Food stamp program profile

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Title:
Food stamp program profile
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2 v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
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English
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United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs
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U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
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Washington
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Subjects / Keywords:
Food stamps -- United States   ( lcsh )
Welfare recipients -- United States   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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General Note:
At head of title: 94th Congress, 2d session. Committee print.
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by the staff of the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, United States Senate.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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aleph - 029298646
oclc - 02633441
lccn - 76602763
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lcc - HV696.F6 U6144 1976a
ddc - 362.5
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AA00024966:00002

Full Text



94th Congress COXITTEE PRINT
2d Session









FOOD STAMP PROGRAM PROFILE

PART 2-APPENDIX,





PREPARED BY THE STAFF OF THE

SELECT COMMITTEE ON NUTRITION

AND HUMAN NEEDS

UNITED STATES SENATE







/C
--"5







AUGUST 1976









Printed for the use of the Conmittee on Nutrition and Human Needs


U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 75-939 WASHINGTON : 1976


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Offiee
Washington, D.C. 20402 Price $1.20


































SELECT COMMITTEE ON NUTRITION AND HUMAN NEEDS

GEORGE McGOVERN, South Dakota, Chairman HERMAN E. TALMADGE, Georgia CHARLES H. PERCY, Illinois
PHILIP A. HART, Michigan ROBERT DOLE, Kansas
WALTER F. MONDALE, Minnesota HENRY BELLMON, Oklahoma
EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts RICHARD S. SCHWEIKER, Pennsylvania GAYLORD NELSON, Wisconsin ROBERT TAFT, JR., Ohio
ALAN CRANSTON, California MARK 0. HATFIELD, Oregon
HUBERT H. HUMPHREY, Minnesota ALAN 3. STONE, Staff Director
MARSHALL L. MATZO, General Counsel

(n)







CONTENTS


Pa ge
Appendix I.-Characteristics of food stamp households-September 1975 1 Introduction ------------------------------------------------------ I
Highlights of findings --------------------------------------- I
Sampling plan ------------------------------------------------------------ 2
Stratification variables -------------------------------- I -------- 2
Puerto Rico -------------------------------------------------- 3
Sample size --------------------------------------------------- 3
Survey findings ---------------------------------------------------- 3
Chapter:
1. Distribution by household size ---------------------------- 0
11. Distribution of gross incomes ------------------------------ 7
111. Distribution of net incomes ------------------------------- 9
1V. Income sources ------------------------------------------ 11
Rank order of income sources ------------------------- 12
Salaries, wages, and self-employment income ------------ 12
Aid to families with dependent children ---------------- 12
General assistance----------------------------------- 13
Supplemental security income ------------------------- 13
Social security -------------------------------------- 1:3
Student aid ----------------------------------------- 13
Veterans' benefits ------------------------------------ 1:3
Other income sources -------------------------------- 13
V. Deductions --------------------------------------------- 15
Total deductions ------------------------------------ 15
Shelter deductions ----------------------------------- 16
Medical deductions ---------------------------------- 16
Mandatory deductions ------------------------------- 17
VI. Zero net-income households ------------------------------- 19
V11. The elderly --------------------------------------------- 21
Total deductions of the elderly ------------------------ 21
Work status of the elderly ---------------------------- 21
VIII. Work status of household heads --------------------------- 23
IX. Students ------------------------------------------------ 25
X. Age and sex of household heads --------------------------- 27
Female-headed households ---------------------------- 27
Male-headed households ------------------------------ 27
XI. Certification period -------------------------------------- 99
XII. Assets ------- 7 ------------------------------------------ 31
XIII. Purchase requirements ----------------------------------- 10,13
XIV. Puerto Rico --------------------------------------------- 35
Tabulations of survey data ----------------------------------------- 37
Appendix 2.-Impacis of domestic and foreign food programs on the U.S.
agricultural economy --------------------------------------------- 77
Introduction ------------------------------------------------------ 7 7
Domestic food programs -------------------------------------------- 78
Child nutrition programs ------------------------------------------- so
National school lunch program ---------------------------------- so
School breakfast program --------------------------------------- 81
Special food services ------------------------------------------- 81
Special milk program ------------------------------------------ S1
Food stamp program ----------------------------------------------- 81
Food distribution programs ----------------------------------------- 83
Needy persons ------------------------------------------------ 83
Schools ------------------------------------------------------- 83
Institutions --------------------------------------------------- 84
Demand expansion through commodity distribution ---------------- 85
Government sponsored agricultural export program -------------------- 85
Summary --------------------------------------------------------- 91
Impacts of the agricultural economy --------------------------------- 91
(III)




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013














http://archive.org/details/foodstampmOOu nit









APPENDIX 1
CHARACTERISTICS OF FOOD STAMP HOUSEHOLDSSEPTEMBER 19751


INTRODUCTION
This report presents the major findings of the Department of Agriculture's 1975 survey of the characteristics of food stamp households. The data reported were collected from case files of households certified as eligible for participation in the food stamp program during September 1975.
The study is nationwide in scope. The statistical universe is the set of all case files of households certified eligible to participate in the food stamp program in September 1975. The sampling plan called for 11,508 household records, and a total of 11,327 acceptable observations were obtained.
HIGHLIGHTS OF FINDINGS
The major findings are reported in detail for the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Because the distribution of important variables is quite different in Puerto Rico, the data for Puerto Rico are reported separately in chapter XIV.
1. The average total amount of deductions from gross income was $77 per month for all households, an average of deductions for those which claimed a deduction and those which did not. About S3 percent of all households claimed some deduction; the average deduction for these households was $93 per household.
2. For all households in which an elderly person (age 65 or over) resided, the average total deduction was $46. Among those households with elderly persons which claimed a non-zero deduction, the average total deduction was $62. Clearly, elderly households had smaller than average total deductions.
3. The average household size was 3.2 persons. One- and two-person households comprised 46 percent of all households.
4. The average gross monthly income for all households was S29S; the average net income was $223.
5. Females headed 64 percent of all households. Their average household size was 3. Households headed by males had an average household size of 3.6.
6. There weie 1 million elderly persons (age 65 or over) in the food stamp program, about 6 percent of total participants. Although elderly people tended to live in small households, most small households did not have elderly members. I Published by the Program Development Branch. Food Stamp Division, Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, May 1976, FNS-160.
(1)





.1 2

7. Of all households, 76.6 percent had nonworking heads and reported no earned income, 15.4 percent had household heads working full time, and 4.5 percent had household heads working part time (less than 30 hours per week). Of all households, 3.5 percent reported income earned from a member who was not the head of the household.
Seventy-seven percent of households with the head between ages of 18 and 65 had nonworking household heads. Among male-headed households in this group, 68 percent were nonworking; for females, 82 percent. Working reflects an employment status indicated in welfare office files. It does not imply any official labor force definition.
8. Forty-two percent of all households received AFDC income (2.2 million households). Twenty-six percent of all households had only AFDC; 16 percent had another source of income in addition to AFDC.
9. There were 892,000 households with SSI income (17 percent of total households). Of their SSI recipients, 271,000 (30 percent) had no other source of income. Among all households which had SSI income, the household size averaged two persons. The average gross income for all SSI households was $228; net income averaged $193, reflecting smaller average deductions than non-SSI households.
10. 429,000 households received General Assistance (GA) income (8.2 percent of all households); 294,000 (68 percent of GA's) had no other source of income. Among households with GA income the average gross income was $225; net income was $170 and average household size was 1.9 persons.
11. 202,000 (or 1.3 percent) of the September 1975 food stamp population were students over 18 years of age. Of all households, 3.9 percent had students over age 18 in them. Their average household size was 1.1 persons, and 22 percent of them took the education deduction.
12. There was a wide dispersion of length of certification periods, with the median reported in the 6- to 9-month category.
13. Among households which had neither SSI nor AFDC income, the median value of reported assets was exactly zero.
14. Converting Office of Management and Budget (OMB) annual poverty guidelines to monthly figures, about 77 percent of all food stamp households had gross incomes below the poverty levels in effect for September 1975. Thirteen percent had incomes between 100 and 125 percent of poverty, 5 percent fell between 125 and 150 percent, and 4 percent had gross incomes in excess of 150 percent of the poverty level. SAMPLING PLAN

In October 1975, data were collected by Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) field staff from household records in welfare offices across the country and in Puerto Rico. A total of 11,508 records were sampled, as well as backups, for households certified eligible for food stamps for September 1975.
STRATIFICATION VARIABLES
While individual cases were selected in a random fashion in a project, the 273 projects were selected according to a sampling plan designed to insure a statistically valid sample for national inferences. Adequate






3

representation was required f rorn the many di different types of counties, as well as persons, in the food stamp program.
In the 50 States, each of the 25 major projects of 80,000 or more food stamp recipients was considered unique. Therefore, each was included in the sample. The remaining projects were then stratified regionally to insure good regional representation.
Within each region, projects were then categorized by each of the following criteria: 1. Urban rural; 2. Public Assistance (PA) or Nonpublic Assistance (TNPA) predominant; 3. Small, inediurn, or large.
Urban meant that, according to the 1970 Census, 50 'percent or more of the project's entire population lived in an urban center; rural meant that less than 50 percent did. PA predominant meant that according to Food and Nutrition Service program data, 50 percent or more of the caseload in May 1975 was PA households; NPA predominant meant less than 50 percent was PA. Small projects contained less than 1,000 food stamp households in May 1975; medium had 1,000 to 5,000 households; large had more than 5,000 households (but less than 80,000 participants).
PUERTO RICO
A separate sampling plan was developed for the nine project--, in Puerto Rico. San Juan was considered unique and treated as a separate stratum, analogous to the largest U.S. projects. Of the eight remaining Puerto Rico projects, statistical specifications required a minimum of four projects to be sampled.

SAMPLE SIZE
Data were gathered from 11,508 records to insure at least 10,000 valid observations, allowincr for about 10 percent loss due to invalid observations. 10,000 observations were required not only to allow for valid national inferences, but also to provide some regional inferences if required. A total of 11,327 valid observations were obtained after careful editing. This large number of valid cases is the direct result of adequate backup procedures and special efforts by F.NS regional and field personnel. A listing by State of the number of observations in the survey is shown in table 1.

SURVEY FIX D I N G S
Survey findings for the 50 States and the District of Columbia are summarized in chapters I through XIII.
Survey findings for Puerto Rico are summarized in chapter -XIV.




Distribution by Household Size


Average = 3.2 Persons

Percentage
of All Households
1 and 2 Persons 46 3 and 4 Persons 31 5 and Over 23
(4)









T
H A PT ER 1

DISTRIBUTION BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE


The average size of food stamp households was 3.2 persons. About 45 percent of all households were in the one- and two-person category. About 40 percent of all households fell in the three- to five-pers.on range, and under 15 percent had six or more persons in the households.
The distribution of persons, rather than households, showed that about 20 percent of all persons lived in one- or two-person households, 50 percent lived in three- to five-person households, and 30 percent lived in households of six or more persons. These distributions are shown as border totals along the bottom of table 2.
Household size varied greatly depending on certain other characteristics of the household, as shown below. Household characteristics: A erage .size
Female-headed households 3-------------------------------------- 0
Male-headed households ---------------------------------------- 6
AFDC recipient -------------------------------------------Elderly persons ------------------------------------------------1. 7
Students ------------------------------------------------1. 1
(5)






Distribution by Monthly Gross Income


Percent 30





20





10





0It Under 100- 200- 300- 400- 500- 600- 750- 1000 100 199 299 399 499 599 749 999 and Over Dollars
(6)










CHAPTER Il
DISTRIBUTION OF GROSS INCOMES


The average gross cash income from all sources for all hlousehohils in the 50 States was $298 per month.
About 80 percent of all households had gross incomes under 42() per month, and nearly 19 percent fell in the $'420 to $850 monthly range. The complete distribution of households by gross income and household size is shown in table 2.
About 1.2 percent of all food stamp) households had incomes ,ver ,850 per month (61,000 households). Less than half of 1 )(,ent (23,000 households) had over $1,000 monthly income, and lesh t han one-tenth of 1 percent (4,000 households) were in the $1,250 a month and over income class.
It should be strongly emphasized that no inference about ann 1l income can be drawn from these figures since the incomes of food stamp households vary greatly from month to month. Monthly income therefore is not an accurate indicator of annual income. Further, because many households participate for only a few months out of the year when they have suffered a loss of income, their income during the months they do not participate is irrelevant for food staml) purposes.
According to OMB poverty guidelines for Septemberi 1975. 77 perPent of 4,041,000 households had incomes below the monthly poverty line for their household size. (For four-person househlols the 1)overty level was calculated as one-twelth of $5.050 per year, or $421 per month.) Thirteen percent, or 686,000 households, had gross incomes between 100 and 1205 percent of the poverty level ($412 to )52; per month for four-person households). Five percent, or _69.. had incomes between 125 and 150 percent of poverty level ( t52 t)o I81 per month for four-person households). Four p)erCent, or 22S, 000, were over 150 percent of the poverty level (over 81 per month foi f omur-person households).
Considering poverty status by household size, 86 percent of o)n](person households were below the poverty line, conipa red to 79 percent of the eight-person households.
(7)






Distribution by Monthly Net Income


Percent 40



30



20



10



0
Under 100- 200- 300- 400- 500- 600- 750- 1000 100 199 299 399 499 599 749 999 and Over Dollars










CHAPTER III
DISTRIBUTION OF NET INCOMES


The average net food stamp income was $223 per month. Table 3 shows the distribution by net income and household size. In cases where deductions exceeded gross income, the net income was calculated to be zero rather than negative. Therefore, algebraically, total deductions will not always equal the differenIce between gross and net incomes, and the average difference of the two is somewhat smaller than the average of total deductions (iscussed later in this report.
Comparing net incomes on table 3 with gross incomes on table 2, the percentage of households in the zero income class was 1.6 percentage points higher when gross income is considered. Therefore, 1.6 percent of participants deduct down to the zero income level through itemized deductions.
The income class showing the largest difference between gross and net income was the $0.01 to $99.99 class, which included only 4.1 percent of gross incomes but 14.6 percent of net incomes.
(9)





Income Sources



Percentage of All
Source Households
AFDC 42
Salaries 22
Social Security 21
"Other Income" 19
SSI 17
GA 8
VA 3
Roomer/ Boarder 2
Self-Employment I
Railroad Ret. and Other Pensions Student Aid
*Less than 1 percent.










CHAPTER IV

INCOME SOURCES


A key to understanding who gets food stamps lies in the distribution of income sources. This section examines the sources and combinations of income received by food stamp households.
Among households relying on only one source of income, those with salary income had the highest average income-$425 per month. Those who relied solely on payments from roomers or boarders in their household had the lowest average income-$ 120 per month. AFDC income was the highest average amount after income from salaries, although it amounted to only 64 percent of the average salary income.
Those few participants living solely on student aid were better off financially than those living solely on social security by about $21 per month.
The average amount of other income from unspecified sources was substantial-$280 per month, or only $3 less than the average AFDC payment. While this other category includes unemployment compensation, it also includes a variety of income sources, many of which are the individual arrangements of the household.
Table 4 shows the sources of cash income of food stamp households. The number farthest to the left on each row shows the total number of households receiving the source of income for that row. The numbers to the right or directly above that number state the number of households receiving a combination of income as indicated by the row and column headings. For example, 62,000 households had income from self-employment. Of them, less than 1,000 also received student aid; 10,000 also received AFDC; 2,000 also received GA income, and so on. While the individual cells of the table show the number of households receiving income from two sources-the row and column-those households may or may not have had additional sources of income.
Table 5A shows the income sources of food stamp households, the number and percentage of households receiving that income, and the average monthly amount of that income.
Table 5B shows the number of households with combinations of two and three specific sources of income. Tables 5A and 5B show that 62 percent of all households had only one source of income. rjjenft\, one percent had two sources of income in the specific cornbintations shown. Fourteen percent had some combination of two or more income sources that were not specified. Three percent reported no income whatsoever. The income combinations shown in these tables were purposely selected to show overlaps among transfer progrants, and ( the combinations selected turned out to account for 86 p)ceCIit ef the income source combinations of food stamp hotiseholcls.
(11)





12

RANK ORDER OF INCOME SOURCES
The most frequent source of income for food stamp households was from the aid to families with dependent, children program (42 percent of households). The least frequent source was student aid (0.8 percent of households). The various sources of income were:
1. AFDC (42 percent).
2. Salaries and wages (22 percent).
3. Social Security (21 percent).
4. "Other" income sources (19 percent) -includes unemployment compensation, alimony and child support, contributions from relatives, et cetera.
5. SSI (17 percent).
6. General assistance (8 percent).
7. Veterans benefits (3 percent).
S. Payments from roomers or boarders (2 percent).
9. Self-employment income (1 percent).
10. Railroad retirement or other pensions (0.9 percent).
11. Student aid (0.8 percent).
SALARIES, WAGES, AND SELF-EMPLOYMENT INCOME
Twenty-three percent of all households reported earnings from salaries, wages, or self-employment. Their average earned income was $361 a month. However, the average total income for these households, including unearned income, was $450. About half of the households with earnings had no other source of income, but relied solely on their earnings, and the other half received some sort of transfer payment (tables 6A, B, and C).
Of the households reporting wages, about 30 percent had AFDC as the second largest source of income. For these households, AFDC was an earnings supplement, with the AFDC grant averaging $166 per month in addition to monthly earnings of $328. Thus, their total income was on the average, $518 per month.

AID TO FAMILIES WITH DEPENDENT CHILDRENl (AFDC)
Forty-two percent of food stamp households (2.2 million households) received AFDC benefits. Their average total income was $339 a month, including an average AFDC grant of $243 a month. About 60 percent of these AFDC households had no other source of income other than an average AFDC grant of $283. Sixteen percent of the AFDC households (343,000) also had earnings from salaries and wages (in line with information reported under the AFDC program); 150,000 had social security income; 108,000 received SSI; and 318,000 had income other than that specifically listed on the survey form.
From this information it is clear that AFDC recipients constituted the largest clientele of the food stamp program. This fact is not surprising since they are categorically eligible and have routine contacts with the welfare office.





13

GENEIIAL ASSISTANCE (GA)
Among all households, 8 percent (about 430,000) received general assistance grants. Their average total income was $225, including $165 of GA grant. About two-thirds of these households had no other source of income other than an average GA grant of $190.

SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME (SSI)
Seventeen percent of the households received SSTI; ftliat is, about 892,000 aged, blind, and disabled households. Their aveMe total income was $228 a month, including $119 of SS[. About half of then also received social security income in which case their total income averaged $232 a month, including $74 in SSI and S135 in social security. Only 30 percent of the SSI households had no income other than an average SSI grant of $176 a month. Therefore, because they may not be subsisting solely on their SSI grant, there is potential for considerable month-to-month fluctuation in the income of SSI recipients.
SOCIAL SECURITY
About 21 percent of all participants (1.1 million) had social security income, nearly as many as with earned income. The average social security payment was $177 a month. Of those who had social security income, only one-third had no other source of income, with another 41 percent also receiving SSI, and 14 percent receiving AFDC.

STUDENT AID
Less than 1 percent of the households reported student aid. Forty percent of the households with student aid also showed salaries or wages; 18 percent had AFDC as an additional income source.

VETERANS' BENEFITS
Three percent of the households received veterans' benefits. However, over 80 percent had a second source of income (social security for the majority of the veterans' assistance households).

OTHER INCOME SOURCES
About 3 percent of the households had income from boarders, railroad retirement, or other pensions. Almost 20 percent of all households showed other income, which included gifts from relatives and unemployment compensation.
One-third of the households with other income received AFDC; 17 percent had salaries or wages; and 13 percent had social security.
75-939-76-2










Average Deductions



Percentage
Average Dollar Households Amount when Claiming Claimed Deductions
Shelter 68 72.1
Work Allowance 24 22.4
Medical 41 18.8
Payroll 56 17.8
Child Care 82 2.9
Boarder Allotment 54 1.7
Education 74 1.6
Casualty 83 0.4
Alimony 98 0.4
Attendant Food Costs 46 0.2
Attendant Salaries 97 0.1

All Deductions 93 83









CHAPTER V
DEDUCTIONS


TOTALDEDUCTIONS
The total deduction for all food stamp households averaged $77 per month. The median was $59 per month. Total deductions for a household are calculated as the sum of all deductions listed in the case file. In some instances the amount of deductions exceeded the household's reported income, although some of these households were drawing on savings to pay expenses. An array of total deductions by household size and average gross monthly income is shown in table SA.
Excluding those households with no deductions, the average total deduction was $93 a month. The median was $72. The array of claimed deductions by household size and income class, and the corresponding frequency distribution among the 83 percent of all households which claimed deductions, are shown in table 8B.
Deductions rise as incomes increase over the entire range of incomes, with the result that major benefits of itemized deductions accrue to higher income households. However, there is no meaningful correlation between household size and itemized deductions. Large households do not tend to claim larger total deductions than small households.
Consequently, the itemized deduction was again demonstrated to be the food stamp eligibility loophole for a few better off households. Table 8B shows that the average deduction for four-person households with incomes between $1,000 and $1,249 per month was $507, although only 0.4 percent of the total caseload fell into that group. Likewise there was an average deduction of $498 per month for one-person households with monthly incomes between $0560 and $625; these households accounted for only 0.1 percent of the caseload.
The most frequently claimed deduction was shelter, and the least frequently claimed was that for a live-in attendant. Child care, casualty losses, and school fees were deducted by less than 3 percent of all participants. Some deductions benefited few households, but were substantial for those households who claimed them. For example, only 0.4 percent of households deducted alimony payments, although the average alimony deduction was $98.





16

SHELTERDEDUCTIONS
The shelter deduction was the most commonly claimed deduction (1'..). percent of the households claimed it). The average shelter deduction for all households was $49 a month; among households which claimed a shelter deduction, the average was $68 a month. The array of shelter deductions by household size and income class is shown in table 9A for all households, and in table 9B for households claiming a shelter deduction. Table 9B also shows the frequency distribution of households claiming shelter deductions. There is a slight household size pattern to the shelter deductions. The chance of a household claiming this deduction tends to decline as household size increases.
The riaht-hand column on table 9B shows the incidence of the shelter deduction declining as income rises. This was as expected. The likelihood that a household would be eligible for the shelter deduction decreases as income rises, because shelter costs must exceed 30 percent of net income before they are deductible. Still, with the exception of the shelter deduction for zero gross-income households, those with higher gross incomes claimed the larger shelter deductions.
Shelter costs are shown on table 9G. Over two-thirds of all households paid under $150 per month for all their shelter costs. Only 2.1 percent had shelter costs in excess of $300 per month. Table 9H shows that 85 percent of all households paid less than $300 a month in shelter costs and deducted less than $100 a month for food stamp purposes.
Tables 9C and 9D show the average shelter deduction for all households, with and without elderly persons in the household. Table 9D shows that amono, households actually claiming the shelter deduction, the average for households with an elderly person was $47 a month. When there were no elderly, the deduction averaged $71 a month. Thus, it is shown that the elderly were not the participants with the larger shelter deductions.
MEDICALDEDUCTIONS
Medical deductions averaged $8 a month for all households and were the third most frequently claimed deductions. Among the 19 percent claiming the medical deduction, the average was $41 a month. When there was an elderly household member, it averaged $42. However, when there was no elderly household member the medical deduction averaged $37 a month. Thus, the average medical deduction was slightly higher when the household included an elderly member.
Table 10A shows the average medical deduction, increased consistently as income increased. This pattern is not peculiar, since higher income households may purchase more expensive, as well as preventive medical care. Also, most lower income participants may not qualify for a deduction, because their medical expenses are paid through medicaid or medicare.





