 for sugar.m.naking- purposes, wh-ille theC (lata Of iPro'essor Stubbs, which follow, show that the Louisiana protiluet, for the present year at least, is about thme lmo1est onl recordA. One point, howvever, Should be borne inl mind,1 viz, thait the courlse of experiment pursued b)'y the Louisiana experiment Station i's tile onle which is best sited for the rapid development of' every possibility of' sorgohum cu11tltre in that Stale. T-he experimental trials wvhich1 are Imde wvithl sorghnmmm11 will Show both its weak and ston pints, and inl thle wide variatin wli.In the phllt shows there will ltbtlcss he SOHIC varietyv l-roilvel ort)II( Which will be best sulited to thle peculiar11 conditions which ob)tain Ill I ha;t loceality. Th'le "(oil and1 cima41 ( 01111"ti ciit ionls of the nor-thern plrt W, the State, \\here. cotton is now grmvwu, will probably be found bletter 'suited to the lprodnicti of'sorm.-11 thai tos o)ffthe presentsgrrocig coahIItwi(S. I f'vel qulite. sure that t lle exlpectaltionl expressed by11fso stubbs o)f being able to realize imdclr certaini condlitions, ais imut-li is I 21) to 1253f)ltSo sugar;,, from( sorghum 11ane m he fulk ly mt nuderci
fa,\ ofldle circumlstanices; but1 it woulld stlil relmin to) be dcmnomisnatedl~v1 that this y \ield4 could hev re.1sona1l -v v t v hete Ii Iyear11 to yer rI ev II ocCasiollyM, mn a lrg scalle. The "sibsequial experimet whichi are. promised by Professor. stlibbs aIt thle Louisiana. station will dolubtless set at r-est, inl a fe~w y emrs, a11 ll hse. questions, and demonistrate toI .he
sugr a(es f Loulisimlia Just what canl be expected fro-m sorm-11i as






12

EXPERIMENTS AT CONWAY SPRINGS.

In the reports of Messrs. Deming and von Schweinitz which follow, together with the analytical tables, much interesting information may be found in regard to tihe sorg-hum-sugar industry in Kansas. The suecessftil continuation of the work at Fort Scott has encourged the belief in the .possibility of a speedy establishment of a sorghum-sugar industry in Kansas on a large scale. The unfortunate financial outcome of the work at Conway Springs shows that much is yet to be learned by those entering upon this industry before success can be confidently predicted. A discussion of the chemical data collected at Conway Springs will be found in connection with the analytical tables. It is proper to say here, however, that the sorghum juices of the crop grown at Conway Springs show a higher content of sucrose than any large crop which has ever before been produced in the United States. This high content of sucrose which apl)peared in the crop after the middIle of September, as indicated by the analysis of the juices, was con. tinued until the close of the working season in November. The samples of chips taken from the cells of the battery showed in their juies a high content of sucrose uniformly; much higher, in fact, than would be indicated by the output of sugar. One reason, doubtless, for this was the exceptionally dry season diminishing the content of water in the cane and thus increasing the percentage of sucrose in the juice. This fact, thoughli not established by the determination of the fiber in the canue, is plainly indicated by two other fiacts developed by the analytical work, viz, the diminished extraction when using the small mill at thie same pressure as the season progressed and the high content of total solids in the juices. The output of sugar was evidently diminished by the character of the water used in diflfusion, but that would be unable to account for the small yield of crystallizable sugar obtained with juices of the richness of those worked. Experiments made by boiling a solution of pure sugar with the water used in diffusion at Conway Springs proved that the presence of a large amount of gypsum did not tend to increase the inversion of sucrose; that it may, however, have interfered with the crystahillization of' thie sucrose is a fact which can scarcely be denied. The actu1l output of sugar at Conway Springs, ill my opinion, would have been considerably larger had pure water been (np 1)oyed in the diffusion battery; nevertheless, the important fact ri;-ins that the yield of crystallizable sugar was wholly disproportional to the richness of the juices worked, showing that the high ratio of sIIVOrse was not obtained at the expense of tlhe solids not sugar in the j uic(.es In other words, it appears that a cane whose juice is normal in qluntity, say about 90 per cent. of the total weight, and having a contenlt of sugar equal to 10 per cent., with total solids at 16 per cent., will yidb filly as nuch, it' not more, sugar than a cane whose juice is abiirmil, say not more than 80 per cenIt. of tIhe total weight, with 12 per cent. of sucrose and 18 or 20 per cent. of total solids, Another impor-




13

tant flact develol)cd by a study of the data obtained at Conway Springs is the persistence of the sugar content in the juice after the cane was fully ripened. In localities where considerable moisture may be expected in the soil as a result of frequent rains during the manufacturig season it has been noticed that there is a rapid deterioration of the jUCe, beginning a short time after complete maturation. This has been especially noticed in the experience at the Rio Grande station. It has also been noticed by all careful observers of sorghum grown in ordinary localities. The inspissation of the juices by the natural causes of an extremely dry climate appears to protect the sugar from this destruetion. This is a point of the greatest interest to sorghum-growers, to whom the preservation of the sugar in the juice for a reasonable length of time is a matter of the greatest consideration. In the process of diffusion this thickening of the juice entails no loss, although if milling were used for expressing the juice the loss would be a most serious one. The above explanation of the character of the juice at Conway Springs is offered with some degree of hesitation, since I am fully aware of the danger of drawing conclusions in sorghum work from a too limited number of observations.
The manufacturing operations at Conway Springs were greatly hindered by faults in the machinery, which could scarcely be avoided when the short time allowed for the manufacture and erection of the same is considered. Instead of taking three months for the erection of a sugar factory, a whole year is none too long a time, and disaster, bfor at least one year, is certain to attend attempts to erect such machinery in the time allowed at Conway Springs.
What is needed now in the sorghum-sugar industry is the manufacture of sugar at a rate which will enable the manufacturer to compete with sugar from other parts of the world. A great step in this direction will be secured when the kind of machinery which has been pointed out by the investigations of the Department as necessary to success shall be constructed by skilled machinists and erected by skilled engineers, with time enough at their disposal to finish their work before the manufacturing season begins. Some further remarks on this subject will be made in another place.
From a commercial point of view, the results of the work at Conway Springs are wholly disappointing. To the person, however, who will take pains to inform himself in regard to the conditions which there obtained, many points of encouragement will be found in spite of the financial failure of the first season's work.

EXPERIlIENTS AT DOUGLA$$, KANS.

The practical experiments carried on at D)ouglass consisted in a thorough trial of the open system of diffusion (the IHughes system) to test its fitness for working on a large scale. For the details of the con-






14

struction of the battery I refer to the report of Mr. Edson. In regard to its working in general, I may say that it was a total failure, both as to economy of power and success of extraction. The financial difficulties which were met with by the company during the year were attributed largely to the use of this battery. The evaporating apparatus in use at Douglass was of first-class quality and arranged in a practical manner. The system of clarification tanks, double effects, and strike pan was as good as could be desired for sugar-making purposes. Bad the company adopted the system of diffusion erected by the Department at Fort Scott, there is every reason to believe that even during the first season it would have paid all expenses and made a reasonable profit. The attempt to introduce a new and untried system on a large scale shows the danger which too often besets the introduction of a new enterprise. The l)romoters of such ain enterprise, not satisfied with what has been accomplished, attempt to follow new paths, which often lead to unknown and unwished-for localities. It is best in any enterprise to accept what has been proved of value and not jeopardize the success of a commercial undertaking by introducing in its place a kind of experiment, which, failing, wouIld destroy all prospects of success. As will be seen by the analytical tables accompanying the Douglass report, the crop was of fair quality, showing about the average percentage of sucrose developed in Kansas during the last two or three years. The soil on which most of the crop was raised was somewhat richer in vegetable matter and contained less sand than the soil at Conway Springs. The climatic conditions of the two places were so nearly identical as to make apparently but little difference; yet it must be conceded that at 1)ouglass the hot dry winds produced less effect than at Conway Springs. There did not appear to be the same drying Up of the juice, which may account to some extent for the percentage of sucrose therein being less. The agricultural results, however, were of the most encouraging nature, showing that in this locality a crop of sorghum cane can be grown which, with proper treatment, maiy be expected to yield from 80 to 90 pounds of sugar per ton of clean cane. Not only were the actual results rendered unfavorable by the kind of battery employed, but, side from this, for some reason the centrifugals used proved to be wholly inadequate to the severe task imposed upon them. The drying of sorghum sugar is at best a difficult task, and only the best approved centrifugal apparatus should ever be employed for this purpose. IIad the battery at Douglass worked successfully much delay would have been experienced in thie manufacture of the crop by thIe imperfections above noted( inll thile centrifugal machines.

EXPERIMENTS AT STERLING, KANS.

At the very beginning of my connllection with the experiments in the manufactulre of sugar from sorghum I realized the importance of improv-







ing the qmrditv 0', itoc came tu be ti,, cd. In Bulletin No. 3, pitge 1077
made the followinor stah-nients
The future success of the iii(litstry (Iepends oil the foliowin, conditions, N'iz
(1) A careful selection all(I illiproN-eincut of the seed witli a -Iew (it* iiicre.islug the proportion of sticr( se.
(2) A defillitioll of' geogra 1111 ical. limils of titiecessful culture and manufacture.
(3) A better iiietijo(I of puri(ying the juices.
(4) A more coiiipl(,t,-. separate Hill of t lie Sngar froin the canes.
(5) A more complex te separate lon of t lie sucrar front. the nwlasses.
(6) A systematic utilizati0ii of" the by products.
(7) A careful nutrition and improveiriplit of the soil.,

IMPROVE'MEN'r BY SEFD SFLE(:TJo.N.

I am fully conviticed that tlie Government 6bould uii(lertakc the experimentt., N-vlilcli have in view the increase (if t1je ratio of slicro" e to Ole otlIer sllh ,taljces III the J IICO. These experiiijent.s, to be valual)le, must coutimic tin(ler prolwr selentil'ic (Illcc',1011 fora number of yeais. The cost iNill lie so great that a private citizen Nvill har(IlYbe WilliDg to Utldel'fal (- the ('XI)eDSC.
Tile history of the improvement in the ugar bcet sliould be Stillicient to ellcoill'it"(1 all similar efforts -,N- it 11 sorglillill.
The original forage beet, frorn NvIii(All the sugar beet has 1)ecii d(,N-clope(l, contained only 5 or 6 per cent. of' sticrose. The stigar beet Low will avelratre 11) pcr sucrose. It seenis to Ire lbat I few years of careful selection may secure, it sitintar improvement in. sorgliniii.
It would lie a lon, step toNNar(l OIC Solution of Ole 1)1.ol)l(.Ill ti) secure a sm-0111111 that would average, tivl(l willi field, 1 2 per cent. sucrose ;111(1 only '2 pci, celit. of ()tllo r sugars, and N%,itli such cane the ,,icat (litlicultY would be. to 11lake Sil-lip ;111(1 It"t Those varieties -ind indi-,Jduals of eacli x-ai-le IN- of cane %N-liiclt show the 1)(-.,,t aiml t ical results sliould be carefully elected for see(l, and this Selectim) colitillilt-A IMIll accidental variations become lien dietary qualities in liartnony NN itli thr principles of descent.
If these experiments ill selection coul(I lie made ill different parts (d Olt, cminnyl and especially the varlmis aprictiltill-al stations and colleges, 111('\' would havc tional value and force. lit I colintly Nvllose Soil alld (Allilate are, as- (11\4.1'silic(I as ill t1lis, results obtained I'll one locality are riot alwavs reliable for :tnothei,
If sortie, urAtv of action cotild ill this Wav 1w establishe(I allioll- tlI()sv ('Il--;1-(-d ill agricultural. research, nillell tillie alv] laboll Wolll(l bc sa\,e(l all(I l1wiv \-;II1l;Ih14 results be obtained.

lit a suinin-m-3- ()t* flit, inetho(I's which I 11.1d advm"It(A for Ow finprovementofthe sorf)'Imm phtnt, I s iid ill all mhires.s before III(- N;tlimi,11 Sti(rar Growers' Association in Saint Lonis, ill Fehrtlary, IS87:
Finally '1114,111S Ilavi. 1.111,lit Its that after .111 111c Illechallical
y, olir expert r,
AN-111cli ha\-v becil ill III(- Ilim ilit"Ictilre of, sligar fi.m li m)l"liIIIII 11;1NO.
ovel'COHIVY the ill(IllstrY call Imt 1)" colllc c()IIIlIWI(*I;IlI.\ sticccs.,flil 1111111 thu
ag ro llonlist Slic(.4-cils ill 111(ld lic 111 .1 :-o )VI, I III III p I'l I It N\ I t 11 :1 rt 'a st )I i 'k I, IN' I i I L.. I I (I forin content (it' toicrwsc and .1 111111111111 Ill ot, 401 licl. alw o-S. T I k is \\ ()I-I P, Ill, I* I I I N I FIY tho function of, oul. .1"l-Willtiltal 41\1)(11-1111cut st.ltimls. Ill licl-t tries flie produvtMit ill' Ilic scc(] 611. Illtiltill- Is a Ill'OhIct I'l"IfIch (dtho.
Ill the six Years 111;11 [lit, .11141\ I. \\ as 1 11 11-11 t III, sll ..Ir 11 1 01
been still further inilin)ved and jt,. Of 114),A
baps 1,2,





.iGK

too, it must he with sorghum. A careful scientific selection of the seeds of those plants showing the best sugar-producing qualities, their proi)er planting and cultivationl, a wise choice of locality and soil, a proper appreciation of the best methods of culture, these are all factors which must be taken into consideration in the successful solution of the problem.
It was with this purpose in view that I made the arrangements with the Sterling Sirup Company by which the Department assumed control of theexp)eriments which they had coninmenced in the cultivation of different varieties of sorghum. At the time this arrangement was made, viz, in the latter part of July, Mr. A. A. Denton was already in charge thereof for the Sterling Sirup Company, and he was appointed to continue in general charge under the direction of the Department. It was arranged with Mr. Denton that their general line of research should be such asis indicated in the above statements of the purposes in view. The chemists who were sent to take charge of the analytical work were instructed to co-operate with Mr. Denton in such a way as to secure favorable results ani to make such suggestions as might seem valuable in the details of the work. Mr. Denton was requested to make a general study of the growth of the different varieties and of the habits of each one with reference to its fitness as a sugar l)lant. The most promising individuals of each variety were to be selected tfor experimental purposes, and those showing the highest content of sucrose with the lowest content of other substances were to be preserved for fiture planting. The able manner in which Mr. Denton accomplished this work, assisted by the chemists of the Department, will be found in his detailed report. I regard it of the highest importance to the future success of the industry that the line of work thus commenced by the Department should be continued.
One great difficulty with which we have to contend is in the character of the appropriations made for the experimental 'work. I have called attention to this difficulty in former reports, and I wish to emphasize the matter here. The fiscal year in all Government affairs begins onl the 1st of July. For investigations in agriculture no more untfortunate beginning of the year could be selected. On the 1st of July it is too late to conimence experiments for that season; if these experiments be postponed till the next season arrangements can be made for their continuation only up to the 1st of the nextIJuly, and thus they have tobe stopped before they are well begun. The difficulty is extremely manitfest in the present instance. The wisdom and value of continuing the experiments at Sterling last year will be denied by no one. Abundant funds are left over from the present year's apoprition to continue the experiments fir another season ; it is, however, unwise to make any arrangenments for such work, since nIo part of it, except that which will be let out by contract, could be continued after the 1st of July, 1889. You thus find your hands tied, as it were, by the unfortunate disposition of the experimental year which has to begin and end with the efiscal year. To avoid this dillinculty, which has been one of the greatest causes of the disasters which have attended our experiments with sorghum, I






17

earnestly recommend that all appropriations for field and manufacturing experiments in agricultural matters be made to take effect from the 1st of January each year instead of the 1st of July.

POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED IN BUILDING A FACTORY.

It is of the utmost importance, both for the individuals and the industry, that intending investors in the sugar business should carefully consider the problem presented to them in all its forms. Failure is not only a personal calamity but a public one in that it deters capital from investment in an industry which, properly pursued, gives promise of a fair interest on the money invested.
Soil and climate.-The importance of soil and climate has already been discussed. In the light of present experience it must be conceded that a soil and climate similar to those of southern and western Kansas are best suited to the culture of sorghum for sugar-niaking purposes. Further investigations may show. that Texas and Louisiana present equally as favorable conditions, but this yet awaits demonstration. Conditions approximately similar to those mentioned can doubtless be found in Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina and other localities. The expectations which were entertained and positively advocated a few years ago of the establishment of a successful sorghum industry in the great mai.e fields of the country must now be definitely aban. doned. He who would now advise the building of a sorghum-sugar factory in northern Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, or Wisconsin would either betray his ignorance or his malignity. A season of manufacture, reasonably certain for sixty days, is an essential condition to success in the manufacture of sorghum sugar. Early frosts falling on cane still immature, or a freezing temperature on ripe cane followed by warmn weather, are alike fatal toa favorable issue of the attempt to make sugar. Sober and careful men will not be misled by the claims of the enthusiast, by the making of a few thousand pounds of sugar in Minnecso:a, by the graining of whole barrels of molasses in Iowav. Four or five million acres of land will produce all the sugar this country cain c()& sume for many years and these acres should be located where tIhe climiatic conditions are most favorable. During the past season surglii i cane matured as far north as Topeka, but in 1886 the cane crop at Ft)l t Scott was ruined by a heavy frost oni the 29th of September, and in l~85 a like misfortune happened at Ottawa, Kans., on the 4th of October. These interesting fitets show that these points are on the extreme northern limits of safety for sorghumill-sugar making, and thie region of success will be found to the south and west of them.
Natural fertility of soil must also be considered as well as favorable climate. The sandy pine lands of North Carolina can not hope to coinpete with the rich prairies of southwestern Kansas and the Indian Territory. Indeed, in my opinion, the last-named locality should it ever be opened to white settlers, is destined to be the great center of the
14056-Bull. 2o0-






18

sorghum-sugar industry; nevertheless, those who plant the virgin soils of this great southwestern empire must remember that to always take and never give will tire the most patient soils, and ajust return should be annually made to the willing fields. A judicioutis fertilization, rotation of crops, and rest will not only preserve the natural fertility of the fields but give even a richer return in the improved quality of the cane and the greater tonnage secured. Perhaps the most sensible solution of the problem of the disposition of the waste chips will be found in returning them to the soil. These chips have a positive manurial value in the nitrogen they contain, while their merely physical effect on the soil may prove of the highest importance.
Water supply.-The misfortunes which have attended many attempts in the manufacture of sugar by diffusion by reason of an imperfect or insufficient water supply are a sufficient warning on this subject to the careful student. Not only should the water supply be abundant and easily accessible, but the portion of it at least which is to be used in the battery should be as pure as possible. The presence of carbonate of lime and some other carbonates in water is not injurious, but the evil effects of a large amount of other kinds of mineral matter are shown in the data from Conway Springs. When the supply of water is insufficient it has been customary to use ponds for receiving the waste from the factory, so that it may be used again. This method is applicable if care be taken to prevent organic matters, scums, etc., from entering the water sul)pply. In case this precaution is not taken the operator of the factory may find himself in the corndlition in which the Department was placed in its first experiments at Ottawa and Fort Scott in being compelled to use water foul and putrescent. It is scarcely safe to rely upon a well for a supply of water, especially if it has to be sunk to any depth. Where pumping machinery must be placed many feet below the surface, as in the cramped condition which attends its erection in a well, serious difficulties may arise from the machinery getting out of order, and a great loss of energy may ensue from the necessity of lifting the water to a great height. In all cases where it is possible a running stream of water should be selected for the supply, and the factory should be laced conveniently near its banks. The importance of this mIatter is emplasized the more when it is considered that the most favorable localities fbr sugar making, as indicated by the present state of our knowledge, are situated in regions where the water supply is notably deficient. Yet it must be admitted that even in southern and western Kansas it will not be difficult to find localities for the erection of sugar factories where the water supply is certain and abundant. In the light of past eXlp-rience it is not probable that any further mistakes will be made in this dil'ectioll. Careful estimates should be made of the quantily of water required, and absolute certainty should be secured of tihe sul)lJpply of that amount of water, and even of a much greater iAmount in cases of emergency. Thie only safety will be found in some such plan. as this.






19

Proximity of cane fields.-Another Point which must be tak%-eit into consideration) in the location of a factory is thle distance which thle canile is to be trasported. This is aI matter which of course the farmes rAs ingr the cane are more interested in than the jGoritrso the fcoy when the cane is grown by contract. With g{od( roads, Ii a level colitry, it is easy to draw fr-om 14 to 2 tons of field calie at eaceh load. The average price which is paid for such cane at the pi'escit time is $-2 per[ tou. It is evident that at a given distanc \'(1ryi110 aIcIordingo to rite price of teams and labor in each locality, the cost of' transportation would equal the total receipts for the cane; in this case tile fil'ntier would have nothing left to pay for tile raising of the cane ma d la-rolit. Evidently true economy, fromn an aigiicultuiral point of' view, vould rI-. quire the cane to be grown as near the factory as posSible. It wvoul be well, indeed, if all the cane could be gr,1own, within aI radius oif I mile from the factory. This would give, ill round imimbers, 2,000 aei'es tributary to a factory. With an ordinary season tiis oughJt to pr~odatce 20,000 tons of cane. The lengthening of the radius of this circle by onehalf mile would give the greatest (listalice to be hauledl N) niles, thtus vastly increasing the surface tributary to the central. facwtory. It is true that at the present time farmers arev easily found who arI-e willing to draw their cane 4, 5, aind evenly 6 mliles, bult this cotidit ionl ofafis can not be continued when the business, s is fully established andl the factories in sharp competition with each other. III cas e the exhaiusted chips are to be returned to the soil as fertilize r the impoitanlce oft at cc-iitrally located factory asdsrbd is (lubly emllphaslizedl.
Fuel.-A cheap and abundant suply of ful i's not IV.,.- iInll~rtJlit than the raw material to be manufactured into sugrar. 1As 1 far as thle sorghu-111sugar industry is co uicernled the coal which is usedt tor ful- is transported almost exclusively by ratil. In locati it g a fiactoryt eefoe both for convenience of' shipjpinl the product anld Imr recvi. a1. ;Ip ply of fuel, it Should be placed sufficienitly' near a railway; lin vo ena1ble;(1~ it to be connected therewith *by a swvitc.-Itibetelwv r. 11hat the Switch should be of some conIsiderable leng1th t111111 thatl 11C he .'ayr supply Should be remote or the canle inl distanlt lieIls.
The problem of burming thte exhaulstedl ch IpI)s hI nI Ie II k k 1 c I i kc sfully Solved and I (hlbt ver'y il Ich whether I t \vIwilb.# SAc th Ill'~ cUing)( Which the chlips undergo.4 inl the process of1 dithisioli the Il dimclil v Of expressing' the walter from11 thenmi Is asg1 eta tht.1-;rts ig~h Juice froin fresht chips. Thus to dr-y thechp sufficictit 1l\ to mlcthe economical for ftel wvold ruIt vast expenditure HF0 P )WcI, Wlhich would hardly be suppJIlied by the inicreased41 supply vl~ci tmirielb theircomibustion. Experiments during the. seasons, ;11X~ it MamIlia Plantation, Louisiana, showed that an ordinar11y arntilwslrY "Idapted to the jiressulre of exhaulste d vane4 chip.s. Til.he trdImIg (0 the
Since 0thi4 was written firt her V\111.eritell t s f lilort 1,41vor.( 'll t(, ihr e pu iI of economically u1"iug" the Chip1s for1 fulel.






20

mill was dlllicult, and the amount of fuel produced seemed wholly disproportional to the expense of preparing it. It has been proposed to try the process used for extracting the water from beet pulp for the purpose of drying sorghum chips. There is nothing whatever in the experience of the beet sugar factories to warrant the belief that such a process would render the chips sufficiently dry to burn. Although I would not be considered as discouraging aniy further attempts in the direction of preparing sorghum chips for fuel, I must be allowed to express the belief that for some time to come coal must be chiefly relied upon.
If the chips are to be successfully burned in the future we may make up our mind, that it will have to be done by previous pressure in mills which in all their appointments shall be as strong and efficient as those which have been inll use for expressing the juice from cane. It can not be hoped that these chips will be made sufficiently dry by exposing them to the sun, and in artificial desiccation the amount of fuel required would be almost as great as that used in the evaporation of the original juice. It is claimed that at Wonopringo, in Java, as reported in the New Orleaus Item of December 16, 18883, the Fives-Lille Company has succeeded in drying the chips by passing them through two powerful three roll mills, and that the chips thus dried do not contain more than 55 per cent. of moisture and burn readily in an automatic furnace invented by Godillot. If it be assumed that 100 pounds of chips contain 10 pounds of combustible matter it is seen that nearly 80 pounds of water will have to be expressed therefrom before they are fit for fuel. I am doubtful whether such a process will piove profitable save in countries where fuel is very (lear, as it is in Java and Cuba.
Cost of factory.-It is on almost universal experience that the actual cost of a sugar factory is underestimated by those who undertake its erection. Many of the disasters whicL have attended the manufacture of sorghuni sugar have been due to miscalculation of the cost of the alpparatus necessary for the purpose. It is the part of wisdom to avoid uistlkes of this kind, and before undertaking the erection of a factory to fully understand the amount of outlay which will be required. The cost of a 1*actory will, of course, vary according to its capacity and the iarater of the machinery and building erected. Inll my opinion there is little economy inll using cheap machinery, hastily and poorly put togethicr. Success is more likely to be obtained by using the very best mIachinery which has been devised for sugar-making purposes, and mrecting it in a Ilsting andl substantial manner. The economy which is securedl in operating such machinery fir exceeds that which would be obitdiie)d by erecting a cheaper plant. The character of the building must also he taken into consideration ; it should be suiliciently large to Allow a Iropcr disposition of' all parts of the machinery without crowdig, ail sulliciently strung to Atford a proper support for such liportions t hereof' a i lly rest u111loi. t. 1)D( rgaird sluhi also be paid to risks




21

of fire, and that 1)(ation of tl)c factory esl)eciallY exposed to suell daiigers should be nrid!- iis nearly as possible fii-c-prk)(A'. The aild specifications f*)r all the inachinery shotild be c -lrefiffl.v mider the direction of a e,)inpetent en ginger and architect t lie I'll Lich I 11NIN, furnished by manut'iieturing finals whose experience -ind reputation are a guaranty of the excellence of their wolk. For a complete fit(,ol-v, capable of working 900 tons per day, the cost may be estimated A $60,000 for a ininiiiiiiin and $ 100,000 for a in ixiiiitini, the Oi tl'Ci' 2nce hoing caused by the eLiborateness of the work. This iu;iy se,,,m a lAr-o sum, but it is highly important that hitending illvestors slit)"iM llillwx the magnitude of the undertaking \vhicll they propose. Ail estinlitte which exceeds the actual outlay by -, 10,000 wi 11 be far illore si t is filetory to all parties concerned tLan one whielt falls slhoi-t of it bY the s:mie amount.
Technical and cheinical control.-The niannfitctare of surnir froal sorghum is no mysterious process known only to olle or t .O twi-smis, 'Is attempts have been inade to establish ; nevertlieles-; it inust be miderstood that without exI)erience, in the inantif-acture of s nlf lr the 1110st competent engineer mav fitil. It is bestl t1lerefin-e5 th'if ilitelnlill(r illvestors understati(l. this beforehand tli,-tt they miiy be it We to scoitre some one. to take charcre of the mantifiteture of sup-ar who thoroilo-111V tillderstands the needs of the business inid, hits had some experience ill t It(, couducL thereof. Perhaps there -,ire not more thin tifteeit or twelltv such men now in the United States but their ininiher will be Ltr(rel increased within a short tilne. It Wotild seell)) therefore, that the jitimber of factories which could be successfully openited ill the iwxt N- ('; tr or two is linlited, and this fact should be takeii iit to etreflil cmisi(Icni, tion by those intending to itivest inolwy in the I'llsilwss. All llit(Aligent young j-Dan of good education, with (Illick 1wi-ceptimis all(I of iji. dustrious habits, would be ('Ible ill one, Veill, NV( IM1111, ill It LS01'"11 (lilt. sugar factory, to obt,iiii a knowle(lo-e wfiielt wmild ell'thlo 111"ll t() tit charge of a, factory, with some, degree ot, success, oil his ()\\-Il i-espoll'sibility. One object which the Dep,'Irt fit ("lit, h,'Is 11;ld ill ill lt" ('\jwl.imentsbas been ill having thein open, llot only to pithlic hilt to
careful technical study, to stich 111-rsmis (IS tt) 111(lke the 'Ittempt. It is to be regretted that lit least ()It(- coliII)i1ily, wilo It hroll"ll t1w tesy of the Commissioner of A-.1,1cliltille pei 111111cd to usv I Ill-VO atuount of inachfitery heloillgill"". to the 11'Is st) I'Al. Col..
gottell its obli(f:ltiolls to the Imblic Is to refilse 1)(11,1111s'sioll hw ;l 1cchnical 'Stild tim ls (111ring, Ole 11;1st Ncttr. I'llb.
y a I I d report on its 1 Z114
lic property is devoted to it pom, pitrim-sv \\-hvii wscd M such ;I 111,11111t.r.
The im1m.whince of' clivinical cmitr(d ()t' the nwitur..Irt 01'k IS SO evident thitt I neled iiot dwell u1mil it 'I"he v;l". 11-h,' 4)1 the sill-111111i plant -ire so pronomiceit as to re(pilre the carelill sillit-1,0- 1oll 401, 1111. chemist M -A l tifiles. In hwalltivs ll()t 1*.11- rclllovc l (1111,ort-11ccs M Ilic ch'.1 r;let er of the sol-01111111 ;11-1, nio-d 11111-- Ir'llc(l 11\' the (Lita






!2 2
Obtained at CoInvilv Sl)rillo.s and Dom"LISS Kans. during the past I 1_* n I I Z( it F. To dctei mmc the fitness of the cane foi the inimufacture of Su'"ill'O'.ontrol t Ilk, work- *111 lr.,; of t lie factor and find and remove the sources of' loss ill t1le are duties which can be committed only to.
the chelimst. For inan v years, at, least, this chemical supervision will be MIces".1MIN, and its utilit-y will always continue.

