Sugar-producing plants

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Material Information

Title:
Sugar-producing plants record of analyses made by authority of the Commissioner of Agriculture, under direction of the chemist, 1887-'88 : sorghum, Fort Scott, Kansas, Rio Grande, New Jersey : sugar cane, Lawrence, Louisiana : together with a study of the data collected on sorghum and sugar cane
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry ;
Physical Description:
132 p. : ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sorghum sugar   ( lcsh )
Sugarcane   ( lcsh )
Sugar -- Manufacture and refining -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references and index.
General Note:
Submitted by H.W. Wiley.
General Note:
No. 6 in a vol. with binder's title: Sugar manufacture.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029705542
oclc - 80671648
System ID:
AA00024989:00001

Full Text




RE OF- 10HE MISTR






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,&UTHORITY

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7 'OUGIUUM&

;,RIO GRAL DE, NEWIERSEY.


I,
LOUISIANA.

()P THE DATA COLLECTED
09GUO-K A$'D SUGAR CANE.
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U.S. DEPARTME NT OF AGRICULTURE.
DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY.
BULLIETI N No. 18.




SIJG4AR-PRODTJCI-NG PLANTS.



RECORDf OF A NALYSES

MADE BY AUTHORITY OF

THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE,
U-NDEIR DIRECTION OF

rTH1E CIHE RMIS T,9


1887-'88.


SORGHUTM:
FORT SCOTT, KANSAS; RIO0 GRA-NDE, NEW JERSEjY.

SUTGARZ CANE: LAWRENCE, LOUISIANA

TOGETHER WITH A SrTUD~Y OFtil DATA COLLECTE-ID
ON SORGHUM AND SUGAIL CA.NE.






W SI I T'"


GOVERNMENT PhIINTIN(C, OFFICE. 23570-Bull, 18--i




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013














http://archive.org/details/sugarprplOOsubm














INTRODUCTORY LETTER.



SiR: I submit herewith, for your inspection and approval, Bulletin No. 18 of the Chemical Division.
In Bulletin No. 17 it is stated that much of the analytical work pertaining to the recent experiments in the manufacture of sugar was not ready for incorporation in that report. This work is now finished and tabulated and will be found in the following pages.
In view of the fact that the experiments which have been conducted for so long a time by the Department in the manufacture of sugar have come to a successful end, I have thought it would be useful here to collect together, in a condensed form, all the important recorded analyses ofsorghum which Ihave been able to find. Where seriesof such analyses have been made, there are given only the means of the analyses, since to reproduce them singly would extend the size of the bulletin to undue proportions. For those, however, who may desire to study the analyses more minutely, references are given to original publications containing them. I have also added to this part of the work an abstract of recorded tonnage per acre for sorghum, yield of sugar per ton, and other data which may help to assist any one interested in the matter to an intelligent conclusion concerning the merits of sorghum as a sugar-producing plant.
In like manner I have epitomized the results of the analytical investigations which the Department has carried on for several years at Magnolia Plantation, Lawrence, La. Intending investors in establishments for manufacturing sugar shouMl have access to a careful and unbiassed statement of the data on which the ind(lustry rests, and in the following pages an effort has been made to furnish this kind of in. formation.
Reports written under the influence of prospective personal profit, or for pushing the claims of a, patent, or to gratify personal pique or ambition, are likely to become the argument of the advocate rather than the charge of the non-partisan judge.
The persistent and often mnalicious misrepresentation of the work which has been done by the apartmentt has not been without its baneful influence, although it has entirely failed of its chief purpose. The large number of persons interested in the culture of sugar beets, sorghum, and sugar canue recognize the value of the work which the
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Department has done, a value which misrepresentation can not disparage nor selfish greed pervert.
In the work which has been done under my supervision I am not conscious of having withheld credit from others to whom it was due, nor of having claimed, for the Department, undeserved honor. Exploring an unknown country, the real path of progress has often been lost to view, and for myself I am content if my labors have pointed out to others the road to success.
The cordial encouragement and support which 1 have received from you, even in the darkest hour of the work, have been most unqualified, and your faith in the ultimate success of the industry has never faltered.
The process of diffusion, by the efforts of your Department, has been fully established as the best and most economical method of extracting the sugar from the cane, and the way has been opened for private capital to extend and develope the sugar-producing power of our country until it shall be placed on a sure foundation of prosperity.
Respectfully,
H. W. WILEY,
Chemist.
Hon. N RMAN J. COLMAN,
Comissioner of Agriculture.















ANALYTICAL WORK AT FORT SCOTT, SEASON OF 1887.



In the agreement made by the Commissioner of Agriculture with the Parkinson Sugar Company for conducting the experiments in the manufacture of sugar from sorghum during the season of 1887, provision
was made for a complete chemical control of the work by the Chemical Division of this Department. Having been directed by the Commissionerof Agriculture to take charge of all the chemical work to be done at the three sugar stations, Dr. C. A. Crampton and Mr. N. J. Fake were directed to perform the analytical work at Fort Scott.
The following general directions were sent for conducting the work:

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, CHEMICAL Divisio,
Washington, D. C., August 29, 1887.
DEAR SIR: In conducting the analytical work at Fort Scott during the present season, you will be guided by the following general directions:
(1) Samples of cane from the wagon or cane-carrier are to be taken from time to time as last year, representing as nearly as possible the best, poorest, and medium canes which are brought to the factory.
(2) When the diffusion battery is in operation, a given weight of chips is to be taken from each of the cells until one complete round of the battery is represented.
These samples are to be preserved in a closed vessel until all are taken and then passed through a small mill and the expressed juice examined in the usual way.
(3) A measured sample of the juice discharged from each cell of the diffusion battery should be taken until one complete round has been made. These mixed samples of juice to be examined in the usual way.
(4) Samples of the juice above examined should be taken after the process of clarification, representing as nearly as possible the same body of juice as above, and examined in the usual way.
(5) After concentration to sirup, a sample should be taken, representing as nearly as possible the juice of the above two numbers and subjected to analysis.
(6) Samples of the maese cuile, sugar and molasses are to be taken, carefully labeled, and forwarded to the division here for examination.
(7) When the large mill is running, samples of the mixed juices should be taken as often as convenient and subjected to examination.
(8) The bagasse from the large mill should be examined from time to time, either by exhaustion with successive portions of water in an open vessel, or by exhaustion in a closed flask, a little freshly precipitated carbonate of lime being added to the water of maceration.
(9) Take from each cell of discharged chips a certain quantity representing as nearly as possible the mean character of the chips discharged from that cell after one complete circuit of the battery has been made, pass the samples so obtained through the small mill, and subject the expressed juices to examination. Concerning the details of the analytical work, little need be said. Double polarization is not necessary except in cases where the canes may be badly injured, and you
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will use your own discretion in this matter. You will pleas report by mai. to this office at least once a week the general character of the analytical results obtained., Any special chemical investigations desired by Mr. Parkinson or Mr. Swenson you will make, in so far as these may not interfere with the general work indicated above.
Respectfully,
H. W. WuzEY,
Chemist.
Dr. C. A. CRAMPTON,
Fort Scott, Kans.
Later in the season additional instructions were sent to carefully compare the Brix spindles used in determining the total solids in the juice with the direct determination of solids by drying a weighed portion of the juice (2 grammes circa) and determining the per cent, water it contained. This was thought necessary because it was found that by determining the water directly in the masse cuites they were shown to have a higher co-efficient of purity than the juices from which they were derived.
The large mill which, it was expected, would be in operation, was not erected, and the directions to examine the juices therefrom were therefore superfluous.
The work at Fort Scott was begun on the 2d of September and ended October 19.
The sucrose in the juices was determined by polarization in a Laurent large model instrument, with white light attachment. During the later part of the season a Schmidt and Haensch double-compensating shadow instrument was employed to check the results of the instrument first named.
The glucose was determined by lFehling's (Violette's) solution.
The total solids were determined by Brix spindles and by direct weighing.
Following are the results of the analytical work:

ANALYSES OF JUICES OF SELECTED CANES.

For sampling different lots of cane, comparing saccharine richness, etc., the juice of single canes, or small collections thereof, was examined at different periods. In these cases it would be expected that iimuch greater difference would be found than in the average samples of chips in the second table. The results show how rich single canes of sorghum may be in available sugar, and Also how poor.
The maximum content of sugar is found in sample No. 9, viz, 14.20. The miinimum is seen in sample No. 8, where the sucrose drops to 2.54 per cent.
DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLES.
No. 1. Orange cane sample from Bullock.
2. Orange caT.ne sample from Bowman.
3. Orange cane sample from Zonk.
4. Tate planted early amber from Brown.







N 8Honduras cane shipped by freight from Osage, Micb., to Fort Scott.
2 Orange cane from wagons, average sample cut to dry. 21. Amber cane from wagons, average sample cut to dry. 28. Steward's hybrid cane. 29. Honduras cane.
31. L k's hybrid, from land of company west of railroad track. 36. Link's hybrid, same field, east end. 36. Link's hybrid, green from slough. 37. Link's hybrid, brow of hill. 38. Link's hybrid, brow of next bill. 39. Mixture of orange and amber ripe cane. 40. Amber cane from company's land.
41. Link's hybrid, same field, green. 4 2. Link's hybrid, same field, green. 43. Link's hybrid, same field, green. 148 Sample of cane cut and allowed to lie some time to show effect of inversion. 253. Orange cane badly damaged by chinch bugs. 264. Same, another sample. 256. Orange cane from company's land. 2.57. Orange cane from company's land.

TABLE NO. 1.---Various analyses of mill juices front whole canes.


eBrix
Date. No. correctedd) Sucrose. Glucose.


Per cent Per cent.
Sept. 2 ........... 1 16.63 11.30 ...........
Sept. 2 ........... 2 19. 13 13.20 ...........
Sept. 2 ........... 3 19.65 13.11 ...........
Sept. 2....... 4 19.13 12.17 ........
Sept. 5 ........... 8 18.43 2.54
Sept 9 ........... 20 15.87 7.83 5. 43
Sept 9. .... 21 19.87 14.20 2.50
Sept. 10 ........... 28 17.87 11.03 3. 43
Sept. 10 ........... 29 16.15 9.27 C.23
Sept. 10 31 18.37 12.44 2. 23
Sept. 12........... 35 13.68 8.20 2.81
Sept. 12 ........... 36 14. 68 9. 03 2.46
Sept. 12 ........... 37 15. 80 9.88 2.82
Sept. 12 ...........38 17.30 12.21 1.75
Sept. 12...... 41 15.18 10.19 2.19
Sept. 12 .......... 42 12.43 5.95 2.78
Sept. 12........... 43 15.18 10. 22 2.71
Sept. 12- 39 16.28 10.85 4. 91
Sept. 12..40 16.78 11.81 2. 1
Sept. 24 148 19. 31 3. 32 9. 36
Oct. 10 ..........253 17.43 12. 98 1.78
Oct. 10.- 2 -5 17.1 93 1:3. 67 ............
Oct. 10.......... 256 12.99 7. 75
Oct. 10 ........... 257 15.31 9. 80
Means..............16. 72 10.12 3.35
Maxima ......... 19. 05 14.20 9. 36
Mini.a ........... 12.43 2.5 1.75





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TABLE No. 2.-Mill juime8 from frelh chip.


Brix Sucrose. Glucose.
Date. )o. (corrected).


Per cent. Per cent.
Sept. 3 .......... 5 15. 63 8.06 ............
Sept. 5-. 9 17.43 10.78 ..........
Sept. 6 .......... 11 16. 73 10.45 3.50
Sept. 8 ....- 16 16.68 10.34
Sept. 9 ........... 23 15.87 6.20 6.49
Sept. 10 .......... 30 16. 87 9.48 3.87
Sept. 10 .......... 33 1 f. 70 8.56 4.10
Sept. 12 .......... 47 17.88 11.39 3.48
Sept. 13 .......... 51 17.06 9. 56 3.84
Sept. 13 ......... 54 16.46 9.21 4.07
Sept. 15 ........... 69 17.00 10.08 3.62
Sept. 15 ........... 73 16.20 10.21 2.82
iept. 16........ 81 15. 93 10.15 2.96
Sept. 16 ........... 85 14. 65 9. 36 2. 72
Sept. 17 .......... 88 17. 47 9.99 4.09
Sept. 17 .......... 92 16.86 9.99 3.54
Sept. 19 .......... 96 16.07 10.40 2.67
Sept. 19 .......... 99 16.78 11.19 1.39
Sept. 20 ......... 106 16.80 10.21 3.05
Sept. 20 ........... 110 15.70 8. 9t 3.15
Sept. 21.......... 123 17.68 9.48 4.20
Sept. 22 ......... 131 17.17 7.70 5.60
Sept. 22 .......... 134 17. 73 7.07 5.34
Sept. 23 .......... 142 17.21 9.84 3.82
Sept. 23 ........ 146 16.76 10.24 ............
Sept. 24 .......... 149 19. 00 9.86 3.31
Sept. 21 .......... 153 17.17 11.28 2.50
Sept. 26 ........... 161 16. 51 8.89 3.93
Sept. 27.......... 166 14.94 9.04 2.68
Oct. 1.......... 174 16.79 10.39 3. 10
Oct. 1 .......... 182 1lpv6 10.30
Oct. 3 ........... 187 15.79 10.38 3.08
Oct. 3 ........... 193 15. 69 10.38 2.C8
Oct. 4 ......... 198 16. 63 10.18 3.48
Oct. 4 ........... 203 15. 83 9.88 2.88
Oct. 5 .......... 216 16.70 10. 00 3. 08
Oct. 5.........222 16-58 10.26 3.67
Oct. 6 ........... 230 18.65 11.51 3.78
Oct. 7 ........... 238 16. 10 9.60 3.53
Oct. 8 ........... 246 15.76 7.46 4.23
Oct. 11 .......... 258 15.21 9.59 3.15
Oct. 11 ........... 262 14.44 9.18 2.96
Oct. 12 ........... 265 14.73 9.13 3.44
Oct. 12 ........... 272 15.11 10.45 2.40
Oct. 13 ........... 278 14. 97 9.22 3.17
Oct. 13 ........... 282 15. 33 9.62 2.75
Oct. 14 .......... 287 15. 69 9.54 3.53
Oct. 15 ........... 292 13. 68 8.30 2.77
Oct. 15....... 295 14.24 9.02 2.69
Oct. 16 ........... 300 15.11 9. 13 3.10
Oct. 17 .......... 304 15.31 8.85 3.39
Oct. 17 ........... 307 13.09 7.99 2.47
Oct. 18 ........... 311 15. 8L 9.47 3.03
Oct. 19 .......... 315 14.21 8.18 3.23
Oct. 19 ........... 318 14.93 8.46 3.60

Averages...... 16. 14 9. 54 3.40


A study of Table No. 2 reveals the same characteristi cs of sorghum

juices which have been noticed in the work of previous years. The
variations of the juice, however, from the mean have not been so prouounced as they were during the season of 1886, owing, doubtless, to

the fact that the cane was, after harvesting, more promptly delivered
to the factory and worked with less delay than during the previous
season.

The maximum per cent. of sucrose was foun d in the juice obtained on
October 6, viz, 11.51. Other notab ly good juices were secured on Sep

tember 12, 19, and 21; the sucrose in these cases rising above 11 per
cent. The minulizilum per centage of sucrose was found September 9,





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viz, 6.20. Other notably poor juices are shown by the analyses of September 22 and October 17.

TABLE NO. 3.-Diffusion juices.



Date. o. Brx Sucrose. Glucose.
i Dae0(corr(cted).


Per cent. Per cent.
Sept. 8 ......... 17 12.28 7.03 ...........
Sept. 9.......... 22 12.82 7.00 3.07
Sept. 10o ........... 34 12.32 6.51 2. 90
Sept. 12 ............ 48 12.08 7.23 2.52
Sept. 13 ........... 52 12.28 7.19 2.78
Sept. 13 ......... 55 12.42 7.47 ....- ..
Sept. 15 ............ 70 12.08 7.57 2.54
S ept. 15 ...........74 12.62 8.30 2.30
Sept. 16 ...........82 12. 38 7.88 2.52
Sept. 16............ 8; 13 10 8.79 2.33
Sept. 17............89 12.28 7.44 2.92
Sept. 17 ........... 93 12. 28 7. 82 2. 63
Sept. 19 ........... 97 11.32 7.35 2.02
Sept. 19........... 100 12.28 8.00 1.94
Sept. 20........... 107 12.32 6.96 2.12
Sept. 20..........111 12.32 7.51 2.30
Sept. 21............124 11.61 6. 64 2.47
Sept. 22............ 132 10. 85 5. 80 2. 94
Sept. 22 ............ 135 11.61 6.46 2. 73
Sept. 23............143 11.47 6.71 2.76
Sept. 23............ 147 11.57 6.80 ...........
Sept. 21............ 150 12.14 6.57 2.28
Sept. 24............154 10. 95 6.92 1.93
Sept. 26 ............ 162 10.81 6. 32 2.40
Sept. 27............ 167 10.17 6.3 7 2.02
Oct. 1 ............ 175 Yo.54 6.20 2.20
Oct. 1........... 181 10.12 6.25 ...........
Oct. 3........... 183 10. 24 6. 15 2.08
Oct. 3........... 1l 10.54 6.64 2.00
Oct. 4............ 199 10.51 6.27 2.01
Oct. 4............ 24 1').15 6.44 ............
Oct. 5........... 217 11.05 6.29 2.25
Oct. 5............ 223 11.68 7.15 2.41
Oct. 6.......... 2231 13.10 8.04 2.61
Oct. 7............ 239 10.98 6.54 2.09
Oct. 8 ........... 247 11. 51 5.90 3.06
Oct. 11.......... 259 10.39 6.58 2.09
Oct. I ............ 263 10 49 6.51 1.91
Oct. 12........... 266 9.97 6.17 2.03
Oct. 1 ............ 273 10. 82 7. 32 1. 85
Oct. 13 ............ 279 9. 71 5.97 1.89
Oct. 13 ............ 283 10.27 6.59 1.80
Oct. 14...........288 10.17 6.02 1.80
Oct. 15 ........... 293 9.34 5.66 1.75
Oct. 15 ............ 2M6 10.24 6. 56 1.98
Oct. 16............ 301 9.45 6.04 1.83
Oct. 17 ............ 315 8.74 5.05 2. 06
Oct. 1 ............ 3o 9.51 5.88 1.84
Oct. IS............ 312 9.67 5,66 2.02
Oct. 19............ 316 8.64 5.05 1.82
Oct. 19............ 319 8.77 5.05 2.05

Meins...............11.08 6.68 2.2
Maxina ...... ... 13. 10 S.79 .07
Minima... 8. 74 5. 05 1. 80O



The lowest sucrose in the diffusion juices was found on October 17

and 19, viz, 5.05 per cent., and October 17 and 18, viz, 5.88 and 5.66 per cent. This was at the close of the season. On only four preceding

days did the percentage of sucrose fall below 6, viz, September 22, October 8, 13, and 15. The maximum per cent. of sucrose in the diffulsion
juice was found in sample No. 86, September 16, viz, 8.79.

The sample of mill juice corresponding to this number is found in
Table No. 2, sample No. 85. The sucrose in this juice was 9.36 per

cent.





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Thus, while the content of sucrose in the chip juices for that day was 18 per cent. below the average for the season, the sucrose in the diffusion juice was 2 11 per cent. above it. These numbers show the difficulty of obtaining comparative samples in sorghum examinations. Single analyses are apt to be deceptive, and reliance should be placed rather on the work for the entire season.

TABLE No. 4.- Mill juices from exhausted chips.


D"t. No. Total sugars. Date. No. Total sugars.


Per cent. Per cent.
Sept. 9... 24 .99 Oct. 1.... 176 .57
So. 10... I 1.10 Oct. 3 .. 1P-9 .90
Sept 12 49 6 Oct. 4 200 1.01
Sept. 13... 56 .63 Oct. 5. 218 .88
Sept. 13 .. 71 .88 Oct. 6 ... 232 .84
Sept. 16... '4 1.09 Oct. 7.... 240 .8H
Sept. 17... 90 1.83 Oct. 8 248 1.35
0ept. 19 98a .88 Oct. 11 260 1.38
Sept. 19.. 102 1.19 Oct. 12... 267 .91
Sept. ,0,.. 1 1. 14 Oct. 13. 280 1.43
Sept. 20.. 112 .84 Oct. 14. 289 .76
Sept. 2L... 125 1.22 Oct. 15... 294 1. 02
Sept. 22... 133 1.27 Oct. 18 313 1.42
Sept. 23... 145 .
Sept. 24... 151 .77 Average ........ 1.03
Sept. 26... 163 .69


The sucrose in the juice expressed from exhausted chips was inverted

and estimated with the reducing sugar present, and the whole expressed as total sugars.
The ratio of the sucrose in the chips to the reducing sugar shows that the former is more readily diffused than the latter. This ratio was not

determined for the whole season. From October 8 to 18, however,
seven such analyses were made, with the following results:

TABLE No. 5,-Sacrose and glucofe in juice from eL.r.1a48ted chips and corresponding diffufsion juices.


Exhausted chips. Diffiusion juices.
D ate. ...........
No. Glucose. Sacrose. No. Glucose. Sucrose.


Per cent. Per ent. Per cent. Per cent.
1ct. 8.... 218 .57 .78 247 3.06 5.90
(het. 11.... 20I .- l .87 259 2.09 6.58
Oct. 12.... 217 ._9. .63 21 2.03 6.17
Oct. 13.... 240 .48 .03 279 1.89 5.07
Oct. 14.... 2 9 ."4 .52 2,M 1.)80 6.02
Oct. 15 ... 214 .24 .73 293 1.75 5. (16
Oit. 18 ... 313 .43 .)9 312 2.02 5.66

A. rgcs ....... .40 .78 ....... 2.0U 5.99

Ratio of glncose to sucrose frml exhliusted chips ........ .......... 1.95
Ratio of' glooe to sucrose inl diffusion Juice ...................... ...... 1 : 2. 86
1.t i of g1uo to i'use corresponding mill juice from fresh chips .... 1 2. 19

The variations in the quantities of sugar left in the chips were due to dilflerences in the quantity of diflision juice drawn off at each charge, and to changes in rapidity of working. apid working with small.

quantities of juice drawn oi leave more sugar in the chips than slower working and larger chaes of diltusion juice.







Ip to the 22d of September the quantity of juice drawn at each charge was 2,200 pounds. From this time to October 4, 2,640 pounds were drawn off each time. Thence to the close of the season 2,420 pounds. Assuming that each cell held 2,000 pounds of chips and the cane contained 90 per cent. juice, we have the following data:

Weight of chips in each cell ............................ pounds.. 2,000
Normal juice in each cell .................................. do .... 1, 800
Mean extraction (circa) ............................... per cent.. 93
Normal juice extracted from each cell ................. pounds.. 1,674
Charge withdrawn up to September 22 .................... do.... 2,200
Weight added water................... ................do... 526
Percentage of dilution .......................................... 32. 02
Charge withdrawn September 22 to October 4...........pounds.. 9,640
Weight added water.....................................do.... 966
Percentage of diluting ............... .......................... 57.70
Charge withdrawn October 4 to close..................pounds.. 2, 420
Weight added water.....................................do.... 746
Percentage of dilution .......................................... 44.56

With the modern appliances for evaporating sugar juiices in multiple effect vacuum pans, the objections which have been urged against diffusion on account of the necessary dilution of the juice are of little force. A dilution of 60 per cent. is not at all incompatible with the complete economic success of the process.

TABLE No, 6.-Defecated juices.

Bri
Date. No. Br Sucrose. Glucose.
(corrected).

Per cent. Per cent.
Sept. 12... 53 13.35 8.25 2. 66
Sept. 15... 72 13.02 8.23 2.55
Sept. 16... 87 13. 28 8. 87 2. 23
Sept. 17... 91 12. 48 7. 90 2. 53
Sept. 19.. 98 10. 0 6.99 1.88
Sept. 19... 101 12. 58 8.09 1. 97
Sept. 20... i0l 12.34 7.93 2.11
Sept. 21... 126 12. 05 7. 39 ............
Sept. 22... 136 11. 44 6. 32 ............
Sept. 23.. 144 11.24 6. 50 2.35
Sept, 24... 152 10.58 6.43 2.08
Sept. 26... 164 10. 81 6.11 2.38
Oct. 1... 184 10.14 6.28 ............
Oct. 3... 195 10. 58 6. 24 2. 22
Oct. 4... 201 10.75 6.83 1.75
Oct. 5... 221 10. 98 6. 74 2.23
Oct. 6... 233 13.2o 6. 99 2,85
Oct. 7.. 241 10. $1 6.58 1.80
Oct. 8... 249 11.29 6. o 2. 80
Oct. 11... 264 10.01 6.09 2.03
Oct. 12,. 274 11. 00 7. 18 2. 02
Oct. 13... 284 10. 91 7. 10 1. 69
Oct. 15 .. 297 10. 51 6.74 2.04
Oct. 17., 3:10 9.75 5. 91 1.87
Oct. 19 .. 320 8. 94 5.11 2. 10
Averages ...... 11.31 6.91 2.19


Dr. C. A. Cranmpton has furnished tihe following additional notes on the foregoing analytical work: The first analysis of fresh chips was made on September 3, but the chemical control of the factory was not fully instituted until the th. Thils control cousisted of






12

daily analyses of the fresh chips as supplied to the battery, of the diffisiou juice, the defecated juice, and of the exhausted chips, together with analyses of thesemi-sirup masse cite and sugar from nearly every strike that was made. Great care was taken to have the analyses of the different products comparable with each other; the samples were always taken after at least one complete circuit of the battery had been made, as starting up the battery fresh did not allow of a proper extraction of the first cells killed. After the first round had been made a sample of thefresh chips was collected, an equal quantity being taken from each cell filled, the whole properly mixed and run through the small experimental mill, and the juice submitted to analysis. The samplc of diffusion juice was taken from the santo cells represented by the samples of fresh chips, by collecting and mixing together equal volumes from the drawings from each cell. The sample of exhausted chips was likewise collected from the same cells, and the juice obtained from them by pressure with the small mill. Thus the analyses of these three important products are strictly comparable and represent as truthfully as is possible, so far as the sampling is concerned, the character of the cane entering the battery, of the juice obtained from it, and of the waste matter thrown out. The defecated juices, having been boiled continuously in an open pan, samples could not be obtained which would correspond precisely with the samples of diffusion juice, but they were taken from a large receiving tank, which held the juice from anumber of cells, so may be taken as a fair average of the defecated juice as it went to the double effect.
ANALYSIS OF WHOLE CANES. TABLE 1.

These analyses were made for various purposes and are inserted here simply as a matter of reference. They furnish additional proof, if any is needed, of the extreme variability of sorghum cane, and of the fact that analyses of a few selected canes give higher results than the average of a crop, and can not be depended on to show the average composition of a field of cane. Nos. 29-43 were taken from different parts of the same held, and at the same time. They show a content of sucrose all the way from 12.44 to 5.95 per cent. No. 148 shows very well the inversion sorghum undergoes by keeping after it is cut. It was taken from a load brought in by a farmer, and had doubtless lain in the field several days after it was cut. This analysis, which is simply an instance of what has been frequently observed before, shows the necessity for the rapid handling of sorghum after it is cut. It has been proposed to buy sorghum cane by its Brix indication, as is done with beets in some parts of Germany. This analysis, with a Brix indication of .9, and a polarization of 3.32, shows very conclusively that it would not pay very well to buy cane that had stood exposed on the degree Brix given by the juice.

TABLE No. 7.-Sirups (thick juicess.


Date. N ( Sucrose. Glcose.

Per cent. Per cent.
Sept. 12........ 41 37. 26 16. 10 10. 49
Sept. 13... .... 57 41. 25. 75 7.90
Sept. 15 ........ 75 54.46 33. 0o 10. 92
Sept. 17........ 94 41. 80 28.70 7.0
Sept. 20 ........ 113 59. 30 39. 10 10. 16
'ept. 22 ....... 128 ............. 41.90 14.70
Sept. 23 ....... 137 46. 80 29. 90 9. 2
Sept. 2 ........ 150 46. 60 29. 50 .......
(WI. 3 ...... 1I 42.o 28.90 P.69
O ti 6 ....... 234 0 35. 10 16. 26
t. 7 ........ 243 50. 60 33 1)0 10. 30
Oct. 12 ........ 268 36. 20 24.20 6.42
Oct. 13........ 275 40.90 27.70 ............
(ct. 14 ....... 290 39.8 0 26.70 7.52
Averages ....... 46. 02 29.90 10.06







13


The variations in the proportion of sucrose to glucose in the thick juice as shown on Table No. 7 are much greater than would be expected from the analyses recorded in the foregoing tables. The thorough mixing of the products of large numbers of diffusion charges should tend theoretically to equalize the ratios of the two sugars. This remarkable variation is explained partly by the addition of sugar to the clarifed juices in order to promote crystallization in the vacuum pan.


TABLE NO. 8.- a88sse cuites.



No. Moist- Ash Glucose Sucrose Sucrose Not Remarks.
ure. direct. indirect. sugar.


Per cent. Pr. ct. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Pr. ct.
5309 12.34 4. 82 21. 69 1 50.44 53.94 6. 81 Not enriched.
5310 11.18 5.28 22.70 52.85 56.73 4.11 Do.
5311 11.47 4. 22 15. 92 62. 40 66. 47 1.92 Enriched.
5312 13.86 4.07 16.91 55. 93 60.22 4. 94 Do.
5313 13.58 4.13 15.62 60. 52 65. 30 1.37 Do.
5314 12. 11 4. 58 18. 19 50. 19 55. 32 9. 80 Not enriched.
5315 13. 83 4. 48 19.88 52.18 58. 50 3.31 Do.
5316 12.74 4.81 16.82 60. 24 64. 01 1.62 Do.
5343 13. 83 4. 02 15. 25 60. 97 61. 25 5. 65 Enriched.
5381 16.72 5. 09 19. 60 57. 64 55. 83 2. 75 Not enriched.
5385 17.80 4.72 21.00 50.28 51.76 4.72 Do.
5386 13. 22 4. 26 16. 55 63. 12 62. 66 3. 31 Enriched.
5387 14. 48 4.48 15.83 63. 16 62. 63 2. 58 Not enriched.
5388 13. 89 4. 83 16. 40 57. 81 59. 64 5. 24 Do.
5389 15.19 4.66 19. 52 56.70 55. 59 5.04 )o.
5344 14. 38 4. 50 17.36 61.79 61.83 1.93 Do.
5347 11.40 4.49 13. 61 65.23 63.38 7.12 Do.
5348 12.96 5.01 15.20 61.79 61.51 5.32 1)o.
5349 13.30 4.62 17. 30 60. 00 60. 00 4.78 Do.
5353 12. 55 7. 14 17. 78 59. 10 59. 62 2. 91 D)o.
5354 25. 61 4. 24 15.95 51. 90 52. 11 2.09 Do.
6355 15. 59 4. 93 18.18 56. 03 58. 91 2.39 Do.
5357 13. 10 4.92 19. 40 55.45 57. 37 5.21 Do.
5358 22.01 4.80 16. 68 54.86 52.18 4. 33 Do.
5-83 14. 12 4. 32 15. 70 66. 08 59. 77 6.07 Do.

Ave .. 14.45 4.70 17.56 51.87 59.06 4.21



The remarks applied to the analyses of the sirups, Table No. 7, belong equally well to Table No. 8. A distinction is made of the samples fortifled by the addition of sugar. The differences between direct and double polarization, which are so plainly shown in the analysis of sirups, masse Cites, and molasses, will be discussed in another place. The greater reliance should be placed on the indirect polarization when it is carefully done. Yet the difficulties attending an accurate analysis of these
substances are very great, and every precaution known to science will not always lead to perfectly satisfactory results.
The remarkable difference between the direct and indirect l)olarizations will at once be remarked in the mean results of Table No. .. In
general, as has been already said, the preference should be given to the indirect polarization when carefully done. In the present case, however,
the percentage of sucrose by indirect polarization appears to be too
high. The mean percentage of organic solids not sugar is only 4.21, a much less proportion than would be expected.





14

TABLE NO. 9.-Polari:alion of first sugar.


No. Sucrose. 'No. Sucrose.


Per cent. Per cent.
6 97.90 202 96.60
0 95.00 224 95.20
61 96.70 229 96.40
77 98. 10 236 94. 80
104 97. 80 245 93. 80
105 91. 20 250 94.90
120 96. 50 251 94.20
139 94.20 277 95. 30
159 97. 30 281 96.10
160 97. 60 286 93. 70
163 97. 20 3uo2 92.40 168 9M. 30 303 95. 60
169 97. 10 310 93. 60
192 96.70
Mean. 95. 64



TABLE NO. 10.-Second sugars.