17

MIA NDA T ORY DEDUCTbONS
Mandatory payroll deductions averaged $10 per month for all households ($2 more than the overall medical deductionn.
Tfhe average among the 17.8 percent of all households claiming the deduction was $56 per month. The pattern over income groups and household size was as expected-the deduction increased with income, but generally decreased within a given income class as household size increased (tables 11A and IIB).
As discussed earlier, 22 percent of all participants hadI earned income. Since only 17.8 percent reported withholding deductions, a small percentage of households had either no withholding or were not ta,,xed on their income.





Zero Net-Income Households Percentage by Household Size



151











241,000 Households
(18)









CHAPTER VI
ZERO NET-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS


Over 240,000 households (5 percent) were certified as having zero net food stamp income. Therefore, these households have no purchase requirement and receive their allotments free. About two-thirds of these households also showed zero gross income. Almost one-fourth of all zero net-income households were one-person households with zero gross income.
Over 95 percent of the zero net-income households had total gross incomes under $215 a month, which should be expected since the average monthly deduction was only $77 a month. The complete distribution by household size and gross income is shown in table 20. Also, table 29 shows that the median certification period for these households was I to 2 months, consistent with FNS instructions that households having zero income be certified at that level only for short periods.
Table 20 also shows that one-half of I percent of the households with zero net income deducted over $560 per month and, consequently, received their food stamps free; 4.2 percent deducted over $215 monthly and received their stamps free. Therefore, the entire gross income of these few households was spent on deductible items. Taken as a percentage of the total caseload, 2 percent deducted their entire income.
(19)





Elderly



885,000 (17 percent of
Households total households)
1,000,000 (6 percent of
Persons total participants)

Deduction
Claimed $46 per month
Average
Household Size 1 .7 persons Median Specifiled Certif ication
Period 10-12 months
Average Gross
Income $223 per month
Average
Net Income $178 per month
(20)










CHAPTER VII
THE ELDERLY


F eventeen percent of food stamp households contained one or more elderly persons (age 65 or over), for a total of 1 million elderly participants. As shown in table 21, over 88 percent of the households with elderly persons were one- and two-person households. The average size of a household with an elderly member was 1.7 persons.
Table 22 shows the distribution of households by household size and elderly members. The subtotal line, in thousands, yields the percentage distribution of households with elderly, as shown in table 21.
Table 21 shows that while most households with elderly were oneor two-person households, only 42 percent of all one-person households were composed of elderly persons (contrary to the belief that most one-person households are elderly). Only 23 percent of all two-person households had one or more elderly persons in them. Threifore, while elderly people tended to live in small households, small households were not predominantly elderly.
Of the entire caseload, 499,000 participants (3 percent) wee elderly persons living alone. Of these 499,000 elderly persons, 419,000 were single elderly females. There were only 60,000 elderly persons heading households of three or more persons.
There were 285,000 household heads between age 60 and 65, or about 5 percent of all household heads. There were 775,000 household heads over .ge 65 (15 percent of all households). Therefore, 20 percent of all food stamp households v;weie headed by a person over age 60.

TOTAL DEDUCTIONS OF THE ELDERLY
While the total monthly reductionn for all households averaged $77 per month, among households with one or more elde members the total monthly deduction averaged $46. Among households whih, did not include elderl- members, the total deduction averaged ,3S4 a month The distribution of average total deductions by income class is shown in table 23A for households with and without elderly members.
Seventy-four percent of households with one or more elerly persons claimed deductions, compared with the 83 percent of all households who claimed deductions. The deduction for elderly households claiming deductions averaged $62 per month. Households wh no el(lerily members claimed deductions 85 percent of the time, averaging $99 a month. These distributions are shown in table 23B.

WORK STATUS OF THE ELDERLY
Of household heads over age 65, 4.3 percent were working full or part time (33,000 persons). Another 70,000 household heads age 55-64 were working at least part time.
(21)








ork Status


Percentage
of Household Heads 18 through 65 Years
of Age 100



80



60

Non-Working 40 Part-time

M Full-time 20



0
Male Female Combined
(22)










CHAPTER VIII

WORK STATUS OF HOUSEHOLD HEADS


Less than one-fourth of food stamp participants were working. Among household heads age 18 to 65, 18 percent were working full time, a percent were working part time, and 77 percent were not working. As expected, the percentage of working males (32 percent) was much higher than the percentage of working female heads (18 percent) (table 24) We define working to mean simply that the household head had a paid job. It does not make any official employment-unemployment inferences, nor does it imply that homemakers, for example, do not work.
The detailed distribution of household heads by work status for all age groups is shown in table 25. About 20 percent of all household-:- had working heads; 3.5 percent had nonworking heads, but had earned income in the household. Three-fourths of all households had nonworking heads and no earned income by any household member.
Twen tv-six percent of working female heads of households were working less than 30 hours per week, while 18 percent of working male heads were working less than 30 hours. Overall, of those households with employed heads, 22 percent were employed less than full time. These findincrs indicate that the food stamp prL ogram is only to a minor extent supplementing the income of the working poor.
While IS percent of female heads of households were working, nearly 94 percent of all participating female household heads were exempt from the work registration requirements of the program (table 27B).
(23)




College Students



202,000 Persons
1 .3 percent
of total participants
3.9 percent
of total households

Average Household Size
.1 persons 22 percent
take education deduction
(24)









CHAPTER IX
STUDENTS

The survey found that 202,000 (1.3 percent) of September 1975
participants were over 18 and enrolled at least half of the tine M a college, university, or in an institution or technical training. Almost 4 percent of all households had one or more such students in them, and had an average size of 1.1 persons. Of the participating houmeholds with students, 22 percent claimed a deduction for educational fee';.
New regulations limiting student participation were taking effect as of September 1975. Since the study sampled households certified eligible for that month, the impact of these September revisions would have been minimal. As of the close of the 1975-76 school year, there are probably fewer students participating in the food stamp program due to these new regulations.
(25)





Age and Sex Distribution of Household Heads




64.4
Percent



35w6
Percent



~ Over 65 E Under 65 Male Female

(26)









CHAPTER X
AGE AND SEX OF HOUSEHOLD HEADS


FEMNALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS
Sixty-four percent of all households were headed by females. Half of female household heads were age 35 and under', 35 percent were 36 to 65, and 15 percent were over 65 (table 27A).
About 70 percent of participating female heads of households had children (or household members) age 18 or under. Forty-five percent had children 6 and under (tables 27B and 27C).
Under current work registration requirements, 2.3 million female household heads are exempt from the work registration requirements because they have children under age 18.
Slightly more households with 5 or more members were headed by females than by males-617,000 headed by females, compared with 585,000 headed by males.
There were 1.5 times as many nonelderly single female participants as there were nonelderly single male participants-481,000 and 312,000, respectively.

MALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS
Among the 36 percent of the households with male heads, 39 percent were age 35 and under, 46 percent were 36 to 65, and 15 percent were over 65. Male heads were somewhat older than female heads, with 50 percent under age 40; 50 percent of female heads were under age 35.
Sixty percent of the male-headed households had children (or household members) under 18; 38 percent had children 6 and under (as shown in tables 28A, 28B, and 28C).
(27)




Median Certification Period (When Specified)




All, Households 6=9 months


Households Headed by Elderly Persons 10=12 months
(28)









CHAPTER XI
CERTIFICATION PERIOD


One of the most valuable topics on which data were collected is the length of certification periods.
Table 29 shows the distribution of certification periods by gross income. About 87 percent of the case records specified a certification period (including households recertified simultaneously for public assistance within a set length of time). Another 8.6 percent recertified for food stamps simultaneously with public assistance recertification, but within no specific time period. These cases tire referred to as "indefinite" in tables 29 and 30. The "unknown" column refers to about 4.1 percent of the cases, where no information on length of the current certification was available in the case file.
In a verv few cases, a 2-week certification period was specified (these were"recoded as I month). Certification periods of less than I month are specified when there is reason to believe a household's circumstances mav soon change.
Among households with specified certification period,,;, the median certification period was 6 to 9 months. Households with gross income less than $100 a month generally show short certification periods. With $100 to $359 monthly income most households had 6- to 9-mon'L,,h certification periods. Most of the households surveyed fell in this income class. At $360 per month and above, certification lengths tended to decline but with great variability.
Most of the "indefinite" and "unknown" households were in the $100 to $359 a month range.
The certification period pattern for elderly recipients was different, presumably the result of different income patterns. Table 30 shows the distribution by income class of the certification periods of households headed by elderly persons. The median period for those households with a specified certification period was 10 to 12 months.
(29)












75-939-T6--3





Household Assets




Households without Elderly Persons

Most have $0 assets.
5 percent have assets over $500.,


Households with Elderly Persons

Most have $0 assets. 13 percent have assets over $500.
2.5 percent have assets over $1500.


Excludes the categorically eligible.
(30)










CHAPTER NUt

ASSETS


The stiCvev also a.-Aeinpted to owned by pat"LiciDating
househoh"11,;. Il'olveverl bec,-, use 01 thle, defillition of coUnt"Able a",Sets
I ;'-I 1 4t Ia thc food ,-;,Aaiup pi oui iunl 7 Cei-taill itellis Itilat would
1-1,o --alac an owae(,
t7l Il. 2 1 -,Uc i t -ei e not
inclu(,-'I in C-tse iffle". "I"lost o' flie sets recoi-ded i- t ie fi'e:: and reported i1i the sui vey Nvere ba;al ac-ount--.
cat-,eo-o-ricaliv eli rible APDO and SSI households are n, t re(plired to pa,-:s the asset testl their case filc ; do not ahNI-ays conLain food st(ainp i'esourco itifonnatioi. T14erefore, infer.-nt-els can only be made about the fts C-t- of U-.ie Tion-catecrorically, eliorible. The fl-equency di-,tj_--I*T),Jti,,)n of" as __I ets for non-_AYDC, non-SSf houselif,-)Id, ; is s!t.)wn in
a, n elderly
'--' 1. i With at le-z st otable ) Iou:-,oliolds of t N-o or more person, nieMber, curre-_,Alv hloher asset limitaIX)ns than others. A breakdown by tfie presence or absence of at least one elderly person is also shown.
In each category, "zero a ,set,- wei-e 4(-,Iw niodlaii and the i-iiode of assets shown in the files. Amon(- households with no elklerlv j,,-leniber only 5 percent showed countable assets over $500; for 1i o i, 1,-i C, 1-1 o 1 d Swith elde-lyl the figure was about 13 percetlt. Less flian 2.5 percent of the households with an elderly inember had reporf-led over
$1,500. Household size seemed to have no effect on assets ownedThe fiequency of "zero assets" may be due to two factors. First, certification workers may indicate "zero assets" for negligible amounts. Second, the bulk of participants -nay ha-,%-e no assets.





Average Household Purchase Requirement



Gross Monthly Percentage.of
Income Gross Income

$01-99 8
100-214 15
215-284 19
285-849 20-21
840-999 19
1000-1249 18
1250+ 13
All 19
(32)










CHAPTER XIII
PURCHASE REQUIREMENTS


The average purchase requirement for all households' was $57, or 19.2 percent of the average gross monthly income. The breakdown of average purchase requirements, in dollars and as a, percentage of gross tabl 32 inco me, is reported by household size and gross income in
While the dollar purchase requirement rises with gross income for any given household size, deductions are highly correlated with income and drive the purchase requirement, as a percentag e of gross income, downward as grross incomes increase. As shown on the table, the few one-person households with gross incomes between $560 and! $625 a month had such large itemized deductions that they were paying only 3.2 percent of their gross income for food. Similarly, the four-person households with gross incomes over $1,000 a month were paying no more than 12 percent of their incomes for food. However, a four-person household at the current net income limit of $553 per month paid, if they had no deductible expense, almost 20 percent of their income on food.
Across the income class rows, smaller households paid considerably smaller proportions of their gross income for their food stamp,,- than larger households. For example, single persons with incomes between $215 and $284 a month paid 11.8 percent, while eight persons with the same income paid 23.7 percent. Tfhe difference is $32 per month.
(33)











Average Househkk CJze 4.3 Persons
Average Grs eo $211
Average Net icome $173
Average D-' n s$39
Average Bau $114
Femte He[as 46 Percent
Ma!e Hds 54 Percent
Work Status
Fu Lltirme 26 Percent
Par-time 6 Percent
Not Working 69 Percent

Households with Elderly 26 Percent

(84)









CHIAPI'EIR XIV

PUERTO RICO


Thle liousoold cihaac' ristlcs of food st~ p pticipnts in Puerto Rico are so different fro te 0 o the 50 States. a' t District of Columbia that, whey the i uerto Ric Iubsainple is ielcle( in the entire casload tabula. ions, the aneomes mt average de:tos fall i, casurably.
The average Oross income in Puerto Rico was z21i per nonth, compared to $21S per Ionh or tbe o '2 e an tI I tic t of
Columbia. There (verall 1ave e incoife, 1IIChdino Pueito ico and the States, was $292 per mon.
Total deductions averaged onlv $3 D0 pet' muit among Al housi 'his' in Puerto Rico. This dropped ithe entire cas,.eload ave:ge deduction from $77 to $75 per month. Similarly average net incomes of '173 in Puerto Rico forced the United States average down from $223 to $220 per month. The average household size in Puerto Rico was 4.3 persons, the United States average was 3.2, for an overall average of 3.3 persons per household. Also, 26 percent of the households in Puerto Rico has one or more elderly persons; compared to the United States where 17 percent of the households had one or more elderly Persons. These figures are consistent with the islandwide bonus of $114 per household, compared to $71 per month for the 50 States and the District of Columbia during the same time period.
While 64 percent of the households in the United States were headed by females, only 46 percent were headed by females in Puerto Rico. Also, the percentage of heads of households who were working full time was higher in Puerto Rico-26 percent compared to 13 percent in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Gi.ven- thile very high unemployment rate in Puerto Rico, the fact that miore household heads were working there than in the States could possibly be due to the larger proportion of participating households headed by males in Puerto Rico. Six percent of all heads of households in Puerto Rico were working part time, compared to 5 percent of all heads of households who were working in the United States. The statistics summarized above are shown in detail in table 33.
(35)




























TABULATIONS OF SURVEY DATA





38

TABLE L-Sampling plan-number of acceptable observations by State-50 States,
State: District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico
New England: Obarvations
Connecticut ----------------------------------------------- 202
Maine ---------------------------------------------------- 120
-XIassachusetts -------------------------------------------- 524
New Hampshire ------------------------------------------- 60
Rhode Island --------------------------------------------- 89
Vermont -------------------------------------------------- 90
Total -------------------------------------------------- 11085
Mid-Atlantic:
Delaware ------------------------------------------------- 0
District of Columbia --------------------------------------- 99
'XIaryland ------------------------------------------------ 159
New Jersey ----------------------------------------------- 274
New York ------------------------------------------------ 620
Pennsylvania ---------- I ---------------------------------- 585
Puerto Rico ----------------------------------------------- 472
Virginia -------------------------------------------------- 116
Virgin Islands --------------------------------------------- 0
West Virginia ---------------------------------------------- 116
Total -------------------------------------------------- 2)441
Southeast:
Alabama ----------------------------------------- I -------- 209
Florida --------------------------------------------------- 448
Georgia -------------------------------------------------- 268
Kentucky ------------------------------------------------ 273
Mississippi ------------------------------------------------ 12G
North Carolina -------------------------------------------- 206
South Carolina -------------------------------------------- 296
Tennessee ------------------------------------------------ 244
Total -------------------------------------------------- 2? 068
Midwest:
Illinois --------------------------------------------------- 243
Indiana -------------------------------------------------- 149
Iowa ----------------------------------------------------- 118
Kansas --------------------------------------------------- 148
Michigan ------------------------------------------------- 248
Minnesota ------------------------------------------------ 149
Missouri -------------------------------------------------- 367
Nebraska ------------------------------------------------- 89
Ohio ----------------------------------------------------- 704
Wisconsin ------------------------------------------------ 146
Total -------------------------------------------------- 2)361
West-Central:
Arkansas ------------------------------------------------- 119
Colorado ------------------------------------------------- 88
Louisiana ------------------------------------------------- 393
Montana ------------------------------------------------- 59
New Mexico ---------------------------------------------- 59
North Dakota --------------------------------------------- 0
Oklahoma ------------------------------------------------ 210
South Dakota --------------------------------------------- 30
Texas ---------------------------------------------------- 776
Utah ----------------------------------------------------- 89
Wyoming ------------------------------------------------- 0
Total -------------------------------------------------- 1,823






39

TABLE 1,-Sampling pian-mtmbcr of acccptable observations by St at c-O
stateN. District of Cola tbiat, wul J'ucrlo Rico-O~nithiied

WesterTn: Obv~rratl*0a.
A la sk a, - - - - - - - - - - - 0
Arizona ---------------------- ---- 129
C alifor-nia -- - - - - - - - - - - 860
Guarn --------------------------- 0
h a -w aii - - - - - - - - - --59
Id ta h o - - - - - - - - - - - -3
N evada -- - - - - - - - - -30
Or-egon --------------------------------------------------- 264
Washington------------------------------------------------ 177

Total-------------------------------------------------- 1 549

Total------------------------------------------------- 11,327

TABLE 2.-HOUSEHOLD DISTRIBUTION-ALL HOUSEHOLDS-GROSS MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Households in thousandsl

Size of households Total
Monthly household gross Houseincome 1 2 3 4 s 6 7 8+ holds Percent

None to$0----------------- 56 26 31 16 10 8 5 3 155 3.0
$0.01 to $99.99-------------- 105 56 25 14 3 4 4 2 214 4.1
$100 to $214.99------------- 950 293 166 104 50 25 11 11 1,609 30.8
$215 to $284.99------------- 136 414 170 101 35 22 13 19 911 17.5
$285 to $359.99 ------------- 31 179 270 178 65 42 17 15 796 15.3
$360 to $419.99------------- 9 53 94 139 118 45 20 22 500 9.6
$420 to $489.99------------- 2 30 60 72 73 53 31 24 345 6.6
$490 to $559.99 ------------- (1) 17 34 45 48 38 35 25 242 4. 6
$560 to $624.99 ------------- (1) 14 18 22 31 26 15 27 154 3.0
$625 to $694.99--------------------- 8 12 23 21 19 14 27 122 2.4
$695 to $849.99--------------------- 1 9 21 16 18 17 26 107 2.1
$850 to $999.99 -------------------- (1) 1 5 10 5 5 12 38 .7
$1,000 to $1,249.99------------------ (1) (1) 2 (1) 4 3 7 19 .4
$1,250 and up------------------------------ (1--------- ) -------- (1) (1) 2 4 (2)
Total number of
households--------- 1,291 1,091 891 742 481 308 191 221 5,217 100.0
Percent---------- (24.7) (20.9) (17. 1) (14.2) (9.2) (5.9) (3.7) (4.2) (103.0) ---Total persons--------- 1, 291 2,183 2,64 2,968 2,407 1, 851 1,334 2,002 16, 710 ---Percent---------- (7.7) (13.1) (16.0) (17.8) (14.4) (11.1) (8.0) (12.0) (100.0) ---I Less than 1,000.
2 Less than 0.1 percent.







40

TABLE 3.-HOUSEHOLD DISTRIBUTION-ALL HOUSEHOLDS-NET MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE-50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
(Households in thousandsl

Size of households Total
Monthly household net Houseincome 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ holds Percent

None to $0 ---------------- 84 47 47 26 13 11 9 4 241 4.6
$0.01 to $99.99-------------- 361 175 101 70 28 17 5 4 762 14.6
$100 to $214.99------------- 823 509 283 160 70 49 18 21 1,924 36.9
$215 to $284.99 ------------- 19 268 254 139 66 34 21 24 826 15.8
$285 to $359.99------------- 3 57 140 194 102 55 25 19 597 11.4
$360 to $419.99 -------------------- 22 37 78 97 42 19 26 322 6.2
$420 to $489.99--------------------- 6 18 46 55 53 3*3 21 238 4.6
$490 to $550.99--------------------- 3 5 16 24 23 23 28 122 2.3
$560 to $624.99--------------------- 2 3 5 19 15 17 23 85 1.6
$ 25 to $694.99 --------------------(1 2 3 6 10 6 22 49 .9
$-^95to $849.99 --------------------(1 1 3 2 5 6 21 38 .7
$850 to $999.99:--------------------------------- (1) (1) (1) (1) 5 7 1
$1,000 to $1,249.99------------------------------- 0 1---(--) 1 3 (2)
$1,250 and up-----------------------------(1------------ ) ----------------(1 (1) 2 (1)
All households-------- 1, 291 1, 091 891 742 481 308 191 221 5.,217 100. 0

I Less than 1,000.
2 Less than 0.1 percent1

TABLE 4.-HOUSEHOLDS WITH CASH INCOME, ARRAY BY CASH INCOME SOURCES, 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF
COLUMBIA
[Households in thousands]

Rail
road
retirement
Self- and
Salaries em- Stu- other
and Boarder ployed dent Social pen- Other
Cash income source wages income income aid AFDC GA SSI security VA sions income

Salaries and wages--. 1, 170 29 14 17 343 29 33 60 14 3 167
Boarder income ------------ 116 5 1 44 7 20 35 6 (1)
Self-employed 27
income------------------------ 62 (1) 10 2 7 8 2 0 12
Student aid------------------------------ 43 8 (1) 1 1 2 0 11
AFDC---------------------------------------- 2,177 16 108 150 30 4 318
GA-------------------------------------------------- 429 39 28 7 1 38
SSI -------------------------------------------------------- 892 452 3 1 7 90
Social security------------------------------------------------------ 1.114 82 18 125
VA ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 179 3 28
Railroad and other
pensions------------------------------------------------------------------------ 45 9
Other income----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 974

1 Less than 1,000 households.
Note: 1st (the farthest left) number on a row indicates number of households with income shown by the row heading@ For example, there are 429,000 GA households. Other numbers in a row (or column) indicate households with sources indicated by row and column headings. For example, 28,000 have GA and social security incomes; 16,000 have GA and AFDC incomes.