PROGRESS OF DIFFUSION AVIT11 SUGAR-CANE.
T\%-o plantations are, using the lilroeess or difftision dtll'iD(-r the present seasonfut, the extraction of suo-ar fi-omsucrar-cane. Thesearestl(varLaild plalltittion of Colonel Culluillodiam, iii Texas, and the.Magnolia plantation of Goverliol. Warilloth, in Loulsiama. The latest reports from the Sugar Land ldcantation I fiiid ill the Item of December 15, 18 18. At that
time it is reported that over 2,000,000 potin(Is of stigar had been made ,111111 that the diffusion battery was Nvorking ul) from 300 to 350 tolls of cane a day. It is also reportc(l that an avenge of 191 I)ounds of suorrar is maile, per ton. From the an-dyses of the c,-me rel)orted ill the Item of November, C)8 18887 it qq)eans that th.e.juice has about 12) per cent. of cry stall sizable stt(yai-. The success of the operations seetns to be fully assured.
The, Nvorking of the battery at -Nii(Pnolia, is also satisfactory. The analysis of' the calle shows that it is cxtrelliel. rich ill sug-ir. In theltem of December 4 it is relmi-fe(l that the juice, contained 13.7 to 16.6 per cent. of' suo-ar. A polarization had bee,i made showing, as high, as 19.2 per cent.
Under date of, December 97 Mr. CT. L. SI)elicer Writes as follows:
Diffusimi is \\,()I kill- to ev(,l-vm1(!,S satist,,-Icl loll.
allimst all of, whIch wcre causiA 1) v thc yar van of 11,1(1 I'll ple-C ffect 11,111. Governor Warlimill liall t1wallparatlis m-cl-hall](A t1li:, 11101,11H)" (Illd follillit t1lat the exhallst-pipo fi-wil tit(, 11111111) ()pells into the, Secmill vjl'(, cl, Illilklll(l, ,I pressill-c-pall of this Whell Wil-1.1,111", with Ilmrc thall 3 or -1 p(milds ()f Stemn. 'riiis (it-rect lias lwen remedied and (-t tt(, r V(
WI, JI(q1t, I I" a A a dell of' ti-mlW o
at fir"t, S41 11111ch that we 111might It wmild he livi,-cssar v to abandon it.. Finally two Im Ics I'll, Ill till, Side ill, till, (. Isiligr ()plm -,11e the cuttlil" disk relieved it-, so 11(m it i's
4 ff 1 'I I, r \\, (.I I, (,;111 it 1 .1 (,4 1 1 ()1' (-]1 Ilk
I I t I s. The (11111 1 ('11 \v ill prilliald v Surprise yml. I intelided Start ing with a
id, :":,) Ili- r ce I It. I)III hY .1 lit isl A 4 ill 111t,"l."Ill-i-111clit I Stal A m 50 per c
W I 111 .-Jf jw l. ccilt (I 111;1 lilt) \ 4. 11-l't frm ll .'2'S 1() .70 slicn)se ill 111v chip ,itlice. I gradilalk, 1.4"lliecd 1111. dillitim l 1111til it, dr(q)lled h) 11cr celit., Iv.1ving alm ilt .70 to I pcr cent. ill' "llur(rw ill 111c cXh;ll1:,tl-d chl)) jmc(s. W c have fillaily cm I I men ced 1.1111ning \1111 a (1111111ml of '21 Im.l. ccilt., Ica\1111" A'2 pcr cvIll. ()t' SIlc1*()SV ill lilt, exhatistud chip jilicv-,. With 1,1111wil c;m(" -;l1ch as 1111--lics"s apparatlis "I\CS, 1 \%,)tll(l 1)( \Nrillll),, to P-11:11-:1111Y :1 41111111 m (d, (PillY 1 pi'l. '11111 h) lvavc Icss thall .50 per celit. ()f Sugar chills. W ., lvW d lilt-, list, ()f* lillic Ill the cells. Practically, m-114-11 hill, Sligm., we call imt xvtwk the balt.4'ry hill ellmigh to (ilbtaill Clean Juice. W t. t r v h) kccp 111c h:1114,1-Y ;11 '111m it 90 C.
Fill Hicl. cNI)crillivilts havc also hvell made ill t1le IpIdicatioll of ditfilSiMi 10 .1MI'Al. calle hv I'vol'. silw)s at, t1le Kenner Sturm- Experi
A t till t 10, 11lis \vm.k \011 m, published ill a forthcoillili". Im Ilctill of (lial shith)II. ill til(, l,(,)tlisijm a Planter and Sug.ir






22 3

Manufacturer of Deceniber 1, 1888, a rej)ort is fomid on a part of the wot-k done. As high. as 210 pounds of sugar have twen obtained I)er ton of cane. The results of' the worl are ill eN-ei-N waN- encouril o,1110'
From the at)oN-e it is seen that diffusion with sit crar-cane isan assured 811ccesS7 and we iua exl)ect to see it gradually disl)lacincr the millitig Ti In
process throughout, the sugar-producing world.-"
THE USE OF LUMB IN THE DIFFUSION RATI'ERY.
The use of' carbonate of lime in the diffusion battery and the 1)ateut obtained for this prot ess b y Prof.'Alagnus Swenson are fully dileus ied in Bulletin ,No. 17, P. 61, Ct seq.
Siuce the publication, ofthat bulletin and of Bulletin No. 14, ftirther experiments at Conway Springs have demonstrated that the method originally I)roposed b..v me for 1he use of Ifine to prevent in\-ers-lon ill the battery by e\-enly distributing finely-di\-ided little ttl)oii the fresh ebil)s has pro\-ed, satisfactory An aj)paratus comtrueted by Mr. E.
W. Den-iii)(Y succeeded fairly well in eveiily distributing the linte oA-er all the chij)s entering the cell in such a fine state of division as to prevent any portion of' the contents of the cell front beconiiiig The little was In-ep-tred by air slak-im), and sifting through a fino,sleVe into a barrel co\,ered b a cloth to protect the laWrer.
Diii-ing the Imst year the use of little in the diffil.'SiOll Nattel. V for Chtl'ifying the juices has receiN-ed a good deal of attention. The first 1wi-son who promised t1kis process and took otit a 1),ttent upon it was Mr. 0. B. Jennings. Letters patent, No. 267544, dated octot)er 30, ISA,)l were issued to Mr. Jennings ()it an al)l)l1cation filed ou the 2(l of'.Alwil, 1883. Following is an abstract of Mr. Jennings's patent:
Bo it kno\\u that 1, Orkindo B.,junnings (if Holley Creck, ill Illc cont1h of' Willworth and State of Wisconsin, have invelitcd ceitaiii iiewand iiscfitl I inpilt) venlen ts in the manufacture. of su-;ir fi-om su- ar-Cille, sor".11(ilil 111,11zi., alld othvi. plants, of Which tbo following is it filli, clear, and exact deserlptioll :
This invention i-clates to the Illaillif'Ictilre of, .11-ar fi-oll) ditrci-clH
Plants. inelliditor '411 ga 1--callel Inaple, sol-1111111, alld 111,11z" ; but it has Illove 1"Jouckit referelice ti) defec.,iting lhejuice ill the stalks it Ill, '111(l 111alzo, alld
extractimr thejuice froin the reside or 1,mgisso 1-ol-slibse4lilt"It bo[h[)- illto r1141:11,;Illd

Ill Illakill., sil-ar fi-olil sligar-laodilcill', plants witli Illy invention, it is tily 101111m.S0 to extract 111(1 utilize :111 of* tll(. sacc-11,11,itle I I iihn. cm itiol oi, Its
1 jilice .111d to obtaill
defec'Ition, st) as to 111.1ke "t sivill) Irve froill f'orcign Illatteralld clell't-lits (it' tioll. Jj\- it tjj jIIi(-j- ill ls fi-olli sLim m ill"s "I' PiTuillit.114-S. that All,
ys filwratca ill file onlinary inetliod otm vx tract mg, \N hirli wa ,10 Ill\ I I(Oll a] m-.a I I i V 1, 11
avoidq.
A ilol icil to, I fic m aim fact iin. of, sligaim froill callt. '11141 ot 11cl. sta 11"', t 11., 14111 (' Illsists Ill 't 1)1,()(,(",s (it, 101-4.11:11-111" sai(l stalk-'s for thc Ilion. 111,1-fi-rt 1-\tIav1i,0II )1, 1111. "llict,
J)y yj-&lCilj r I Ill,, to -commintited or dirst-like cmid' t and llcrch\ t hc illicr vvil., ill f. tholm l."Ill crushed and rupturcil. Tlll part of' tll(' Mlvq-1111011 ;11,1 IllChides it vollibi [lilt Hm of (.11mvillar saws, 1,01,111illIr It CoIllpollild saw, for n-dilt'llig 111k, callem or sialks to slich ti fil-I v-conl Ill inlited condition, likewim, sprillkillig or IlilMiltr
*A report of the work donr ill Louisiana during the prist heasoll will soon be ls'swud as Bulletin No. 21.






24

with said dust, before defecation, dry lime or lime whitewash in powder. Such lime combines with the acid in the dust, and upon a suitable application of heat to the whole forms double precipitates at Qne and the same time.
Furthermore, the invention consists in a process of precipitating the matter in the cane-juice cells and cane pulp, or in the juice of any sugar-producing plant, however obtained, by exposing the jiice or material under treatment to a temperature of over 212- F., and subsequently removing the juice from the woody or precipitated matter by washing the same with currents of water. In carrying out this part of the invention I use a cylinder or other suitable vessel inl which the temperature is raised to the required degree (about 212Q F.) for defecation and precipitation of the matter capable of being precipitated, whether the same be contained in sugar-cane, sorghum, and maize stalks, reduced to dust or not, or in any saccharine juice, including maple sap, the temperature varying from 2280 to 2670 F., according to the ripeness of the material under treatment and other conditions. This vessel is suitably constructed or provided with means to admit of the introduction of the material to be treated; also, to provide for the forcing out of the exhausted bagasse or refuse, and for the introduction of steam while aud after charging it; likewise, steam to act upon the condensed water and released juice and force them out through a filter. Means are also provided for running the wash-water from a series of tanks in succession through said vessel, to act upon the charge therein, and an arrangement of d(lefecating-tank connections for introducing scum, sediment, and sweet wash-water upon a succeeding charge.
In the process of extracting the saccharine matter of cane, the mixing with the conmminuted cane, before the passage of the same into the diffusing apparatus and the defecating of the same, of dry lime or lime whitewash, whereby the material will be thoroughly defecated without the liability of the admixture therewith of the precipitate of the lime, substantially as described.
The combination with the diffusing tank of one or more defecating tanks, to which the juice is delivered from the diffusing tank, and pipes provided with valves for drawing the skimmings, settlings, and sweet water from said defecating tank or tanks and passing the same into the diffusing tank or vessel, essentially as and for the purposes herein set forth.
In combination with the (lefecating tank, diffusing tank, and a suitableevaporator, the settling tank provided with a discharge pipe for running the juice into the evap orator, and with means for passing its sediment into the diffusing tank, substantially as described.
It is seen that Mr. Jenniigs makes a broad claim for the application of the process of clarification inll the diffusion apparatus for all sugar-producing plants. Mr. Jenniings has claimed that the process
devised by the department for the use of lime to prevent inversion in tIhe battery is 1an inllfringemenlt onil his method. Any one who will carefully examine Mr. Jelninigs's claim, as set forth by himself in his applicatiolln fr a patent, will see that the two processes are entirely different, iot only in principle, but inll the met hod of application.
In a letter to the Rural World, published on the 13th of December, 1888, I endeavor to make this matter clear; following is a copy of the letter:
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AG RICULTURE, DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY,
Washington, 1). C., December 1, 18.
E0Tt; RI uAL WoLD: I have read, in the Rural World of the 22d of Novemnber, the. letter from O. I. Jenmnings, of Grover, Colo., in regard to his patent for clarifying NI uei jiices in the diiffusion battery.






25

M.Jennings is laboring under the mistake that I have been, uising( his process and
inglie-ears onl what he showed me how to dlo at first. This is a coitiplele misaprehension of the case. I have irever denied to Mr. Jennings till honor of inventingthemethod of clarifying cane jiiices in the dliffi-sidin battery ; In fihet, longi~ before i letr in your paper appeared I wrote a note to the"New Orleans City Item, specificly claiming for him the honor of the invention which had been attrilbuted to
anthr source.
It is important to suigar-makers, either present or proSpctive, to know the following points, viz:
(1) The process of using, carbonate of lime in the dliffuision battery is a patented prcs which canl only be used under royalty or boy permission of thie inventor, Profeso -Swenson.
(2) The process of ciarifying the cane Juices in the d1ifltision battery is a patenitcd prcs and canl only be employed iuder royalty or by permission of the iiiv(cntor, Mr. 0. B. Jennings, of Grover, Colo.I
(3) The use of dIry lime or lime in any for1iri in the diffusion baittery to preventf inversion is a Process devised by the D~epartme'int of Agriculture, and offered frue to) all sugar-growers in this country. Under proper chemical control it is more eticient than the use of carbonate of lime,
I will say further that I have never tried in any way to ui M. eninc process,. since in an ordinar-y diffusion battery it would be 'wholly impossible to do so.Th high temperature which he requires for the proper clarific-ation of the juices would render the circulation of' the liquiid in the battery ahnost, inimosible.
Respectfully,
It. W. WLY
Clfcnil s1.

The process of using line in the (liffusioti baitter-y for cliyitig pu.-pose it is claimed ha~s been successfully lpracticedI in Java and Auistralia.
Prof. W. C. Stubbs has also used it with success* -it the sugarl experimenit station at Kennjer, La.
Col. E. H. Cuinhghlam of Sarlartia, Tex., has al1so uised the i~s
~with Success, as is idicated by the following- letter frvoin him, published in the Louisiania Planter of December 1, 18s$:
My diffusion battery is now working nicely, andI I ani very imich grAiliedl at thle results obtained,. Diffuision is a success beyond~ a dIoubt. I atil now\\ work-1ing, sugars by running the jice dIirect froim the difflusion cells to till doule cfeects without any clarification, except using a little linie in the d1i'tusion cedls.
I shalt be glad to) have a visit froim you1 or any o)f youIII lriendsF whoj ft (. anI interest

The process of oirdiinary claiiciationl, inl mly opinlionl, is 1tioreo htvor-able to the production of ai pilu'-sua tlmii anlY Form11 (& clarific-atiol Ill the
cells of the battery. The process as pracI(,ticed ;it Kennler -.iid Sugar-m Landms, howeverI (liffers fr-oml thlat described 1y Mr. Jelialing"S ill W0oi kIig at a lower teniperature( .

OOM3PAISO-N OF TOTAL SOLIDS DETERMINED BIY SClAOE
AND DIRECT DRYING.

During the season of 1887 1 inistruclted thle chemi111sts at the( Fort Svot stionl to wake a series of eoi npansoul b et\Nw4ei thle totl sohd( :'s
deerinied by Oill Standahrd -SIMecarume1iter and14 by direc.,twigi.








The desic( adons were to be in-i(le ill tElt, d1sho_'S P',irtly filled with loose.
-i ,I)cstos or cleau saii(l. The pin-ity co oa icient or
I, fl, I lie Juice as shmvii
by tilk" Spill(Iles appeared too tow to pei-mit so harge a yield of dry sugar. As \vas (-xpccte(1, the total soll(Is -,Its determined by direct weirrbing weve found consi(lenild v less than were inflicted by the spindles. Tile
raW) of vael-i \ ai nation Nvas iiot tlie sanie, but t large Dumber of deter. mill:ttions estntflishe(l a mean rate of vai nation \vhich will make it posto .1pploximately Coll-ect the rea(lim- of the common sphidle. At
.Magnoli:t last year similar exper-iments were made with the juices of the ug*ar-cane, but these were not exteiisive enough to fix the rate of variation for those Jnices. Followhio, is a recoiA ot'sonle of the work
done here:
Compare on of 101al solids.

No. Total Solids Tota, solill Total Solids Difft rence.
bv spindle. dish,
.... ... ...... . ............... ....
Per cent. pir celit. Per Cent.
CM -If I . . 12. fl, 0 11. 9: 1
G165 15. 20 1:( 1 .............. .........
2(1 12. 7 3
11 48 .72 10. 94 1.26
T 1; 11 () 1 .46 10.81
61 76 13, : I) 12. ,5
12 11. 14 7 11.59
12. 0 12.00 0 11.65 .85
16.04 - ......... ...

The detei'minations in bvdiogen Nveie made ill a specially constructed appanatits, consistino, of (dass clvlindei furnishe(I with a, alass stopper Carl.yillo- two tiles with stop cocks toi- displacing the air with -an atmosphel-C of by(11.0gell. The Juice Nvas ahsoi-be(l by a, diie(l paper coil MI(I suppol-te(l in the oil a disk of \vive ganze resting oil a lea(l
e4 n
tnpo(l. "I'lle ('0111del. containe(I 25",' of' s-trong stilphuric aci(I. The It. 0111(tcl. ean.Yill,_- tile coil \v,.Is placed ill a Steam Init'll fille(l Nvith dried li'y(1n)g-en at, 1000. The stop-cocks welv thell c1()SCd nnd tile Whole -.It)p"ll-at'ils left at, tile tollipenit Ilre o'r the steam I'm, five hotivs. The stilphuric avid absol-Im'd all the moisture, and aftei, cooling- an(l filling tile c \ 1111(it'l. \vit h (111(,(-[ all. t he coil \vas reinove(l an(I weighedd in a closed 1) 0) d It, 1%
T i le det evIll i I I "t t i0l Is i it tl;i t d ishes weiv, in ade by (4yi n1r 2.5 to 3 grams of the Juice it 102) fm- five 'Scalvely all v diffel-etive was noticed
behvvell *11v I-estilts givell hY Ole plaill lashess and those Jilled with Salld m. :lsbesto's, except ill tile ,It Conway Sprill"S.
In tile detel-111111,10011S iml(lo here it) pllill dishess tile percentage of tot'd Solids \v;Is t.G'-; pet. cent. jess than 1) \ the spin(Ile. Ili the (let(.1,111111:11iolls Ill h dn)gell tli(,.N- weiv c.io pei- ci-nt. less. The determinatimls ill livill-ol"(1117 thiTel OIV \vIll ,-Jimv 2.26 pei- cent. less total solids, (-;l1v1ll:ltUo1 oll lilt, lltlilll)t,,. I)\- tile spill(Ile, than those obtained by

'Al Dim"Llss. I aiis., the 11ol-111.1i 'inice, cilculate(l oil the data furnished






2 7

by the spin(Ile, sho\N- ed a loss of'S.61 per cent. if) total soll(Is AN-lieu dried ill open dishes.
At Conway Springs this loss fit plain dishes was 7.24 per cent., and in asbestos 8.23 per cent.
With diffusion Pices these losses were, for Douglass, 11.31 per cent., and for Conway Springs 9.67 per cent. in plain dishes, and 10.83 per cent. in asbestos.
The mean loss for ii,)imal juices at DOL1411ISS aill(I CollWaN_ Spri)fgs was 8.36 per cent.
For the dift'LlSioll jLliCUS the mean1oss was 10.61 per cent.
It appears there,'oro, that; a s,-ecbammeter rf Ilie st,,mdard -Brix vari'a I nlll,, t be C()I.l ected,
ety, as stan(lai-diz(,d by a pure cane r solutl0i)
by fully 10 per c(_ lit. of its readings in order to give -rlu approxiniately a jilice of Kml8as
true indication (J the toU I solids fortild in the diffasioll sorIghum. For ,or-hum "rown ill -New Jersev7which w l,; tbe source of most of thejiflees examined here, the em-rection will be only about
7 per cent.
I am Iiavino- cotistrtic.ted s-mie saccharometei-s with srale to read as indicated 1)), ill(,. above corre(-tions.
The apparent puritieL.; of the 8orglitim Juices will be considerably raised by this correction ; flins at Dou().Liss the Imrity of the 1wrinal inice is raised fimn i-9-C.3 v r (,ciit. to G.-).31 pel. C(.Ilt-7 .111d at. C( ll\vay
Spring.,; from 66.70 to 72.76 per cent. Thu purity (if the (liffii.sionjuices of the t\N-o hwalitics is i-aised froin .58.;-9 to 66.8(11 pet- cent.1 -md 62.92 to 71.13 per cent., rt,,,spectively.

SUMAIARY.

It has bcen my duty dtitin(4- the inist few yvai-s to relmrt III(" facts concerning the sorg-hUDI jlldtI';11,Y "Is they were developell 1) v the researches of the Deparrinent -,111d of others. T11c.sc filcts have ()f a
N-arie d mixture ; somet I iiws t I Ie X, have 1)ec I I ft I vor, I Ide to t I 10 111 d I Ist I Y a I I (I sollietillie.s 11111avorable, k1t, ill all ca ,,Cs thcY Lecil 4,1111 v -,.wt fi)rtll and commented on Ill the light of Ino\A-lcd,,-e at hand. Ill tilk'sO timatioll's I 11ave 1well 1111111ovc(I fiv the ahlise (X p:11.: ics, I have (m "Iccom it (11, 111N, tIIINN I Ill 11 to cmiccll the \vv;lk
pmws 4 sm"'limil. It \\-;is thmight \vllell 1,111letill __N(). 1,
tbat, t1w experillivI&II \N-m-k ml the part ()f the Dk'11,111111clit milli sr1r:jI1l1n m, "Is till Is I It -I i I :I 1141 ill I 11;t t I)II11cl ill a ,,It V M ;IS 111,id C ()t' t lit' ITI\-('.Sl Ig,'It ionS CM id UC I (A i I I t I I T I It eg 'S t I i I I I i I I t I 1 1: 1 s t I \v I I I A, v
ea rs. Ill that, 1111lict Ill I 1 4 1 t I I I I v I I t t I I I I \\I!ll c;Ill (' :1-, 1-1ch ;Is

.vivld of fi-olli SO t o 00 1 )(111 lid s ()t' Slig-11. p .l. t I )11 4 t, clo;l il (.;I I Ic (.1111 1 t(I SPICUIlVd. Th(, results ()t* the pa,, t vc,11, c(m firill 1114. ill 11 1.-; (q)II11m i 'Ind fil(lic"Ite that, \N-ith 1111111111111114111t illd cm -4.1,111 cm i(n)l .111d lim pl.l. S(.luctioll the 'SM "'1111111 sil(I"ll, 11)(111sti'v Ill-.)de fiII.IIw 1;lllv
11 1,\V k1Id(-0V01V(l to SVf filllfll






28

soine of the things which must bie considered in order to secure the above result; but it nitist be remneTr(1 th.At' MY individual opinion is simply based ulpon the Study of Ithe facts which have been set forth. T Iie c data aie nace Ssihle to e very one who cares to make a careful study of the Subjcct, aiid therefore cach one interested has every opportunity to formn his own opinion concerning the matter. Since it is my business to investigate rather than to theorize, I have contented myself chiefly NNith rev)ortiIog facts rather thanl expounding theories.







f








REPORT OF.H. A. HUGHES) R10 GRANDE, N. J.



The whole season of this 3-ear has" been devoted entirel.v to experimental work, with the object of securing additional light oil crop -r()w.
ing, inanufacturiiit-r, 1ind coinniercial problenis.
The past season Nvas the end of a sei-ies of er()p growing, vovv'rin" a, n rll
period of nine years, and fully confirins the flact that the s:tfe thne, for plaDting Clraiige cane, after allowiii(r for vItriations of chinate, Itail
passed.
The Ainber cane, had rone by its season by Septeinber .23, -tit which
timethe Clittillo. 11"Id C0111111elleed, and the Kansas Oraiio-c liad verviittlo ripe seed on it-, the Late 'Uran(,e coutaine(l. verv little ripe see(l, an(l a
large nuinber of the. plunies (lid. not even have seed forined iii t1witl.
The crop Nvas all harvested by Nov(-Mber 1.
The usual frosts an(l ice were met, with restilts described later oil.

it a lysc" .

FI X,
Description. S I Ic[ ose, B. purity.
pur cciit. 1wr ccut.

r)
A Ili bvr ...................... i 7.: 1: '1. 70
.............. 1.47 14Latc (hawt-,................
..........
The Aniber was wsc(l to bivak in tit(, iww iiiachillo.-l-v, 11(it hcill" CMIsi(lel-(A Nvorth Nv(wklll(r For The l1-L:m-sis Oraii-e \vts ill Nviwkx(l
for Sugar aild ,-ave N ichk of tille quality 4&, G to 90 1wi. cclit. tcst; withw it w ashill(v ()t, il.()Ill 65 Im illids to ,')9 ) I ()Illl(IS per toil ()t' fichl. callv. 'I'lle hillit of (n. vskillizatioll c ill be liltll kv(l at 5-) 1wr colit. pIII Ity. Crystal"
call I)e 1,61-111cd this (1v(,-rcc, ]lilt tll(,\, ;11.(, (lifficult in tho
evil t ri I'll trals.
The Law Oraw,,,e was nioNtlv t1w cl-N-StAlizitiml 1)(1111t, .111ti ;Ilthollo-11 crvstals attellipted hv the M (wl(,l. to) lill(I mit
tile lillilt at which gv'lillillg I Akcs pl.wc -.111(l m'vcnll p'llis N\ cre ;1(.t will v grainett the (rvallls WC11V ISO sill't'l that W(Tv lv"irlwil ;ldv(.l-S(&
to the 1)(Jili 11 fol. sturil v ()t*."Ilch Ina 1. Two I wech's (d, t lit- -Scast Ill cl c SPellt i!) hilo:ikill-, in tho ;1.1(1 w it. ill S(ll\ Ill.2- the (011,






30

lems and testing the result on the battery of chips of different sizes, best for diffiusionl, anid the balance of the time iu regular worinig.
A lot of' Kansas Orange seed was selected and distributed among twenity different fatrmers, thus repeating the experiment described under season 1881 except thA Kansas Orange of the finest qu-al ity was used instead of Amber. The result was high and low test canes and large andl small tonnage.
It is btut just to say thiat many of these farmers bad no knowledIge of' cane, raising and followed their own notions. Those wholhad knowledge of oar work tand s;ome experience raised high-test canes and large ton-. nag, Oe.
This eason -orn) idetes the circle, of observations and records of crops for nine years. The (Lata can be summed uip, -which shows the actions of fertilizers on large maj~sses of c~~ne as it has been received at the sugcarhouse, and the proper and, safe dates for pantig each variety are dletermined. This will explain mnd answer many of the criticismns wh,1ich have been published from year to year by parties who only saw this work fronm one season's stand-point. The following deductions are made from the analy-vsis of more than 38,000 tonis of canme, and cover a period of nine years. Thiis table will be found convenient for reference, under thle heading of season 1880 to 183$, inclusive. It must1 be borne in mind that these facts will oly strictly apply to this climate and this soil buit until it can be p~rov'ed that they will not apply elsewhere it will Serve as a gu1ide, .nd should be initerpreted by takingr inlto considera. tion thle fertilizers used, the variations of the seasons, and the nature of the plant. These conditions are fully described.

,SiiimrY of' record for niwc yca rs.

PIla1ntinDg. Ib rvest.
Seed~z'~g is n pro- ...... .....
F r iI Z4 F .. ca oll c r e i l C or n m e n o d E oole d C o i n w u d E n d ed .

Complete forlilizei .... I) 4o Minnlesofil. f May 24 ...... May 24 S vept. 22-----Ot. 13.
Ukon1I io(rald t Nt (iti 11 imi N otkhnownvi Not known Not known
P14-1il -MM uao o12 ..-... May 21----Jiuno I I. SeptA 4----Nov. 4.
Y; 1 1It1;1 1 I 1, TI I t I -K, do .... May 4 May 2:3.. Swept. 10,.---Nov. 14.
Lar'e411mi itv~ot, Odol I" SIApor. 15 May 6 Se 1,pt. 6 Nov. 1IL large 1,1 :(W[t I-ll. of thl 1X .- o
milal 11m 1S5 do, ... 4..... May' I Sept. 2...... Nov. 11.
Sill~~ i'-il m 1 G Aiw 1 6 1 .. May 3C) S pit. 22 ... Nov. 16.

Litrf 4 H~atu ti..'l- of iuu I ,;m7 .- o ...... May .. Juo e 13 _- Sept. 213~ Nov. 2.
Il 1 id utua1t Id
CunipI.~~~~~~~~~~~Iu~~ ..tii r .n ....8 ... Mi1 .- J n 0 e t 3... N v 1






31

Summary of record for niwe ycars;-Cont in ued.

Polariscope r, st.

FertilizereB. Tonunfag,,e VarI.iIt v,
xw,,r arre. A t Comn- At endl I.
mencnent
of campaign. ajag.

Pound8. 0 0
Complete fertilizers .................., Ot O 14 14 AUiiibr.
IUnkuown....................... Notknown 6-14 6-14 Po.
Pacific guano....................14, 000j 10. 35 10- 56 Ambur and 1,,iv rage
Ypid mal-1.trO and be~rasst .... 16.000 9. 70 9. 14 Do.
Large qunantities3 oftstahblo mannure, C) 10.6 lf 2. O Do.
andl lighit dressingas of phosphor'i
Compost in small quantities. ... 1, C1?) -5. 04 100Do.
Small quantities of compost an 2, uul 6.00 9. 45 Amburi, Kxi,ii (4azing1,
muriate of potasb. dL1"
Large quantities of compost and MI 7. 94 9. 48 ~
murmste of pot ash.
Complete fertilizers and niuriate 18, NOJ 7. 35 6. 54 D~o.
of potash.
*8,000 to 32,000 pounds. t 16,000 to 44,000 pounds.

The planting commencedi on May 24, inl 1880, and was each year earlier until it reached April 10, 1886, from wbich time the seasvion was mado later, including the present yea.r, this completing the circle.
Season of 188O.-Ripeningw of the caneO was traced witli the polariscope, and when 141 per cent. of sugar was reached cutting began ; and during the short time required to harvest it, no damage wvas received from winds or frosts. Thie juice was reduced to semi siripI in .in open evaporator, and three weeli1s later wvas shipped to Phliladelphiia, andi worked for sugar, marking- firsts, Secommds. and tlhirds.
Time cane was phumtedl in hills 4 feet apart, and sufficient plant food used, The impression mnade by this crop wvas that rich cane could easily' be grown onl poor land, and that with a little more fertilizing large cm'p could be mnade. It has since been found by long and costly\ exlY1r11)ne1to that all tihe conditions for Amber Canle W(vere MOSt faVOrl,C excepting,, that a large tonnagve cotid only have been secured by proportionately fertilizing.
Season& of 1881.-Farmers raise(I the entire crop. Thle acreag-e wa-,s not knowni. It was pr-ovedI this year that with sved from the samle lot some farmers grew ca.ne, 141 per cent. of suigarl inl the *juieeo, hleotler s grew it with only 6 per cent. Many conjectulres; were imade, and( the imi. pressionI prevailed that some Ilands were suitable fore cane and other.- mun* suitable. It was, however, appa)"rent that all1 who hadtie best repuitattionsq for farming raised the hig-hest testingo canes(.1
Sea so)t o f I1882.-( ,11 N was g-rownIIb llte company,11. iic guanoV ; IIf high inl nitrog0en wa*;s u1Sed41,1and only Amber cane was planted. The Late Orange cane was grown i ly in sulicient quan11tity to sIulpiy seed f'or the next yea.r. The nitrog(eli had14 thme efh't-t to keep) the celeaves green for a long time, and even after frosts thev cane relmied in goodl condition, anid was1, onl Novvinber 41 higher In sugr, than on Sej dezuher 4. Since we hatve had less iilogvenoiis fertilizimr and[( '111rt3 of' otlict'






32

plant food this variety has steadily fallen in test, and the period during which it retains its highest sugar content has been shortened.
It is not safe to depend on this variety of cane for the whole season, even if nitrogen is used largely with other plant food, because of its tendency to lodge and break with high winds.
Season of 1883.-Yard composts and begasse were used in such small quantities that the nitrogen d(lid not stand out prominently. The Amber had gone by its season before October 8, and had not the Late Orange been substituted this season for sugar making would have ended on that day, instead of 'N'ovember 14, when the crop was all in.
Season of 1884.-Stable manure in large quantities, also a dressing of dissolved bone ash from South America, rich only in phosphoric acid, was used.
The phosphoric acid ripened the cane fully two weeksearlier than usual, and although the leaves were dry the Amber cane held its sugar content without loss until worked up on October 11. The Late Orange was affected in the same manner according to its season, and although apparently dried up, too, still held its sugar. Mill juice tanks containing 6,000 gallons were quite common, testing 13 to 13} per cent..of cane sugar from October 11 to October 21), after which time there was a gradual falling off until November 11, when the tanks stood 12 per cent. and 77 purity. This ended this season, as the crop was worked up.
The small experimental plots conducted by the State Experiment Station have always showed that by doubling the dose of phosphoric acid the cane sugar falls off seriously; but as it is my intention to denl only with cane in immense masses as found at the sugar house, I merely call attention to this ftact.
This year produced nearly 400,000 pounds of merchantable sugar, and there was found by adding the sugar in the molasses, and the loss in the begasse as it camine from the mill, that over 1,500,000 pounds of sugar were in the crop.
Molasses only was made from the begasse this season, diffusion being for the first tilie appl)l)lied.
,cason of 1885.-No phosphates were used and there was not enough compost to properly furnish nitrogen to the crop; still the nitrogen was lit, an 1 wilhenll the season comIenclled on September 2, the cane was so green we at o,e time thought it would be better to stop work. When work was begun, the Amber cane contained 5.04 per cent. of cane sugar and iicrveased to 8.8 per cent. on September 29, when the variety was all brought in. The Late Orange cane contained 10 per cent. of sugar when irst cut, anld gradually raised to 12.57 per cent., slowly declining to 10 per vent. by November 11, the end of the season. This crop was planted practically at tHe same time as the crop of 1884, and harvested at the same time. Hlad a large quantity of nitrogenous fertilizing been use(l the si garc (olitents would have bee11 much higher. Small quantities of nitrogen o ilinds dtficient in organic matter will (14- poor crops.






33

This was our experience again and again, and to secure immense crops high in sugar, potash should be combined with nitrogen.
eason of 1886.-Small quantities of nitrogenous fertilizer and light dressing of muriate of potash were used. The crop suffered severely for lack of food. During the season, where plenty of nourishment had been supplied, the crop came to the standard. When this was not the case, the Amber seed remained in a milky state for a long time and soured as it stood in the field, after three days of abnormally hot weather, making the cane unfit for sugar making. The Late Orange suffered from lack of nitrogenous fertilizing and the sugar test rose and fell in proportion as this food and potash were present; but being a longer feeder it did not suffer throughout the season so much as the Amber.
The Kansas Orange was introduced this year and, being a stranger, the ground was properly selected, and composts and potash applied in sufficient quantities, a 12 per cent. cane with purities over 700 being its record. The record of the Late Orange cane, for the balance of the season, is high and low test, according to the land; finally ending, with thecrop all harvested, with a test of 9.45 per cent. This crop discouraged the sugar company notwithstanding the gains by diffusion, which process had been introduced in 1884. Local agriculturists pronounced the verdict that the lands being exhausted by continual cropping were ruined and unfit for crop of any kind. The plantation was then sown in clover; no fertilizing was done. The farmers laughed at the notion that land unable to grow large cane crops could be expected to grow grass, but 'it did; and the clover crops on these lands bavetbeen unprecedented and are the envy and wonder of local farmers, and judging the hnd from the farmers' own stand-point, it is to day in better condition than ever before. The clover had found the missing nitrogen and furnished organic matter.
A lot of land on these farms grew poor cane for years, and in 1887, instead of planting it with clover, composts and potash were SUlJplied and cane planted; by planting the ground with twice the number of hills to the acre, portions of the land approximated 28 tons of cane to the acre.
Season of 1887.-The cane was planted from May 9 to Junie 3, and the late varieties failed to mature properly. A good dressing of bgasse yard compost, and potash was used. The crolp was doubled by planting 3 feet by 24 inches; purity ran about 640 and tests were good. Tim Late Orange cane ripened sufficiently to retain its sugar in crystallizing quantities through frost and ice, until December 5. Particulars of this season can be found in Bulletins Nos. 17 and 18 of the Agricultural Department, and in reports of the New Jersey Experiment Station. A small plot was fertilized with large quantities of nitrogenous manure and planted with Amber seed grown in 1886, from which no cane sugar could be made. The cane was tested on Septenmber 7, 1887, and was found to test 13.35 per cent. cane sugar; brix, 17.210; purity, 780; and 14056-Bull. 20- 3






34

it remained a long time after in fine condition. The same day milled chips from a field planted from the same lot of seed and fertilized with potash and phosphoric acid, polarized 8.880, and had a purity of 63 61.
Season of 1888.-Only complete fertilizers were used on one field, and muriate of potash was spread on another field that was poor and had never been in cane. The hills were 3 feet by 24 inches. Amber cane was planted on May 18, and Kansas Orange and Late Orange from May 19 to June 10. A cold, wet June followed, and the result was unripe cane. The crop was taken off between September 23 and November 1. The Amber cane was very poor in sugar. The Kansas Orange ran from 9.580 to 8.250. The stand on one field of Orange (Kansas) was preserved intact from cut and wire worms, by patches of volunteer canes, where seed had been stacked previously, and some seed had been left on the ground. The worms gathered where plants were the thickest, leaving the hills almost unmolested. When the ravages are feared seed could be sprinkled down the center of the rows, and afterwards be destroyed by the cultivator without extra expense. They only destroy while the plants -are very small and disappear with the return of dry, hot weather.
The Late Orange tested from 6.94 to 6.54. Scarcely any seed on this variety was ripe, and in a great many of the plumes seed was not formed neither had the cane power to resist ice and frost. These facts prove conclusively that the safe time for planting Late Orange has been passed. It is possibly true this variety might have been very rich in sugar, with a late fall and hot weather during June and September; but this risk-is niiot a safe one, and as it positively can be avoided by earlier planting it should be done.
OBSER VATIONS,.