No. Sucrose.


Per cent.
83 82.30
173 88.70
255 86. 40

Mean.. 85.80



The first sugars, as shown by Table No. 9, had a mean content of sucrose equal to 95.64 per cent. The color of these sugars was mostly

grayish yellow, and most of the samples could be used for the coarser

kinds of table use and for cooking without refining.

Only a small quantity of second sugars was made, it having proved

more profitable to sell the molasses than to work it into sugar.

The composition of the second sugars is uticiently indicated by
Table No. 10.

TABLE. No. 11.-Mfola0scs from fir81 tugara.


Station Si-rial Moist- Ash, Glucose. Sucrose Sucrose Not
NN o No. I ue. diet. indirect. Sugar.


Per cent. Per dent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. IIer cent 261 82 16. 43 6. 50 28. 10 3416 7 35. 66 13. 31
59 5318 25.25 6. 1 27. 96 37. 65 37.60 3. 01
79 5320 23. 49 5. 17 2.3. 76 34. 52 35.60 11.I8
89 r. 1 25. 56 5. 91 23. 15 35. 16 35. 30 10.0
97a 532 28.14 5.22 22. 73 38. 67 38. 90 511
103 5323 23. 36 1.144 27. 47 37 39 37. 00 5.73
130 5324 23. 01 6. 04 24. 32 35. 16 30. 20 10. 43
Ito 53125 22. 22 7. 12 25.00 31. 32 31.70 13. 9

Avetagem .... 23.42 0.17 25.31 35.81 36.00 9.10



In Table No.11 is given the composition of the molasses after separating the first sugar. The increase in per cent., ucrose on double polarizat ion is not as great as the results with masse uites would lead us to exDect.






15

The samples taken from the tanks at different times represent fairly well the average composition of the whole for the entire season. The sucrose remaining after the first crystallization is seen to be nearly
1.5 times the reducing sugar.
The composition of the molasses gives a check on the yield of sugar per* ton which the failure to weigh the cane left to a certain extent undeterSmined. Supposing that there was no appreciable destruction of reducing sugar during the process of clarification, and no inversion of sucrose during the evaporation, the relative composition of the molasses and diffusion juices will indicate the theoretical yield in sucrose. Since, however, the quantity of diffusion juice drawn off is difficult to determine from the data furnished, the comparison will have to be made on the composition of the normal juice expressed from the samples of fresh chips.
In these juices the mean composition for the season wasPer cent.
Sucrose ................................................ 9.54
Reducing sugars .......... ............. ....... 3. 40
In the molasses the proportion of reducing sugars to sucrose is25.31 : 36.00, or 1.42.
Now, the product of 3.40 by 1.42 is 4.83; and 9.54 4.83 = 4.712 the percentage of sucrose obtained in first sugars.
In 1 ton of cane chips there are, iu round numbers, 1,800 pounds juice. The extraction was 93 per cent., or 1,674 pounds. The theoretical quantity of pure sucrose obtained per ton was, therefore, 78.8 pounds.
The mean polarization of the first sugars was 95.64. Then 78.8+--95.64= 82.38 = number of pounds actual weight first sugar produced per ton.
The yield per ton is estimated at 100 pounds by Mr. Swenson'. By Mr. Cowgill the yield per ton is estimated at 93.8 pounds per ton2. A fact worthy of remark will be noticed on comparing this yield with the output at Rio Grande and Magnolia, to be mentioned further on. It is this: That the quantity of sugar obtained at the first crystallization can not be determined by any fixed rule based on the relative proportions of sucrose and glucose in thejuice. As the l)prop)ortion of sucrose diminishes the relative amount obtained rapidly increases. At Rio (Grande, for instance, the quantity of sucrose remaining in the molasses afte the first crystallization is actually less in some cases than thie glucose. In Louisiana, even after a second or third crystallization, more sucrose than glucose will usually-not always-be found in the molasses.
In the working of sorghum of the richness indicated by the foregoing nnalyses, it is a grave question whether a second crystallization is com.mercially desirable or even practicable. The diliculty of drying the second masse cuite in the centrifugals is often so great as to render it commercially unprofitable. Until the quality of sorghum, therefore, is
SBuil 17, p. 11. lid. p. 49.








improved it will be well to base all calculations on the yield of first sugars alone. This yield, with such cane as mentioned, will be 4 to 4.5 per cent. on the weight of clean cane.

TABLE NO. 12.-Second masse cuite.

Moist- Ash. Glucose. Sucrose Sucrose Not sugar ure. direct, indirect. (organic).

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
53*5 19.34 7.08 27.30 39.15 38. 65 7.63 5384 18.02 6.93 29.70 39.68 44.81 1.04 5356 21. 00 7. 26 26.45 40. 52 41. 98 3.31 Means 19. 45 7. 09 27.82 39.78 41.84 3. 99

TABLE NO. 13.-3Molasses from seconds.

o. Moist Ash. Glucose. Sucrose Sucrose Not sugar ure. direct. indirect. (organic).

Per cent. Per cent. Percent. Per cent Per cent. Per cent.
5350 25.62 8. 06 31.35 32.40 29.08 5.89 5351 24.42 8. 00 30. 85 35. 60 33. 58 3. 15 5380 26.14 7.53 29.78 31. 66 30. C8 5.90 Means 25.39 7. 86 30.66 33.22 31.11 4.98

In the second masse cuites the only marked difference from the first molasses is in the degree of evaporation.
In the second molasses we see the sucrose about in the same propor. tion as the glucose. It is also less by double polarization-a fact difficult of explanation.
TOTAL SOLIDS IN JUICES.
In Tables Nos. 1, 2, and 3 the total solids represent the readings of the hydrometer graduated to give the quantity of pure sugar in an aqueous solution, and corrected for temperature.
It is evident that in a cane juice containing large quantities of solids other than pure sucrose, these readings can give only approximately the percentage of dry solid matter in solution.
Iniistructions were therefore sent to Fort Scott to determine dry volatile matter or total solids by evaporating a weighed portion of the juice anid noting the weight of the residue dried to practically constant weight at 105 C. This operation was carried on in a flat platinum dish, about 2 grams of the juice being used in each case. The results showed a marked difference in the data furnished by the Brix hydrometer and thie direct method, the latter being uniformly lower, thus increasing the apparent purity of the juice. In this operation, however, the difficulty of securing uniform desiccation is great. The greater the quantity of solid matter contained in a given juice the more difficult is it to secure the complete removal of the water. The






17

differences noted, therefore, in the case of the mill juices are greater than in thejuices of diffusion. This matter will be referred to again in
the Louisiana analyses to follow. In Table No. 14 the differences ar
given:

TABLE NO. 14.-Comparison of tutal 8olids by spindle with results obtained by direct (8cst nation.


Mill juices. Diffusion juices.

No. Direct. Indirect. No. Direct. Indirect.

Per cent. Per cent.. Per cent. Per cet.
238 15. 67 16. 10 239 10. 15 10. 98
246 14.95 15. 76 247 10. 54 11. 51
258 14.55 15.21 259 9. 50 10. :39
262 13. 85 14.44 263 9.60 10. 49
265 14.40 14.73 266 9. 00 9.97
272 14. 80 15.11 273 10.05 10. 82
278 14.40 14. 97 279 8. 85 9.71
282 14.85 15.33 283 9.40 10.27
292 13.40 13.68 293 8. 43 9. 34
295 13.60 14.24 296 9. 30 10.24
300 14.78 15.11 301 8. 58 9. 45
304 14. 85 15. 31 305 8. 10 8.74
307 12. 50 13.09 308 8. 80 9. 51
315 13. 65 14. 21 312 8.75 9.67
318 14.65 14.93 316 7. O 8.64
319 8.05 8. 77
Aver 14.33 14. 81--
Aver. 9.06 9. 91


Dr. Crampton makes the following observations on this work:
These results are very interesting and important. They show that while the spindies give results but slightly below the actual determination by drying in the case of mill juices, the results with the diffusion juices were, on an average, .85 too high. The spindles used were tested afterwards with a standard solution of pure sugar, and found to give results about .2 too high. They corresponded closely with a delicate saccharimeter tested by Scheibler. The different results given by themni in the case of the mill and diffusion juices I am unable to explain, as it would seem more rational that the diffusion juices, being more nearly pure solutions of sugar than the miill, would give results approximating more closely to the standard upon which the spindles were based. It is possible that the large amount of suspended solids in the mill juices may in some way account for the discrepancy. At all events the direct determination doubtless gives more reliable results. Correcting the average results on the basis of the samples in which a direct estimation was made we have:
Total solids in the mill juices 'for the season..................... 15. 6i
Co-celicient of purity based on above ............................. 60. 9
Total solids in diffusion juices for the season .................... 10. 23
Co-efficient of purity .......................................... (. 3
showing an increase in the purity of the diffusion over the mill juices of 41.4 points.
The ratio of glucose to sucrose in the two juices for the season was as follows:
Milljuice ......... ..................... ....... 1 : 2.80
Diffusion juice ....... ...................... ......... ....... 1 : 2.95
This would seem to show one of two things: Either there was absolutely no inversion in the battery, and the slight difference in favor oft tze diffusion juice was due to error of analysis, or that the glucose in the cane was not so readily diffusible as the scrose, and thus a greater proportionate amount of the latter was obtained by d infusion
23576-Bull 18-2








than by milling, sufficient to cover whatever slight inversion there was in the bat tery, and leave a margin beside. The latter hypothesis seems to be borne out by the analysis of the exhausted chips. Up to October 8 the total sugar remaining in the chips was determined, no separate analyses being made of glucose and sucrose. After that date both sugars were estimated. Table No. 5 gives the results, together with the sucrose and glucose in the corresponding diffusion juices:

TABLE NQO. 15.-Aciditq in mill juices and diffusion.


Mill juice. Diffusion.

it 11
No. CC. 10 No. C. C.10
alk. for 100. alk. for 100.

174 32. 0 175 14.4 193 28. 8 194 16. 8 198 38.0 199 20.0 222 32.0 223 18.4 230 39.0 231 22.8 238 32.4 239 26.0
246 36.0 247 20.0
258 10.0 259 16.0
265 26.0 266 15.2 278 34.0 279 18.0
292 18.0 293 1.0
304 34.0 305 12.0
311 21.0 312 9.0
315 26.0 316 10. 0
Mean. 29.1 Mean. 16.3


The work recorded in Table No. 15 was undertaken to show the extent to which the carbonate of lime added to the diffusion cells neutralized the free acids of the juice. The numbers indicate the quantity of tenth normal alkali required to neutralize the acids in 100 cubic centimeters of the juice. Taking as a basis of comparison the total solids in the mill and diffusion juices for the season, as indicated in Tables iN.os. 2 and 3, the following data are obtained:

Total solids in mill juices .................................... 16.14
Total solids in diffusion juices ................................ 11.08
Acidity of mill juice......................................... 29. 1 ce.

The normal acidity of the diffusion juice, had no carbonate been used, is obtained by the following calculation: 16.14 : 11.08= 29.1 : X : whence X = 19.98

The mean quantity of alkali required for neutralizing the acid in the diffusion juice was 16.3 cubic centimeters. Deduct this number from the calculated normal number and the difference, viz, 3.68 cubic centimeters, represents the amount of acid neutralized.
The percentage of acid neutralized is therefore 3.68 + 29.1 x 100 = 12.65. The action of the carbonate, therefore, in neutralizing the acids is not as far reaching as the experiments made by the Department and recorded in Bulletin 14 would lead us to expect.








Dr. Crampton has made the following report respecting the extraction of sugar :
The mill juice from exhausted chips contained 1.03 per cent. of total sugars. This gives the total sugars as 92.04 per cent. of the amount contained in the cane. Supposing the ratio of glucose to sucrose in the exhausted chips for the whole season to have been the same as that shown during the time that the two sugars were estimated separately, the average sucrose remaining would be .64 per cent. in the juice, or .61 percent. of the chips themselves. This would give an extraction of 92.87 per cent. of the total sucrose present in the cane. This is not so good an extraction as has been obtained in previous experiments with diffusion on cane. It is explained by) Professor Swenson on the ground that the chips were not made fine enough, gaps in the knives of the small cutters, made by stones, etc., getting into it, allowing of the passage of comparatively large pieces of cane.





















WORK AT RIO GRANDE, N. J.





The general instructions sent to the Fort Scott station were given

also to the analysts at Rio Grande, with such changes only as the

locality required.

Mr. F. V. Broadbent was placed in charge of the analytical work,

with MIr. Hubert Edson as assistant. MNr. Broadbent resigned his posi.

tion early in October. Mr. Edson then took charge of the work and

remained until the close of the season. With the assistance of one boy

he successfully conducted the chemical control of the factory.

In the following tables are given the results of his work:


TABLE No. 16.-Jtices from diffusion Chip8.



Date. Specific 1au6. lrix (cor- SUcos. Purity. Glucose.
gratrected)


Peir cent. Per cent.
Sept. 8 1.057 7.8 14. 06 7.94 56. 47
Sept. 9 .. 10 8.1 13.96 8.88 63.61 .........
Sept.10 .... 1.057 7.7 13.53 8:34 (1.64 ..........
Sept. 12 .. 1. 02 7. 2 12. 82 7. 93 62. 10 ..........
Sept. 13......1.052 7. 2 12. 80 8. 10 63. 28 ..........
Sept.15........051 7.1 12.96 7.37 50.87 3.46
Suit. 17 1. 34 7.5 1-. 83 8.01 62.43 3.22
Sept.19 1.050 6.9 12.2i 7.29 59.46 3.7
Sept. 19 . 032 7.2 22. 92 7. 3:3 5e.73 4.07
Sept.20 ..... 1.05 7.6 12.91 7.(0 58.72 3.13
Sept.20 ..... 1.057 7.8 13.112 7. 52 55.21 3.39
Sept.21 .G.09 9.4 1G.47 11.,3 70.61 2.52
Sept.21 .... 1.072 .8 17.80 12.28 68.99 2.711
Sept.22 ......1.063 8.6 15.28 10.88 71.20 2.46
Sept. 23 ... 1.0.! 8.1 13.90 8. :2 59. 86 3.04
Sept. 21 .... 1.038 7.8 13.8( 8. .5 1.69 3.45
Sept.27 ..... .0il 7.9 14.23 9.09 63.88 2.97
Selit.27 . 7. 13.71 8.42 GL.42 3.63
Sept. 27 ......1. tIl 8. 3 14. 37 8. 99 62. 5O 3. 86
Sept. 28 ......LSU 8.0 14.20 8.80 61.97 3.32
Sept.29 ..... 1.0-3 7.3 13.02 8.29 67 3.330
Oc. 1 ..1. 1.053 7.3 13.01 7.98 6;1.34 3.05
Oct. 3 1.053 7. 14,19 9.25 65.19 3.15
Oct. 3 G.... 1.056 7.7 13.74 8.43 61.36 3.99
(lt. 4 ... 1S.00 8.2 14.67 8.83 60.10 3.53
Oct. 4 .... 1.058 7.9 14.:31 9. 34 65. 27 3.59
Oct. 5 ... 1.057 7.8 13.80 9.21 66.74 2.70
Oct. 6.... 1. 019 8. 1 15. 03 9, 19 61. 14 I. 36
Oct. 7 ..... 11.07 7.8 13.88 8.94 64.41 3.68
Oct. 8 .... 1.056 7.7 13.66 7.40 61.49 3.71
Oct. 10 ..... 1,06t 8.9 15.91 10.95 618.70 2.87
Oct. 10 ..... 1.05 8.9 1(i.33 11.(4 71.28 3.01
Oct. 11 ..... I.1Jt;l 0. 15.61 11.02 70.42 3.05
Oct. 11 ... 1067 9. 1 1.78 10.80 (8.44 3.12
Oct. 1: .... 1.056I 7.9 13. W; 9. 08 66.47 2.9t
(et.. 13 ..... 1. (160 8.2 1. 58 9. 27 13. 58 3. 29
Oct. 14 1 1.059 8.1 14,34 34 6). 1 9 3. 18
(f t 14 ..... 1057 78 13.86 0 91l GIt.31 ........
Oct. 15 .... I a58 7.'.) 1:3.77 8,7,3 63.33 3.51
Oct. 17.... 1,070 9. Ill71 1.40 68.2. 3.13
O t. 17 .... 1. 5 ti. 11. 51 8.27 .. ......
Oet. 18 ... 1G1.9 i.4 lel 7: 11.47 618.56 3.28
Oct. 19 .... 1.I66 8.2 14 ::o 9.i ("5.45 3. 06






21

TABLE NO. 16.-Jices8 from diffusioln Chip8-Continued.


Date. Specific Baume. i (cr. Sucrose. Purity. Glucose.
gravty. rectcd.)

Per cen t. Per cent.
Oct. 20 .... 1.056 7.7 13.26 8. 49 64.02 2. 83
Oct. 20 .. 1.056 7.7 13. 28 8. 52 64.14 2. 83
Oct. 21..... 1.050 6.9 11.90 7.29 61.26 2. 56
Oct. 21 ..... 1.053 7.3 12. 53 7.79 62. 17 2.94
Oct 22 ..... 1.048 6.7 11.24 6.81 60. 59 2.99
Oct. 24 ..... 1.065 8. 9 15. 21 10.42 68 51 2. 07
Oct. 24 ..... 1.065 8.9 15.47 10.39 67.16 ..........
Oct. 25 ..... 1.051 7.1 12.26 6. 74 54. 97 3. 74
Oct. 26.... 1.045 6.1 10.45 4.71 45. 07 4.45
Oct. 27 ..... 1.056 7.7 13.43 8 85 65.90 3.49
Oct. 27.... 1.059 8 1 14.10 9. 20 65.25 3.73
Oct. 9 ..... 1.052 7.2 12. 57 8.12 64.60 3.4 o
Oct. 31..... 1.053 7.3 12.24 8.16 66.66 3.78
Oct. 31 ..... 1.056 7.7 13. 03 7. T7o 59.00 3.53
Nov. 1..... 1.062 8.5 14.52 9.95 68.52 33ti
Nov. 2..... 1.062 8.5 14.35 9.96 69.47 3.88
Nov. 3 .... 1. 062 I. 5 14 74 10.08 68.38 ..........
Nov. 8.... 1.061 8.3 14.20 9.48 66.29 3.53
Means.. 1. 067 7. 8 14. 02 8. 98 64. 05 3. 21 Maxima 1. 070 9. 5 17. 80 12.28 71.28 4.
Minima.. 1.045 6.3 10. 45 4.71 45.07 2.07



The analyses of the samples of chips taken from each charge of the
battery, often twice daily, show the remarkable fluctuations in sucrose which have always been noticed in sorghum juices.
The mean composition of the normal juice, Table 10, shows a less percentage of sucrose, but a somewhat higher purity than were obtained at Fort Scott.
The maximum percentage of sugar in the juice is not as great as at Fort Scott, and the minimum is not so small. In general it may be
said that the canes worked at Rio Grande were slightly inferior for production of sugar to those of Fort Scott.
The theoretical yield per ton, based on the Fort Scott analyses,
would have been as follows:

Pounds of juice at 93 per cent. extraction ...................... 1, 674.
Glucose x 1.42 ............................................... 4.
Sucrose less glucose x 1. 4'2 ...................................... 4. :8
Pure sucrose, first crystallization .............................. 7:. 32
Pure sucrose, etc., at Fort Scott ............................... s.

The yield obtained, for various reasons, vwas much less than this.
The tonnage obtained at Rio G(raude, however, was fully double that at Fort Scott, and this heavy growth may account for the slightly in. ferior quality of the cane.





a








22


TABLE No. 17.-Diffasion juice.



Datte. IU1W F rix. (cr.,Scrose. Purity. Glucose.
a I it. rected).


I 1887. 0 1Per cenitt. PC). Cent.
Sep t. 8... 1 0 40 ,5 .0 9. 57 5. 0 59.46 ....
Sept. 9) 1.01 1 5. 9.1 10.21 6.21 60.82 .....
Sept. 10) 1.040 5. 6 91 9.92 5.57 56.15 .....
Sept. 12 1. W;3 4. S.I 1. 9 1 5.58 62. 62 .....
Svpt. 1 --- 1. 037 5 9.o 9 Q1 6.3 682.7 5 .....
S ept. 15, 5 1. 0:7 .2 9. 2 9.7T7 5,.43 55.58 ----Sept. 17. 1.045 G. 3 10. 4 1 111,43 (;.7 1 64. 33 2.911
Net.1 1.040 5.6 G 9. 6 110.1Ili 5.74 56.50 2.85
Sept. 20 1.(015 6C. 10. 5 110. !5 6.1s 56. 44 3.27T
St. 20. I.1J47 C.5 11. 1 11. 55 6. 68 57.84 .
Si-pt. 21- 1. 050) 6 9 11. 81 12. 18 8.47 69, 54 2. 12
Sclpt. 21 1.() 50 6) 9 12.8S 1:. 22 S, 97 67.8S5 2. 17
Sopt.I 22 1If 8 2 14-0 14.40 9. 90 6A. 75 2.72
t -23...1 .-')5 7.61 12. 8 13. 06 7.51 57.50 13. 00
Sept.U.- 24 1 1 7. 1 123 1.3,7 574 3. 24
SW t21; 1.042 ,9 9. 5 9).56( 6. 18 6 4.64 20
Sc pit. 27 1 05-2 7. 2 1 2. 4 12.6tit 7.72 61. 27 :3.27
Sept. .7.,. 15 76 12. 5 12,8 7.S1 6 1. 02 3,.51
ScIpI. 28,- 1. '15'3 7:1'3 12.5 12,.77 747 58.58 31.27
Sc )t 29 1.031 70.1 11.6 12.3:3 7. 81 63. 34 31. 11;
Wct. I .11 64 10,9 11. 58, 7. 09 61. 20 3. 09
)ct. : 1.4 101.0 11. 12 6.6 61.6 2. 37
Ocwt. 3....1 P1 7.2 12. 1 12.62 7.55 59.8 3 3. 66
Oct. 4. 1.11 j6.1 10.2 10. 90 6. 73 t 6;1. 74 3, 19
Oct. 4.... ;~ 7.1 1'2. 8 13. :9 8 .70 64. 97 3.812
Owt........f1,0o3 1. 1 10).35 6. 62 6:3.96 2.50
Oct. 6...1.0 6 3 : 10. G 11.01l 6. 98, 63. 40 2,862
(I. 7 I.4'S 5. :3 8.9 2s .5. 89 63. 43 2. 53
I ht. 8...1. 035 4.9 7.9 1 8.44t 5. 08 60. 19 2. 0:
OcWt. 10....1.o42 5. 9 10.4 10,.8 7 7.,42 68. 26 2. 19
O c t. 10-..4 1L 058 7. 9 1::.6G 14. 30 10).0(2 70,07 3. 10
() t. ii... .0357 7.S 13, 5 13. 713 9. 58 69.7-8 2. 94
Oct. It ---.. I1A52 7. 2 12.1 12. 58 8.49! 67.49 2.1IS
b t. 13 ].(45) 16.3 10. 5 10. 62:1 6. 85 60.47 2.50
(hit. 1:3 1, 05-' 7.2 1 2.3 12.66 8. 28 65, 40 2.94
Oc.14 1. ()-)1 7.1 112.2 I12..5 8 8. 11 641.47 2.91
Oc. 4..~ .151 7.3 1 1-2.3 12.815 11.6 67.9 .0
)0 I. 13 1..~ o17 G. 5 10t,0 10. 98 7. 14 65. (2 12.81
h Ot. 17,. 1.03 4I.18 79 8. 42 6. 19 171. 14 1. 57
Oct1. 17,.. 1. 0,1 4C S.2 S.2 6, 24 70.75 -OWt. 18....113 4A9 8.2 -.O 60 69.77 1. 91
Oc t. 19 1; 5, 1 S.5 8.,2 5.748 65, 53 2. 13
Owt. 20 ---,.o1 i i. 8 1. i 7. 0 63. 42 261
Oct. 20.......1.0()461 6. 4 10) M31 6i.97 61.64 2.5 7
Oc t. 21 ... 1. 09 5. 5 9. 1 9.1 525 440 2.4
)(ct. 21,.. 1.04)15- 6. 3 10.4 1i. 73 G. 52 60. 76 2. 53
OWt. 22.....1. 011 5. 7 9.5- 9. 77 5.7_00 56.19 2.80
Olct. 24, 1.:;5 4. 9 S.0 8.40 5 81 6..17 1.32
O)ct. 2., 1.048 G.7 1 1.4- 11. 91 5.77 48 .78 .....
(Oht. 25, 1.(41 G.4I 10 9 11.3:5 5. 92 52.16 .33
(Jut. 2f 1. 01370 5L 2 8.5 8. 78 3.8S9 44.31 3. 97
Ocut. '27 1.1)30M 6.9 11. 12. 08 7. 61 63. 00 35
O( 7.., 1.05.5 7. i 12. 7 13.041 7. 97 61.3:1 :1. 64) 4 ),-t. 2 04 6. 0 :- 10.0 10 I(. 3 7 6.49) 62. 58 3. 10 Oct, 31.., 1; 6 .1 8.2 8.- 3s 5.03 60.,26 2, 7 5
( c t. 31.,. 1.15 6. 10 10.; 11.14it .23; 56, 43 3. 45
Niv. 1 I.) G,9 11. 7 11. 82 6.7T2 156.93.K 3.88s
Nov 2 1.03 8;113 1.0 87 6.15 3. CS
Nv. 1 5 7. 7 13, 1 1.5-) 8 ti3 63.69l.) ....
Nv.s., .05 7, 7 i 1:. -2 1326 81 63. 71 3.7 4

Means..)~~~~ ~ 1.1 4. 11 ,: 19A 2. )6
L~dia 1.060 8.2 144 14.140 10.012 171. 14 3. 97
Mlillidma. 1. 033: 4. 7 7. 9 8, 38" 3. S9 1441.31 1. 32



The 8sytem1 ofitifhsion emp1~loyed At Ei(o (hatide is fully ex pdaiued

1), Fig. 5, IBullctin No. 17. It dithfers radicalIly from thO SYstewt Of

(doscil (IlilsioII, As oiwritetl at Btio (hrand(3 laist year the extractioni

was 110) bet ter' thanl hy good milling. ill loisianla, while the dilutioni was

1,1llY as great as At Fort Scott and MaIgnolia.

Thei d1cets of the Ssleml wewi hoth It iechamInical uittl Chemical.







23

The mechanical difficulty is the same as that which attends all methods of diffusion in which the cane chips are moved instead of the diffasion liquors. From a mechanical point of view, it is far easier and more economical to move a liquid in a series of vessels than a mass of chips. In the Hughes system the whole mass of chips undergoing diffusion, together with adhering liquor, and baskets and suspending apparatus, are lifted vertically a distance of several feet, varying with the depth of the diffusion tanks every few minutes. The mechanical energy required to do this work is enormous, and with large batteries the process would prove almost impossible.
The chemical d(lefects of the system are shown in the exposure of so large a surface to oxidation and the action of invertive ferments. It is not surprising, therefore, to notice a distinct increase in the ratio of glucose to sucrose in the data of Table No. 17. Diffusion in open vessels was tried years ago with the sugar beet, and was abandoned as being both unscientific and expensive. The degree of extraction in open vessels is also less perfect than in closed diffusers where a considerable pressure is exerted on the osmotic liquors. It is but just to say, however, that the poor extraction obtained at Rio Grande is due nwre to the low temperature at which the diffusion took place than to the open diffusion vessels. I measured the temperature several times at the beginning of the season and found it below 600 C.
By certain modifications made after the close of the season, Mr. Hflughes obtained a better extraction. (Bulletin 17, p. 67.)
The composition of the diffusion juices is sufficiently shown in Table No. 17.
TABLE NO. 18.-Exhausted chip juice.


Date. Specific Bau 1 Brix (cor. Sucrose. Purity. Glwcose.
gravity. reacted )

0 0 Per cent. Per cent.
Sept. 8.. 1.019 2.7 4.5 5.5 322 o. o ..........
Sept. 9.. 1.012 1.7 2.2 2.55 1.82 71.37 ..........
S ept. 10. 1.018 2.6 3. 9 4. 59 3. 07 06. ..........
Sept. 12.. 1.017 2. 4 3. 8 4. 42 2. 58 62. 7 ..........
Sept. 13.. 1.016 2.3 3.7 4 22 2. 67 63.27 ..........
Sept 15. 1. 019 2.7 4.0 4.55 2.62 57. 60 ... ..
Sept. 17.. 1.016 2. :1 3. 1 3. 12 2. 03 65. 01 .97 Sept. 19.. 1.011 1. 0 02. 70: .73 61.07 .7:1
Sept. 20.. 1.007 1.0 1.2 1.70 .99 5.. -3 .
Sept.20.. 1.010 1.4 1.9 2.30 1.16 50.43 .4
Sept. 21.. 1.007 1.0 1.3 1.68 .98 5s. 3:1 .35 Sept. 21 i.Olt .......... .......... .......... ..... .. ..... ..9
Sept. 22.. 1.018 2.6 4. 4.96 3.12 6 u9 .
Sept. 23.' 1.018 2.6 3. 7 4. o9 2.31 56.4 1. 7
Sept. 24. 1.021 3.0 4,6 4,6 2.67 57,J 1.31 Sept. 26. 1.021 3. o 4. 3 4. :s5 2. s3; 65. u6{ 1, 00 Sept. 27. I. 2 1 8 4. 1.78 43. 1 100
Sept. 27.. 1.016 2.3 3.4 3 s. 2.22 5.1U .96
Sept. 2. 1.021 3.0 4, 4.55 2.9, 63.71 1.29
Sept. 29.. 1.01 j 2.33., 4.1, 2.52 T .1I
Sept 2!J I. :1 4.
Oct . 1,05 2. 3 3.8 1651 6307 1 1
Oct. 3. 1.011 1.6 2 3.49 G2 13 Olu.
Oct. 3. 1.021 :. o 4 0 5. 04 3 27 61. s 142 Oct. 4.. 1,016 2,3 3.1 4. 23 '2 51 60. &t 1,15
Oct 4.. 1,02? 3.,2 4. 8 5. 55 3.51 61,2. 4 I. 4k Oct. 5. 1. 0o7 1, o 1.7 '2. Ol 1.26 13 1) .49
Oct. 1.7007 1. 1 5 I2,au 1.02 5.t.
Oct. 7, 1 9 10 133 v 5. Il .i3I
04 1, 013 1. 9 2. 8 3. 33 1.97 59. 16 91







24

TABLE No. 18.-Exhausted chip juice-Continued.


Specific i. Brix (corDate. gravity. Baum. Brix. rected.) Sucrose. Purity. Glucose.


o a 0 Per eent. Per cent.
Oct. 10. 1. 018 2. 6 4.1 4.40 2.81 63.86 .92
Oct. 10.. 1.023 3.3 5.6 6.28 3.90 62.10 1.25
Oct. 11.. 1.027 3. 8 6.4 C. 6 4 4.23 03. 70 1. 56
Oct. 11.. 1.016 2.3 3.3 3.6 0 2.31 64.17 .75
Oct. 13.. 1.021 3. 0 4.6 4.77 2. 95 61. 85 1.40
Oct. 13.. 1. 22 3.2 4.9 5.34 3.35 62.75 1.37
Oct. 14.. 1.023 3.3 5.1 5.42 3.42 63.10 1.41
Oct. 14.. 1.019 2.7 4.2 4.82 3.14 65.14 1,02
Oct. 15.. 1.018 2.6 4.1 4. 35 2.72 62.53 1.04
Oct. 17.. 1.009 1. 3 1.9 2. 23 1.49 06.81 .42
Oct. 17.. 1.009 1. 3 1.7 2. 14 1.29 60. 28 ..........
Oct. 18.. 1.006 .9 1.1 1.57 .93 59. 23 .29
Oct. 19. 1.016 2.3 4.5 5.0: 03 2. 53 50.304 .83
Oct. 20.. 1.017 2.4 3.8 4.21 2. 9 67. 22 .94
Oct. 21.. 1.013 1.9 2.9 3. -'8 2 01 61.28 .79
Oct. 21.. 1.021 3.0 4.9 5.25 3.11 59.24 1.29
Oct. 22.. 1.013 1.9 2.6 2, 87 1.87 65.85 .81
Oct. 24.. 1.021 3.0 4.8 5.26 2.76 52.47 .65
Oct. 25.. 1. C14 2.0 3.2 3.43 1.75 51.01 1.16
Oct. 26.. 1.014 2.0 3.4 3.87 1.91 49.35 1.43
Oct. 27.. 1.017 2 4 3.9 4.19 2.73 65.18 1.18
Oct. 27.. 1.020 2.9 4.5 4.87 3.40 69.82 1.31
Oct. 29.. 1.013 1.9 31. 1 3.40 2.48 72.94 .84
Oct. 3. 1.015 2.2* 3.5 3.67 2.47 64.31 1.08
Oct. 31.. 1.023 3.3 5.3 5.53 3.09 54.07 1.62
Nov. 1.. 1.023 3.3 5.4 5.45 3.48 62. 02 1.41
Nov. 2.. 1.024 3.4 5.4 5.43 3.60 66.30 1.43
Nov. 3.. 1.019 2.7 4.2 4.48 2. 46 63.81 .........
Nov. 8.. 1.019 2.7 4.4 4.56 2. 97 62.94 1.14

Means.. 1.016 2.3 3.61 4.03 2.46 61.01 .98
Maxima. 1.027 3.8 6.4 6.641 4.23 72.94 1.62
Minima. 1.006 .9 1.0 1.33 .8 43.46 .30



In Table No. 16 is shown the composition of the.juices expressed from
the chips as discharged from the battery. The total sucrose in the freshchip juice, as shown in Table No. 16, was 8.98 per cent. There was left
in the juice of the discharged chips 2.46 per cent. The juice remaining
in the chips suffers a slight dilution during the process of diffusion, but

for comparative purposes the quantity of juice in the chips before and
after diffusion may be taken as the same.
In this case the percentage of juice extracted is 8.98 2.46 = 6.52 per
cent. The percentage of extraction, therefore, based on the percentage
of sucrose in juices from fresh and discharged chips, is 72.6. This is
about the average extraction of good milling in Louisiana, but is better
than the results obtained by milling sorghum. As already stated, the
efficiency of the apparatus was greatly increased by some changes made
after the season was over.