41

TABLE 5A.-DISTRIBUTION BY CASH INCOME SOURCES (PT. I) HOUSEHOLDS WITH CASH INCOME, 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

1 or more sources of income 1 and only I source of income
Average Averag e
amount
of source c! source
Number of income Nunter of income
households Percent of all (Households house c-~s Percent af all (ii .cs Source (thousands) households with source) (thou "' is) househoic.s ,th ource)

Salaries ---------------- 1,170 22.4 $368 577 11.1 $425
Self-employment ...... 62 1.2 1:6 22 .4 224
Roomer/boarder --------- 116 2.2 72 4 1 12(
Studentaid ------------- 43 .8 11 13 .2 24
AFDC ------------------ 2,177 41.7 243 1,337 25.6 263
GA -------------------- 429 8.2 165 284 5.6 190
SSI -------------------- 892 17.1 119 2;1 5.2
Social security ----------- 1,114 21.4 177 351 6.7 224
VA -------------------- 179 3.4 123 31 .6 178
Railroad retirement and
other pens:ons -------- 45 .9 180 10 .2 273
Other income ----------- 974 18.7 lb9 334 6.4 2 0
All of above ------------- 5, 062 97.0 NA 3,245 C2.2 2S2



TABLE 5B.-HOUSEHOLDS WITH CASH INCOME SOURCES (PT. 2), HOUSEHOLDS WITH CASH li CoE, 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Households Perceint of all
Source of income (thousands) households

AFDC and earnings orly ------------------------------------------------276 5.3
AFDC and social security only-76 1. 5
AFDC and railroad retirement and other pensions only ------------------------------- 2 C)
AFDC and ctLer inccrre only ---------------------------------------------- 234 4. 5
SSI and earnings only '--------------------------------------18 .3
SSI and railroad retirement and other pensions only -------------------------------- 3 (C)
SSI and social security only ----------------------------------------------- 333 6.5
SSI and other incom e only 2 ......................................................-31 .6
Social security and railroad retirement and other pensions only.-13 .3
AFDC, earnings and social security only ----------------------------------------- 9 .2
AFDC, SSI and social security only......................- 29 .5
AFDC, earnings and other income only ------------------------------------------- 42 .8
Total -------------------------------------------------------- 1,072 20. 5
Households with exactly I source of income (from pt. I)-3,245 62.2
Zero gross income households ---------------------------------------------- 155 3.0
Combinations other than above --------------------------------------------- 745 14.3
Total -------------------------------------------------------- 5,217 100.0

Earnings includes salaries, wages, training allowance, and self-employment incone. Excludes roomer/boarder income and student aid.
2 Other income as indicated on survey form FNS-237.
3 Less than 0.1 percent.







42

TABLE 6A.-HOUSEHOLDS WITH EARNINGS, DISTRIBUTION BY GROSS INCOME AND HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Households in thousands]

Size of household
Monthly household
gross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + Total Percent

None---------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$0.01 to $93.99-------------- 24 12 6 5 2 2 (1) 2 53 4.3
$100 to $1.---- ---50 32 23 14 10 5 2 3 139 11.4
$215 to $284.99 ------------- 13 26 21 14 10 6 3 3 97 7.9
$285 to $3bS.9------------- 17 33 30 24 9 11 5 4 133 10.9
$360 to $419.99------------- 7 29 34 34 21 18 7 9 159 13.1
$420 to $49~-------2 22 37 32 29 12 12 10 156 12.8
$490 to $559.59------------- (1 16 28 30 23 15 11 9 133 10.9
$560 to $624.99--------I 14 17 19 22 17 8 12 108 8.9
$625 to $694.99------------- 0 8 11 21 19 14 6 12 91 7.5
$695 to $849.99------------- 0 1 7 20 14 16 15 17 91 7.5
$8501to $999.99------------- 0 ( 1 5 10 5 4 10 36 3.0
$1, 000to $1,249;93------------0 () (1) 2 (1) 4 3 7 19 1.5
$1,250 and up-------------- 0 0 0 (1) 0 (9) (i) 2 4 .3
Total---------113 195 216 223 169 126 730 99 1,218 100.0
Percent---------9.3 16 17.8 18.3 13.8 10.4 6.3 8.2 100 ---Average gross income ------- $193 $352 $409 $482 $511- $540 $577 $639 $450

1 Less than 1,000.

TABLE 6B.-HOUSEHOLDS WITH EARNI NGS; DISTRI BUTION BY EARNED I NOOME AND HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Households in thousands)

Size of household

Monthly household earned
income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + Total Percent

None---------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$0.01 to $99.99-------------- 43 40 24 17 14 4 5 4 152 12.5
$100 to $214.99 ------------- 43 49 43 29 22 13 5 7 210 17.3
$215 to $249-------8 19 20 22 17 12 6 8 112 9.2
$285 to $359.99 ------------- 10 25 30 28 16 17 6 13 145 11.9
$360 to $419.99------------- 6 23 26 29 20 16 7 8 136 11. 1
$420 to $489.99------------- 2 21 31 33 21 16 11 12 147 12.1
$490 to $559.99 -------------(I 10 24 21 19 15 8 10 107 8.8
$560 to $624.99 -------------(1 4 9 16 15 10 10 9 74 6.0
$625 to $694.99------------- 0 3 5 14 12 10 4 6 55 4.6
$695 to $849.99------------- 0 () 3 8 9 8 8 11 49 4.0
$850 to $999.99------------- 0 () (1) 3 3 2 4 5 18 1.5
$1,000 to $1.249.99----------- 0 0 0 2 (1) 2 1 4 10 .9
$1,250 and up-------------- 0 0 0 0 0 (1) 0 2 2 .2
Total---------------- 113 195 216 223 169 126 76 99 1,218 100.0
Percent ---------- 9.3 16 17 18.3 13.8 10.4 6.3 8.2 100
Average earned income ------ $156 $263 $327 $393 $407 $445 $477 $517 $361 ---ILess than 1,000.











43




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44
fo
TABLE 7.-AVERAGE DEDUCTION BY TYPE OF DEDUCTION; ALL HOUSEHOLDS AND HOUSEHOLDS CLAIMING DEDUCTIONS; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Average
among
households Percent of
Average claiming households
over all households claiming
Type of deduction households deductions deduction

Work allowance -- ---------------------------------------------- $5 T24 22.4
Mandatory------ 10 56 17.8
Coupons for boarder ------- ------------------------------------ 1 54 1.7
Live-in attendant ------ ---------------------------------------- 97 1
Monthly allotmentfor live-in 46 .2
Medical expense --- ---------------------------------------------- 8 41 18.8
Child care -------- ---------------------------------------------- 2 82 2.9
School tuition and mandatory fees ------ -------------------------- 1 74 1.6
Alimony ----- -------------------------------------------------- 98 .4
Casualty 83 .4
Shelter----- -------------------------------------------------- 49 68 72.1
Total deduction ---- --------------------- 1 77 93 82.9

1 Less than $0.50.

TABLE 8A.-AVERAGE TOTAL DEDUCTION-ALL HOUSEHOLDS; GROSS MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average dollar deduction]

Size of household
Monthly household gross Allhouseincome 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ holds

None- 43 54 63 30 54 50 55 68 55
$0.01 to $99.99 -------------------- 43 42 50 53 66 34 168 103 47
$100 to 41 52 60 57 51 55 69 33 47
$215 to 89 57 64 63 90 bi 57 42 65
$285 to 136 83 74 64 52 64 52 62 73
$360 to 209 148 105 85 68 86 69 77 93
$420 to $489.99 ------------------- 339 196 145 108 81 69 64 59 104
$450 to $559.99 301 184 188 154 117 90 60 55 120
$560 to 488 223 220 190 134 127 116 72 148
$625 to $694.99 ------------------- 0 223 247 221 161 139 116 81 159
$695 to $849.99 ------------------- 0 379 318 286 224 152 173 113 198
$850 to 0 64 341 329 312 228 242 167 249
$1,000 to $1,249.99 ---------------- 0 486 282 507 412 315 308 279 330
41,250 and up ------------------ 0 0 0 130 0 1,493 216 327 439
All households -------------------- 51 73 89 95 83 90 85 85 77
Total household (thousands) ------ 1,291 1,092 891 742 481 308 191 221 5,217
Percent ---------------- 24.7 20.9 17.1 14.2 9.2 5.9 3.7 4.2 100






45

TABLE 8B.-AVERAGE TOTAL DEDUCTION: HOUSEHOLDS CLAIMING DEDUCTIONS; GROSS MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average dollar deduction (percent distribution)]

Size of household
All
houseMonthly household gross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ holds

None ------------------------------ $90 $124 $123 $147 $134 $113 $87 $151 $113
Percent distribution------------- (2.6) (1.2) (2.1) (1.3) (1.0) (1. 5) (2.2) (0.7) (1.7)
$0.01 to 50 48 61 67 76 43 168 103 55
Percent distribution -------------- (8.6) (5.4) (2.6) (1.7) (0.7) (1.2) '(2. 6) (1.0) (4.2)
$100 to 52 64 71 70 64 76 78 47 58
Percent distribution ------------- (74.2) (26.4) (17.8) (13.4) (9.9) (7.4) (6.2 (4.5) (29. 0)
$215 to $284.99- 94 72 75 81 107 85 83 68 79
Percent distribution------------- (12.4) (36.1) (18.6) (12.5) (7.3) (6.5) (5 7) (7.2) (17.3)
$285 to $359.99 ---------------------- 142 93 83 78 70 90 2 81 8 "a'
Percent distribution ------------- (2.9) (17.5) (30.8) (23.0) (11.9) (12.2) (8.2) (6.8) (15.6)
$360 to 209 155 113 100 85 1105 94 89 108
Percent distribution ------------- (0.8) (5.6) (11.2) (18.8) (23.5) (15.1) (9.7) (10. (9.9)
$420 to $489. 99 --------------------- 339 i99 148 113 96 94 109 68 120
Percent distribution ------------- (0.2) (3.2) (7.5) (11.0) (15.4) (15.8) (13.0) (12.4) (6.9)
$490 to $599.99_____________ 301 193 193 160 126 108 74 86 136
Percent distribution------------- (1.8) (4.3) (6.8) (11.0) (12.8) (18.7) (9.7) (4.9)
$560 to 488 223 223 195 143 141 127 116 167
Percent distribution------------- (0.1) (1.6) (2.3) (3.4) (7.3) (9.4) (9.0) (10.1) (3.2)
$625 to 0 223 247 225 161 154 127 125 177
Percent distribution --------------------- (0.9) (1.5) (3.5) (5.3) (6.9) (8.2) (10.5) (2.5)
$695 to $849.99 --------------------- 0 379 318 293 224 152 176 133 202
Percent distribution--------------------- (0.1) (1. 1) (3.2) (4.0) (7.3) (11.2) (13.5) (2.4)
$850 to 0 64 341 329 0 312 228 242 167 249
Percent distribution --------------------- (1) (0.2) (0.8) (2.5) (2.0) (3.2) (7.1) (0. 0)
$1,000 to 0 486 282 507 412 315 308 279 3 360
Percent distribution--------------------- (1) (0.1) (0.4) (0.2) (1.8) (1.9) (4.5) (0.4)
$1,250 and up 0 0 0 130 0 1,493 216 327 439
Percent Y tiii tion ------------------------------------- (0.2)________ (0.2) (0.2) (1.4) (6.1)
All households-------------- 63 88 102 ill 110 118 113 113 93
Percent distri button (24.2) (20.9) (18.1) (14.6) (9.3) (5.7) (3.5) (3.8) (100.0)
Total households (thousands)-- 1,046 905 781 632 401 244 162 165 4,326

I Less than 0.1 percent.

TABLE 9A.-AVERAGE SHELTER DEDUCTION: ALL HOUSEHOLDS; GROSS MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average dollar deduction]

Size of household
Monthly household gross All houseincome 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + holds

$41 $52 $57 $72 $49 $49 $55 $68 $51
$0.01 to 37 38 38 50 47 29 168 94 41
$100 to $214.99 ------------------- 34 45 52 50 45 48 62 29 40
$215 to $284.99 ------------------- 67 46 54 5b zJ 48 43 35 52
$285 to 82 55 65 54 42 45 "36 38 57
$360 to 108 69 67 63 53 47 43 42 60
$420 to 135 83 62 61 49 44 28 27 53
$490 to $559.99 ------------------- 175 43 62 72 57 43 27 22 49
$560 to 120 67 65 57 46 50 51 28 50
$62S to 0 37 59 54 42 36 4 5 35 44
$695 to $849.99- 0 76 87 87 55 21 33 34 51
$850 to $999.99 ------------------- 0 47 60 91 79 32 51 25 54
$1,000 to 0 23 0 74 98 48 19 72 60
$1,250 and 0 0 0 0 0 294 0 1 43

All households -------------- ----- 40 49 59 58 50 44 41 34 49
Total households (thousands)- 1,291 1,092 891 742 481 303 191 221 5,217
Percent---------------- 24.7 20.9 17.1 14.2 9.2 5.9 3.7 4.2 100








T5-939-76-4







46

TABLE 9B.-AVERAGE SHELTER DEDUCTION: HOUSEHOLDS CLAIMING DEDUCTION; GROSS MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average dollar deduction (percent distri bution)]

Size of household
All
Monthly household gross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ households

None ------------------------- $86 $120 $110 $132 $122 $109 $87 $151 $106
Percent distribution----------- (2. 7) (1.4) (2. 3) (1.5) (1.2) (2.0) (3.0) (1.3) (2.0)
$0J.01 to $99.99------------------- 48 45 52 6 66 67 168 9)4 52
Percent distribution------------ (8. 3) (5. 9) (2.6) (1.8) (0.7) (1.0) (3.6) (1.7) (4.4)
$100 to $214.99------------------- 46 60 65 66 60 71 69 48 53
Percent distribution----------- (72.1) (27.7) (18.4) (14.1) (11.4) (9.3) (8.7) (6.9) (32.0)
$215 to T284.99------------------- 73 67 66 75 77 75 72 74 6
Percent distribution----------- (12.8) (35.9) (19.5) (13.1) (7.9) (7.7) (7.3) (9.6) (18.1)
$285to 399---------91 73 76 70 62 77 78 65 74
Percent distribution----------- (2. 9) (16. 9) (31. 8) (24. 4) (13. 2) (13. 3) (7. 4) (9. 3) (16. 3)
$360 to $419.99 ------------------ 108 85 82 83 73 78 83 129 8l2
Percent distribution----------- (0.9) (5.4) (10.7) (18.8) (26.4) (14.6) (9. 5) (7.7) (9.7)
$420 to $999---------135 100 75 77 75 70 63 63 77
Percent distribution----------- (0. 2) (3. 1) (6. 9) (10. 3) (14. 7) (18. 2) (1-2. 8) (10. 7) (6. 3)
$490 to $559.99----------175 64 86 87 83 65 46 62 75
Percent distribution----------- (1) (1.4) (3.4) (6.6) (10. 1) (13.6) (18.8) (v. 4) (4.3)
$560 to $674.93 ------------------ 120 79 89 81 81 87 67 74 81
Percent distribution----------- (0. 1) (1.5) (1.8) (2.8) (5.4) (8. 1) (10.4) (10.8) (2.5)
$625 to $594.99------------------- 0 71 79 75 79 61 70 93 76
Percent distribution----------------- (0. 5) (1. 2) (2.9) (3. 5) (6.0) (8. 1) (10.3) (1.9)
$595 to $849.99------------------- 0 126 93 110 85 6 E1 70 87
Percent distribution----------------- (0.1) (1. 1) (2.9) (3.2) (3.2) (7.5) (13.7) (1.7)
$350 to $999----------0 47 95 184 122 6 97 82 109
Percent distribution----------------- (0. 1) (0. 1) (0. 5) (2. 0) (1.4) (2.3) (3. 8) (0.5)
$1,000 to $1,249.99 ---------------- 0 23 0 117 98 90 77 145 115
Percent distribution------------- (.1-------- (0. (03) (0.2) (1. 3) (0.6) (4.5) (0.3)
$1,250 and up-------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 29)4 0 9 185
Percent distritution----------------------------------------- (03-------- (0.4) (1)
All households------------- -- ---- 53 67 74 78 74 74 72 8 68
Percent distribution----------- (25.9) (21.3) (19. 1) (14.8) (8.7) (4.9) (2.9) (2.5) (100.0)
Total households (thousands).. 975 800 717 559 326 183 109 9)3 3, 762

1Less than 0.1 percent.

TABLE 9C.-AVERAGE SHELTER DEDUCTION: ALL HOUSEHOLDS; GROSS MONTHLY INCOME BY PRESENCE OR
ABSENCE OF ELDERLY IN HOUSEHOLDS; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Households with elderly Households without elderly All households
Gross monthly income Amount Percent Amount Percent Amount Percent

0-------------------------------- $ 70 0.2 $51 3.5 $51 3.0
$0.01lto $99 ------------------------ 32 1.4 41 4.7 41 4.1
$100 to $214 ------------------------ 25 59.4 47 25.0 40 30.8
$215 to $8--------- ---31 22.1 57 16.5 52 17.5
$285 to $359------------------------- 29 9. 3 60 16. 5 57 15.3
$360 to $419 ------------------------ 31 3.2 61 10.9 60 9.6
$420 to$49------------53 2.0 53 7.6 53 6.6
$490 to $559------------------------- 27 1.2 50 5.4 49 4.6
$560 to $624 ------------------------ 20 .6 51 3.4 ho 2.9
$625 to $9--------- ---19 .4 44 2.8 44 2.3
$695 to $849 ------------------------ 16 .3 52 2.4 51 2.1
$850 to $999------------------------ 0---------54 .9 54 .7
$1,000 to $,4------- ----0---------60 .4 60 .4
$1,250 and up ---------------- 0------------ 43 (1) 43 (1)
All households------------------- 28 100.0 53 100.0 49 100.0
Total households (tosns--------885------------- 4, 332------------- 5, 217
Percent---------------------------- 17.0 0------------- 83.0 0-------100.0

I Less than 0.1 percent4







47

TABLE 9D.-AVERAGE SHELTER DEDUCTION: HOUSEHOLDS CLAIMAIN2 SA[ELTER DEDUCTION; 7ROS 1iONT:ILY
INCOME E BY PRESENCE OR ASELNCE OF ELDERLY IN HOUSEHICLDS; 50 STATES AND )ISTR!CT 0! (OI, IA

Househol I s with elderly 1ousehcl'c! without e!Jerly All househols

Gross monthly income Amount Percent Amount Percent Arnout Prc

None ------------------------------ 3 0.3 .3 2.0
$0.01 to $99-- ----------.---------- 47 i. 6 53 9 4.4
$100 to $214 ------------------------- 9 L1 5. ;8 53 32.0
$215 to $284 ------------------------ 55 1 3 17.6 9 1P. I
T285 to $359 ------------------------ 58 7.8 75 17.7 7. 1. 3
$360 to $419 .------------------------- 65 2.6 10.8 82 9.7
$420 to $489 ------------------------ 144 1.2 7 7.? 77 3
$490 to $559 ------------------------- 7 .6 .9 4.93
$560 to $624- ------------------------ 13 5 .1 so 2.9 1 2.5
$625 to $694 ------------------------ 39 .3 77 2.1 76 1.9
$695 to $849 ------------------------ 46 .2 88 1.9 87 1. 7
$850 to $999 ------------------------ 0 ------------ 109 .6 109 .5
$1,000 to $1,249 --------------------- 0 ------------ 115 .3 115 .3
$1,250 and up ---------------------- 0 ------------ 18 ( 1 ()

All households --------------------- 47 100.0 71 100.0 8 100.0
Total households (thousands) ---------------525 ------------ 3,237 ------------ 3
Percent --------------------------- 14.0 ------------ 86.0 ------------ 10.0

I Less than 0.1 percent.

TABLE 9E.-DISTRIBUTION BY SHELTER DEDUCTION AND GROSS INCOME LEVEL: ALL HOUSEHOLDS; 50 STATES AND DiSTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Households in thousands]

Shelter deduction

All
Monthly household gross 51- 101- 151- 201- 301- 401- Over houseincome None 1-50 100 i5o 200 300 400 500 500 holds

None ----------------------81 15 26 18 10 4 (1) (1) 0 155
$0.01 to $99.9 -------------- 48 109 35 11 5 4 0 (1) 0 214
$100 to $214.99 -------------- 413 619 462 96 13 5 (1) 0 0 1,609
$215 to $284.99 ------------- 232 258 274 118 26 4 0 0 0 911
$285 to $359.99 --------------186 215 243 116 28 9 0 0 0 796
$360 to $419.9 -------------- 139 120 130 72 25 13 1 (1) (1) 500
$420 to $489.99 -------------- 107 97 72 40 18 9 (1) 0 0 345
$490 to $559.99 -------------- 84 68 51 23 11 5 (1) 0 0 242
$560 to $624.99 -------------- 58 39 26 20 7 4 (1) 0 0 154
$625 to $694.9 -------------- 53 33 18 12 2 3 2 0 0 122
$695 to $849.99 ------------- 46 25 15 13 2 6 (1) (1) 0 107
$850 to $999.99 ------------- 19 5 7 3 2 1 (1) 0 (1) 38
$1,000 to $1,249.99 ----------- 9 3 3 2 (IN (1) (1) 0 (1) 19
$1,250 and up --------------- 3 () 0 0 0 (1) (1) 0 0 4

All households (thousands) ----------- 1,478 1,605 1,361 544 148 68 8 2 1 5,217
Percent --------- 28.3 30.8 26.1 10.4 2.8 1.3 .2 (2) 100.0

I Less than 1,000.
2 Less than 0.1 percent.









TABLE 9F.-DISTRIBUTION BY SHELTER DEDUCTION AND HOUSEHOLD SIZE; ALL HOUSEHOLDS: 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Households in thousands)

Size of household
Monthly household shelter Perdeduction 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ Total cent

Noe---------322 296 177 186 158 128 82 129 1,478 28.3
$1 to $50- ---------519 317 263 201 131 78 53 43 1,605 30.8
$51 to $100---------348 322 266 206 1ll1 59 27 23 1,361 26.1
$101lto $150 --------------- 82 119 139 100 49 22 20 15 544 10.4
$151lto $200---------18 31 31 28 19 13 4 3 148 2.8
$201 to $300---------2 6 14 17 13 6 5 4 68 1.3
$301 to $400--------------- 0 (1) (1) 2 (1) 2 0 2 8 .2
$401 to $500---------0 0 (1) (1) 0 0 0 (1) 2 (2)
Over $500------------------ 0 0 (1) 0 (1) 0 0 (1) 1 (2)
Total households ------ 1,291 1,092 891 742 481 308 191 221 5,217
Percent --------------- 24.7 20.9 17.1 14.2 9.2 5.9 3.7 4.2 100 10.

I Less than 1,000.
2 Less than 0.1.

TABLE 9G.-DISTRIBUTION BY SHELTER COST AND GROSS INCOME LEVEL: ALL HOUSEHOLDS; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
IHouseholds in thousands

Shelter cost

All
Monthly household 51- 101- 151- 201- 301- 401- Over housegross income None 1-50 100 150 200 300 400 500 500 holds

None --------------------- 81 15 26 18 10 4 (1) (1) 0 155
$0.01 to $99.99----------- 35 80 71 17 6 5 0 (1) 0 214
$100 to $214.99-------58 418 618 390 107 16 2 0 0 1,609
$215 to $284.99--------32 112 332 283 187 64 2 0 0 911
$285 to $359.99--------15 60 162 207 226 117 9 0 0 796
$360 to $419.99 ------------- 11 33 83 115 128 113 14 () 1 500
$420 to $489.99 ------------- 10 24 51 84 82 78 15 (' 0 345
$490 to $559.99-------------- __ 2 11 36 54 63 62 11 2 0 242
$560 to $624.99_____________ -3 9 17 32 36 45 10 1 0 154
$625 to $694.99------------- 1 4 14 22 37 35 6 1 2 122
$695 to $849.99_____________ -(1) 1 11 15 24 37 12 5 1 107
$850 to $999.99_____________ -(1) 0 1 6 11 10 9 () (1) 38
$1,000 to $1,249.99----------- 1 0 () (1) 3 9 3 ( 1 19
$1,250 and up-------0 0 () 0 0 3 () () 0 4
All households (thousands) ----------- 249 767 1,324 1,246 921 597 95 13 .6 5,217
Percent -------- 4.8 14.7 25.4 23.9 17.6 11.4 1.8 .2 .1 100.0

I Less than 1,000.