The time for planting cane in this climate is, for Early Amber not later than May 20; Kansas Orange, not later than May 10; Late Orange, not later than May 1. Ten days earlier can safely be risked.
Nitrogen p)rolongs the vitality in cane.
Nitrogenous fertilizers combined with potash is the best combination for large crops and high testing juice. Phosphoric acid hastens the ripening of the cane about two weeks, and too much phosphoric acid reduces the quantity of sugar in the juice.
Potash makes large and strong stalks. If canes are desired to be worked after frost and ice, they must be sullied with ample food, be well grown, and of a late variety. If canes are not well advanced when frosts and ice strike them, they will not be able to hold the cane sugar long.
The earlier the variety the later it should be planted. If canes increase rapidly in cane sugar soon after frost strikes them they will soon be worthless for sugar-making. If they do not increase at all, or very little, they will remain good for a long time, providing the frost was severe enough to kill, or almost kill, the leaves. The Amber
was~~...... Se C11 ellol o U l






35

h les power to resist frost and ice than Kansas Orange, and the Kansas Orange less than the Late Orange. The time which the sugar remains in high percentage in the cane is largely under the control of t cultivator. In all attempts to improve the seed by selection and increase the sugar and purity, the cultivation must be taken into consideration. High testing seed will make poor testing canes, if plant food is not present in sufficient quantities, or if the cultivation is neglected. Poor testing seed will give high testing canes if the seed is of a good variety, and ample food has been supplied, with good cultivation.
Canes can not be grown, rich in sugar, by starving them. Ground well supplied with plant food and badly cultivated will give very small canes, rich in sugar. That there are other peculiarities in other varieties is shown plainly in the case of the White African. Although planted late last spring, and the ground fertilized precisely like the Amber and Kansas Orange, it contained this year 12.30 per cent. cane sugar, purity 690 on September 27, time the field was cut. The sce(l was given to the writer by Dr. Collier along with sixty-eight other varieties in 1883, all of which were planted; but for certain good reasons this cane was the only one selected from the lot. It has been grown since then each year, always giving high percentages of sugar. Some of its peculiarities are, viz, the unusual toughness of its stalk, when overripe, and its great strength at all times.
It is hard, for some unexl)lained reason, to get a good stand. The seed is white, and local millers, with their crude appliances, have told me that they can get 30 pounds of flour from 1 bushel of seed, which, mixed with a small proportion of wheat flour, is preferred lo buckwheat. The birds ravage the seed, and will select it from a hill planted with mixed Orange and Amber canes, leaving the other varieties unmolested. In order to be protected from these depredators and secure the seed, plots of sufficient size must be raised and calculations made for this loss. It has been found true here that they will not take quite all the seed from 1 acre in a season, consequently plots of 5 or I0 acres are comparatively protected.
The purity of the canes of this variety has been noticed as high as 77.920.
The cane has not been properly studied, and the birds have taken nearly all the good seed from the acre raised this season.
MANIVACTURi.

I will confine myself, in my report, to methods adopted for the first time this year.
Sawdust filters.--It has always been found that filtration of the juice through some medium that would remove the particles of matter mecihanically suspended was necessary. For two years, filter presses were used. It was found if the juice was acid they soon became gummy and






36
refused to run; if the juice was alkaline it would filter much better but gave highly colored products.
Last year Dr. Wiley advised the use of sand. This gave good result for a time, but gradually ran slow and failed to give satisfaction. Thi size of the filters, in proportion to the juice worked, was very large, and it soured easily.
During the past winter experiments were constantly carried on witl the hope that something practical, cheap, and easily handled would be discovered. Experiments were made with bone black, coal, sand gravel, oat straw, wheat straw, grasses, sedges, excelsior packing, an( many other things, all of which proved unable to do the work required were too costly, bulky, or in some other way not desirable. It was ac cidentally fbund that the coarse sawdust as it came from the mil would do the work.
Shallow filters are better than deep ones, and in well-conducted ex periments the juice was so well cleared of its mechanical impurities that it appeared to be bleached.
Examinations of the filters showed, among other things, soot fron the chimney, mud, and dirt. Thejuice was actually cleansed. The filter used in this season's work was constructed as follows: A board twelv inches wide was cut in four pieces and a box made 4 feet long by 2 feel wide; a wire screen with one-sixteenth of an inch mesh was fastened on the bottom, and three inches of sawdust placed within it. Car( should be taken that something should be placed over the sawdust tc break the fall of the juice and prevent guttering.
It was fond in practice that 1 bushel of sawdust was sufficient to filter the juice from 15 tons of cane, and that the filter should be re viewed every twelve hours.
It may also be well to state that the hot juice as it came from the evaporator was run through a sawdust filter, removing scum, scale dirt, etc.
Double shredding.-In 1885 samples were taken of the exhausted chips as they came fiom the German diffusion batteryand it wasfound that better diffusion had taken place in small chips than'from a larger size; and last season this was found true also of the battery which wac then being tried for the first time. All attempts to obtain a chip o the size required failed, owing to the following facts: If the knives o the shredder and the cutting bar were placed so closely together thai the small chips might be made either the shredder would not feed fasi enough or the knives would clog with the fine cane and stop cutting, It was found this season that by making the ordinary cut first and afterwards allowing the edge of the knives to project beyond the cyl. inder very slightly, and by moving the cutting-bar closer and passing the previously cut cane through a second time, the chips could be madE as fine as possible or as desirable.
It was found in actual work that baskets of cane filled with chips of th






37

s size weighed 160 pounds, and packed in the same way with the
chips weighed 212 pounds, thus increasing the capacity of t nd by its close packing increasing the density of the

Is be hoped, notwithstanding the brilliancy of these results, that
mrs will not at once attempt to double shred their chips, bec the second time they go through they are not self-feeding, and should be invented and proven equal to their task before a cial season should be risked.
B o r.-In accordance with your instructions, I constructed an Sevaporator to be run by crude oil (petroleum). Parallel brick w 13 inches thick, 34 feet long, and 24 inches high were constructed. At one end was an iron stack, and at the opposite end were the burners. Upon the walls was placed an open evaporator of sheet iron I foot high, 3 long, and 4 feet broad, divided by partitions 8 inches apart, 6 i high, and 45 inches long. The juice entered the pan over the
b rs, discharged at the opposite end, traversing a distance of about 14fet in twelve minutes. The skimmings remained at the end over te rers and were easily removed. As this was the first time, to knowledge, that crude oil had been applied to sugar work, I was a to collect little data to guide me. After examining personally the bin use for steam-boilers, I finally adopted one belonging to H. W Whiting, of Philadelphia. He advised me to place three burners the end, and inserting in the brick-work, at intervals of 1 foot, inch p to extend completely through the walls and flues and to be perfted with holes one-fourth of an inch in diameter and 3 inches apart. e intention was that air should pass through the end of these pipes, en through the perforated holes into the flue, and thus aid combustion. The burners were made from 2-inch pipes with a T fitting opening at bottom to supply air on the Bunsen burner principle; the oil passed thrgh a quarter-inch pipe, through a cock into a 1N inch coil 14 inch diameter so placed as to receive a large portion of the heat from the burners; there is also a quarter-inch steam pipe leading into the end of epipe, so that the oil and steam can be mixed as it passes into the hot c011 or superheater, as it is named. When the oil is converted into gas f the superheater it passes into the Bunsen burner and is forced rough it by another steam jet and burned from the opening. In our first experiment Bradford crude oil was used, and in our final eprm ts black residuum of the refineries, which I have been informed
Product left behind after the light oils have been distilled oi1'. In practice we could find very little difference in the heating of the wo oils. Lima oil could not be had in quantity less than 6,000 gallons; c uently it was not used.
It was found in starting the burners that a stack 10 inches in diametw too small the effect in practice being to cause explosion of gas.
A stk of 24 inches diameter was substituted ; this stopped all explo-






38

sions, but wasted the heat. Dampers made of fire-clay were then used, and it was found that after the superheater was hot enough to generate gas freely the dampers could be safely closed. Care had been taken in constructing the dampers to arrange them so that there was left on the sides a space equal to about 12 inches square after they were in. A further improvement in the heating was made by filling in next to the stack with dirt. This bank of earth was then extended back into the flue for about its length and paved on the top with bricks. There was left a space of about 9 inches between the pavement and the bottom of the evaporator; and in filling in the flue the combustion pipes were covered up for the length of the embankment. The combustion pipes directly in front of the flame were soon burnt out. iNo detrimental effects being perceptible from the loss of this air, it is safe to conclude that they were of no value.
The owner of the burners thought we would evaporate at least 15 pounds of water for each pound of oil burned, and hoped we would reach 18 or 20 pounds. The record of the best day's work shows 71pounds. It is but just to say that the evaporator was entirely too large for the work it had to do, and the walls had time to cool before starting each day. Now it is found that if the walls and surrounding mediums are much lower than the temperature of the gaseous prodnet of the Bunsen burners, condensation takes place and the oil is fried, as it is called, instead of being generated into gas, which is wasteful in the extreme. One-third of all the oil burned was generally used in starting the burners each day. Another source of loss long evaded our researches. It was caused by using cocks to feed oil to the superheater. A common quarter-inch globe valve was substituted for the cock, which brought the burners under full control and enabled us to burn only one-quarter as much oil. I make the suggestion that pipes for supplying oil to the superheater should should be less than one-quarter inch; that globe valves less than one-quarter inch be used, and that threads that regulate these valves be made as fine as possible, so that they may have the most delicate adjustment. I can not tell the saving of all these apparent improvements, because, I had not time to get the record properly. Taking the record as it is and count. ing the price of oil at $1.25 per barrel, about one-half of the water was removed from the diffusion juice of each ton of field cane for 31 cents per ton.
The advantages of the evaporation are: (1) Cleanliness and freedom from smoke and ashes; (2) the little attention required to run it; (3) the good and rapid work done.
With rapid running the inversion is almost nothing; in fact, after evaporation it is sometimes higher in purity than before, after removing the scum.
It shouhl be remembered that the unrefinable Lima oil- has been quoted at the wells for 15 cents, which would lower the price for evap-






39

oration of their juice in that section to 4 cents per ton. The loss in
starting could be avoided very much by proportioning the evaporator to the size of the house.
The Battery.-The designing, building, and breaking in of such an apparatus as a new diffitsion battery on an entirely new principle could not but prove a gigantic task.
The object of the battery at firs' was to make a cheap diffusion battery, applicable to small houses; second to make thick juice.
For three seasons laboratory experiments were carried on at Rio Grande and dense juices made by diffusion, equal to mill juice from unstripped cane, and the principles by which this juice was obtained were incorporated in this battery.
The season last year was devoted completed to the breaking in and finding out the rules governing this machine.
The ram constructed to lift the baskets, last season, worked slowly. When making some changes this fall the cause was located and carrected. Owing to this mechanical difficulty and being forced to take off a crop promptly, it was not until later in the season that plans could be put in practice which would remedy defects in heating and extraction. This was tried with temporary arrangements, but the results were considered so high that it was objected to on the ground that the tim during which the experiments were conducted was too short to thoroughly demonstrate the facts.
The chemist of the New Jersey Experiment Station, after carefully going over his work, says, reporting on this experiment: The best work accomplished by the ltio Grande battery was 90 percent. extract1 ion, dilution 11.50 ; purity, declined 1.
The cell necessary for heating the chips properly and thickening the juice is placed outside of the battery and is called the eleventh cell. This year this apparatus was added to the regular work, and from the first day never failed to give satisfaction. It is found that wheni the caue is carefully packed into the baskets the gain is not so great as when the baskets are loosely packed; at such times the full value of the eleventh cell appears, gaining 20 to 30 Brix.
The entire apparatus worked without delay, and the mechanical arraugements were ver, complete. For a battery of 40 tons, the baskets and cane together will not weigh 400 pounds, and the lift will be considerably less than 4 feet; consequently 4)00)x 104,000 pounds to be lifted, and 4,000 x 4=16,000 pounds to be raised 1 Ibot high at each movement of crane. The crane makes twenty ilnovelicmenits iI an hour or once every three minutes; conseIlquently 1~,00035,333 pollunds raised 1 foot high each minute, or less than one-sixth of a horse-power is required.
There is to be added to this the cost of raising the water fo)r supplying the battery and the movement of the juice; but with these all added the cost for power is found to be mIerely nominal.






40

With double shredded cane and actual running, the dilation was reduced to 4 per cent. and approximated the mill juice within four-tentha of a Brix, with a loss of only 16 pounds of sugar left in each ton of cane. The Brix of the milled diffusion chips showed from 1j to 2. Without double shredding the battery gave within J to 20 Brix of the mill juice, and left about 16 pounds of sugar in the chips per ton of cane. The purity fell off one to two degrees, but it must be remembered that no chemicals were used to prevent it. There is always a percentage, about 2 per cent., of leaves and sheaths which pass the cleaners, and as their purity is very low they mast reduce the purity of the diffusion juice. Lime and its salts and sulphites have been used in batteries, and have appeared to give juice of as high a purity as the mill juice; but it would have to be shown that some of the glucose had not been destroyed before the point can be positively settled. Besides, alkalies used on the fiber in the cells and clarifiers where the fiber is present are believed to produce gum.
It has been observed this season that when scum raised in the chips from heat, while diffusion was going on, that the juice coming from this battery was higher in purity than mill juice. There is no evidence that the air passes through the cane, while being diffused, except when first heated; neither do the juice or chips turn black while diffusing, as is supposed by some; and the color of the juice will compare favorably with the mill juice.
INVERSION AND CLARIFYING.
Considerable inversion has taken place in the house this season. The most of the inversion takes place by permitting the juice to stand hot for a considerable time in tanks, and in process of manufacture this should be carefully avoided.
This is the third year during which we have used no clarifiers, and the writer does not see what use they are with the present knowledge of the juice. Alkalies used too freely in the battery or in the clarifiers when fiber is mechanically suspended are thought to produce gum and prevent crystallization, although the instruments may show no loss from inversion. After the juice has been filtered, the addition of alkali in not too large quantities, so that the juice would be neutral, or, better still, slightly acid, would no doubt prevent some inversion. The correct method of properly clarifying the juice of the sorghum so that the "not sugar" parts can be precipitated, and the purity be made to gain largely, is not known to the writer. Rapid running in the diffusion battery and quick running in the open evaporator will almost entirely prevent the inversion of sugar.
COMMERCIAL POINTS AND AUXILIARY HOUSES.
The auxiliary houses have been stei.dily kept in view during the season's work, and the fact has been remembered that the industry will spread and succeed at a much quicker rate if the capital necessary to






41

conduct the buiness is kept as low as possibly consistent with good management. The cost of building sugar-houses is reduced to a minimum, and labor saved. There is no good reason to expect to make money out of the sorghum business unless conducted on sound business principles. The knowledge of the business is now advanced to such a point that there is nothing to prevent accurate calculations being made. The cost of the machinery, the work it can do, the labor required to run it, the cost of the cane, the yield and quality of the product can now all be closely estimated.
Sugar-houses built without definite ideas of the work to be done or machinery added piece by piece, without plans or contracts, and such machinery as clarifiers, as filter presses, and bone-black drones added, with the expectation of only making white granulated sugar directly from the juice, will be certain to bring financial failure and disappointment to its projectors, unless the capital is heavy enough to staniid the strain, or the parties are willing to make experimental work of their plants and pay the price for doing it. Notwithstanding the closeness with which all these calculations can now be made, the following should be remembered. I have never known a sugar-house of any kind to be madeso complete and be in such fine running order that it could be depended on to make a commercial success the first season. Either its water arrangements will fall short of expectations, or the boilers fail to be large enough, or strikes and delays will detain the machinery, or castings will be broken in shipping, or some minor points will be badly proportioned or too weak, foundations will prove not sufficiently secure, shafts will be found out of line, etc. All this will occur, not from any bad management, but because the nature of the work is such that the factory can only perform its task satisfactorily after being broken in on cane. The cane alone can give the necessary adjustment. Erroneous and disappointing calculations have been made by celebrated sugar engineers, in making calculations for sorghum, by using well-known standard rules for the evaporation of water as a basis for calculalt ion; and repeatedly has machinery proved suitable for southern cane failed when applied to this work. The moral of all this is that in constructing new works there should be only enough cane raised the first season to break in and test the sugar-house thoroughly in every )part, in order that when the machinery is called upon the succeeding season it would fulfill the work it had been calculated to do, without delay or hindrance.
The expense of doing all this should be allowed for in the capital account.
In some sorghum-houses, calculated to work 100 tons of cane a day, will be found strike vacuum pans of such large size that the cost of erecting them and the pumps necessary for their use, the large pipe fittings, and other paraphernalia will cost as much alone as would suffice to build an economical sugar-house of good size.






42

Experience has taught us that there is a limit to the size of sugarhouses, and that it costs very little more to man a 40-ton house than a 20 ton, and the proportionate cost of constructing is greatly in favor of the 40-ton plant. For sugar-houses of larger size, I can not yet give accurate data with safety.
The following is a plan based on calculations made from actual work already done; the rules known to govern the situation are carefully applied and full allowance made for such errors.
(1) The plan of a sugar-house complete for making sugar, according to the process in use at Rio Grande. The sugar will be brown or yellow, and test 86 to 900. It is suitable for some domestic purposes and for refining. The molasses will be of fair color, suitable for mixing and baking purposes.
These sugars can be washed in centrifugals and made quite white, of high test, but at the expense of the yield. The proper place for them is in a sugar refinery to be remelted and run through black.
(2) An auxiliary house for making sirup and retaining the sugar in the sirup. Inversion would have to be as carefully avoided as possible. These goods or products would be very fine, and could be sold on their merits for immediate consumption, or find a market on their tests and color at the Central Sugar-HIouse.
The large vacuum pans referred to are well calculated to work up goods in this condition, in immense quantities the sugar could be remelted and run through black.
Dr. A. T. _Neale, of the New Jersey Experiment Station, spent the season at the sugar-house. He had control of the chemical department, and results of his work will be found in a bulletin to be soon published by that station.
I respectfully submit the above report, with thanks to you personally for your uniform courtesy and support.


















RECORD OF THE ANALYSES MADE AT R10 GRANDE DURING THE SEASON OF 1888.


By Dr. ARTuRI T. NEALE.*


In addition to studying the construction, the arrangement, and the management of the machinery, the chemist of this station attempted to determine, at least once each day, the percentage of sugar in the sorghum, as well as the percentage of sugar in the products from each piece of apparatus used in this house. Breaks occur in this ecord whenever it was necessary for him either to return for a day to New Brunswick or to devote his entire attention to some one point of' special interest.
The house was not open for work until the 26th of September, and a few of the samples of cane analyzed about the 20th of that month were taken from the crop standing in the fields. Such samples were stripped and topped by hand. All of the other samples were drawn from cane which was cleaned by machinery. They represent in each ease, approximately, 1,000 pounds of well-mixed shreds. The varieties of sorghum planted were: Early Amber on field No. 1; Late Orange on that portion of field N-o. 12 which was worked after the 23d of October; White African on a portion of field No. 2 harvested on the 27th instant, and Kansas Orange in all other cases.
The exhausted chips were sampled as fast as they were removed from the battery; a roughly measured quantity being taken in each case from each one of ten baskets. These portions were subsequently mixed, subsampled, and milled in the usual manner.
With a few exceptions, the samples of diffusion juice were, in all cases, drawn from a tank holding 300 gallons. The samples of the evaporator product were also drawn from a similar tank. The record in detail is shown on the following page. The averages drawn in this table prove that the cane crop in 1888, relative to that of 1887, was poorer in sugar by 0.7 per cent. and lower
Bull. No. 51. New Jersey Agricultural Eperinwnt Station, pp. 12-15.
43






44

in purity by 5.6 degrees. The farmers' explanations for this are: first, late planting; second, early frosts. In some cases the seed were dropped after June 1st, and in all cases the leaves were killed by the frosts which occurred this year on the 4th of October, or ten days earlier than usual. Late orange sorghum, in particular, seems to have suffered by these conditions, for while the cane was very large and apparently well developed, its juice averaged less than 6.5 per cent. of sugar. Its seed crop was practically worthless, for a very small proportion of tops had matured. In 1887 this variety was well developed when the first frost killed the cane leaves. Its juice then contained, approximately, 10 percent. of sugar.
A comparison of the analyses credited to the cane and to the diffusion juices leads to the following calculations: One hundred pounds of solid matter, i. e., sugar, etc., existed on the average in 715 pounds of cane juice, or in 920 pounds of diffusion juice; that is, cane juice was diluted 28.6 per cent. by the diffusion process. If a similar calculation is made from the records for the season of 1887, the dilution will be fixed at 25.4 per cent. The decreased purity of the diffusion juice was, each year, identical; it amounted to 2.1 degrees.
The exhausted chips, or diffusion bagasse, which represented 1 ton of field sorghum, contained on the average, in 1887, 40 1 pounds of sugar, or 35 per cent. of the total amount present in the cane. In 1888 the losses of sugar in exhausted chips amounted to 221 pounds, or 21 per cent. of the total amount present in the average cane for that year.
In 1887 the diflusion juice was concentrated in an open evaporator with the aid of steam ; it was reduced by this treatment to a fraction more than one-third of its original volume, at an expense of 4.3 degrees of purity, which was probably due to inversion of its sugar by heat. In 1888 the flame from burning fuel oil came in contact with the bottom of the evaporator; the diffusion juice passed in an unbroken stream over this heated surface, and was thereby reduced to less than one-half of its original volume. Its purity was decreased on the average by less than 1 degree.
The following will serve as a summary: In 1887 65 per cenLtin 1888, 79 per cent., of the total sugar in the cane was extracted. In this respect, therefore, the improvement has been very great. The diffusion process, in 1887, diluted cane juice by 25.4 per cent.; in 1888 this dili. tion amounted to 28.6 per cent.
The purity of the cane juice was influenced each year in the same manner and to the same extent, viz: decreased by 2.1 degrees. The concentration of the diffusion juice was accomplished in 1888 with considerable less than the usual losses by inversion.







45


Table of analyse8 at io Grande, season o 1888.


Fresh Chips. Diffusion juice. Evaporated product. Exhausted chips.



0





1 S pt. 2 ......... 12-96 6.62 51.1 ------- -- -- ------............----- ...... ...... .......
ept.26 ......... 6.84 51.1 11. 505.88 51.1 2.2 15.13
1888,3, 38



13.70 7.035 .6 11.61 6.02 51.9 ------- ------- 2. 07 1.18 52.0

2 pt ......... 15.40 9.58 62.2 12.15 7.23 "59.5"29.60 0 2.56 1.50 60.1

..do .... ....... ....... ....... ...... 11.95 7.23 60.5 ....... ....... ...... ... ].... -.....
Oct.,2 .......... 16.00 9.56 59.4 12.37 7.19 58.1 "23.45"1.55. ... ......
..... ...6 i.. ..
3 e ........ 1.96 .2 51.1 .....0.. ... ................
O 2 ........... 14.10 8.38 59.1 11.50 5.88 51.14 252 15.01 5 .8 5 .9
1 Set.3 ........ 01.70 8.62 61.6 10.001 5.70 57.0 20.04 11.2 55.8 2.27 1.18 52.0
2 t.2....... 13.43 7. 90 59.8 10.90 5.99 55.0 20.00 11.u6 55.3 2.70 1. 56 57.7
2 Set.28 14.0,; 7. 9 56.1 11.21 6.48 57.8 28.628 15.60 5.1 3.40 1.66 8.8
2....do ........... 15.37 .72 56.7 .....1. ......5..... 24.85 13.58 54.7...... "
2 do .. ...... 15.57 9.06 58 812.37 7.4 1 60.5 .... .............
2 .-.o............4.6 .. .... 11.69 7.10 598.2.43. 0 ...................

oo.. .d ........... .. . .. . .. .. ... ... 2 6 1 3 15 .. ... .. . .
7 ..._do ........... 14.796 1 62.1 57.86 }"5 '6t), 12.44 11.52 56.4,36 1.6 44
8 Sect.22. ... .7. 8.9260...... ................... ...................
3 ..o ....... 14.10t 8.38 591 106 59i5. 25.88 15.01 58.0 2.09i{ 1.21 ..7.




8 .,o ............00 ........... 10. .70. 22.04 1.36 54.8 .... ..
3 ,.do........... "14370 J.i0' 58.8 11.89 5.991 55.0 20.5 11.13 54.3 3.7 1.96 57.6
Oct. i I.......... 12.64 7.48 59.1 .58 5.61 58.5 22.43 12.33 55.1 .40 .6, 48.
9Ot. 12 ..........1. 8 .7 5 ....... ............2.25 12.30 55.2 2
..do..........1 .5 9. .0 7.9 60 8 22. 8 P.93 56. 2.20 1. 22 55.0
SOct.......... 14.00 8.37 59.8 8.90 5,23 58.7 25. 06 13.65 54.5 2.11 1.24 58.7
8 ..Ao .......... 13. 4 8.25 61.1 10.60 6.15 59.7 22.4 1......... .... 2.00 1.14 5.0
2 ,O.............. 12.85 7.48 58.4 9.8 5.51 55. 7 226 6 515.1 2.56 1..39 .5.. .
7 t, 17 .......... 13.09 7.9 60.6 8.8 5.03 57. 20.4 1. 52.4 1.97 1.05 53.3
1 O. 2.......... 12-.43 7..69 6.9 11.90 5 95 57.7 .....2. 12 .... 1.54 0 2 0.0
SOct. 3 .........14.70 8.10 55. 11.2 65 55. 3 .3 3. 16.0 5.6
9 Oot,11..........12. 64 7.48 59.1 9.5 .61 585 2.3133 50.. .


SOct1 2 .........12 5.78 50.6 10.27 5.06 49.2 ..... 12. 2, 56 1.2 46.
10 25 .......... 12.67 .94 54. 12.32 6.70 54.4 .. .. .93 .5. 3. 45. 45.2
2 O. do......... 2.76 6.63 52 11.96 6.21 51.9 .............. ......2.770 1.1 2.8
12 Oct.1........ 12.36 6.54 52.9 11.83 6.025 0.9 .6 2.6 5. 56 1. 9 .82 41.8
12 Oct.22.......... 7 ...... 88 4.68 57.7 8.5 .... ...... ......
12 Oct.3...........6.. 10.2 5. 59 52.7 24. 50. ..2 .
128 O 419c. 5 8. 8.8 5.6 10 56-4 23. 55 13.025492 56 1.20 5
12 Oc.27------- 14. 02 6. 8 64.1 11.18 6. 93 62.0 32. 4t, 66 57.7 4.03 2. 4 61.0


Se Bullotin 18, p. 20, United States Departmeut of Agrizulture.















REPORT OF PROF. W. C. STUBBS, KENNER, LA.



LOUISIANA SUGAR EXPERIMENT STATION.

On April 6, 1888, two plats, Nos. 9 and 10, at the sugar experiment station were planted in sorghum.

PREVIOUS CULTURE.

No. 9 had been continuously in sorghum since 1886, and No. 10 in corn.
PREPARATION OF LAND.
The land was broken in the spring with four-horse plows, thrown into beds 5 feet apart, and seed sown and lightly barrowed in. Only a partial stand was secured, germination being prevented by a prevailing drought. It was thinned, wherever thick enough, to three stalks to the running foot. The cultivation consisted of off-bearing with two-horse plow, a hoeing, and returning the dirt with two-horse plow, and breaking out the middles with a large one and three quarter Avery Advance double mold-board plow.
The excessive rains began in May and lasted till the middle of July, and prevented further cultivation. The varieties planted on these plates were:
1. Honduras seed, grown at the station. 12. Texas Honey Drip, seed bought of 2. Honduras seed, grown on the Teche. Gumbrell, Reynolds& Allen, Kansm
3. Link's Hybrid seed, grown in Kansas. City, Mo.
4. White Manmmoth seed, grown at the 13. Planted with seed from Department
station. of Agriculture, but none came up.
5. White India seed, grown in Kansas. 14. White Minnesota Amber seed, grown
6. Enyama, grown by J. P. Baldwin, of in Nebraska.
the Teche. 15. Early Amber seed, grown in Kansas.
7. Early Orange, grown in Kansas. 16. Early Amber seed, furnished by De8. Kansas Orange, grown in Kansas. partment of Agriculture.
9. New Orange, grown in Kansas. 17. Kansas Oraznge seed from Kansas. 10. Golden Rod, grown in Kansas. 18. Link's Hybrid seed, grown at the 11. Honey Drip, grown in Kansas, station.
19. Early Orange seed, grown at the station.
Several of the above varieties were sent to the State Experiment Station, Baton Rouge, La., and to North Louisiana Exriment Station Calhoun, La., and experimental plats planted at each station.
46






47

The varieties planted at Baton Rouge were Early Amber, Early Orange, Link's Hybrid, and Honduras.
They were planted in rows 4 feet wide, and seed lightly covered. The cultivation was the same as that given to corn, after thinning it to a stand of one stalk to every 4 inches.
The storm of the 19th of August completely prostrated the canes, and on September 12 the entire field was green with a luxurant growth of suckers.
The varieties grown at the North Louisiana Experiment Station, Calhoun, La., were:
1. Minnesota Early Amber seed, from Ne- 4. New Orange seed, from Kansas.
braska. 5. White India seed, from sugar experi2. Early Amber seed, from Department of ment station.
Agriculture. 6. Link's Hybrid seed, from sugar experi3. Early Orange seed, from Department ment station.
of Agriculture. 7. Golden Rod seed, from Kansas.
These were planted on April 18, thinned to a stand, and cultivated in its order with the corn crop. Here flat cultivation was exclusively practiced during the season, while at the other two stations high ridges were required for drainage.
These plantings were made with a view of testing, by mill and laboratory experiments, the adaptability of sorghum as a sugar crop to Louisiana. If sugar can be made profitably from sorghum anywhere in the United States it should be done in Louisiana. Chemical analyses show a larger percentage of sugar and a smaller quantity of glucose in sorghum grown in Louisiana than anywhere else in this country. At least the published analyses now at hand verify this assertion. Again, could our sugar planters be persuaded that sorghum could be made to yield a profitable quantity of sugar, say even 1,000 pounIds per acre, they would soon adopt it as an adjunct to the cane crop. Orsce establish the fact that sugar can be profitably made from sorghurn, and it will become exceedingly popular with all cane-growers, tfor the tl. lowing reasons:
(1) By planting different varieties and at (lilflerent tines it can be made to ripen in Louisiana at any time from July to _Novcmlber-thus giving employment six months to an expensive machinery, which is now engaged only sixty days in grinding the cane crop.
(2) The cost of seed required to l)lpant a crop of sorghum is very small, quite insignificant compared with the large amount required for cane.
(3) The ease and cheapness with which this crop can be grown.
(4) The value of the seed for forage-a by-product without cost, save the expense of carefully housing.
Again, there are vast tracts of rich alluvial lands in the middle and northern portions of the State which are too fiar north for cane and which will grow excellent crous of sorghum. These lands are now in ctton, but could it be demonstrated that they could grow sorghum






48

profitably, central factories would spring up in every direction and this crop would supplant cotton in part, if not entirely.
With these possibilities in view the Director has persistently planted sorghum for three years upon the Sugar Experiment Station and attempted every year to make successfully sugar from it by the milling process. Chemical analyses have shown that our juices were rich in sucrose and low in glucose, but our sugar-house experiments have failed to extract it successfully. We have made the masse cuite full of grains, but our centrifugals failed to purge. All this was due to the starch present in the juice (extracted by pressure with the mill), which, during the subsequent process of concentration, was converted into dextrine, and this substance, our bte noir, prevented the elimination of the sugar. Our past experiments have demonstrated the inapplicability of the crushing mill to sorghum. They have also shown that high temperature must be avoided. Therefore new methods of extracting the juice and processes of cooking in vacuo must be resorted to before we can successfully extract sugar from sorghum.
Fort Scott, Kans., and Rio Grande, N. J., have both demonstrated that diffusion was applicable to the extraction of juice and goodly quan. titics of sugar had thus been obtained. After planting the above crops the State bureau of agriculture, which has immediate control of the stations, received a petition in the form of a series of resolutions from the Ascension Branch of the Sugar Planters' Association, asking that it make an appropriation for the purpose of erecting a diffusion battery for sorghum and to continue the experiments so auspiciously begun at Fort Scott and Rio Grande. The planters were anxious to know if the flattering results obtained in Kansas could not be realized here. The bureau having received at one time the deferred half of the annual Hatch appropriation, decided to grant the request so far as the limited means at their disposal would permit. Accordingly it passed a series of resolutions appropriatingm money for the enterprise and authorizing the Director to proceed at once to obtain the necessary machinery.
As soon as these resolutions were passed increased areas were planted in sorghum at each station, using seed received from Kansas at Kenner, and Early Amber and Orange at the other two.
Acting under these resolutions, bids were invited for building first a diffusionn battery of 14 cells, capacity of battery 1 to 2 tons per hour; second, a double effect of 400 square feet of heating surface. Messrs. Edwards & Ilaubtman, of New Orleans, making the best proposition for the erection of above machinery, were accorded the contract.
Mr. J. P. Baldwvin, of St. Mary's Parish, who had formerly been an
attach of the station, and who has great mechanical ingenuity, was eml)loyed in May to superintend the erection of the machinery, and after full and free conference with him and Mr. E. W. Deming, late engineer in charge of the Fort Scott sugar works and now supervising engineer of the Con way Springs sugar works, Kansas, the following michinery was






49

ordered: Cutter and comminiutor or pulper, with shafting and pulleys, from George J. Fritz, Saint Louis, Mo.; conveyors, elevators, and gearing from Link Belt Company, Chicago, and Mr. E. W. Deming kindly superintended the construction of a fan, a duplicate of the one made for Conway Springs sugar works, which he shipped us from Kansas.
Considerable work had to be done to conform the old sugar-house to its new machinery. Indeed the task of planning and transforming the old conditions to the new was one requiring patience, energy, and excellent mechanical ingenuity. That it has been well done is the universal testimony of all visitors.
After the above work had been contracted for, the gratifying intelligence was received from the Hlon. Norman J. Colman, Commissioner of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., that he would allow this station $5,000 of the $100,000 recently appropriated by Congress for experiments in making sugar from sorghum. This supplement to the appropriation from the Bureau of Agriculture has enabled the station to enlarge its equipment and extend its field of investigation.
From our past experience with sorghum it was inferred that our crop planted on the 16th of April would not be ready for the sugar-house before 1st of September. Accordingly we contracted with Messrs. Edards & Haubtman to deliver the machinery by the 15th of August, thus giving us fifteen days (ample time) for its erection and preparation for work. Messrs. Edwards & Haubtman failed to deliver until the 23d instant, which faililure, in connection with the unprecedented(I storm of the 19th instant, which prostrated completely our sorghum, proved most disastrous to our successful manufacture of sugar.
In 1886, sorghum planted April 5, was harvested September 13. In 1887, sorghum planted April 21, was worked up Septenmber 23. Both years they were worked at full maturity, excepting the Early Amber and Chinese, which were ripe in July of each year.
It was fair therefore to calculate that, without any natural intervention, the sorghum this year would not be ready for the sugar-house before the middle of September; and had not the storm prevailed the date of delivery of Messrs. Edwards & HIlaubtman would have still af. forded us ample time to have completed erection before the maturity of the crop. Either alone would not have proven disastrous; both together were fatal. [See chemical analysis further on for verification.]
Of the varieties mentioned above, the Ambers were ripe in July, and accordingly were worked uI) by the mill, cooked to masse cuite and left ii hot room for comparison with masse cite from diffusion juice.