25


TABLE NO. 19.-S- rup (thick juice).

Specifc B~1 rix

Date. gvitye Bau a Brix. (corrected). Sucrose. Purity. Glucose.
~I
o o o Per cent. Per cent.
Sept. 8.. 1. 136 17.5 31.4 32. 16 18.67 58.05 ...........
Sept. 9... 1.138 17.7 34.4 31.86 18.47 57.97 ...........
Sept. 10.... 1.181 22.3 40.7 41.12 21.26 51.70 ..........
Sept. 12.... 1.122 15.9 28.8 29.64 16.81 56. 7L ...........
Sept. 13.... 1.131 16 9 30. 8 31.48 17.45 55.43 ...........
Sept. 17.... 1. 124 16. 1 28.8 28.83 15.74 54. 60 8.01
Sept. 19 .... 1.128 16.6 29.5 30.08 16.60 55.18 8.49
Sept. 19 ... 1.145 18. 5 33. 4 33. 91 18.22 53.71 10.45
Sept. 20.... 1.145 18. 5 33.5 31.05 17.38 51.04 10. 20
Sept. 20.... 1. 166 20. 8 37. 9 38. 37 21. 00 51. 77 ......
Sept. 21.... 1. 154 19. 5 36.0 36. 69 23. 07 62. 88 7.44
Sept. 21.... 1. 149 18. 9 34.2 34. 74 23. 00 66. 21 7. 26
Sept. 22.... 1.164 20. 6 37.6 38. 26 25. 51 66. 68 7. 64
Sept. 23 .. 1.150 19. 1 34. 8 35. 15 19.25 54. 77 8.46
Sept. 24... 1. 162 20. 4 37. 1 37. 20 20. 56 55. 27 9.52
Sept. 28.... 1.122 15.9 28. 6 28.68 16.90 58.92 5.97
Sept, 27 -. 1.149 19. 0 34.6 34. 83 20. 03 57.56 9. 10
Sept. 27.... 1. 110 14.5 36. 2 26.40 15. 83 59. 96 6. 87
Oct. 1.... 1.118 15.4 27.5 28.55 17. 13 60.00 9.24
Oct. 3.... 1.105 13.9 24.5 25.57 15.84 61.95 6.05
Oct. 3.... 1 086 11.6 24.0 24. 82 12. 32 49.61 6.10
Oct. 4.... 1.110 14.5 26.0 26.60 15.44 58.05 7.79
Oct. 4.... 1. 155 19. 6 35.4 35. 91 21, 06 58. 64 9. 10
Oct. 4.... 1.099 13.2 23.2 23.23 12.05 51.87 5.53
Oct. 6.... 1.102 13.5 24.4 24.70 16.25 65.79 5.69
Oct. 7.... 1.098 13. 1 23. 1 23. 52 13.42 57. 10 6. 34
Oct. 8 .. 1.087 11 7 20. 6 21.28 11.69 54. 93 6. 59
Oct. 10.... 1. 154 19. 5 35. 0 35.74 22. 76 63. 68 8.38
Oct 11.... 1.115 15. 1 26.8 26.98 18. 65 69, 13 6. 32
Oct. 11... 1.140 18.0 32.2 32. 52 20. 98 61.51 7. 46
Oct. 13... 1. 172 21. 4 39.2 39.30 22.80 58. 17 9.70
Oct. 13.... 1. 138 17. 7 32.3 32.55 19.00 58. 37 8. 32
Oct. 14.... 1.149 19.0 U4.5 31.89 21.32 61.11 8.70
Oct. 14 ... 1.147 18.8 34.1 34. 65 20. 89 60. 29 8. 86
Oct. 15.... 1.132 17.0 30.9 31.10 18,.78 60.39 7.91
Oct. 17.... 1.083 11.2 19,5 19.88 13.73 64.03 3. 81
Oct. 17.... 1.085 11. 5 19. 9 20.55 14.04 68.32 ...........
Oct. 18.... 1. 134 17.3 31.2 31.84 20. 80 65. 33 6. 38
Oct. 20.... 1.171 21.3 39. 0 39. 59 23.31 58. 88 10.12
Oct. 20 .... 144 18.4 33. 8 34. 15 20. 44 59.85 7.95
Oct. 21.... 1.121 15.8 28. 3 28. 62 15.15 52.94 7. 59
Oct. 21.... 1. 154 19. 5 35. 3 35.60 19. 16 53. 82 10. 82
Oct. 22.... 1. 163 20.6 37.4 37.54 18.55 49.42 10. 70
Oct. 24.... 1.183 22.5 41.4 42.02 24.86 59. 16 ...........
Oct. 25 .... 1. 131 16.9 30.6 30.99 15. 82 51.05 8. 34
Oct. 26.... 1.126 16. 3 29. 5 30. 07 10. 78 35. 81 12.94
Oct. 27.... 1. 158 19. 9 36. 3 36. 35 21.73 59. 78 1i. 93
Oct. 27.... 1.139 17.8 32. 2 33. 17 19.72 59. -45 9. 58
Oct. 29.... 1. 132 17.0 31. 7 32. 09 17. 29 53.88 10. 13
Oct. 31 .... 1.189 23. 1 42.0 42. o0 21.8 51.83 14.43
Oct. 31.... 1.118 15.4 27.7 28.20 15.07 53.44 8.83
Nov. 1.... 1.175 21.7 39. 6 39. s2 20.64 51.83 15. 70
Nov. 2.... 1. 192 23.4 43, 1 43. 16 25. 26 58.50 12, 27
Nov. 3.... 1.156 19.7 35.8 35.98 21.07 5.2 ..........
Nov. 8.... 1. 159 20.0 36. 4 36. 3:0 21.26 58. 57 10.73

Means.. 1. 13:8 17.7 31, 99 32. 40 18. 68 57. 65 8. 67
Maxima. 1.192 23.4 43, 1 4"T.16 25.26 GR6.32 15.70
Minima. 1. 083 11.2 19. 5 19. -8 10. 78 35. 8 3. 81






26

The diffusion juice at Rio Grande, without any treatment whatever, was conducted directly to an open pan and concentrated to a thin sirup.
The disastrous effects of this treatment are shown by the data of Table o. 19. The evaporation of sugar juices in an open pan is to be condemned for lack of economy; but such treatment, before neutralizing the free acids of the juice, must also necessarily invert a large portion of the sucrose.
The glucose per hundred of sucrose in the normal juice at Rio Grande was 36.06 ; in the sirup it was 46.38.
The pan on which the concentration took place was shallow and furnished with steam-pipes. The liquor ran rapidly through, otherwise the inversion would have beenii much greater.
TABLE No. O.-Mase cites, Rio (Grande, V J.

number. Moisture. Ash. Glucose. Sucrose Sucrose direct. indirect.
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. 5336 18. 37 5.29 23.33 49. 90 52. 03 5398 16. 1 3 3.22 20. 65 59. 97 60. 71 539 17.89 3. 32 22. 47 51. 10 5,. 42 5400 21.32 5. 65 24. 55 55. 47 5 L. 41 5401 19. 90 4.21 28. 21 51. 30 53. 97 5427 17. 40 4.92 23. 45 55. 45 55. 11
Averages 18.50 4.44 23.45 53.70 55.44

Table No. 20 shows that no further inversion has taken place by evaporating the sirup in the vacuuming pan. Only a small number of samples of masse cite were obtained, since it required a long working of the battery to furnish enough sirup for a strike. Moreover, no samples of masse cuite were taken until Mr. Ed(son took charge of the analytical work. The data of Table No. 20 are therefore not strictly comparable with those of Table No. 19.
The masse cites at Rio Grande were placed in wagons and kept in the crystallizing room, at the proper temperature, for several days, before being sent to the centrifugal machines. The first and second sugars were thus obtained as one product.
lBy reason of the omission of clarification the sugar was dried with extreme dillicilty Indeed it was found impossible to dry it so as to make a granular product. The gum, glucose, and other impurities kept it in the form of a waxy mass. A glance at the data of Table No, 21 will show the character of the sugar made. A sugar which still containis 13.08 per cent. of reducing sugar would be regarded with grave susliciolln )y refillers.
The character of the sugar shows the necessity of careful defecation and clariiat ion. Sorghlin jilices especially, when worked for sugar, should he aIs nearly neutral as possible, aml great care should be exercised to remove all the scums and to allow suspended matters to settle,








27


TABLE No. 21.-Paiv 8ugars, Rio Grande, X. J.


Sucrose Sucos
Number. Moisture.' Ash, Glucose, direct idirect.


Per cent. Pei cen t. Pv r cen t. rr celit. Pe- co nt.
5326 14.61 2.48 112-12 312 82. 11
5327 1 6. 74 3. 75 161 .94 67.7 7u. G5 .4328 4.7 2. 94 113.02 16. 0 77,11
5:330 (;. 7 2 1. CO 14.25 7,0 7.S 5332 5.18 2. 52 13. 13 78.8 771.38
5333 5. 11 2. 83 13. 33 78. 4 76.31
532~4 5. 11 2.9 12. 35 73.8 71.95
53519 It. 08 3 8 16. 78 72. 5 72. 319
5361 4.41 2.00 D:. 98 78.2 77. 63
5367 5.81 1. 51 11.0(0 81.0 79.7
5368 4.7-7 1. 14 8. 2o 8:5.6 84.49)
5369 8.40) 1.72 12.58 77~ 75. 97
5:396; 5. 40 2.01 11.75 801.0 70 1f 5397 6. 33 2. 02 13. 15 716. 8 77. 73
54'28 5. 30 3.29 13.48 79. 2 78. 01

1Averags< 5. 51 2.48 13. 08 7G. 9 76. 93


The molasses madle at Rio Grande shows the unusual phenomenIon Of ~larg-er Percentage ofj" reducing sugar than of sucrose. This is chiefly due to the fact that it contained so large a quantity of wvater that it was paLrtly fermented before the analysis was made. The samples stood. in the laboratory from October, 1887, to Februiary, 1888; and (luring this time suffered some iniversion.

No. 5342, Table No. 22, is an extreme instance of this iversion. No.

5365 is also an aniomalous sample, the dlata showing some fault of analysi8 which was not discovered until thie tabulation wvas made. The proportion of sucrose in this sample is entirely too larg-e.

For further data concerningo the composition of tihe molasses consult Table No. 22.
rra1E 'No, .- las, Ro G(I~nde, A' J.

I Smcrose Suicrose
Number. Moistuje, Ash. uce. trc. jdict

Per rcent Per I. .,ft. Per (*'it, Pvr Celt. Per I.Cenlt. 535 i41.4 0.3 -2 3 2 ). 2 23.744
53;37 311. 14 0. 47 :n. 1;5 1 26 6; 1 26.6$S 5338 29). 49 G. 12 3 5. 12 26. 1 27 .92
53410 ~ 29. .54 1;. 16; 1i. 6?8 2 4 27.11
53411 :0. 17 5.3 M 3:2,7 To 23.0. 1
53 12 4 1. 5 t 5. 41) :9.7 11I.8 14. 44
530,0 29. 43 6. :; 7. 05 '26.,4 27. 97
5s;C2 12 4. 28 3i 4.5 2,.-)9
536 K;. 61 5. 3;2 31t. 65 :38. 2 3.~
5:6 40. 11 5.i 3021 211 24
I:165 2,:12 3.2 8 349. 5 4,. 902
5:;!3 4.8 P1~ o 2 0.8
5:1 30.5 4.. S47 Io~
42 :o.98 6,5 154 26G. 6 1-! 1 9

Aeae. 31.31, 5 3.5 25 8U


UECRYSTALLZED SUGARIS.

In order to lit the ravstigars for Ill] .1k1et~v thev me e ltedI '1nd recoiled it) the vacuutm pall.
The eomkIIositin of these rcitrIvstallized sia is about tile saime as Scuds frmmigar cane. The Mma eciae tstts iS 90.7, whilo

teperceutago of gr~lurne reumiuls abujorurmly hligh.







28


The analyses of these sugyars are found ill Table 'No. 23.

TABLE No 3- cyI~~ lgrRio Grande,NX J.


SucroSe. Sucrose
N umber. Moisture. Ash. Glucose. direct. indlirect


Per ceniit. Per cenot. Per cent. Pe r cenitt. Per Cent.
.5430 4. 12 .64 4.84 92.5 90. 76
54131 5. 3. 08 5 8 165. 1 83. 65
54'32 4.70O .!)1 65 1 91.5 89. 69
5433 5.1-4 .2 8, 6o 92. 5 91.37
54:14 3. 38 .1. 40 2. 74 93. 5 92. 82
5437 3.98 .35. 93 9 1. 3 i89. 5!)
54:38 5. 37 1. 11 6.26 819. 0 857
.54 40 3.08 .1;- 4. 13 91. 5 90. 31
5441 4. 2o .67 4. 93 91. 2 1 90.08
5442 3.85 .6-4 5. 14 9. 0 86H. 12

Aveae. 4.10 .73 5.77 i 9J. 7 89. 10



TA BLi No. 24. -Xt'ogcnou8 bodirs in canceju icc.


INumber. "N itroge0v I Alkhu)1m11inoids. NumI IIbevr. Nitrogen. Albuminloids.


Pret.- Per crnt. Per eco t. Per Cent.
276 0:1 15 40" 12o 1250
2 177 2,14, 123 4 413 .017 .1062
278 .0-)8 .:')125 41 09 W.: 58, 13
27 T9 .1411 2500 471 .012 .0750
2 -0 049 31: 472 .017 .106 3
28.04. 0 48o .023 14:18
290 0 3163 4, 027 .18
292 052 2,-250 1,7 (1922 .1375
293 2041 26 3 1 8 .025 .1563


T~k I I ix- No. 25-Ni rogcitolE botlEcs inl d.jffU8iQoijttice.





Per cenit. P( r cI,* I
28 .023 4:8

415.1:.01
433 05 3:7
48-3 .01G 1000


TA I11, X No. 26. -Xitropn i(, mU 0lt( re i it diffuticd c/tip jiliCC.


Numbe -r. N itr ogen, t AII iburnulioidi.


I 1"r -cent. Pl ',r lint,
281 .00(18 .05(10

482 .012 00
48 .... ..0...


The most encouraging feature connected within the Rio Grande experiineuits is nmot Irn1ind inl thec coil)posit ion of the canle so nIuch as ill the

quantity of it which c,' be grownm per acre. The large tonnage obta IinIItd e I .bl10ed M Ir. I uwghIes to gct, imove swgar per acre withI 72 per cent.

extractiond than was mal'de -it Fort Scott with 93J per cent. With a good

extraction iii the battery, the yield at Rio Grande could have beeu inereased fulfly 20 per cent.,













ANALYTICAL WORK AT MAGNOLIA, LA.



The analytical work at Magnolia was divided into three classes, viz: (1) A study of the composition of the juices from the mill and a partial chemical control of the operation of the factory.
(2) A complete chemical control of the experiments in diffusion.
(3) Miscellaneous work.
The chemical work was done chiefly by Messrs. Crampton and Fake. During the latter part of the season Dr. Crampton was absent, and the control work was done solely by Mr. Fake. The miscellaneous work I did myself, assisted part of the time by Mr. Fake.
The regular chemical work began on the 4th of November, 1887, and ended January 19, 1888.
In sampling mill juices a measured portion was taken from each of six clarifiers, representing the average composition of the juice from 18 tonsof cane. In comparative work, the samples were taken as nearly as possible from the same body of juice in different stages of concentration. The samples for the diffutsion work were taken as at Fort Scott and Rio Graude.
MILL JUICES.
During the first few days of the season the juices from the mill were run through a sulphur box, where they were saturated with sulphurous dioxide. They then passed through a heater to the clarifiers and thence to the quadruple effect and strike pan without the use of animal char. This method of treatment wais abandoned after a short trial, and no further sulphur was used except in one of the diffusion trials.
In Table No. 27 are found the analytical data obtained during this time.
TABLE No. 27.- ill juics ulphiu red.

Date. No. Iui. Br ix. Sucrose. l hning Purity.
III I rit

0 l' Ir cent. P'er cent.
Nov.2 4 18 15.9 12.,3 1.11 81.32
Nov. 3 ....... 6 96 17.4 14.41 1.14 82 81
Nov. 3 ...... S 9. 6I. 23 12.87 1.01 7&
Nov. i - I 9. 16. 2 13. I 1 | 8 0. 1D2 Nov. 4....... 12 8.9 10.03 12.63 1.17 7&79
Maximia ........ 9. 6 17. 4 11 41 1. 17 2
M illia.. ...... 15.9 12 .i. 1.1 7 8s
M .eans...t . 9.08 16. 3. 1.:, II 8. ...
..........








A comparison of the sulphured and clarified juices was also made;

but the duration of the use of sulphur was not long enough to give conclusive data. It would appear from the results of the analyses in Table

No. 28 that the process of clarification tended to lower the purity of

sulphured juices; an apparent fact which more extended investigation

would probably modify.

TABLE No. 2.-Mill juices.-Compara tire samples of 8ulphured and clarified.


Sulphured. Clarified.



Date.



o 0 Pr. Ct. Pr. et. 0 0 Pr. et. Pr. ct.
Nov. 2....... 4 8.8 15.90 12. 93 1. 11 81. 32 5 9.1 16.51 13. 28 1.28 80.43
Nov. 3....... 6 9.6 17.40 14.41 1.14 82.81 7 9.6 17.31 14.31 1.10 82.66
Nov. 4....... 10 9.0 16.20 13.11 1.11 80.92 11 9.4 16.97 13.50 1.20 77.90

Maxima .. .... .6 17.40 14.41 1.14 82.81 ... 9.6 17.31 14.31 1.28 12.66
Minnia...... 8.8 15.90 12.93 1.11 80.92 .... 9.1 16.51 13.28 1.10 77.90
Means.... 9.13 16.50 13.48 1.12 81.68 .... 9.37 16.93 13.72 1.19 80.33



The daily analyses of the mill juices are recorded in Table No. 29.

The variations in the percentage of sucrose were caused by the character of the soil ift which the cane was grown. The front lands gave uni.

formly a cane richer in sucrose than the low lands back from the river.

Especially in new back land with a high tonnage was this deficiency

nioticed.

The mean results show a juice rich inpucrose, poor in reducing su.

gar, and of satisfactory purity.

TABLn No. 29.-Mill juices.


Date. Number. I3am6.Bi. rs. Reducing Purity.
N111114r.Brix. Su;tcros'e. ua
81ugiar.


0 Per cent. Per cet.
Nov. 8.... 1I .9 16.00 12.7$ 1.23 79.87
Nov. 9.... 22 7.9 14.30 10.85 1.11 75.87
Nov. 9.... 24 9.1 16.36 13.55 .5 $2.76
Nov. 10.... 2 8 8 15.90 13.22 .88 -A. 14
Nov. II.... :1 8.9 1 1) 12.27 1.('8 79.31
Nov. 12.... 35 $ 7 15.617 12.35 .0 79.S1
Nov. :l... 45 8.9 15.97 12.39 1.55 77.58
Nov. 14.... 48 8.9 15.97 12.63 1.42 79,08
Nov. 15... 52 8.5 16.33 13.25 1.15 81.1:1
Nov. 1b ... 8G6 16.57 13.25 1.i8 79.66
Nov. 17... 61 9.3 16.3 1:1.tis 1.18 81,28
Nov. 18... 66 9.25 10. 73 13.58 1.05 81. 11
Nov. 2(., 74 !)4 16.93 13.83 1.01 81.fi9
Nov. 21.,. 78 9.5 17.161 14.29 .13 13. '27
Nov. 22.... 8: 9.5 17.17 14.94 .tis 87.01
Nov. 23.... 90 1.2 16G. 63 14.07 .66 Stt .56
Nov. 24..,. 11 9.4 1 G.93 14.00 .76i 82.(CO
Nov. 21.. 19. 9.1 16 .56 1:1.70 .79 82.06
Nov. 27... 106 9,25 1670 13.44 .s 80).48
Nov. 28 ... Ill 8,: 14.7 12.13 .82 81.03
Nov. 28... 114 ).4 16G.9I 14,09 .73 83.7
Nov. 29.... 116 9,5 17.17 14.41; .78 $4.21
Nov. :I0.,, 120 8.0 16.41 13.90 .81 84.75
Dec. 1.... 123 .7 17 50 1I.74 .72 84.22
Diec. 2.... 133 9.5 17. '3 14.8.5 .68 8. 18
14c. 1.... 13 1).25 73 12.8 .15 77.04
])ec. 3.... 145 8.:'" 1.28 1:103 S.. 85.27
Dec. ... 151 9.1 Il. 11 13.87 72 84.30





31


TABLE NO. 29.-Mill juicc8-Continued.



Date. Number. Baum6. Brix. Sucrose. Reducing Purity.
sugar.

o o Per cent. Per cent.
Dec. 6.... 160 9.0 16.21 13.50 .75 83.33
Dec. 6.... 162 8.8 15.93 13. 37 .70 8:. 30
Dee,. 7.... 166 9. 1 16.40 14. 16 .70 86. 34
Dec. 8.... 168 8.63 15. CO 12.57 .93 80. 57
Dec. 8.... 172 8.9 16.13 13.55 .72 84.00
Dec. 9.... 174 8.5 15. 27 12. 18 1.00 79.77
Dec. 10.... 177 8.4 15.24 12.17 1.14 79.85
Dec. 12.... 219 8.3 15.06 12.05 ............ 80.01
Dec. 13.... 226 8.15 14,91 11.91 1.01 80.01
Dec. 13.... 227 8.30 14.69 11.72 ............ 80.00
Dec. 14.... 230 8.3 15. 04 11.84 .92 78. 72
Dec. 14.... 231 8.4 15.11 12. 13 .87 80.27
Dec. 15.... 236 8.15 14.67 11.76 .88 80.16
Dec. 15.... 238 8.2 14. 83 11.61 .81 78.28
Dec. 16.... 239 8.0 14.39 11.33 .94 78. 68
Dec. 17... 243 8.0 14.42 11. 33 1, 02 78. 571
Dec. 17.... 245 8.15 14. G69 11.67 .99 79.45
Dec. 18.... 246 8.6 15.5 1 12. 31 1. 01 79.37
Dec. 18.... 247 8.4 5. 24 12, 27 .97 80. 5
Dec. 19.... 248 8.4 15.23 12.08 1. 16 79.31
Dec. 20.... 252 8.7 15.71 13 0 t .86 83.00
Dec. 20.... 254 9.2 16.59 13.68 .69 82.45
Dec. 21 .... 256 9.0 16. 23 13, 97 .64 86.07
Dec. 21.... 259 8.1 14.57 11.66 .78 80.02
Dec. 26.... 269 9.3 16.81 14,51 ............ 86.49
Dec. 26.... 270 9.4 17.06 14.78 .45 86. 63
Dec. 27.... 271 9.4 17.04 14.81 .44 86.91
Dec. 27.... 272 9.25 16.73 14.31 .52 85.53
Dec. 28.... 275 9.4 17. 07 14.92 .44 87. 41
Dec. 28 .... 279 9. 6 17.34 15.09 .51 87. 02
Dec. 29.... 281 9.5 17. 23 15. 32 .43 88.91
Dec. 29.... 285 9.5 17.23 15.18 .40 88.10
Dec. 30.... 297 9. 75 17. 57 15.40 .41 87. 65
Dec. 30.... 306 9.4 17 07 14.72 .53 86. 23
Dec. 31.... 310 9. 7 17, 47 15.33 .47 87.18
Dec. 31.... 316 9. 4 16.89 14.64 .57 86.67
Dec. 31.... 326 9. 4 17. 08 14.75 .49 86. 34
Jan. 1.... 331 9.4 17,.09 14.61 .68 85.43
Jan. 1.... 333 9.25 16. 67 14. 16 ........... 85.54
Jan. 2.... 334 9.3 16. 81 14. 87 .55 88. 30
Jan, 2.... 338 9. 2 16. 64 14.59 .59 87. 08
Jan. 3.... 342 9. 4 17. 01 14. 67 .54 86.29
Jan. 3.... 344 9.8 17.67 15. 55 .38 88.00 O
Jan. 4.... 345 9. 6 17.44 15. 28 .44 87. 04
Jan. 4.... 350 9. 5 17. 19 14. 82 .46 6. 21
Jan. 5.... 351 9. 75 17.59 15. 33 .43 87 ,16
Jan. 5.... 354 9. 5 17. 16 14. 92 .47 86; 91
Jan. 6 .... 356 9, 4 16.93 14. 82 .69 7..53
Jan ....6 361 ).G 17.33 15, 26 .55 88. 05
Jan. 7.... 364 9.4 16.96 14.55 .57 8:1.79
Jan. 7.... 365 9.4 17.00 14 89 .59 7.59
Jan. 8.... 367 9. 5 17.23 14. 76 .60 85.6
Jan. 8.... 368 9.1 10. 49 13.79 .70 83.57
Jan. 9.... 372 9. 5 17.17 14. 20 .i64 85.61 i
Jan. 9 .... 373 9.4 .6.90 14.41 65 85.26
Jan. 10.... 377 9.25 16.06 13.981 .72 :
Jan. 10.... 378 9. 1 16.51 14. 02 67 81. 9
Jan. 11.... 382 9.0 16.20 13.87 .2 GI
Jan. 11.... 384 9. 3 16.79 14.48 .83 8.19
Jan. 12.... 389 9. 25 16. 69 14.26 .9 ;- 9
Jan. 12.... 390 9.25 16.69 ]3.73 .96 82 2
Jan. 13. ... 396 9. 1 16. 47 13, 83 .79 .. 97

M eans .. ........... 0. 1 16. 37 13. G9 .77 >3.4>
Maxima ........... 9.80 17.67 15,5. 1. 55 .1
M)inima.... .... 7.90 14.30 10.85 .40 75 87







32


The clarification of the mill juices was made in a simple manner. To
the juice, as it entered the clarifier from the heater, a quantity of lime
was added, nearly sufficient to neutralize the free acid present. The
whole was then boiled and swept until no more dirty foam was formed.
It was then allowed to subside for half an hour, and the clear juice
drawn off.
The skimmings and sediments were sent to the filter presses.
The effect of this method of clarification is shown in Table 30.


TABLE NO. 30.-Comparatice samples of raw and clarifiedjuices.


Raw. Clarified.


Date.




o 0 Pr. et. Pr. ct. o 0 Pr. ct. Pr. et.
Nov. 8... 18 8.9 16.00 12.78 1.23 79.87 19 9 3 16.79 13. 67" 25 81.41
Nov. 9... 22 7.9 14. 30 10.85 1. 11 75.87 23 8.7 15.67 12.0 1.12 80.41
Nov. 10... 26 8.8 15. 90 13.22 .88 83. 14 27 9.25 16.73 14.01 .92 83.74
Nov. 11... 31 8.9 16.10 12.77 1.08 79.31 32 9.0 16.31 13.06 1.12 80.07
Nov. 12... 33 e.7 15.67 12. 35 .94 78. 81 36 8.9 16.01 13. 02 1.20 81.37
Nov. 13... 45 8.9 15. 97 12. 39 1.55 77.58 46 8.9 15.97 13.19 1.57 82. 59
Nov. 14... 48 8,9 15.97 12. 63 1.42 79.08 49 9.25 16.68 12.94 1.58 77. 58
Nov. 15... 52 8.5 16.33 13.25 1.15 81.13 53 10.0 17.98 14.87 1.21 82.70
Nov. 16... 55 8.6 16.57 13.20 1.08 79. 66 56 9.5 17.02 14.21 1.04 83.49
Nov. 17... 61 9.3 16.83 13.68 1.18 81.28 62 10.0 18.10 14.92 1.21 82.43
Nov. 18... 66 9, 25 16. 73 13.58 1.05 81.11 67 9. 55 17.24 14.37 1.08 83.35
Nov. 20... 74 9.4 16.93 13.83 1.04 81. 69 75 9. 9 17.83 15.13 1.13 84. 85
Nov. 21... 78 9.5 17. 16 14.29 .993 83. 27 79 10.1 18. 28 15. 64 .95 85.55
Nov. 22... 83 9.5 17. 17 14. 94 65 87.01 84 9.8 17. 72 15. 79 .63 89.11
Nov. 23... 96 9.2 16. 63 14.07 .66 84.56 91 9.5 17.17 14,72 64 85.73
Nov. 24... 91 9.4 16. 93 14.00 .76 82.69 95 9.9 17.93 15.25 .72 85.05
Nov. 26. . 100 9.1 16. 56 13. 79 .79 82. 66 101 9. ,75 17.57 14.70 .81 83.66
Nov. 27... 106 9.25 16.70 13.44 .88 80.48 187 9.6 17.38 14.14 .82 81.35
Nov. 28... 114 9.4 16.91 14.09 .73 83. 37 115 9. 65 17.45 14. 83 .70 84.98
Nov. 20... 116 9.5 17.17 14.46 .78 84.21 117 9.8 17.78 15.33 .74 86.22
Nov. 30... 120 8.0 14.41 13.) .81 84.75 121 9.75 17.63 15.20 .77 86.21
Dec. 1... 125 9.7 17. 50 14.74 .72 84.22 126 9.8 17.69 14.72 .75 83.16
Dec. 2... 133 9.5 17. 23 14.85 .68 86. 18 134 9.9 17.79 15.71 .66 88. 26
Dec. 5.. 156 9.1 16. 44 13. 87 .72 81. 36 157 9.4 16.94 14.53 .73 85.77
Dec. 6... 160 9. 0 1. 21 13.58 .75 83.33 161 9.4 17.03 14.48 .70 85.02
Dec. 7... 166 9.1 16. 40 14. 16 .70 86.34 167 9.1 16. 46 14. 18 .69 86.14
Dec. 8... 168 8.65 15.60 12.57 .93 80.57 169 8,9 16.07 13.34 .93 83.01
)Dec. 9... 174 8.5 15.27 12.18 1.00 79.77 175 8,9 16. 03 13.17 1.04 82.16
Maxima...... 9.70 17.50 14.94 1.55 87.01 .....10.1 18.28 15.79 1.58 89.11
Minima. .... 7.90 14.50 10.85 .65 75.87 ..... 8.7 15.97 12. 60 .63 77.58
Means.. ....9.02 16.34 13.48 .94 82.01 ..... 9.48 17.12 14. 35 .95 83.76



The increased density of the clarified juices, and the consequent
higher percentage of sucrose, are due to the evaporation which takes

place during clarification. The purity of the juices was raised 1.75
points by the process. A slight destruction of reducing sugars also
took place.
After clarification the juices were filtered through bone.black. This
char had been so long in use that its decoloriziug power was partially
destroyed. It served, however, as a most excellent mechanical filter,
serving to remove suspended matter which would not subside.







33


The purity of the jaice was raised nearly one point by this filtration.

A comparative study of raw, clarified, and filtered juices is given in
Table No. 31.

TABLE NO. 31.-Mill juices.-Comparatire samples of raw, clarified, and filtered juices.

RAW.