49

TABLE 9H.-DISTRIBUTION BY SHELTER COST AND SHELTER DEDUCTION: ALL HOUSEHOLDS; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Households in thousandsl

Shelter deduction
Monthly household shelter Over
cost None 1-50 51-100 101-150 151 -200 201-300 301 -400 401--500 500 Total

None-------------------- 249 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 249
$1 to $50 ------------------ 598 169 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 767
$5l to $100 ---------------- 425 757 142 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,324
$101 to $150--------------- 143 468 595 39 0 0 0 .0 0 1,246
$151 to $200--------------- 51 169 475 205 20 0 0 0 0 921
$201 to $300--------------- 12 42 146 277 105 16 0 0 0 597
$301 to $400---------------- 0 1 4 22 23 44 1 0 0 95
$401lto $500----------------0 0 0 (0 0 8 3 (1) 0 13
Over $500------------------ 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 (1) 1 6
Total households ------ 1, 478 1, 605 1, 361 544 148 68 8 2 1 5, 217
Percent ----------28. 3 30. 8 26. 1 10. 4 2. 8 1. 3 0. 2 Q) (2) 100. 0

ILess than 1,000.
2 Less than 0.1 percent.



TABLE 91.-DISTRIBUTION BY SHELTER COST AND HOUSEHOLD SIZE: ALL HOUSEHOLDS; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Households in thousandsl

Size of household
Monthly household shelter
cost 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Total Percent

None --------------------- 77 52 39 27 22 18 6 8 249 4.8
$1 to $50 ------------------ 317 185 75 62 41 306 22 29 767 14.7
$51 to $100 ---------------- 504 287 180 130 84 53 38 48 1,324 25.4
$101lto $150---------------- 259 292 248 184 114 68 39 41 1,246 23.9
$151 to $200---------------- 110 186 208 175 109 58 38 38 921 17.6
$201 to $300---------------- 22 82 126 136 90 61 38 40 597 11.4
$301lto $400--------------- (1) 7 14 21 19 12 9 12 95 1.8
$401 to $500---------------- 0 0 2 6 2 2 (1) (1) 13 .2
Over $500------------------ 0 0 (1) 1 (1) (1) 0 3 6 .1
Total households------ 1, 291 1, 092 891 742 481 308 191 221 5, 217 ------Percent---------- 24.7 20.9 17.1 14.2 9.2 5.9 3.7 4.2 100 100

1 Less than 1,000.







50

TABLE 10A.- AVERAGE MEDICAL DEDUCTION-ALL HOUSEHOLDS; GROSS MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD, SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average dollar deduction)

Size of household
Monthly household gross All house-,
income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8' holds

None-------------$1 $2 $2 $8 $5 $1 0 0 $2
$0. 01 to $99.99------------------- 1 2 7 2 16 0 0 0 2
$100 to $249---------- 5 3 2 2 2 $4 0 5
$215 to $284.99----------14 7 3 3 5 2 8 $2 6
$285 to $359.99------------------- 12 14 3 3 3 6 4 2 6
$360 to $419.99------------------- 18 27 10 6 5 15 7 7 10
$420 to $489.99------------------- 87 26 17 10 8 8 10 5 12
$490 to $559.99------------------- 0 15 17 13 18 12 5 6 13.
$560 to $649---------6 11 21 19 17 16 17 7 15$625 to $649---------0 7 31 36 14 23 19 5 19
$695 to $849.99------------------- 0 0 22 11 23 20 18 14 17
$550 to $999.99------------------- 0 0 0 32 20 21 23 15 20
$1,000 to $12~9--------0 .30 0 70 73 70 32 19 41
$1,250 and up-------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 174 173 69 74
All households----------------- 6 9 6 7 7 12 10 8 .8
Total households (thousands)-_ 1, 291 1.,092, 891 742 481 308 191 221 5, 217
Percent ----------------- (24.7) (20.9) (17.1) (14.2) (9.2) (5.9) (3.7) (4.2) (100>TABLE 10B.-AVERAGE MEDICAL DEDUCTION: HOUSEHOLDS CLAIMING DEDUCTION; GROSS MONTHLY INCOME BYHOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

[Average dollar deduction (percent distribution )]

Size of household
All house-.
Monthly household gross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ holds

None-------------$22 $85 $39 $76 $201 $42 0 0 $55
Percent distribution ---------- (0.7) (0.2) (1.0) (1.3) (0.3) (04--------0.6)
$0.01 to $99.99 ------------------- 20 26 45 23 53 0 0 0 30
Percent distribution----------- (2.6) (1.8) (3. 1) (0.8) (1. 1- ---------(.7)
$100 to $214.99-------------------2 8 31 37 27 24 48 41 0 29
Percent distribution-.--------- (71.8) (21.4) (12.1) (7.5) (4.7) (1.6) (2.5)--------(27.0)
$215 to$249---------41 38 36 28 39 24 49 21 i8
Percent distribution----------- (17.4) (33.8) (10.0) (8.8) (4.4) (2.8) (5.2) (3.8) (15.4)
$285 to $399---------28 51 36 411 24 30o 23 2240
Percent distribution----------- (5.2) (23.7) (16.9) (11.9) (10.0) (11.4) (6.9) (2.3) (12.4)
$360 to $499---------33 75 42 38 41 50 37 29 47
Percent distribution----------- (1. 8) (9. 2) (17.6) (18. 7) (16. 8) (19.4) (8.0) (11.8) (11. 1)
$420 to $489.99 ------------------ 206 54 45 41 42 60 39 25 47
Percent distribution - --------__(0.3) (6.8) (17. 3) (14.8) (14. 1) (10.5) (17.8) (10. 1) (9. 1)
$490 to $599.99------------------- 0 116 41 42 50 49 39 25 45
Percent distribution------------------ (1.0) (11. 1) (11.5) (17.5) (13.5) (10.8) (13.6) (6.9)
$560 to $624.99----------10 54 63 50 53 45 50 35 50
Percent distribution----------- (0.2) (1.4) (4.6) (6.9) (10.7) (13.0) (11.2) (11.9) (4.8)
$625 to 649---------0 49 84 6 37 68 52 317 59
Percent distribution----------------- (0.5) (3.3) (9.7) (8.3) (8.8) (10.8) (8.4) (4.1)
$695 to $849.99----------0 0 47 38 58 44 42 48 46
Percentditiuin-----------(3.0) (5.0) (6.8) (11.4) (16.6) (17.0) (4.1)
$850 to 999---------0 0 0 78 43 50 53 35 47
Percent distribution------------------------------- (1.7) (4.8) (2.8) (4.6) (11.3) (1.6)
$1,000 to $1299--------0 30 0 99 73 128 39 52 75
Percent distribution----------------- (0.2) -------- (1.4) (0.7) (3.4) (5.1) (5.9) (1.*0)
$1,250 and up-------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 174 173 88 115
Percent distribution---------------------(0.8) (0.5) (3.9) (0.3)
All households -------------- ---- 31 45 43 43 43 52 43 36 41
Percent distribution----------- (26.7) (21.5) (13.3) (12.4) (9.6) (7.1) (4.6) (4.6) (100.0)
Total households (thousands)- 262 211 130 123 95 70 45 416 981







51

TABLE 10C.-AVERAGE MEDICAL DEDUCTION: ALL HOUSEHOLDS; GROSS MONTHLY INCOME BY PRESENCE OR
ABSENCE OF ELDERLY IN HOUSEHOLDS; 50 STATES AND DiSTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Households without
Households with elderly elderly All households
Gross monthly income Amount Percent Amount Pe"Cent Amount Percent
. ...... -- -------
0 ---------------------------------- 0 0.2 $2 3. 5 $2 3.0
$0.01 to $99. 99 --------------------- $7 1.4 2 4.7 2 4.1
$100 to $214. 99 --------------------- 9 59.4 3 25.0 5 30.8
$215 to $284. 99 --------------------- 18 22.1 3 16.5 6 17.5
V85 to $359. 99 --------------------- 24 9.3 4 16.5 6 15.3
360 to $419. 99 --------------------- 30 3.2 9 10.9 10 9.6
$420 to $489. 99 --------------------- 29 2.0 11 7.6 12 6.6
$490 to $559. 99 --------------------- 31 1.2 12 5.4 13 4.6
$560 to $624.90 --------------------- 30 .6 15 3.4 15 2.9
625 to $694. 99 --------------------- 32 A 19 2.8 19 2.3
$695 to $849. 99 --------------------- 31 3 17 2.4 17 2.1
$850 to $999. 99 --------------------- 0 ------------ 20 .9 20 .7
$1,000 to $1,249. 99 ------------------ 0 ------------ 41 .4 41 .4
$1,250 and up ---------------------- 0 ------------ 74 74 -Q)
All households ---------------------- 14 100.0 6 100.0 8 100.0
Total households (thousands) ----------------- 885 ------------ 4,332 ------------ 5,217
Percent ----------------------------------- 17.0 ------------ 83.0 ------------ 100.0

Less than 0.1 percent.

TABLE 10D.-AVERAGE MEDICAL DEDUCTION: HOUSEHOLDS CLAIMING MEDICAL DEDUCTION; GROSS MONTHLY
INCOME BY ABSENCE OF ELDERLY IN HOUSEHOLDS; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Households without
Households with elderly elderly All households
Gross monthly income Amount Percent Amount Percent Amount Percent

0 ---------------------------------- 0 ------------ $55 0.9 $55 0.6
$0.01 to $99. 99 --------------------- $29 0.9 30 2.1 30 1.7
$100 to $214. 99 --------------------- 29 48.5 30 16.3 29 27.0
$215 to $284. 99 --------------------- 39 27.6 36 9.2 38 15.4
$285 to $359. 99 --------------------- 47 12.8 36 12.2 40 12.4
$360 to $419. 99 --------------------- 65 3.9 44 14.6 47 11. 1
$420 to $489. 99 --------------------- 46 3.3 47 12.0 47 9.1
$490 to $559. 99 --------------------- 77 1.3 43 9.7 45 6.9
$560 to $624. 99 --------------------- 78 .6 48 7.0 50 4.8
$625 to $694. 99 --------------------- 66 .5 53 5.9 59 4.1
$695 to $349. 99 --------------------- 39 .6 46 5.8 46 4.1
$850 to $999. 99 --------------------- 0 ------------ 47 2.4 47 1.6
$1000 to $1,249.99 ------------------ 0 ------------ 75 1.5 75 1.0
$1:250 and up ---------------------- 0 ------------ 115 .4 115 .3
All households --------------- 37 100.0 42 100.0 41 100.0
Total households 327 ------------ 654 ------------ 981
Percent ---------------------------------- 33.3 ------------ 66.7 ------------ 100.0






52

TABLE 11A.-AVERAGE MANDATORY DEDUCTION: ALL HOUSEHOLDS; GROSS MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average deduction dollar]

Size of household
All
Monthly household gross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + households

None-------------------------- 0 0 0 $1 0 0 0 0 0
$1.0O to $99.99-------------------- 0 0 $1 1 $1 $3 0 $2 0
$100 to $214.99------------------- 0 $1 1 1 1 0 $1 1 0
$215 to $284.99------------------- $1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 $1
$285 to $359.99------------------- 17 4 2 2 2 5 4 2 3
$360 to $419.99------------------- 46 19 11 7 3 10 9 7 9
$420 to $489.99------------------- 87 41 32 17 12 6 13 10 19
$490 to $559.99------------------- 96 60 56 37 20 20 10 11 29
$560 to $624.99 ------------------ 150 86 65 65 38 34 30 20 46
$625 to $694.99------------------- 0 102 84 77 66 50 27 22 56
$695 to $849.99------------------- 0 149 117 109 91 76 72 37 79
$850 to $999.99.------------------- 0 0 190 151 122 103 117 82 112
S1,000 to $1,249.99 ---------------- 0 0 252 221 212 172 156 135 161
$1,250 and up-------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 323 13 107 106
All households---------------- 1 6 11 15 16 21 22 23 10
Total households (thousands) --- 1, 291 1, 092, 891 742 481 308 191 221 5, 217
Percent------------------ 24.7 20.9 17.1 14.2 9.2 5.9 3.7 4.2 100


TABLE 118.-AVERAGE MANDATORY D EDUCTIO0N-HOUSEH OLDS CLAIMING DEDUCTION; GROSS MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average dollar deduction (percent distribution)I

Size of household All
houseMonthly household gross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + holds

None-------------------------- 0 0 0 $19 0 0 0 0 $19
Percent distribution -------------------04--------------------------- (0.1)
$0.01lto $99.99 ---------------- $5 $9 $18 26 $4 $9 0 $6- 9
Percent distribution----------- (7.8) (1.7) (1.0) (0.2) (0.6) (1. 1) -------- (0.6) (1.2)
$100 to 249---------14 13 16 11 13 6 $15 9 13
Percent distribution----------- (38. 2) (11. 1) (5. 0) (4. 7) (3. 0) (1. 5) (1. 1) (1.7) (6.3)
$215 to $284.99------------------- 22 23 17 19 12 14 26 19 19
Percent distribution----------(15. 4) (8.7) (7. 7) (4. 0) (3. 1) (2. 8) (1.0) (2. 5) (5.4)
$285 to $359.99------------------- 49 26 29 21 24 25 23 16 28
Percent distribution----------(21.9) (18.6) (11. 6) (9. 2) (4. 0) (8. 3) (4. 9) (1. 9) (9.8)
$360 to 499---------68 44 36 34 29 30 31 2 36
Percent distribution----------- (11. 3) (17. 5) (16. 9) (15.7) (10. 4) (13. 9) (9. 0) (8. 8) (13.8)
$420 to $499---------87 61 54 45 37 37 42 29 47
Percent distribution----------- (3. 8) (15.2) (21.2) (14. 5) (16.9) (8. 5) (15.0) (10.0) (14. 5)
$490 to$59 ---------96 69 69 57 44 51 40 35 56
Percent distribution----------- (0. 7) (11. 2) (16. 3) (15. 7) (15. 3) (13. 8) (14. 2) (9.7) (13. 4)
$560 to $2.9----- ---266 92 80 82 55 5i4 65 5i9 70
Percent distr-bution----------- (1. 0) (9. 9) (8. 7) (9.6) (15. 6) (14. 9) (10. 8) (11. 1) (10.7)
$625 to $694.99----------0 124 91 84 76 68 66 51i 79
Percent distribut*on-.----------------- (5. 1) (6. 3) (11.2) (13.2) (12.6) (8.6) (13. 8) (9. 4)
$695 to$849.99------------------_ 0 149 141 114 100 86 83 62 95
Percent distribution----------------- (0.9) (4.2) (10.8) (10.4) (14.6) (23.6) (18.5) (9.6)
$850 to $999.99------------------- 0 0 190 151 126 103 126 98 121
Percent distribution------------------------ (0.8) (2. 8) (7. 1) (4.5) (7.0) (11.7) (3.8)
$1,000 to $1,249.99________ 0 0 252 221 212 238 15i6 135 176
Percent dsrbto-------- ---(0.3) (1. 3) (0.5) (3.0) (4.4) (8.9) (1.8)
$1,250 and up ------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 323 13 338 280
Percentditiuin--------------------(0.5) (0.4) (0.9) (0.2)
All households---------------- 34 50 55 61 57 60 64 60 56Percent distribution----------- (5. 5) (14.2) (18. 3) (19. 8) (14. 9) (11. 5) (6. 9) (9.0) (100.0)
Total households (thousands). 51 132 170 184 139 107 64 84 931







53

TABLE 12A.-AVERAGE WORK ALLOWANCE DEDUCTION: ALL HOUSEHOLDS; GROSS MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average dollar deduction]

Size of household

All houseMonthly household gross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -4- holds

None---------------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$0.01 to $99.99 --------------------$1 $ $1 $1 $3 $2 0 $6 $1
$100 to $249----------1 1 2 2 2 2 $2 3 1
$215 to $284.99------------------- 2 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 2
$285 to $599------ ---13 4 2 3 3 7 5 7 4
$360 to $419.99 ------------------- 22 13 9 6 5 11 8 11 8
$420 to $489.99 ------------------- 30 22 17 12 10 6 10 12 12
$490 to $559.99 ------------------- 30 27 24 20 13 i 9 101S
$560 to $2.9------ ---17 30 27 25 20 '19 15 11 20J
$625 to 69.9----------0 30 29 28 26 22 13 12 22
$595 to $849.99-------------0 30 25 29 27 27 26 19 2
$850 to $999----------0 17 33 0 2 30 28 26 28
$1,000 to $1,249.99----------------- 0 30 30 30 30 206 25 30 23
$1,250 and up----------0 0 0 14 0 30 30 3026

All households-------------------- 1 4 6 8 9 11 11 12 5
Total households (thousands)---.. 1,291 1,092 891 742 481 303 191 221 5,217
Percent ------------------- 24.7 20.9 17.1 14.2 9.2 5.9 3.7 4.2 109



TABLE 128.-AVERAGE WORK ALLOWANCE DEDUCTION: HOUSEHOLDS CLAIMING DEDUCTION; GROSS MONTHLY
INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUiMBIA
'Average dollar deduction (percent distribution)]

Size of household
All houseMonthly household gross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 +hoeds

Noe-------------0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Percent distribution -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
$0.01 to $99------ ----$5 $0, $4 $4 $5 $5 0 $6 $5
Percent distribution----------- $18.6) (5.9) (2.7) (1.9) (1.2) (1. 5)------(1.6) (3.9)
$100 to $214.99-----------12 11 12 13 12 13 $15 16 12
Percent distribution----------- (43.8) (15.7) (10.4) (6. 4) (5. 1 (3. 0) (2. 2) (1. 9) (10. 8)
$215 to $8.9------ ---19 14 20 20 17 22 21 22 18
Percent distribution ----------- (12. 5) (13. 1) (9. 0) (6. 0) (5. 0) (4. 0) (3. 3) (3. 1) (7. 5)
$285 to $359.99 ------------------- 25 21 23 23 22 27 23 26 23
Percent distribution ----------- (16. 2) (17. 0) (13. 3) (10. 7) (5. 3) (8. 8) (5. 3) (4. 4) (10. 9)
$360 to $419.99 ------------------- 29 25 24 27 26 27 26 27 26
Percent distribution ----------- (6. 3) (15. 1) (16. C) (15.4) (12. 5) (15.0C) (8.7) (9. 3) (13. 3)
$420 to $489.99-----------30 29 28 27 25 27 29 28 27
Percent distribution ----------- (1. 9) (11. 9) (17.4) (14. 0) (17. 1) (8. 9) (15.4) (10. 3) (12. 9)
$490 to $559.99 ------------------- 30 29 29 29 28 29 28 29 29
Percent distribution ----------- (0.3) (8.3) (13.6) (14.0) (14.0) (12.4) (15.2) (8.8) (11.3)
$560 to $2.9------ ---30 30 30 30 29 29 29 29 29
Percent distribution ----------- (0. 5) (7. 5) (8.0) (8. 6) (13. 3) (13.6) (10.7) (10.7) (9. 1)
$625 to $694.99------------------- 0 30 29 30 30 29 30 29 30
Percent distribution------------------ (4.4) (5.4) (9.8) (11. 4) (11. 7) (8.4) (12.0) (7.8)
$695 to $849.99------------------- 0 30 30 30 29 30 29 29 30
Percent distribution------------------- (0.6) (3.4) (9. 3) (8. 8) (13. 3) (21.0) (17. 3) (7. 8)
$850 to $999----------0 17 30 30 30 30 30 30 30
Percent distribution------------------- (0. 2) (0. 7) (2.4) (6. 0) (4. 0) (6.2) (10.4) (3. 1)
$1,000 to $11249.99-----------0 30 30 30 30 29 30 30 30
Percent distribution------------------- (0.2) (0.2) (1. 1) (0.4) (3. 3) (3. 3) (7.7) (1. 5)
$1,250 and up-------------------- 0 0 0 30 0 30 30 30 30
Percent distribution -------------------------------- (0, 2)------(0. 5) (0. 3) (2. 3) (0. 3)

All households-------------- -- 15 21 24 26 26 27 28 28 24
Percent distribution ----------- (8. 8) (16.0) (17. 8) (18. 5) (14.0) (10.4) (6. 1) (8. 3) (100.0)
Total households (thousands)-. 183 188 208 217 164 122 72 97 1, 170






54

TABLE 13A.-AVERAGE BOARDER COUPON-ALLOTMENT DEDUCTION: ALL HOUSEHOLDS; GROSS MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average dollar deduction]

Size of household

All houseMonthly household gross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + holds

None-------------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$0.01 to $99.99 ------------------- $1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$100 to $214.99------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 $3 0 0 0
$215 to $249---------3 $1 $1 $1 $1 1 0 01
$235 to 399---------6 2 1 1 2 1 0 $3 1
$'360 to $419.09------------------- 0 1 1 1 0 2 $2 7 1
$420 to $489.9s ------------------ 0 1 2 2 1 1 2 4 1
$490 to $599----------0 1 2 0 2 1 2 2 1
$560 io 7524.9 ------------------- 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 2 1
$625 to :64-------------------- 0 0 1 0 4 0 0 1 1
$695 to $,,49.99------------------- 0 0 0 1 4 0 3 3 2
$850 to $599----------0 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 2
$1,000 to ~1299--------0 0 0 0 0 C 23 0 4
$1,250 and up-------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
All households---------------- 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1
Total households (thousands)- 1, 291 1, 092 89i 742 481 308 191 221 5, 217
Pefcent---------------- 24.7 20.9 17.1 14.2 9.2 5.9 3.7 4.2 100


TABLE 13B.-AVERAGE BOARDER COUPON-ALLOTMENT DEDUCTION: HOUSEHOLDS CLAIM Ml NG DEDUCTION; GROSS
MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average dollar deduction (percent distribution)]

Size of household
All
houseMonthly household gross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + holds

on------------48 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 48
Percenitdistribution-----20-----------------------------(0.4)
$0.01 to $99.99 -------------------- 48 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 48
Percent distribution-----78-----------------------------(1.6)
$100 to$249---------53 35 47 48 0 48 0 0 49
Percent distribution----------- (31. 3) (9. 5) (14. 2) (.)- --(19. 1)---------------- (12.7)
$.215 to $284.99----------50 62 48 47 48 48 0 0 54
Percent distribution----------- (45. 4) (49.9) (26. 1) (25. 2) (9.6) (.)- ------(27.2)
$285 to $5.9------ ---76 50 60 77 58 48 ----------48 59
Percent distribution----------- (13.4) (30.6) (24.8) (12.9) (19. 5) (8.9) -------- (9.8) (17.4)
$360 to $419.99------------------- 0 47 48 58 48 52 48 6 56
Percentditiuin--------(3.5) (10.5) (26.3) (2.9) (21.5) (19.4) (21.7) (10.4)
$420 to $489.99------------------- 0 47 79 48 48 48 4,8 48 52
Percent dsrbto----- ---(4. 4) (11.2) (22.5) (9.3) (23.3) (21.6) (18. 8) (10.9)
$1490 to $559.99 -------------------- 0 48 77 0 47 47 48 48 51
Percent distribution----------------- (2.1) (6.9)---(16.1) (12.2) (34.4) (9.2) (7.0)
$560 to $624.99------------------- 0 0 48 0 48 46 0 53 1
Percentditiuin-----------(4.0) -------- (8.2) (7.8)---(12.2) (3.3)
$625 to $694.99------------------- 0 0 46 0 47 0 0 418 47
Percentditiuin-----------(2.4)-------(16.0-------(7.7) (2.9)
$695 to $849.99----------0 0 0 48 418 0 47 47 47
Percent distribution------------------------------- (4.7) (14. 3)------ (18. 1) (15.3) (4.8)
$850 to $999.99------------------- 0 0 0 0 48 0 0 92 72
Percent distribution-------------------------------(41-------------- (5.3) (1.0)
$1,000 to $1,249.99 ---------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 192 0 192
Percent distribution------------------------(6.6)--------(0.4)
$1,250 and up--------------------0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0
All households----------------54 54 56 54 50 48 57 55 54
Percent distribution----------- (21. 1) (19.7) (12.,4) (11.3) (11.3) (7.7) (5.7) (10.7) (100.0)
Total households thousands- 19 18 11 10 10 7 5 10 91l







55

TACLE 14A. '-']7 E LiV 7-lIN AT2 2TT (S'2 I A RTI IF: A-L HO 1r.: ?i
COME, BY OU U SIZE; bO J -- D;TL L~ ~TICT OrCOCi* [Average li ar !d; I




Cr 7


te'-1 o~oic~ ~
5 t s - - - - - - -- - - - - --_
$1--------------$'21to 3 c a (--------t,4 3 (fl h _s 1 CJ







Sizeto~ CA il-u9 3l


ect----------_.3 7 23. 171 "_ 927 8~


TA.ES 12.-AERAE LVE-: ATKDAT (SARE) D1D7TW HLSEOLA L< 3 0





r c e f 4

Ucie---------- n------------------- 0 (13.3 C C
$001r:~9.9---------------- 0 (1.7 (1100
$-'2 to 0i2----------6 21 U 0 Ci 031
Percent istriu on ------- -58. 1) 39) 2.4)
$21 to$28.99--------------CU0 --------- ----. -C
$190 to $359.99------------------- 0 $!3 0 Op12 0 C C Ci 974
Percent distrbtion---------(3 5---------------------(2.)---------(J60 )-------_ ( 2 1

Percent distributon--------_--(12.7)_ (4. -- _- -- ---- - - 1.)
$692: to $89.9------------n 21----------0 3 0 0 19
$850 to $59----------0 43 0 $12 0 0 0i 0 07
$1,00 to $1249.99------------------- 0 0 0 0 C C 0 0 0

$02l tous$694ds9-------------------- 0 09 128 8 12 0 3 108 0 0 97
Percent distribution------------ ---------- 2)(0 - -(6. 0)(i.1


A tl households------------5 12 6 12 0 18 0 0 97


I Less than 1,000.