LABORATORY WOlK.
During the summer the laboratory has been engaged in the study of the chemistry of sorghum. To this end weekly analyses of all varieties ye been made and daily study I)rosecuted as to the p)hysiological changes occurring iln the growth and maturity of sorghum. The fo)llow14056-Bull. 20- 4






50
ing are the notes made by my assistant, Mr. W. L. Hutchinson, up to September 1, at which time he resigned to accept the professorship of chemistry in the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Mississippi. His leaving put an end to his interesting investigations. June 21.-Iodine shows no starch in Minnesota White Amber, just headed. Single polarization gives no sucrose.
The following were found: Glucose, 3.65 per cent.; solids, 6.66 per cent.; albuminoids, .17 per cent.
The precipitate produced by subacetate of lead, after being freed from the lead, gave no trace of oxalic acid, but a quantity of tartaric acid. So great was the latter that every attempt at its entire removal failed, so that no positive conclusions as to the other acids present were drawn.
Oil July 16 fully matured samples of Early Amber were obtained, the juice extracted and subjected to analysis. The sucrose was determined by single and double polarization and by Fehling's solution. The following are the results: Sucrose: Total solids, 16.58; single polarization, 12.31; double, 12.28; Fehling's, 12.22. This juice was concentrated to sirup, and the latter gave, by single polarization, sucrose, 52.41; double polarization, 53.58.

STARCH IN SORGHUM.

With green canes just heading no indications of starch are given by iodine. If there were any blue it was completely obscured by the intensely brown coloration. This brown coloration indicated dextrine and other forms of soluble starch.
With well-matured canes iodine gives an intensely blue color towards the top, decreasing in intensity towards the butt. Canes occupying an intermediate condition between these extremes, or in that stage of growth when maturity begins to appear, as indicated by the presence of sucrose in the lower part of the stalk, starch will be found in the butt but not in the top.
The above conclusions of MAr. Ilutchinson have been fully confirmed by subsequent experiments ; and it is not unusual in our laboratory now to prognosticate the amount of sucrose in a cane by the presence of starch, so intimately are they associated. Both sucrose and starch sCeIll to b1e formilled simultieousl-tlile former from glucose and permhaps other bodies, and the latter from dextrine and other soluble forms.
Glucose occurs in largest quantities when the polariscope gives no indication of sucrose by single polarization. In a sampleof green cane, Ill which there waIs no starch amd by single polarizationll no sucrose, but by double polarization 1.53 per cent., as high as 7 per cent. of glucose was found. As the cane from whit h the above sample was selected, matured, repeated analyses made at short intervals showed that the glucose d(ecreasedi, until at maturity it reached as low as 0.8 per cent.

SINGLE VS. DOUBLE POLARIZATION.
In juices from maturied canes there is a very close agreement between the sucrose obtained by single and double polarization. Not so with











the immature canes, and the greater the immaturity the greater the

disagreement. In all of the laboratory work on samples taken from the

field sucrose was therefore determined by single and double polarization.
ANALYSES OF VARIETIES OF SORGHI31.


These were begui July 11 and continued weekly until worked up.

The following table gives the results:


Analyses of the varictics of sorphouM at different stagcs of growth, Sugar Experintent
station, Aeznce, La.



Sutcrose,


lDahe o I
an~ h1 .Variety.





July 11 Early Orange ............ 1 .8 2.2 3. t 9
A ug. 6 .....do .............. I 1..6 1 1 12, 1 ).r 0
Aug. 13 do.................19 16 12.3 12.60 .7.3
Aug. 20 .....do ..................19 1;.3 12.1 12.21 .
Aug. 27 ..-..do ...............19 1 i3 12.2 12.2 .7.
Sept. 4 .... .do ......... ...1 1.7 11.7 12.8 1 :
Sept. 8 .... ...... ..........- 19 11.5 10.2 I 05
July 11 Link's Hybrid ............ 11.5 .2 6. 22 3.2"
July 19 ......do ...................18 12.138 8.C3 I 6
Aug. 6 .....do-................... l .o 12.2 12.10 1.28
Aug. 13 ..-...(o ..................18 13,20 10 10.06 1.27
Aug. 20......do-....-...........18 1610 12 12.07 .74
Aug. 27 ------do ..................18 1(120 12 12.18 .86
Sept. 4 ......do ....... .... .18 13. 0 12 12.0U .95
Sept. 12 o ................. 1 11.40 7.
July 11 Kansas Orange.........17 11. ) 4. 1 5.12 3.40
Aug. .....do ................. 17 16.0 120 12.00 1.1
Au 13 do..... ............ 17 1) 60 11. 6 11,3 1.6 5
Aug. 20 ...do ........17 16.so 11.7 11.67 2.78
Aug. 27-.....do-...........--.....17 15.2 11.1 11.-- L-;iI
Sept. 4...... do .................. 17 13.71' 9.7 9.67 ].us
Sept. 12 .....do ......1.. ......... 17 1, 8.1 . 1..
Jul\ 11 Early Amber, Nebraska .. I6 ]:.:o s.3 (.5 2. 1
July 19 ,...do.................. 1 1-.70 12.1.......1.20
July 26 ....do.................i1; 1 11. 1.1i
July 30 ....do.... ...........I; 17.Il 0 1.3 1.71
July 11 Early Amuber, Kaa .... It\ 1::, 61 8 4 9. 20 2.73
Jul\' 26 .... Io ................... 1 12.0 . 1. I
July 3ti .....-do ...................15 16'.73 12.1 .. 11
J lly 11 Early Amber, eL1pai t m-ut
of A gricultuie-... ..... I 1. 2 7. 0 To 3.71
July 3 .--...do -...-..--.....-. I 11. 3 11.1 ,
July 30 .. .. ............... 1 74 .:: 11. ..... 1.0
July* 11 Texas Holy hip........12 1.3:s (1.:14
July 21) ......do .. .. . .. 12 1 0.17 3.:3 .... 4. -3
A 6------ do ...................12 1.10 5.8 5. l ..9
Aug. 13 .... do .................. 12 1. 7.9 8 2 2..0
Aug. 20 ......do.......-.....-.--12 1(.3 ..5 9.79 2 31
A ug. 27 ......do ................ 1:2 9.3 9. S .7$
Sept. 4 ......do .................. 12 12.. 0.3 3 2.7.
Sept. 12 -..-do---...-.........-12 10.4 7.7 .. 2. 17
July 11 Ibitsy Drip ............. 11 11. 1 1.2 1.70
July 211 ..~..do .,.............. 11 11.0 of A . 4.23
Aug. 7 ......do-.............-..--11 1".1 8 5 11 2.19
Au1 13 o ..............---.. ....- 11 11.8 7I9 I.2 I I
Aug. 20 ......do ..................I 11,8 11,6 6 WI 1.97
Aug. 27 .... do ....... .......... 11 11.9 11. 11 o.
Sept. 4 .. do ............-. 11 8.(I 51 1.4 1. T
Sept. 12 do _-...............- 11 4 9 .
JIy i Golde Rod............ .10 $ 3 2 1. 18 :1
July 2 ...... do .... .... ........ 2
Aug. 7 .... do ..........,. to P.6 8.0 7 7! I 1
Aug. 1: .....do---............--10 1:.. 7 0 7 :I 2 4.
Aug. 20-.....do--..-.-..-..-.-....l1 11.7 k1t3 ), 1.1
Aug. 27 ......-- do .............. .... 1 1I5 I, 1








52


Analgae8 of the Parieties of sorghan at the different stage8 of growth, etc.-Co1tinued.


Sucrose.



Date ftrity
analysis. Vrey





Spt. 4 Golden Rod.............. 10 0.2 5.6 5.62 1.47
Sept. 12 ... do ... .............. 10 9.5 4.0 ... .. 2.35
July 11 New Orange............... 9 13. 3 0.9 8.81 4.25
July 20 .... (o ............ ...... 9 16.3 11..0 ....... 2.83
Aug. 7 ..... do..................9 13.80 10.3 10.36 1.68
Aug. 13.......do ................. .9 12.50 8.8 8,92 1.71
Aug. 20 ...... do .................. 9 12.20' 6.9 7.33 2.94
Aug. 27 ......do ................... 9 120 8 8.16 2.82
Spt. 4 ......do .................. 9 10.20 6.2 6.20 2.68
Sept. 12 do ........... 9 9.10 7.1 .... 2.54
July 11 Kanas Orange........... 8 10.JO 4.8 6. 67 2.68
July 20 ......do................. $ 13.11 82 ...... 2.21
A u. 7 .... do.................. 8 13.90 8 8.8 1.83
Aug. 13 ..... do .................. 8 14.8 10.6 10.74 1.36
Aug. 20 .... do................... 8 12.7 8.1 8.35 1.37
A u. 27 ......do ................... 8 13. 1 7. 9 8.00 1.71
Srpt. 4 .... do ................. 8 10.1 6.3 6.74 2.15
Sept. 12 .....do ................... 8 ....... 5.3.... .. 1.60
July 11 Early Orange............. 7 11.7 6.0 7.51 2.43
July 20 .....do ... ............... 7 11.71 7.2 ... 221
Aug. 7 do.................. 7 11.0 7.8 7.10 1.77
Aug. 13 ......do ........ 7 110 11.1 1.90
Aug. 20 ......do .................. 7 14.3 9.0 9.31 1.71
Aug. 27 .... do................... 7 12.3 9.5 9.49 1.72
Sept. 4 ......d o ................. 7 10.9 7.1 7.21 1.,2
Si pt. 12 do....... .......... 7 8. 1 4 9 ...... 1.95
July 11 ENyania .................. 6 9 2.3 3.95 2.12
July 20 ......do................... 6 9.71 4.8 2.31
Aug. 7 ......do .................. G 14. 0 10,0 10.80 1.14
Aug. 13 .... (o................... 6 13.20 0.0 9.18 1.43
Aug. 20 .... do ..................(6 14.70 10 6 10.8S 1.08
Aug. 27 .... do....................6 14..O 10.5 10.50 .82
Selit. 4 .......do .................... $.5 5.2 5.05 1.47
Sejpt. 12 .. do ................6 ... 6.5 54
IJuly 1 Whito Idia.............5 1 5.4 6.9 1.82
.uk 'n .......d( ............. ..... 5 14. I 11,0 1,70
S 7 ...... do ................... 5 11 C.) 10.2 11.0 1.14
Aug. 13 .... do ......... .........5 1:.50 9.5 9.9 1.59
Aug. 20 ... do ................ 5 10,:0 G.6 7.01 2.36
Aug. 27 .....do ........ .......... r 11. G 9.20 9.18 .72
Sept. 4 ...... do .................. 5 13 9.90 .80 1.27
Sept. to ..... do........ ........ 5 14.1 10.00 ... 1.25
July 11 Whit" athunisuth ........ 4 G,5 .4 2.0 3.29
July 'o0 ...... fil ....... ... 4 7.91 2.6 3.00
Aug. 7 ..... do.................. 4 14.20 9.0 9.71 1.43
Aug. 13 .......... .. 4 10.5 6.0 6.40 2.30
Aug. 20 ......do ................... 4 10.2 6. 1 1.5 1.87
Aug. 27 ...... do ................. .4 12,2 7.7 7.84 .87
Sept. 4 .... ....... ......... .4 8,1 5,7 5.0 2.00
S pt. '20 . . ...... 4 10. 5 (G. 9 . 2. 14
ly 11 Liuks Hhrid.......... 3 9.8 4.8 5.78 1.59
.1Ju y 2 .....do .......... ....... 3 9. 1 4.0 ...... 2. 55
A u. 7 ......do .................. 3 141 9 9.0 .53 2. :14
A ug. 1: ...... o .................. 1 14.5 10. 1 10).21 .7
Aus 20 ......do .................. 3 13.7 9.)2 055 1 14
Aug. 27 ......do ................... 3 13.7 10.5 10.50 .78
Sept. 4 ..... o ................ 3 12.2 .1 9.10 1.00
Sept. 2' .. ............ ........ 3 10. 6 6.7 ... -.. 1.48
vly, i otdiuras ............... 2 7.10 2.0 2.6 1. 9
July 2o ...... f.... 2 7.81 3.4 ...... 3.00
Au g. 7 ......do ................... 2 1,70 3.0 4.80 2.14
Aug. 13 ......do .................. 2 7.10 3.4 3.52 2.76
Aug. '0 ......do ................... 2 7.70 2.5 3.05 2.53
A ug. '7 ......do ................... 2 ...... 7. 1 7. 12 1.94
S**pt. 4 ..... 4o.................. G 7.6 5.0 4.99 2.11
July 11 ..... do ................. 1 6.8 1.0 1.81 3.40
July 1).....do ................ I 8.81 4.4 ...... 3.00
Aug. 7 ...... do .................. I 10.@ 6.2 7.71) 1.83
Aug. 13 ,..... do ...... ............ 1 9.' 5.8 5.83 1.50
Aug. '20 ...... d ................. I 9.21 4.0 3.87 3 14
Aug. 27 ...... do ................ I 10.50 0. 0 .82 1.79
sept. 4 ......do ..................I I 8,0 5.4 5.40 1.74
Spt. 12 ..,...do ..............._ 1 10 c.0 ....... 2.27







53

Analyses of varieties of sorghum grown at Baton Rouge, La.

Sucrose,
Date of Viety. Total single
analysis. solids. pola;riza- Glucose.
tion.

Aug. 6 Early Amber ................ ........ 12.00 .........
Aug. 9 ...... do ..................... 15.9 9.50 3. 80
Aug. 14 ...... do ..................... 18.1 13.40 1.12
Aug. 28 ......do ..................... 17.0 12.10 1.09
Sept. 11 ... do ..................... 14.7 7.30 1.82
Aug. 6 Early Orange................ ........ 11.20 .........
Aug. 14 ..... do ...................... 15.9 10.00 2. 38
Aug. 28 ......do ...................... 17.0 12.40 2.07
Sept. 11 ..... do ..................... 11.9 7, 8 4.52
Aug. 6 Link's Hlybid ....................... 9.4 ..........
Aug. 9 ......do ..................... 16.1 11.5 1.87
Aug. 14 ......do ..................... 16.4 10.5 3.00
Aug. 6 Honduras................... 6.3 ..........
Aug. 9 ......do .................... 15.8 4 4.70
A ug. 14 6... .do -- --
Aug. 14 ......do ..................... 11.6 4.1 5.47


Analyses of varieties grown at North Louisiana Experiment Station, Calhoun, La.

Sucrose,
Date of Varietv. single Glucose.
analysis. -polarization.

Oct. 1 Early Amber .................... 11.4 1.27
Oct. 1 EarlyO range.................... 11.8 2.56
Oct. 1 New Orange...................... .. 10. 5 2. 20
Oct. 1 Link's H hybrid .................. 12.3 1. 56
Oct. 1 W hite India ..................... ............ 87
Oct. 1 Golden Rod ..................... 10. 6 1. 36


An inspection of above tables will show that Early Amber reached
its maximum in July, say one hundred days after planting. Golden
Rod and Honduras never reached maturity, the storm of the 18th prostratiung them before the maximum of sugar was reached. The other
varieties attained their maxiimumn during August.
Could these experiments have been worked during August, it is be. lieved that most excellent results would have been attained. Up to
September 4, just as suckers began to appear at each joint on the p)rostrate cane, the latter had lost but little in sucrose since the storm of the 19th. After the suckers began to grow the loss was rapid and heavy, as is shown by the mill juices of September 8 to 20.
The canes at Calhoun were not injured, the storm not extending as
far north as this station. They have thwrefoire preserved their sugar upl) to October 1 and suffered little or no loss.

EXPERIMENTS IN DIFFUSION. All the machinery being in position and ready for use, a trial run was made on September 8, using the Early Orange variety. The cutters did
their work well; so did the diffusion cells, except now and then a leak which was easily closed. The larger heater, which heated the juice beore entering the cells, Vwas oult of order and could not be used either in this or the next trial. The fan which had been fIu'nishled as adapted to he cleaningof sorghum chips failed utterly to do its work. The shaker








which was geared to the fan ran too rapidly, and had to be run by an independent pulley at a slower motion. The depth of the shaker was far too narrow, so much so that the chips of cane thrown violently forward by the force of the cut were often propelled beyond the shaker and fell into the trash. In this way a large amount of the cane in this experiment was lost. The shaker was lengthened and many other improvements made until good work was accomplished. On account of these defects only 1,152 pounds of sorghum, with tops and blades, were used and only two cells of the battery were filled. The following are the laboratory analyses:

Tot al Ratio of
Toial Sucrose. Glucose. sucroe to
glCOSe.

M ill juice................... 14.6 10.2 1.05 10.25
Dil.1sion juice:
First cell ............... ......... 1.1 .1021 9.11
Second cell ............ .......... .. 7 .0638 9.11

No sugar or sirup made.
Pending the making of the necessary improvements to the fan and shaker the cubical contents of the cells were carefully calculated in the following manner: The cells were filled with water and then the water carefully emptied into a sugar wagon and weighed, allowing 62 pounds of water to a cubic foot. Each cell contained 13.52 cubic feet. A cell packed with sorghum chips and one put in without packing were also emptied and weighed. Their weights were, respectively,353 pounds and 276 pounds, making 26 pounds and 20 pounds per cubic foot.
Without entering into the full details of daily work, the following, taken from our large amount of records, will suffice to illustrate fully the work I)erformed.
Considering the very low character of the sorghum worked, the results obtained are quite promising.
Monday, September 10, 1 .-Another trial of the machinery was made to-day to decide whether the improvements so hastily made were detective. IHIonduras sorghum was used; weight, with tops and blades, 2,15S pounds. Everything worked fairly well. It was found that both the cutter and camminutor were projecting the chips in every direction, thus causing great w aste. A stop was made and these boxed in. Four cells were, however, killed, and the juices from these concentrated in the double effect and left in the latter all night. The next morning, to our surprise, we found that one of the I thes of the double cftiet had leaked during the night and had diluted the sirup almost to the original juice. Accordingly it \ as withdrawn and thrown away, and the leaking tubo plugged up. The laboratory results are given : Ratio auSucrose. Glucose. crone to
glucos .

M ilk juie .............. 4. 3 2. 51 58. 3
Milf .i1on 1ju i25
First cvll ........... 1.3 .43 ........
Second cell ............ 1 3 ........
Fourth cell .......... 1.4 .55 .










Wednesday, &pjtember 12. -Having repaired the defects, work wsbegun011 at 9.:30 O'clock and continued until nineteen cells had been filled. veth n orked aInirably except the heaters, which were not under control, and~ hence varying- tcemperatures used in diffusingr. Weather very wa.riimid imuch sufferingj experienlcd by everybody at work, particularly by the men at the diffusers and clarifieur.
The following canes, with quantities, were used:





Lintk's Hyb lrid, wihl tops and( liladt,'s...........29
KanI'sa8 rang e, with1 topls and~ 1)~ Texas hone1y lirip), with tops anld blad .... 1,21 4 Honduras........................ ............ 4.0
hioney *Ivrip ..................................$2
Goddenl ROil............................... 1, ie
New Orang-e................ ................ 1, 0721
Kansas Orange, ...........................
EarlyN Ornge~i,................................137

Total................................. 9, 071
Less iops 1.403) 1)iid 1
L ess Itsh. 1,179 1on) =8 4 w et.-- 2 8
Clean cane diffused....................649


The chips packed in very tighbtly failed to dischiarge eaiyPrew the first julice off at cell No. 7, and continued to draw until twelty-five& dischar-ges hlad been'1 liadle, vi., Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,13, 141,1 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, it, 12, 1:1, 11, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
The juice from No. 7 passed ov-er seven fresh chips.
The juice from No. 8 passed seven 2d chips aud oil( fre-sh Chips.
The juice from No. 9 passed oveCr seven- 3d chips, onle .-d chpand one frc~li chips.
The juice from No. 10 pass ed over seven 4th chips, one 3d chips,, ome jd chiips, and one fresh chips, etc., until the 14Ith cell was reached. While No. 141 was hciig lihlet No. 1 was emptied. Tlien began regular diffulsion,. The 20t h ce ll was prtial filled but not used, and ,\o. '21 was at the same time emptied. lhence the, abse-nce of Nos. 6 and 7 in the discharges abov-e. The following analyses were, miade:


1. M11Il jies oif (;elh varict v'-d
2. iiusoijij frumn twlt c, 11. :3. Chip-; as the Il re ow 41pt h'ill Ir pill t d :I c i, 1
4. Claritied juiim,. fiII era c ectil Iitr.
5.SirI-tp1.
6.Residuium Scum~ls.
7. SuIgar,;11.



The following are the results:
MAl! jEE 1c( .



V r' t v. sh~ ur t.tlv


Lik' 1~ra ............ Y~ 79 .;
Kanss Or.ig. ...~......... l' 4

HG t'yll Impl ............... !1i. 4 7 2.1
Nule Uo .........,, ... 4 2
Now Oran ........... .. .... 2'

Kansas O~sir go ....... ... ..I'~







56


Diffusion chip.


1 .............. 1.4 10 with eight washimgs... .8
2.............. .6 11 wvith seven wasin-gs. -- .7
3 ........................ .5 12 with six wasbiingb.. .5
4............................ .6 13withlfive wasbiugs...... .6
5--------------------------.. .2 14 -with four washings ....- 1.2
6 Withi twelve ahig. .55 15 with three wa-bings. .7
7 within eleveni w7hg .75 16 Withi two washing. )--1 1.5
8 with tin 11vashinigs--------. ,5 17 within one wazshinig...... ()
9 with nine washing-s--------1.10

Sample lost.


Di;ff18 iOfl jOCC8.


Ttl Sucrose. Glucose Gucs
solids. rat io.


First dichag ---------........ 6. 4 4. 2 1. It 26. 4 5
S-conid .................------- 5. 5 3. 8 1. 12 26.45
Tbrdi Ihag.------------------4.1 3.0 .53 17.67
Fourthl discharg-o-----------...
Fifth di.scharge-------------.4. 31 119 .9.3
Sixth discharg'e ...................41 31 11 83
Seventh diSChar11ge .............. 5.9 3. 8 1.56 41. 05
EighIthl discharge-------------------5. 1 3. 7 1.40 37. 84
Kitith dischiar'ge--------------------5.6 3.9 1.39 35.64
Tenith and subsequent dischairgesi 4. 7 3. 3 1.56 47.27


Clarified juice8.


I ......... ...... .. ...... 4.5 314 1.08 31.18
2 ........ .............. 4.9 3. 3 1.26 A&18
3 ..................... 2.8 2.2.. . . . .
4 .. .. .. ... .. ... .. ... 2.2 1.7 .65 38.23



Siru p Scumls:
Total solids------------..32. 20 Total solids ..........1 4. 10
Siurose................. 17, 5t) Sucrose-------.. .. 1. 90
GyIlucoSe-----------------.. 7.:;5 G Ilucose..... .8:3
G~ljco)se ratio----------- 42. 00 Glucose, ratio ........ 43. 68




Sucroie ......................Suiclose......... .4
Glu1(.c.....-.--......-.-2.85 G luc)se.........14.28


IL was utterly imliossible, fromn the varying amnountsof' sucrose in the canes used, to
get anlything. like 111if101r11 results either-I onj thet juice8( or- cips. There were drawn four clarifiers, (f, aliout, 100 gallonsm each, The last two were very diluite, owing to tbe eXCess8 of water used in washing the chlips fter- Cells wer.Ie filled. This Jui1Ce was1
heatd wth lme nd ruh t erliy ; hecated(, and( blanket" whOich Was quite inhigniticanlt, remliove~d. It. was then settled and clear juice run into the double effect
and concentrated.
Th'lere wvas a large quatily of, S11tlings and sonlic scumis, whichel were weighied and analyzed and thrownl away to) avid interfering wvith thie welcaidsirup. The following are wveighits obtaied:


Pounds.Pounds.

Sk-ttlill'gs anl Is C, I III IM 1,070 Moase ............. 752









The following are the notes of diffusion:
Every effort was made, to hold the temperature at 2000 Fahrenheit, but until the battery had been used in one entire round this is almost impossible to do, since sending in quickly water heated to 2000 Fahrenheit into cold iron cells filled with cold chips the loss of heat by radiation and convection is very great. Six minutes were allowed for the diffusion of each cell after the hot water was turned on. Every effort to grain in the vacuum pan proved abortive, as the following notes of Mr. Baldwin, who had charge of the pan and was assisted by Mr. Barthelemy, will show:
"Part of juice concentrated in double effect on first watch, remainder on second watch, when the juice got very hot, 1800, and was emptied in cars to cool; finished concentrating on morning of 13th at a temperature of 1550 to 1600 Fahrenheit. Juice dark-colored and some feculent matter present. After mixing sirups started vacuum strike pan at 2 p. m. on 13th; temperature, 13S0 to 1400 Fahrenheit; very thick; nothing but candy would form in the pan. Allowed to stand half an hour until candy dissolved, but no grain. Stood again one hour; at 7 p. m. still no grain. Cooked very thick and remained in pan until 2 p1). mn. next day, when it was all boiled to string sugar and put in the hot room. Injured some by being cooked to candy.
Ia the hot room it began at once to grain, until the wagon N as quite solid with small grains of sugar.
It was centrifugaled and gave the following results:
Pounds.
Sugar................................................................... 49
M olasses................................................................ 752
RECAI'ITULATION.

Sucrose. Sucrose.

Pounds Potnds.
Cane contained ............ 349. 75 Chips contained ............ 56 20
y rup contained .......... 273.22 Sugr conitained ............ 34. 58
Scurs contained .......... 20.33 Mulasses contained......... 228. 61
....... . ...... ........ ........... ..... . ...

Vouind-4.
Sugar obtained per ton sorghum........................................... 1. 3
Molasses obtained per ton sorghum ......................................... 27.1
After the analyses of the mill juices were known, little or no hole was entertained of successful sugar results. Indeed, it is wonderfiul with such juices and after such treatment that any sugar should be obtained.
September 17.-It has often been published that neither sorghum nor its juices will stand transportation or delay in working them up, after being cut. That such is not the case with us is abundantly proved by the fidlowing a i 1 many other experiments during this season : On Septenmber 16 Mr. Barrow, assistant at the State exlptriintent station, was sent to Baton Rouge to harvest and lship a car-load of sorghut from that station to this. By 9 a. in. on the morning o the l16th he had cut and loaded a closed car with Early Orange sorghum. Thissorghum was quite wet from dew and had its leaves and tops still on -conditions making fermentation quite feasible to almost any crop. It was delivered at Kenner by Mlississippi Valley Railroad at 7 p. mi. of same day. It was unloaded and delivered at sugar-house at 12 i. of the 17th, and worked up as delivered. The cane had been badly blow n down by the stori of the 19th, and was filled with suckers several fiet long, nowv in full heads. It was quite low in sugar, as the following analysis of selected stalks, made on Septenber II, showed:
Total solids .............................................................9.........................
Sucrose .......................................................................................... 7.S
Glucoste .......................................................... 4.52








58


Began diffusion at 9 a. m. Filled twenty-three cells with chips and drew off thirtyone cells of juice. Finished in early evening, after two slight detentions. Cells diffused sixteen minutes each, except three times, when interrupted. The temperature varied from 150c to 200 F. The juice was boiled to a sirup in double effect and made
into string sugar in the vacuum pan. Boiled all night, finishing the next day. The
string sugar was run into the hot-room, where it was grained into almosta solid mass. The following are the amounts used:
Weight of canes............................................... ............................ 13, 266
Less weight of tops..... ........................................................... 2,445
Less weight of leaves ........................................................... 1
Less weight of tah in yard............................................................... 1, 5O1 8
Less weight of chips not used............................................................ 82
5,867

Clean cane used ......................................................................... 7,399

The juices from this were concentrated into a sirup, giving 1,491 pounds; scums
thrown away, :13 pounds; juice made into iolasses, 259 pounds.
The following are the laboratory results:
Pounds.
Snear obtained..................................................... ............................ 115
Moan-ses ohtaia ed.......................................................................... ..672
sugar per ton of somrum .................................................................... 31.4
Molassts pcIr ton of so;ghlum.................................................................... 181.8

RECA PITULATION. Cane contained allated ...................................................pondS sucrose.. 435
Sim Up ilmade into sugar contained .....................................................do. ...... 3?8
Sirup made ilto Imilasses contained................................ ..................do ........ 57
Scnms contained...... ..............................................................do..... ... 7
Chips contained.......................................................................do........ 32
F 1er in Can,............................................ ............................. per cent.. 15.5

Early orange sorflnm.



Surrose. Glucose. Glucose
solids. S to SUIe ose.