Date. Number. Baume. Brix. Sucrose. Reducing Purity.
sugar.

o o Per cent. Per cent.
Nov. 8... 18 8.9 16.00 12.78 1. 23 79.87
Nov. 9 .. 22 7.9 14. 30 10.85 1. 11 75.87
Nov. 10... 26 8.8 15.90 13.22 .88 83.14
Nov. 11... 31 8.9 16. 10 12.77 1.08 79.31
Nov. 12... 35 8.7 15.67 12.35 .91 78.81
Nov. 13... 45 8.9 15.97 12.39 1.55 77.58
Nov. 11... 48 8.9 15.97 12.63 1.42 79.08
Nov. 15... 52 8.5 10. 33 13. '25 1.15 81. 13
Nov. 16 .. 55 8. 6 16. 57 13. 10 1.08 79.66
Nov. 17... 61 9.3 16. 83 13.68 1.18 81.28
Nov. 18... 66 9. 25 16. 73 13. 58 1.05 81. 11
Nov. 2l... 78 9.5 17.16 14.29 .93 83.27
Nov. 22.. 83 9.5 17.17 14. 9 .65 87.01
Nov. 23... 90 9.2 16.63 11. 07 .66 84. 56
Nov. 24... 9t 9.4 16. 93 14.00 .76 82.69
Nov. 26.-. 100 0.1 16.56 13 79 .79 82. 66
Nov. 27... 100 9.25 16.70 13.44 .88 80.48
Nov. 29... 116 9.5 17.17 14.46 .78 84.21
Nov. 30... 120 8.0 16.41 13.90 .81 84.75

Maxima. ......... 9.50 17.17 14.91 1.55 87.01
Minima .......... 7. 90 14. 30 10. 85 .63 75. 87
Means ........... 8. 95 16.37 13.31 1.00 81.39



CLARIFIED.

lReduicingDate. Number. Baume. Brix. Sucrose. sReducingar. Purity.
sugar.

o o Per cent. Per cent.
Nov. 8... 19 9.3 16.79 13.67 1.25 81.41
Nov. 9... 23 8.7 15.67 12.60 1.12 80.41
Nov. 10 .. 27 9.25 16.73 11.01 .92 83.74
Nov. 11... 32 9.0 16.31 13.06 1.12 80.07
Nov. 12... 36 8.9 16.01 13.02 1.20 81.37
Nov. 13... 46 8.9 1 5.97 13.19 1.57 -2. 59
Nov. 14... 49 9.25 16. 08 12.94 1.50 77.58
Nov. 15... 51 10. 0 17. 98 14. 17 1. 21 82. 70
Nov. 16... 50 9.5 17.02 14.21 1.04 83.49
Nov. 17... 62 10.0 10.10 14. 92 1.21 82.43
Nov. 18... 07 9. 55 17. 24 14. 37 1. 08 8:. 35
Nov. 21... 79 10. 1 18. 28 15.64 .95 85.55
Nov. 22... 84 9.8 17.72 15.79 .63 89. 11
Nov. 23.. 91 9. 5 17. 17 14. 72 .64 85. 73
Nov. 24... 95 9. 9 17.93 15. 25 .72 85.03
Nov. 26.. 101 9.75 17.57 14., 70 83.66
Nov. 27.. 107 9.6 17.38 14.14 .2 81.35
Nov. 29 117 9. 8 17. 78 15.33 .74 86. 22
Nov. 30... 121 75 17.63 15. 20 .77 6. 21

Maxima .......... 10.1 18.28 15. 79 1.57 89. 11
Minima. .......... 8.7 15.67 16. 20 .63 63.74
Meas ......... 50 17. 16 14.30 1. 02 2. 21


23576-Bull 18&-3








34

FILTERED.


Date. Nuw11bt~r. Ban6. Br ix. Sucrose. 1iCO uiy


P0 0 er t-enit. Pc Pr cent.
Nov. 8....1 20 9.4 1G.9506 1400 1.21; 82.54
Nov. 9... 21 9.0o62 30 1.1i2 8:1.16
Nov I .. -J 8.7 5 15. 73 12.40 1.01 78.76
No.N:3 9 3 16;83 1P.G2 1. 03 R0. 93
Nov. 12 .. 371 I. 10.47 1.9.J 8,)0
TNov. 13... 47 9. 16. 5; 1:3.25 1.39 80. 61
Nov.11I.t. 50 9. 5 5 17. 27 13. 25 1. 6U 76. 7Nov. 15 .. 5 9.6 17.38S 151 1. 13 87. 22
Nov. 1 7. .. .. ... .... ..........,. ., ...,..... ....
Nov. 17.. 61 9.6 17.3 14. 29 1.$ 82.0
Nov.18IS. 6. 9.8 17.6I3i~ 11. 27 1. 14 80.94
Nov. 21 80 IS. 18.0 M55 9 85.63

Nov. 2:,..1 2' .9 76 .54 87. 52
N ov. 24 911 .. . . . . . .-- -
Nov. 2(;. 10 9. 6 17.:30 14. 63 .7 81. 56
Nov. 27... 10's 9.9 174.90) 14. ?9 .72 t3 u
Nov.2.. 11I8 9. 7 17. 471 15.45 .72 88.444
Nov.30 122 9. 75 17. 50 15. t .67 ,5. 77

Maia1). 2 18.39) 16.25 1. 60 88. 44
Minima ......... 9).0o 11. 73 12. 40 .51 76. 72
Means ...f.......... 1 9.55 17.2 14.35 099 63.171


Samples of the sirup) issuing froin the Yaryaui quladrutple effect panj

were taken from time to time, qand the results of the analyses of these

sirups are shown in Table 1 o. 32.

TABLE NO. 32.


Date. Number. Brix Bunm6 P ity. S twcrose, G11uCose(.
correctcid. c4)1r1t~ctid.


Per ce'it PerI cen11t.
Nov. 3.. 9 54.37 29. 15 81.,42 44. 27 4 48
Nov. 4.- 15 5,;.34i 28.90 80. 43 42. 9 4. K
Nov. 12.. 38 :;7. 15 2 0. 55 H0. 91 :'0. 3 2. 89
Nov. 18-. 09 5G. 90 27.7-0 82. 32 41, 9 3 80
No v.22.. 8 1 5 1.56 28,.00o 87. 08 41.9 2.311
Nov. 23.. 93 54. 18 29.40 85.46 ( 46. 3 2.01
N ov. :6.. 1w3 47. 60 25,0 76 .0o5 :; 6. 2 2.8S7
Nov 112 .51. 53 28.00 83. 19 4), 9 2.50
Dec. 2.. 136i 50. 19) 27. 31o k!9.6 45. 0
Dvc. 4.. 151 52. 26 28.35 -' 6O. (8 45. 3 2.41
Dcc. 6.. 163,: 50. (66 27T. 53; 1 86.46It 4:;8 21 -. 0 2
Doc. 8.. 17T0 52.4 2.5 lk -,4t9 45.0 2. 46
D)c c_ 15.. 237 4$,. 86G 26. 60 81.87 40. 0 :3. 1
Dcc. 20.. 25.1t 48. 74 26. 50 78 17 :18. 1 3.5
1Dcc. 22.. 2 T0 40.2 2G.2fit 8598 43. 80 !
1)c., 28.. 260 46. 72 09 8 7 4 -.-7-1.-Jan. 2.. 32 5 50~ 27. 50 88.5 44.8 1. 64
J an. 4.. 346; 0. 27. 40 88 8 44. 8 1. c0

Means .......... 50. 02 2 7. 19 84.,45 42,28 2.7 5


The s-amples-1 of massc cititcs wecre pI~ced ini bottles andl seit to thec I-&

oratory for analysis., hi addition to the determinlationls of the Sucrose
by direct an1d double polarizationl it, was aIlso estimated by copper solittio u.
Thle Inican result of this latter estimation is slightly below the, inem

of the dietreading-s. 1 Ild I Ndiidu1al c'ases a marked variaItionl between

the chemlical1 a-1nd optical ii1idhiods is noticed. The per~cenit.-ge of ash,

compared with sor-ghum mltmv! cioit8, is small.
For details see Table No. 33.







35

TABLE NO. 33.-First masse cuiles (mill), Lawrence, La.

Sucrose
N _umber. Moisture] Ash. G ucose. Sucrose Sucrose by
direct. indirect, by
copper.


Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent Per cent. Per cet.
5715 9.69 2.33 8.06 78.70 78.37 74.94
5717 9.06 2.05 8.75 77.03 76.74 75.62
5719 6.30 2. 31 7.03 81.00 80.77 78.58
5720 9.12 2. 64 7.31 76. 50 76. 08 74. 80
5721 8. C5 2.03 7.06 78.00 77.44 75.04
5727 17.88 4.06 12.36 70.00 71.0 71.48
5729 13. 51 2. 01 4. 56 81.30 80. (0 78. 17
5730 9.40 .......... 5.53 75.80 77.71 70.78
5731 8. 52 2.41 4.00 80. 50 81.06 90. 32
5734 10.79 2.79 5.91 74.10 75. 58 76. 13
5740 7.85 .......... 6.54 75. 90 76. 88 76.82
5743 8.47 3.96 6.94 .................... 78.43
5748 8.21 2.58 4.79 79.00 80.23 80. 1
5749 9.05 3.10 5.13 76.80 78.45 78. 40
5754 10.71 2.17 4. 78 77. 10 78. 08 78. 30
5755 10.67 2.63 8.65 80.00 80.92 78. 95
5762 10.73 2.06 4.29 77.70 79.31 82.14
5763 9. 29 1. 94 3. 98 79. 00 79. 39 78. 40
5767 8.84 2. 14 3.79 83.20 84.31 70.50
5769 .......... .......... 4. 26 82. 20 83. 00 78. 99
5770 10. 54 2.12 4.46 79. 00 80. 61 79. 38
5773 9. 03 2.37 4.75 78. 10 79. 84 79. 10
5776 9. 39 2. 35 4.83 79.30 80. 91 79. 53
5780 9.48 2.48 5.26 78.60 80.15 78. 28
5783 9.84 2.50 5.21 78.10 79.51 76.75

Averages...1 9 79 2.53 5.73 78.21 79.05 77.46
Mean purity. ....... ............................ .......... 87.63


The high purity of the masse cuites, as shown in Table No. 33, as compared with the juices and sirups, may be accounted for as follows:
In the latter the percentage of total solids was calculated from the
readings of the saccharometer; in the former by drying and direct
weighing. The results of last season's work, both with sugar-cane and
sorghum juices, show that by the use of the spindle the percentage of
total solids found is always too high. The purity of the juices, therefore,
is higher than indicated by the analyses. A note on the subject will be
made subsequently.
The direct polarization of the first sugars is given in Table No. 34.
In these sugars there was only a trace of glucose, but no attempt was
made to estimate its quantity, not even by Soldaini's reagent (carbonate
of copper dissolved in acid carbonate of potassium). For the same
reason a double polarization was not necessary.

TABLE No. 34.-First sugars, Lawrence, La.

Date. No. Sucrose. Date. No. Sucrose.


Per cent. I Per cent.
INov. 4 ...... 14 96.5 Dec.1 ...... 210 97,0
Nov. 12 ..... 34 98. 6 Dec. 19.... 249 97. 0
Nov. 16..... 58 98. 2 Dec. 22..... 212 97.7
Nov. 16 ...... 59 97. 3 Dec. 28 280 9H, 5
Nov.20..... 76 98.8 Jan. 2..... 3:7 97 6
Nov. 20..... 77 08.6 Jan. 3..... 0
Nov. 22 ..... 89 97, 5 Ja. 5,... 353 9n. $
Nov. 26...,, 105 97. 0 Jn. 6 .... :16 96. 4
Nov. 27 ...... 1 !9 97.6
Nov. 28 ...... 1I0 98.5 M17n ........ 97.8
Dec. 1 ....... 130 9.0

*Cut strike.






36

FIRST MOLASSES.

Samples of molasses from the first sugars were taken from time to time from the large tank into which the molasses was pumped after issuing from the centrifugals. These samples therefore represent fairly well the composition of the first molasses for the entire season. The same remarks apply to the mean purity as were made in respect of the purity of the masse cuites-the water in the molasses having been determined by direct weight.
The mean determinations by the copper method agree well with the results of double polarization, although, as in the case of the masse cuites, the individual deviations are large. The presence of invert sugar, optically active, is clearly shown by the differences in single and double polarization.
Analyses follow in Table No. 35.

TABLE No. 35.-First rlvolawse, Lawrence, Li..

Sucrose Sucrose Sucreseby
Number. ktoisture. Ash. Glucose. direct. indirect Fehllng.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
5718 3L 25 4.32 13.65 47.20 46.97 44.89
5724 28.84 3.92 14.23 45.50 48.21 46.89
5728 39.65 4.48 16.18 33.00 33.33 ............
5741 29.39 6.12 ................................................
5744 8.43 14.63 32. 30 38.70 34.05
5745 "30.70 7. 48 9.43 46.20 45.34 43.83
5747 29.30 5.61 ... ...................................
5753 4.87 4.25 54.90 52.46 48.09
5760 .................... 10. 58 44. 10 55.14 56.26
5766 18.82 7.15 13.34 46.20 49.77 50.80
5768 22.95 4.49 8.53 55.50 58. 6 59,2
5772 20.94 4.52 8.28 58.50 61.98 ............
5775 23.30 5.29 9.80 53.90 57.27 57.72
5778 23.08 4.32 9.52 55.20 59.12 58.44
5781 23.27 4.84 10.05 55. 10 58.85 67.70
Averages.. 26.79 5.42 10.98 48.28 51.05 51.56
Mean purity .................................... .9.73


SECOND MASSE CUITE.

The samples of second masse cuite analyzed were all, with one exception, taken at the last of the season, when the juice was particularly rich in sucrose. They show therefore a higher purity than the mean of the first molasses. The data in Table No. 36 furnish a further illustratioi of the fact that the molasses from rich juices have a higher
purity than that from the poorer sorghum. These facts are suggestive
of the idea that the solids not sucrose in sorghum are less melassigenic thin those in sugar-cane.







37

TABLE No. 361.-Seonod mas~ie culfes? Lair,-ence, La.


Date. 'NUmber.1 'Molstue. Ashi. SucosiSer. Ssr b


Pe r cen t. Per cent. jPer cent. Per rent. ece( Pecnt Nov. 5722 5.49 4- 25 1:3.3"J3 67. 10 94
Jan. 2 --------- 576L 10.51 4.08 1 7.31 6)3.2u 2~
Jan. 5 5761. -------- ----------- S.0 G& 0 'L )
Jan U.8..... 5765 7.15 14.12~ .. 7 '.0) 5C.0 ~ ,~
Jan. 12 ...........57478 44890 67.90 ~9-7i G,~

A vera-----------7.73 14.23 8.91 I 69.0-4 74 )
Mean Purity.. . ............ ...... ....... I...... .......



SECOND MC LOSSES.

The samples of seccmud molasses were taken from large "111(1s iu represent fairly well tile character of this product for the en tir 11'(1
The~ most striking feature of the mean composition of this olasc is the parity co-efficient. After two crystallizations the nlseat anolia still had a purity-umber only a little below the first 1.'1s'e cuate at Fort Scott, and almost identical with that of the first ras uite at
Rio Grande.
This number shows the possibility of a large yield of third slals


TABLE No. 37.-Sectond morass., Lawrenice, La.


Date, 'Numuber., M oist ure. Asb GIlc ou 0. e Slit~ ~~


Per cent Per cent. Pr-r c-nt. 7', r rent. PrC' P r it Dec. 24 ~~ 5751 2 4. 27 7-4p; 16. 60 34.74) : I 40
JaD. 0.....5766 18.82 7. 15 1l. :;4 46.0 4"- 77
Areaes.............19.81 7.10 17.V 41.6-A. 4.Q 4.4
M ean pur ity ............ ............ .......... ............ ....... ..........sI



TABLE" No0. 3--.-Sec-Ond 81gcars, Lawcrunce, La.


Da.tv. i Nuniber. Slucro.Se.


Pe r rent .
No.12.. 44 951.6

Dec.~ 2TI V., 16 8

Jain. 4,. 3 4.)iO

Average. ............ 89.78







38


CHEMICAL CON-\TROL OF THE DIFFUSION EXPERIMENTS.


The following data respecting the (lif'LSion experiments are abstracted from Bulletin 17, pp. 83-89:

The first results from the experiments were obtained from the run of December 3,


The juice was3 treated wi th .3per cent. its Weighll~t of lime, and after the precipitation of the lime with carbonic dioxide, an amiornt of lignitel equal to 10 per cent. of the weight of the sugar present wAas added.
Thte iiice liltecred rea-d il y t through the presses, form ing o firmu, hard cakes. The filtered juice wats treated With phiosphiate of sodla, 15 pounds of this salt beingc1. added for each 5)000 pouliids of julice.
The phosphiate produced an abundi~ant ilocouletit precipitate, which filtered easily through thle twill filter prsegiving- a Juice of remarkable limpidity. The masse culite, however, was (latrk, and the molasses much inferior in color to that mnade by the use of' bone-hia k and or(llinary clarification.
The phsh1cof soda did not produce as favorable, results as had been expected, and its fur-ther use Was discontiniued.
Followingr are the dTata obtained in the first runi:

TABLE No. 39.-Fir t fiffu.sziiu rim, Decem)ber 3, 1887.


TtlSacrose. Glucose.


Juice fi-om chipls: Per et. IPcr ccn t. Per ce nt.
F irt ......................... 1r5.0 12-.01 .96)(
Second1,........................ 14.45 11.92 1.00
T1hird........................ 15.45 102, 81 1,02

Av era-e..................... 15. 03 12. 26 99

Ditffnsion julice. :
..rs........................ 10.S .8 8
Second ........................ 10.40 -.5 .4
Average. ......... .......... 10.61 8.76 .78

Exhlaus-ted chips
First sample e........ ......... ....... .1 .......
Second sawlpl .............. ....... ..........
Th'lird saruple................... ........ 1
Avrg............. ........... .... 3

C.Iubonlatalted jicer....... ......... 11.09. 9. 20 70
Waits 0WIateor ---!------12
Sol 11i sp............1. 80 42. 20 3 .39
Firs Buar..... ~. ...97.50
Molas-ses fi"out first sug-ar ........... 76.30 45, 00 11i. 11
S!cund .... 91,.60 --




First sugar Ll pr ton) ............ ................................ pounds.. 146. 1
st-cond Mig l1 i tn ... 40.1

Total first andi second stars.................. do... 186.2
Third d sug~ar o. 15.0
Pounlds.
Tlle tlt d HIuar ill t can ait M0 per centj. ,jit~COws ....,,....., 220.6
01, this I likz' Nvits 401iaita'd1 1 16.1 pounds att 97.50 .....,,........144. 4
A td 4(1.1 poid' i ;t N91 .......,... ..........,..... 36.7



N~ri~.Tlmthid uga wil nt h d i util inl The or, June t88 Th e
woatt-sof thlirdI su.sr aljtvo be-en mio loylMr. E. C. 13artlholiny.







39


EXTRAkCTION.

The percentage of sucrose left in the spent chips was .73. Sucrose in cane wva8 11.03 per cent. The per cent, of extraction is therefore 11.03 -.7 3=-10.30.*11.03 X 100-=93.4.
SECOND TRIAL.

Another trial was made of the diffasion machinery, beginingi December 9. Carbonatation was again used, but without lignite or any farther treatment. The juices passed directly from the filter presses to the double-efcect pan.
The quantity of lime employed wvas .6 per cent, the weight of the juice. The filtra-. tion was perfect. The experiment was remnarkable in showing that a perfect defecation can be made with carbonatatiou with a mutch smaller percentage of lime than bad been supposed necessary.
The mnasse c uito was dark, but the sugar a fair yellow.
FNollowing are the data of the run:

TABLE No. 40.-Secoid diffu8iOll run, Thccember 9, 1887.


Total Suicros'e. GIlucose.



Fresh ebips:- Per cf. Per ce- N. Pa r cent .
First sample................. 14. 06 11.0 1.(1
Second sample .......... 1.G5 1:; 71
Thiud samploe..-..----------...-5. 70 ]:: 52 .5
Fourth Sample ................. 15. 5:) 1; 0, 81
Fifth sample ................. 14. 00 11. 18 1. 02

Averageo ..... ............... 14. 9 12. 61t 88

Diffulsion juice:
First Samiple...................9. 0316 7. C .7
Second samuple .......... 8,67 70.125 .
Third( samnple .................. 68 7.( .
Ront amnpie ................10.40 C8 it
Fifh 8111PIC ... ... ... ... .. 10. 20 .1 .7

A, C-age ............... ...... 9.6 74I .C

Carbonatated j we:
Fir-StS10 Iample..... I.......... 9.12 7.7C.5
SeCOn~d 8:1o110................. 8.74 .5' 57
Thid sample ...... ...........10.2 1 55r
Fourth saui .................. 11. 40 9. 00 .7

Avelrg.....................0 16 C.lh I

Eib1austcd chlips 15
First Samiple ........................
S-cond1 samphlli. .....................1 .. .
'Ihlid ISlamph11. .................. ..........
Fourh saple.................. ........
Fit amlple............................4.

Ave vg.... ....... ........ ....... 8

Seii~sru....................... 47. 7No :o 0 .
Fizst)ngar............................. Isio.....
Second oua...............8 ........

Yield1 ol' firs t sg rper toll .....,.......,.....,......... ... pounds.. 2
Yield1 of scn sugal 11 r Pr IMu -..,....,,........ .,.do ., *
Canle u1sed..........................0~.
The totAl ua ill the canell at 90t pe-r cenlt. ,juico wa............ 1" rto1. 20
M' theseqq the were 11N oh I1t:1incid 128 poun lds- at 96OAi......................:.6
A nd 4:S pounds Mt 87. ............. 3.
TIotal p01re- SUCroseO 0hta1ined ,...... PA.. pe (iln. 11. I
1,ur1e sucrose Itllf ink chipsi ..,...,,,,,........... ........ dto .. 17.8
'ur I urs lIf i- moase an loA I Iauacue I L.(, do.il. 41. 1
I hir-d suglar e-Stilmate(d ................... ,.,. ...... do.4 .... 17. o)

Percentage~ sng-zur ill c Inc r~traellt4.1 ........ ,..... .. ......... it 11;

The poor y if-lit wvs (I in to () 8 iiof)I 11' I ii' 1hip 1 111in t-Iho Irstf part IAof the rull, causing a loss (if 1.6; per cow,. MIrrs Ii hie tli







40

THIRD TRIAL.
In this run the use of carbonatation and lignite was discontinued. The diffusion juices were treated with sulphur fumes until well saturated. They were then treated with lime and clarified in the usual way.
The clarification took place readily. The quantity of scums was very small, and the sediment subsided rapidly, forming a thin layer on the bottom of the tank, permitting the clear liquor to be easily and completely drawn off. The juice passed at once from the clarifiers to the double effect pan and subsequently received no farther purification.
Following are the analytical data obtained:

TABLE NO. 41.-Third dil'usion run December 10 and 11, 1888.

Total Sucrose. Glucose.
solids. Sucrose. Glucose.

Fresh chip: Per et. Per cent.L Per cent.
First sample ................... 14.39 11.89 .79
Second sample................... 12.77 10.63 .77
Third sample ................... 14.49 12.06 .80
Average....................... 13.88 11.53 .78
Diffusion juice:
Firstsample ..................... 9.42 7.82 .62
Second sample................ 9.41 7.87 .59
Third sample .................. 9.55 7.80 .67
Average ...................... 9.46 7.85 .63
Sulphured juice:
First sample..................... 9.69 8.17 .66
Second sample.................. 12 7.53 .58
Average...................... 9.40 7.85 .62
Clarified juice:
First sample .................... 9.95 8.21 .67
Second samp])le ................. 9.89 8.06 .63
Third samp le................... 10.32 8.39 .71
Average ....................... 10.05 8.22 .07
Exhausted chips:
First sample...................... .80 ..........
Second sample........................... .50 ........
Third sample.................... ........ .77 .........
Fourth sample......................... .93 .........
Average ............................... .75 ..........
Semii-simp ......... ............... 44.70 34.60 2.87
First sugar..................................6.0 ..........
Molasses from first sugar .......... 72.90 36.70 12.07

First sugar per ton.......... ...... .......................... pounds.. 143
N umber tons cane used ....................................................... 110

The molasses from the first sugar was boiled to string proof, and put in wagons. A good crystallization of second sugar was secured but,, the molasses having been left too acid, a good separation was not secured. Mr. B13arthelemy therefore decided to reboil the molasses with sine of the product of the mill process, and therefore no statement of the quantify of second sugar can be given. It was estimated at 30 pounds per toln.
The cane from which this rMil was Imade was grown on new back land and was the poorest of the whole season.
The percentage of sugar extracted of total sugar in cane was 92.80.

FOURTH TRIAL.
In this run the d(iffusion juire was treated with lime until almost neutral. It was then boiled, skimmed, and allowed to set tle. The snus and sediments were of small volume and were all returned 1to the ttIry.







41

The juice received no other treatment whatever for clarification. It was converted
lrup in a double effect vacuum pan. The capacity of this pan was not quite great
:nu to evaporate the juice as fast as furnished by the battery. For this reason
run which might have been finished in two days occupied a part of a third day.
T quantity of cane worked was 200 tons.
The following is a record of the analytical data obtained:

TABLE No. 4.-Fourth diffusion run, December 29, 30, and 31, 1887.


Total. Sucrose. Glucose.
solids.


Juices from fresh chips: Per ct. Per cent. Per cent.
A- .L, first day ................................. 16.46 14.23 .49
P. M., first day ........................... 17.27 15.33 .43
Midnight, first day ............................. 17. 26 15.12 .43
A. M., second day ............................. 17.13 14.81 .45
Midnight, second day ........................... 16.97 14.93 .54
A. M., third day ............................... 16.19 13.90 .61
P. M., third day .............................. 16.26 14. 05 .50
Average fresh chip juice for run ............. 16.79 14.60 .49

Diffusion juices:
First sample, first day .......................... 9.72 8.71 .32
Second sample, first day ....................10.09 9.01 .29
Third sample, first day .......................... 11.38 10. 16 .30
Fourth sample, first day ........................ 11.60 9.31 .53
First sample, second day ..................... 11.10 9.87 .32
Second sample, second day .................... 10.92 9.69 .33
Third sample, second day ....................... 10.94 9.77 .44
First sample, third day ...................... 10.45 9.31 .35
Second sample, third day .................. 10.87 9.69 .38
Average diffusion juice for run ............... 10.78 9.50 .36

Clarified juices:
Average for first day ........................... 10.75 9.34 .32
Average for second day .................... 11.77 10.36 .32
First simple, third day ......................... 12. 01 10. 36 .41
Second sample, third day ................... 11.61 9.78 .38
Third sample, third day ...................... 11. 25 9. 51 .36
Average clarified juice for run ............... 11.48 9.87 .36

Juices from exhausted chips:
First sample, first day .................................. .52 ..........
Second sample, first day ............................. .61.......
Third sample, first (lay ............................... .8 ........
Fitst sample, second day ...................... ...... 1.12 ........
Second sample, second d .ay............................ 72 .....
Third sample, second day .............................. .95 .....
First sample, third day ................................. 1.09 .........
Second sample, third day ........................... 1. 30 .........
Third sample, third day ................................ 1. 10 ..........
Average exhausted chip juice for run .............. .91 ..........
Sem-sirup for first strike .......................... 37. 37 33. 10 .99
Mase cute, first strike ........ ....................... 81.20 ..........
First sugar from first strike ................................ 98. 40 .........
First molasses from first strike ..................... 76. 22 51.80 7. 76
Somi.sirup for second strike ...................40.00 35.10 1.19
asseuite.... ......................................80.60 .....
First sugar.................... ......, 93. 90
Molasses from second strike ...................... 79. 00 55. 60 ........
Average extraction ........ .. ............... ........ 93. 8 ..........
Pounds first sugar per ton....... 165. 5 .........
Per cent. sugar extracted obtaiued in firsts ......... ...... 66. 2 ..........


Sennd sugar per ton ......................................... ... pouds.. 45.9
Third sugar per ton (estimated) ....... ....................... do .... "18. 0
Cane used ..............................................tons.. 200

*On February 29 I was informed by lettr from Governor Warmoth that the third sugars from the f run hud bocn dried and weighed, yiling 3,723 pounds, or 186 pounds per ton.







42


FIFTH TRIAL.

The fifth and last run of the diffusion battery was begun on January 14 and finished

on the 18th. This trial was made after the milling work had been completed. The
diffusion juices were treated precisely the same way as the mill juices had been, and
after passing over bone-black were concentrated to sirup in a Yaryan -iadruple effect,
which has been in use with the mill juices during the manufacturing season.
The working of all the machinery during this final trial was satisfactory, and the
even march of the whole work promoted the efficiency of the machinery and the successful manipulation of the juice.

TABLE NO. 43.-Analytical data of fifth run.


No. Brix. Sucrose. Glucose. No. Brix. Sucrose. Glucose.


Fresh chips: o Per cent. Per cent. Diffusionjuices397........... 16.87 14. 23 74 continued. o Per cent. Per cent.
400..........16.39 13.45 .87 450........... 9.88 8.12 .4?
403........... 16.39 13.79 .89 453........... 10.87 9.00 .38
405 ........... 17.0 9 14.73 .68 460 ........... 9.89 .45
408........... 16.86 12.11 .75 466 .......... 10.67 8.41 .01
411........... 17.16 14.73 .4 469........... 10.47 8.01 .72
414 .......... 16.0 3 14.06 .70 473........... 10.17 8.02 .48
417 .......... 17.00 14.50 .61 476 ........... 10.15 7.86 .48
420........... 16.70 13.93 .73 479.......... 10.31 7.92 .47
423 .......... 16.79 14.11 .74 485 .......... 10.59 8.26 .52
426.......... 17.19 14.17 .61 491........... 9.69 7.53 .61
429........... 16.73 14.19 .59
437 .......... 17.11 14.55 .61 Maximnum ........ 9.28 .72
440.......... 16.17 13.48 .75 Miuimum........ 7.53 .31
443 .......... 16.17 13.43 .76 Mean............ 8.41 .47
46 ........... 1.60 13.99 .63
449.......... 16. 63 14.39 .605 Exhausted chips:
452.......... 16.77 14.28 .63 399 ........... ....... ..52 ..........
459 .......... 16.23 13.29 .77 402 .................. .21 ..........
465........... 10.03 13.79 .76 407 .................. .52 .........
468.......... 16.07 13. 35 .85 410 ................ .32 ..........
472........... 16.81 14.31 64 413.................. .52 ..........
475........... 3. 37 13.54 .82 416.................. .41 .........
478..........10.5 1 14.17 70 419 .................. .33 ..........
484.......... 16. 94 14.38 .65 422 ................. ..42 ..........
490........... 16.57 14.52 .63 425................. ..42 .........
.-....428................. .55 .........
Maximum ....... 14. 73 9 431.............. 42 .........
Minimum......... 12. I1 .59 439........... ......... 50 .........
Mean. ............ 13.98 .70 442.... ... ...... .50 ..........
445................ .42 .........
1)ifflusionjuices: 448.................. 4 ..........
398........... 11.37 9.28 .60 451 ................. 6 ..........
401........... 10.67 8. 66 4 454........... ....... .........
40 .......... 10.61 8.92 .49 461 ................ .51 .........
40........... 10.38 8.53 .41 467............... .42.........
412.......... 11.01 9.10 .45 470 .................. 39 .........
415.......... 10.91 8.60 .48 474.................. .43 .........
418..........10.71 8.76 .40 477.................. .54 ..........
421......... 10.65 8. 77 .40 480.................. .34 .........
424........... 10.57 8.51 .44 486........... .. .. ........
427.......... 10. 52 8. 90 .46 42......... ....... 48 .........
430.......... 10. 65 9. 05 .32
438........... 10. 27 8.46 .35 Maximum ....... .6 ..........
441........... 10.73 8.91 .45 Minimum. ....... .21 ..........
444.......... 10.88 8.99 .42 Mea ............. .44 ..........
447 ........... 9.5 ?.68 .34



The molasses from the first sugars being very rich, the method of reboiling to grain
was employed. To this end the molasses of the first strike, having been reduced to
5.5 to 0) per cent. of total solids, was boiled on a nucleus of first sugar left in the
pan from the second strike. In this way all the molasses was.boiled to grain with
1inst gratifying results except that from the last strike of the first sugars.
The attempt to boil this to grain did not succeed inI giving a mas e cile which could
he dried with ease. The molasses running from the machines was so thick that it
clogged tlher up. Seven large sugar wagons were filled with this material and set
in tmhe hot room.







43

The stigars mnade were equal i n every respect to those obtained by milling. in similrinstances. WVithout counting', the second sugar above named, the grainjed sugr prton amounted 1,5 p01113(1. Thie grainned sugars in wagons will yield not less thn7,500 pounds, or 1- pounds per ton. The third snugars are estimated by -Mr. B~artheleniy at not less than 1G pounds per

The total yieldtper ton of the fifth run will reach therefore 215.5 pounds per ton. Tenumber of tons of cane used was 417.