56

TABLE 15A.-AVERAGE LIVE-IN ATTENDANT COUPON-ALLOTMENT DEDUCTION: ALL HOUSEHOLDS; GROSS
MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE, 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average dollar deduction]

Size of household
All
Monthly household gross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ households

None ---------------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$0.01 to $99.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$100 to $214.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$215 to $284.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 $1 $1 0 0 0
$285 to $359.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 $2 0
$360 to $419.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
$420 to $489.99 ------------------- 0 $1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$490 to 0 0 0 $1 0 0 0 0 0
$560 to $624.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
S625 to $694.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$695 to $849.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
$850 to $999.99-. ------------------ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$1,000 to $1,249.99 ---------------- 0 .0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$1,250 and up -------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total households (thousands) - - 1, 291 1,092 891 742 481 308 191 221 5,217
Percent ---------------------- 24.7 20.9 17.1 14.2 9.2 5.9 3.7 4.2 100



TABLE 15B.-AVERAGE LIVE-IN ATTENDANT COUPON-ALLOTMENT: HOUSEHOLDS CLAIMING DEDUCTION; GROSS
MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
jAverage dollar deduction (percent distribution)

Size of household
All houseMonthly household gross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ holds

None ---------------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$0.01 to $99.99 -------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$100 to $214.99 ------------------- $38 $48 $48 0 0 0 0 0 $41
Percent distribution ----------- (53 1) (17.5) (100.0) ---------------------------------------- (23.6)
$215 to $284.99 ------------------- 8 0 0 0 $48 $48 0 0 48
Percent distribution ----------- (46.9) ------------------------ (62.8) (47.6) ------------ (24.4)
$285 to $359.99 ------------------- 0 48 0 0 0 0 0 !Vi 48
Percent distribution ------------------- (21 0) ---------------------------------------- (52.3) (9.0)
$360 to $419.99 ------------------- 0 48 0 0 0 46 0 0 47
Percent distribution ------------------- (31 1) ------------------------ (52.4) ---------------- (11 3)
$420 to $489.99 ------------------- 0 8 0 $48 0 0 0 0 i8
Percent distribution ------------------- (30.4) -------- (29.2) -------------------------------- (10.7)
$490 to $559.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 48 0 0 0 0 48
Percent distribution ----------------------------------- (70.7) -------------------------------- (13.0)
$560 to $624.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46 46
Percent distribution ------------------------------------------------------------------- (47.5) (4.9)
$625 to $694.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$695 to $849.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 48 0 0 0 48
Percent distribution ------------------------------------------- (37.2) ------------------------ (3.1)
$850 to $999.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$1,000 to $1,249.99 ---------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$1,250 and up -------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
All households -------------------- 43 48 48 48 48 47 0 47 46
Percent distribution ------ (29.3) (17.3) (5.0) (18.4) (8.3) (11.3) ------ (10.3) (100.0)
Total households (thousYW j_ 3 2 2 (1) 1

Less than 1,000.







57

TABLE 16A.-CHILD CARE (NOT LIVE-IN) DEDUCTION: ALL HOUSEHOLDS; GROSS MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average dollar deductions

Size of household All
Monthly household housegross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ holds

None-------------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$0.01 to $99.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$100 to $214.99------------------- 0 0 $1 $1 0 0 0 0 0
$215 to $284.99------------------- 0 0 2 0 0 $2 0 0 $1
$285 to $359.99------------------- 0 $V 1 1 0 0 10 0 1
$360 to $419.99------------------- 0 9 5 1 $1 1 '0 0 2
$420 to $489.99------------------- 0 14 11 6 2 2 0 0 5
$490 to $559.99------------------- 0 21 22 7 4 1 $1 0 7
$560Oto $624.99------------------- 0 27 33 14 11 1 1 $3 11
$625 to $694.99------------------- 0 48 34 21 5 2 0 4 12
$695 to $849.99------------------- 0 43 61 41 3 6 5 1 16
$850 to $999.99------------------- 0 0 61 21 48 37 7 7 25
$1,000 to $1,249.99 ---------------- 0 0 0 89 0 0 37 0 17
$1,250 and up-------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01
All households-------------------- 0 2 5 4 3 2 2 1 2
Total households (thousands)- 1, 291 1,092 891 742 481 308 191 221 5, 210
Percent------------------ 24.7 20.9 17.1 14.2 9.2 5.9 3.7 4.2 107



TABLE 16B.-AVERAGE CHILD CARE (NOT LIVE-IN) DEDUCTION: HOUSEHOLDS CLAIMING DEDUCTION; GROSS
MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUS-EHOLO SIZE; 50 STAlES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average dollar deduction (percent distribution)!

Size of household
Monthly household gross All house.income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ helds

None-------------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$0.01 to $99.99------------$46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 $46
Percent distribution-----(28-----------------------------(0.3)
$100 to $249---------26 $43 $62 $46 $15 0 0 0 44
Percent distribution ---------- (67.2) (2.1) (3.1) (.) 34)- ----------(4.0)
$215 to $249---------0 76 5 35 0 $111 0 06
Percent dsrbto----- ---(5.1) (9.8) (1.8)----72--------(5.1)
$285 to $399---------0 6 50 52 0 0 $8 0 54
Percent distribution------------------ (12. 5) (9.8) (6.2)-------------- (13.3)-------- (8.0)
$360 to $499---------0 59 61 41 76 43 0 0 58
Percent distribution----------------- (22.8) (16.2) (6.9) (9.3) (11.5)---------------- (13.8)
$420 to $999---- --- 0 62 76 78 63 67 0 0 70
Percent distribution----------------- (18.3) (17.8) (16.0) (17.3) (23.7)---------------- (16.7)
$490 to$599---------0 88 103 84 101 100 77 0 94
Percent distribution ---------------- (10.9) (15. 1) (10.0) (12. 5) (4.8) (47.3)--------- (12. 5)
$560 to $624.99------------------- 0 74 96 67 85 65 43 $61 80
Percert ditiuin-------(13.7) (12.9) (12.9) (25.0) (8. 7) (7. 3) (20.3) (14. 1)
$625 to $694.99----------------9 110 90 120 100 0 78 92
Percent distribution_--------------- (13.4) (7.2) (15.2) (5.4) (6.5)----- (38.2) (10.9)
4695 to$899---------0 108 151 161 45 77 172 43 133
Percent distribution------------------ (1.2) (7. 2) (15. 3) (6. 3) (21. 5) (13. 4) (15. 0) (8. 3)
$850 to $999.99------------------- 0 0 163 6 150 172 80 85 122
Percent dsrbto-------- ---(1. 1) (5. 1) (20.9) (16. 2) (12. 2) (26. 6) (5. 3)
$1,000 to $1,249.99 ---------------- 0 0 0 156 0 0 430 0 198
Percent distribution------------------------------- (3.9) --------------- (6. 7)-------(1.0)
$1,250 andu P----------0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
All households ------------------- 33 69 84 87 92 90 102 71 82
Percent distribution- -- ----(0. 9) (24. 7) (32. 1) (22.9) (10. 4) (4.2) (2.4) (2.4) (100. 0)
Total households (thouisands) 1 37 49 35 16 6 4 4 152









TABLE 17A.-AVERAGE MANDATORY EDUCATIONAL DEDUCTION: ALL HOUSEHOLDS; GROSS MONTHLY INC01ME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average dollar deductions

Size of household
Monthly household gross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ All households

None ---------------------------- $2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 $1
$0.01 to $99.99 -------------------- 3 $1 $2 0 0 0 0 0 2
$100 to $214.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 $1 0 0 0 0
$215 to $284.99 ------------------- 2 1 1 0 0 0 $1 0 1
$285 to 1359. 9 ------------------- 4 2 0 0 0 0 Z $8 1
$360 to $419.99 ------------------- 111 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 1
$420 to $489.99 ------------------- 0 1 1 $1 0 $2 0 2 1
$490 to $559.D9 ------------------- 0 14 3 0 0 1 0 1 2
$560 to $624.99 ------------------- 197 2 4 10 1 1 2 0 4
$625 to $694.99 ------------------- U 0 4 4 2 0 0 2
$695 to $849.99 ------------------- 0 0 G 1 18 2 0 4 5
$850 to $999.99 -------------------- 0 0 0 4 0 6 0 6 3
$1,000 to $1,249.99 ---------------- 0 403 0 22 0 0 16 10 18
$1,250 and Lip -------------------- 0 0 0 116 0 672 0 120 190
All households -------------------- 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1
Total households thousands ---- 1,291 1,092 891 742 481 308 191 221 5,217
Percent -------------------- 24.7 20.9 17.1 14.2 9.2 5.9 3.7 4.2 100



TABLE 17B.-AVERAGE MANDATORY EDUCATIONAL DEDUCTION: HOUSEHOLDS CLAIMING DEDUCTION; GROSS
MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average dollar deduction (percent distribution)]

Size of household
All
houseMonthly household gross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ holds

$58 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 $58
Percent distribution (2.1)
$0.01 to $99.99 -------------------- 94 $59 $87 0 0 0 0 0 87
Percent distribution----------- (18-0) (6.2) (5.1)
$100 to $214.99 ------------------- 59 85 98 $31 $43 $2 0 0 57
Percent distribution----------- (23.2) (8.1) (5.6) (6.8) (7.1) (9 0)
$215 to 73 62 42 26 8 4 $23 $3 l
Percent distribution- (20.8) (29.1) (17.2) (2.4) (8.9) (3.1) (13.5) (7.3) (13.8)
$285 to $359.99 ------------------- 33 181 26 41 17 4 29 112 56
Percent distribution---------- (22.4) (16.8) (28.5) (15.9) (12.2) (5.4) (24.0) (14.5) (16.6)
$360 to 419.99 -------------------- 289 105 135 20 36 27 0 0 81
Percent distribution- (2.5) (21.5) (11.0) (21.7) (7.7) (3 (9.8)
$420 to 0 85 61 43 7 l 14 93 51
Percent distribution ------------------- (2.1) (8.4) (10.1) (8.1) (13.3) (11.9) (6.5) (6.6)
$490 to $559.99 ------------------- 0 202 90 11 40 19 22 80 70
Percent distribution ------------------- (10.2) (9.3) (10.6) (3.1) (16.7) (13.4) (5.6) (7.8)
$560 to 450 ill 78 106 32 15 23 0 83
Percent distribution (2.4) (2.5), (7.1) (15.7) (6.7) (16.1) (28. 9)------ __ (8.2)
$625 to 694.99 -------------------- 0 0 62 49 27 100 0 0 52
Percent distribution --------------------------- (5.8) (15.0) (14.8) (7.4) ---------------- (5.6)
$695 to $849.99 ------------------- 0 0 167 70 99 37 0 89 88
---------------- (2.4) (2.0) (31.4) (12.3)________ (15.5) (6.8)
$850 to 999.99 -------------------- 0 0 0 60 0 39 0 54 50
Percent distribution ----------------------------------- (3.0)-------- (9.0) -------- (16.7) (2 93
$1,000 to $1,249.99 ---------------- 0 403 0 147 0 0 127 62 i4
Percent distribution------------------- (3.5) -------- (8.4) (15.1) (2.7)
$1,250 and up -------------------- 0 0 0 214 0 672 0 189 305
Percent distribution- (4. 1)-- -- -- (6.8) -------- (18.9) (3.1)
All households -------------------- 78 121 66 55 47 78 32 95 74
Percent distribution ----------- (19. 3) (14. 0) (16. 0) (15.5) (10.9) (10.2) (4.9) (9.1) (100.0)
Total households (thousands)- 16 12 13 13 9 8 4 8 83




59

TABLE ISA.--AVERAGC ALIMONY DEDUCTION: ALL HOUSEiIOLDS; GROSS MOCNTHLY IEO'4i 3Y l J-, ICLD
SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF CGLj31A
[Average dollar deduction]

Size of household


hot ,sey sehoL!d gross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8-ihNon0 $ 0 0 0 0 0 $1
$ 0 .0 ------ -- -- -- ----.. .. ...--- 0 0 0 0 0
$215 to$ 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$2 5to $C99 .. .. .. .. .1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$25 to $419.99------------------- 0 0 0 u 0 0 $
$2 to $ .9------------------- 0 0 0 0 0
$490 to $5Th9--------------------.. 0 3 1 1 0 0 $I. v
$560 o 24.9------------------- 0 1 $1 0
$625 to $94.99 ------------------- 0 0 O 0 $3 0 0
$55to$89--------0 81 0 60 1 4
,3 to $999.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 13 0 17 3 5
$!.000 to S1,249.99___ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2
$1,250 and up -------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C
All househols-------------------0 0 1 0 0 rC I I0
Total iLouseholds (thousands)-- 1, 291 1, 092 891 742 481 303 191 22! 5 217
2Ecnt ...... 2- 7 20.9 17. 1 14.2 9.2 5.9 3.7 4.2 iCC



TABLE 18B.-AVERAGE ALIMONY DEDUCTION: HOUSEHOLDS CLAr;,1ING DEDUCTION; GROSS
MO,4THLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUM3IA
[Average dollar deduction (percent distribution)]

Size of household
All
Monthly household gross income 1 2 3 4 5 7 8+ househo;1s

None --------------------------- 0 0 $210 0 0 0 0 0 $210
Percent distribution ---------------------(12.1) --------------------------------- (3.8)
$0.01 to $99.99 ------------------- 0 $100 0 0 0 0 0 0 100
Percent distribution.._- (12.5)-------------------------------------- (1.4)
$100 to $214.99-$87 0 57 S217 0 0 0 0 85
Percent distribution---------- (55.3) -------(23.0) (7.4)-(10.2)
$215 to $284.99 -----------------0 43 0 0 $33 0 0 0 37
Percent distribution(13.5) -------------(14.7) --------------------- (3. 8)
$285 to $359.99 ------------------ 125 69 69 103 0 0 0 0 79
Percent distribution---------- (44.7) (36.2) (39.6) (16.5) ------------------------------- (19.3)
$360 to $419.99 ------------------ 0 0 0 53 0 0 0 $184 77
Percent distribution-- --(32.3) -------------------(21.0) (8.0)
$420 to $489.99 ------------------ 0 97 81 0 0 0 0 0 86
Percent distribution---------------- (19.4) (15.9) --------------------------------- (7.2)
$490 to $559.99 ------------------ 0 0 61 65 0 0 $46 0 58
Percent distribution_-(11.7) (13.5) ------------- (32.1) -------- (8.7)
$560 to $624.99 ------------------ 0 0 120 C 0 $123 0 65 108
Percent distribution ----------------------(6.7) -------------(68.6) -------(24.9) (7.3)
$625 to $694.99--0 0 0 0 35 0 0 0 35
Percent distribution ---------------------------------(53.0) --------------------- (8.0)
$695 to $849.99_-0 225 0 104 75 13 346 100 141
Percent distribution---------------- (18.5) -------(30.4) (16.8) (31.4) (34.1) (28.4) (16.8)
$850 to $999.99 ------------------ 0 0 0 0 282 0 172 0 226
Percent distribution ---------------------------------- (15.5) -------(33.7) ---------(4.8)
$1,000 to $1,249.99-0 0 0 0 0 0 0 87 87
Percent distribution------(25.5) (1.8)
$1,250 and up-0 0 C 0 0 0 0 0 0
Percent distribution--All households -----------------104 104 88 90 80 89 191 106 98
Percent distribution ---------- (2.8) (11. 5) (31. 1) (20. 1) (15. 1) (5.1) (7. 3) (7.0) (100.0)
Total households (thousands). ( 2 6 4 3 (9 1 1 19

I Less than 1,000.







60

TABLE 19A.-AVERAGE CASUALTY DEDUCTION: ALL HOUSEHOLDS; GROSS MONTHLY INCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average dollar deduction[

Size of household
Monthly household gross All houseincome 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ holds

None ---------------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$0.01 to $99.99 -------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$100 to 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$215 to 0 0 0 0 $20 0 0 0 $1
$285 to $359.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$360 to $419.99- 0 $1 $1 0 0 0 0 0 0
$420 to $439.99- 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
$490 to $559.99 ------------------- 0 0 1 0 3 0 $1 $3 1
$560 to $624.99- 0 0 0 0 0 $1 0 0 0
$625 to 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 1
$695 to $849.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
$850 to $999.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1
$1,000 to 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$1,250 and up -------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
All households-------------- 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0
Total households (thousandij----- 1,291 1,092 891 742 481 308 191 221 5,217
24.7 20.9 17.1 14.2 9.2 5.9 3.7 4.2 100


TABLE 19B.-AVERAGE CASUALTY DEDUCTION: HOUSEHOLDS CLAIMING DEDUCTION; GROSS MONTHLYINCOME BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average dollar deduction (percent distribution)]

Size of household
All houseMonthly household gross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ holds

None ---------------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 0 0
$0.01 to $99.99 -------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$100 to $214.99 ------------------- $26 0 $25 0 $26 0 0 0 $26
Percent distribution ----------- (90.6)---- (15.5) -------- (37.9) ------------------------ (27.8)
$215 to $284.99 ------------------- 50 24 $12 1,156 $15 0 0 195
Percent distribution ----------- (9.4) (14 7) (32.8) (100.0) (42.7) (19 6) ---------------- (19 3)
$285 to'$359.99 ------------------- 0 7 0 0 0 5 0 0 i7
Percent distribution ------------------- (42.9) ------------------------ (24.9) ---------------- (8 3)
$360 to $419.99 ------------------- 0 67 63 0 0 0 0 $15 1
Percent distribution ------------------- (17.5) (24.8) -------------------------------- (40.3) (10 1)
$420 to $489.99 ------------------- 0 30 143 0 0 0 0 0 6
Percent distribution ------------------- (24.9) (16.7) ---------------------------------------- (6.9)
$490 to $559.99 ------------------- 0 0 77 0 500 0 $111 160 185
Percent distribution --------------------------- (10.2) -------- (19.4) -------- (13.6) (28.2) (7.4)
$560 to $624.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 31 0 0 31
Percent distribution ------------------------------------------------- (55.5)----- (4.3)
$625 to $694.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 6- 0 70
Percent distribution ----------------------------------------------------------- (69.5) -------- (11 1)
$695 to $849.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 0 0
Percent distribution ----------------------------------------------------------- (16.9) -------- (2 7)
$850 to $999.99 ------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 48 i8
Percent distribution ------------------------------------------------------------------- (31.5) (2.2)
$1,000 to $1,249.99 ---------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$1,250 and up -------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
All households -------------------- 28 32 59 12 600 26 72 66 83
Percent distribution ----------- (24.5) (14.7) (19.3) (4.1) (6.9) (7.7) (15.9) (6.9) (100. 0)
Total households (thousands)- 5 3 4 1 2 3 1 21






61

TABLE 20.--ZERO NET-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS; DISTRIBUTION BY GROSS MONTHLY INCOME AND HOUSEdOcLD SIZE; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Households in thousands

Size of household
iota I
Monthly household housegross income 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 _i holds Percent

None---------------------- 56 26 31 16, 109 8 5 3 155 E'. 3
$0.01 to $99.99-------------- 18 11 7 5 () () 3 () 4o 18 9
$100 to $214.99------------- 9 8 7 4 1 1 0 () 3)5 12. 5
$215 to $284.99 ------------- (1) 1 0 1 1 0i (1) 0 5 1.9
$285 to $359.99 --------------0 1 () 0 0 (1) 0 0 2 -1
$360 to $419.99------------- 0 0 ( 0 0 0 I 0 (1) 2 .7
$420 to $489.99 ------------- (1) 0 0 0 0 0 0 (1) .1
$490 to $559.99------------- 0 (1) 0 0 (1) 0 0 0 (1) .3
$560 and up ---------------- 0 0 (0( 0 0 0 0 1 .5
Total households ------------ 84 47 47 26 13 11 9 4 241 ---Percent----- ---------- 34.8 19.4 19.4 10.9 5.6 4.5 3.b 1.8 100 10D

I Less than 1,000.

TABLE 21.-DISTRI BUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE; ALL HOUSEHOLDS AND THOSE WITH ELDERLY; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Size of household
Av t, r 1 e
house.%)iJ
1 ? 43 p!us S3ze

Percentages Persons
All households ------------------------ 24. 7 20. 9 17. 1 62. 7 3. 2
Households with 1 or more elderly ----60. 6 27. 8 4. 8 6. 8 1. 7



TABLE 22.-DISTRIBUTION BY NUMBER OF ELDERLY IN HOUSEHOLD AND HOUSEHOLD SIZE; ALL HOUSEHOLDS 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUM'BIA
[in thousands]

Size of households Total
Number of elderly elderly
in household 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Total persons

No eldery in household -------755 845 849 721 468 298 186 210 4, 332 0
Percent-------------- (58.5) (77.4) (95.2) (97.2) (97. 1) (96.6) (37.6) (95.3) (83.0) ---Elderly in household:
1--------------------- 536 147 35 17 11 9 3 10 768 768
Percent ----------- (41.5) (13. 5) (3. 9) (2.3) (2. 2) (2. 9) (1. 8) (4. 4) (14. 7) ---2---------------------------99~ 8 4 3 1 1 (1) 116 232
Percent------------------ (9. 1) (0. 8) (0. 5) (0. 6) (0. 4) (0. 6) (0. 2) (2. 2) --3-plus------------------------- (1---------- --------------------------------- -------(1) 2Percent------------------------- (2--- ---------------------------------------- -------Subtotal:
Households with elderly- 536 246 43 21 14 10 5 10 885 1, 002
Percent ----------- (41.5) (22.6) (4.7) (2.8) (2.8) (3. 3) (2. 4) (4.6) (16.9) ---Row percent-------- (60.5) (27.8) (4.8) (2.3) (1.6) (1.2) (0.5) (1.2) (100.0) ---All households-------1, 290 1, 092 891 742 481 308 191 221 5, 217 1, 002
Row pecn-----(24.7) (20.9) (17.1) (14.2) (9.2) (5.9) (3.7) (4.2) (100.0) ---LLess than 1,000.
2 Less than 0.1 percent.
Note: Percent of column total unless indicated otherwise.