Per cent.
11. 4 i 7.0 ::. 33 48
Mili juices................. 11.3 7.0 3.58 51
11.7 I.9 :i.3 48
3.2 1.70 .5
3.U5 2.0 .51)
......... 1.92 .64
:1,9o 2. 17-1
1 ,2 A5


......... 4.I" 1.73 .42
0........ '. o 1.60 .49
.......... 0 1.6f .4
...... .... (1 1. 70 .44
........ 3.:: 1.60 .48
.. .14 .47
.. ....3 .18 .(in
I .... ... .25 .10 .1
I~ ll si n hi s ............. ........ .3 119 .4:

....... I") 4 1
........ .1 .10 .40
S.....,.. 3.0 1.85 51
3. 1.10 41
(T'lilb 11 jl*1 OS ...:: : 1.5"17 51
1.8 Oil 55
1.3 .56 43
.. ..1. '54 4 9

...................... .......2 2. 22 63
Sga ..... .. .,.....,.9.........4..
..... ..... .... .. .. ...4 22.7,2 . .







59


Here, as before, the dilution was great, owing to the water used in washing the chips after cells were filled. This cane had nearly a constant composition, and from glucose ratio there has been little or no inversion either in cells or in concentration of sirup. In fact, when water at 2000 F. is sent into cells and maintained there for six minutes at this temperature little or no inversion took place, notwithstanding the weather gauge showed this day a maximum temperature of 830 F.
September 20.-The following canes were selected for this run : Link's hybrid, White India, White mammoth, and the second planting of Early Amber. The suckers, of which there were many, were removed by hand. Filled nine cells. Everything worked well.
Pounds.
Weight ofcan used .........................................................................5, 178
Less weight of tops......................................................................... 812
Less weight of trash..................................................................... 53
Less weight of suckers............................................................ 208
Less weight of chips not used............................................................... 7
1,747

Clean cane used............................................... ........................... 3,331
Juice neutralized with lime, blanket removed, settled, concentrated in double-etlct and grained in vacuum pan; then emptied into car and run into hot-room, where it solidified into crystals of sugar of small size.
Pounds. Pounds.
Weight of sirup............................. 695 Weight of molasses.......................... 235
Weight of scumis, etc........................ 150 Sngar, per ton............................... 21
Weight of sugar............................. 40 Molasses, per ton............................ 141
The following are laboratcry results:


Mill juice'S. Dittiusion juices. Ditfusion
chip.


Variety.


Pr 0 C


~Vhtcanmntla......Pr. et. Pr. et.
Link's bybrid............. 10. 0.7 1.4s 22 4. 3.1. 1.13 .:17 .20 .16
White tedia. 14.1 10.0 1.25 12J 16.0 3.50 1.51 .43 .30 .14
10.5 6.9 2.14 6.0 :.70 1.51 .41 .20 .13
White amber (Nebraska.. 10.7 6.5 1.92 '9 5.2 3.21 1.57 .49 .10 .12
White amber ............ 10.4 5.4 3.12 57 -5. 3.25 1. 61 .49 .10 .12


Clarified juice: Siups-( ontinud
.o. .li............................ 1 1n : ... 4
Toual oe ....................... 5 Ssu r0s; ........................1.7
Sucose .................... ....... IlI,...............................
).4l....................... ..... ............. 43
Glucose to.... ..p... n........... .. 1...... t.Su. .s p .. nt........... 41


...................................7.02
lucose tosurose..per centr...........293
Sirups: Ml s
To14tal SoIlid............................ D e .....................................a
Su ctn ................................ 17.5 i ns r n................................ 8o
Glucose ................................ 7.01

El:.'lT L. 1 ltN.
Supro ei iu . . . . . .. . 1 1 ;2 ocose in ne r1 .1 ............. .... .c 8
8000080s ill Me ms .. .. .. .. .. .. ..... 2. F. s rose- IIill a as inade................. ti
Sucrose in chips ........I.......;. ... 1;.5' Fiber in cae. .p, CI lt .................. 15. ut
The following determinations of allbumiuoidis were nmlide Mill juices: 1)ilft in jinics:
Link'sebybrid .. . . . . . .4:10 scpt. 12 ............. . . . . . .;
Kanss orage......................... .,15 Stp. 17. laton ite;.ge cane ........... .07I
N eiw oranget.. .. . . .. . .. So-il. 20o .................. .. .. .... o
Early orange .......................4.25 ('l Piliel I iices:
Ea l .rn e.. t n o g............ S,7 . 11 1 Dtio s .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .:,,o.pt 17, Bw4e and cla ith- ........... 0-12,
Mll jices for Sth-pt. 3o. .............. .:o Sept. 17. l.ton oenc..on ............ 0;07

It will thus be seen that diffnsion juices conttain much less albl:.imilild than mill juices.








60


LATE PLANTING OF SORGHUM.

After deciding to erect a diffusion battery to work up sorghum, a

late planting was made upon laud from which a crop of oats had been

harvested. The oats were harvested May 15, and the land broken with

four-horse plow and harrow. Sorghum planted May 23. The continued

rains during June and July prevented necessary cultivation. The storm

of August 19 prostrated it, and, though far from being ripe, never recovered. Most of these seed were received from MNr. W illiam P. Clements, of Sterling Sugar Works in Kansas, and were mainly hybrids of

different varieties. They were carefully followed during maturity with

analyses, but at no time did any of them show a large sugar content,.

The following table will show analytical results:

Analyses of sorghum planted May 23.


Analyzed October 8. Analyzed September 15.
No. Variety.
Bi ix. Sucrose. Glucose. Brix. Sucrose. Glucose.


I Hlondnra., grown in Louisiana.... 6.2 1.1 2.52 7.4 .1 4.13
2 White Amber, grown in Nebraska ...... .......... .......... 12.0 7.7 2.09
3 Early Amber, grown in Kansas......... ......... .......... 9.3 8.4 2.28
4 Early Amber, from Department of
Agriculture......................................... 7.6 6.7 2.36
5 Golden Rod, from Sterling, Kans9. .2 :.7 2.73 9.3 3.7 2. 12
6 New Orange, from Sterling, Kais. 11.0 4 7 3.57 12.3 4.3 3. 45
7 White India, from Sterling, Kans 10.8 5. 3 2.34 1.. 3 7.0 1.46
8 Early Orange, from Department of
Agriculture.................. 10.3 5.5 2.28 8.4 1.2 2.46
9 Chinese Sugar Cane, from Departient of Agriculture............9.5 3.4 2.32 ...... ......... ..
10 Early Orange, from Department of
Agriculitire.................... 7.0 2.3 2.13 7.4 2.2 3.12
11 Hybrid, Sterling, Kaus ........... 8. 8 3. 2 1. 93 9. 0 2,9 2. 30
12 1)o ......................... 11.8 G.3 2.45 7.2 4.1 3.03
13 Do ....................... 12. 0 4. 4 :.12 11.2 5.9 2.46
14 Do .................. ........ 9. 1 1. 6 2. 34 5. 8 1.2 2.20
15 Do.......................... 8.0 2.6 2.80 10.8 G. 2 2.70
16 ~o .......................... 8.4 3.0 3.28 .9 4. 1 2.59
17 Do ........................ 4. 3 .3 1. 44 7. 1 1. 1 1. 66
18 Do .......................... 8.6 3.1 2.79 6. 6 2.2 1.76
19 Do .......................... 12 2 7. 0 1. 44 0.9 6. 1 1. 06
20 Do .......................... 9. 1 3,9 2.79 9.3 6 4 2.74
21 Do .......................... 9. 3 4. 7 2. 56 8. 1 3. 8 2. 42
22 Do ......................... 10. 4 5.2 2,50 7. 2 2. 960
23 Do.......................... 5.5 1.9 3.47 6.0 2,0 1.70
24 Do.......................... .9 3.4 2 17 9.3 4.5 2.20
2- Do .......................... 8.6 4.1 2.75 9.0 3.1 3.57
21f Do ......................... 8. 1 3. 9 2. 64 69 1.; .91
27 Do ...... ......... 6.5 2.6 1.74 C.9 1.0 1.48
28 Do ......................... 10.9 4.7 1.67 8.9 3.0 2.64
29 1D)o 2.........,...... 8.2 2.5 3.5. 6.1 .8 2 27
31 Do .......... ........ 106 5.3 2.59 9.2 4.2 3.07
31 Ea ly Goose Neck. St rlIng, Kan It 5.5 3.75 12.1 7.2 3.57
32 1Hunduras. from Aritona 10.6 5.2 4. 95 10. 9 4.5 2. 94
33 Pierces Cross, from S line, Kn .......I .......... ......... 7 9 3. o 4. 98
34 DUche I lhIl ill, Strling, Kan1s..... .......... ......... 9. 4 4. 0 3. 18
35 New Sugur Cane, taing, Kn a. ,.......... ......... 6. 4 1. 6 3. 33
36 Liberian, South AIizona ....... 10.1 3.1 4.42 9,7 3.0 4.42
37 LibTr.an,. Missoi............ .... 8.3 1.7 4.07
38 L h r n T xa .. . .. .. ... .. . .. . ...... 7. 9 1, 9 4.34
39 Liberian, Alabama ........... ........ t......... 6.3 .9 3.03


The following are the descriptions of the hybrid varieties gathered

October 8:

No. 11. I'auile, black exterior, dull red interior; Iwo distilct heads, the one full, with black seed red tipped, the other few seeded, slightly closed heads, probably a
cross between White MaNmjoth or IJdia with a black-seeded variety.






61

No. 12. Large heads, black and yellowish-white, fine stalks, green plumes with pinkish-white seeds. A cross, probably, between White India and an unknown variety.
No. 13. Heads large, one sleek black, the other white red. Probably New Orange and a black-seeded variety; stalks medium. No. 14. Only one kind; black, with red openings, full seeded. No. 15. One black, with reddish seeds; the other black, with dull white seed; Honduras and unknown variety.
No. 16. One black, with slightly reddish seed; the other, jarge white heads; both full seeds; stalks small.
No. 17. Black, with red seed in one, full headed; the other white seeded, few and loose.
No. 19. Three varieties, black, white, and variegated; heads few seeded; stalks small.
No. 20. Black, with bright-red seed, few; stalks small.
No. 21. Black, with yellow opening; two varieties, one black glumies with pinkish seeds, full headed; other ashy glumies, closed heads, with few seed.
No.22. Black, with white seed, bent neck; the other dark, with pinkish seed.
No. 23. Red, with yellow openings, one dark, with pinkish seed; the other dark, with white seeds, pinkish blush.
No.24. Dark, with pale-yellow openings. One full headed, black glumes with pinkish seeds; the other dark glumes, closed seed in an indifferent head.
No.25. Dark; large white opening. One, black glumnes with white seed; the other, black glume with pinkish seed.
Nos. 26, 27, 28, and 29 are crosses of Honduras on white varieties, with large preponderance of Honduras.
No.30. Black, with red openings. One black, with red seed; the other black, with white seed.
October 9 a part of the above was cut and diffused, but results in sugar were nil; 8,482 pounds of sorghumn were successfully diffused, leaVing on an average less than .15 per cent. sucrose illn chips, but the juice was very dilute and contained a greater quantity of glucose thae su. crose. After concentration to masse cuite it was left in the hot room for several weeks, with no indication of grain.
On November 15 the late planting of Honduras, Chinese, and Golden Rod were gathered and diffused. The yields per acre were as high for the first two as 20 tons per acre; but the sugar content was very low.
The following are the analyses:

Brix. Sur~rosw. Glucose.

Mill juies:
Hoh erand .................... 5.7 .>0 1.17
C hinic~t. - *1.......... S 23
(idhh [I l )d .. ... I I 6o 2. 5)
Mixed dtilnsioni ji'm .......... 3. 4 0 1, 25
Simup from abov3 ...... ..... ..... 4 8 5. 31


IHere the process of clarifying in the cell by the use of liime was tried for the first time onI soi'ughll. A much larger quantity of lime was used than was required for calne. ResuIlts indicated that with an abundance of lime, plenty of heat, and a very fine chip a good clarification





62

could be obtained in the cell. Further trials, however, of this process on sorghum are needed to decide fully upon its efficacy.
Since glucose was so largely in excess of sucrose no attempt was made to obtain sugar. The sirup was concentrated into molasses and sent to the molasses-tank.
CONCLUSIONS.

While the present season was in Louisiana a most disastrous one for making sugar from sorghum, yet the su cessful application of diffusion in the extraction of the juice from both sorghum and sugar-Cane has been abundantly proven.
From sorghums of fair quaility, such as were raised on this station in 1886 and 1887, it is certain that a large quantity of sugar could be obtained. From Early Orange this year with only 7 per cent. sucrose and 3.33 per cent. glucose (glucose ratio nearly 50), 31.4 pounds sugar were obtained to ton of sorghumi. This same variety showed in 1886 a sugar content of 13 per cent., with a low glucose ratio, and in 1887, a less favorable year, sugar content of 10.5 per cent. and only 13 as the glucose ratio. Could such cane have been diffused this year, a yield of fully 100 to 125 pounds per ton might with reason have been expected.
Ilowever, the station will repeat again the experiments next year, with more promise of success.





















A














EXPERIMENTS AT CONWAY SPRINGS, KANS ks.



REPORT OF E. W. DEYJNG.

I have the honor to present my report as superintendent of the ex. perfinents condacte(I at this place the past season by your D'. I)artll)eilt in. the manufacture of su(yar froul sorglitlin.
The experiments were conducted in connection with the work of the Conway Springs Sugar Company.
This conipany was incorporated April 10, 1888, under the laws of tho. State of Kansas, with an authorized. cap-Ital of Ii100100. lts officers a reG. AV. Fah s, president E. E. Baird, vice-presid ent; 6. B. Arinstroi i o' treasurer; E. AV. Deming, secretary and manager. The buildings of this conipany are constructed of wood. .1fain bulldiiig 56 hN- 78; foot plates with cupolas lor strike pan, difflisoi-s, double-effects, and shreddhig roon) ; boiler aiid ei-lo-ine Lotu-se 65 by TO feet cutting '111d cleallill(r house, 14 by 14; tool-bouse, 10 by 18; oil-house, 8 by 16, office an(I LIboratory, 16 by 30; cane-sbed, 10 by 10507 t wo floors scale-house, 8 by 10; cooper shop, 15 by 15.
The factory was equipped with two ttibular boilei-6 of 150 horse-power eaell; two 30-borse-power bigh-spc(A ellgilles three 11,111ging I felm-orth cell tri fil Ira Is with illixer; Olle '400t VaCU11111 (dI'V) IK111 from P. Pecley & Co, New York. lJot-looll) with hily S11 NN-a ().ons; Lillie doubleeffect froin Georfre 'M. Newhall & Bro., Pliiladelphi;i difftislon battery froill shichle Harrison & lloward Iron CoiiipallV Saillt Lotils; tIll-ce cutters with necessary clarifiers skininihig-pans, and ,_;t(-)ylrC t,1111-S. 0110 dynaillo of 100-1,111)1) capacitN. (illealldcscent) pi-ovided I]ghts for the building
Two sets rolls -Ind a fire drier for crusbino- and (11-N-ill(r CXjljtj. ted chips, and one sinall open evaporator.
The djjj'jj8i()jl b,'jtteQN (-()118j StS of L iXteejj CCIIS C,101 8 f(Tt I01)'r 111114 35 hiches in diameter, Nvi-ouglit-iion shell with 6iinilar ca-stilig's, doors and couliter-welghts at each elld, provided with solld I'llbber gaskets thlat gave satisfActimi un(lei' a poinid per inch pressure. Olle 11cater for each cell Illade of, G illch NN-1.011(dit I)il)V c.ont.011111cr I I 1-111ch hi-ass tubes a' feet lon(r; the coniiectiii(r and cil-cul"Itilur pipcs of* 2A-illch wromylit iron. The batter I w 1
k15 y was placed iii t wo Iiiie. of even cefls c,
with oue Itcross eaell en(17 and s11l)l)oi.te(l Oil wooden posts, beallis, alld






64

cross-beams 8 feet from the ground ; each cell would hold 1,400 pounds of chips. The cost of this battery with pipe and fittings was $5,500; its work was in every way satisfactory. The exhausted chips were discharged into a chute of sloping sides, directing them into a drag of peculiar construction, delivering them into an elevated chute from whence a cart removed them. This apparatus worked well.
The double-effects are each 4 feet in diameter and 18 feet long placed onil end; each has seventy 3-inch brass tubes 8 feet long placed vertically; ends of tubes properly secured in plates, steam being admitted to the chamber about the tubes. Pumps draw the liquor from bottoms of pans, discharging at the top, passing through perforated screens to the upper plate from which it overflows a thin film of juice down the inside of all tubes alike; the evaporation occurs in the tubes; a vacuum is maintained throughout the tubes and circulating pipes. The vapor was removed at lower end of tubes, with suitable circulating pumps and a slight change in the tops to facilitate cleaning; they will not only have large capacity but unusual merit for handling sorghum juices. These pans by reason of mechanical defects not difficult to overcome and the rapid formation of scale upon the heating surface, extremely difficult to remove, caused some considerable delay to the work.
The first or second cutter, Hughes's style, consisting of two heavy balance wheels 36 inches in diameter placed 32 inches apart on a 3-inch shaft; two knives placed horizontally connected the face of the balance wheels. The dead-knife was placed 8 inches below center of the shaft, thereby making a bevel cut on the cane; space between end of drag and dead-knife 23 inches; this permitted the seed to readily escape the knives by falling into a drag. Power was transmitted by a belt, the cutters making 20(0 revolutions per minute, cutting into 1-inch sections a bed of cane 30 inches wide and 6 inches deep. This cutter proved deficient in both strength and capacity; one-third of the delays and losses attending the work are traced to this source. Below the cutter was a single fan 20 inches in diameter and 30 inches long, having a motion of 600 revolutions per minute. Its work w as especially fine.
The two shredders were each 20 inches long and 8 inches in diameter, pIovidd with four knives held in place by a peculiar arrangement at the ends, leaving the face of cynder free of openings. Motion, 1,200 revolutions per minute. Doing satisfactory work.
Three clarifiers of No. 10 iron, round, 5 feet in diameter and 30 inches deep with cone-shaped bottoms; 2-inch copper coils were used. They lacked scum pockets; otherwise their work was satisfactory.
T he cane shed consisted of two floors, each 10 feet wide and 150 feet long, separated one above the other by a space of 4 feet. As a means of storing cane this applaratus worked well.
An open pan, iron. of two channels each 12 inches wide and 12 inches deep and 20 feet long, filled with three-quarters inch copper coil was at first used with steam as a skimming pan to aid clarification. Later







team was dispensed with and the pan operated as a continuous flow battling tank, giving better satisfaction and suggesting a possible manner of constructing a rapid system of continuous flow settling tanks. To prepare exhausted chips for use as fuel were provided two sets of heavy iron rollers, each set composed of two rollers 12 inches in diaineter and 37 inches long, placed one above the other, the upper one having a covering of flexible rubber I inch thick.
One fire drier consisting of a sheet-iron cylinder 12 feet long and 4 feet in diameter open at both ends. Three sets of arms connected the shell to a 3-inch shaft passing through the center. The shaft was supported by suitable boxes and cross-pieces beyond the end of the cylinder. The whole placed in brick-work, with one end 1 foot higher than the other, and heated with direct fire underneath the lower end. Six narrow shelves upon inside of cylinder served to elevate the chips to fall through an air space as the cylinder was slowly turned by means of a link belt. This carried the chips from the upper to lower end of cylinder where they were discharged.
This apparatus was operated parts of two days. The two sets of double rolls were placed about 3 feet apart; wire netting 36 inches wide of No. 20 steel wire, 8 mesh ends, lapped and wired together, passed between the rolls of both sets, returning underneath and passing around a wooden roll underneath the discharge of the drag returning the chips from underneath the battery. This netting solved the question of feeding these chips to rolls, and I believe would work equally well upon iron rolls; the water readily escapes through the netting,
The high speed at which this wire carrier aind rolls must necessarily be operated, the uneven feed from chip drag, the difficulty in distributing the chips evenly upon the netting, the failure to remove more than about 40 per cent. of the water, and the inability of the d(Irier through which the chips afterwards passed to more than warm them were considered sufficient reason for their speedy removal. There is a possible hope for better success with these rolls if the chips are taken into a large chute from which a constant, even, well -distribluted feed may be furnished them ; even then artificial heat would be required to remove an additional amounilt of moisture bcifore good comilbustion is obtained. The pieces of rind or shell cross each other, forming small spaces to be filled with pith and moisture, land the spongy nature of this pith makes it tenacious of water during the process of rolling.
The chip elevator gave some trouble when permitted to get out of repair. The wagon, turn-table, can shed, outside drags, engines, pumps, dynamo, and strike panl gave entire satisfaction.
The centrifuigals did excellent work even upon the worst melados. The process of work is as follows:
The cane is received( from the farmer upon specially constructed racks. The wagon is driven on a turn-table by which it was squared about, then backed a few feet against au ordinary wagon scales on
1405G-Bull 2.0- 5





66

which was a raised platform 3 feet high; an iron hook was secured in the two ropes placed around the load by the farmer; a friction clutch at the opposite end of the cane shed, nearly 200 feet distant; drew the load over the rear end to the scales. Here it was weighed net, and the farmer's ropes removed. An endless sling was then thrown over the cane, the same power taking it into one of the floors comprising the cane shed, where it was left for night run or taken directly through to a small downward incline, where two men pulled it apart, feeding to three chains with attachments that carried it 1 foot above a cross drag leading to the cutters. The feed was regulated by stopping and starting this chain. This drag leading to first cutter has a motion of 40 feet per minute, carrying the cane in bundles a few inches of space between the tops of one bundle and the tops of the next; this permitted seed to drop freely. Seed was hauled directly to the field and left in small piles; that required for sugar work next season is carefully selected by hand, tied up into bundles of 18 tufts, two bundles then tied together and so hung up in a dry place. The rest is stacked, allowed to pass through a sweat, and thrashed in February. It is sold in large quantities at good prices to ranchmen, who sow it for fodder for stock. The inch sections of cane as they are cut fall into a strong blast of air directly underneath, by which the leaves and sheaths are removed. By means of a link-belt drag the cleaned sections are conveyed into the main building to an elevator, taking them above the roof, where they are discharged into the hopper of the shredder and reduced to pulp, which falls into a carrier passing over the diffusion battery. Openings in bottom of this carrier permit the cane chips to be spouted to cells on either side.
About September 15 a trial ran was made with whiting (carbonate of lime) by placing it in each cell of chips, its object being to prevent inversion during the process of diffusion. The results were disappointing. At the instigation of Dr. II. W. Wiley an apparatus was provided for dusting finely powdered air-slaked lime Ul)On the chips as they left the shredder, about 1 quart being required for each 1,400 pounds of chips. As this apparatus was under nearly perfect control, any degree of acidity of the juice desired was secured; it was generally carried nearly to the neutral point, preventing all inversion, which the whiting failed to do.
Ordinary clarillfiers of 450 gallons capacity were used and the acid in juice nearly if not quite neutralized. If the juice was properly limed in the cell, very few scums were found in the clarifiers. The battery was operated at a temperature of 180 Fahrenheit in center and cooler at each end; a higher temperature would have greatly assisted classification.
Double effects concentrated the clarified juice to 400 Brix, and the strike pan completed the work.
Although the semisirup contained a purity often above 70, it was difficult and generally impossible to start a grain in the pan ; a strike






67

thus boiled to grain produced exceedingly fine grain, difficult to purge and invariably dark in color, no better than a number of early strikes boiled to strig. These fine, gummy, dark sugars, dissolved inll clarified juices, were used to start the grain; an amount equal in weight to onefifth that of each strike produced a fine sugar of medium size grain, remarkable for its uniformity of grain, color, and puIity. All sugars were taken to the mixer and passed through the contrifugals as speedily as possible to remove them from contact with the black molasses.
The entire water supply was obtained from a bed of gypsum 65 feet from the surface, and was positively unfit for use in either the boilers or the diffusion battery. ThO injurious effects of this w ater were ob. served early, Dr. Wiley being the first to suspect the true cause. By the use of this water for diffusion there is a loss (estimated) of 22 pounds of sugar from each ton of cane worked, or 35 per cent. It ruined the molasses, and to this gypsum is attributed, directly or indirectly, nearly two-thirds of the annoying and expensive delays and losses incident to the present season's work.
Canes of unusual richness were worked, the battery secured a good extraction, the entire evaporation occurred in vacuum with but slight inversion of sugar; but large yields of sugar did not follow. The analyses of molasses from the sugars explain much, many of them showing the relative sugars four and even four and one-half to one, yet so engulfed with a mass of gums black and bitter as to render impracticable any attempt to secure second sugars. In my opinion, the estimated loss of sugar due to the use of this water should be doubled. I would respectfully ask critically inclined persons to keep these facts in mind when reviewing the accompanying tables, which contain, not withstanding, some interesting ind reliable information.
The farmer looks upon this industry as one created for his especial benefit, and when considered from his stand-point as judged by its agriculture, can see only magnificent successes for all sugar work. An average crop of cane as grown in this section at k2 per ton equals in value the land upon which it is grown. -No crops are grown with more certainty; others, corn especially, in most localities of this section are not sure every season. One farmer growing 3() acres reports an average yield of 13 tons per acre. Boie small pieces produced more, the average being 10) tons per acre. Ten thousand acres of cane at $2 per ton could easily be contracted for delivery next season. The flirmers are not slow to see the advantages othred in growing cane at these prices.
The soil of this section can be called neither clay nor sand, being light, loose, not sticky, light in color, contains little organic matter and produces only a medium-sized stalk of corn or cane.
I attribute the phenomenal richness of canes grown here th past season to warm soil, high elevation-1l,l500) feet above sea le el-pure, dry atmosphere, proper selection of seed, good culture, and long period of hot, dry weather; the latter acting to somie extent as an unfavorable






68

condition of growth, the plant in its efforts to reproduce itself developing a higher content of sugar.
Dark, heavy soils produce a stalk of abnormal size, continuing its growth until checked by frosts, containing invariably a large per cent. of reducing sugars.
Light, thin soils produce an undersized stalk perhaps 4 feet long, maturing but a handful of seed, generally showing a hgh per cent. of sugar and often a very low per cent. of reducing sugars. If these conclusions are correct, the elevated table-lands of southwestern Kansas, situated directly south and west of the Arkansas River Valley, will offer inducements for the prosecution of this work not found in localities north and east of that valley.
A remarkable feature of this season's ClOp) was its high average content of sugar, low per cent. of reducing sugars, and the disposition to increase the former at the expense of the latter for nearly two months after (lthe cane had matured its seed. The last analysis of stalk cane made November 12, from field cane twice frozen, was 13.85 per cent. sucrose, 1.01 per cent. glucose.
I believe this crop of cane the richest by far of any ever grown and worked for sugar.
But one trial run was made, worked by itself: 43 tons of cleaned cane, from which were obtained 3,830 pounds of sugar of 98 per cent. purity and 1,000 gallons of molasses, being 90 pounds of sugar and 23.2 gallons of molasses from each ton. The laboratory work under the direction of Dr. II. W. Wiley, in charge of Prof. E. A. Von Schweinitz, assisted by Mr. Oma Carr, has been most satisfactory. The information gained through their labors will prove very interesting and valuable to all friends of this industry.
I am well satisfied no well-regulated sugar works can be successfully operated and the best results obtained unless a complete chemical control of the every-day work prevails.
Their. services are invaluable as a check upon the work of diffusion and clarification. A change from hard to solfter cane ora slight alteralion in the justmient of the shredder may result in great loss of sugar in the former ; a change in the treatment of the juice results in loss by inversion in the latter. The cause and extent in each case are disclosed only by the chemist's art.
Ani expendituren upon this plant of, $2,000 or $3,000 for an additional boiler aInd cuitters would give it a working capacity of fully 150 tons per day with a 1ull equipmett of new and modern machinery. This plant could now be duplicated fhr much less money.
To the unlindlv cNritic the statements herein made will be a source of comfort, fIr, alas, nothing succeeds like success; results, not causes, are wanted, anld o mlilitigatinlig cilcumstances or untiifavorable conditions are considered. Nevertheless those best informed see much that is very eucouranllg.








A new and desirable system of storing and preparing cane for diffusion was tested, its advantages~ proven, and its weak points disclosed; this, with the high per cent. of sugar found in this cane, is a fair offset for losses sustained by weak cutters and the use of gypsum water.
The following facts may not be out of place: This enterprise was no exception to those preceding in respect to starting late in the season, after the crop was planted, as it were. Less than three months intervened between the placing of orders for the machinery and the date of ripening of the first planted cane. The factory was two weeks late in starting and the other end of the season shortened by burning of the boilers November 4, leaving 75 acres of most excellent cane that was rich in sugar.
The gypsum had a most disastrous effect upon the boilers; frequent stoppages of work were required to clean them. By reason of excessive scaling of boiler shell and tubes the efficiency of the boilers was greatly reduced.
The following figures relative to this plant were taken from the books of the company and are reliable:
Cost of sugar-works plant .... ............................ $41,547. 72 $44,517.72
Less cost of water-works plant ............................ 6(, 000. 00
3-, 547.72

Donation city water-works bonds ......................... 12, -00. 00
Received from U. S. Department of Agriculture ............. 10, 000.00
Farmers' stock, for cane, paid in .......................... 4, 500.00
27,300. 00
Cost to present owners ..................... ........... 17,247. 72
Cost of labor .......................................................... 5, 6. 02
Less labor on water-works ............................................ 1, 500.00
4, 306. (2
Cost of fuel. ........ ..... ....... .................... .. 3, 096. 33
Cost of caniie .. ..... .... ..................................... 5, )0. o
Cost of incidentals, barrels, etc ........................................ 1, 364.37
1 1, 8:(G. 72
100,000 pounds of sugar at 6G cents ........................ $6,500. 00
100,000 pounds sugar, 2 cents State bounty ................ 2,000. 00
36,000 gallons of molasses at 12 cents ...................... 4,320.00
6,000 bushels seed, 50 cents (estimated) .................... 3, 000. 00
--------- 15, 820. 00
Gain ............. ...... ...... ........................... .... 9
Five thousand dollars were paid to railroads for freight transportation. The cost for coal and labor to handle 1 ton of caloe is ".. cents; much coal was used for testing machinery, Water-workS, etc. Profit per ton over cost of production, ::3 cents. 'LTaking the season as a whole the plant was operated at less than hal, its cap:wit y with n) decrc;:.se in cost of labor. Fully 150 tons cumhld have bieen worklled wit the saiIne






70
labor and an increase of 20 per cent. of fuel, making the value per ton of cane worked over cost of production 1.62 cents, or $243 per day.
For working a 200-ton plant, costing perhaps 20 per cent. additional above this one, labor and incidentals increased 10 per cent. and fuel 25 per cent., would show value of product over cost of production of 3.60 cents per tont, or $720 per day. These yields are based upon results of this season's work, 60 pounds of sugar and 161 gallons of molasses from each ton, which certainly is 20 per cent. less than may reasonably be expected by the use of good water.
The average quality of sugar as placed upon the market from these works was equal to the best in purity, but stained slightly by contact with black molasses. It has a hard, firm, medium sized, well-cut grain, was dried thoroughly, and unlike all finegrained sorghum sugars heretofore produced does not cake or become hard in the barrel. It stands next to granulated in price and sweetening power, the jobber selling at 6; cents per pound more of this sugar than all yellow sugars combined. Confectioners appreciate its sweetening power. The molasses was very dark in color, sharp and bitter to the taste, classed but little better than black-strap; with pure water the quality would be improved and the selling price increased to 18 or 20 cents per gallon.
Unless some means are devised for removing a larger per cent. of the impurities in the juice or a less quantity of sugar is secured, enabling the production of a molasses suitable for table use, the near future will see enormous quantities of molasses produced fit only for mixing purposes, for which the demand is necessarily limited.
A plant working 200 tons per day will produce annually 250,000 galions of molasses, anid unless suitable for table use it must be used for fttening hogs and catte or converted into alcohol.
The Department of Agriculture, under the direction of Dr. H. W. Wiley, who first advocated and practically applied the process ot'f diffiusion to the manufacture of sugar from sorghum, has made it possible to secure practically all the sugar in the juice, this being the first aind greatest step toward the establishment of the industry; the next greatest and scarcely less important step still awaits a solution. I rdfer to the clarification olf sorghum juices. The methods now employed for tihis purpose are borrowed from the sugar-canme work of Louisiana, being mllerely the addition of lime and removing what scums appear on the sa ]ce.
Analysis shows the amount of sugar in each ton of cane, averaging the whole season, to be 249 pounds; hdie glucose would hold in solution GG pounds, leaving 183 pioulnds available, did not other solids, as guns, starch, coloring mIatter, etc., also restrain 4 times their equal of sugar front graining until a possible yiehl of 100 pounds or less from each ton of cane is our best work. Must we stop here and permit the loss of one-half or more of the sugar found in the cane? The task is not an easy one as the many know who have considered it even briefly, but its importance and necessity demand that we sit not idly by.






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The people of the whole southwestern portion of this State to my personal knowledge are enthusiastic upon the question of sorghum sugar; a failure any season to grow good sorghum is not recorded. The establishing of sugar works would bring under cultivation lands now considered of little value except for growing sorghum, and fortunately will produce a sorghum of the very best quality for producing sugar.
These facts are fully appreciated, and every town, many without water, and others without railroads, aspires to the possession of a sugar works.
Daily during the working season committees, delegations, and individuals visited the sugar works, leaving full of confidence in the work.
A number of factories could be erected in this section next season if experienced men could be found to operate them.