TABLE, No. 44.-Summary of ?cul8.


Sugar
Mean Mecan cri ned Number of lun. Can,. su icrios-e glucose, in panuper, In !Ijuic. ID juice. tonl. First, Sug-ar.


To0s. IPot- eil. Pe cr icenit. Pounds. 1 ................83 12. '; .9") 146. 1
2----------------..9_I 0.8.(i 128.0
3 ...............110.0 1.. 1431.0
4 ................ 20,,.0 f 4 (; .19 165.5
5--------------..417.0 1j. 9S .70 181.5



Wagon sg a r p)e r
ton.
______ ___-- Total

Second Third 1peT ton.
suuaares


Pounds. Pounds. Pouind.'.
40.1 15 201.2
4:;.0 1s 189. 0
'30. 0 12 185.0
45.9 1 8 229.4
18.0 16 215.5



MASSE CUTITES, SUGALRS, AND MOLASSES FRO-M THE DIFFU SION RUTN S.

Following are t I e da ta of thIe a III'dySe's of t IIe )n els"e cu ItCS, Inarn molasses from the diffiusionI rqfls,,.
In Table No. 45 are the results of examination of' samples afforded by the first diffusion run.

TABLE -No,. 45.-Foirst runi jaliccs afit' carhonutioln curlfiied wcith N"od11111 pliosphte.


N . st r. ....... ............. S iur~ t
Iiet Iu~rt FelAl1ing.O.W




APra, ,r,.. 1000 P', I. C,11 17 0 7~ P7,i.

First 8gar....,.,5 67:;3 0.. 1 0.48 .... 97.,~







44

TABLE NO. 46.-Carbonatation, second run, diffuson, Larrence, La.


No. Moisture. Ash. Glucose. Sucrose Sucrose Sucrose direct. indirect.


Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent
First masse cuite... 5735 9.53 3.90 21 75.7 76.22 76.94
Firstmolasses ... ...... .......... .......... 10.50 42.4 ........... ...........
First sugar......... 5.;17 .58 .48 .......... 96.6 ........... ...........
Second sugar....... 5752 3.23 2.88 1.36 87.3 86.49 84.20


TABLE NO. 47.-Juice 8ul0phured, third run, diffusion, Lawrence, La.


Sucrose Sucrose Sucrose
No. Moisture. Ash. Glucose. dSucroe Su s Subre
direct. indiect. Febng.


Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Massecuite........ 5736 8.42 3.79 0.79 73.9 76.19 76.58
Molasses........... 5739 34.04 7.53 12.07 36.7 ......................
Sugar .............. 5738 .46 .82 .......... 96.3 .....................


TABLE No. 48.-Fourth run, clarification by linie,.diffasion, Lawrence, La.



Number. Moisture. Ash. Glucose. Sucrose Sucrose
direct. indirect.


Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Masse cuites.............. 5756 9.42 2.63 .......... 77.40 78.48
5759 9.27 2.57 .......... .......... ...........
Averages ........... ........... 0.35 2. 60 .......... 77.40 78.48
Molasses ................. 5758 24.01 5.28 7.77 51.80 ...........
Sugar .................... 6757 .27 .32 .......... 98.4 ...........


TABLE NO. 49.-Fifth run, juices bone.blacked, diffusion, Lawrence, La.


Siicrse Surose Sucrose
No. Moisture. Ash. Glucose. Sucrose Sucrose Sueby direct. indirect. Fehling.


Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
First masse cuite.. 5785 8. 83 2. 47 5. 25 79. 3 80.53 80. 75
5787 10. 68 2.47 4. 36 76. 5 78.77 78. 80
5790 12.04 3.49 4.24 73.7 75.33 75.41
Averages......... 10.52 2.81 4.62 76.5 7&21 78.33
First molasses...... 786 39. 59 3. 91 9. 93 39. 0 41.98 43. 82
57-8 42.86 3.98 7.78 38.2 41.14 42.79
5791 31.57 0.71 13.82 48.4 49.79 43. 92
Average ...... ...... 38.01 4.88 10.51 41. 9 44.30 43. 51
Second masse cuite 5792 10.21 4.52 7.06 70.9 73. 30 77.23
5789 24.33 7.44 15. 30 38.4 43.81 45.82
Second molasses... 5793 ........... 7. 80 14. 50 45, 5122 53.14
Averages........ 24.33 7.062 14.90 41.9 47.52 49.48


The second molasses from the fifth run of diffusion, on account of the
crowded condition of the sugar-house, could not be kept separate from
the mill products, it will be noticed that this molasses was still exceedingly rich in sucrose.






45

The apparent percentage of sucrose is as high as in the first molasses, but this is due to the much higher content of water in the latter product.
Nevertheless the sugar yield would still be very large to reduce the third molasses to the relative proportions of sucrose and glucose contained in the sample from the Calumet plantation, sent by W. J. Thompson, the analysis of which will follow.
In view of this exceeding richness it would seem that the estimated yield of third sugars from the run given in Bulletin 17, viz, 15 pounds per ton, is entirely too low. This yield would doubtless have been fully 30 pounds per ton.
While the chemical control of the diffusion experiments has proved reasonably satisfactory, yet there remain many points of interest which can only be determined by more extended investigations.
Among these may be mentioned the marked oxidizing power of the bone-black on diffusion juices. These juices on reaching the bone-charfilters were as nearly neutral as possible. On issuing from the filters they were intensely acid, and were again treated with lime before a second filtration. Diffusion juices have proved to be much more amenable to treatment for clarification than our first experiments with diffusion applied to sorghum indicated. A simple treatment of thejuice with lime, careful skimming and subsequent precipitation of the sediment in settling tanks, appears to be all that is necessary to make a fine article of raw sugar, either with sorghum or sugar canes.














SUMMARY OF DATA FOR FOUR YEARS AT MAGNOLIA.


BY G. L. SPENCER.


The crop of 1887 was in many respects a remarkable one. In the early spring the cane was considerably larger than in average seasons. The stand was unusually good. Favorable rains and exceptionally good weather permitted a very thorough cultivation. The rows were well shaded before the 1st of July. All these favorable conditions united to make this crop the best in the history of the plantation. Mag. nolia seemed to be especially favored. When the fields above and on the opposite side of the river were too wet for cultivation those of Magnolia were in the best possible condition. The following is a brief rdsum6 of the growing seasons of the four years since the establishment of the Magnolia station:
Season of 1884.-The spring weather was favorable and continued so until the 1st of June, then followed a period of wet weather lasting until August, which was a very dry month. September and October were favorable to the ripening of the cane. During the rolling season there were frequent and heavy rains. The tonnage was good, and the quality of the cane excellent.
Season of 1885.-ExceptioVally wet weather continued through the early part of this season. The rainfall from April to July was limited to two or three showers. There were frequent rains in August and September. The rest of the season was exceptionally cool and dry. A severe wind storm in September completely prostrated the cane. The wet weather in September and the wind storm damaged the cane very materially. The tonnage w-as large.
Season of 188.-In January a freeze of remarkable severity threatened damage to the stubble. Small crops were predicted for the next season. The crop was small, but the shortage was not attributable to the results of the freeze.
February, March, and April were cold and wet; consequently the cane obtained a late start. May was dry and cool; June and July were too wet to permit of propel'r cultivation; August was dry and exceedingly hot. These adverse conditions all tended to stunt the cane. Although the start was good the tonnage was small. The juice was exceptionally rich and pure.
46






47

eason of 1887.-The cane obtained an early start. The weather was favorable throughout the season. The crop was but little damaged by the heavy wind storms in August and October. The tonnage was exceptionally large and the juice excelled in richness and purity.
It may be seen from the above rdsum6 that two of the seasons were very favorable, one of these exceptionally so.
The following table of averages shows the quality of the juices for the four seasons:

Season. 1881. 1885. 1886. 1887.

Degree Brix...... .................................. 16.54 15.80 10.20 16.37
Per cent. acrose......................................... 13.05 12. 11 13. 59 13. 69
Per cent. glCosoe ......................... ............... 67 1.02 .61 .77
Co-ef ient of purity........................... ......... 78.69 76.01 83.33 83.48

The quality of the cane in 1885 was exceptional. The proportion of glucose is considerably above the average for the four seasons. The percentage of sucrose is low. The analyses for this season show fully thirty pounds less available sugar present than those for 1887.
A comparison of the analyses of juices for the seasons of 1886 and 1887 shows that they were of almost exactly the same average quality, although in the latter season the tonnage was about twice that of 1886. Many planters considered it impossible to obtain a very large tonnage and at the same time a rich cane.
The yield and quality of the cane in 1887 indicate that a large cane does not necessarily carry a weak juice. On the coutrary, some of the heaviest cane on Magnolia was the richest, containing about 15.5 per cent. sucrose in the juice. All this cane, including the heaviest, was quite ripe.
WORK AT MAGNOLIA PLANTATION.
Cop of 1887-'88.
Tons of cane........................................................... 13, 344

Acres plant-cane...................................................... 275
Acres first year's stubble .............................................. 22
Acres second year's stubble ............................................ $7

Total ............................... ..................... 0)4

Average tonnage per acre .................................. '

Total weigh, first su gar ................................pounds.. 1, 69,120
Total weight, grained seconds ................... ........... do.... 20, 48b
Total weight, wagon seconds ... ..................... 9......do... 327,21
Total weight, third suars .......................................do.... 21,

Total weight, all sugars .........................do... *2, 421, 051

*Averages for entire crop, including diffusion work.





44


Average yield of sugar per ton of cane ................ ------.pounds.. 181.43
Per cent. of yield, sugars- ........... ........................ 9
Total gallons of molasses ...... -......-...................... 58,
Total pounds of molasses, at 114 pounds per gallon ...................... 671,025
Per cent. of yield of molasses -.......------------.........-2.......... 2. 514
Per cent, of yield of masse cuite (i. e., sugar and molasses)- .............. 11. 56
Pounds sugar per acre .................-................... 4,008.3
Pounds molasses per acre..................................-....... 1,110

MAGNOLIA PLANTATION.

Crop of 1887-'88.*-Diffus8ion toork.

Tons of cane worked ------------------------------------------ 913
Firstsugar .......................-........................pounds.. 121,964
Second sugar, grained.......................................... do .... 31,764
Second sugar wagons ........................................... do .... 15,935
Third sugar wagons ................................................... 14,653
Total sugar ....................................................... 184,316
Average yield, first sugar, per ton ............................. pounds- 133.58
Average yield, second sugar grained, per ton .................... do-... 34.17
Average yield, second sugar wagons, per ton ..................... do.... 17.46
Average yield, third sugar wagons? per ton ...................... do.... 16.05
Total sugar per ton of cane ............................................ 201.26
Per cent. of yield........................................ .. 10.063

MAGNOLIA PLANTATION.

Crop 1887-'88.

First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Total. period. period. period, period. period, period.

Tons of cane rolled .......... 494 2,261 2,244 2,260 806 3,986 12,431 Extraction, per cent ............ 78.60 79.02 79. 01 78.46 79 79.30 78.91
Pounds 1st sugar per ton cane.. 101 *132.80 *139.94 *123.50 *122-70 *144. 50 *138.83 Pounds 2d sugar per ton cane.. 34 8 36.36 29. 60 40.50 41.60 25. 05
Pounds 3d sugar per ton cane.. 16.05 16.05 16.05 16.05 16. 05 16.05 16. 0j Total sugar per ton cane, lbs..- 151.05 156.85 192.35 169. 15 179.25 202.15 179.93

Includes grained seconds.

MAGNOLIA PLANTATION.

Crop of 1887-'88.-Mill work.
Total tons of cane rolled..... ................................. 12,431
Pounds of jtice .................................19, 6-(), 066
Extraction per cent cane ......... .................. .. 7-8.94
First sugar....... ...................... Pounds.. 1,537,156
Second sugar grained ....................... do... 188, 720
Second sugar wagon ......... .................. do.... 311,334
Third sugar wagon.do 199, 55
Total sug.ars. do.. 2,236,735
Average first sugar per ton cane ................ .........do.... 123.66
average second sugar grained per ton cane............... do.... 15.18
Average second sugar wagon per ton cane ........ 25.05

Average of all the cane worked by diffusion.





49
Average third sugar wagon per ton cane .................. pounds.. 16.05
Average total sugar per ton cane ............................. do.... 179.93
Per cent. of yield, sugars........................................ 8.996
SPECIAL ANALYTICAL WORK.

Several problems were presented during the progress of the work at Magnolia for solution. It is difficult to get time (luring the progress of manufacture to study such special problems; as much time, however, as I could take from the general supervision of the work was given to this special analysis.

COMPARISONS OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT POLARIZATION.

If sorghum and cane juices were composed alone of a solution of sucrose, the quantity of this substance could be determined at once by a direct polarization; unfortunately for the simplicity of chemical manipulation, such is not the case. Thesejuices contain other substances which are optically active. In sorghum juices especially we find large quanti. ties of substances present other than sucrose, which have the power to affect the polarized ray.
In cane juices the substances which tend to produce right-handed rotation are soluble starch, so-called, and its derivatives, dextrine and dextrose.
Of the substances tending to produce left-handed rotation at ordinary temperatures may be mentioned invert sugar and certain nitrogenous bodies.
Were these left-handed and right-handed bodies present in neutralizing proportions they would have no effect upon the polariscopic determinations of the sucrose, but such is not always the case; hence, a direct reading on the polariscope of sugar juices can not always be relied upon to give exact data concerning the proportion of sucrose present.
In the case of juices the variation may not be marked, but after concentration a direct polariscopie reading of the masse cite, or molasses, may prove very erroneous.
To determine the magnitude of this variation in the juices of sirups and molasses from sugar cane, the following analyses were made.
In Table No. 50 are found data relating to clarified juices.
These samples were taken with the greatest care. The measurements were made in tared flasks, with a weighed quantity of the juice, and all of the analytical operations conducted with the greatest precautions. It will be seen by consulting the mean data of the table that the percentage of sucrose was increased from 14.49, the direct reading, to 14.67, the percentage given by the polariscope after inversion. The mean quantity of sucrose is increased by about one-third of the percentage of the reducing sugar present.
23576-Bull 18-4--









TABLE No. 50.-Single and double polarization of mill juice., Magnolia.


Single. Suerose
Number. polarization Invert Temper by double increase. Gluo.
polarization. atre.
sucrose. po larization.

Per cent. o C. Per cent. Per cent.
1 14.7 4.84 24.0 14.90 0. 20..........
2 12.75 4.39 23.0 12. 92 0.17 ..........
3 15. 53 4.75 25.5 15. 40 -0.07 .53
4 13. 75 -4.90 23.0 14.07 0.32 .40
5 13.02 4. 43 21.5 13.09 0. 07 .30
6 13. 95 4.35 27.0 14.02 0.07 .47
7 16.45 -- 5.23 29.0 16. 74 0.29 .42
8 15.58 4.57 31.0 15.84 0. 20 .53
9 16.23 4.98 31.25 16. 52 0. 29 .56.
10 16.18 4.90 27.0 15.40 0. 22 .57
11 14.50 4.68 28.0 l4. 99 0.19 .64
12 12.73 4.18 .............. 12.84 0.11 .56
13 13. 65 4.95 .............. 13. 93 ...................
Averages 14.49 .............. ............ 14.67 .19 .50


In Table No. 51 is given the single and double polarization of sirups
derived from the juices in Table No. 50.
The same precautions were taken in the selection of samples and in
the analytical manipulation as in the preceding table.
The increase in the percentage of sugar on double polarization in the
case of the sirups is equivalent to about one-half of the percentage of
glucose present. It will be noticed in Table No. 50 that there are numerous examples of a like proportionate increase. In sample No. 3, in
Table No. 50, there is an actual loss of sucrose, the second reading being
.07 less than the first. This result was doubtless due to some error
which all the precautions taken could not avoid.

TABLE No. 51.-Single and double polarization of sirups from mill juices.


Number. Single Double Temper- Sucrose. Increase. Glucoso.
polarization, polarization. ature.

2 Per c'nt. o o C. Per cent. Per cent.
4 44.0t 17.49 26.0 45.07 1.03 ...........
5 45.25 16. 23 23.0 46.40 1.15 1.39
6 41.50 15. 43 19. 0 42.27 0.77 1.19
7 43. 00 14.28 26. 5 43. 81 0.81 1.44
8 4 88 14. 58 28. 5 47. 37 0. 49 1. 28
9 45. 53 14.74 29.5 46. 63 1.10 1. 63
10 42. 15 13.28 31.25 43. 19 1. 04 1. 51
11 44. 85 14 80 26. 5 45. 62 0.77 1.76
12 42. 85 13. 31 27.0 43. 04 0. 19 1. 92
39. 98 13.20 25.25 40. 53 0. 55 1.81
Averages -- -- -..
43J. 60 ............- 44.39 .79 1.5


In Table No. 52 are found the data of polarization of various samples
of molasses taken at different times during the season. Unfortunately,
inll only three cases was the percentage of glucose determined. In these
cases the increase on double polarization is equal to almost half the percenItage of glucose present. Thie mean increase, however, viz, 8.30 per
cent., would probably not have been much greater than one-third of the
mnIea percentage of glucose present in the molasses.




A51



TABLE No. 52.-Differences between single and double polarizations of molasses.


Polarization
N e Saingle iioafter Temper- Sucrose. Increase. Gluoose.
polarization. ature.
inversion.

Per cent. sucrose. o C. Per cent. Per cent.
1 46.0 24.2 20. 52.4 6.4 ............
2 45.5 23. 1 20. 51.2 5.7 ............
3 25.1 24.1 20. 36.7 11.6 25.25
4 45.8 20.4 23.5 51.6 5.8 ............
5 28.2 23.7 22.5 39.04 10.81 ............
6 27.1 23.54 21.0 37.9 10.8 23.90
7 36.9 23.32 22.0 45.3 8. 4 16.60
8 38.0 22.33 24.0 45.7 7.7 ............
9 35.7 -21.78 21.0 43. 1 7.5 ...........
Averages 3. 48 ............ .............. 44.77 8.30 ............


D cription of samnples.-No. 1, .ample of first molasses; No. 2, sample of first molaes; No. 3, sample of third molasses; No. 4, sample of first molasses; No. 5, sample of third molasses; No. 6, sample of third molasses; No.7, sample of second molasses;
No. 8, sample of second molasses; No. 9, sample of second molasses.

In Table No. 53 are found the analyses of some samples of molasses
sent by Mr. W. J. Thompson, of Calumet plantation. In these samples
we have again the remarkable illustration of the error into which the analyst would fall who would rely upon a single polarization alone. As
a check upon the results the sucrose was determined also with an alkaline copper solution. The percentage obtained in this way agrees remarkably well with that got by double polarization.
In these cases the total increase is a little less than one-third of the
amount of glucose present.

TABLE NO. 53.-Conpo8ition of third molasses. (Furnished by W. J. Thompson, Calumet plantation, Patterson, La.J

Ser Moi Scrose Sucse Sucrose AlbumiN ere L directs indirect. S A .lli Glucose.
numlber. ure. dirt, indirectnuoper
copper.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. IPer cent. Per cent.
1 5918 25.09 7.55 15. 5 25. 31 26. 00 1.97 29. 20
2 5919 2". 15 9. 35 17. 45 "6. 02 26. 14 2. 40 28. 98
3 5920 25. 30 7.l 17.15 25. 9 26. 19 2. 4 30. 07
4 5921 26.09 7.01 17.05 25.46 25. 59 2.30 31. 31


TABLE No. 5.3 (bia).-Composition of third molasses, arer'age sample froM Magnolia 1 plantation.


Moist Sncrose S Surse AlbumiNo. ue. Ash. direct indirect. y noids. Glue.
copper.

r e-nt. Per W.t r c Vn r r cit, Per cent. Per crt! Per c nt.
5 J,3 ,1T07 27,6 2-o 7.7 1.9 !1.1


Aside from the larger quantity of water in the third molasses from
Magnolia, the chief difference between the Calumiet and Magnolia


L






52

samples is found in the smaller percentage of reducing sugar in thelatter.
These results with the sugar-cane juices show that when single polarization alone is practiced the real percentage of sucrose can be approximately obtained by adding to the direct reading one-third of the percentage of glucose present.
The results also show the preponderance of h1vo-gyratory impurities in cane juices.
The left-handed disturbance, however, is greater than would be expected from the amount of invert sugar present.
We would, therefore, conclude that the albuminous matters present are also active, or that in the reducing sugar naturally contained in the juice there is a preponderance of levulose.
In sorghum juices I have shown in a previous publication that the differences between direct and double polarization are not so great. This is due to the fact that in sorghum there is a large portion of socalled soluble starch and dextro-gyratory bodies.
STUDY OF INVERSION IN THE YARYAN QUADRUPLE EFFECT.
To determine the invertive effect of concentrating the juices in the Yaryan quadruple effect pan, a series of careful analyses of entering juices and issuing sirups was made. The samples were taken in the following way, viz: From the feed-box of the Yaryan apparatus a measured sample of the juices was taken every two minutes for thirty' minutes; four minutes after taking the first sample ofjuice and every two minutes thereafter for thirty minutes a measured sample of the issuing sirup was taken. After mixing the samples of juice and sirup were subjected to analysis. It will be seen that by the above method the samples of juice and of sirup were strictly comparable. In each case the sample for analysis was weighed out and made up to a standard volume in a tared flask. The analytical manipulations were conducted with every possible precaution.
The results of the work are given in Tables Nos. 54 and 55.
TABLE NO. 54.-Test for inversion in Yaryta pan.-Clarifled juice.
Reducing Reducing
Purity on Purity on Sueroso SuerosO in-. sugars augar N J Total direct indirect d ~ect direct 1Rkducing to 100 of to 100 tuNo, Jite.sucrose oroseindiS solids. polariza- polariza- po ariza- polariza.- sugars. ds too crost indition. tion. tion. lion, poariza- ret potion. larization
187-'88 Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per ent.
1 Dec. 28 15. 93 86.32 88.32 13. 75 14.07 .40 2.91 2.84
2 Dec. 28 I. 53 89 61 90.09 13. 02 13:. 09 .36 2.75 2.75 3 an. 4 15. 88 87.83 88.29 13. 14.02 .47 3.47 3.35 5 Ian. 6 17.17 110.73 92.26 15.58 15.84 .53 3.40 8.36 6 .Jfanu. 7 17.,3 00.52 12. 14 16. 23 1G6. 52 .5 : 3.40 .39 7 JIan. 8 16.71 0.85 11,56ti 15.18 15.40 .57 3.75 3.70 8 .Jan, 9 16.78 8.20 89.33 14. 80 14.09 .04 4.33 4.27 9 Jan. 10 14.18 8. 77 90.55 12.73 1t.81 .50 4.41 4.87 Averages. 16.33 89.54 90. 68 14. 63 14.83 .50 3.45 3.8
..





53
TABLE NO. 55.-Sirups.
[Dates and numbers correspond to comparative samples in above table.]

1 Dec.28 51.23 88.33 90.60 45.25 46.40 1. 39 3. 07 3. 00
2 Dec. 28 46.70 88.87 90. 51 41.50 42.27 1.19 2.87 2.82 3 Jan. 4 49.02 87.72 89.35 43.00 43.81 1.44 3.35 3.28 4 Jan. 5 50. 5t 92. 76 93.73 46. E8 47.37 1. 28 2.73 2.70 5 Jan. 6 51.16 88.99 91.14 45.53 46.63 1. 603 3.59 3.50 0 Jan. 7 47.60 88.55 90.74 42.15 43.19 1.51 3.57 3. 50 7 Jan. 8...... ........... ........... 44.85 45.62 1.76 3.92 3.86
8 -Jan. 9 48.83 87.76 8.15 42.85 43.04 1.92 4.48 4.46 9 Jan. 1 45. 22 88. 4t 89.63 39. 98 40.53 1. 81 4. 53 4.47 Averages. 48.79 88.92 90.48 43.55 44.32 1. 5 3.57 3.51

Any inversion which would take place in the process of concentration would be indicated by an increase in the ratio of reducing sugar and sucrose.
In the entering juices the mean ratios are as follows, viz:
By direct polarization, 3.45 parts reducing sugar to 100 of sucrose.
By double polarization, 3.39 parts reducing sugar to 100 of sucrose.
For the issuing sirups the ratios are as follows:
By direct polarization, 3.57 parts reducing sugar to 100 of sucrose.
By double polarization, 3.51 parts reducing sugar to 100 of sucrose.
It will be seen by the above numbers that the inverting effect of the Yaryan pan is practically nothing. It amounts to only one-tenth of a pound to 100 pounds of sugar made or 2 pounds to the ton of sugar.
ANALYSES OF BAGASSE.
Sixteen determinations were made at various times during the sea sion of the quantity of water and sugar in the bagasse. The samples were taken as follows: From time to time during fifteen to twenty minutes a handful of the bagasse issuing from the mill was taken and placed in a covered vessel. These samples were then thoroughly mixed together and a portion taken for analysis. Small quantities of bagasse were taken from the selected portion and cut into very fine chips. Weighed portions of these chips were then dried at 1050 C., and weighed for the determination of moisture.
For the determination of sucrose, weighed portions of the bagasse were extracted in a marked stoppered bottle for two hours at the temperature of boiling water. After cooling, the contents of the bottle were poured in a mortar and thoroughly rubbed up with a pestle. The sucrose was determined in a filtered portion of the liquid, due allowance being made for the volume occupied by the fiber of the cane. Tlhe results of the analyses are given in Table No. 56.






54
TABLE NO. 56.-Composition of bagasse.
No. Date. Water. Sucrose. No. Date, Water. Sucrose.

1888. Per cent. Per cent. 1888. Per cent. Per cent.
1 Jan. 4 52.60 8.58 10 Jan. 8 54.99 7.50
2 Jan. 4 52.87 7.59 11 Jan. 9 55.08 7.95
3 Jan. 5 52. 99 8.10 12 Jan. 9 54.69 7.65 4 Jan. 5 53.89 8.19 13 Jan. 10 53. 59 7.44
5 Jan. 6 52. 51 7. 73 14 Jan. 10 55.8 6. 88
6 Jan. 6 51. 69 8.00 15 Jan. 11 56.71 7.74
7 Jan. 7 53.12 8.07 16 Jan. 11 56.78 7.95
8 Jan. 7 52. 68 7.95
9 Jan. 8 53. 97 7.35 Averages. ..... 54. 00 7. 79

It will be seen that the mean percentage of the water in the bagasse was 54 and the sucrose 7.79. It appears from the above analyses that the bagasse contains water other than that in the sugar juice of the cane. This fact is also shown by the following phenomenon.
If a sugar-cane be passed through a small mill, the top entering the mill first, drops of water will be seen to issue from the butt of the cane as it approaches the rolls; if this water be tasted it will be found to be free from sugar. It appears, then, from the analyses of the bagasse and the phenomenon just related that the sap in the circulatory organs of the cane is entirely different from the sugar juices stored in its cells.
ESTIMATION OF TOTAL SOLIDS BY HYDROMETERS AND BY ACTUAL WEIGHT.
Attention has already been called in this bulletin to the error which may arise from estimating the total solids in sugar juices and sirups from the specific gravity as determined by a hydrometer.
In Table No. 57 is given a comparison of the results obtained in estimating the total solids in cane juices by careful drying in a flat dish partly filled with sand. The method of procedure was as follows:
A fiat platinum dish was filled about two-th irds full of pure dry sand and weighed; from a weighing bottle about 2 grams of the eane juice was placed on the sand, and the exact amount taken obtained by reweighing the weighing bottle.
The dish was now dried at 1000 until the mo isture was nearly all driven off, and then for a half an hour at 1050. In each case the amount of total solids as given by the Brix saccharometer was greater than that obtained by actual drying. The mean increase was .56 per cent.
TABLIE 57.-Comparison of total solid by apindle and drying on sand.
JUICES.

No. Date. I Increae. No. Date. dryig. pre

1888. Per et. Per cent. 1888. Per et. Per cent.
1 Jan.4 15.68 16.07 .39 6 Jan.8 10.76 17.23 .47
2 Jan. 5 17.87 1.64 .77 9 Jan. 9 16.53 17.17 .64 3 Jan.0 16. 81 16.93 .12 10 Jan. 9 16. 75 17.30 .53 4 Jan. 6 17.17 17.PO .63 I t Jan,1o 15.87 16.66 .79 6 Jan. 7 16.57 16.96 .39 12 Jan.10 14.18 14.83 .67
6 Jan. 7 17.93 18. 5 .61 -- .-.
7 Jan. 8 1I.71 17.46 .75 Av'ges 16.57 17.13 .56





55
TABLE 58.-Sirups.

I Jan. 4 48.54 49.02 .48 5 Jan. 9 48. 83 50.22 1.39 2 Jan. 5 50.51 52.72 2.18 6 Jan.10 45.22 46.70 1.54
3 Jan. 6 50.85 51.82 .97
4 Jan. 7 47.60 48. 64 1.04 Av'age. 48.60 49.86 L 27

In Table 58 the same comparison is made with sirmps. In order that the sairups might not occlude moisture a less quantity was taken than of the juices, so that the total solid residue might be the same. The mean increase in the case of sirups as determined by the Brix spindle was 1.27 per cent. With sugars and molasses enough alcohol must be added to the dish containing the sand and samples to dissolve the latter thoroughly and distribute them evenly through all parts of the sand. Not being quite satisfied with the result obtained by the method given above, I trie,1 the device of using paper coils for the absorption of the juices whose total solids were to be determined.
The manipulation was as follows: A piece of thick filtering paper 40 centimeters in length and 5 to 8 centimeters wide was rolled into a coil and tried at 1050. While still hot it was placed in a dried weighing tube and carfully stoppered. When cold it was weighed together with the tube.
About 2.5 grams of the juice is now placed in a small beaker covered with a watch glass and weighed. One end of the coil is dipped into the beaker and held there until the juice is absorbed. By means of the dry end, the coil is transferred to the air bath, placed in an up. right position with the wet end up and dried for two hours at 1000. While still hot it is again placed in the weighing tube, and, when cold, weighed.
By reweighing the beaker and the cover the weight of juice taken is accurately determined. The increase of weight of the coil gives the total quantity of solid matter present in the weight of juice taken. This method was introduced so late in the season that only a few trials of it were made, but they were eminently satisfactory. The results are given in Table No. 59 :
TABLE No. 59-Total solids by drying on paper coils.
MILL JUICES.

No. Date. Total solids. Total solids Total solid by spindle. by sand.

1884. Pe cent. Per cent. Per cent.
1 Jan. 11 16.22 16.I53 16.05
2 Jan. 12 15. 801 16.70 10.16
3 Jan. 13 15.91 16. 87
4 Jan. 17 1..42 16 07 ...... .....
Averages .......... 15. 83 1 54 ............


L + ii ::: .






56

TABLE NO. 59-Total solids by drying on paper oils-Conutinued.
DIFFUSION JUICES.

1 Jan 10 10.10 1137 ............
2 Jan. 17 9.80 10. 67 ............
3 Jan. 17 9.57 10.47 ............
Averages .......... 9.82 10. 84 ............


As in the case of drying in sand, the amount of solid matter found in juice is uniformly less than was indicated from the reading of the spindle.

EFFECT OF TREATMENT OF MOLASSES WITH SUPERPHOSPHATE OF
LIMIE AND ALUMINA.

It is the custom in the sugar-houses of Louisiana to dilute the molasses and treat it with superphosph ate of lime and alumina, or other chemi. cals, before reboiling it for sugar. To determine the effect which this treatment had upon the molasses, the analyses which are recorded in Table No. 60 were made.

TABLE NO. 60.-Treatment of molase86s8 with superphospAate of line and aimnina.

MOLASSES BEFORE TREATMENT.

Purity, Purity, Sucrose, Sucrose, Glucose Glucose
N Toal direct indirect direct indirect Glucose. per 100 per 100
solids. polariza- polariza- polariza- polariza- c ucrose,
tion. tion. tion. tion. s rose indirect.

Pr. ct. Per cent. Per rent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
1 65.59 71.310 77.50 40.75 50.80 6.33 13.55 12.47 2 61.72 71.29 76.17 44.00 47.01 5.71 12.96 12.16

MOLASSES AFTER TREATMENT.

1 63. 86 72.70 76. 80 49. 30 48.91 8. 17 13.33 12. 64 2 60.45 72.01 75.89 43.53 45.88 5.43 12.4 3 11. 4

REMOVED SKIMMINGS.

1 607.03 77.20 78.90 51.70 52.90 6.71 12.97 12.68
62 .09 73.36 79.15 48.75 51.20 6.17 12.05 12.03


The table is divided into three parts, the first being theenalysis of the molasses before treatment; second, analysis after treatment; and third, the analysis of the removed skimmings.
In the three cases the numbers refer to the same sample. It is quite difficult to secure the same density in each case, and comparison should be made with the ratio of the reducing sugar to the sucrose. From this it is seen that the skimmings, which were removed and which were supposed to be gum, were nothing but air -bubbles, surrounded with a film






57

f molasses. It is difficult to see any beneficial result attending the treatment in question.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF CLARIFICATION.