75-939-76--5









TABLE 23.-AVERAGE TOTAL DEDUCTION: ALL HOUSEHOLDS; GROSS MONTHLY INCOME BY PRESENCE OR AB.
SENCE OF ELDERLY IN HOUSEHOLDS; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Households with elderly Households without elderly All households
Gross monthly income Amount Percent Amount Percent Amount Percent

$70 0.2 $55 3.5 $55 3.0
$0.01 to $99 ------------------------ 39 1.4 48 4.7 47 4.1
$100 to $214 ------------------------ 35 59.4 53 25.0 47 30.8
$215 to $284 ------------------------ 57 22.1 67 16.5 65 17.5
$285 to $359 ------------------------ 58 9.3 75 16.5 73 15.3
$360 to $419 ------------------------ 71 2 94 10.9 93 9.6
$420 to $489 ------------------------ ill 0 104 7.6 104 6.6
$490 to $559 ------------------------ 89 1.2 121 5.4 120 4.6
$560 to $624--- 91 .6 151 3.4 149 2.9
$625 to $694---- 89 .4 160 2.8 159 2.3
$695 to 99 .3 201 2.4 198 2.1
$850 to 0 ------------ 249 .9 249 .7
$1,000 to $1,249 --------------------- 0 ------------ 330 .4 33D .4
$1,250 and 439 (1) 439 (1)
All households-------------- 46 100.0 84 100.0 77 100.0
Total households 885 ------------ 4,332 5,217
17.0 ------------ 83.0 100.0

I Less than 0.1 percent.

TABLE 24.-AVERAGE TOTAL DEDUCTION: HOUSEHOLDS WITH DEDUCTIONS; GROSS MONTHLY INCOME BY PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF ELDERLY IN HOUSEHOLDS; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Households with elderly Households without elderly All households
Gross monthly income Amount Percent Amount Percent Amount Percent

$93 0.2 $113 2.0 $113 1.7
$0.01 to $99 ------------------------ 54 1.3 55 4.7 55 4.2
$100 to $214 ------------------------ 47 58.4 63 24.8 58 29.9
$215 to $284 ------------------------ 75 22.8 80 16.3 79 17.3
$285 to 79 9.2 87 16.8 86 15.6
$360 to $419 ------------------------ 95 3.2 109 11.1 108 9.9
$420 to $489 ------------------------ 127 2.3 120 7.8 120 6.9
$490 to $559--- ill 1.2 137 5.6 136 4.9
$560 to $624 ------------------------ 129 .6 168 3.6 167 3.2
$625 to $694 ------------------------ 125 .3 178 2.9 177 2.5
$695 to 99 .4 210 2.7 207 2.4
$850 to $999 ------------------------ 0 249 1.0 249 .9
$1,000 to $1,249 --------------------- 0 330 .5 330 .4
$1,250 and 0 439 .1 439 (1)
All households -------------- 62 100.0 99 100.0 93 100.0
Total households 658 3,667 4,326
Percent ------------------------------------ 15.2 84.8 100.0

I Less than 0.1 percent.

TABLE 25.-DISTRIBUTION BY WORK STATUS AND SEX OF HOUSEHOLD; HOUSEHOLD HEADS 18 TO 65 YR; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA'

Male Female Total
Households Households Households
(thousands) Percent (thousands) Percent (thousands)" Percent

Working:
Full time ----------------------- 417,946 26.7 379,767 13.4 797,713 18.1
Part time ---------------------- 89,126 5.7 135,663 4.8 225,789 5.1
Nonworking ------------------------ 1,058,206 67.6 2,321,969 81.8 3,380,175 76.8
Total ------------------------ 1,565,278 100.0 2,838,399 100.0 4,403,677 100.0
Percent ---------------------- 35.5 ------------ 64.5 ------------ 100.0 ------------










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TABLE 27A.-DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS; ALL HOUSEHOLDS WITH FEMALE HEADS; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[in thousands]

Size of household All
houseAge of head 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ holds

I tol14------------------------- 2 (1) 0 0 (I) 0 0 0 4
Percent ------------------- (0.2) (.)- -- -----(0.3)---------------------- (0.1)
15 to 20O------------------------ 33 109 3 1 1 1 0 0 194
Percent ------------------- (3.6) (15.1) (5.9) (2.5) (C.5) (0.8)---------------- (5.8)
21 to 25 ----------------------- 49 198 164 77 20 5 (1) 3 518
Percent ------------------- (5. 5) (27. 5) (25. 8) (15. 9) (7. 5) (3.0) (0. 8) (3.0) (15.4)
26 to30 -----------------------2i8 110 144 129 68 29 12 7 526
Percent ------------------- (3. 1) (15.2) (22.6) (26. 8) (24.8) (19.0) (13.9) (6. 5) (15.7)
31 to 35------------------------ 13 49 102 101 76 42 27 24 434
Percent ------------------- (1.5) (6.8) (15.9) (20.9) (27.9) (27.4) (31.2) (22.7) (12.9)
36 to 40------------------------]19 33 58 66 48 34 20 314 3
Percent ------------------- (2.1) (4.5) (9.2) (13.7) (17.8) (22.4) (23.3) (33.0) (9.3)
41 to45 ------------------------ 20 33 42 36 27 19 15 18 210
Percent ------------------- (2. 2) (4.6) (6. 6) (75. 0) (9.9) (12.6) (17.6) (17. 2) (6. 3)
46 to50 ----------------------- 42 40 33 27 16 14 6 9 186
Percent ------------------- (4. 7) (5. 5) (5. 2) (5. 5) (5.9) (8. 9) (7. 3) (8. 3) (5.6)
51ito 55-------------------------5 8 50, 25 15 9 6 2 6 171
Percent ------------------- (6. 4) (6.9) (4. 0) (3.0) (3. 3) (3. 8) (2. 3) (5.8) (5. 1)
56 to60 ----------------------- 95 22 11 12 2 2 0 2 145
Percent ------------------- (10.6) (3.0) (1.6) (2.6) (0.8) (1.1)-------- (16.0) (43)
61 to E5------------------------ 122 22 9 3 2 it) 2 (1) 162
Percent) ------------------ (13. 5) (3. 1) (1.4) (0.7) (0.8) (0. 2) (2.4) (0.6) (4.8)
66 to 70 ----------------------- 122 19 3 () (1) (1) (1) (1) 148
Percent ------------------- (13. 6) (2. 7) (0. 5) (0.1) (0. 2) (C. 5) (0. 4) (0.9) (4.4)N
Over 70------------------------ 297 3 9 3 (1) (1) (1) (1) 347
Percent ------------------- (33.0) (5.0) (1.3) (0.7) (0.3) (0.3) (1.0) (0.4) (10.3)
All households------------------ 899 722 638 481 273 154 87 103 3,357
Percent------------------- (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (1UO.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0)
All persons--------------------- 899 1,444 1,914 1,926 1,363 922 606 930 10,004
Percent ------------------- (9. 0) (14. 4) (19. 1) (19. 2) (13. 6) (9. 2) (6. 1) (9. 3) (100.0)

I Less than 1,000.






65

TABLE 27B.-DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS; ALL HOUSEHOLDS WITH FEMALE HEADS AND CHILDREN 18 AND UNDER; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[In thousands]

Size of household
All houseAge of head 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + holds

I to 14 --------------------------- 1 0 0 0 0 0 4
Percent ---------------------- (14.8) (0.1) ---------------- (0.3) ------------------------ (0.2)
15 to 20 -------------------------- 10 105 37 12 1 1 0 0 167
Percent ---------------------- (85.2) (16.8) (5.9) (2.5) (0.5) (0.8) ---------------- (7.1)
21 to 25 -------------------------- 0 94 164 77 20 5 (1) 3 463
Percent ------------------------------ (31.0) (26.1) 15.9)( (7.5) (3.0) (0,8), (3.0) (19.6)
26 to 30- ------------------------- 0 109 144 129 68 29 12 7 497
Percent ------------------------------ (17.4) (22.9) (26.8) (24.8) (19.0) (13.9) (6.5) (21.0)
31 to 35 -------------------------- 0 46 102 101 76 42 27 24 417
Percent ------------------------------ (7.3) (16.2) (20.9) (27.9) (27.4) (31.2) (22.7) (17.6)
36 to 40 -------------------------- 0 30 58 66 48 34 20 34 291
Percent ------------------------------ (4.8) (9.2) (13.7) (17.8) (22.4) (23.3) (33.0) (12.3)
41 to 45 -------------------------- 0 28 41 36 27 19 15 18 184
Percent ------------------------------ (4.5) (6.5) (7.6) (9.9) (12.6) (17.6) (17.2) (7.8)
46 to 50 -------------------------- 0 32 31 27 16 14 6 9 134
Percent ------------------------------ (5.1) (5.0) (5.5) (5.9) (8.9) (7.3) (8.3) (5.7)
51 to 55 -------------------------- 0 42 25 15 9 6 2 6 104
Percent ------------------------------ (6.6) (4.0) (3 0) (3.3) (3.8) (2.3) (5.8) (4.4)
56 to 60 --- ---------------------- 0 12 9 i2 2 2 0 2 39
Percent ------------------------------ (1.9) (1.5) (2.5) (0.8) (1. 1) -------- (1.6) (1.7)
61 to 65 -------------------------- 0 10 8 3 2 (1) 2 (1) 27)
Percent ------------------------------ (1.7) (1.3) (0.7) (0.8) (0.2) (2.4) (0.6) (1. 1
66 to 70 -------------------------- 0 8 3 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) 15
Percent ------------------------------ (13.0) (0.5) (0.1) (0.2) (0.5) (0.4) (0.9) (0.6)
Over 70 -------------------------- 0 9 7 3 (1) (1) (1) (1) 21
Percent ------------------------------- (1.4) (1. 1) (0.7) (0.3) (0.3) (1.0) (0.4) (0.9)
All households -------------------- 12 626 629 481 273 154 87 103 2,365
Percent ---------------------- (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100 0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0)
All persons ----------------------- 12 1,251 1,888 1,924 1,363 k2 606 930 8,897
Percent ---------------------- (0. 1) (14. 1) (21.2) (21.6) (15.3) (10.4) (6.8) (10.5) (100.0)

I Less than 1,000.






































75-939-76---6






66

TABLE 27C.-DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS; ALL HOUSEHOLDS WITH FEMALE HEADS AND CHILDREN 6 AND UNDER; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[In thousands


Size of household All
houseAge of head 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ holds

I tol14------------------------- 0 (1) 0 0 (1) 0 0 0 1
Percent---------------------- (.)--------- (.) ----- (0.6)----------------- (0. 1)
15to 20------------------------ 0 102 36 i11 1 1 0 0 151
Percent -------------------------- (25. 8) (9.6) (3. 7) (0.7) (1.4)-------------- (10.3)
21 to 25------------------------ 0 180 156 75 20 4 (1 3 44
Percent -------------------------- (45.7) (41.4) (25.8) (11. 9) (4. 6) (1. 1) (3. 8) (29.9)
26 to 30------------------------ 0 75 105 108 6 24 10 6 389
Percent -------------------------- (19. 1) (27.9) (37. 0) (36. 1) (25. 6) (15.4) (7.7) (26.5)
31to 35------------------------ 0 12 39 52 43 28 21 21 216
Percent -------------------------- (3. 0) (10. 3) (17.9) (25.4) (29. 6) (33. 0) (25.2) (14.6)
36to 40------------------------ 0 7 18 20 22 15 14 24 120
Percent -------------------------- (1. 7) (4. 7) (6., 9) (13.* 2) (16.* 4) (22.* 5) (29.2) (8. 2)
41 to45------------------------ 0 7 7 10 11 11 10 13 69
Percent -------------------------- (1. 9) (1. 8) (3. 3) (6. 7) (11. 2) (15. 1) (16. 2) (4. 7)
46to 50------------------------ 0 3 5 6 3 7 5 8 37
Percent -------------------------- (0. 8) (1. 2) (2. 1) (2. 0) (7. 5) (7.5) (9. 5) (2.5)
51 to55------------------------ 0 4, 6 3 3 3 1 3 23
-----(0.9) (1. 6) (1.0) (1. 7) (2. 9) (1. 6) (4. 4) (1. 5)
56 to 60------------------------ 0 1 1 4 1 0 0 2 9
Percent -------------------------- (0.3) (0.3) (1.2) (0.8) --------------- (2.1) (0.6)
61 to 65------------------------ 0 1 1 1 1 0 2 (1) 8
-(0.4) (0.4) (0.5) (0.8) -------- (3.2) (0.7) (0.6
66 to 70--------------------------0- 1 1 (1) 0 (1) 0 (1) (04)
Percent -------------------------- (0. 3) (0. 4) (0. 2)-------- (0. 3)------ (1.2) (03)
Over 70 ------------------------ 0 (1) 2 1 (1) (1) (5) 0 4
Percent -------------------------- (0. 1) (0.4) (0.4) (0. 1) (0. 5) (0. 5)-------- (0.3)
All households-------------------- 0 395 378 291 167 94 64 82 1, 470
Percent-------------------------- (100. 0) (100. 0) (100.0) (100. 0) (100. 0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0)
All persons ---------------------- 0 789 1, 133 1,163 837 562 448 749) 5, 683
Percent -------------------------- (13.9) (19.9) (20 5) (14. 7) (99. 9) (7.9) (13.2) (100.0)

I Less than 1,000.






67

TABLE 28A.- DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS; ALL HOUSEHOLDS WITH MALE HEADS; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[In thousands]

Size of household All
-- houseAge of head 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8-- holds

I to 14 --------------------------- 0 (1) 2 0 0 0 4
(0.1) (0.4) (0.9) ------------------------ (0.5) (0.2)
15 to 20 -------------------------- 22 23 18 5 0 1 (1) (1) 69
Percent- (5.5) (6.2) (7.2) (1. 8)-- ---- (0.8) (0.5) (0.4) (3.7)
21 to 54 26 74 40 20 4 (1) (1) 220
(13.9) (7.0) (29.1) (15.5) (9.8) (2.8) (0.4) (0.2) (11.8) 26 to 30 -------------------------- 39 20 39 57 37 26 8 3 230
Percent---- (10.0) (5.6) (15 6) (21.7) (17 8) (16.8) (7.4) (2.4) (12.3)
31 to 23 9 0 41 48 30 17 11 199
Percent ---------------------- (5.9) (2.3) (8.0) (15.7) (23.0) (19.3) (16.0) (9.8) (10.7)
36 to 40 -------------------------- 25 5 9 18 25 32 24 39 178
Percent ---------------------- (6.5) (1.5) (3.6) (6.8) (12.0) (20.9) (23.4) (32.9) (9.6)
41 to 26 8 12 25 21 18 22 24 155
Percent- (6.6) (2.1) (4.6) (9.7) (9.8) (11.5) (20.9) (20.4) (8.3)
46 to 50 29 16 16 22 19 17 15 19 152
Percent---- (7.3) (4.3) (6.1) (8.3) (9.1) (10.9) (14.6) (16.3) (8.2)
51 to 55 25 26 19 20 17 9 11 9 136
Percent-------- (6.4) (7.1) (7.4) (7.6) (8.0) (5.7) (10.6) (8.0) (7.3)
56 to 60 ----------------------- 32 32 12 11 8 11 4 4 114
Percent- (8.1) (8.6) (4.7) (4.4) (3.8) (7.3) (3.6) (3.4) (6.1)
61 to 65 37 50 15 9 5 3 (1) 3 123
Percent---- (9.4) (13.5) (5.9) (3.6) (2.4) (2.0) (0.8) (2.5) (6.6)
66 to 70 ----------------------- 28 57 6 6 4 2 1 3 107
Percent ---------------------- (7.1) (15.3) (2.5) (2.5) (1.8) (1.0) (1.4) (2.4) (5.8)
Over 70 -------------------------- 52 97 12 4 5 2 (1) (1) 173
(13.2) (26.3) (4.9) (1.6) (2.3) (1.2) (0.5) (0.7) (9.3)
All households-------------- 391 369 253 261 209 155 104 117 1,859
Percent ---------------------- (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0)
All 3ol 738 760 1,042 1,045 929 727 1,072 6,705
Percent (5.8) (11.0) (11.3) (15.5) (15.6) (13.9) (10.8) (16.0) (100.0)

I Less than 1.000.






68

TABLE 288.-DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS; ALL HOUSEHOLDS WITH MALE HEADS AND CHILDREN 18 AND UNDER; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[in thousands

Size of households All
houseAge of head 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -8+ 'holds

1 to14 ------------------------- 0 (1) (1) 2 0 0 0 (1) 4
Percent -------------------------- (1.0) (0.4) (0.9) --------------------- (0.5) (0.4)
15 to20 ------------------------ 9 16 18 4 0 1 (1) (1) 50
Percent ------------------- (100.0) (46.2) (7.9) (1.6) -------- (0.8) (0.5) (0.4) (4.5)
21 to25 ------------------------ 0 6 71 40 20 4 (1) (1) 144
Percent ----------- --(18. 0) (31. 2) (15. 7) (9. 8) (2 8) (0. 4) (0. 2) (12. 9)
26 to30 -------------------------- 0 (1) 39 56 37 26 8 3 170
Percent --------------(1.5b) (17. 1) (21. 8) (17. 9) (16. 8) (7. 4) (2. 4) (15. 2)
31 td35--------------------------- 0 2 20 41 48 30 17 1h 16
Percent--------------(5. 6) (8. 6) (15., 9) (23. 1) (19. 3) (16. 0) (9. 8) (15. 1)
36to 40---------- -0 1 9 18 25 32 24 29 148
Percent--- --- I----------------- (3.8) (3. 8) (6.9) (12. 1) (20.9) (23.4) (32.9) (13.3)
41 to45------------------- 0 (1) 10 25 21 18 22 24 12
Percent-------- ---- (1.8 (4.4) (9.8) (9.9) (11.5) (20.9) (20.4) (10.8)
4 6t o500------------- 3 14 21 19 17 15 19 108
Percent--------------------------- (9.0) (6. 2) (8. 2) (9. 1) (10.9) (14. 6) (16. 3) (9. 7)
51 to55 ------------------------ 0 (1) 15 19 17 9 11 9 81
Percent ------------------ -------- (2.8) (6.6) (7. 5) (8.0) (5.8) (10.6) (8.0) (7.3)
56to60 ------------------------ 0 (1) 9 i1 8 i1 4 4 48
Percent_ --------------(1.5) (4.0) (4.2) (3.9) (7.4) (3.6) (3.4) (4.3)
6 1 o 65---------- -0--0 (1) 11 9 4 3 (1) 2 32
1Percent -------------------------- (0.7) (4.8) (3.6) (2.0) (2.0) (0.8) (2.5) (2.8)
66 to70 ------------------------ 0 (1) 5 6 4 2 1 3 2
Pei-cent -------------------------- (2.3) (2.1) (2.5) (1.9) (1.0) (1.4) (2.4) (2.0)
Over 70 ----- ------------------- 0 2 6 3 5 1 (1) (1) 19
.Percent -------------------------- (5.9) (2.8) (1.2) (2.3) (0.9) (0) (0.7) (1.7)

Alihouseholds-------------------- 9 35 229 2b7 208 154 104 117. 1,114
1Percent-------------- ---- (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0)
All persons----------------------- 9 71 686 1,029 1,041 927 727 1,07 5,562
Percent----------- -------- (0.2) (1.3), (12.3) (18.5) (18.7) (16.7) (13.1) (19.3) (I0.0)

1Less than 1,000.






69

TABLE 28C.-DISTRI BUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS; ALL HOUSEHOLDS WITH MALE HEADS AND CHILDREN 6 AND UNDER; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

[In thousands]

Size of household
Age of head All
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8-F-households

I to 14------------------------- 0 (1) (1) 2 0 0 0 (1) 4
Percent- ----------------- -- (8.3) (0.6) (1.4) --------------------- (0.6) (0.6)
15 to 20-----------0 0 17 4 0 (1) 0 (1) 2
Perent--------------------(11.6) (26----(0.2)----- ---(0.5) (3.1)
21 to 25------------------------ 0 2 70 39 2 4 (1) (1) 137
Percent-------------------------- (36.7) (48.3) (24. 3) (15. 1) (4.3) (0.6) (0.3) (19. 5)
26 to 30------------------------ 0 (1) 34 54 35 25 7 3 157
Percent-------------(6.6) (23. 1) (32.9) (26.2) (24.8) (11.9) (2.7) (22.5)
31 to 35------------------------ 0 1 10 29 41 224 14 11 131
Pecn------------(36. 1) (7.1) (17.6) (30.5) (24.7) (22.0) (12.1) (18.7)
36 to 40------------------------ 0 0 4 i1 16 18 16 30 9
Percent----------- --- ----(3.0) (6.8) (12.0) (18.0) (25.6) (32.9) (13.7)
41 to45-----------0 0 3 11 6 10 10 18 58
Percent --------------------------------- (2.3) (6.6) (4.6) (9.6) (16.1) (20.0) (8.3)
46 to50-----------0 0 1 4 6 6 9 14 40
Pecet------------------(0.9) (2.2) (4. 1) (6.4) (15.0) (15. 4) (5. 7)
51ito 55------------------------- 0 (1 1 3 5 5 3 7 24
Pecn------------(12.4) (0.7) (1.6) (3.4) (5.2) (5.4) (7.4) (3.5)
56 to60-----------0 0 (1) 2 1 4 (1) 3 10
Pecnt-----------------(0.3) (1. 1) (0.9) (4.2) (0.4) (2.8) (1.5)
61 to 5~----------0 0 (1) 2 1 (1) (1) 2 8
Percent --------------------------------- (0.6) (1.5) (1.0 (0.9) (0.6) (2.1) (1. 1)
66 to70-----------0 0 1 1 (1) 1 (1) 2 8
Pecnt-----------------(0.9) (0.9) (0.7) (1.0) (1.6) (2.2) (1. 1)
Over70 .----------0 0 (1) (1) 2 (6 (1) (1) 5
Pecet------------------(0.6) (0.6) (1.4) (0.4) (0.9) (0.9) (0.8)
All hotiseholds.--------------- 0 4 146 163 135 99 63 91 701
Pecn------------(100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0 (100.0) (100.0)
All persons ---------------------- 0 8 437 651 676 593 439 831 3,655
Pecn-------------(0.2) (12.0) (17.6) (18.5) (16.2) (12.0) (23.3) (100.0)

I Less than 1,000.