ABSTRACT OP MR. DEMING'S REPORT TO THE CONWAY SPRINGS SUGAR COMPANY.

To President and Stockholders of Conway Springs Sugar Company:
I hereby submit for your consideration the following report of your works the past season:
I would especially call your attention to the following facts: A complete organization was not effected until about April 20. Orders for machinery were placed about June 1; very little machinery had arrived July 1; all the heavy machinery was on the ground July 25, the strike pan and boilers only being placed. Boilers were first tired August 15; cane-shed and cutters tested August 22; first chips taken to battery August 26. On this latter date was completed drags and an arrangement for drying chips to be used as fuel. The two following days they were tested, and removed during the next two. Eleven cells of chips were diffused August 28 and 29 and concentrated in the strike-pan. Regular work began September 1 on early cane, producing only molasses. Sep'einember 12 began work on orange cane for sugar.
From the foregoing you will observe the late date of orgaization, the necessarily short time for selecting suitable machinery, and also for its manufacture. From special designs most of it was manufactured in the East at increased cost. This, in connection with the time and labor required for placing the same and making the necessary pipe connections throughout the building with a class of mechanics and laborers without previous experience with this line of machinery, accounts tor starting the factory twvo weeks after the cane was ready.
For growing cane the season was unfavorable. Sod cane and late planting were greatly injured by the drought.
Fifty farmers contracted to grow 600 acres of cane. One hundred and five acres of old ground were planted with amber seed represented as pure, but badly mixed with orange, which was worked green, contained nosugar, alnd too immature to produce good molahses. Fifty-four acres produced S tons per acre; 51 acres remain unworked, of no value except as fodder. One hundred acres of sod were planted to orange; 50 acres produced 5 tons per acre; the other 50, planted late, is only suitable for fodder. Three hundred and ninety-five acres of old ground were planted to orange; p220 acre were worked, producing 101 tons per acre; 175 acres remain unworked; of this, 100 acres, late planting, only tit for fodder, while 75 acres of most excellent ane yet remain in the field.
A few acres of Link's Hybrid variety of cane were grown, making a satisfactory growth, but inferior to the Orange both in sugar content and power of retaining its sutar after the seed had matured.






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A slight frost occurred October 25, and a heavier one November 4, doing no damage. A freeze occurred November 9, and again on the 11th. The unfortunate burning of the boilers November 4, when machinery was working well, with cane in its best condition, and the prospect good for working the whole crop, is indeed to be regretted.
The farmers are to be congratulated on their readiness to grow cane, disposition to aid the enterprise by taking stock, playing therefor in cane, and their success in producing a crop of cane never before equaled in its sugar-making properties.
A very remarkable fact developed by the factory work was the canes' unusually high content of sugar and its disposition to not only maintain but increase its sugar content, at the same time decreasing its invert sugar. The fact that this cane had matured its seed nearly two months previous, some having been frozen and thawed twice by November 12, date of last analysis, indicates that this section, by its high elevation, dry atmosphere, absence of early frosts, and peculiar soil, has, so far as my knowledge extends, advantages not possessed by other localities.
The last analysis of field cane was made November 12, 13.85 sucrose and 1.01 glucose. August 15 cane was in condition for making sugar, and remained so entil November 15, providing a three months' working season, nearly one month longer than at Fort Scott. Sixty-three analyses of cane chips, fully representative of the crop and the season, averaged 12.45 per cent. of sucrose (true sugar), and 2.37 per cent. of glucose (reducing sugars.) The average of fifty-three analyses taken at Fort Scott last season was9.54 sucrose, and 3.40 glucose. Admitting these juices contained no other solids not sugar, except the glucose (which is not true), yet granting an equal per cent., the cane grown here has 12.8 pounds available sugar per ton, against 95.6 pounds at Fort Scott.
As further evidence of the phenomenal conlitions prevailing here I would call your attention to the averages of analyses from which the above was taken:


No. Dates. Sucrose. Glucose.

24 Analyses September 12 to 30 .................. 11. 15 2.92
35 Analyses (Octobher 2 to30 ...................... 13.23 2.07
4 Analyses Novenmber 1 to 4 ................... 13.45 1. 69
63 Total.................................. 12.45 2.37


Note the increase of sucrose and the corresponding decrease of glucose. Such relations of the two sugars in sorghum, existing for a period of two months, are without Precedent in the whole history of the industry, and suggest that possibly the area over which this business may be conducted with the greatest success is not limitless, as some supp~ose.
The cane worked produced about 6,000 bushels of seed; 2,163: tons of cleaned cane were worked for molasses, prodlcinllg m6,000 gallons, or 16.6 gallons per ton, in addition to the sugar; 1,673 tonsof cleaned cane were worked for sugar producing 100,000 pounds, or W0 pounds per ton ; 240 tons were lost-in the fans, 3; not drawn from battery, 117; soured in battery, 20; soured semi.sirup, 40; left as semi-sirup when work ended, 6(10.
A supply of water suflicient for the water-works also was obtained at considerable cost.
The well furnishing the supply being 15 inches in diameter and 50 feet deep through a substance known as keel, an H-inch drill-hole was carried 15 feet below; into this was placed a 5-inch suction-pipIe.
The maxiInmun supply of water was equal to the discharge, under slight pressure, of a 3.-inch pipe, inadequate for factory work; 500 feet distant was formed. a pond from which a 3-inch discharge ul)nI sunpplied the boilers, diffusion battery, and double






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~etet; two days' time were lost in making this change, but an adequate supply of water was obtained.
I have endeavored to prepare a statement whereby the expenses incurred in operation could be sbown andi the real profit or loss upon this season's work clearly shown. Much labor belonging to plant account has been charged to operation. A complete separation of the water-works and sugar company's interests in this respect is impossible. Quite a quantity of fuel is on hand, some work yet remains to be done, and further, very much of the product remains onl hand unsold. Therefore, any statement now offered will in great part be assumed. However, with figures now at hand, and estimating value of products from prices already obtained, I may confidently assert that the product of this season's work considerably more than equals in value the cost of its production. This is a very creditable showing indeed, especially when we consider that from one cause or another the factory, taking the season as a whole, averaged less than half its capacity without a corresponding reduction in the operating expenses.

MR. DEMING'S DIRECTIONS FOR RAISING CANE.

Much depends on a good stand from the first planting. No filling-in will be allowed. If necessary to replant any portion, it must be replowed, cultivated, or listed over.
The field should first be cleared of all trash, such as stalks, weeds, and bunches of grass. This is best done by raking and burning. Unless a lister is used a good seed bed, such as for wheat, should be provided, and the seed deposited in fresh, moist earth, deep enough to insure moisture, yet not beyond the sun's warmth. This varies from one-half inch in depth on heavy clay soils to 3 or more inches on light, loose, sandy soil.
It is essential that the seed be planted at an even, uniform depth to insure its comning up and ripening early, and the seed must under no circumstances be dropped or covered by hand. For loose sandy soils a lister is a good planter. A good garden drill may answer, and under some circumstances a forced wheat drill, having all the holes except the two next the outside ones closed; but for a prepared seed bed a regular two-horse corn planter, with or without a drill attachment, gives the best resuilts, planting at a uniform depth, and the wheel firming the soil about the seed, causing it to germinate and grow more rapidly, with a better start of the weeds.
Unless the planter has broom-corn plates, which are the best, the holes in the corn plates should be partially closed, with lead, babbitt, cork, or leather, until they admit of the passage of not more than four or five seeds at each movement of the plate. Aslight excess of seed should be planted, and the hoe used to properly clean it out. This should be done invariably before the cane is 4 inches high. Good soils will produce astalk of cane for each 4 inches of row space. When the rows are 42 inches apart, two stalks should be allowed a space of 10 inches, three stalks 18 inches, four stalks 30 inches, six stalks 42 inches, and never more than six stalks in any one bunch, no matter how spaced.
Foul land is easiest tended when planted in checks, and all lands so planted produced more sugar, but a smaller tonnage, than when planted in drills. The cultivation should be merely upon the surface to avoid cutting and otherwise disturbing the roots, checking their growth, and inducing a growth of suckers to sap the parent stalks and retard their development. I All that is required is to keep the grass and weeds in check, and all cultivation should cease when the joints appear, as any interference with the roots at this time results most seriously. One well-matured stalk will grow on the space occupied by two small ones, is as heavy as six small ones, and contains more juice sugar and less impurities in proportion to its weight. 1he seed and leaves are less than 2C per cent. of total weight of the large stalks, while with small canes the loss from this source may reach fully 50 per cent.






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To plant cane upon new ground the turned sod should be quite thin, but evenly and smoothly laid. The seed should be planted with a two-horse corn-planter, provided with a rolling coulter to cut and not displace the sod, depositing the seed just underneath the subsoil. The sod acts as an excellent mulch to retain moisture and prevent the growth of grass and weeds, no cultivation or further attention except thinning being necessary until harvest time. A good practice for planting cane upon old ground is to plow the land at any time during early spring, but do not harrow. At planting time take a two-horse cultivator, place three small shovels upon each beam, spread and fasten the beams so that the shovels will work uip a space for two rows each 4 inches deep and 12 inches wide. Let the planter follow soon, depositing the seed in the center of this worked-over space. Tliere will be no weeds or grass for 6 inches upon either side of the plants, and the cultivator will care for the space between the rows. Cane deteriorates very rapidly when cut, lying on the ground in bunches, exposed to the sun and drying winds, a few days of such exposure changing the sugar into glucose. Cane should be delivered the same day as cut, the only exception to this rule being to cut and load on the wagon the evening before what can be delivered early the next morning.
Next to the importance of properly thinning the canes the necessity of having wellmatured, freshly cut, promptly delivered cane is the most important point connected with the agriculture of this business.
Instructions for converting an ordinary hay-rack into a cane-rack will be furnished by the cane agut. Each wagon must be provided with two ropes, each three-fourtbs of an inch in diameter and 35 feet long, by which the cane is unloaded. The cane must be loaded so the tops project over the right side of the rack, facing the team.

REPORT OF E. A. v. SCHWEINITZ.

The character of the growing season of 1888, for sorghum, in the vicinity of Conway Springs, record of which was kept by Mr. J. M. Wilson, the cane-grower, was the following:
From April 16 to 21, when the first planting was made, the ground was still cold, but otherwise in good condition. April 21 to 25 the weather was cool and cloudy, followed by heavy rains on the 26th and 27th, and by heavy frost on April 30, which tfroze the ground one-half inch.
The beginning of May was clear and cool, with rain on the 6th, followed by clear and warmer weather up to the 16th, with rain on the 17th, warmer weather until the 24th, when there was again a heavy rain. The month of June was warm, with good rains upon the 8tl, 21st, and 26th.
July and August were exceedingly hot months, with scorching winds, but with a good rain on July 14, and light rain on August 5 and 6.
September and October were hot and dry, with no rain util October 2L. The first heavy frost occurred November 4, but did not damage the cane. The first freeze was on November 9. Already on October 25 there was light frost, but not sufficint to kill the leaves, and by NoVe1mber 2 t1 hey were thoroughly dry and dead.
Work stopl)p)ed on November 4, aIund November 8 there was a heavy snoWv-stourii i1nd blzzrdl.. The last cale was analyzed a week after the factory sitIpped, bu tauparvd as good as at any time during the season






75

and did not at that date show any effects of the thaw following the freeze. This was due, probably, to the fact that the cane was very dry. The elevaton of Conway Springs is about 1,500 feet above the sealevel. The soil upon which the sorghum was planted is an upland sandy loam. About one-fourth of the crop was upon sod land and the rest on old plowed land.
The subsoil is derived from the decomposition of friable red shale, which contains a fairly large percentage of phioslihoric acid with but little potash.
The first planting was Early Amber seed, suppl)osed to be pliure, and the later planting of Orange, Sterling Orange, and on May 16 about 10 acres of Link's Hybrid.
The seed was put in either with a planter or strewn on top and harrowed. The average depth of planting was 2 inches. It was found necessary early in May to replant some of the Amber which had heen covered to a depth of 4 inches. Owing to the late date at which the building was begun and the machinery ordered, the factory was not ready for work until September 1. The first cane was cut August 24, and regular work begun September 6.
The seed planted for pure hand picked Early Amber proved to have been a mixture of Amber and Sterling Orange. In consequence, when the Amber was ready to be cut and worked, the Orange mixed with it was still green, showing a low content of sucrose. After a few days' work it was decided to have the farmers pick out the best of the Early Amber in the field and condemnn the rellmainder. As fully lone half otf the crop of the supl)posed Early Aimber proved to be this Sterliing Orange, the first work of the season was of but little value, and no at. tempt was made to obtain sugar, all of the cane being worked thr molasses.
September 4 the first Early Orange cane was cut. At that time, although the seed was hard and riIpe, the content of sugar in the Cane was not nearly as high as the same variety of cane showed later in the season.
The Sterling Orange was at its best about October 1, land the Link's 3Hybrid at the time it was worked, Novemniber 1.
The results of analyses of whole canes are recorded in Table No. 1. The canes were topped and stripped, and the jTice exleissd by nileanis of a small hand-mill. The average amount of suicrose in the juice was about 2.09 per cent. higher than the average of aIny crop hlerctolbre worked. The highest percentage was tfund ii sample No. 12, taken from a load of Sterling Orange. The lowest percelltltage of sulilrose was noted in two samIpiles of miixed Amnber and Il ipe ()range, oi Selicmnber 4 and September 10. The best samples taken during the work ug season were Nos. 27 Amnber. 352 Orange, aid 374 1liiik's ll\ brid. Tile Amber cane after being cut, if left lying 1 any lengtr: of tine, d'teriorated rapidly, a:s shown bly the am11sis of No. 26.






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The percentage of moisture in the cane during the month of October decreased rapidly, and the same quantity by weight of cane yielded only about one-half the weight of juice given earlier in the season. The dry. ness of the cane was also noted by the farmers, as their loads lost several hundred pounds as compared with the same sized load during the first part of the work. It may also be noted that the cane was very pithy. On an average, one out of every five stalks contained little or no juice and a large amount of fiber. The cane cut during October, a great quantity of which was left lying from two to three days at a time, on account of delays in working, did not deteriorate to any great extent. The dryness of the cane again probably explains this.
After the factory stopped, a number of samples of cane was taken for the purpose of determining the condition of the still outstanding crop.
Samples Nos. 382 and 388 gave the highest result of the season. Another sample, No. 383, from a field which the cane-grower claimed was the poorest out, showed a high percentage. No. 378 was from a field of second growth, from stubble. On November 4 some 25 tons of cane were left on the rack. One lot was selected and analyzed, some of it put into a silo. A sample of the remainder, tested four days later, showed that there had been no deterioration in the cane, as can be seen from analyses Nos. 386 and 391. This cane had been exposed to heavy frost, snow, and thaw.
Cane taken from the field on November 7, and again from the same field November 12, showed but little deterioration.
The average percentage of sucrose in the mill juices from the fresh chips is .3 per cent. higher than that recorded in the average of the whole canes. This is explained by noting several very low percentages of sucrose in some of the samples of whole cane, without a corresponding low percentage in the chips.
Here it may be noted that in taking samples of fresh and exhausted chips, as also of diffusion and clarified juices, care was taken to secure comparative samples. The battery consisted of sixteen cells, but only twelve of these were in the circuit at one time. The fresh chips were taken from these twelve cells and the exhausted chips from the same. The juices were sampled as they ran into the defecators, care being taken to secure those corresponding to the fresh chips. The samples of semi sirup were taken as a rule once every twelve hours, and correspond approximately to the juices analyzed. For the most part two sets of salples were taken, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon.
'Thle lowest sucrose and highest glucose were recorded at the beginning of th1e season. The hIighest sucrose of the season was noted on October 15, and lowest glucose on October 26.
The average percentage of sucrose for October was 13.22 and glucose 2.07. From September 2( to the end of the season tihe mill- juices aplared to be uilslially richly. The average fIor October was .8 per cent.






77

higher than the average for the entire season. This is 2.88 per cent. higher than the average at Fort Scott in 1887. As noted in connection with the whole canes, the dryness may partly explain this, but the lo. cation and soil of Conway Springs seem to be especially adapted to the growth of sorghum. It is further south than any other point in Kanas, where sorghum has been grown and the season appears to be longer and better than in eastern Kansas.
The mean of sucrose in diffusion juices is higher than the mean at Fort Scott in 1887, but considerably lower than would be expected from the analyses of the chip juices. The diftierence may be accounted for either by the dryness and pithiness of the canes, as just mnientioned, or by inversion in the battery. In order to prevent inversion, if any, carbonate of lime was used in the battery ]Or a time. Although the acid was neutralized to about the same extent as at Fort Scott, apl))arently inversion was not prevented. The results of the analyses are given in Tables 12, 13, and 14. In place of carbonate of lime a number of experiments were made with caustic lime. The lime was distributed upon the chips as they passed from the macerator to the battery, by means of a roll, about 1I pounds of lime being added to each cell. The object was to add just so much lime to the chips that 100 c. c. of the juice when in the clarifiers would require about 5 c. c. of n" alkali 10)
to neutralize it. To attain this exact point was difficult and the tables in which results of the work are given show all possible variations. he lime as sprinkled on the chips also neutralized the acid in the mill jice, as may be seen from the table.

(G lu uOse. SuvrtOS.
In the mill juices t-ated with lime
the p oiortions er ....... ..... .. I 6. 6
In mill innce, t .................... 1 5.0
In diffusion jui es:ie
I Ijics without lime .......... 1 4 9
In dilffusion juites .............. 1 3.3

If we note samples 183 and 184 oni October 5, there appears to have been no inversion whatever. On several other days tlhe apparent inversion was but slight. It may be Imeilmtioned further that on those days on which little or no inversionl was noted, the percentage of glucose in the mill juice was high, alnd the amount of juice given by the cane as taken from records of weight of juice was above the average forthe season. 'lThe average number of enhic cent imeters alkali required to neutralize the acid in the juices was 40.6. Solids in m ill juice .......................................................... 19.:
Solid in diffusioni juice ..................................................... .
19.39 :12.99 :: 41.6 : x.
Normal acidity ofr the diffusion j ice .... .............. ... ..... .... .... '2
That is consideably higher thimn the acidity of juices found at Foilt cott average of which was 19.98.






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The highest per cent. of sucrose for the season in the diffusion juice was noted September 29, 10.02 per cent., being 2.30 per cent. above the average. The corresponding mill juice for the same date was 14.92 per cent. sucrose, 2.5 above the average, showing that fair comparative samples had been secured.
The average during October was 8.59 per cent. sucrose, 1.74 per cent. glucose, better than the results obtained at Lawrence, La., bearing in mind the fact that the sugar cane has less glucose. The purity of the diffusion juices was lower than that of the mill juices from the chips. This is due probably to inversion in the battery.
The column headed extraction" in table 12 is given for the purpose of noting to what extent, if any, the extraction was diminished by the use of lime in the battery. If we compare the several instances of especially low extraction, Nos. 246, 291, and 361, with the corresponding acidity, we will note that either lime was in excess or the percentage of sucrose for the day was high, without a corresponding change having been made in working the battery, and in theamountdrawnoff. October 15,
In mill juice there were .......................8.4 parts glucose to 100 parts sucrose
In diffuision juice there were .................. 16.5 parts glucose to 100 parts sucrose
October 5 and 25, with acidity 9, the proportions in the two juices corresponded closely.
The table shows, then, that the lime, unless in excess, did not interfere with the extraction.
Record was kept during the entire season of the amounts of sucrose and glucose left in the chips. The highest percentage of sucrose in the mill juices from these was noted at the end of the season, November 2, being 2.91 per cent. The average extraction for the entire season was 88.72 per cent. of the sugar in the cane. This is a poor extraction, being fully 4.1 per cent. lower than the extraction at Fort Scott in 1887. The average dilution for the season was 11.55 per cent. From the first of the season to October 15, 160 gallons were drawn off each time. From that date till the close of the season 80 gallons. Each cell held 1,400 pounds chips. )Deducting 10 per cent. for fiber, we have 1,260 pounds juiice in each cell.
Average weight of juice drawn from first of season to October 15....pouds.. 1,349 From then till close of season) ............................ ... ...... do.... 1,513
Mean Brix front September 6 to October 15:
In mill juices... .................................... ..................... 18.3
In diffusion juic s ...................................................... 13.05
October 15 to November 2:
M ill juices.............................................................. 20.10
Diffusion juices-....... ..-.......................................... 1.55
1)ilution from Septe ber 6 to October 15.....................per cent. 6.50
Dilution fromn October 15 to close of season ............................ do .... 16. 60
The poor extraction was (due partly to the large chips furnished by the small cutters during a plortioii of the season, to the irregularity in working, but chiefly to the small quantity of juicedrawn off; allpoints






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which might have been more carefully noted and the loss avoided. As the dilution, if moderate, is of small importance, the object should be to get all or as nearly all as possible of the sugar from the cane.
The purity of the defecated juices, Table IV, is 1.5 points higher than the diffusion juices, due to a little destruction of glucose in the clarifiers.' The table shows in addition that there was no inversion in the clarifiers. The scum from the defecators was, as is usual, about as rich in sugar as the juices themselves. These scums were thrown into the ditch, thus entailing a loss of sugar which could and should have been avoided by returning them to the battery.
For the purpose of comparing the readings of the Brix spindle with the actual total solids obtained by drying and weighing, a number of determinations were made.
Rectangular flat platinum dishes three eighths inch in depth were used and the samples dried for five hours at 1000 C. The samples were weighed from a tared flask, about 2 grams being taken in each instance. Duplicates were always made. The use of asbestus as an absorbent agent in drying was also tested. A thin layer of loose asbestus was placed in the bottom of the dish, and the sample dried at and fbr the same length of time as those samples where the dish alone was used.
The average of these results in the case of mill juices gives the solids 1.46 per cent. less, and with asbestus as 1.66 per cent. less, than the average of the spindle readings. These results are fully 1 per cent. Iwer than those recorded by Dr. Crampton at Fort Scott in 1887, but agree closely with results obtained at Douglas, Kans., and at the Department this year. In the case of the diffusion juices, the dish alone gave 1.25 per cent. solids less, and dish with asbestus 1.40 peir eit. less, than the direct readings of the spindle. Correcting the percentage of iugar on this basis, in the mill juices it would be .11 per cent. higher, nd in the diffusion juices .05 per cent. The purity is also largely inreased by calculating on the weight of actual solids.
It may again be remarked here, as was stated in 187, the use 4of tihe Brix spindles standardized fir pure solutions of sugar give nmislcadiIg results, and the solids as determined by direct drying should he relied on. As might be expected, the samples where asecstuIs was usei gave results slightly lower than those without, and it may he stated ut thi1er that the duplicates with asbestus agreed more closely. The asbhestus furnishes a larger drying surface, and less moisture is retained t han is the case with a thick film of the sirulp. The asllestus should, thein, Ihe preferred to the plain dish.
The average ratio of glucose to sucrose inll the seiisirups is slightly igher than that in the defecated jlces:
i~
S4'iiiiiu pI :i N

S it r f UAttd J .i'S .... .. 3.,
f:_td mc 3I 6






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This difference is due either to error of experiment or to the equalizing effect of large quantities of juice or to a slight inversion in the double-effect vacuum-ipan.
It is interesting to note this, as it is the first time that the Lillie patent has ever been used as a double effect. It is true, the pan gave a great deal of trouble and caused a great deal of delay during the working season. This was due, th st, to the fact that the pumps put in to keep up the circulation of the juice, viz, rotary pumps, were notsuited to the work, and secondly and chiefly, because the effect had been hurriedly and carelessly put up by inexperienced workmen. At the close of the season centrifugal pumps were substituted for the rotaries and the pan thoroughly overhauled by an engineer from Philadelphia, and it then gave satisfaction. The inside of the juice-tubes became rapidly coated with a hard scale, which necessitated their being cleaned every four or five days. This scale was due principally to the mineral water, which will be referred to in another connection.
The first sugar made was grained in the wagons. The grain was small, and as it had been allowed to stand for a considerable length of time and become cold, it was difficult to free it in the centrifiugals from the gummy matters. Table No. 7 gives the polarization of this product. All of it was reboiled and used for enriching the semi-sirups, hence the high purity and increased percentage of sucrose in the masse cuites and molasses over and above the semi-sirups. The samples of the masse cuites were taken from the mixer, and the samples of molasses taken from time to time from the storage tanks and barrels give the average composition of this produc t for the season. The purity of the molasses from the enrichlied sirups is higher than the purity of the semi. sirups at Fort Scott in 1887, but as the molasses could be disposed of, it was considered more profitable to sell it than to work it for seconds.
The water from the well proved upon examination to be highly charged with mineral matter, containing 318 grains to the gallon. This was chiefly gypsuul:, together with some little magnesiuml sulphate and sodium chloride. A 10 per cent. solution of sugar prepared with this water and evaporated to a thick siup showed no more inversion than a solutioI of' the same strength made up with distilled water and evapoio rated. The addition of acetate of lime to the solution had nIo inverting actio.
The water gave particular trouble in the boilers, forming rapidly a heavy scale. The want of proper cleaning in the early part of the sea. s) (aused biurling of thie boilers omi Noveilber 4 and stopped thie work. The latter pai',tfl of tIe seasomi the vapor water was run into a l)ond and used for diffusionm purposes. This water was strongly acid, due to the dcomlipositiml of orgalic l mmal tel', alld not i ich of a llipii)rovemelit oil the well water. ()On account of the f'oaming it was difficult also to use it in the boilers.
In the few samples of masse-cuite not menriched the proportion of





81

crose to glucose was about the same as in the semi-sirups, showing nt there was not any inversion in the strike-pan. The percentage of ash found in the masse cuite is 1.5 per cent. and i the molasses 1 per cent. higher than the average found at Fort ctt in 1887. This we may fairly attribute to the large amount of ypsum in the water. After pond water was substituted for the well wter, except on one or two days when lime in the battery was in cess, the corresponding percentage of ash was diminished. The indirect readings of sucrose are either lower or correspond closely ith the direct readings. This points to a large amount of starch in he juices, which will further explain the high readings in the mill jices and apparent inversion in the battery. The solids not sugar are so higher than heretofore noted; also to be attributed to starchy and ummy matter.
The proportion of glucose to sucrose in the molasses is about 1: 3. his high ratio is doubtless'due to mineral and organic matters (not sugar) present, which, while not causing inversion, prevent crystallizaion. Further, the sugar-boiler was troubled with gummy matter in te strike-pan, and the masse cuite was very gummy in the centrifugals. n several occasions quite a quantity of white gummy matter was taken t by the proof-stick. This fully explains why such a large proportion f sucrose was left in the molasses. The analysis of sample 122 shows roportion of glucose to sucrose 1: 1.6. This sample was from the first lt of mixed cane worked, which contained but little sucrose. The percentage of albuminoids in the juices from fresh chips is high. he per cent. in diffusion juice is .25 lower, and in clarified juices .01 ss than in diftfusion, showing that the defecation had removed a compratively small proportion of the albuminoids. The figures show further that the cane contained an unusually large mount of fiber and organic matter not sugars, which went into the iffusion juice. This further accounts for the large amount of gummy matter in the strike pan, and, together with the large amount of mineral atter, explains the low yield of sugar from the rich cane. The color of the sugars was a grayish yellow, and rated on the mIIarkt as a little better than C brown. The graini was large and firm. The mean polarization of raw gummy sugars was S2.52, and of first gars 96.80.
The following is the record of the ummber of tons of cane worked, sugar and molasses made:
otal number of tons of cane passed over the sealis ......................... ,J
Of this 430.5 tons were Early Amber, mixed with unripe Sterling range.
Two thousand five hundred and sixty and five-tenths tons were chilly range, with a small quantity of Link's IH ybrid. The estimated average nnage per acre is 10; the highest tonnage, 13.5 per acre. Twentyve tons were left on the cane rack when work stopped, so that the act.
140050-u1,ll. 20-61






82

ual number of tons of cane worked was 2,966, and tons worked for sugar 2,535.5. Tons of cane for molasses only, 430.5. Deducting 25 per cent. for leaves and seed, we have 2,225 tonls of cleaned cane. Total number of cells filled from September 12 to close................... 2,730
Number of pounds of chips inll each cell.................................. 1,400
Total number of pounds of chips inll cells (1,860 tols) ..................... 3,72,000
Number of tons of cleaned cane from September 12 to close .............. 1,901
Making a difference of 41 tons unaccounted for, some of which was thrown out by the fan and from the drag. The remainder can be attributed to lost records, which were missing for several days' work.
Yield O1 ugar.
Total number of pounds of sugar .......................................... 100,500
Gallo s of Iolasses ........................................... ......... 3, 000
There was left on hand at close of season one tankful of semi sirup, equal to 600 gallons of molasses. This makes average yield of sugar per ton of field cane, estimated ohi the cane actually worked for sugar, 39.2 pounds, and on cleaned cane 52.8 pounds. The quantity of molasses made per ton of cleaned cane was 14 gallons, or, estimating the sugar on total number of tons of cane cut during the season, we have 45.1 pounds per ton of cleaned cane. Two trial runs were made during the season. The first 46.9 tons gave 3,986.5 pounds sugar and 9,580 gallons molasses, equal to 85 pounds sugar and 20 gallons molasses per ton. The second trial run gave 90 pounds sugar and 16 gallons of molasses per ton on a run of 60 tons.
During the season there were lost by carelessness 4,800 gallons of semi-sirup and 7,200 gallons of juice, corresponding to about 100 tons of cane. The battery soured twice and was drawn off twenty-eight times, causing a loss of 192 cells of chips of 1,400 pounds each, equal to 134 tons of cane. Deducting, then, 234 tons from the number of tons worked for sugar, we have 1,667 tons of cleaned cane, with an average of 60.2 pounds sugar per ton.
From each ton it was estimated that 2 bushels of seed and 200 pounds of leaves were obtained. The seed was carefully hand-picked and thrashed, so that this product will prove very valuable.
The total number of days' actual work, counting each day at twentytwo hours, was thirty. By that we mean that the number of hours during which the cutter actually worked would be equal to thirty days of twenty-two hours each. If a factory is substantially built, th machinery strong and every bolt in its place, there is no reason why there should ot be a steady yearly ruln of ninlety days, full time. During the working season every hour's delay is so much monlley lost, aid a sugar factory should 11run11 as smlloothly as it grist mIllill. It is a qilestioll of practical mechanics, which a good machinist can handle.
W ith a n11ber of changes in thel factory the Conway SpringS 11il can he IllmadIle a success. The floulldatiols of the heavy mllachinllery shoul he reached; the battery put il straight line and elevated, so that tho








83


eips could be removed by means of a car; twvo larg(-3,e cutters should

ready for use ill place of one; also twvo nacerators. Three additional

oilers are nee1ed, another engine, twvo more claifiers, a lare storage
ukfo te olsssand more sugaLr wagons andI storage, room1, and],
~bvcala od atrsuplwhich may with care be secured iul the

neighborhoods.

With these improvements, with cane of the anw (quality as wvas

worked this Year, and careful management, a great success my be :su>

cured at Conway- Springs during another season.


TABLE 1.-Mill Jawcs froin icklc cawu.