In order to determine the amount of organic matter removed by different methods of clarification the following experiments were made: Weighed samples of mill juice were treated with subacetate of lead until no further precipitation took place. The precipitate was then thoroughly washed with hot water until all excess of lead was removed and then dried.
Similar treatment was given to the same juice after clarification by lime in the usual way, after filtration through lignite, and after single carbonatation. The results are recorded in Table No. 61.

TABLE NO. 61.-Effects of different methods of clarification.

Raw. Clarified. Lignite. Carbonated.

Weight of lead precipitate:
December 20,1887, grammes. 2.1919 1.9452 1.7685 1. 2725 December 21, 1887 .......... 2.296t 2.1515 2.1930 1.7058
Per cent of load:
December 20,187 .......... 62. 08 52.43 69.53 71.08
December 21, 1887 ......... 66.01 69.31 71.68 71.52
Sucrose, per cent:
December 20, 1887......... 13. 08 13.45 15. 12 13. 99
December 21,1887 .......... 13.78 14.01 15.02 14. 74
Albuminoids, per cent:
December 20,1887........... .07 .07 .03 .06
December 21, 1887. ........ 11 .07 .03 ..0
Purity:
December 20, 1887........... 81.75 82.50 81.38 85.67
December 21, 1887........... 85. 3 1 80. 32 84. 71 88.58

It is seen that the weight of the dried precipitate is in every case greatest in the raw juice and least in that which had been subjected to single carbonatation. The purity of the juice was increased least by ordinary clarification, next by filtration through lignite, and most of all by carbonatation.
In regard to the removal of albumen, filtration through lignite ap. pears to be the most efficacious method.

Carbonic dioxide gas in gases from lime-kiln and bagasse chimney.

The quantity of carbonic acid in the gases from the lime-kiln and bagasse chimney is given in Table No. 60.
The object of determining the percentage of CO2 inl the bagasse smoke was to see if it could be used in the process of carbonitation. Since, with cane juices, this process requires so little lime it seems probable that the gases from the Bagasse chimney can be used for this purpose.










TAB3LE No. 60.-Carbonic acid gas from, furnace.


Date. Hour. u- Cl



Nove mber.........7.. 11 a.mi.. 1 ,12.5
Do ......................3p2 .m.. 4 13.88
Do ......................5Ip.mT.. 3 1.47
Do ......................83p.m..- 4 23.53
om ...r2 .................9a .mn.. 7 21.40
Do......................p.. 8 1.n. 23.80
November 289.................9a.m.. 10 212.63
Do ......................34p.m.. 1 2.39
Do ...................... 9p. m.. 19 10.54
November309 ..................76a.mi.. 13 12.33
D ombr...........0.mn.. i4 22.09
Do.................p.mi.. 12 28.60
November .. ..............97a. m. 19 11.25
December 9 ..................p.. 20 a.m125.02

December 10.................. 5a.min. 2t 33.50
Do...................... 10a.mn.. 22 25.42
December 11.................. 2a.m.. 23 29.89
Do...................... 11a. M.. 24 17.88



Cazrbonic acid ga8 from Bagasse ch im ney.


December 2 ..................9a m.. 16 11.44
Do .....................11a m.. 17 11.15
Do....................... 3p.m..- 18 8.8


















ATA RELATING TO SORGHUM AS A SUGAR-PRODUCING PLANT.



The problem of the possible profitable production of sugar from sorghum has occupied the attention of chemists, agronomists, and mannturers for many years.
J will not insist here on the immense advantages which would accrue to American agriculture by,the development of an indigenous sugar idustry. There is no true friend of our farming interests who does not wish our sugar to be produced at home, and if sorghum can help to the consummation of such a wish we ought to know it. A full discussion of these aspects of the subject can be found in my presidential address before the Washington Chemical Society, delivered a the 9th of December, 1886.1
It seems to me that we have now reached a point in the study of the problem of the production of sugar from sorghum where it is possible, by a careful review of the ground already passed over, to secure an acurate notion of the progress which has been made. It is to this task that I have devoted the present study. For convenience the study of the problems may be divided into three parts, viz:
(1) Chemical, (2) experimental, (3) practical.

CHEMICAL.
The amount of analytical work which has been done on sorghum in this country is enormous. At most I can give only a summary of the recorded results.
This analytical work may be best studied by dividing it into two groups, namely: (a) Work done by the Department of Agriculture and
(b) other work.

(a) WORK DONE BY THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRIOULTURE.

The first analyses of sorghum canes by the Department of Agriculture were made by Dr. C. M. Wetherill in 1862.
Second Ann. Bulletin Washington Chemical Society, pp. 11 et seq.
50







60

A mean of seventeen analyses of imphee and sorghum showed the
following results:


Imphee.
Sorghum.
First Second
mean. mean.

Per cen t. Per ct. Pert.
Sucrose ............. 4.29 4.13 6.19
Glucose............ 6.08 7.00 3.65
Total sugars ...... 10.37 11. 13 9.84


Dr. Wetherill also gives a table of mean results obtained by others (p. 533), and adds the following observations: It follows, from the experiments thus quoted and reported, that the largest proportion of cane sugar to uncrystallizable sugar is afforded by the juice analyzed by Lawrenice Smith, to wit, as 10 to 2. My average results fall far below this; yet if the analyses of my best canes are taken, their juice will compare favorably with thaof the analysis of Smith. For example, by the analyses numbered 8, 10, 11, for every 10 parts of cane sugar found we have, respectively, 2.1, 1.8, and 1.8 per cent. of uncrystallizable sugar. It is remarkable that in analyses 10 and 11 the juices differing so much in actual saccharine richness should contain the same relative proportion of cane sugar to uncrystallizable sugar. When my mean results are compared with the results afforded by the practical experiment of Mr. Lovering, who grew the sorghum, analyzed its juice, and converted the same into cane sugar and molasses, it appears that my mean of sorghum analyses gives very nearly the same proportion of cane sugar to uncrystallizable sugar, and that my imphee mean gives a larger proportion of cane sugar. I think that my analyses and their means will give a moderately accurate rell ction of the present state of the sorghum and imphee culture in our country. There are, doubtless, finer canes grown than I have examined, and richer both in sirup-mnaking quality and in the proportion of cane sugar present; but the analyses probably represent the present condition of the cane as planted.

Henri Erni2 reports one analysis of sorghmn. It gave:
Per cent.
Sucrose ...................... ...... .................... 10.31
Glucose ................................................. 2. 07

He adds:

Contrary to my expectations, I found that the expressed morgho juice of ripe cane whether neutralized by lime or not, refused to crystallize, for what solidified or granulated after long standing of the sirup was grape-sugar. This fact has been established by the largest and most skillful farmers and expermenters, and admitted at the western sorghum conventions. The result might be ascribed to the total inversion previously of the cane-sugar by the influence of acid, or of a ferment, but this is not the case, as I have repeatedly been able to prove. The lbilowiug extreme case may suffice for illustration of this fact: In the sugar determination which is here given, cane-sugar was found, and yet the most persistent efforts failed to produce a single crystal in the concentrated liquid.
IDepartmuent of Agriculture, report l62, pp. 514 et seq.
"Agricultural Report18I5, p.' 48H






61

Dr. Thomas Antisell reports analyses of frozen and fresh canes. The jice from frozen canes had the following composition: Per cent.
Sucrose................................................. 11.10
Glucose .................................................. 8. 90

The juice of the fresh canes had the following composition:

Per cent.
No. 1. Sucrose ........................................ 7. 86
Glucose ........................................ 4.38
No. 2. Sucrose ......................... ................ 5.94
Glucose .......................................... 3.60

Dr. Antisell adds the following observations:
Contrasting the amount of sugar in the fresh and dry cane, the latter greatly preponderates; and were the question only on the amount of sugar to be obtained, the decision would be in favor of working on the partially dried canes; but on observing the ratio of glucose and cane sugar in the fresh juice and that expressed later, it will be remarked that the relative amount of glucose is much higher, so that the sugar appears to be gradually passing into glucose the longer it remains in the cane, showing that the fermenting causes are as active within the stein of the drying cane as after the juice has been expressed and exposed to the air. Several attempts were made in the laboratory to granulate the sugar of this juice; but whether neutralized ad defecated or not, the invariable result was the disappearance of cane sugar, and a uniform sirup of uncrystallizable sugar. Thus far, then, laboratory examinations indicate the necessity of evaporating thejuice of the recently cut canes, if it is desiredtoobtain any crystallizable sugar.

In 1878 Dr. Collier began his extensive studies of sorghum. Dr. Collier gave the following result of the analyses made by the Departmient f Agriculture in 18792:
Early amber, from August 13 to October 29, inclusive, tifteen analyses, extending over seventy-eight days, 14.6 per cent. sucrose. White Liberian, from August 13 to October D9, inclusive, thirteen analyses, extendng over seventy-eight days, 13.8 per cent. sucrose. Liberian, from September 13 to October 2), inclusive, seven analyses, extending over forty-six days, 13.8 per cent. sucrose.
Honduras, from October 14 to October 29, inclusive, three analyses, extending over sixteen days, 14.6 per cent. sucrose.

In 1880 these analyses were continued in large numbers on samples of cane grown in the Department grounds and on others sent in from various localities. The details of these analyses are to be fbund in the Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture for 1880, 1p. 37 et seq.
The canes, according to development, were divided into nineteenl Classes. With the seventh stage, the seed is just entering the milky State. Since a large part of the seed will still be in this state., when the

SDepartment of Agriculture, report, 1866, p. 48. 2 Sorghum.. p. 11.







62


manufacture is to be carried on on a large scale, I giv-e the means of the

analyses of the different varieties from that stage on';


St ages. Glucose. Sucrose. jvial uice
:Sucuse. anal yzed.


Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
7................. 3.863 7.38 4, OV 70
8................. 3.83 7.69 4.26 111
9................. 3.19 8S195 5.50 266
10.... ............ 2.00 9. 98 6. 6o 217
1.............2. 35 10.66 7. 22 166
12 ................2.0 11.18 7 77 170
J3----------------.. 2.03 11.40 8.00 183
14................. 1.88 11.7-6 8.313 191
15 ................. 1. 8L 11.69 8. 21 217
1 ............... 1.6C4 12.40 8.86 3:19
17................. 1.56 11. 72 9.73 ]97
18................1.85 11.92 8.27 191
19 ............ 3.09 12.08 7.82 ;10
Mean ....2.44 10. 83 7 .28 181

*The method of determin in-, avail able s ugar doezi t oa rl v ap Ipear.

These analyses were continuedI in, great de(ta(il dmriiig- thle following
years, 1881 and 1882, and the results are funmd lit the reports of the
Department. 2
The averag-es for the whole, number of samples for each stage after
the sixth Is given below. 3


Stages. IG1 Limit. Suicrose. A V' Ii .labl bucrose0.


Per cent. Per cent. Pe r ce nt. 7................. 3. 69 6.08 0.(0
8................. 3.70 7.4? 1. 14
9................. 3. 30 8.76 2.861
10 ................ 2. 96 10. 00 41.14
11 ................. 2.74 12.01 6.34
12.......... 2.47 13. 00 7.61
13---------------2.21 1:3.98 8.87
14................. 2.2-2 14.34 9.21
15 .................1.84 115.9.19 11.14

17................. 1.8S3 16.01 11. 77
18................. 1.75 15.23 9. 83
Afterl18th .........1.7T3 11.89 6J.33

Mean.....2. 47 12.41 6.9E5


The effect o f frost on the cha ract er o f the Juitice w as also iiinvestig,1ated.4
The frost produced a loss of sucerose aiuomiiing to 15.5 per cenit., and a
galin of glucose, 29.1 per cent,.
Dr. Collie.r makes the following~ observations on the results of' the



GENERL II8ULT8UI? NALY E i INO tUPO(N THlE QUES8TION OF? AVAILABLE SUGAR.

Byrrf4recr!( to tile table giv-ingr thei gnrl resujltsot ,ill the anayses4 of thle Several varie-iti of4 )( sorghu111m ill 1879, 1$-0 ndllte greg:te nmiehr (it' nalyseS being

LI-partlinent or' Agrivulture, Report I, lp.* 11P), 111.
l)epattitd of* Agricultuire, Report, 15$1-182, p). :170 vi ., and Inlvestiga'ltiOnls of Sorghum11 as a uarPrduin lnt, special ror,188 3.
SDepartment o)f Agricuilture, Report, ISMI anti 18 pp. 43H et Seq.
SDepartwlexit, of, Agricult ire-, IReport 15$1- anld l5~ .46.




63

4,042, and the varieties analyzed being about forty, these results having been obtained from as many distinct varieties by so large a number of separate analyses made in successive years, the general conclusion reached appears established beyond question. SIt will be seen that during the early stages of development of these plants, up to and including the sixth stage, the available sugar is given as a minus quantity, i. e., the amount of sucrose in the juice is less than the sum of the glucose and other solids. It will also be seen that in the seventh stage the available sugar is practically none, being only .13 per cent., and this stage represents the period when the seed is in the milky stage. It is then obviously absurd to expect to obtain any sugar by working up the crop until it has advanced beyond this condition toward maturity.
It will also be observed in the table that during these early stages the amount of this minus available sugar remains nearly the same, the average for the first five stages being 3.22 per cent., and also that the available sugar after it first appears rapidly increases in quantity, and remains practically constant through the several subsequent stages; and in this it agrees, as will be seen, with tihe development of the sucrose, which at a certain period is very rapid, and afterward nearly constant through the season, while, as has been remarked, the sum of the glucose iand solids is nearly the same throughout.
EFFECT OF SUCKERS ON COMPOSITION OF JUICE,

The injurious effect of suckers on the juice is shownit by the following average analyses of thirty-four varieties.1

Suck- Unsuck- Ratio.
ered. ered.

Pr. rt. Per cent. Per cenit.
Sucrose ............. 13.17 10. 55 100: ?0.1
Glucose ............ 2.14 2.95 100:137.9
Solfds .............. 3. 10 3. 58 100:115. 5
Available sugar.. 8.0 4. 49 100: 55.6


ANALYSES OF JUICES FROM SMALL MILLS.3

These analyses were made from September 12 to October 22, 1881.
The canes were taken from the experimental plots in the Department grounds and from some other localities in thei vicinity of Washington.
The mean results are as follows:
Per cent.
Sucrose ................................................. -9
Glucose ................................................. 3. 85
Available sugar ......................................... 3. 0

ANALYSES OF JUICES FROM I AlGE MILL.'

The analyses were made from Septemiber 27 to October 27, 1881.
The total quantity of cane ground was 229 tons 441 pounds.
The mean composition of the juice for this entire season was as follows:
Per cent.
Sucrose ................................................... G. 94
Glucose ........... .... ................................. 6.34
Not sunga rs............................................... 1. 9

O p. cit., p. 465.
SDepartment of Agr icilluie, Report 1 n1 aind 2, ip. 1$ t arx.
a Department of AgricuIlture Ievp rI1, I aud I l 1.-, I s), ) .






64

In respect of the character of the cane, Dr. Collier makes the follow ing reports :1

THE WORK OF THE LARGE SUGAR MILL.

Mention has already been made of the several plots of sorghum of different varieties upon the lands of Mr. Patterson, Mr. Golden, and Dr. Dean, which were intended for working upon a scale of sufficient magnitude to afford a practical demonstration of the economical production of sugar upon a commercial scale. Owing to the backward spring and the ravages of wire and cut worms, two successive plantings of seed almost entirely failed, and it was only after thoroughly coating the seed with coal-tar that a final stand of cane was secured. This third planting was concluded June 18, fully seven weeks after the planting of the plot upon the Department grounds, the examination and working of which has already been discussed in the preceding pages. To any one who has carefully perused this report thus far, or either of the reports of the preceding years, giving the results of our examination of sorghum, it is entirely useless to say that this delay was fatal to suc-e cess in the production of sugar, and that failure was inevitable unless all our previous experience was to be falsified.
The failure of the crop to mature, as had been confidently predicted during the summer, was fully realized, and at last, with the assurance that the frosts would soon render the crop unfit even for sirup, owing to its immature state, it was resolved to begin work, since, with the limited capacity of the mill, it would require at least two months to work up the entire crop of 135 acres. Accordingly the work of cutting the cane began September 19, and grinding began September 26, and was Zontinuled without any serious interruption until October 28. At this time the cane still remaining upon the field, through the effect of frosts and succeeding warm weather, had become worthless, and the cane from only 931 acres in all was brought to the mill, the last portions of which had already become sour and offensive.

ANALYSES IN 1882.

Beginning with the stage when the seed was in the milk, I give below the mean results of Dr. Collier's analyses of inmany different varieties of sorghum in 1882:


Glucose. Sucrose. Available sugar.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Seed in milk .......... 2.90 8.45 3.20
Seed in dough ......... 2.171 9. 88 5.054
Seehard........... 1.33 10.48 6.233
Sucker seed in iilk... 1.203 11.448 7.426 Sucker seed in dough.. 1.12 12.25 8.10 Sucker seed hard...... 1.45 12.63 8.56

SOp. cdt., p. 504.
Sorghum as a Sugar-producing Plant, by Peter Collier, Special Report, 18 3, p. 17.






65

COMPOSITION OF JUICE IN BLADES AND STALKS.

Numerous analyses were made' to determine the relative coposl. a of stalk and leaf juice. This comparison will be sufficiently indited by some of the analyses quoted below:

Stalks. Leaves.
No. Sucrose. Glucose. Not sugar. Sucrose. Glucose. Not sugar.


Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
1 10.29 3. 21 1.84 2.84 1.66 7.82
2 14.64 1.87 1.51 2.15 1.52 9.21
3 11.79 L 15 3.03 4.23 2.25 6.76
4 13.31 .93 3.28 2.23 2.50 7.71


Dr. Collier adds the following observation :2
It is to be observed that in no case was there any available sugs in the juice from the leaves, owing not to the excess of glucose, but to the much larger i)erceutage of solids not sugars in the leaf juice.

FURTHER ANALYSES OF FROSTED CANES.3
Per cent.
Analyses before frost, November 3, 1882.-"Means:
Sucrose ............................................. 12.44
Glucose ............................................. 1.23
Not sugar ....................................2.68
Available sugar ............. .8.62
Juice extracted ..................................... 58.19
Analyses after thirteen frosts, December 8.-Means:
Sucrose ............. ........................14.35
Glucose ............................... .......2.85
Not sugar ....................................2. 98
Juice extracted ..............................39.17
Loss of juice.... 32.69
Gain in sucrose .......................................... 15. 35
Gain in glucose ......................................... 131.71
Loss in available sugar .............. ...... 1.16

ANALYSES DURING THE YEAR 1883.

Numerous analyses were made by the Division of Chemistry of the Department of Agriculture during the season of 1883, under my super vision.
Considering that it had been sufficiently well established by the researches of Dr. Collier, that small plats of cane under careful culture and proper fertilization afforded an extremely rich saccharine pliant, I directed attention chiefly to the character of the juice as a whole. The analyses represent the average composition of the juice from 74(,350
pounds of cane.,
1. cit., pp. 29-30. 3 Op. i t., p. 34.
c. ct., p. 30. 4lJ1. No. 3, pp. 43 and 47.
23576-Bull 18-5







66


Per cent.
Sucrose .. .. 8. 38
Glucose 4.09
Total solids .. 14.06

The part of the cane ground from September 29 to October 4 was of an exceptionally poor quality. Its analysis is given separately.'
Per cent.
Sucrose ----------------------------------------6.73
Glucose ...... -. .................................. 6.16
Purity co-efficient---- 50.00

A separate study of the mill juices was also made from October 16
to November 21.2
Following are the means of these analyses:
Per cent.
Sucrose-----------------------------------.. 9.04
Glucose ................................................. 4.08
Total solids ............................................. 14.81

Analyses of diffusion juices obtained from the same lot of cane and at the same time showed the following composition : 3
Per cent.
Sucrose....................................... .4.95
Glucose ................................................ 2. 4'2
Total solids -------------------------------------8 02

Analyses were also made of canes grown in Indiana.
The canes were cut and prepared as follows:I
These canes were cut, the leaves and tops left undisturbed, the cut surface covered with melted wax, and the whole wrapped carefully in paper and sent by express to the laboratory here for analysis.
Nos. 1 and 2 were cut in the afternoon of October 1 and analyzed October 4, having been three days on the road.
No. 1 was a sample of eight selected canes. No. 2 was a sample of sixteen canes taken seriatim from an average row, and represents the cane as a whole. It seems to have deteriorated very little in transit, and the analyses of the sirup go to showtbat the average of the whole patch was about a mean of the results of Nos. 1 and 2. No. 3 was cut at 4 p. in. October 1 and analyzed October 6, at 9 a. m., an intval of fou days and seventeen hours.
Following are the results of the analyses:5

Indiana canes and airups.

No. Sucrose. Other suga.

Pler cent. Per cent.
1 Sample of eight selected canes ............. 13.25 2.30
2 Sample of sixteen average cales ............ 10.73 3. 71
3 Cano cut October I ....................... 8.5 .9

Op. cit., p. 43. 3 Op.c it., p. 31. 6 OP.t p. 53.
'Bull. No.2, p. 32. 4 Bull. No. 3, p. 52.







67

Analyses were also made of canes from the Rio Grande plantation, New Jersey. These canes were prepared for shipment in the manner jut described.
Analyses of juice from eight volunteer canes, ripe and in first-class condition :
Per cent.
Sucrose .......................................... 10. 68
Glucose ...................................... 3. 25
Not sugar......................................... 2.48
Total solids-------------------------------......... 15.36

Analyses of six canes from field fertilized with salt muck:

Per cent.
Sucrose---------------------.................. 27
Glucose--------------------------------------.......1.77
Not sugar-------------------------------------......3.23
Total solids-----------------------------------......17.78

Analyses of twenty-five canes taken from carrier representing fairly well the canes ground on September 22, 1883: Per cent.
*Sucrose ..................... .................. 9. 32
Glucose.................................. 4. 951
N'ot sugar..................................... 0. 96
TIotal solid.-------------------.................. 15.27

In 1.884 some small plats of sorghum, were grown on the Department grounds. These varieties were Early Amber, Early Orangce, Link's ilybrid, and HonduLras. These plats had a dressing of well decomposed stable manure and an application of superphosph ate equal to 400 pounds per acre.
Following is a description of the method of preparing the canes for
analysis:1
The seed-heads, as they appeared, were cut off of a large number of canes at inter. vals along the row. A like number of canes was left to mature in the usual way. To protect the forming seeds of these against the depredations of the English sparrows they were covered with a cap of tarlatan ; but in spite of this precaution the seeds did not mature. The hungrry birds would hang upon the netting and gradually pick~ them off. To this extent the object of the trial was defeated ; but the results show that the removal of the seed, either before or after flowering, does apparently increase the percentage of sucrose in thlejuice. This is shown from the fact that tile percentage of sucrose inl canes deprived by the birds of their seed is much greater in the juices analyzed in 1884 tban in those of 1883, when the seed matured. Onl the other hand, it does not appear that the removal of the panicle immediately on its appearance tends to give a materially greater percentage of sucrose than is obtained by allowing the birds to remove the seeds after they have begun to formn. In Table I are given the results of the analyses of canes whose panicles were cut as soon as they could be seen. These canes were stripped and pressed iul a small mill. The percentage of juice expressed was noted. Theo bagasse was now passed second time through the mill, and thle Percenage ofsevoild jiceclclte n h first weight of the cane.
'Bulletin No. 5, Division of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture, pp. 1:39,140.







68

Means of analyses of canes whose seed-heads had been removed.'

First juices: Per cent
Sucrose ............................................. 14.90
Glucose............................................. 1.32
Not sugar ......................................... 3. 71
Total solids ......................................... 19.90
Purity co-efficient.................................. 74.80
Second juices: 2
Sucrose............................................. 14.83
Glucose............................................. 1.25
Not sugar........................................... 4.99
Total solids.. ........... ........................ 20.96
Purity co-efficient............ ....................... 70.50

Analyses of canes whose seeds were allowed to ripen.

First juices: Per cent.
Sucrose ............................................. 14.72
Glucose............................................. 1.22
Not sugar ................. ........... 3.58
Total solids..................... ,. 19.59
Purity co-efficient .................................. 74.93
Second juices :
Sucrose .......... ................... ..... 14.60
Glucose............................................. 1.18
Not sugar... ...... ........................... 4.77
Total solids......................................... 20.67
Purity ............................................. 70.54

Analyses of juices from stripped and unstripped canes.

Canes with seed heads Canes with seed heads cut. uncut.

Stripped. Unstripped. Stripped. Unstripped.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Sucrose............. 15.73 14.48 15.89 15.05
Glucose ........... 1. 57 1.99 1.30 1.99
Not sugar .......... 3.37 2.84 3.32 2.79
Total solids. ........20. 68 19.41 '0.58 20.00
Purity co.efficient.. 75.99 74. 52 77.02 75.22


I add the following observations:

JUICES OF 18$4 COMPARiED WITH THOSE OF 1883.
The most surprising phase of the experimental work as exhibited in the tables given is the great difference which it shows between the composition ofjuices analyzed and those analyzed during 1~83:

1883. 1884.

Moan percentage sucroe........... 8.38 14.72
Mean percentage reducing sugars.. 4.09 1.24 Mean percentage albuminoids...... .1544 .96001

SOp. cit., p. 141. Op. ci., pp. 142, 143. Op. oit, pp. 148p 149.
Op. cit., p. 142. Op. cit., p. 144. Op. cit., p. 150.







Schief points of interest in this comparison are the increase in sucrose, the deain reducing sugars, and the increase in albuminoids. It is difficult to explain
wy the same varieties of cane grown in the same locality, with the same kind of ture and fertilizing, and in seasons not markedly different, should yieid juice of such different composition. Sorghum is one of the most capricious of plants, and the above comparison brings some of its moods into strong contrast.
During the season of 1884 the Department made an extensive series of analyses at Helena, Wis.
The variety of cane was Early Amber, and it was grown in a light, sandy soil without fertilizers. I visited the plantation during the progress of the work. The cane, though small, looked well and was mostly ripe.
Following are the means of the analyses for the whole season :?
Per cent.
Sucrose ................................................ 7.85
Glucose ................................................. 5.00
The proprietors of the plantation, Messrs. Williams & Flynn, even after the discouraging results of the above analyses, were not without hope that sugar-making could be profitably undertaken in Wisconsin. To this opinion I was not able to subscribe, as will be seen from the following quotation: 3
In spite of the conviction of Messrs. Williams & Flynn that sorghum sugar can be made profitably in Wisconsin, I am far from being convinced of the justness of that expectation, unless, indeed, it be in some small way. In view of the disasters that have overtaken attempts at sorghum-sugar making further south I think it would be unwise to encourage like enterprises in regions where at best not more than four weeks of an average milling season can be expected.
In 1885 additional analyses were made of sorghum grown near Ottawa,
Kans.4
The juices from the two mills used in grinding the cane were collected in a common tank and the samples for analysis taken from time to time from this tank. These samples, therefore, represent the mean constitution of the juice from several thousand tons of cane. The samples were taken from September 9 to October 14, inclusive:
M-eane of the analye.
Per cent.
Sucrose ................................ 9. 23
Glucose .............. ...........3.04
Not sugar ..............-......2. 87

Total solids ................................15.07

ANALYSES OF CANES USED IN DIFFUSION.

During the progress of the diffision experiments at Ottawa, Kans., October 8, 1885, three samples of cane were taken at different times Op. cit., pp. 151, et stq.
i 01). cit., 1). 15-1.
0Op. cit., p. 156.
4 IDepartmneitt of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry, Bull. No. 6, 1885.





70

during the day, and the juice, expressed on a small hand-mill, subjected
to analysis. The following results were obtained:


First analysis, Second analysis, Third analysis, 10 a. m. 11 a.m. 11.30 a. m.


Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Total solids.... 17.00 15.60 15.20
Sucrose ........ 11.24 9.62 9.83
Glucose....... 2.44 2.85 3.41
Not sugar ..... 3.32 3.13 1.96


ANALYSIS OF DIFFUSION JUICES.

The diffusion juices obtained in the above experiment were analyzed
with the following results: 1


First sample. Second sample.


Per cent. Per cent.
Total solids.... 10. 84 9.70
Sucrose....... 6.19 5.90
Glucose........ 2.32 2.00
Not sugar...... 2.23 1.80


fomposition of canes used in second diffausion experiment at Ottawa.'


No. Hour. Sucrose. Glucose. Not sugar. Total solids.


Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
1 10 a.m. 10.23 2.11 2.82 15.16
2 3 p.m. 8. 64 2.95 2. 81 14.40
3 4.30 p. m. 8.51 3.11 2.89 14.54
4 5.30 p.m. 8.81 2. 61 2.98 14. 40


Composition of diffusion juices from abore eance.


No. Sucrose. Glucose. Not sugar. Total solids.


Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
1............ 4.86 1.69 1.78 8.33
2............ 5. 94 2.00 2.20 10.14
3............ 4.09 2.31 1.64 8.94
4........... 4.76 2.25 1.55 8.56
5............ 3.91 2.16 1.63 7.70

Means...... 4.89 2.08 1.76 8.74


Composition of juices from canes topped and suckered, topped and not sunckered, and untouched, Ottawa, 1885.

MEANS.

Topped and Topped and Normal suckered. not suckered. canes.


Per cent. Per cent. Percent.
Sucros.......... 12.45 12.40 12.15
G Ilu ose........ 1. 99 2.09 2.06
Not sugar ...... 2.82 2. 6 2.5
Total solids..... 17.20 17.31 16.77

0p. cit., p. 8. Op. ct., p. 10. Op. Pt., p. 12.






71

COMPOSITION OF CANES AND JUICES AT FORT SCOTT, SEASON OF 1886.

During 1886 the Departinent analyses were continued at Fort Scott, ns.1
Mean composition of juices of canes expressed by hand-mill.

Au~ust 30 to October 1, 1886 :2
Per cent.
Sucrose ............................................. 10.49
Glucose ............................................. 4.01
Total solids ......................................... 17.56
October 1 to 26:
Sucrose ............................ ................. 8.70
Glucose ............................................. 4.15
Total solids................ ......................... 16.60

MEAN COMPOSITION OF DIFFUSION CHIPS.

These chips were taken from each cell and, after thorough mixing, sampled for analysis. The extractions were made in closed bottles.3


In the cane. In the juice.

September 8 to October 1, 1886: Percent. Per cent.
Sucrose...................... 8.85 9. 73
Glucose...................... 3.32 3.65
Total solids.................. 14.69 16.15
rOctober 1 to 28:
Sucrose.................... 7. 01 7. 71
Glucose...................... 4.15 4.56
Total solids ................. 14. 90 15.99


COMPOSITION OF JUICES FROM DIFFUSION CHIPS.

Samples taken as just described and the chips passed through small mill.
Means from October 15 to 28.4 Per cent.
Sucrose......-.......................... ................. 7.28
Glucose ................................................. 3.74
Total solids ............................................. 14.80

Compocition of the canes calculated from the mill jaiccs for the en tire seasonn5


Total solids. Sucrose. Glucose.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Before October 1.... 15.63 9.34 3.57
After September 30. 14.77 7.74 3. 79
After October 14.... 13.17 6.48 3.31
Means......... 14.56 7. 85 3. 52

Bulletin No. 14, Division of Chemistry, Departmient of Agriculture, 1887.
Op. cit., p. 15.
S Op. cit., p. 16.
Op. cit., p. 17.
On. eir. p. 31.





72

MEAN COMPOSITION OF TIh. DIFFUSION JICES VOR THE SEASON OF 1886.
Samipling.-From each cell as it was withdrawn a measured quantity of the diffusion juice was taken until an entire circuit of the battery had been made. The mixed samples was then subjected to analysis.'