Per ~ Pimc cent Pe cn c~ ~~


September 4 -. 3 15. 38 P. 50 1. 063 3,(223.5)
Sept-emjber 4 -, 4 18.50 10. '-0 1.07-1).# 1:3.9f 5.......T 4)
Sept~ube4 1MAO 8. !0 ........ f9:;
Sitme4. 15.3 8. 60 1. 0G"31 8.47......... 5.1
September 6 9 18 91 10. 501 1. 078:3 10.48 4. 72- 55.33
September. 21 18.2 10. 10 L.0 753 12.3',0 3. 21 67.43"1
SeptemTjber 8 22 16 1 9,00 1. 9 1.0 .'0 6. 15
,Septemtber 10 2-4 18. W1 10. 50 1. 117-:1 5.00j 6.06 26.4 1
'Sep Iemblr 10. 25 16, 07 8.9 1. o6'56 11 31.5.7 72.19
September 10 26 21.97 12.20 LO0S18 11. 4: 7.8S8 52,o02
Spebr1 '27 18. 62 10. 310 1. 0770 14. 32 1. 28 76 90j
Setme 0 2 721 9.5:0 1. () 9 .98 4. 19 '52 ]7
Septmbe11. 33 17. 82 9.90 1.75 11. 9u 2.1 6.7
Septendber 12. 3 18. 44 10.20 1. 0761 11. 44 3. 12 6;2. 03
September 14 48 16 9.10) 1. 067 11. 54 227 (9.91
etebr6 59 17. 40 9.60o 1.0717 12. 67 2 1 G 1j
Septemlbi r 17- C 61 18 .47 10) 20 1. J07c61 10. 61 5. 5~ 56 I9
Sep1)t I-IIIIembe 18 19 181. 81 10o.40 1. 0-47 14 (9 *1 .26 74.90)
SeptUndwr 0. 8 "6 18. 24 10.10 1. 0753. 10, I) 3i.431 591. 2 1
Septeuajbier.2.; 114 18..5 1 10. 20 1.07-166; 13.69 1.3:19, 7,;. 1
Septemlber 133- 18. 55 10. 22 1.07-60 12. 5o 1. 58 67. 38
October 1. 1G2 22. 16; 12. 30 1. 0 9032 16. 67 2. 16; 75. 22October 1 I. 1j:3 18. ? 5 10.40 1. 0781 13. 2.6 2. 7 9 i70. 45
October 4 L. 7 18 12. 10 1.0918 13i.5r5 3. :0 G1.9-'
Ocoer1... 226 19. 12 10. 60 1. 0 792 13,0 2.0 716
Oct obter 10 27 17.82 9.90 1.0o735 I:".l1 1.,12 73. 51
Oc tobt r 10 261 2o,. 24 111. 201 1. 08 41 13,. 98 2. ?-8 69. 07
October 2o-.... 281( 201.40 11.30;) 1. 05 13. 631 194 6.1
October 31 352 20.66G 11. 40 1,862 14.5 1.29 70.71
Novemiber 2 ,3158 19. 29 10. 70 1. 0801 12. 6 8 1 43 657
Noeme 2,. 3 5.? 4"1.,2 7. 26 2. 13 47. 7o
N4ovembvr3 369 D3.30; 7 40 1,0540(, 7,.51 1 56.46
Nox-cynber3: .. 34 20).00 8.20 10 8:12 14. 8 1 ;-9 "74 .5J
Novi-niber 5 ... 375 17-. 63j 9.75 1.26 1; 2 -. S7 GS 73, oi
Nv i be vrs. 5 T 2011. 36 11.30 1,o5 14 C9 '2. 14 7 2- 15
No(Nem Iber. 7i. 379 1 5. lo 840 1 0f;17 854 23 .5C
:oeubr ,so 28 2),2'0 11.'2 0 1,01 151 1,15 7-.61
Noeber 5. 8 0 i 1. 10 1.0 14. 95 .7 74 75T
5oebr.. 33 20.2-1 11.2- 1.u81] 14. 1- 1. 21 7I:11I
N ovembe,,z 19. 1 04 10). 5 1 -08s15 14. 1 1,51 7.7
Xv br7. 35 167 .5 1.87 189,7 713
Novmwbir7' :d'4 3 17. 7 9.80 1,070~1~
Nrme7, 37 17. ?7 9. Ot' 173 13:1 1,0 47
November4- 7 3- 8 1" .27 10 7 ,0 1. O1) 15o I I5 78 TsI
In.'lw .0 9 17. !19 10.0 1. 74 1211 1 55l 7 1 15
Noul'embur 12- 3;92 18,1 10. Ill 1. 075'1 13. 8f1.11 .1

Max imIa 1,.. w) 6 1. s .~ 2 16G 67 7~ 7
W ~ 11) 1 0759 12. 14 C':s 57
M~im .,. 133171 1, lo 8 17 .7 P







84:

Dcserip lion of marple8 of whole cane

3. Amber -ind unripe Sterling Oranjge i-od. 22.Links H1ybridl from field.
4. Early Amiber froin cane-shed.6. Lot of badly suckered Orange cane tfromn shed.
5. Unripe Stcrling_ Orang-e, selected stocks. 281. Cane fron shed, lying thirtY-siX hours.
6.Unipe Sterlitig 0: ange, sue keied upper 352. Orange cane average, late planting gave but
joint. little ;(lice.
9, Anther and SteingM4 Oranige mixed, cut and 358. Orange cane froin shed after first frost.
lying inl shed for two dlays. 367. Links Hyb-trid Irow shed; red pith.
21, Cane froiti shed, iixed lot. 369. Links Hybrid from shed.
22, Orange fiom field. 374. Links Hy3brid from shed ; good load.
21. Mixed hot froin shed, cut fort y-eight hours; 3715. Glune from shed, chiefly Orange, lying
25. cu twenty-four hours.C5.
2.Oranige cane fron field. 378. Orange cane from field, second growt'-.
26. Early Amibcr from wagon. 379. Orange cane from tield, red( pith.
27. Ea-ly Amefo i of Mr. Troeger. 380. Orange cane front Ovhl of J. R. Dhuncan;
28. ''Southern Led front field, average lot left uincult.
:33. Earl Iy Amiiibe r, av erage froin ten loads. q82. Orange cane from field of J. S. Clarli. 31. Cane froliu shed. 383. Orange cane from field said to be the poorest
48. Cane fron shed. field ouit.
59. O1,jrang cane frin shed, cut and lying forty- 2381. Orange cane from shed, put in silo NoveMber eight hours. 6, covered with 2 to 3 feet. ground
61. Sterling Orange from wvaaon. 385, Orangeo cane froin shed Iroin sane, Jut as put
09. EaTly Amiber fromi load brought in by Troe- in silo 'Novembter 6; canie front top of pile.
gWr. 386. Orange- canie from sht-d from samei lot as pat
F 6. Orange canle frontl shied. itt silo) Novenmber 6 ; average sample.
114. Orminge cane from fields. 387. Orang-e cane froii field of L. Cherry.
133. Linlks llyhr-id front -wagon. 388. Orangec caie, fioin field of Hlanna.
162. Stecrling 01rang' e fiorn wagonl. 391. Oranlge c-;,ne fromt same lo~t as put in silo, lyMi'. 'iteilin1mg Oran(,,. ave(raget, from three( loads. Iing ini shed eigh tt days exposed to heavy
17~ rnefroml shed, lying" forty-eiglt holirs. fr-ost, snIow and1 tha.I.
2A6. Orn ronti shed and wagons, avrg tt 32 orange emne fron fild of 11anna, from sauie
ly1ig fot ty eight hours plat as No. 368.








85


TABLE 11.-Mill juies8 from fre8Jl chips.


sohikIly Spe-cific ucoe Gljuoe. Albtii.Pui
Date. No. B~ua 1rix gravity. Sucros.



J'' cent. Per celit. Pet' centi Pei, cent.
September0.6- 10 10.80o 19. 47 1.0810 (j 6 7.1 N 32. U,
September 7.- 15 10.50 18.971 1 .078 8.93 G.31 ---- 47.07
September 7.. 16 9 .9!0 17.80O 1. 076 CG (4 5.7 G --------.5.
September 10. 29f 9.7.T 17. 54 1.07-22 9. 72 G;. o 2 ...
September 12 35 10.5:0 18. 94 1.-07I-8"'3 11.93 '2. 97 .........
September 12- :0 10. 50 1 *. K 1.07183 12.065 2.4" ...
-em~ber 13. 43 9. 90 17.87 1. 07,9 12. 51 2~ .......~ ui
S ptember 14.- ~ 97 17. 506 .76 10 0 4
SepteQinber 15 50 9.901 17.781! 1. 07:,0 10. 73 3,.4 ..... 1
S6tmbr1o. 0 10. 20 18.44 1 .070C)1 8.05 4.4 C-5)
September 18- 68 9.00 O 21;.4 1. 0()65 11.22 .10;
.npvei.r 18 70 8.90 16.1]1 1. 05611 11.9 !)I7 68. 67 : -:
Sevptemnber 192099 178 V? 135 90 4.7,:. ...........5.~
September 21 87 10. 10 1.9 1. o753 11. 14 4.s.....
9c~me2 2:3 9.75 17.0', L07--6 f9. 3t 4. 11.........
-Siplembcr 21 98I 9.2 1.8 1. 1691 10 ----------.......
September 22 1113 9. 75 17.,2 1. 072ij ., 3.. ........
SepIenmber 22 107 105 1891 1. (7 F; 11.9 .11. .....67;
SepteM ber 2i t 11 9.50" 17.21 1.0709 9. G5 :102 ....
Se pt e i i b v 24 116 9.75 17T.1 1.42 1,49 2 ............17
Se ptem ber 26c 124 110.50 18.98 1.078T8 1271 2J1 111...... t 67. 12
September 27 128 11.45 207 .4 131. 17 2.92 .....6-.97
September 27 13ll14, ]o.7o 1035 1. U-01 12.7T8 2.1~ ...., ------I6
September 28, 13 8 10.00- 19.24 1.07 113.5ITi1 2.2 .8-1-0 7 0
St-ptem ber 29 14 3 10.00 19f. 12 1. l7-92 12.79 2 36 .74;3, C66. 1
N-.ptemnbor 29 147 11 .30 20. 50 1. 08-- 14 92 1.18.......27
september 34) 154 10.8k5 1).6C4 1.u1, 13.2 1. ?............03
Sept emiber 3c 158 10) C0 19. 25 1.01.9?11.6;-------- ,96
October 2. 165 10).8S5 19.15 9 1.0815 12. 69 1.46 .7T:%0 U61.76,
Of- Iober-i 2.- 17 1 111.90 19.68 1.0(-a15 13. 25 13......... ;T.672 2
October :3.. 17 10 l.20 18. 49 1.070-1 6 12. 8! 1.6!1.i........ C
October 5.-. 179 11. 30 120.50" 1. 0-55 12.47 31. 0 .....I
October 5.... i 18*3 11.0) 19.8 1. ,24 1 0.9f7 3.61; 58i3 s.:
October G. 189) 1.30) 21.40) 1.0 85u 13 971 2.49.........4
October 6 195 10,40 18.78 1. 0777 1 ..0f2,02
October 8,.. 206 10.40) 18.80) 1. 179 12.-6 ..... G6.M
October 8 .,. 211 11.00~ 19. 80 1.08R24 12.0o3 .:1 S -75 G 1.7T
October 9.... 216 10.7-0 19. 04 1.078 8 11. 97 2. 94.......... () f
October 11 23 230 11. 95 '21.60) 1. 0904 13.28 2.86...........61.,
October 11., 231t 10.00 19.08P 1 0,792 12.45 2.41 .'313 G65.2
October 12.... 23:9 12.55 22.069 1. 6954 10.7-5 2.7-07 47,7
October 13... 241 111. 70 21.2',0 1.80 10 05 3.1............-- 47 4i
O)ctob-r 15, 253, 12.,3o 22.,4 1. 0916 1<1.2, 1,07Y;5 C17
Otbr1.. 262 12. 201 221 1.0 o26; 1.. 4 2. ,I.........
OctobIer 1.... 268 11.710 21.20) 1.088-S1 14. 14 '2, 701 ,.,,;6,,
October r 18... 272 11. 50 2%;.81 1.08 14. 24 ]1; ,.,,,.; 842
October 19.. 276 1 2. 05 2 1.8s1 1.11914 14, S4 .9 1.........-
Octobe-r 19 27 7 12.20 2'-,0 3 1.0923 14. 3;1 2.61 .,...... 11
October 20.- *28S2 12. 05 21.80 I 194 1 5. 04 1,4.......
Oc.tobe)(r 20.... 28. 111 0.O 1.0834 2 137 2.19) ......... ; ~
October 2~2 2,. 27 1o. 20l 18. 40 1. 076 G1 12.47 1167h
October 23 .. 29 2 9.8 17.7 1. t I. 730' 11 f98 1. 4$ C7
Oclt obe-r2 296 9. 75 171.613 1. "76 1,9!v 1,44 .; 4...
October 24 ..i 34 10.60o 19. o7 1.0792 12, 9G 1.2 4)7 67. 111
October 24,. 30$ 10.2 1 8,51 I1. 0766 12. 19 1,39 ...... 4
October 25.. 313 11.20 I ..03 1.$ 14. 41 1.7 7....
October 26.. 3117 11.7 21. 23 1. 016 !is (.0I I ~ .
October 2 7 32-2 11.40 '2 ,56 1.015 14 2C13 ,67
October 27 .,,o 3 56 103 8, 40d 1.o7 1-2.1 1A01.
October 29 33 331 11. 40 4) 105 14.40 1. ......,.. J
October 29.. 335 10,70 9".:"7 1 .006q 14.111 1.0721
Ovtob '0.. 340 11.40 205 .5 19 .2 .,., 0o
OutobieI:;o 34ij 1l.:s 0030.~o 35 .u .67
1~ovmbe1 353 1, 214:; 1.89 14. _0I 21I67
)Novi-mber 2 A- 9 H11 20i.61 1 W$79 131 1.7 1.99 .6 62
N'ovemhvr 2 3c. 33 110.6 194,0).0r 1.09 12. 91 1. U, .... 6;7 7s
1Novemjb-r 3 .. 30 10(.3 1 07 1.017 75 1.8 1.4 1 ......, 0

HIgbleft .......... 12.5 22.6 1, o95-4 15.58P 7.1 If; 72. 71
meaoBs ......... 10.7 191 0 12. 42 26G1 74 3
Lowest ....,..... 8u 16;.14 1o 6 :6 1. 0 ..... 36










TABLE III.-Diffusion juiOc8.


Total
Date. No. Baum. id b Specific Sucrose. Glucose. Abimids. Purity.
15.50


Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
September 3.. 2 6.30 11.30 1.0135 4.98 ................. 44.07
September 6.. 11 8.15 14.68 ].0600 5.52 6.14 .......... 37.60
September 7.. 18 6.70 12.08 1.0485 4.90 4.30 .......... 40.56
September 10 30 7.30 13. 11 1.0531 5 93 4. 85 ......... 45.23
September 12. 38 7. 0 13.52 1.0548 8.39 2.40 ......... 62.05
September 12 39 6. 80 12.22 1. 0493 7.69 2.33 .......... 62.92
September 13. 45 7.80 14.14 1.0574 8.37 3.20 ......... 59.26
September 14 52 6.05 10.90 1.0439 5.04 2.80 ......... 46.24
September 15. 57 7.00 12.60 1. 0510 7.23 2.61 ......... 57.38
September 17. 62 7.60 13.77 1.0610 7.94 3.27 ....... 7. 66
September 18. 72 6.40 11.64 1.0468 7.35 2.16 .468 03.14
September 19. 77 6. 55 11.85 1.0476 6. 36 2.37 .4688 53. 71
September 20 89 7, 65 13.85 1.0561 6. 90 2.50 .5438 49. 00
September 21. 94 7.30 13.13 1.0531 6.92 3.11 .5313 52.70
September 21. 100 7.30 13. 12 1. 0531 7. 17 3.07 .......... 54.64
September 22 101 6. 4J 11.48 1.0464 5.25 2.71 .4688 45.73
September 22 108 6.70 12.00 1.0485 6.65 2.29 .......... 55.41
September 24. 113 6 80 12.24 1.0-93 7.69 2.20 ......... 62.82
September 24. 118 7.00 12. 60 1.0510 8.20 1.91 .5188 65.08
September 26 125 7.05 12.70 1.0514 6.68 2.23 .......... 52.59
September 7. 120 7.50 13.58 1.05r3 7.55 2.67 .......... 55.59
September 27 135 6.90 12.42 1.0502 8.43 2. 23 .5188 67.87
Setptem'ber 28. 139 7.10 12. 77 1.0514 7.92 2.24 .5313 62, 01
September 29 145 7.65 13. 85 i. 056 1 8.85 96 .5813 63.89
September 29. 148 8.15 14.71 1.0600 10.02 1.68 .......... 68.11
September 30 155 7. 50 13. 50 1. 0548 8. 86 1. 83 ......... 65. 63
September 30. 159 7.60 13.67 1. 0553 9. 08 1.91 ......... 66. 42
October 2 166 7. 50 13. 50 1. 0548 8.25 2. 16 .5625 61.11
October2.... 169 7.50 13.64 1.0553 8.98 1.89 ......... 65.87
October 2.... 173 7.60 13.67 1.0555 9.08 1.95 .......... 66.42
October 5.... 180 7.60 13.65 1.0555 7.75 2.59 ........ 56.79
October 5.... 184 7.70 13.94 1.0566 8.09 2.63 .5813 58.22
October 6.... 192 8. 20 14. 82 1. 004 9. 43 2.19 ......... 63. 63
October 6..... 197 7.40 13. 38 1.0544 8.59 1.87 ......... 61.79
October 8.... 207 7.60 13. 68 1.0557 8.28 2.08 .......... 60. 52
October 8.... 212 7.50 13.6 4 1.0553 8.59 1.89 .5813 62.90
()October 9... 217 7.50 13. 53 1 0750 7. 69 2.19 ......... 56.66
October 11 .... 232 7.65 13. 85 1.0564 8.14 2.59 .......... 58. 90
October 11.... 235 7. 90 14.34 1.0583 9.11 2.22 .5813 63.52
October 12.... 240 7.05 12.70 1.0514 6.72 2.37 .......... 52.91
October 13.... 246 8.30 14.90 1.0'09 9.48 2.36 .......... 63,62
October 15... 255 7.65 13.79 1.0561 9.37 1.55 .5938 67.94
October 17.... 264 7.60 13. 67 1.0553 6.17 1. 61 .......... 45. 19
October 18.... 269 7. 60 13. 67 1.0555 8.29 1,56 ........ 66. 43
October 18.... 273 7.80 14.07 1. 0574 8.47 1.97 ........... 60,. 19
October 19.... 278 7.80 14. 05 1. 0572 8.53 2. 13 .......... 60. 61
October 20.... 284 7. 60 13.72 1.0557 8.98 1.51 ......... 65.45
October 22... 288 7.00 12.65 1.0512 7. 93 1, 19 ........ 62. 69
October 23... 293 6. 00 10.78 1. 0134 6. 93 1.27 ......... 61. 28
October 23... 297 6.30 11.43 1.0159 7.35 1.25 .5281 64.34
October 24.... 306 6.30 11.41 1.0159 7. 20 1. 27 .5094 63. 10
October24.... 309 7.05 12.75 1.0514 8.13 1.24 ......... 63.76
October 25... 315 6.80 12.28 1.0497 8. 6 1. 19 .......... 70. 35
October 26 .... 319 6. 90 12.38 1.0502 8. 58 1. 15 .5500 69, .30
October 27 ... 324 7. 20 13. 08 1. 0531 8.90 1.28 5906 68.01
October 2 .... 327 7 .05 12.68 1.0514 8 42 1.29 .......... 6,.08
October 29... 333 6.70 1..03 1.0185 7.42 1.15 .5000 61,.67
October 29... 336 7. 30 13. 19 1.0 536 8. 26 1. 33 .......... 62,62
October 30 .... 342 6.20 11, 22 1.0451 7. 33 1.20 .......... 65.32
October 30 .... 350 6. 801 12. 18 1.0493 7.20 1.36 .......... 59. 11
November 1... 354 7.40 13. 41 1.0544 8. 13 1, 40 ......... 65. 10
November 2... 361 7.05 12.72 1.0514 7.48 1.80 .5187 58. 91
November2... 34 6.20 11.13 1.0447 6.92 .99 .......... 62.17
N vemiber ... 371 6.90 12.47 1. 0506 8.33 1.30 .......... 6.80

Maxima ............ 8.30 J4.82 1.0604 10.02 6.14 .5938 70.35
Means .............. 7.20 12.99 1.0527 7.77 2.13 .5364 59.84
Minima a............. 6.00 10.78 1.0434 4.90 .99 .488 37. 6






I+







81


TABLE IV.- Clarified juieem


Total
Do~t. N, Bam.solids by Specific Scoe Gloe.Albumi- Tii
Dae.N aun .Brix at gravity. 0uoide luos.ru .y



Per cenat. Per rent Per ce, t.
Septeinbler 6 13 7.70 13.941 1.0566 5. 62 5. 4 ..~..... 47.48
September 7 19 6.50 11.75 1. 0472 5.29 4.2_6 ..... 45.11
September 10 31 7. 10 12. 81 1.0519 6. 17 4. 55 ...... 4 -. 16
S4-ptemlerl12 37 7.40 13.32 1. u540 7.70 2.:13............ H)8
September 12- 41 6. 8-0 12.2o) 1. 0493 7.44........... ......... .0.98i
Septemberr 13- 46 7. 7o 1;3.98. 1. 05116 8. 26 3. 13............59.7-d1
September 14 53 6. 70 12. 04 1.0485 6.7-1: 3.06l ..... 5.'
September 15. 58 7.20 13.00U 1.0527Z 7.07), 3.01......44
September 17 63 7. SO 14. uo 1. u570 8.30o 2.81 4938 .5!. 2
September 18- 74 6.5 5 11.82 1. 0476 6.74 2. 21 .48-1: 5)7.11)
September18S 73 7.90 14.29 1.0(58:1 8.83 2.39......o
September 19- 82 6. S0 12. 25 1.0493 6. 70 2.6 4C88 54.7'9
September 20 981 14. 75 1.1)600 7.54 31. 28 .4 51.111
September 21, 95 7.40 J3. 41 1. 0544 7. 39 3.(19 1813 55,. 111
Septenmber 21 101 7.40 13.28 1.054 7.41 3.) ------. 55.79~
September 22 105 6.60 11.91 1.0481 6.0W6 3.02.......5 .8
September 22.~ 10(9 6.90 12.41 I1. 05Q2 6.041 2.51.......
September 24 115 6.90 12.46 1.1)5102 7. *8 2. 06 ... 6.4
Sept ember 24 119 7.40 13.28 1.0.)4 8.40 1. 82 .33 6.23
September 26 12,; 7.65 13. 85 1.16561 7. W69 2. 14............55.52
September 27 1D2 7. 50 13. 64 1. 0553 8. 64l 2. 2-6 ,565 6.3
September 27 136 7.40 13.27 1.0540 8.68 1.97 s 65). 41
September 28 140 7.40 13.38 1.0.S44 8.10 2.19 .51(00 CO. 54
September 29 1 116 7.8o 14.04 1.057-0 9.16; 1.0 .51 6 5. 24
September 29 Bt9 8.31) 149 1,061)9 1 10.16 1.75...........I.3
Septenb-er 30 1.56 7. 94, 14.24 1.o578 i 9.08J" 1. 94 ..... 6.76;
septenifote 30 .1 161) 7. 80 14. 14 1,0576 9.,26G 1.9$............G i48
October2 ,, 167 7.50 1:3.62 1. 055:3 8 44 '2.08,- .00,0 61 .96it
Octobei-2 170 7.20 13.113 1.10527 8.71 1. 93 ..... C6. kI
October 2 174 7.90 14.18s 1.0578 9. :5 1. 9.......... 6; I's
Octlobet 5 .. 181 7.90 14.151 1.05716 S. 13 ~2. 5 .......... .57.45
October 5 185 8.310 15.00 1.,06 1:1 8 59 3.52 .51-5 57.26Il
OctmberO 6 .. 193 8-,10 15.32 L.0621 9. 81 2.2 1 .........., 1. 03
October 6 199 7. 65 13. 8 1.0561 8. Id2 1.83...........60.0o7
October 8,. 20?1 7. 70 113.88 L1561 8.24 2.0f3.......59.36Il
OctobeO 8 .. 213 7.65 1:3. 79 1.06 W. 48 1. 96 t5 61.413
Octebr 9,. 218 17,81) 11.01 1.0570 824 2.7 .. 58;
Ovtobler11 233 8.30 14.91 1. 0669 9.0(8 257............6o.8 9
October 11 236 8. 30 14. 88 1.0608 9. 38 2. 3 .5-,u 6 4,03
October 12., 241 6.50 11.74 1.0474 7.11 2.015 ....... .G 2
October 13, 245 8.20 14.82 1.0604 7. 17 2.22............4sws$
October 15.. 256 K.t) 14.44 1. ,387 9. 61 1. 56 581:; 66.76;
October 17 ., 265 8.41) 15.07- 1. 0613 S-.83 1. 4............5 9
Octobe 18 270 7.440 13. 34 1. 0541) 8.2',5 1.52 ...... Wb:4
October18.., 274 8V.0"j0 14.41 1.n5?87 81. 81 1.3 tl ,,....., G1. 1
October 19.. 4 279 8K,15 14.72 1. %01) 8,5 2. 17............5.2
October-20 ,., 285 7.80k 14.0 1.o-)-4 9.21 1. 64 ,,,, 6541
October 22.. 28-9 7.01) 12.63 108.3 1. 17............639
0ctobei 2.1..J 291 13) 1.3 1057.27 1 ........ 7
Outo)ber23 ., 29$k 6. 51) 11. 72 1. 11 -K 7. 46 1,22 .......... 6315
Oclober 24 :W37 6. 60 11.8 1 181 7.6 1'i I1 ,------ 6IA.81
October 24 3 31) 7. 30 13 ). 18 1. 0536:;f .55 1.2........1. 817
October 25 316f 7.20) 12.95, 1. 1) 8. 61 1.1 .,..... 66.14
October 26 320 6.9.1) 12.3 1.00 11 38 1k 16 .Sao 67
Ocobur 27 321-5 7.,50 13.1 1. 05010 3 12 ,3;56 66
Octobr 27. 3,2$ 7.0o5 12.70 1.1),314 1-.5,2 1.2 7,,,. 67,S
October 29 3.37 7.01) 1 2.6 1.1): 1) u.2 1.-4 ...,.... 6o.17
OctobIer 30 343 6. 40 11.610 1,0116$;- 7.4 1.- ,,,,,, 67
Oviber 30 351 7. 10 12-.79 1.011519 .421 1.38 58
Noebr135 7.6 13. $1 1.10)-A;1 1.6 1,::6 ..~.,
Novewmber 2- 36 2 70.70) 1,89-! 1.01523 7.4:4 1. 74,0 57. 64
Noverubt-i2 6, 36 6,7 12.0m8 I 1.0489. 7,0(1 l9 ,,,, 791
November, 37 2 7.0no 1 2.5 1. 0101 7 44 1.27 ........ 5's.8

Men .,.......,.. 7.-42 13.3:7 1,)04A S.071- 2.1 .578 60),4 1
NMIa,.%i Ia 80......... 8.4 1,32 1. 06211 10 111 54 .o813 It87.69;
Ihia......, 0.30 11. 33 1.04.55 15. 1,9 .99 .4688 4. 0I







88


TABLE V.-Semi-sirups.


Total
Date. No. Baum. oids, by Specific Sucrose Glucose. Purity.
Brix, at gravity.
15.50.


Per cent. Per cent.
Sept3 ...... 1 21.50 39.27 1.1789 19.20 ......... 48 89
Sept. ...... 14 18. 70 31. 08 1. 521 14.47 11115 42.45
Stpt. 7 .... 20 23. 20 42.44 1. 1901 18. 33 15.75 43. 19
Sept. 11 ...... 32 22. 30 40. 72 1. 1835 18. 15 12.45 44.57
Sept. 13...... 42 23. 10 42. 22 1. 1940 26. 61 7.95 63. 02
Sept. 14 ..... 47 23. 00 42. 10 1. 1940 25. 32 8.74 00. 14
Sept. 15 ..... 55 14. 50 26.31 1. 1130 13. 52 6. 39 51.37
Sept. 18 ..... 63 24. 20 44.21 1. 2056 26. 60 0.05 60. 16
Sept. 20 83 26. 40 48. 52 1.2291 29. 36 9. 31 60. 51
Sept. 21...... 91 28. 70 52.94 1. 2563 27. 14 12. 06 51.26
Sept. 2 ...... 102 26. 60 48.93 1.2337 28.01 8 83 57.30
Sept. 25 ...... 120 24.60 44.9 8 1. 2093 25.39 9. 16 56.44
Sept. 27...... 127 27.40 50.41 1.2414 37.41 9.77 74.21
Sept. 28 .... 137 26. 00 47. 82 1. 2256 29. 41 6. 33 6(1.50
Sept. 29 ..... 142 25. 89 47. 43 1.2240 28. 51 7.75 61. 09
Sept. A ...... 152 25.80 47.41 1. 2234 301. 57 5. 68 64.48
Oct. 2 ..... 161 25.60 46.87 1.2207 31.06 6.46 64.56
Oct. 5 ..... 177 24.80 45.50 1.20; 7 28. 28 5. 36 62.37
(Oct. 6 .... 188 23.70 43.40 1.20(08 21.68 5.86 56.08
Ot. 7 .... 200 21. 90 40.00 1.1820 23.78 4.81 59. 45
Oct. 8......210 25. 45 46.76 1.2196 27.08 6.01 57.99
Oct. 10...... 224 25.35 46.55 1.2185 28.90 6.56 62.08
Oct. 12...... 238 25. 0 47.30 1.2229 30.73 5.35 65.00
(Oct. 13 ..... 243 26. 20 48. 10 1.2272 32. 13 7.81 66. 79
(Oc r. 15...... 252 26. 10 48.00 1.2267 33. 98 5. 16 70.88
Oct. 16 .... 257 25.80 47.25 1.2229 34.08 5, 41 72.52
Oct. 18 ..... 267 23. 50 43. 01 1. 1987 25. 02 5. 12 58. 17
Oct. 23...... 291 26.40 48.53 1.2245 30 97 5.33 63. 81
( ot. 24 ..... 300 25.70 47. 13 1.2169 31,07 4. 89 67.19
(Oct. 25...... 312 26. 10 47.99 1.2212 33.27 4.70 69. 32
Oct. 27...... 321 23. 10 42. 34 1. 19131 28. 6 6. 19 66.74
Oct. 27...... 330 26. 90 49. 50 1.2361 33. 37 4.12 67.41
Oct. 30...... 339 26. 70 49. 04 1.2272 30.39 5. 29 61.97
No%. 2...... 357 23.70 43. 25 1. 1961 27. 18 5.16 62.84
Nov. 5...... 376 24.73 44.53 1. 2072 O0. 63 4. 55 68. 70

Maxima........ 28.70 52.94 1.2563 37.41 15.75 72.52
MAeans ......... 24. 55 45.00 1.2092 27. 53 7.21 60. 70
Minima...... 14.50 26.31 1. 1130 13.52 4.12 42.45




TABLE VI.-Ma88sC cite.


Sucrose, Sucrose, Solids,
Date. Number. Moisture. A8h. Glucose. direct, inSlirose, nolidsugr.


Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent P, r cent. Sept. 15 ....... 61 15. 62 6. 32 21.13 50.40 50.30 63
Sept. 18 ....... 30.40 5.25 17. 06 47. 0 41.65 5.64
Sept, 19 ....... 76 15.80 6.59 16.50 57.40 54.64 6, 47
Sept. 21 ....... 96 16.28 6.77 19.39 50.10 50.21 5.99
Sept. 21 9...... 7 22. 52 t. 87 20. 90 48.40 42. 13 7,58
Sept. 24 ...... 110 14.52 6..46 21.42 52. 00 52.4 1 5.19
Sept. 26 ...... 121 14. 59 7. 08 20. 40 52. 00 51. 72 6. 39
Oct. 0 ....... 191 14.52 5. 55 12. 44 63.20 60. 65 6.84
Oct. 1! ....... 228 14.65 5.10 10.75 65.80 62.94 0.56
Oct. 14 ....... 251 ......... 4. 94 10.15 64.00 63.20 ........
()et. 1 ....... 2.58 15. 74 5. 92 8. 73 63. 60 63. 72 5. 89
Oct. 24 ....... :301 14. 24 5. 66 7. 34 65. 60 63. 58 9.18
Oct. 30 ....... 344 15. 69 6.30 9.35 63. 40 63. 52 5.14
Nov. I ...... 377 15. 59 7.22 8.31 61,.20 60.21 8.07

Maxima ............ 30. 40 7.22 21.42 65. 80 63. 72 ........
Mvlann .. .......... 16. 94 6. 15 14. 56 57. 44 55.78 ........
Minimal ........ 14. 24 4. 941 7.31 48. 40 41. 65 .......








89

TABLE~ YIL-?aw Sug~ars.


Per cent.
Dates. No. *sUg-ar by
polarization.


Sept. 26. 123" 77.40
Oc t. 8..- 201 89.40
Oct. 8.. 204 8C).00
Oct. 8.. 20.5 P4. (,,
Oct. 13.. 24j2 1 75.80
MIean ... ........82. 52




TABLE VIII.-Firs( suqars.


Per' cent.
Dates. No. uah
polarizaOct. 9.) 215 97.40
Oct. 9_1 .381 97.00
Oc t. 8. '202 97.80
Oct. 8. 222 98. 20
Oct. 9.- 223 Q5.00o
Oct. 16 260 96. 00
Oct. 24-.1 03 95.('0
Oct. 3io-, 346 97. C0
Oc t. 30o 347 97. 00
0O t. 30 3s 31 97.00
....... 98.80




TABLEIX- lqs .


SSu croite, cre. S i, Date. Num11ber. Mokture.l A A. (Iiit 1 (. ihit U. iuirccr 1101suar



Sept 26 ~Per cen t. Pr cernt. Pe-r cent. 1 er c, Wl Pe'r rmi.
1et2 122 26G. 51 7. J:; 84 1 :"4. (M :: 5.1 1. SO
Ot t. 6 .. .190 341. (10 7. :;: 17., ;3 40. (t) 3 j. 19 1.6 1
Oct. 6)... 1.96 '11 00 7.,t1 16. 7s 4:;. 0, 4:: 17 1,.64
0 ct. 8 .... .:_.w1 :12.,25 7. 1i1, 15. 7-1 t; 1. o 4. 40 1. 40
Out. 9 .. .221 2-'9.6 G6) 09 17. 33 4:1 4t, I.; () 3 1.4
Oct. 1o 2 225 :AI (14 7.40( 1.,57 41.20o 41. 6 C. o.1
Oct. I1I ...2.. 2 '9 27 C. 97 17.A:1 4.~ 44. -2 7.1.4
Oct 6.. 5............6.8K5 14, 56 4-~ 18 25 ....
Oct. 24 :1, 15 :263...........132 4 1. W 40 79 ....

Waia, Ii ) 7.6 f 28.4Z -1 46.~ 4 1. 82 ....
Muians~ii 92 7,1 17. ; 4,1 4.1
Miiu.. ........... 23 27 6. 09 1:). 13. GO 3,-0 62
________..__._._.....__......







90


TABLE X.-Mill juices from exhausted chips.



Date. No. Baum Brix. Specific Sucrose. Glucose. Purity.


Sept. 4........ 7 1.10 2.00 1.0075 .72 ........ 36.00
Sept. ........ 12 1.30 2.44 1.0089 .69 .18 28.28
Sept. 7 ....... 17 1.40 2.54 1.0101 .51 .63 20.08
Sept. 12......... 40 1.60 2.94 1.0113 .81 .51 27.55
Sept. 13. ...... 44 1.60 2.93 1.0113 1.30 .53 44.36
Sept. 14........ 51 1.50 2.67 1.0105 .73 .65 27.22
Sept. 17. ...... 64 1.50 2.71 1.0105 .92 .73 33.95
Sept. 18......... 71 1.10 2.03 4.0077 .79 .27 38.91
S pt. 18 ....... 75 .90 1.63 1.0J2 .69 .25 42.33
Sept. 19......... 81 1.10 1.99 1.0077 .51 .27 25.63
Sept. .0 ......... 88 1.50 2.68 1.0103 1.23 .40 45.82
Sept. 21 ......... 93 1.20 2.13 1.0081 .51 .35 23.94
Sept. 21 ........ 99 1. 21 2.22 1.0u81 .77 .32 34. 8
Sept. 22 ......... 106 .80 1.38 1.00.0 .36 .21 26.09
Sept. 241 ........ 112 1.40 2.48 1.0097 1.03 .37 41.13
Sept. 24......... 117 1.30 2.35 1.0089 1.08 .30 45.99
Sept 27......... 130 2.20 4.01 1.0151 1.99 .43 49.25
Sept. 28......... 141 1.>0 3.32 1.0125 .77 .36 23.19
Sept. 29......... 114 1.90 3.47 1.0133 2.13 .44 61.38
Sept. 29- ......... 150 1.50 2.74 1.0103 1.28 .22 46.71
Sept. 30 ........ 157 1.60 2.90 1.0113 1.28 .23 44.13
Sept. 30 ......... 161I 1.50 2.76 1.0105 1.83 .27 66.30
Oct. 2......... 168 1.40 2.55 1.0097 1.18 .19 46.27
Oct. 2......... 172 1.40 2.61 1.0101 1.36 .20 52.17
Oct. 5......... 182 1.50 2.69 1.0105 1.44 .34 53. 53
SOct. 5 ........ 186 1.10 2.00 1.0077 .72 .23 36.00
Oct. 6 ....... 191 1.50 2.68 1.0105 1.28 .29 44.03
Oct. 6........ 198 1.70 3.12 1.0117 1.33 .34 42.62
Oct. 8......... 209 1.90 3.47 1.0133 1.58 .52 45.53
(Oct. 8......... 214 1.80 3.26 1.0125 1.64 .35 50.30
Oct. 9......... 219 1.50 2.74 1.0105 1.13 .34 41.24
Oct. 11 ........ 231 1.90 3.47 1.0133 1.49 .43 42.94
Oct. 11 ......... 23:7 1.90 3.36 1.0133 1.54 .35 45.83
Oct. 13......... 247 2.90 5.30 1.0209 2.29 .79 43.21
Oct. 15 ......... 254 2.90 5.32 1.0299 2.55 .52 47.93
Oct. 17......... 266 2.50 4.14 1.0162 1.69 .61 40.82
Oct. 18........ 271 2.70 4.80 1.0189 2.45 .82 51.01
(Oct. 18 ......... 275 2.60 4.60 1.0181 1.74 .52 37.82
Oct. 19 ......... 280 1.90 3.40 1.0133 1.44 .31 42.35
Oct. 20 ........ 286 2. 80 5. 00 1.0197 2.81 .50 56.20
Oct. 22 ........ 290 1.30 2. 40 1. 0095 1.18 .19 49. 16
Oct. 23 ........ 295 1.10 2.00 1.0075 1.03 .25 51.50
Oct. 23......... 299 2 20 3.90 1.0151 2.25 .39 57.57
Oct. 24......... 303 1.30 2.40 1.0094 1.33 .23 55.41
Oct. 24 ........ 311 1.55 2.80 1.0108 1.28 .24 45.72
Oct. 25......... 314 2.40 4.26 1.0165 2.10 .40 49.34
Oct. 26......... 318 2. 60 4.62 1. 0181 2. 40 .33 51.94
Oct. 27......... 323 1.90 3.50 1.0137 1.33 .21 3:8. 00
Oct. 29 ........ 332 1.70 3. IfJ 1. 0117 1.08 .28 35 64
Oct. 29 ......... 338 1.90 3.46 1.0129 1.69 .26 48.84
Oct. 30 ........ 341 2. 20 3. 90 1. 0153 1.48 .23 40. 51
Nov. 1......... 356 2.40 4.27 1.0169 1.99 .28 46.60
Nov. 2........ 360 2.90 5.17 1.0203 2. 91 .27 56.28
Nov. 2.........366 2. 00 3. 6! 1.0141 1.74 .21 48. o06
Nov. 3......... 373 2.20 4.02 1.0157 1.79 .23 44.52

Mfaximna .. ....... 2.90 5.32 1.0299 2, 1 .79 66. 30
Mans .. ...... 1. 75 3. 17 1. 01221 1.40 .36 43. 12
Minima ......... 80 1.38 1.0050 .36 .18 20.08








91


TABLE XI.-Alltnlilnoi(18.



Number. Fresh Number. Ddffusion Number. Defecated
chips. juice. Juices.


Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
60......... .6563 72......... .46$8 63 ......... .4938
70......... .6183 77......... .4688 74......... .4813
138....... .8250 F9............5438 42. ......... .40b
143........ .7438 91......... .5313 Do......... .5438
165........ .7563 104........ 4688 95......... .4813
183........ .8063 118......... .5188 119........ ..5s13
211........ .8875 135.........51b8 132........ .5625
234........ .7313 139........ .5313 136........ .5125
253........ 1. 0375 145........ .5813 140........ 5000
304........ .4875 166........ .5625 146........ 5 1
317........ .83o6 184........ .5813 167........ 5500
322........ .VS7 212........ .5813 15.. ..5
359........ .063 235..........5813 213........ .5623
255........ .5938 236......... .575UI
297 .5281 256........ .581:i3
306........ .5091 320...... .50o
319....... .5500 325......... 5625
324....... ..59(6 362........ .5000
333..........000
361........ ..5187
Means .... 7857 ......... .5261................5278








92


TABLE XII.-Compari8on of aridity in juice front freeh chips and diffusion juice8 tiL use of caustic iime.


Mill juices from fresh chips. Diffusion juices.


Date. 100 c.c. Glucose 100 e. C. Glucose
N Su- Glu- to 100 No N S1- Glu- to 100 Extrac.
req.10 cruise. cose. pts. su- O. r.10 crose. cose. pts. Su- tion.
NaOH. crose.' Na 011, rose.


C. c. Pr.Cent. Pr. Cent, c. C. Pr.cen.t Pr.eent.
Oct. 5 179 32 12. 47 3.02 24.2 180 15 7.75 2.60 33.4 88.45
Oct. 5 183 12 10.97 3. 66 33. 4 184 9 8. 09 2.63 32.5 93. 40
Oct. 6 189 28 13. 97 2.49 17.8 192 12 9. 43 2. 19 22.1 90.80
Oct. 8 206 38 12. 56 2.85 22.7 2u7 21 8.28 2.08 25.1 87.40
Oct. 8 211 21 12.031 2. 31 19.2 212 14 8.59 1.89 22 86. 30
Oct. 9 216 39.5 11.97 2.91 24.5 217 33 7. 65 2.19 28. 0 90. 50
Oct. 11 230 35.5 13.28 2.87 21.6 232 18 8.14 2.59 31.8 88.70
Oct. 11 234 30 12.45 2.44 19.6 235 20 9.11 2.22 24.3 87.70
Oct. 13 244 35 10.05 3.91 38.9 246 28 9.48 2.36 24.9 77.20
Oct. 15 253 (*) 15. 58 1.31 8.4 253 (*) 9.37 1. 55 10. 5 8 3.o
Oct. 19 277 52 14.31 2.61 17.1 278 23. 5 8. 53 2. 13 24.9 .....
Oct. 20 283 44.5 13.37 2.19 16.3 2?4 244 8.98 1.54 17,1
Oct. 22 287 42 1 12.47 1.21 9.7 288 14.5 7.93 1.19 15.0 90 50
Oct. 23 292 30 11.98 1.48 12.3 293 15 6.93 1.27 18.3 91.40
Oct. 23 296 25 11.90 1.48 12.3 297 18 7.35 1.25 17. 0 81. 10
Oct. 24 304 :A0 12.90 1. 29 9.9 306 10 7.,20 1.27 17.6 F9. 70
Oct. 24 308 25 12.19 J.:30 11.4 309 10 8.13 1.24 15. 2 89. 50
Oc t. 25 313 38 14.41 1.74 12.1 315 8 8.61 1.19 13.7 85.40
Oct. 26 317 14. 98 1.00 6.7 319 1 8.58 1.15 13.4 84.00
Oct. 27 322 30 14.2 3. 34 9.4 324 15 8.90 1.28 14.3 90.70
Oct. 27 326 19.5 12.91 1.20 9.3 327 7 8.42 1.20 15.3......
Oct. 29 331 26 14.49 1.18 8.1 333 12 7,42 1.15 15.5 92.50
Oct. 29 335 3 14.01 1.14 8.1 336 13 8.26 1.33 16. 1 87.90
Oct. 30 340 26 13.99 1.42 10.1 342 6 7. 33 1.20 16.4 89, 42
00. 30 349 18 13.59 2.(0 14.7 350 16 7.20 1.36 18.8 ......
Nov. 1 353 20 14.30 2. 23 10.6 354 9 8. 13 1.40 17. 2 6. 00
Nov. 2 359 12 13. h7 1. 99 14.5 361 (f) 7.48 1.80 21. 6 77. 20
Nov. 2 363 7 12.91 1.13 8.7 364 2 6.92 0.99 14.3 86.50

Mcans ..... 29.2 13.15 1.99 15.4 ...... 14.4 8.15 1.65 20.2 87.33



TABLE X III.- Coniparison of acidity of juices without caustic lime


Sept. 21 92 31. 00 9. 4 4. 12 44. 1 94 39. 40 6.92 3.12 45. 1 94.50 Se pt.22 107 40.'0 11.49 3.11 27.1 108 38.50 6.65 2.,30 34.0 ......
Sept.24 111 36.00 9.65 3.02 31.3 113 28.20 7.69 2.20 28.6 89.30 Sept. 24 I11 40.00 10. 89 2. 24 2'.6 118 28, F.0 8.20 1.91 23. 3 90.00 Sept. 2; 124 47. 00 12. 89 2. 51 19. 4 125 26. 00 6. 69 2. 23 33.......
Sept.20 143 40.00 12.79 2.45 19.1 145 40.00 8.85 1. 96 22.1 83.30 Sept.29 147 34.50 14.92 1.19 7.9 148 34.50 10.02 1.68 16.7 $8.60
Sept. 30 154 49. 00 13. 82 1. s2 13. 2 155 49.00 8. 86 1. 83 20.6 90. 70 Sept. 30 158 42. 50 13. 66 1. 83 13. 4 159 40.50 9. 08 1.91 21.0 88. 80 Oct. 2 155 45.10 12.69 2,60 21.2 166 29.70 8.2i 2.16 26.1 90.70

Means 40.59 12.21 2.49 21.7 ...... 35.43 8.12 2.13 27.1 89.49



Tt IE X I V.-A idity and ilnavrnion with calcium corbonatc (whiting).


Sept. 27 131 43. 4 12. 78 2. 69 21.0 135 18.00 8. 43 2. 24 26.5
Sept. 27 138 44 13. 51 2. 14 15. 8 139 15.50 7. 92 2.24 28. 3 ......

Means ...... 43.7 13.15 2.42 18 4 .... 16,751 8.18 2.24 274 ......

Neintral. I Alkaline.







93

TABLE XV.-Comparison of Brix pindl8 s with solids by drying.

MILL JUICES FROM FRESH CHIPS.

....I.. ...
Brix '""
.r
Date. No. at
15.50. 0 .Pr.eent. Pr.cent. Pr.cent. Pr.cent. Pr cent.
(jet. 3 176 18.4 17.21 17.14 12.82 1.61 69.33 12. 2 73.02
Oct. 4 183 19.83 18.57 18.15 10.97 3.66 55.32 11.06 610. 8 Oct. 5 1R9 20.40 19.60 19.43 13. 97 2.49 68.48 14.03 ';2.19 Oct. 11 230 21. 0 20. 10 20.10 '13.28 2.87 61.48 13.36 66.49 Oct. 13 244 21.20 19.81 19.73 11.63 3.91 54.86 11.70 59.30 Oct. 18 276 21.81 20.87 20.41 14.84 2. 91 68.04 14.92 73. 10 Oct. 23 292 17.73 16.00 16.01 11.98 1.48 67.57 12.07 75 46
Oct. 24 304 19.07 17.77 17.25 12.96 1.29 67.96 13.06 75.69 Oct. 25 313 20.34 18.82 18.75 14.41 1.74 70.84 14.50 76.82
Oct. 26 317 21.23 19.56 19.47 14.98 1.00 70.56 15.0> 75.8u Oct. 27 322 20.56 18.85 18.86 14.29 1.31 69.50 14.40 76.40 Oct. 29 331 20.60 18.85 18.74 14.49 1.18 73.39 14.0 77.91
Oct. 30 340 20.57 19.06 18.68 13.99 1.42 68 01 '4.12 75.57 Nov. 2 359 20.61 18.71 18.13 13.67 1.99 66.23 13 1 76.02 Nov. 3 370 18.67 16. 99 17.01 12. 86 1. 1 6,8. 8 12.95 76. 18
Meaus ...... 20.18 18.72 18.52 13.41 2.02 66.70 13. 50 72.76


TABLE XVI.-DIFFUSION JUICES.


Oct. 4 180 13.65 12.56 12.10 7.75 2.60 56 79 7.8 64,44
Oct. 6 192 14.82 13. 36 13.23 9. 43 2. 19 63. 63 9. 49! 71.75 Oct. 9 217 13.57 12.29 12.21 7.65 2.19 p6.66 7.69 63.02
Oct. 11 232 13.85 13.02 12.98 8.14 2. 59 58. 90 8. 16 62, 8.
Oct. 13 246 14.90 14.04 13. 91 9. 48 2.36 63. 62 9. 62 69. 36 Oct. 19 278 14.05 12.71 12.29 8.53 2.13 60.61 8.57 69.69
Oct. 23 293 10.78 9.24 9.28 6. 89 1.27 63.91 6.93 74.08 Oct. 24 306 11.41 10.47 9.98 7.20 1.27 63.10 7.24 72.37
Oct. 25 315 12.28 11.01 10.91 8.61 1.19 70.35 8.68 79.60
Oct. 26 319 12.38 11.30 11.20 8.58 1.15 09.30 8.62 77.00
Oct. 30 342 11.22 9. 89 9.80 7.33 1.20 65.32 7.37 75.19
Nov. 2 361 12. 72 11.12 11.16 7.48 1.80 58.91 7.53 67.44
Nov. 3 371 12.47 10.82 10.85 8.33 1.30 66.80 8.39 77.30

Leans ....... 12.93 11.68 11.53 8.11 1.79 02.92 8.16 71.13















REPORT OF HUBERT EDSON, DOUGLASS, KANS.



I herewith submit my report of the work done at Douglass, Kans., during season of 1888.
I wish to call attention to the valuable aid given me by my associate, J. L. Fuelling. Without his assistance much that has been accomplished would not have been done.
Also, I would mention the hearty co-operation of Mr. Fred Hinze in the sugar-house.
After one or two trial runs, to test the machinery of the house, the regular manufacturing season at Douglass commenced September 14, and continued, with what regularity was possible, up to October 25.
There is no doubt but that the Early Amber was ready for work by the middle of August and possibly earlier. When I arrived in Douglass, August .26, I found several fields that had passed maturity. This cane, however, contrary to experience elsewhere, did not deteriorate in any marked degree till some time after reaching its maximum sucrose. When the house was closed we still had Amber coming in in large quantities, and containing sucrose enough to warrant working it.
Besides the Amber the two other varieties chiefly grown were the Orange, and a cane identified by Mr. Denton, of Sterling, Kans., as the Chinese.
The Amber and Chinese contained highest sucrose and lowest glu cose, with the advantage slightly in favor of the Chinese. The Orange did not do as well as was expected(l, but it was planted so late in the season that it did not have time to mature.
The exceedingly variable nature of the cane brought in was a source of constant annoyance, nor would the appearance of the stalks be any criterion of the quality of the juice. One field of 30 acres which had been ord(lered hauled in before any test had been made of it was found on the arrival of the first load to contain but 4.50 per cent. sucrose, with almost as much glucose. This cane was, judging by its appearunce, as good as any worked during the season, but repeated tests of samples taken from different parts of the field failed to show in a single instance enough sulrose to warrant working for sugar. Numerous instanics of this same thillng were found throughout the season, and the a811e 11c(td( the closest watching.





---95

One thing it would be well to impress upon the sorghum grower, and that is the necessity of growing small or medium sized canes. From numerous trials of comparative samples the highest sucrose and lowest glucose were always found in the smaller canes. Fields also where the small and slender canes predominated were always of superior quality. The best cane analyzed at Douglass was a sample from a field sowed for fodder, in which the seed had been scattered broadcast on the land, and as a consequence grew very small. Of course I do not mean to advocate the sowing of sorghum seed to grow a product for the sugar-house, as then too large an amount of sheath and leaves would be obtained, but it is necessary to avoid large rank stalks if the desire is to obtain a high content of sucrose.
SUGAR-HOUSE.

The house was designed to work 100 tonis of field cane daily. The Hughes cutter and shredder were used. The trap-door just befinI, the cutter, through which it was intended to pass the seed heads, failed to work satisfactorily. This was due, in part at least, to the heavy feed which it was necessary to keep on the narrow carriers in order to supply the battery with chips. The shredder when pI)roperly adjusted did excellent work, tearing the chips into a pulp if required.
The main feature of the house was the diffusion battery. This is known as the Hughes system of diffusion, and is described in Bulletin 17, chemical division,. Department of Agriculture. The one at Douglass differed slightly, however, from the one described there. The main battery contained ten cells, with the baskets for holding chips used in his process, and in addition to these an outside cell was placed so that the arm from the large crane could reach the basket while immersed in it.
An extra crane was necessary to raise and lower the baskets in this cell, as it had to be worked without connection with the main battery.
The object of the cell was to give a dense dillusionmi juice and thus save evaporation. As the battery progressed the heaviest juice from two cells were drawn into the outside cell, and there receivcl two baskets of fresh chips before being discharged. This, as far as I was able to see, did not attain the object claimed fir it, as no fresh chips ever reached the main battery, and consequently the juices were more dilute and needed the addition of two baskets of fresh chips to bring them to a normal diffusion juice. It is certain at least that thle extra steam-power required to run the outside cell would a great deal more than suffice to evaporate any less dense juice that might be obtained.
Before passing to the work done by the battery', as a whole it is but Just to say that there wer mechanical defects in the construction which if they could have been remedied this season would have m;trially assisted the quality of the work. The bottoi ofl the i)skcts, inistcad of being single and swinging to one side, were double andl hinged to a





96

cross.bar extending from one side of the basket to the other. As a consequence of this arrangement the emptying of the exhausted chips was a very difficult matter. But, on the other hand, a basket constructed strong enough to permit a single bottom would be altogether too heavy to use where so much of the work is done by hand.
The average sucrose of the fresh chips for the season was 9.88; for the exhausted chips, 1.72. The extraction of sucrose, therefore, was 9.88-1.72=8.16+9.88=82.59 per cent. This extraction was accompanied by a dilution of 52.45 per cent. 16.89 (Brix of fresh chips)-8.03 (Brix of diffusion juice); 8.86-16.89=52.45 per cent. With a dilution of this sort in a closed battery practically all ihe sugar would be exhausted instead of 1.72 per cent. left in by the Hughes process.
It was noticed that a regular ratio existed between the exhaustion and the dilution. As the dilution was increased the extraction became better, and vice versa.
Besides the amount of sugar left in the chips there was an unknown waste of iimmniense quantities of juice from the drippings of the baskets in transferring them from the eleventh cell to the cells of the main battery. This loss it was impossible to gauge, but to any one who saw it, it was evident that no inconsiderable amount was lost.
Nothing which we could think of to make the battery a success was left undone. For part of the time I shifted all of the laboratory work to my associate, Mr. Fuelling, and took charge of the battery. This I was prepared to do from a previous year's work with the inventor of the system, with whose plan of running the battery I was consequently familiar. Although the quality of the work was improved after the change I instituted, it was so far from being good diffusion, that nothing was left to do but to condein the apparatus.

TIHE DIFFUSION JUICE.
The juice as it came from the cells was full of finely-divided fiber which had come through the perforations of the baskets, and was also of such a d(lirty black color that it was impossible to clarify it.
Sulphites of lime were used for awhile, as were also superphosphates, but both were so full of sulphuric acid and accomplished so little, that they were disconin ed.
The juice probably acquired some of this color from its acids attacking the iron vessels in which it was kept so much of the time, but the main cause was the passage of large quantities of seeds through to the (diffusion battery along with the fresh chips. As was mentioned be. fore, the cutter was too narrow for the capacity of the house, and a very heavy feed was kept on the carrier, preventing the seed-heads drop. ping down through the trap-door designed for that purpose.
To illustrate that these seeds were the cause of the discoloration, Mr. Fuelling dithised two beakers full of chips, the one of them containing a few seed and the other none,







97


The onie with the seed] grave thie black color characteristic of the diffusion juice from tlie house, w,1hile the other gave a perfectly clear limpid liquor. I enideav-ored to have the superintendent of the house wake a run, cutting the tops off in the field, but he failed to do so.


DISPOSITION OF EXHAUSTED CHIPS.


During the first part of the season a, long carrier was used to convey the chips to the yard. It was i ntenided to extend this as the yard 1illed
up1, but the chainis broke so often, that this plan was given uip and the chips taken off iin carts.
The ceutriftigals did ver-y poor Nvork throughout the season ; but so~
little sugar was extracted by the battery that it was not considered
necessary to get new ones.

SUMMARY OF' WORK.


D)urig the season 2,167 tons of canie were worked. Allowing~ 0- per.
cent. off for tops anid leaves, this would ainotit to 1,623 tons of cleaned
caIne.
Forty-five thousand poundIs of sugar, 94.45' polarization, were obtained, Or 26.2 pounds per ton of clean cane.
Elimintating the loss in the cemtrifugak11, Which would have been remnedied if enough sugar had been obtained to justify it, the great loss in working the house was inj the battery.

RESULTS OF ANALYSES.

TABLE NO. XVII.-SOr-Y/ 111 CMIe.



Da te. No. 8 o I I $ Speific -N I t CIhanwe~tr of saanpk-.
rIyJ,-x gla% itv. I us.'
at17. 5


Sept. 5 ... 63 ,f 9 9.470 57T95 Bim% ii (Idowit A iiier.
Sept. 5 ........ 16. 43 1 P u7'4 9I. :;2 56, 7T :i silI4Iiia 11p111 it
Srptf. 6 *..... 15.81 1. 0GA8 5. :1 :,,. !J Lcf-t onl i 4 1-1 five dals.
Sept. 6 ..... 17. 61 1. 17*27 5. :;4 1o 1i
Scept. 6 ..... 22. 141 1. ($2 12-. 414 56G. '-2
Sept. 7 ...... 1 5. 21) 1, u61 W16 G.1;,2 AIII nib ' Ili Io1)1nar$L's
Sept. 8 . .. 16. 14 1 I 0075 G6 .5 :;. 1,2 LrI t 1,11 u:ara 141 14) I-N ul IL -4.
Sept. 8 .. ..-.1 18.2! 1. 117,:.,3 13t.47 731. Ij7 NIt Ii i~ /qta d au% w Ii l 111. a dIt(].
Sept. 8 ...... 1 18. 10 1. 07418 10. 1- 3 .)9, 83 M '1111 -1 "1 /,4d Am III I i It -t'm I i d .in
Spt 8 .,..17. 14 1. 177 1 16 74.60(hni o ad
Sr p t, 11 13]: 1 ) 1.76 1.h 19 M. _10 I I;iw Ii I' IL Il Nu~a long
Sept. 11 114 17.2 1 7U1 3.73I~llC 1.6 I'm Ii ow 1' .
St-pt. 12 19 20. 6: 3 1 ,~ 5 2 -1. 1141 11 u l I' thu a .
Se pt. 12 231 17.9!2 1. 0731 1 2 !I, I$ ow7 11v 11 r.
S t-p) t. 12 24 17. 1 1: 1. 11!39 12s 7 J.8k A11111 r'.
Sep1)t. 131 2$s 17. 19l I. ('TIII 11.7 Ii! 4 I 1 iujxiw,
Sept. 13 :,9 18, :17 1. 1)7 57 11.6 427 I I I Iuu ,1 \u I .a l
So-ft. 1 31:;) 17. 67 1 (1072-6 11. It ,7 I i k II,
Svept.. 3 41 17 Isn I. (171.10 1:1. :~ 17 !1,dia I n Ma Aig
Sopt 13 32 1 7. 17 1 I 717 1;,1 7545 FiIt'I .auM AI:im.
S p .1: '4 17. ru 1. _7 2 A ,11 :1 1.; 2511 A 'L I I r
SepIt 1:3 4 1 18 67s 1 o~IJ I 1?.I 11, Auu Serpt. 13 it; 16I. W8 1.01;6: 11,45 1 u 3:: 0 /.~
Sept. 13 40 1 Is. (I1 1. -~ ( I 11 21 I 1 t .
i Se-pt. 13 4 17.~ 1. u1ti Tv I~ I G 2
SevtI 1' 41 1. 1. Ill 1. (A)0 7 iru

44056-Bumll. 20-7











TABLE -No. XVII.-Sorgk ur cane,-Coijtjuucd,.


Total
so 4)1i d s Specific Su Pri. ar
1w B -ix gravity. crose.Cl eoenh.
at17.0

Per 0t.
Sepit. 14 49 15. 27 1.01621 9. 09 5'9. 55 Mixed ca-ucs. S ut. 14 50) .52 i1. 0327 3. 75 44. 23 Oru.
Scpt. 14 51 15.7 1 1613 10. 10 64. 64DO
Spt 14 52 11;. 33I: 1. 0(69 I11. 9 9 79). 51 D.
Sc'it. 14 r, 16. 00 1. 0651; 1 o. -9 64.31 Amber IFrom c-arrir. I t 15 (), 17.9 l3 1. -4 1! 12. 41 169. 21 C h i ese.
1)p1. 17 77 174.54 1. 0712 11. 48 65.45 Orange.
-pt. 17 81 11 57 1. 0464 5.13 4.1 MxdA br
82 1 1 5117 1 c6 -2 91.8S1 61. 42 D~o.
stcpt. 17 831 15.74 1.o06;43 10. 8 69. 12 1 Do.
1t 17 811 4 14. 14 1 o 5 -4 8. 5U CO.74 1)(T
S5~r 17 5 1 1. (-757 12. 28 67. 03 Do.,
pt1. 17 S.; 17. 87 1. 1 -7'315 12. 03 67. 32 Do. S, 1,t. 17 87 16. 27 1 WU5 9. 55 5869 Po.
Svept. 17 19 .5 1,0788 12.87 67.53 Do.
p~ t. 17 2 1672 1 Ot;7 10o. 10 C 0.41 Do.
S, pt. 17 91 I8 21 1. 0Th3: 9. 65 5 2.9!9 Do.
V !1t 1 5 15.7-,9 : 1 0 643 9. 42 60.04 Do.
cIS 1 ) 91 12.4 1. 0502i 7. 15 57.66( Orango.
Sep. ~ ~5 1538 1.06t26 8.7 58.32 Am ter.
.Sk-pt. 19 106 14.22 1 0578 8 48 59. 63 -N-rzwy Or. mge.
skpt 19 Pt17 16. 19) 1. 0 "J60 9. 68 5 9. 7 9 S prout,; frout above. sopt. 19 1108 1:1.60 1.0o553 8.06G 59. 26 Kansasi (rauge, Sept. 19 101!9 18. 92 1. 0783 12. 67 C6. 96 Mlixed Ambier. Sl, ~ 1 10.7 1. 0430 5. 40 50. 14 Late Orange.
Siqpt. 19 112 21. 17 I1.()01)09 15. 0 8 71. 23 A mber. Sept. N9 113 19. s3 1. 08 24 14. 14 7 1.2 0 Chimus. S1,t. 19 114 16. 18 1.0(V95 11. 52 (67.84 Org. 'Scp1t. 21 117 9..77 1,0:188 4. 71 47.18S Do.
Scpt. 21 11 10.57 1.0122 5. :i0 5 0. 14 Do.
1SI1)t. 22 1 27 P. .833 1.0o561 9 08 65. 73 Mlixed Amber. Sc~pt 2:3 141 17.7-21 1.017:10 11. 33 63. 93 5 wit colie.
Set.6 7 17. 90 1. 07A9 12,.46 69. 55 Mlixeilcane.
Sut ITS17 17. T 5 1 07:12 12. 18 C8. 59 DoSfept. 26 1,%7 15 06 1. o6j1:1 S. 6i .5 7. 17 Co nel rcd at hieart. Stpt. '26 1 89! 15. 77- 1. 1041 84. 76 55. 55 Ora. IiIro S (pt 2 19.1 17. 23 1, OD 09 H1. 51 6 6.8*0 A mber. Sit. 28 203 10).92 1. 0409 4, 75 4:3. 49 Ot0 e Sp.2 14 20,4 1. w1841 15. (it0 77. 07 Small Ormnge, planted closo.
Sept 29 120 19.30 1.080o1 14. 65 76.00 'Mixod cane.
Se4pt. 29 2o-7 18.49 1. 07i61 11. 72 63.1.12 Cano fromt carrier. O)c t. 1 21-2 19. 14 1. 11806O 1:3. 36C 757. (2 A inber. Oct. 1 23 19 1. 191 1. 0s8 14. 37 74-.88 Chinvsv.
)ct. 2 227 1Is.10 i1.0(748i 13;.-58 75.0-2 A mbr.
(t, 2 128 18.257 1. 0753 6, :U; :14.85J Oianle. Oct. 3 o4 1.0 1. 0744 12.6(1 69.9 Do,
Ort. 3 2461 1:;. 210 1.ui 6,- (.5:1 41.1 D)o.
(Ic. 4 2 ,T 15.4 t; ui1 14 1. 00 Amwr.
OL 4 2,'s 14. 7o 1. 011110o 6. 21 42 OA I lo.
OcI. 5, 22 17 .7 170 11. 48 614.74 lbI.
Oct. 5 2173 17 06 ......... 11.j~ To8 722 Do.
O~. 5 274 2o. :0) .......,... 15, 03 7 4. 111 Smaull ( ono.
Ocl. -, 275 1'. 00 ...... 12.37 C8. 72 WhinH, Alrican.
( h t, 5 27 19.,,,00 I ......... h. 99 68.36 Ur-aiz.
Oct. 1 27 7 1G, 60 ,..... 10 88 65-. 5 4 Do.
O1,4 8 13, ?2 ........ 8. 15- 5,.97 1Do,
Ot. 28S7 1s. 34l ....,..... 1n 1u 7 1. 59 Do.

Oct. 30 1.6........1100 6.5.081 I h.
Octi. $ :AIN 15. 29 ...... 9. 09 (A0. 1ll Do.
O1ct. 11) :;2 2 1-2. If ..... 5.915 4' A A mb r
Ou 1 32 2 1 ,.r., 51 4. 20 0rimtn,I Owt. 12 13~ 17.,60 ......... 11. 21 (13.7-d W 11it4 A frican.
1 )i. 15 3171 19 23 ....... 12. 42 C4.5;p8 A n I I
Oc.18 T71G 9.54 ........ 4,.64 48.3 C ia c.

Ot19 :;02 12. 75......... r). 5 43i. 48 (hrauiw.
Oct 20 l10 14. 2 7 ..... 6 1 48. :;1 ()1s~' first froe8t.
I e.20 1 17T. 77 .......... 12.7"15 71 ,7 5 ( a tn ge.
(Oct. *-0o 4110 17 3 .. .... 12-. 131 639. 92 011.
(frt. '-0 o; I p15 ..... ... s.o7 51. 63 .
(lut. I" Ill, 13.78 ..... .. 8. 162 1.1. 82 le
o et 411. 14. 56 ....,..... G.o 5 2. 191 le
(le, -21401 15.9 I ,,,, I,5 08 Do.

Oi 0 40111 11,8 ,,. !1.7 T 61. ,IG Doe.

.u u~ 6 ....... .. .. 1 11. 1. ....