Mean composition of diffusion juices.
September 9 to October 1: Per cent.
Sucrose.......................................... 5. 75
Glucose ............................................. 2.32
Total solids ........................................ 11.77
September 30 to October 28:
Sucrose.......... ...................... ..... .... 4.90
Glucose .. ..... .... .. ..... .. 3.39
Solids ........... ... ...... ....... ...... ..... 11.34

(b) WORX NOT DONE BY THl DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

D. J. Browne says the juice of sorghum grown in France contained from 10 to 1G per cent. sugar, a third part of which is sometimes un. crystallizable.
C. T. Jacksou3 analyzed samples of sorghum canes sent him by the Department, and obtained from 9 to 12 per cent. saccharine matter to weight of stalk.
From samples grown in Massachusetts he obtained from 10.6 to 14.0 per cent. saccharine matter. He made no attempt to separate the different sugars in the juice.
In same volume, p. 313, is given an analysis made at Verrieres, France, showing 16 per cent. sugar, of which 10.33 is sucrose and 5.67 glucose.
C. T. Jackson reports further analyses in Agricultural Report, 1857, pp. 185 et seq., in which the per cent. of saccharine matter varied from 9.36 to 16.6, and the sucrose from nothing to a large quantity, the exact amount of which was not determined. Dr. Jackson made no determinations of the sugar in the juice, but calculated the saccharine matter from the specific gravity.
J. Lawrence Smith4 made several analyses of sorghum) from which he concludes that "the sorgho contains about 10 per cent. crystallizable sugar.
(Op. cit., pp. 18, 19.
Department of Agriculture. Report 1850, pp. 309-313.
Op. cit., p. 308.
Agricultural Report 1857, pp. 192 et seq.
O p cit., p. 196.





73

Dr. C. A. Goesmann gives the following as the means of his analyses S the p canes:
Per cent.
Water .............................................. 78.94
Soluble matter ...................................... 10.22
Of which sucrose............................................ 9.25
Of which cellulose .................................. 8.20
Of which other substances .......................... 2.64
Joseph S. Lovering found the following per cent. of sucrose in the juices of sorghum in several experiments, viz, 5.01, 5.57, 7.29.
Stansbury reports3 that the juice of sorghum, as examined in France, contains from 10 to 16 per cent. of sugar, a third part of which is uncrystallizable. In respect of the manufacture of sugar, he says: In so far as the manufacture of sugar is concerned, in a domestic way, this plant appears to have but little chance of success in a high northern climate, as a large proportion of that which is uncrystallizable is not only a loss to the manufacturer, but an obstacle to the extraction of what is crystallizable. It must not be understood, however, that the produce of this plant is unprolific or difficult to obtain, but that, all things being equal, its nature renders it more abundant in alcohol or sirup than in sugar.
Hippolyte Leplay4 found a percentage of sucrose varying in ripe sorghum from 9.35 to 17.81.
Leplay 5 shows a total content of both sugars from 7.81 to 11.81 per cent.
ANALYSES GIVEN BY F. L. STEWART.6

Stewart states that sorghum juices show an average density of 110 B., with 180 saccharine matter, nearly all of which is cane sugar.
After clarification this specific gravity is reduced to 9.50 B.1
Average results for juice of ripe cane grown on good upland soil are given as follows:'
Specific gravity ........... .............................1.0s
Specific gravity of clarified juice..................... 1.070
Total sugars (per cent)-17.00
Of which nearly all is sucrose.
Stewart quotes the analyses of Dr. (. T. Jackson as follows:
Specific gravity ........................................ 1.0G2
Calculated total sugar (per cent.)-------------------15.5
Obtained sugar (nearly all sucrose), per cent ............ 16.6
The figures given in the Agricultural Report, already quoted for Dr. Jackson's analyses, are claimed by Stewart to be erroneous. Contributions to the Knowledge of the Nature of the Chinese Sugar-Cane, 1862, p. 21.
'Ex erimcts on the Sorghum Saccharatum, 1857, pp. 7 and 14.
3 Chinese Sugar-Cane, 1857, p. 10.
4 Culture du Sorgho sucre, pp. 33 and 34, Toulousie, 1$5$. L Manuscript sent to author.
'Sorghum and its products, 1867, pp. 171. 0 aeq.





74

The reliability of the observations of Mr. Stewart may be called in question by the fact that hlie gives an illustration of a thin section of sorghum cane which shows an abundance of cane sugar crystals of a triangular shape. I will allow Mr. Stewart to describe these crystals in his own words:'
Aln incontrovertible evidence of the presence of cane sugar almost exclusively in the juice of sorghum is afforded in the fact that thin sections of the fresh stalk of the plant under the microscope exhibit the cells filled with innumerable minute crystals of pure white sugar, which by their form and other criteria are shown to be cane sugar only. Scarcely a trace of any other substance is found in the cells. This is well represented in the engravings.

The means of analyses of Early Amber caue made by Professor C. A. Goessmann at the Agricultural College of Massachusetts in 1878 are as follows :2
Per cent.
Sucrose ............................................... 5.00
Glucose ................................................ 6. 35
Total solids ............................................ 14. 42
An analysis of the juice of the Amber cane at Berkeley, Cal.,was made in 1879 by Professor Hilgard. It gave the following results:'
Specific gravity........................................ 1. 0605
Total solids ................................per cent.. 14.8
Sucrose .................................... do .... 10. 1
Weber and Scovell4 give the results of numerous analyses of Amber and Orange sorghum. Following are the figures:

Comrnposition of juice.

No. Sucrose. Glucose.

Per cent. Per cent.
1 10.75 3.34
2 4.90 5. 70
3 12.48 2.47
4 7.12 6.19
5 11.42 2.13
6 9.13 5.00
7 11.02 2.79
8 9. 76 4.11
9 10. 06 2. 47
10 13. 11 1.82
11 9.67 2.94
12 11.41 4. 02
13 3. 55 14.08
Means 9. 61., 4. 43

Weber gives the mean composition of the juice of orange cane as follows:
Per cent
Sucrose ....... .................. 9.77
Glucose .................. ................ .... .......... 3.00
W ater .................................................. 76.58
Starch .................................................. 4.12

0p. cit., p. 186.
Department of Agriculture, Report 1881 and 188?.
Report California College of Agriculture, 1879, p.. 58.
Illinois Agricultural Report, 1p0, pp. 425 et a~q.
On. cil., p. 4,2.





75

Fiv samples of sorghum juice examined by Professor Hilgard, of eey, Cal., in 1880, showed the following mean composition: I Specific gravity ......................................... 1. 081
Total solids .................................. per cent 19.65
Sucrose .......................................... do .... 11.89
Purity ............................... 66.82
In 1881 Weber and Scovell continued their analyses.?
The means of three series of determinations of sucrose and glucose wuDd to be:

Series. Sucrose. Glucose.

Per cent. Per cent.
First... 8.56 4.84
Second.. 11.95 3.21
Third... 11. 18 2. 85

Weber and Scovell3 give the following as the mean composition of the juice of Amber cane for 1881:
Specific gravity ......................................... 1.070
Sucrose ....................................... per cent.. 12.08
Glucose .......................................... do.... 2.47

ANALYSES AT EXPERIMENTAL FARM OF WISCONSIN FOR 1881.'

The mean composition of the juice for 1881 at Madison, Wis., wasPer cent.
Sucrose ................................................. 9. 5
Glucose .......................................3. 2
Not sugar .. ............................... 2.3
'Water ..........................................85. 0

Analyses of Early Amber, Early Orange, and Honduras canes gave the following mean results: 5

In theJuice. Early Amber. Early Orange. Honduras.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Sucrose..... 10.63 10.50 7.00
Glucose..... 2.68 4 95 4.20

CANES FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE STATE.

The mean composition of the juice from canes grown in different
arts of the State of Wisconsin and sent to experimental station for analysis is as follows:6
Per cent.
Sucros .. .. .. .. .. . . . .. .. 8.o7
Glucose ...................................... 5.12
I College of Agriculture, California, Report 1880, p. 41.
2 Illinois Agricultural Report, 1881, p. 497.
3 Eucouragement to the Sorghum and Beet Sugar Industry, Delpartment Agricultur,1883, p. 12.
SReport National Academy Sciences on Sorghum, p. p. 80 et seq. Op. cit., p. 80.
SOp. c it., p. 89.





76

Weber and Scovell give the following as the mean composition of Amber cane for 1882.'

Specific gravity ....... 060................................. 1.060
Sucrose ........................................percent.. 8.20
Glucose ...........................................do.... 3.66
For the best cane raised by them in 1882 the following mean composition of the juice is given :

Specific gravity ........................................ 1.060
Sucrose ....................................... per cent.. 10.17
Glucose.... .... . . . do.... 2.48

Swenson3 gives the analyses of juices from plots of fertilized canes grown at the experimental farms of the University of Wisconsin.
Following are the means of sixteen analyses:
-Per cent
Sucrose .............................................10.75
Gluicose ........................................3. 09

Professor 3wueison repl)orts the mean percentage of sucrose in the juice of thrtc lots of cane used for sugar making as follows:' Per cent
Lot 1 ....................................... .... 9.89
Lot 2 12.1)
Lot 3 ........... .................................. 11.20

Twenty-six varieties of sorghum grown on the experimental farm of Wisconsin in 1882 and analyzed by Professor Swenson showed the following composition of the juice: Per cent.
Sucrose ................................................. 9.84
Glucose........................... .................... 2. 35

Twenty-three varieties grown with fertilizers at same place gave a juice of the following composition:6 Per cent.
Sucrose...... ..................................... 10.79
Glucose...................................... ....... 2.81

Swenson also reports another set of canes which had a juice on Outober 13 of the following composition: Per cent.
Sucrose ................................... .. 10.59
Glucose................................................. 2.85

Encouragement to the Sorghum and Beet Sngar Industry, Department of Agriculturo, 1883, p. 12.
SOp. cit., p. 16.
Op. cit., p. 19.
LEncouragement to Sorghum, etc., Department of Agriculture, 183, p. 20.
Experiments with Amber Cane, Madison, Wis., 1:tw, p. 7.
Op. cit., pI. 8.
Encouragement to Sorghnn, etc. lepnartnient of Agriculture, 1883, p. 21.






77

days later the juice had the following composition:
Per cent.
Sucrose ................................................. 9. 50
Glucose ................................................ 5.00
t Italy, during the same year, further experiments were
eon by Professor Pirotta.1
K experiments were divided into four series. Following are the
Results for each series. In each series are given the means of
t o analyses of sorghum juices:
First series:
Specific gravity .................................... 1.0712
Sucrose.................... per cent.. 8.20
Glucose .o..............................o .... 6. 53
Second series:
Specific gravity .................................... 1.0946
Sucrose .................................. per cent.. 14.84
Glucose ..................................... do.... 5.14
Third series:
Specific gravity .................................... 1.0997
Sucrose ......................... per cent._ 15.10.
Glucose ..................................... do.... 5.81
Fourth series:
Specific gravity ..................................... 1.1039
Sucrose .................................. per cent.. 18.01
Glucose e..................................... do.... 4.17
lu 1882 made numerous analyses of juice from a large cane-mill at Fayette, Id. The analyses represent 50 acres of cane, the greater a of which was stripped and ripe.2 The means of the analyses are as follows: Sucrose ..................................... per cent.. 7.5
Glucose ............ ............................ do.... 5.80
Specific gravity ....................................... 1.05S6
Fifteen varieties of sorghum were also grown on the experimental ftarm fPurdue University during the same year. The whole of the plots was and passed through the mill, and the analysis represents the corn. Siton of the entire juice.

The means are as follows:
lucose .........................................per cent. 7. 17
~~lioe*~,..*..,,,. .do .5. 15
Specific gravity...-... ....do--- 1.0,9
Prof. Giulio Monselisel gives the result of numerous analyses of sormjuices. Following-are the means of forty-one analyses made on c es planted in April, 1882:
Per cent.
Tol sold............................................ 6I.


A dl Agrlcoltura sul Sorgho Ambrato, 1883, pp. 28 et seq., Roma.
port Agricultural College of Indiana (Purdue Univerity), 1 pp. 244-45. ambra prlmiticcia o Sorgho Zuiceherino del Minnesota, Maniova, 1883, Facicolo r; tbl opposite p. 192.






78

In 1882 experiments were made at the Zootechnic school in Reggio, Italy, by Professors Zanelli and Spallazani. The means of the analyses made by them are as follows:,
First series:
Per cent. in the juice.
Sucrose ............................................... 13.99
Glucose ...................... ................ 4.97
Second series:
Sucrose ........................................................... 11.55
Glucose 7,.........................7. 82
Two samples of sorghum juice (early amber) examined by Professor tlilgard, of the University of California, showed the following mean coi. position :2
Specifigravity........................................ 1.070
Total solids .................................. percent.. 17. 00
Sucrose .......................................... do.... 8.10
Purity ................................................ 45.40
A sample of juice from sugar-cane also grown in California showed the following composition:
Specific gravity ....................................... 1. 076
Total solids .................................. percent.. 18. 4
Sucrose ..................................do.... 16.9
Purity ........................................92.93
Professor Hilgard adds the following observations :I
The above analyses exhibit, first, the superiority of the true sugar-cane over the sorghum in respect to purity as well as total sugar contents, although in both respects the former is here shown below the quality to which it attains in tropical countries. There can be no doubt that wherever the tropical sugar.cane can be grown to advantage within the reach of intelligent labor and perfected appliances, it is superior to the sorghum as a sugar-producing plant.
Remarkable results were obtained by using special fertilizers in the New Jersey experiments.
In sixteen experiments the percentages of sugar in the cane were as follows:' 15.05, 13.13, 12.97, 11.74, 11.40, 12.50, 15.01, 11.79, 12.70, 15,200, 12.59, 13.57, 15.42, 15.93, 16.09, 15.37. Mean calculated for juice, 15.16
per cent.
In 1883 two samples of sorghum juice were analyzed by Dr. H. P. Armsby, chemist of the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station.
The results are given in the first annual report of the station, p. 79:

No. 1. No. 2

Per cent& Per c....
Sucrose........... 6 15 5
([tucose .......... 3.32 3.22
Totalolids ....... 12.00 13.5

'Annali di Agricoltura stil sorgho Amnbrato, Roma, 188:, pp. 20 8eq... 'College of Agriculture, University of California, report, 1882, p. 61. 3Op. cit., lp. 61.
"New Jersey Experiment Station, Bull. No. XXX, p. 7.







79

Swenson' says the average percentage of cane sugar in sorghum grown by him on the Wisconsin farm was 10.5 to 12.5.
Weber2 reports the following as the general average of all the cane juies manufactured at Champaign during the year 1883:
Speiic gravity--------------------------------- 1.059
.......... Sucrose----------------per cent. 7.78
S coe........ .... ........... ....... .... .. p rc n .. '. '
Glucose ................................ do.... 4.76
The means of seventy analyses made of Amber canes at Hutchinson, Kans., during the season of 1883, by Prof. M. Swenson, are as follows:
Per cent.
Total solds--------------------14.2
To a sld ............................................ 1 .
Sucrose .................................................. 9.3
Glucose----------------------------------------- 2.8
The means of thirteen analyses of the cane juices from the large mill at iutchinson, Kaus., give the following numbers: 4
Per cent.
Total solids ............................................. 15.7
Sucrose ................................................. 11.1
Glucose ................................................. -.3
The means of thirteen analyses of Orange cane at Hutchinsoni during 1883 are as follows:"
Per cent.
Total solids ............................................. 13.1
Sucrose ................................................. 8.7
Glucose ................................................. 3. 5
Seven analyses of the juices of Link's Hybrid cane, made at same place in 1883, are as follows:
Per cent.
Total solids------------------------------------- 13.2
Sucrose...... .- 10. 3
Glucose-----------------2. 1:3
G u o e................................................. 2.1,
Means of two analyses of the juices of Honduras cane, made at the same time and place, are as follows :
Per cent.
Total solids .... ................................. 15
S c o e. ............................................. 1 .2
Sucrose-----------------------o
Glucose----------------------- 4

The means of fifty-six analyses of thejuices of sorghum, c hefly Amber, made by Prof. M. A. Scovell, at Sterling, Kans., in 1883, are as follows:6 Per CCn.
Sucrose -745
Glucose .................................................
Not sugar ............................................... 313

'Third Annual Meeting Wisconsin Cane-Growers' Associatioi, February, 1883, p16; edited by J. A. Field, Saint Louis, Mo.
2 Department of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry, Bull. No. 3, p. 6*.
Op. cit., p.64.
Op. cit., p. 65.
'Op. cit., p. 6,.







80

The means of nine analyses of Early Amber cane juice, made by Prof. G. H. Failyer, of the Kansas State Agricultural College, at Manhattan, in 1883, are as follows :1 Per cent.
Total solids ............................................. 15.36
Sucrose ................................. .............. 11.72
Glucose ............................... ................ 1. 45

The means of six analyses made l- the same person, at the same place, of the juices of Link's Hybrid cane, are as follows:1 Per cent.
Total solids ............................................. 11.12
Sucrose ................................................. 6.13
Glucose ................................................. 2.83

Means of four analyses of Kansas Orange cane juice, made by the same person at same place and time, are as follows: 1 Per cent.
Total solids ............................................. 14.91
Sucrose ................................................ 11.28
Glucose...... ................. ...... .......o............. 1. 06

One analysis of Honduras cane, made at the same time and place by Professor Failyer, gaveSucrose ......................................per cent.. 9.76
Glucose...................................do.... 3.29
Specific gravity ......................................... 1.061

The means of sixteen analyses reported by F. L. Stewart are as fol. lows:2
Specific gravity ......................................... 1.068
Sucrose ......................................percent.. 12.50
Glucose .......................................do.... 2.23

Prof. W. A. Henry3 reports the analyses of twenty-one samples of sorghum juices from different varieties.
The mean results are as follows:
Per cent.
Sucrose ..................... .................. 8.93
Glucose................................................. 2.34

In 1885 further analyses were made of field samples at the IPo Grande factory by the chemist of the New Jersey station, Dr. Neale.
All the samples excepl)t the last one named had been fertilized. The qluantity of sugar in the cane of the several samples was as follows: 4

SOp. cait., pp. G-, 69.
Fourth Annual Report New York State Sugar-Growers' Association, p. 44.
Second Annual Report Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station, p. 33.
ANew Jersey Experiment Station, Bull. No. XXXVIII, p. 10.






81

.187.56 7.48, 6.57, 7.29, 7.14, 7.50, 6.26, 7.50, 8.10, 8.30, 7.54, 7.46, 6.46,
17. Mean calculated for juice, 7.96. After the experiments above mentioned all the canes of the experiental plots were cut and passed through the large mill, and the exressed juices sampled and analyzed. The respective percentages of sucrose in these juices were as folows: 1 8.69, 8.23, 9.96, 8.89 9.70, 9.48, 9.96, 9.12, 11.30, 11.21, 11.38,
1.168 11.03 8.87, 9.18. Mean, 9.88. Twenty-six tons of early orange cane was found by another analysis o conain 7.25 per cent. sucrose :2 position of sorghum juices from large mill at Rio Grande, N. J., for the four seasons from 1882 to 1885, inclusive.

SUCROSE.

[Averages for each week.]

1882.4 1883. 5 1884. G 1885.'

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
10.35 9.70 9.f0 6.60 11.33 10.37 9.6t 8.03 11.81 8.56 9. 16 8. 39 11.56 9.22 10.96 8.70 10.68 9. 50 11.10 8.9 11.58 9. 70 12.60 10. 64 10.85 10.:6 10. 25 10.00 11. cO 10.74 10.33 ..........
10.56 0 95 9. .90 .........
11.38 9.42 8. 70 ..........
11. 11s 9. 755 10. 25 8.76'

4 From Sept. 4 to Nov. 6. b From Sept. 10 to Nov. 12. 6 From Sept. 8 to Nov. 10. From Sept. 2 to Oct. 12. I Mean.

For 1886 the mean percentage of sucrose in the cane as reported by be New Jrsey Experiment Station was 114 to 120 pounds per ton.

Mean in cane (pounds) .................................. 117
Mean per cent, sucrose in cane ........................... 5. 85
Mean per cent. sucrose in juice ............................ 6.54

The general average content of sucrose in the mill juices at Rio rando for the five years is 9.28 per cent. The means of ninety-eight analyses made in 1886 by Professor Stubbs, director of the experiment station at Kenner, La., were as follows:4 Per cent.
Sucrose ....................................... .......... 11.92
Total solids ............................................. 16.34
Op. cit., p. 10.
Sp. c it., p. 15.
M S. from Mr. II. A. Hughes, superintendent. SLouisiana Sugar Experiment Station, Kenner, La., Bull. No.5, pp.6 and 7, 188.6, 23576-Bull 18- 6







fn 1886 the iNew Jersey station continued its analyses at IZ io G1raxie The percentage of sucrose inl the cane varied from 114 to 120 pounds per ton.'

COMPARISON OF MILL AND DIFFUSION JUICES FOR 1886.

At Rio Grande the chemist of the New Jersey station made analyses for the purpose of complaringr mill and diffusion jUiCeS.2
The means are as follows:


Mill juice. ifso
juice

Per cent. Per cent.
Sucrose ...... 8.93 7.59
Total solids ... 12.99 11.56
Purity ......... 68.75 65.57

A mean of eight experiments made by i. r. Willcox, of New York,3 in 1886 shows 9 per cent. sucrose in sorghbum juice.

ANALYTICAL D)ATA PROMA THE EXPERIMENTS AT THE! NEW JERSEY
AGRICULTURAL STATION.

The sN-stemiatic investigations made by Dr. Geo. H. Cook, director of the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, have already been quoted inl thle data given. These experiments were commenced in 1881
andhav beiicotined vey yarsine.Theechemical work has beeii in charge ofIr. A. T. Neale. The results of these experiments have b~eenl so iuiterestino' and1 instructive that I have grouped them together.
Inl l 8t fourteeni varieties were planted, of which only five mlatured1.4 The sucrlose inl tile juice of these five mnattared varieties was as follows: Per cent., 8.58, 7.28, 0.50,)o 7.6, 14.06. Mean, 8.80 per cent.
The same( season5I sixte en pilots of Early Amber were treated with. various fertilize][1, and the yedof'sugar calculated per acre.
Tim perce~ntivges of sucrose. inl the juice of the several plots were as follows: 9.70, 9.43 99.27,9.68, 9.91,10.151, 11.65, 11.43,9.84, 9.57, 11.61,
9).7-3, 9.44,1112. ()1. Mean,7 10.160.
Ill respect1 of' the e'x1)er-IlneInts Dr. Cook inakes the following report,:6 Afler aI strugg-le, whicI.I hasow labtcd mlore) thanm twenty-five years, sorghumii todaly does not ouyIt's true position .1niong. suigar-producing, plaft8t. Its advocatejulstiyt-claim1 that this is duet to our lalck of informattion, not only in regard to tile imis fia-ture of sugar fron it, but also Inl respect to its proper cultivation. For 801110, tinic past authorites 11;lve fel~t thatt the hope of' having" a sinall sugardiouso onl each farmn mlust be abl)udoiwdp anld thaI.t ourl ittentionl mu1st bo turned towards tho mnore rational
Prof. (w. I f. Cok, IRuLIIraI NVo r Id,7 .J11ly 7, 18117.
'Seventhi Ann, Rep~ort, Ne!w Jericy Agricuiltural Experiment Station, 1886, p. 1 10. D MS. coinnun-icaiom, to uthor.
*Secondt Auim. Itti-port. Now Jersey E'xperimient Station, p1.43.

Op. cit., ppl. 46, 47.






83

pa of thoroughly equipped mauufactories, in which the sorghum grown on neighboring farms can be worked quickly and economically by skilled operatives. The result of the season's experiments is decidedly encouraging, considering the unfavorable circumstances. There has been a drought of unprecedented severity and l ,so that the corn crop on the college farm was not more than one-quarter its
usal amount And yet the results of sorghum growing on the same farm, as given in the above table, are respectable. With a season having the average rain-fall a crop weighing from two to three times as much as that of the present one may safely be calculated on.
In 1882 experiments were made on two plots on autumn and spring plowed ground. Each plot was divided into sixteen sections, on which different fertilizers were employed.
The mean percentages of sucrose in the juice for the two plots are as follows :'
First plot --------------------------------------13.16
Second plot.------------------------------------ 12.2
The season was again reported as unfavorable.
The plants came up quickly and grew rapidly from the first, so that no special trouble was experienced in hoeing or cultivating it. It came forward with strong and stout canes until near the middle of August, when a very severe drought set in. The growth of the cane was entirely stopped for some weeks, when it was about 6 feet high. Finally stunted-looking seed-heads partially developed in irregular patches and streaks over the field; most of the seed was blasted, and many of the stalks failed to head out. The height of the crop was 2 or 3 feet below the normal growth. When the rains came in September new shoots forked out from the upper joints and unfolded slender heads, but it was too late in the season, and no seeds ripened on them.
We judge that the crop of cane was not half what it would have been in a favorable season, and that of the seed not one-third of a full crop. The percentage of juice in the canes was also much lower than is natural in properly-grown sorghum.
The effects of the drought were irregular on the field, not following any of the lines which marked the plots and fertilizers, so that we can draw no satisfactory conclusions from the experiments on fertilizers either in the production of cane and seed or on the quality and amount of the juice or sugar.
Our uniform course is to record our failures as well as our successes, and this is published, though it is a disappointment and a failure which we could not avoid.
In 1883 the results of the experiments were still more encouraging.
The means of the percentages of sucrose in the juice of sixteen samples from as many different plots was 15.16.3
The average quantity of sugar produced per acre, based on the above analyses, was 3,963 pounds.
Some of the conclusions derived from the above set of experiments
are of a remarkable character.4
Even when a mill exprcsse8 from 50 to 0 per cent. of juice from tripped and topped cane, i may yet lea-e more than one-half of the sugar in the bagasse. This fact can be best shown by an example. The cane on plot 11 contained 4,119 pounds of sugar per acre. Of this the mill expressed 1,983 pounds, leaving in the bagasse 52 per cent. of the sugar which the cane contained. This result is the most favorable in the experiment. The other extreme is found on plot 10, where nearly 70 per cent. of the sugar was
iThir Annual Report New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, pp. 64,65.
'Op. ct., pp. 61, 62.
2Fourth Annual Report New Jersey Experiment Station, p. 70.
40p. cit., pp. 67, 68.






84

wasted. In eleven other cases the loss exceeds 60 per cent. Apparently the the cane the smaller the loss of sugar by the milling process. To explain this loss it is necessary to assume that a considerable portion of the sugar is stored in the cane in a solid state, either as pure crystallized sugar or in some combination easily decomposed or dissolved in water. It is claimed that the microscope has shown crystals of sugar in the cells of the sorghum ; if this is true, it is irrational to attempt the perfect separation of sugar from the cane fiber by mechanical means. For attaining this end the process of diffusion seems to be the most practical and promising method. It has been thoroughly tested and generally adopted by the beet-sugar industry, and experiments thus far reported indicate that it is also applicable to the sorghum and tropical cane. Mr. I. B. Blackwell states in the Boston Journal of Chemistry that by following this process he was able without difficulty to make 13 pounds of crystallized sugar and 6 pounds of good sirup from 100 pounds of Amber cane.
In my opinion natural crystals of sugar never exist in healthy sorghum canes. In 1883 I had this subject thoroughly examined.'
Six hundred sections of sorghum and sugar canes failed to show a single crystal of sugar. In very dry seasons the juice of sorghum has been known to exude through perforations made by an insect and 'to crystallize on the outside of the stalk. A sample of very pure cane sugar formed in this way was sent to me last year (1886) by Mr. A. A. Denton, of Kansas.
In 1884 the following data were obtained as the result of the experiments at the station,2
There were sixteen plots Early Amber all fertilized but two. The percentage of sucrose in the cane was 8.53 and in the juice 9.39. The average total sugar per acre for the sixteen plots was 1,752 pounds. Two additional plots were planted in Amber and Orange canes respectively, no fertilizers being used.3
The total sucrose in the Amber plot was, for the cane 9.20 per cent., and for the juice 10.12 per cent.
For the Orange the numbers were: for the cane 6.57 per cent., and for the juice 7.22 per cent.
A plot of amber cane, from seed sent by Professor Henry, of Wisconsin, showed in the same conditions as above :
Per cnt.
Sucrose in cane---------------------------...... 8.63
Sucrose in juice...... .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. .... 9.49
The intensely hot weather following May 14, the date of planting, was decidedly unfavorable for sorghum. The soil "baked" hard, the Amber seed germinated slowly, the "moping" period appeared to be unusually prolonged, and tho plants in many hills perished, especially upon plots 12 to 16, inclusive. For a long time the experiment was regarded as a failure, and received comparatively little attention. Later the development was remarkable, and the yield of cane from several of the plots was above the average; in quality, however, in all cases it fell far below previous results.6
D)epartinient of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry, Bull. No. 2, p. 6.
Fi ifthi A iii. Report New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, pp. 84, 86.
Op. cir. I 1. -09.
Op. ci1., p. 80.
Op. CiI., p. 81.






85

185comparative experiments were made with native Amber seed,
Amberseed from Prof. W. A. Henry, and native Orange seed.
Thpercentages of sucrose in the three kinds of canes were as follows:'

In the cane. In thejuice.

Per cent. Per cent.
Native Amber ------- 8.98 9.87 Wisconsin Amber.... 10.40 11.44 NTative Orang-e ...... 7.38 8.11


Sixteen plots all fertilized save two were planted in Early Amber and the following data were obtained: 2.
Meansucrose in cae.............percent.. 9.37
Mean sucrose in juice------------do.-... 10. 30
Average weight sugar per acre..........pounds.-- 2,372
Anothr set of experiments was made at Rio Grande with the cooprtion of Mr. George C. Potts and Mr. H. A. Hughes. The following data were obtained. Early Orange cane, sixteen plots, all fertilized
but one:9
Mean percentage sucrose in juice ..................... 9.88
Total weighbt sugar per acre................. pounds.. 2,508
In reviewing the operations of the Rio GIrande factory for the past five years, Professor Cook says: 4 The records of this plantation for the paet five years show that upon the average 7.7 tons of unstripped and untopped cane only have been grown per acre, -while the average yield of merchantable sugar per ton of cane has not exceeded 40 pounds. To compete successfully with other sources of cane sugar, therefore, the average tonng of good cane per acre should be at least doubled, while the quantity of merchantable sugar secured per acre should be increased many fold.
In 1880 the experiments at Rio Grande were continued. Sixteen plots all fertilized but one were planted in Early Orange Cane. The follwing data were obtained :6
Cane (leaves and seed) per acre ............. pounds.. 13,383
Clean cane per acre.................. ....... do.... 10,448
Sucrose in clean cane................ ...... ...... per cent.. 7.95
Totaiweight igar per acre..............pounds.. 905
Professor Cook makes the following remarks oil the results of the
seaso
Three years agfo it was clearly seen that the Rio Grande Company failed to secure oehalf of the total amount of sugar pre-sent in its sorghum crops, and since that tieall energies have been directed toward the substitution of diffusion for milling.
Sixth Annual Report New Jersey Agricultural Experimental Station, p. 109.
20P. cit., p.11I.
3 op. cit., p. 126.

5 Seventh Annual Report New Jersey Experimental Station, p. 151.
Op. cit., p.l141.






86

The obstacles to this change, met at the very beginning, have at last been overcome, and 70 per cent. of the sugar in the cane has this year been extracted and sold. Information has also been gained which shows how 90 per cent. of the total sugar may be secured in the future.
It still remains to be demonstrated that this industry can be made a financial success.
The chemical analysis of cane, showing its percentage of sugar only, is far from reliable information on this question if unaccompanied by the actual weight of crop per acre. I A normal evaporation of water from a crop, for instance, may cause an apparent improvement in its quality, but as this evaporation is accompanied by a corresponding loss of weight, it leaves the absolute amount of sugar per acre unchanged. Again, the percentage of sugar in the juice may remain constant while the quantity of juice to be secured from an acre of cane may be steadily decreasing, involving thereby a loss in the absolute amount of sugar. During the period October 9-23, 728 tons of unstripped and untopped sorghum were diffused, and an average yield per ton of 80 pounds of 1000 test sugar thereby secured. Of this 80 pounds, 55.7 pounds crystallized and 24.3 pounds remained in the molasses. This cane was grown principally upon banked meadows, and although it may have passed its best stage as regards sugar production, it was not considered "dried up" or pithy.
On the 1st, 2d, and 3d of November 241 tons of unstripped and untopped cane were diffused, and an average yield per ton of 50 pounds of 1000 test sugar thereby se. cured, of which 30 pounds crystallized and 20 pounds remained in the molasses. This cane was grown upon upland which had been heavily dressed with stable manure. Early in the fall it was considered a first-class crop, and, as it was within easy reach of the sugar-house, it was held in reserve to be used in case any emergency made it difficult to secure the necessary supply from more distant fields. This sorghum affords an unusual example of an over-ripe, pithy crop. The green cane yielded 80 pounds and the pithy cane 50 pounds of 1000 test sugar per ton. If, therefore, this loss of sugar was accompanied by losses in tonnage as heavy as farmers claim, then milling wastes at once sink into comparative insignificance. For if one-half of the tonnage disappears, and if at the same time that portion of the crop which remained depreciates 40 per cent. in value to the sugar boiler, it follows that two-thirds of the sugar formed in the plant may be wasted by delays in field-work.
This reasoning rests upon claims and assumptions which can be easily and thoroughly investigated; it indicates that the most important question now awaiting solution is, "At what stage in its growth should sorghum be harvested "


MANUFACTURE OF SUGAR.

EXPERIMENTAL.

The first sorghum sugar made in this country appears to have been in an experiment by Dr. Battey, of Rome, Ga., in the laboratory of Dr. Booth in Philadelphia.
We will give further results of experiments made at the South, and quote from the Southern Cultivator for October, 1656: "In the winter of 1844-'4 the junior editor of this journal obtained from Boston a few ounces of seed of this plant (Chinese sugar-cane), then newly imported from France. It came very highly recommended as a sugar-producing and forage plant; but, having a vivid recollection of manypre' p. cit., pp. 153 et scq.
The Chinese Sugar-Cane, by James F. C. Hyde, New York, 1857, pp. 46 et seq.
3This is probably a mistake and means 184-'55.






87

appointments with new-fangled notions, we concluded to test it cautiously ately. Passing by it one day, when the seeds were nearly or quite
r we concluded to test the sweetness of the stalk; so cutting a moderate-sized c and peeling its hard outside coat, we found an exceedingly sweet and pleasant f wholly and entirely unlike anything of the corn-stalk family that we had ever
te It wa in fact, ready-made candy.
Fully satisfied by this time that it was valuable, at least for the production of sg e, and dried fodder, we next turned our attention to its saccharine prop.
e and fortunately induced our friend, Dr. Robert Battey, of Rome, Ga., who was
that time pursuing the study of experimental chemistry in the well-known laborat of Professor Booth, of Philadelphia, to test it. As the result of his experiment Dy sent us three small phials, one containing a fine sirup, one a very good s le of crude brown sugar, and the other a very good sample of crystallized sugar. T we believe to be the first crystallized sugar made in the United States from the j of the sorgho-sucr6.
Experiments were made by Joseph S. Lovering at Oakhill, near Philadelphia, in 1857, in the manufacture of sugar from sorghum. The first experiment was made September 30. In view of the voluminous literature on this subject in the thirty years that have passed since this experiment was made, I give Mr. Lovering's own description of it :' The fact of the presence of crystallizable sugar in the cane being established, I proceeded to cut and grind 20 feet of a row, and passed the thirty canes which it produced three times through the rollers; about one-fourth of the seed had changed to a dark glistening brown color, but was still milky; the remainder was quite green; ground six to eight of the lower joints, which together yielded 34 gallons of juice, weighing 90 Beaume; neutralized the free acid by adding milk of lime ; clarified with eggsand boiled it down to 2400 F.
This first experiment looked discouraging and unpromising at every step; its product wa a very dark, thick, viscid mass, apparently a ca put nortaum ; it stood six days without the sign of a crystal, when it was placed over a fine and kept warm four days longer, when I found a pretty good crop of soft crystals, the whole very similar to the "melada" obtained from Cuba, but of darker color.
Lovering's fourth experiment was made on one-fiftieth of an acre. It yielded 18.56 pounds of sugar and 23.73 pounds molasses.'
Calculated to 1 cre this gives 928 pounds sugar and 98.87 gallons molasses.
A foot-note informs us:3
Neither the scales in which this juice was weighed nor the quart measure in which it was measured were sufficiently delicate or accurate to give precise results, and as 1hey form the basis of these calculations, the percentages are probably not absolutely exact, but they are sufficiently so for all practical purposes.
Three other experiments were made by Mr. Lovering, but with results l favorable than No. 4.
The fashion in excuses for failure in sorghum-sugar making was early t by Mr. Lovering.
In the fifth experiment' he observed "a very sudden and unfavorable change in the working of the juice," which he ascribes to the weather
becoming and continuing very warm."
The sixth experiment, November 27, was made after warm Indian summer weather, wh heavy rains, also very cold weather, making ice 2 inches in thickness, thermome'Op. cit. p. 7. )Op. cit. p. 17. 6 Op. cit., pp. 20-21.
OQp. cit., P. it. 4 Op. c it., p). 19.






88

ter having varied from 160 to 600. To try the effect of these changes, I cut onehundredth part of an acre, which produced 11.15 gallons of juice only, instead of 19 or 20 gallons, as before. It had, however, regained its former weight of full 100 B., but was much more acid, rank, and dark-colored than previously. It clarified without difficulty, but raised a much thicker and denser scum, and, when concentrated, was very dark and molasses-like; it, however, produced good, hard, sharp crystals, but the quantity being much reduced, there was no inducement to pursue it further. This experiment proves, however, that this cane will withstand very great vicissitudes of weather without the entire destruction of its saccharine properties.
On page 2 L Mr. Lovering announces as a fundamental principle a rule of analysis which he followed, which, unfortunately, has not characterized all subsequent investigations. He says: The foregoing are all actual results produced by myself (the polariscopic observations having been taken on the spot, under the supervision of my partner, Mr. William Morris Davis), with no object in view but the truth and a desire to contribute whatever useful information I could towards the solution of this interesting and important question.
But even thus early he was led into the error of making sorghum sugar on paper, a process which for ease and profit is far superior to making it from canes, and which, unfortunately, has been largely practiced since these days of initial experiments. Taking only his experiment No. 4, he figures a yield of 1,466.22 pounds of sugar and 74.39 gallons molasses per aare, adding2
Further, it will be observed that my acre produced but 1,847 gallons of juice. I have, however, seen published accounts of far greater yields than this-one for insta nce, in this county, apparently well authenticated,reaching 6,800 gallons per acre, which, according to my actual results would produce 4,499 pounds of sugar and 274 gallons of molasses, and according to the foregoing probable results, would yield 5,389 pounds of sugar and 274 gallons to the acre.
Mr. Lovering was also the first one to show (on paper) that sorghum was quite as fine at sugar-making crop as the sugar-cane in Louisiana. Hlie makes the following comparison :

Lou isiana. Penn.iylvania.

Yield of juice per acre ............ gallons.. 2, 236 1, 817
Density of juice (Baum6) ..... ...t.dlegrees.. 8.44 10.00
Yield of sugar per gallon of juice ...pounds.. .70 .66
Yield of sugar per acre:
Actual ......................... pounds. 1,704 1,221.85
Probable ....... ...................do .... ............ 1,612. 00
Yield of molasses per acre:
Actual ...... .................. gallons.. 102 74.39
I'Probable...........................do.................. 81.83


As a result of the study of all his experiments, he arrives at the following conchlusions:4
(1) That it is obvious that there is a culminating point in the development of the sugar in the cane, which is the host time for sugar making. This point or season I consider to be when most if not all the seeds are ripe, and after several frosts, say when the temperature falls to 250 or 300 F.

Op. cit., pp. 21 and 22. Op. cit. p. 25.
Op. c., pp. 2:-4. O n. cit., pp. 26, 27.






89

frost, or even hard freezing, doesnrot injure the juice nor the sugar, but that w I summer weather, after the frost and hard freezing, does injure them
vrmaterially, and reduces both quantity and quality.
(3) That if the cane is cut and housed, or shocked in the field when in its most favor,odition it will probably keep unchanged for a long time.
() That wen the juice is obtained the process should proceed continuously and

(5) That the clarification should be as perfect as possible by the time the density rehd 150 Baum6, the sirup having the appearance of good brandy.
(6) That although eggs were used in these small experiments, on account of their convenience, bullock's blood, if to be had, is equally good, and the milk of lime alone will answer the purpose; in the latter case, however, more constant and prolonged skimming will be required to produce a perfect clarification, which is highly impor(7) That the concentration or boiling down, after clarification, should be as rapid as possible without scorching, shallow evaporators being the best.
With these conditions secured, it is about as easy to make good sugar from the Chinee cane as to make a pot of good mush, and much easier than to make a kettle of good apple-butter.

EXPERIMENT BY PROF. 0. A. GOESSM1ANN.

In 1857 Professor Goessmann obtained from 1,440 grams of sorghum juice, by two crystallizations and washing the crystals with alcohol, 120 grams of sugar.' Professor Goessmann says :2
As I before mentioned, J. S. Lovering obtained in practice 7 to 8 per cent. of sugar without estimating the amount left in the molasses. I found from 9 to 9j per cent. in thejuice; and Mr. Wray, an Englishman, who examined several species of sorghum at Cape Natal, on the southeastern coast of Africa, found the percentage almost equal to that of the real sugar cane, 18 per cent. I mention these facts to show what may be expected when the sorghum shall have received t lie attention of our farmers and have become acclimatized on a suitable soil. The transplantation of a plant to anew and perhaps less congenial climate and soil invariably exerts at first an injurious influence on the vital principle and its products. When the beet root was first cultivated for the manufacture of sugar it contained only 7 to 8 per cent. of sugar, but by the application of proper care to the cultivation and to selecting the best specimens for seed the percentage was increased to from 11 to 12 in some species. Should it be possible to increase the percentage of sugar in the sorghum in the same ratio, itssuccessful cultivation would become an accomplished fact; and our farmers, aided by their superior skill, more perfect machinery, and many other advantages afforded by this country, would be able to compete successfully with the planters of the West Indies.
Between the dates of the experiments recorded above and 1878 hunidreds of successful attempts to manufacture sorghum sugar as a by
product of molasses were made in the United States. I say successful in the sense that they demonstrated beyond any doubt the possibility of waking sugar, although they threw no light on either the scientific or economic problems involved. I therefore omitany further discussion of them here.
Numerous experiments were made by Dr. Collier, chemist of the De'Sorghum Saceharatum, republished from Transactions N. Y. State Agricultural Society, 1861, p. 21.
"Op. cit. pp. 20, 27.






90

partment of Agriculture in 18;8, in the production ot sugar from sorghum and maize stalks.'
Dr. Collier says of these experiments :
The point which these experiments have fully settled is, that there exists no difficulty in making from either corn or sorghum a first-rate quality of sugar, which will compare favorably with the best product from sugar-cane grown in the most favorable localities.
The experiments here given clearly indicate the probability that sugar may be thus made at a profit, and it is desirable that nothing be spared in continuing an investigation giving such fair promise of success.

The experiments in the production of sugar were continued by the Department of Agriculture in 1879.3 The sugar was not separated from the molasses except in one case, but the percentage of sucrose in the melada is given.
The melada from Chinese sorghum gave 54.7 per cent. sugar.4 Some
of the analyses seem to show a loss of glucose, and in one instance this loss is given at 144.5 per cent.5
On this point Dr. Collier says :6
The presence of the same relative proportions of crystallizable and uncrystallizable sugar in a sirup to those present in the juice from which this sirup has been prepared by no means implies that there has been no inversion of the crystallizable sugar; for the destructive action of an excess of lime upon glucose is well known and is not unfrequently made available in the production of sugar. Hence, it not unfrequently happens that the relative quantity of crystallizable sugar in the sirup may be greatly in excess of that present in the juice, even after a large quantity of the crystallizable sugar has been destroyed by inversion.
Ife adds:7
There is no doubt but that when the present industry shall have secured the employment of the capital and scientific ability which has developed the beet-sugar industry, even these results, which may appear extravagant to many, will be assured.

EXPERIMENTS AT THE ILLINOIS INDUSTRIAL UNIVERSITY, CHAMPAIGN, IN 1880.

These experiments were all directed by Professors Weber and Scoyell. They undertook a series of experiments to determine the possibilities of manufacturing sugar from sorghum.8 Twelve experiments
with amber and orange cane were made from September 17 to October 2.
In experiment No. 5 the sugar obtained, calculated to 1 acre, amounted to 710.67 pounds.
Agricultural Report, 1878, pp. 98 et seq.
"Op. cit., p. 99.
3 Agricultural Report, 1879, p. 53.
4Op. cit., p. 56.
COp. cit., p. 61.
6Op. cit., p. C.
7 Op. cit., p. 56.
8Transactions Department of Agriculture, Illinois, 18K0, pp. 428 0. seq.






91

...ntitative eterminations were not made in the other experiments. s a elt of their work the experimenters were led to make the fol.wing statement :'
F the results above given it appears that crystallized sugar can be obtained I sorghum of as good a quality as that of the ordinary brown sugars found in the m t. A portion of this brown sugar was re-dissolved and the solution passed t gh boneblack. On evaporation it yielded a white sugar, which had no trace of s um taste or smell.
From the proximate analysis of the cane, it appears that 1 acre of sorghum pro4 over 2,500 pounds of cane sugar. Of this amount we obtained 710 pounds in form of good brown sugar, and 265 pounds in the molasses drained from the sugar. Hec 62 per cent. of the total amount of sugar was lost during the process of manufacure. This shows that the method of manufacture in general use is very imrfect.
The 710 pounds of sugar at 8 cents per pound would bring $56.80. The molasses is worth 25 cents a gallon, or the products of an acre of sorghum would bring $75.55. ere is no doubt that, with proper care and apparatus, the above yield can be doubled.
From our experiments, it seems that about one-half of the sugar remains in the bagse. This could, no doubt, in part be recovered by the process of percolation, as J8 sometimes done in the manufacture of beet-root sugar. Experiments will be de this coming season to determine the feasibility of recovering this great loss of ggar.
In 1880 Mr. H. A. Hughes manufactured some sirup from early amber cane near Cape May, N. J. This sirup was sent to a Philadelphia reinry and manufactured into sugar.2

EXPERIMENTS AT THE AGRICULTURAL STATION IN WISCONSIN IN 1881.

These experiments were conducted by Profs. AV. A. Henry and M. Swensou.' Two plots each of two-thirteenths acre area furnished the cnes for experiments. On plot A there was made 142 pounds of sugar.
n plot B there was made 109k pounds sugar.
Calculated for an acre, plot A would make 923 pounds, and plot B would make 997J pounds.
In regard to the character of the season, Professor Henry4 says:
I would state upon the whole that the season has not been a very favorable one
* Had sugar been the object with our manufacturers this season, it would have bn a very unfavorable one.
Weber and Scovell5 continued their work and made some very insuctive experiments in the manufacture of sugar.
Experiment 1 (August 22):15
Weight of cane crushed ................. pounds.. 1,560. 00
Weight of juice obtained ........... .. do.... 687. 50
Per cent. of juice .............................. 43.40
Op. cit., pp. 431-2.
'Fifth Ann. Report N. J. Agricultural Experiment Station, p. 86.
3Report National Academy Sciences on Sorghum, p. 85.
40Op. Cit., p. 9!2.
OTransactions Dept. of Agriculture, Ill., 181 pp. 500 t seq.
6 Op. cit., pp. 500, 501.






92

The juice was carefully neutralized with milk of lime and brought to the boiling point in the defecating pan. A very heavy green scum rose, and this being removed, the juice wasseen to be fullof a green, light flocculent precipitate, which did not subsequently rise to the top in any considerable quantity. The juice was now drawn off into a tub, where it was allowed to repose twelve hours. At the end of this time only about one-half of the ju nice could be drawn off clear, the precipitate beingstill suspended in the remainder. It was found impossible to filter this portion, and it was, therefore, thrown away. The clearjuice, after being passed through bone-black, was evaporated in a copper finishing pan to the crystallizing point. The melada had a very unpleasant, saltish taste, owing to the presence of salts of ammonia. The sugar crystallized very readily, and although it looked well, it still retained somewhat of this saltibh taste after being separated from the molasses.
Experiment 2 (August 25):
Yield sugar per acre .......................pounds.. 608. 7
Yield sugar per ton ......................... deo.... 77.2
Experiment 3:
Weight of cane................ ...... .... pounds.-. 1, 440
Weight of melada obtained ............... do.... 145.8
Weight of sugar not given.
Experiment 4:
Weight cane.............................pounds.. 1,161
Weight melada fromjuice ................... do.... 95.5
Weight sugar from juice...................do.... 41.5
The authors add the following observations:
(1) Seed should be planted as early as possible.
(2) The proper time to begin cutting the cane for making sugar is when the seed is in the hardening dough. .
(3) The cane should be worked up as soon as possible after cutti.ig. Cane which cut in the afternoon or evening may safely be worked up the following morning.
(4) The manufacture of sugar can be conducted properly only with improved apparatus, and on a scale which would justify the erection of steam sugar-works, with vacuum pans, steam defecators and evaporators, and the employment of a competent chemist to superintend the business. The same is true for the manufacture of glucose from the seed. Our experiments were made with the ordinary apparatus used in manufacturing sorghum sirup, and any person who desired to work on a small scale could use the methods with good results, provided he had acquired the necessary skill in neutralizing and defecating the juice and in the treatment of the bone-black filters. The man ufacture of glucose on a small scale is entirely out of the question. Five hundred to a thousand acres of sorghum would be sufficient to justify the erection of steam sugar-works, and this amount could easily be raised in almost any community within a radius of 1 or 2 miles from the works."
Fourteen quantitative experiments were made by the Department of Agriculture in 1882 in the production of sugar. These experiments are described by Dr. Collier as follows: 2
In the fourteen experiments which were made, quantitatively, eleven of the sirups were a solid mass of crystals; in twoof them two-thirds of the sirups were mush sugar, and in the remaining sample the sirup contained a few crystals of sugar, butthe analysis showed that this one had not been evaporated quite to the point of good crystallization.
SOp. cit. 502, 503.
SInvemtigations of Sorghum, Special Report, 188:1, pp. 55 e seq.






93


NTS FOR WHICH AN AWARD OF $1,200 WAS MADE
BY TrE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE.

(1) CHAMPAIGN, ILL.

T Champaign Sugar and Glucose Manufacturing Company in 1882
s fitted a report of its operations to the Commissioner of Agricultu of which the following is a summary: 1
Number tons cane worked for sugar .................. 1,723.99
Numberacres cane .................................. 185.8
Pounds sugar manufactured ......................... 86,603.00
Pounds sugar per ton ............................... 50.3
Pounds sugar per acre ... ..................... 463. 5
A part of the crop was so poor in sucrose that it was worked for molasses only. The climatic conditions attending the experiments are described as follows: 2
The weather during this year, so far as planting, cultivating, maturing the crop, and the development of cane sugar in sorghum in this section of the country has been the most unfavorable of any year within our knowledge, and we are informed by those who have grown sorghum and broom-corn that this year hasbeen themost unfavorable season for upwards of twenty years in this section for those crops.
Further difficulties in manufacture are also described. 3
The company were unfortunate in not having a crystallizing-room, capable of being heated to the proper temperature for the best results in crystallization, and the subsequent purging of the sugar. The room was so cold that the melada was too stiff to arrange itself evenly in the centrifugal without the addition of warm water in the mixer, and even then it was often fon nd impossible to purge without washing with warm water. We took the trouble to make experiments to see how much or what proportion of sugar was being washed down with and into the molasses by reason of the cold. It was done by taking a certain weight of melada, 120 pounds, which wascarefully warmed and then swung out. The yield was 56 pounds of dry sugar. The game amount of melada from the same car was swung in the usual way, and the yield was 38 pounds of dry sugar, or a loss of 18 pounds of sugar in a purge, by reason of the col. We had but a few days of favorable weather, and the results from it comefavorably with the above experiment. Upon that basis we find that there was uselessly washed away 27,799 pounds of sugar. Add sugar obtained, 86,603, and, with a suitable crystallizing-room kept at a temperature of from 98o to 1000, the sugar product would have amounted to 114,402 pounds. This would have made the yield per ton of 66.3 pounds ; yield per acre, 615.7 pounds.
This sugar was actually made, and was lost in separation by reason only of the fact that it could not be kept at the proper temperature. This difficulty can be overcome by having a crystallizing-room and having it kept properly heated.
In the next place sorghum requires hot summer weather for its proper development. A shown in our report, the average temperature during the part of the past season fel far below the usual summer temperature in this section, and was an average of 60 below the average of the same months of last year.
iEncouragement to sorghum, etc., 18$3, p 1
'Op. cit., p. 11.
0 p. cit., pp. 17, 1 .






94


(2) REPORT OF PROFESSOR SWENSON.

Magnus Swenson I reports three experiments:

Stripped cane. Sugar. Yield per ton.

Pounds. Pound& Pounds.
Three and three-fifths acres gave 75,262 2,116 5 56.3
Two aces gave .............. 28,974 1,008 70
One and onefourth acres gave. 17,112 591 09


Owing to the very backward season the growth of the cane was exceedingly slow.'
In respect of the purity of the juice Professor Swenson says: s
I do not believe that the average juice from the sorghum cane is of sufficient purity to allow of its being boiled to grain in the vacuum pan. I obtained a much coarser sugar by allowing the crystallization to take place in small tanks, and it was conse. quently much more easily separated.
Compare this with the statement of Professor Weber:4
During our season's work in running the vacuum pan for sugar we did not fail at any time to produce crystals therein of proper quantity and desirable size.

(3) REPORT OF MR. PAUL STECK, OF SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.5

Four hundred acres of cane were planted. Mr. Steck puts his daily expenses, aside from the cost of cane, at $235.50. His premium of $1,200 therefore only paid his running expenses for a little over five days.
I give below that part of his report where we might expect to find a statement of the quantity of sugar made.! I manufactured from 600 to 650 gallons of sirup per day; average market price 50 cents per gallon. The reason why I could not manufacture sugar in quantity was on account of the juice not crystallizing in the vacuum pan, as cane sugar should do, so I was compelled to let the sirup run into tanks for crystallization. The sirup which I manufactured from this sorghum was superior to any in the market, both in color and taste. The time required in making the alterations necessary and the putting in of large tanks, and other changes which I would have to make, was too short, so I converted the crop into sirup, as above stated. The sorghum sirup has a very slow crystallization, and the room in which it is kept should have a temperature of not less than 105". It is a very important point in manufacturing sugar from sorghum not to bring the juice to boiling-point, as it checks the crystallization ; therefore it should always be evaporated in vacuum pans (what we call single, double, and triple effect), and also the cane brought to the mill should be manufactured into sugar or sirup within twelve to fifteen hours, as the longer it is exposed to air the more sucrose will turn to glucose. There should not be more cane cut in the field than can be worked at the mill each day.
01p. ci1., pp. 1) ct 8eq. 3 0p. cit., p. 23. 6 Op. cit., pp. 23 at 8eq.
Op. it., p. 20. 4 Op. Cit., p. 15. 0 Op. cit., p. 25.






95

In the summary of his report, however, we have the folio wing curious information :
Number of acres of sorghum brought to the mill ....... 300 Number of tons of cane manufactured ................ 3,600
The yield of sorghum per acre ... ... ........tons.. 15
The amount of sugar manufactured (about) ......tons.. 5 The amount yielded per ton of cane (about).. .pounds.. 80 to 90
Mr. Steck, it seems, had equal difficulty in making sugarand computing yield per ton. Had heavy floods and frosts not occurred, and the factory had been large enough, Mr. Steck states that he would have made 288,000 pounds.- The loss of 278,000 pounds is therefore to be attributed to the unfriendliness of nature.
Mr. Steck closes his report with a promise which he has never performed, viz:
My intention next year is to manufacture sugar from sorghum, knowing the exact process necessary to its manufacture.
(4) REPORT OF NELSON MA)ATBY, GENEVA, OHIO.3

Mr. Maltby makes the following statement of his work:'
I worked up cane from 17 acres; the weight of the cane was 167 tons and 824 pounds, yielding a little over 9j tons per acre. I made 1,466 gallons sirup not to be granulated. I made 1,095 gallons of sirup for sugar, weighing 12 pounds per gallon, all of which grained well. I made 4,380 pounds good dry sugar from the same. From iome cane I made 72 pounds sugar and 112 pounds sirup per ton. The average was 68 pounds sugar and 124 pounds sirup per ton.

(5) REPORT OF DRUMMOND BROS., WARRENSBURGII, MO.,

The number of tons of cane manufactured was 243, anII average of 9 tons per acre. The greater part of this product did not crystallize.
The sugar obtained was wholly from the Early Amber variety, and amounted to 1,464 pounds, being an average of 50 pounds per ton. Calculated on the whole quantity of cane, however, it is not quite 7 pounds per ton.
Drummond Bros. make no complaint of the unfavorableness of the season.

N(6) REPORT OF A. J. DECKER, OF FOND DU LAC, WIS.6

Mr. Decker, iii competing for the prize of $1,200 for sorghum-sugar making, naYively remarks in his summary of operations:
Gallons.
Full amount of sirup made this year .......... ........... 3, 600
Vinegar.. ... ... .. 800
Sugar (not yet swung out).'
SOp. cit., p. 25. 4 Op. cit., p. 27. Op. cit., pp. 31 t 8eq.
SOp. cil., p. 26. Op. cit., pp. 28 Aet seq. 7 Op. cit., p. 36.
Op. cit., pp. 26 et soeq.






96

The date of Mr. Decker's report is not given. H sy however:
On September 22 and 23 there was a sharp frost. The cane wa in and the juice tested 50 B. Three months later it tested less than 60 B. Teis,therefore, internal evidence that the report was written later than December 23.
This failure to separate the sugar may have been due to the small capacity of the centrifugal, which' ", was small, 24 inches in diameter, 6 inches deep, with a capacity of 500 pounds per day."
In respect of the weather we learn :1
The seAson has been the most unfavorable of any known in this locality since the introduction of this crop.
Mr. Decker closes with a number of observations to which the pr. ceding part of his report gives great emphasis :4 There are a number of points requisite to the development of sugar from sorghum as wetl as the process of manufacturing. First, is ripe cane; second, proper appliances; third, "the know how." The long-continued high degree of heat required in open-pan boiling destroys nearly all the sugar long before the required density i reached, and under the most favorable circumstances not more than one pound of sugar to the gallon can be expected fronr open-pan work, and that does not deserve to be called sugar making yet. I believe with the use of the vacuum pan and the skill to run it, sugar in the West is as certain as making flour from wheat.

(7) REPORT OF WILLIAM FRAZIER, ESOFEA, VERNON COUNTY, WIS.'

The weight of cane manufactured by Mr. Frazier was nearly 259 tons, grown on a little more than 41 acres. Mr. Frazier's success in sugar making can not be properly appreciated save in his own words : 6 My report on this subject can not be what I would like. I am able, however, to send you what I believe to be a pretty fair sample of crude sugar ; it was dried from sirup made of Mr. Brigg's cane, dried by draining the sirup through a coarse cloth. Allow me to state here that my object has been sirup, with a view of making sugar in the near future. The most of my sirup was thoroughly grained one week after it was made. Had it granulate in the coolers frequently. My coolers are 8 inches deep and hold 40 gallons each.
On two occasions there wasq about an inch ii tho bottom of the second cooler so completely grained that it would not run out, although the melada was quite warrm. I now have about 2,500 pounds of sugar in the bottom of sirup tanks, whiah I intend to throw out in the spring.
Mr. Frazier also finds fault with the weather: 7
But the expected spring rains failed to come. It continued very dry until the 24th day of June, when nearly 4 inches of rain fell in one day, many heavy rains following, making it impossible to work our crops until theseason was far advanced. I repianted my cane twice, but owing to the cold, dry spring and to the ravages of the grub worm, failed to get half a stand on the 19-acre piece.

(8) REPORT OF THE JEFFERSON SUGAR COMPANY, JEFFERSON, OHIO.

We manufactured 33,250 pounds of melada from the 190 tons of cane worked. We have not separated all of it in the centrifugal as yet; but it is running about 4 pounds per gallon (or for every 12 of melada), from the first granulation. We expect on reI Op. cit., pp. 31 and 'Q. p. cit., p. 31. 'Op. cit., pp.36 et seq. 'Op. ci., p. 41.
'Op. et., P. 35, 4 Op. cit., p. 36. Op. cit.,p. 38, 'Op. ct., p. 46.






97

b twice to raise the figures to 7 pounds. Last year we got 6 pounds in every 12,
w two boiling, from some of the best cane. If we do not succeed in getting more tuds per gallon, we will have from the above figures 16,625 pounds sugar. T would be nearly 90 pounds sugar per ton of cane, and about 700 pounds per acre a We feel assured of this much from the yield of that already separated ; but
ehope to obtain an average of 7 pounds per gallon from all of the cane worked for s during the present season. If cane had fully matured we should not want to slem than 8 pounds per gallon.
The weather, as usual, was bad:
T last two seasons have been the most disheartening ones for developing this new ustry that our country has seen for years.'

(9) REPORT OF THE OAK HILL REFINING COMPANY, EDWARDSVILLE, ILL2
report says :3
And now we must state plainly that we have not manufactured sugar on a ln&sines8 1 m this season. That is, we have simply made-a small quantity as samples of our
ork, and contented ourselves with turning out the greater part of our products as sirup. We did this for several reasons.
In the first place, during the two previous years the juice, at its best (and seldom so), had been on the ragged edge ; that is, scarcely enough sugar to crystallize under e most favorable circumstances. In 1880-'81 the best "quotient of purity" (i. e., polarization divided by solid contents) was about equal to the lowest boilings in a sugar refinery, where a vacuum pan is needed, and three weeks' storage in a "hot room" to insure a yield of 25 per cent. in sugar, and afterwards a bone-black filtration to give the sirup a salable color. In 1881-'82 the cane, if anything, was poorer; we had fine-looking ripe cane, the stalks of which were sticky with exuded juice; it had b in the society of the chinch-bug, and the juice polarized from 1 to 2 per cent.
his year the chinch-bug had been hard at work improving the time as far as possible, and we knew what to expect.
As to the weather, etc., the report says :4
The past three years the chinch-bugs have been very troublesome in this section. ey have done great damage to the cane crop, especially severe in dry seasons, as o past three have been.

(10) REPORT OF C. BOZARTH, CEDAR FALLS, IOWA.5

Mr. Bozarth introduces his report as follows :6
I want to preface by stating that I have been in the business twenty-four years, and this has been the worst year for cane that we have had for sixteen years. We h a very cold, wet, backward spring. The cane was four weeks coming up, after bich there were a number of hard frosts, the weather continuing cold and wet up to Jy, which so delayed the crop that it was not much past the bloom when frost came ain on the 22d of September, leaving the cane poor in sweetness and weight, both rking only 60 to 80 Baum6 and averaging not more than 70. I have made but litsugar this season, hardly enough to pay for running through the centrifugal mame, and inasmuch as the sirup is a good price I have not thought best to put it t ugh for the little that is in it, although there is a considerable granulation t ugh all my sirup, fully as much this year as I could expect, and more, considerthe quality of cane. Last year I had 5,000 pounds that sold in the market for
'Op. ci )t, p. 43. 30p. cit., p. 51. Op. cit., pp. 57 etacq.
Op. oU. pp. 47 et seq. 4 Op. Cot., pp. 55. 'Op. cit., p. 57.
23576-Bull 18- 7






98

81 cents per pound, and the year before 15,000 pounds that so r cents per I raised this year on my own farm 85 acres, which was all wre without stri i
The introduction contains all there is in this report concernin production of sugar.
The results of the experiments just abstracted are appropriate ceded by a summary made by the Commissioner of Agriculture of t experiments which had been made up to that time by the Departmn of Agriculture in the production of sugar from sorghum. He says On assuming tihe duties of my office in 1881 I found 135 acres of sorghum, contain ing fifty-two varieties, which had been planted in Washington for the use of the D partminent. On being informed that the time had arrived for manufacturing air and sugar, I engaged the services of an expert in sugar-making who had been high recommended for the position of superintendent, and operations were comnmence o September 26 at the mill erected by my predecessor on the grounds. These oper tions were continued with slight interruptions until the latter part of October, a which time the supply of cane became exhausted. Forty-two acres of the crop wer overtaken by frost before being sufficiently ripe for use, and this portion of the cr was so badly damaged as to be unfit for manufacture. The yield of cane per acre the 93 acres gathered was 21 tons ; the number of gallons of sirup obtained w 2,t977, and the number ofpounds of sugar was 165. The expense of raising the cane we $6,5-J.45, and the expense of converting the cane intosirup and sugar was $1,667. an aggregate of $8,557.04.
To recapitulate the results of the ten experiments I give the follow ing table:
Sugar made. Pounds.

No.1...................... ~8,603
No. 2 ...................... 3,718.5
No. 3 (about) ............. 10,000
No.4...................... 4,380
No. 5 ...................... 1,468
No. 6 ...................... 0,000
No. 7...................... 0,000
No. 8 (estimated) ......... 10,000
No.9--------- 0,000
o.10 ("a little "). ...........
Total sugar .......... 110,15.5

Amount of premium given, $12, 000. Amount per pound (nearly), 10.3 coets.


13Y THE DEPARTMENT 1OF AGRICULTURE.

PRACTICAL.

Attempts were made in 1881 by the Department of Agricultureo manufacture sugar at Washington. Cane from 93.5 acres was crushed.
From the official report it does not appear that any success attended
these efforts.
The causes of failure are thus set forth by Dr. Colier :2
Briefly stated, the several chief sources of failure are as follows:
(1) Tlhe i inmmaturity of the sorghum at the period when it is cut and worked. Thi may be due to late planting, as in our experience the past season, or to the selection 1)Op. cit., p. 3.
Agricultural Report, 1881-2, pp. 509 et 8eq.