70

TABLE 29.-PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION BY CERTIFICATION PERIOD AND GROSS MONTHLY INCOME: ALL HOUSEHOLDS; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Column percent (row percent))

Certification period-number of months
Gross income I to 2 3 to 5 6 to 9 10 to 12 13+ Indefinite I Unknown Total

None ---------------------- 15.9 2.2 0.3 0.3 1.6 0.4 1.6 3.0
Row percent------------ (73.3) (18.2) (2.9) (2.1) (.4) (3) (2.2) (100.0)
$1 to $99.99 ---------------- 9.7 4.2 3.7 1.9 1.8 3.2 .6 4.1
Row percent------------ (32.6) (25.2) (24. 6) (9.9) (.3) (6.8) (.6) (100 0)
$100 to $214.99- -- - -- -- -- -- 21.2 21.8 33.4 50.9 25.8 22.2 16.4 30.8
Row percent------------ (9.4) (17.3) (29.3) (34.9) (6.2) (2.3) (100.0)
$215 to $284.99 ------------- 11.3 14.5 18.7 21.6 A. 63) 20.9 17.8 17.5
Row percent------------ (8.8) (20.5) (28.9) (26.2) (1. 1) (10.3) (4.2) (100.0)
$285 to $359.99 ------------- 11.5 14.9 14.8 12.8 19.8 22.5 29.8 15.3
Row percent---------_-- (10.4) (23.9) (26.2) (17.8) (.9) (12.7) (8.1) (100.0)
3360 to 10.4 12.7 8.4 4.7 11.5 14.8 10.1 9.6
Row percent---------_-- (14.9) (32.4) (23.6) (10.4) (.9) (13.4) (4.4) (100.0)
4420 to $489.99 ------------- 5.8 9.4 6.8 3.5 3.2 5.4 10.3 4.6
Row percent ------------ (12.1) (35.0) (28.0) (11.0) (.4) (7.0) (6.5) (100.0)
V90 to $559.99 ------------- 4.9 6.6 5.2 1.6 1.0 4.0 6.3 4.6
Row percent ------------ (14.4) (34.8) (30.1) (7.4) (.2) (7.5) (5.6) (100 ON/
$540 to $624.99- 3.1 4.7 3.2 .8 6.2 2.6 1.8 2.9
Row percent ------------ (14.6) (39.1) (29.0) (5.5) (1.5) (7.7) (2.6) (100 0)
$625 to $694.99- -- -_ -- -- __ __ 2.8 3.3 2.3 1.1 .8 2.0 2.4 2'. 3
Row percent ------------ (16.6) (34 3) (27.1) (10.2) (.2) (7.3) (4.3) (100.0)
$695 to 1.9 3* 7 2.0 .5 1.0 1.8 1.6 2.1
Row percent--__----____ (12.4) (44.4) (26.5) (5.5) (.4) (7.5) (3.3) (100.0)
$850 to $999.99 ------------- .7 1.2 .9 (1) 0 .2 .3 .7
Row percent ------------ (13.9) (40.9) (34.2) (6.7) ---------- (2.4) (1.9) (100.0)
$1,000 to $1,249.99---------- .6 .6 .3 (1) 0 0 .7 .4
Row percent- ----------- (25.0) (38.5) (23.5) (4.8) -------------------- (8.2) (100.0)
$1,250 and up -------------- .2 .2 (1) 0 0 0 .3 .1
Row percent------------ (11.7) (71.3) (10.9) (100.0)
Total households (thousands)- 715 1,281 1,412 1,104 37 451 216 5,217
Row percent-----------_ (13.7) (24.6) (27.1) (21.2) (.7) (8.6) (4.1) (100.0)

Unspecified, but known to be simultaneous with public assistance recertification.
Less than 0.1.
TABLE 30.-DISTRIBUTION BY CERTIFICATION PERIOD; HOUSEHOLDS HEADED BY ELDERLY PERSONS; 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Certification period (number of months)
I to 2 3 to 5 6 to 9 10 to 12 13+ Indefinite' Unknown Total

Households (thousands) ------ 27 103 213 475 7 8 7 841
Percent---------------- 3.3 12.2 25.3 56.5 .9 1.0 .8 100.0

Unspecified, but known to be simultaneous with public assistance recertification.









71



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72

TABLE 32.-PURCHASE REQUIREMENT: AVERAGE VALUE AND AVERAGE PERCENT; OF GROSS MONTHLY INCOME 50 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
[Average dollar purchase requirement (average percent of gross monthly income)l

Size of household
All houseMonthly household gross income 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ holds

None ---------------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$0.01 to $99.99 -------------------- $5 $7 $6 $3 $4 $9 $4 $3 $6
Average percent -------------- (7.3) (9.4) (9.4) (6.8) (7.3) (14 6) (6 7) (5.2) (8 2)
$100 to $214.99- 24 27 25 26 30 4 12 40 i5
Average percent -------------- (14.4) (16.1) (15.3) (16.0) (18.0) (19 1) (16.9) (23 3) (15.2)
$215 to 28 47 50 50 49 l 54 60 46
Average percent-------------- (11.8) (19.3) (19.5) (19.9) (19 5) (20 7) (22.0) (23 7) (18 5)
$285 to 30 57 64 73 5 3 77 5 65
Average percent -------------- (9.5) (18.2) (20 3) (22.0) (23.3) (22.5) (23.9) (23 4) (20.3)
$360 to 32 55 6 83 90 87 90 k 81
Average percent-------------- (8.4) (14.3) (19.7) (21.5) (23 1) (22.1) (23.5) (23 4) (20.8)
$420 to $489.99 ------------------ 26 58 82 96 lb4 109 112 li5 96
Average percent -------------- (5.8) (12.9) (18.2) (21.1) (23.0) (24.2) (24.7) (25 2) (21.3)
$490 to 38 64 87 103 114 122 133 fi6 ill
Average percent -------------- (7.3) (12.3) (16.7) (19.6) (22.0) (23.6) (25 6) (26.0) (21.3)
$560 to $624.99 ------------------- 19 67 90 ill 128 132 137 151 120
Average percent-------------- (3.2) (11.5), (15.2) (18.7) (21.7) (22.5) (23.1) (25.6) (20.4)
$625 to 69 97 117 139 149 158 170 137
Average percent ---------------------- (10.5) (14.8) (17.8) (21 2) (22.6) (23.9) (25.7) (20.7)
$695 to 63 94 124 143 171 174 193 156
Average percent ---------------------- (8.2) (12.6) (16 1) (18.8) (22.6) (22.5) (25 0) (20.4)
$850 to 88 110 1 -7 154 179 188 2 O 176
Average (9 8) (12.4) (14.3) (17.0) (20 0) (20.9) (23 9) (19.4)
$1,000 to $1,249.99 ------------------------ 0 110 130 162 1 0 211 2 3 195
Average (6.5) (10.2) (11.9) (16.1) (16.4) (19.4) (21.2) (17.8)
$1,250 and up -------------------------------------------- 138 93 214 252 199
Average (8.3) -------- (5.1) (14.4) (17.9) (13.0)
All households-------------- 22 42 55 71 89 98 ill 133 57
Average percent -------------- (13.3) (16.9) (18.5) (19.9) (21.7) (22.3) (23.4) (24.5) (19.2)
Total household (thousands) -------- 1,291 1,092 891 742 481 308 191 221 5,217
Row (percent)---------------- (24.7) (20.9) (17.1) (14.2) (9.2) (5.9) (3.7) (4.2) (100.0


TABLE 33.-SUMMARY STATISTICS, ALL HOUSEHOLDS

50 States and
District of Puerto Entire
Columbia Rico caseload)

Average number of persons per 3.2 4.3 3.3
Average gross income --------------------------------------------- $298 $211 $292
Average net income ----------------------------------------------- $223 $173 $20
Average total deductions ------------------------------------------- $77 $39 $75
Average $71 $114 $74
Female headed households 64 46 63
Male headed households (percent) ---------------------------------- 36 54 37
Household head work status: I
Full time (over 30 hours/week, 15 26 16
Part time (under 30 hours per week, percent) -------------------- 5 6 5
Nonworking 80 69 79
Household with 1 or more elderly persons (percent) ------------------- 17 26 17

1 With rounding.







073



FORM FWS.237 ~. .OEPAPTMFNT OF AGRICULTURE

TRANSCRIPTION OF INCOME AND HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS







('4, 'ng n411 C i~ ~










FSP Case number................................................



Emp. status of ('X 6r Cns)/E ~ R c7 UMLOE V
household head .............


Number of household members age 18or over w!-lo are enrolled olt least o'ne-kof InT-t college, university or technical traning.............. ....................-......... .......... ........... L 1

'4' 41 4.1 411 144 41P

Date of oldest oppliCot~on in file .................................... .............L




Date of most recent application ....................... ............................. t l -.. LH l l




Dote of most recent certifcotion or subsequen- cerlt .'o......... -...............i~ 1V1-] fihilii


156859

Current certification pe~rod No. of moriths) ..................................................................Llii


Office locatio!I

C IrT


Project Area




Stalle lcndom nu,-ber





AW A




FSP DATA iTEMS MONTHLY AMOUNT COL.
DOLLARS CENTS
1. Total value of allowable resources (non-exempt) ...... ........................ ....... 60-65
2. Gross salaries, wages, training allowance .... ....... ................ .................. 66-72
3. 10 percent of line 2 (not to exceed $30.00) .... .......... ....... .............
4. Total earned income Jine 2 minus line 3) ........ .....................................
5. Mandatory deductions (taxes, Soc. Sec., union dues) ............................... 1 74-79
6. Adjusted earned income "line 4 minus line 5) ........... ....................
iI k 2 14-15
7. Roomer and boarder payments ........ ......... ................... .......... 16-22
8. Self employment income (includes form mcome)._. ....... .............. ........ 23-29
9. Student loans, grants, Scholarships prorated monthly) .___ ....................... 30-36
10. A F D C grant ................................................ ...... ........... ................ 37-43
1 1. G A grant ........................ ..................................................... 44 -50
12. Supplemental Security Income grant ..... ...... ...... .................. 51-57
13. Social Security (income) .. ...... ........................ ...... ................... 58-64
14. Veterans Administration payments ....... ....... .......................... 65-71
15. Railroad Retirement, other pensions ........................... 72-78
14-15
16. Other incorni ......... .......... .......... 16-22
16b. Specify source
of other income 23-37
17. Total earned plus other Incomes (line 6 through 16) ...............
18. Monthly coupon allotment for each boarder .. ........ ...... .................... 38-44
19. Total Food Stomp income (line 17 minus line 18) ......... ..........................
20. Deduction for live-in attendant 1chi:d or medical core) .......... .......... ........ 45-51
21. Deduction of monthly allotment for one person Ilne 20) ....................... 52-57
22. Deduction for medical expense (if over $10 per month) ........................ .58-64
23. Deduction for child care (other then line 20) .... ...... ........................... 65-71
24. Deduction for school tuition and mandatory fees ... ...................... ............. 72-78
t 'A -4, 14-15
25. Deduction for support or alimony payments paid .................................... 16-22
26. Deduction for casualty losses ........ ............... ........................ ........... 23-29
26b. Specify type of casualty 30.44
27. Total of deductions other than shelter (line 20 through 26) .........................
28. FSP income before shelter deductions ;line 19 minus line 27) .....................
29. Total shelter cost (including utilities) ................................................. 46-52
30. Shelter deduct'tons .......... ...... .......... ............................


31. NET FOOD STAMP INCOME ....... ....... ....... ................ ......................
FORM FNS-237 tPAGE 2)















HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION



Does any houselkold member receive meals from:



Meals on Wheels Program ................................. ..............



Communal Dining Facility....................................................L ] r






Number of members in household ........................................... ......................



MOUE HOL AGE COL. I 4COL.
E OR___I


I263 -t A 1 61


3 I Sf667


71 -42 73



6 74.75~ 76

7 It 4.15 77-78 79



9__ _ _ 19-20 1I 21


r 1 0 2 2.23 2



1228.29 30





14 _ 34-35--if6 40.41 *

17I43-4414

IS46.47 48

19 49501

20 5-354




22 58.59 60
23 j61.62 63

24 676164.65 66 6 -0




Number of boarders..................... ~~j Number of roomers...... ...... ...... Li.




FORM FNS-237 (PAGE 3)






'76



ANSWER EITHER (A) OR (B) VX* one only)
(A) Answer this question J NO HH members receive SSI.
Is household?...
(1) Pure PA (All HHi members AFDC or CA) ................................. C] rT
(2) Pure NPA (No AFDC or GA payment to 111).............................. C] 72
(3) Mixed (Some, but not all, 111 members are an AFDC or Ga unit.......... El 73

(B) Answer this question if SOME or ALL HH members receive SSI grant.
Is household?...
(1) Pure SSI (Receives no GA or AFDC) ......................................El 74
(2) An SSI household mixed with AFDC or GA unit (but no NPA)..............El] 7S
(3) An SSI household mixed with NPA unit (No AFDC or GA)..................E 7"
(4) An SSI household mixed with NPA and AFDC or GA unit ............... E 77


Check box if you cannot answer any questions on the document.............................. C] 78
Write a brief description of the problem(s) 'below.




























DATE OF REVIEW 51I.NATURE OF OFFICER IN CHARGE


FORM FNS-237 (PAGE 41CP907a









APPENDIX 2
IMPACTS OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN FOOD PROGRAMS
ON THE U.S. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY*


INTRODUCTION
The agricultural community has an increasing and changing stake in the Federal domestic and foreign food programs. Farmers are directly concerned with providing the additional supplies needed to meet the supplemental demands for food generated through these programs and the resulting impacts on prices, costs, incomes and the use of agricultural resources. Agricultural producers also share interests with others in improving the nutritional well-being of children and disadvantaged families and the attainment of the health and productivity benefits.
During 1972, Federal Government outlays for procurement of food in the United States, distribution of food in the United States and abroad, and supplementation of domestic food buying power totaled nearly $4.5 billion-an amount approximately 2 times greater than Federal expenditures for the same purpose in 1960.1 But during the 1960-72 period, major changes have occurred in Federal outlays among the several types of food programs. Overall there has been a dramatic shift from foreign to domestic programs. Domestic programs increased nearly ninefold to more than $3.5 billion in 1972. Expenditures for foods through foreign programs were reduced by roughly $400 million to about $965 million by 1972-most of which will be reimbursed ultimately with dollars or currencies convertible into dollars.
During the early 1960's, programs were oriented toward making effective use of foods acquired under price support and surplus removal programs of the Federal Government. More recently, as U.S. commodity sur-pluses dwindled, program emphasis has shifted toward supplementing food purchasing power of U.S. consumers, cash payments to schools and other child feeding services, and for foods which, although not necessarily in abundant supply, are needed to roundout nutritionally adequate combinations of donated foods for low-income families or for distribution to school lunch programs. Program expenditures for acquisition and distribution of surplus conimoditics have leveled off while those for other purposes have expanded rapidly.
*Prepared by the USDA Economic Research Ser lce at the request of the stafr of the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, 93d Congress, 1st Session, October 1973. I Excluding value of nonfood exports and domestic program allocations for nonood assistance.
(77)






78

These shifts-! have altered the distribution of program benefits among commodity sectors in U.S. agriculture from a relatively few commodities availale in surplus quantities to a much broader, fuller spectrum of commodities. Producers of animal products, fruits and vegetables now receive an increased share of the demand expansion created through the domestic food programs.
This report describes and analyzes:
1. domes tic food programs,
2. government-sponsoredl agricultural export programs and 3. impacts of those programs on the U.S. agricultural economy.
Domestic andi foreign oeainin each instance, nld
a number of programs with varying objectives, recipient groups, and demand-expansion techniques. They share in the common goal of creating outlets for agricultural products which would not otherwise be accomplished through normal commercial marketing channels and achieving benefits in the public interest.

TABLE 1.-FEDERAL COST OF USDA FOOD PROGRAMS, 1969-72 1 [In millions of dollars]

Type of program 1969 1970 1971 1972

Food buying power through cash or bonus stamps:
1. Child nutrition: 2
School lunch ---------------------------------- 227 366 626 788
Brakas-----------------------8 14 21 28
Special fod-----------------5 15 34 46
Special ml-----------------100 96 91 91
Subtotal ------------------------------------ 340 491 772 953
2. Food stamp (cost of bonus stamps only) 3---------------- 272 1,103 1,692 1,985
Total------------------------------------------ 612 1,594 2,464 2,938
Foods acquired through Federal programs:
3. Food distribution: 4
Needy fmle----------------256 295 318 261
Scoos------------------------256 271 288 272
Supplemental food 5 ------------------------------ 4 12 16 16
Intiuton----------------------24 24 28 26
Total--------------------540 602 650 575
Grand total-----------------1,152 2,196 3,114 3,513

1Calendar years.
2 Money donated (but not specifically designated) for local purchases of food. Excludes nonfood assistance,
3 Includes food certificate program.
4 Cost of food delivered to State distribution centers.
6 Includes special food services for preschool and school age children. Source: Based upon table 3, p. 11, National Food Situation, February 1973, NSF-143, ERS-USDA.

DOMESTIC FOOD PROGRAMS

The primary development in domestic food programs since 1960 has been the emergence of the Food Stamp Program, which by 1972 accounted for about 57 percent of Federal Government expenditures for all domestic food programs. During this period, the share of funds allocated to food assistance for low-income families increased from about one-third to nearly two-thirds of the total domestic food program budget. Although a smaller proportion of the funds were spent for School Lunch and other child nutrition programs, actual expenditures increased substantially.2 More importantly, the emergence of
2 Since 1969, cash and foods distributed to child feeding programs increased from less than $800 million to more than $1.2 billion (table 1).





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the Food Stamp Program was a major contribultor to a trend toward making an increased portion of dome.,stic food program benefit- available in the form of food buying power, rather than specific commodity allocations. In 1960, federally distributed foods accounted for about 55 percent of total program costs. By 1972, this percentage had dropped to about 16 percent. During recent years, program costs for federally distributed foods have ranged between 8540 million and $650 million annually.3
Although expenditures for domestic food programs have increased nearly ninefold since 1960. most of this expansion has occurred since 1969. This recent expansion resulted primarily from program
restructuring:
1. basin the issuance schedule for food stainps' on the co-t of
a nutritionally-adequate diet and
2. increasing the availability of free or reduced price lunches
and breakfasts to children from economically disadvantaged
families.
As a result, the value of cash, bonus food stamps and foods distril)buted through the domestic programs in 1972 had risen to an equivalent of 2.8 percent of total U.S. expenditures for food at home and away from home compared with 0.9 percent or less prior to 1969. The impacts of this growth were strongest during 1970 and 1971. The expansion rate slowed during 1972 and appears to be stabilizing further during 1973, except for adjustments associated with changes in food price levels.
The domestic food programs provide substantial capability for discretionary food purchases. During 1972, disadvantaged homemakers received nearly $2 billion in discretionary food buying power in the form of bonus stamps. Operators of child feeding services received an additional 8862 million in cash support, which were not committed to specific food expenditures-other than those implicit in food and nutritional requirements for meals served.
Not all of the food support provided by the USDA programs can be viewed as a net addition to family foodl consumption. Attainment of nutritionally adequate diets, in some instances, may result in substantial increases in food usage-and in others an expanded consumption of foods which are rich sources of selected nutrients. Participants in the Federal programs are not isolated from other food sources and possess the capability, in varying degrees, to substitute Federal foods for those they otherwise would have obtained from other sources.
Domestic food programs include several alternative approaches to the goal of improving the diets of children and low-income families. Child nutrition programs provide nutritionally adequate meals-or milk service-without undue financial restraints, to children during. periods they are in schools or other institutional establishments. Family assistance programs alleviate monetary restraints to attainment of nutritionally adequate diets by supplementing family food purchasing capabilities-food stamps-or by providing them with a conimbination of free foods reflecting their nutritional requirements-donated commodities. Changes in demand for food, in terms of expanded usage and shifts in consumption of individual foods, vary by program and warrant independent consideration.
3 Excluding moneys allocated for equipment and other forms of nonfood assistance.





80

CHILI)NUTRITION PROGRAMS
During the year ending June 1972, more than $1.8 billion worth of food was consumed through USDA child nutrition programs. This includes foods purchased locally from non-Federal funds as well as Federal contributions-cash and in-kind.
Amounts and types of foods consumed through the child nutrition outlet are influenced by the following program actions:
1. Children from low-income families receive meals or milk
service free or at reduced prices, and others pay less than full cost-savings made possible through Federal, State and local
support.
2. Meals provide approximately one-third of the child's daily
nutritional requirements-affecting the selection and amounts of
foods served.
3. Federal support, including nonfood assistance facilitates
establishment and maintenance of food services in many lowincome areas.
4. Outlets are provided for foods acquired under price support
and surplus removal programs.
Availability of school milk service has been shown to increase average milk consumption by children by as much as IS to 21 percent.
Observations by school staff members and others indicate that in the absence of school lunches or breakfasts many children have gone hungry, snacked or eaten less than nutritionally-desirable food combinations. There is limited information, however, regarding the extent to which program foods are substituted for foods which otherwise would have been consumed from nonprogram sources. Thus, the extent of net impacts of the programs upon food consumption remains uncertain.
NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM
In the year ending June 1972, approximately 86 percent of the Nation's school population attended NSLP schools-up from 77 percent in 1969. Oil a typical day-in peak month-nearly 23 million children received NSLP lunches, which provided them with about one-third of their daily nutritional requirements. This represented an increase of nearly 3 million lunches per day since 1969.
This program expansion was associated strongly with greater participation by children from economic ally-disadvantage d families. Consumption of free or reduced price lunches increased from 3.5 million to more than 7 million on a typical day. Nearly one-third of the lunches served in 1972 were free or reduced price, compared with 15 percent in 1969.
Durir_ g 1969-72, total program costs increased from less than $2 billion to nearly $2.7 billion. Revenues from children's payments changed little-holding slightly in excess of $1 billion annually ---but State and local contributions rose. Most of the increased program costs, however, "ras met through higher Federal contributions. Federal help ass; sted local schools in defraying costs of lunches for increasing numbers of economic ally-disadvantaged children, as well as continuing to provide financial support for the overall program.
During the year ending June 1972, foods costing in excess of $1.5 billion were served in school lunches-averaging 39 cents per meal.





81

Federal foods accounted for about 20 percent of this total. The remainder, near $1.25 billion, was spent in local food purchases. Anong the locally purchased items were nearly 4 billion half-pints of milkone for each lunch served. Based upon earlier studies, it is anticipated that milk and other dairy products may account for roughly 45 percent of these local purchases; meat, poultry, and fish about 20 percent; fresh and processed fruits and vegetables approximately 17 percent and bakery goods, cereals and flour nearly 10 percent.

SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM
During the year ending June 1972, 7,800 schools (peak month) were offering breakfasts to nearly 1.2 million children. Nearly 168 million breakfasts were served to economically disadvantaged children and( to others having long bus rides to school-a fourfold increase in 4 years. Federal cash contributions in 1972 averaged 14.6 cents I)er breakfast.
SPECIAL FOOD SERVICES
Special food services constitute another rapidly growing sector of the Child Nutrition Program. During the year ending June 1972,. over 1.2 million preschool and school age children attended 10,600 summer and year-round activities providing meals under this program. A total of 184 million meals were served-compared with about 10 million meals in 1969. Federal contributions during 1972, in cash and in-kind averaged 21.8 cents per meal.

SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM
Milk at reduced prices was being offered to preschool and school age children through 97,200 outlets during the year ending June 1972. In NSLP schools, "special" milk was offered to children not buying school lunches-which included milk-and at other times during the school day. In many non-NSLP schools, "special" milk was the only food service offered. During 1972, approximately 2.5 billion half-pi nt. of milk were distributed through the program. The Federal cash contribution averaged 3.6 cents per half-pint.

FOOD STAMrP PROGRAM
During the period 1969-72, the value of bonus food stamps given to low-income households increased from 8272 million to nearly '2 billion (table 1). Participation rose from about 3 million to 12 million. A rapid expansion in participation followed proram,, re-iructuri)-1 in 1970, when average benefits were increased from roughly 5.73 to more than $13 per person each month. Also, I national income e i ii L criteria were established which made increasing nc hlmbers o ai, Lu1i eligible to receive food stamps.
Under the Food Stamp Program, recipients l)pui'rcLase food tai p in amounts approximating foot expenditures of typical houeholh, of similar size and income status-and receive food stamps of greater value. Within each household size, stamp purchases increase with income.
Since 1970, all eligible households of similar size receive the same amount of food stamps--based upon costs of a nutritionally-adequate
75-939-76-7





82

diet tinder the USDA economy food plan. In effect, low-income- families purchase food stamps in accordance with their capability and receive them in amounts reflecting, their needs.
Even among households of similar size and income, expendituresfor home foods vary widely. Families normally spending less'. for food than they pay for food stamps are "locked" into increasing their food expenditures in the amount of the bonus stamps received. To the extent that families normally spend more for food than the cost of food stamps, they have an option to increase their food expenditures or to substitute bonus food stamps for family funds which otherwise would be spent for food-and, in effect, increasing amounts available for nonfood expenditures. Bonus food stamps are highly effective in increasing food expenditures of "low-spenders," where the need is greatest, and less effective among families normally spending at levels which should provide them with nutritionally adequate diets.
Although results are imprecise, at least 50 percent of the bonus food stamps issued appear to be spent for foods which otherwise would not have been purchased. During 1972, the program may have expanded demand for food by $1 billion or more-an amount approaching 1 percent of total U.S. food expenditures.
As incomes rise in the lower levels, families increase their food expenditures. Evidence suggests that among the five major food groups, the meat group benefits most from increased food expenditures (table 2). Among households in the lower income range, percentage allocations of expenditures among food groups change relatively little as incomes rise. Major changes occur, however, in the types of foods purchased within each group. Within the meat group, for example, roughly 80 cents out of each additional dollar spent may be used in the purchase of red meats. In 1972, consumer expenditures for red meat may have increased by nearly $300 million as a result of supplemental food purchasing power provided by food stamps-the equivalent of nearly 1 percent of total consumer expenditures for red meat in 1972. Estimated near-minimum levels of Food Stamp Program impacts on food expenditures are shown in table 2.
TABLE 2.-ESTIMATED MINIMUM IMPACTS OF THE FOOD STAMP PROGRAM UPON
INCREASING FOOD EXPENDITURES, BY FOOD GROUP, 1969-72 [in millions of dollars
Shared
increased Estimated demand expansion through
food Bonus Stamps I
expendiItem tures 1969 1970 1971 1972
Estimated demand expansion for food 100 $136.0 $501.5 $846.0 $992.5
Meat group (meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dry beans and peas,
nuts and mixtures mostly 38 51.7 190.6 321.5 377.2
Red meats only ----------------------------------- (30) (40.8) (150.5.) (253.8) (297.8)
Beef -------------------- (24) (32.6) (120.4) (203.0) (238.2)
Milk group (milk, cream, cheese, ice cream and other
frozen 13 17.7 65.2 110.0 129.0
Vegetable and fruit 20 27.2 100.3 169.2 198.5
Bread-cereal group ------------------------------------ 12 16.3 60.2 101.5 119.1
Other food (fats, oils, sweets, 17 23.1 85.2 143.8 168.7
100 136.0 501.5 846.0 992.5
1 Based upon estimate that at least 50 percent of bonus food stamps are used for food expenditures which otherwise would not have been made-and the balance serves to increase incomes of recipients. Allocations by food groups based upon income-food expenflure relationships found in the 1965 Household Food Consumption Survey of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.





83

FOOD DISTnuBUTION PROGux1>s
A wide variety of foods are made available to needy persons, -chools and other institutional oilets throiclgh conmou(itv ditribution programs. Foods are acquired by the Federal Govelrnment amnd delivered without charge to State a'encie. State and local organizations hLandle intrastate distribution.
Foods distributed include products of comimnodities under farm income maintenance programs such as wheat flour., rolled oats, cornmeal and nonfat dry milk. Other foods are obtained through surplus removal programs. Still others are purchased to meet specific user program requirements ,clh as the nutritional combination of foods for distribution to needy families and food purchases (section 6) for use in school lunches. Foods from these several sources have different categories of user outlets. Products distributed vary o-ver time with availability and marketing conditions. With limitations on numbers of "surplus" foods available, distributions of so-called nonsurplus items have increased.
The scope of the Food Distribution Program is indicated by the quantities of donated products distributed during the years 1969-72 (table 3). Agricultural implications are clarified by conversion of food items to standard product weights. Fluid milk, while not a donated product, was purchased locally under the NSLP and special milk program.
NEEDY PERSONS
During the year ending June 1972, 3.6 million members of low-income households (peak minonth) received donated commodities in nearly 1.200 localities. Over 3 million resided in the continental United States and more than 550,000 in outlying areas-Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands. Guam and the Trust Territory. Peak participation during the past 4 years has ranged between 3.6 million and 4.1 million persons.
The program is designed to provide needy families each month with a combination of foods reflecting their nutritional requirements. Within each food group, items distributed will vary with availability and marketing conditions. Many of the products distributed are under farm price support and surplus removal programs.
Also, emergency foods are given in disaster relief. During the past 4 years, emergency food operations have served from about 60,000 to more than 500,000 persons annually. In addition, since 196S in a number of areas, supplemental foods have been provided for lowincome mothers and infants. During the year ending June 1971, over 200,000 persons were enrolled in these programs (peak month).

SCHOOLS
NSLP schools are eligible to receive donated foods derived from price support and surplus removal actions. In addition, they receive foods purchased with NSLP funds (section 6). Section 6 food expenditures have been maintained around $64 million during each of the past 4 years. Items included are primarily processed fruits and vegetables, meat and poultry.






A4

TABLE 3.-COMMODITIES DONATED THROUGH USDA FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAMS, 1969-72
iln millions of pounds 1)

quantities
Commodities 1969 1970 1971 1972

Meats (carcass weight):
Beef ----------------------------------------------------------- 147 129 106 40
Pork, excluding 134 103 200 174
Total meats -------------------------------------------------- 281 232 306 214
Poultry and eggs:
Chicken (ready to cook) ------------------------------------------ 60 96 106 166
Turkeys (ready to 64 100 66 71
Eggs 2 (million dozen) ------------------------------------------- 20 19 24 21
Dairy products:
Butter 3 -------------------------------------------------------- 166 169 171 159
All cheeses, except full skim, cottage, pot, and bakers --------------- 89 46 75 46
Condensed and evaporated 62 89 95 82
Nonfat dry milk ------------------------------------------------- 117 126 130 107
Fluid milk and cream (milk equivalent) 3,400 3,500 3,500 3,500
Total milk equivalent (fats solids basis) 7,980 7,649 8,079 7,446
Total dairy (milk fat content) 4 .................................... 288 278 291 270
Food fats and oils:
Total: excluding buffer (actual weight) 5 ------------ I ---------------- 78 97 102 101
Total including butter (fat content) ------------------------------- 214 230 243 230
Fruits and juices:
Fruits in fresh 5 82 37 41
Canned fruit ---------------------------------------------------- 136 178 135 161
Dried fruit 6 --- 41 43 28 20
Canned fruit 48 72 94 80
Frozen citrus juice ---------------------------------------------- 6 16 22
Vegetables:
Canned vegetables, including potatoes ----------------------------- 212 190 160 100
Potatoes 7 (million 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.7
Sweet potatoes (thousand hundredweight) ------------------------- 64 109 105 35
Dry beans and field peas, cleaned basis 6 --------------------------- 81 85 87 66
Grains and cereals:
Wheat (million bushels) ------------------------------------------ 10 11 12 11
Rice, roughly equivalent 6 (million hundredweight)------------------ .8 .8 .9 .7
Corn, grain only (million bushels) --------------------------------- 4 4 4 4
Oates (million 2 2 2 9
Peanuts, kernel basis 46 49 49 42

1 Different weights shown in stub for eggs, potatoes, sweet potatoes, rice and corn, Products converted equivalent weights in some instances.
2 Most scrambled egg mix.
3 Includes butter equivalents for limited amounts of butter oil,
4 Fluid milk and cream are not donated. Figures include milk purchased locally and consumed under school lunch and special milk programs-for which Federal payments are made.
5 Includes lard/shortening, vegetable shortenings, salad oils and limited amount of margarine.
6 Pack, crop or marketing year
7 Excludes 23,000,000 pounds of frozen potato products in 1972,
8 Peanut equivalent of peanut butter.
Source: Economic Research Service from Food and Nutrition Service data;

Schools with nonprofit lunch services outside of t-he National School
Lunch Programs also have qualified to receive selected categories of
donated commodities. Through 1970, foods were moving to non-NSLP
schools with an enrollment in excess of 2.3 million children. In the
year ending June 1970, this ficrure dropped to 266,000.

INSTITUTIONS

During the year ending June 1971, donated foods were delivered
to sun-aner camps serving nearly 1.6 million children. Year-round
institutions with more than 1.2 million qualifying recipients also received Federal foods. The value of foods moving through these institutional outlets has ranged from roughly $22 to $26 million during
fis-,cal years 1969-72.
A substantial portion of the institutional distribution has been described previously in regard to child nutrition programs. Foods also
move to hospitals and other institutions serving needy persons.





85

DEMAND EXPANSION THROUGH COMMODITY DISTRIBUTION
Donated commodities moving to NSLP schools help to defray costs of free or reduced price lunches for children from low-irlcome families-and to hold down prices charged to children making regular meal purchases. Foods distributed through other institutional food services expand total demand for food to the extent that these organizations maintain regular food expenditures and use the donated foods in improving diets of qualified recipients.
Information is limited regarding demand expansion for food derived through the distribution of Federal foods to needy families under the nutrition approach. The program lacks the locked-in demand expansion mechanism found in the Food Stamp Program. The extent to which homemakers will choose to supplement donated commodities with other foods purchased with family funds represents a voluntary decision.
On the basis of very limited research evidence, it appears that the Food Distribution Program may have had dem and-expanding effects exceeding these derived through comparable cash income grants. Each additional dollar of cash income tends to generate between 20 to 30 cents of extra food expenditures at these income levels-or about onehalf the impact of a dollar's worth of bonus food stamps. If the relationships hold, the issuance of donated commodities during 1972 would have generated at least $59 to $80 million in additional food usage-donated or purchased-by low-income families.
GOVERNMENT SPONSORED AGRICULTURAL EXPORT PROGRAMS
Since mid-1954, U.S. agricultural exports under Government programs primarily P.L. 480, have amounted to 24 billion dollars, 23 percent of all agricultural exports (table 4). They reached a peak of 41 percent of agricultural exports in 1956, declining to 11 percent in 1972. Sales for foreign currencies accounted for a little over half of all exports under Government programs during the 1954-72 period, reaching a peak in the early 1969's. Since that time they have been phased out as directed by Congress and have been replaced by longterm dollar and convertible foreign currency credit sales. Government-to-government donations for disaster relief and economic (levelopment have also increased since the inid-60's.
The historical evolution of the foreign food programs indicates a significant turning point occurring around 1966 (table 4). At that time the Food Aid Act (Public Law 480) was amended to require the President to take steps to assure a progressive transition from sales for foreign currencies to long-term dollar credits. The result was a shift in program objectives from disposal of U.S. suirl)luses to dollar or commercial sales. By 1969, sales for dollars exceeded sales for local currencies for the first time. In 1970, a further amendment encoui'aged friendly countries toward a greater degree of self-reliance in meeting their problems of food production and population growth. In addition, the transition from sale for local currency to long-term dollar credits was to be completed by the end of 1971. In 1969-72 period thus reflects a new rationale for food aid programs and distinct set of imapact relationships.





86
While the overall level of shipments under P.L. 480 has remained relatively constant since 1969, there has been a shift in the relative importance of the different types of programs. Increasingly, shipments under Title I have emphasized sales for long-term dollar credit rather than sales for local currencies. The long-term credit sales currentlly account for about two-thirds of food shipments under P.L. 480. Economic growth in many countries, such as the Republic of China, Republic of Korea, and Iran, who formerly relied heavily on imports of U.S. farm products under P.L. 480, has enabled them to shift to greater commercial purchases. Shipments of agricultural exports under Title 11 for disaster relief and other food emergencies, as well as for grants and loans for developmental purposes, have remained relatively stable over the same period. Shipments under the Mutual Securitv AID, which represent sales for foreign currency, economic aid, and expenditures under developmental loans have been only periodically important.
The principal foods exported under Government programs are wheat and flour, rice, soybean oilnonf at dry milk and corn (table 5). In 1972, these commodities lus cotton accounted for 85 percent of total exports under specified &vernment programs. Each of the above commodities possess unique market charac teri s tics and are exported under quite different rationales.
Wheat constitutes the largest component by value of agricultural exports under specified Government programs (table 5). More importantly for domestic market impacts, it has represented a significant portion-around 10 percent-of the total U.S. supply (table 6). Since 1969, the export of wheat under Government programs has be-come an increasingly quasi-commercial outlet, that is, exported under Title I for lonea-term dollar credits. Wheat flour and vulgar wheat, which are shipped largely under Title 11 for food emergencies, now represent only about 22 percent of total wheat exports.
Rice exports under Government programs represent roughly 30 percent of the utilization of domestic sup iy and over 50 percent of total rice exports (table 5). Shipments of rice are almost wholly carried out under Title I-long-term dollar credit sales with some Title 11 and Mutual Security Aid exports in recent years. The quasi-commercial nature of such a large outlet of the domestic supply has, over the years, made P.L. 480 rice exports a permanent element in the domestic market and the domestic rice programs.
Export of soybean oil under Government programs, both Title I and
remains as a basic surplus removal device. In the absence of these exports, there would be much lower oil prices as the surplus moved into commercial markets in the United States and abroad. Lower oil prices would place downward pressure on soybean prices received by farmers as the bean crushers would be receiving a lower price for the joint product of soybean meal. Thus, market conditions favorable to increased production of soybeans and soybean meal and cheaper feed costs for the livestock sector are reinforced by exports of soybean oil under Government programs which maintain oil prices at reasonable levels. The rapid expansion of soybean production has clearly been enhanced by the ready outlet of 8-10 percent of the domestic. soybean oil supplies for export under Government programs.





87

Nonfat dry milk is the form in which the Government, export-s most dairy products, although some butter and cheese had been included (table 6). Most of the exports move under the TJitle It program for food relief. In years past, the nonfat dry milk outlet was highly important in much the same way as soybean Oil exports were for bean, and meal prices. However, nonfat solids have found increasing domestic outlets in lowfat products and cheese andl are now in very short supply in the United States. In this environment, Government program exports of nonfat solids have declined to near zero) with milk production having difficulty in keeping up with domestic demand fordairy products.l
Corn and grain sorghum. exports under Government programs have represented a very small proportion of the total U.S. supply and thus have had minimal impact on the domestic market.









88



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90

TABLE 5.-U.S. AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS UNDER GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS, MINOR COMMODITIES, 1969-72
(in millions of dollarsi

Wheat and wheat products
Wheat Bulgar Soybean Nonfat Grain
Year Wheat flour wheat Total Rice oil dry milk Corn sorghums

1969------------ $252. 5 $81. 9 $23.7 $358. 1 $182. 8 $76. 2 $69. 3 $28.6 $26. 8
1970 ------------ 288.7 86.2 18.6 393.5 171.3 92.2 91.4 26.5 26.2
1971 ------------ 295. 3 77.3 19.8 392.4 133.6 112.8 91.2 29.5 36.4
1972 ------------ 294.3 61.6 23.9 379.8 238.2 110.1 70.9 57.0 34.4

Millions
of
hundredMillions of bushels weight Millions of pounds Millions of bushels

1969------------- 160.7 47. 7 10.8 219.2 24.3 745. 1 292.0 20.9 22.1
1970 ------------ 171.0 52.3 10.1 233.4 23.3 681.8 349.9 17.7 19.8
1971 ------------ 164.9 40.2 9.8 214.9 19.0 789.8 303.6 18.7 24.3
1972 ------------ 165.9 35. 8 10. 4 212. 1 30. 6 758. 6 214. 5 40. 1 24. 5

Source: "Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States," Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, April 1973, pp. 58-61, and earlier issues.

TABLE 6.-U.S. AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS UNDER GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS I

Soybean Nonfat Grain
Year Wheat Rice oil dry milk 2 Corn sorghum

Percent of domestic supply:
1968-69 -------------------------------- 11.9 27.5 10.5 2.7 0.3 1.9
1969-70 -------------------------------- 11.9 29.5 9.4 3.2 .6 2.2
1970-71 -------------------------------- 10.8 23.6 8.6 2.8 .5 2.3
1971-72--------------------------------- 9.9 35.5 9.5 1.9 .5 2.5
Percent of total exports of given commodity:
1968-69 -------------------------------- 46. 1 54.0 85. 0 71. 1 3. 3 18. 2
1969-70 -------------------------------- 44.4 56.2 55.0 70.3 5.0 18.8
1970-71 -------------------------------- 32.9 51.6 44.0 65.5 4.3 12.1
1971-72 -------------------------------- 36. 8 65. 7 53. 0 54. 6 4.9 23. 5

1 All percentages based upon crop year supplies and exports except nonfat dry milk which is calendar year 1969-72. Wheat-i uly-i une. Rice-August-i uly, soybean oil, corn, and grain sorghum-October-September.
2Nonfat solid basis.
Source: Calculated from table 5.










SUMMARY


I-MPACTS ON THE AGRICULTURAL EcoNO'MY
Benefits derived from domestic anti foreign food programs have been substantial anti broadly differed throughout the United States anti foreign countries. Manyv of those benefits cannot be reduced to simple economic terms-the improvement of dliets, relief of human suffering during times of disasters, alleviation of the bonds of poverty and hunger domestically anti abroad. Although such benefits do not lendi themselves to empirical determination, they may in fact be the most important social benefits occurring from the program.
But there are important economic impacts at least partially mecasurable, upon both food consumers and producers. Foreign food programs, in addition to serving humanitarian purposes, have provided economic inputs for developing more viable economies in many nations and opened new trade channels for U.S. agricultural producers. Foreign and, to a lesser extent, domestic food distribution programs have provided insulated and constructive outlets for more than $20 billion in foods acquired through price stabilization and surplus removal programs; thus, benefiting both the U.S. farmer and consumers at home and abroadl. Throughout much of the 1950's and 1960's when the output of American agriculture was in excess of commercial demand at prices which would generate reasonably adequate incomes to farmers, domestic and foreign food programs untiergirdeti antd reinforced domestic farm policy to improve and stabilize farm prices anti incomes.
Throughout much of the 1950's and 1960's the combined price support-food distribution operation provided major benefits to the producers of wheat, soybeans, rice, dairy anti other commodities by maintaining prices and incomes above otherwise prevailing levels and increasing short-term stability in agricultural markets. Those conditions in turn encouraged capital investment, development and application of new technology anti improved efficiency in production and marketing of farm products. Although many of these benefits to the agricultural community have been indirect'-reflected through price support program operations such as acreage allotments, commodity loan rates and storage policies, they have been substantial.
The above situation was operative during most of the period since World War II, when substantial Federal commodity inventories were in existence. As stocks of surplus commodities tiiminished and the volume of products p)urchlased from current production for distribution through food programs increased beginning in the late 1960's direct benefits occurred to producers. Program purchases from current commercial supplies increased total demand anti prices in the marketplace.
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Surplus removal programs have provided producers of the so-called "nonbasic" commodities with stand-by protection against price aberrations resulting from temporary over-supplies. Federal purchases needed to provide nationwide distribution to School Lunch Programs, for eiiample, are sufficient, in most instances, to remove from the commercial market significant portions of individual products in "oversupply." Producers receive immediate income benefits through higher prices-or carryover benefits, when burdensome inventories of nonperishable products are reduced.
With the expanded use of cash allocations and food stamps, major portions of the benefits of demand expansion through food programs, however, now accrue to producers of food items not included in price support or surplus removal programs. Aggregate increases in total food usage resulting from the distribution of food buying power and commodities through the domestic food programs have not been estimated with precision. With bonus food stamps increasing food expenditures of low-income families by at least $1 billion or more annually, and approximately $900 million being spent for free or reduced-price school lunches 4 it appears that total demand expansion from the domestic programs may approach 2 percent of total U.S. food expenditures. n
Producers of meat, other protein foods, fruits, vegetables and milk appear to be the primary beneficiaries of expanded domestic demand resulting from current types of domestic food programs. Impacts, however, extend over the full spectrum of food production-and to added requirements for feedstuffs needed in prod-tieing the increased amounts of animal products. Rice producers appear currently to benefit relatively more than other commodity producers from foreign food programs with over one-third of the domestic rice supply being exported under those, programs.
Total usage of donated commodities distributed through the domestic and foreign programs, including milk purchased locally with child nutrition program Tunds, indicate the scope of direct program interactions with the food industry-but not necessarily net expansions in demand for specific foods. During calendar year 1972, for selected food items, program usage accounted for the following percentages of U.S. production:
Food item: Percer t
Pork --------------------------------------------------------- I 3
Chicken ------------------------------------------------------ 1.8
Turkey ------------------------------------------------------- 3.7
Milk, condensed and evaporated -------------------------------- 5.8
Nonfat dry milk ----------------------------------------------- 8.4
Fluid whole milk ---------------------------------------------- 6.2
Butter ------------------------------------------------------- 14.3
Lard and rendered pork fat ------------------------------------- 9.6
Fats and oils (fat content) -------------------------------------- 3.7
Canned fruit -------------------------------------------------- 4.0
Fruit juices, canned and frozen ---------------------------------- 2.7
Dried fruits --------------------------------------------------- 4.6
Canned vegetables --------------------------------------------- 1.0
Potatoes ----------------------------------------------------- 0.9
Beans, dry edible ---------------------------------------------- 4.0
4 Including foods worth about $500 million.





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Program impacts in some instances involve joint product relationships and economic effects involving both producers and consumers of the primary commodity. Soybeans provide an example. Sovbean meal and oil are produced in relatively fixed proportions. When domestic demand for soybean meal in animal feeds exceeds demand for oil, alternative uses and outlets have been found for soybean oil. Through such actions, total income to soybean producers has been increased without negatively affecting prices paid by cattlemen, poultry producers and others using soybean meal in their feeding operations. Dairy products-fluid whole milk, butter, cheese, and nonfat dry milk-provided another example of interproduct relationships involving the domestic and foreign food programs. The family of food programs provide flexible alternatives in dealing with simple or reasonably complex changes in demand for food products.
The importance of the foreign and domestic food programs in the U.S. agricultural system has not been given adequate recognition. This results from the fact that impacts upon the agricuflural economy are only partially visible. In the case of commodities under price support programs, as cited, the quantity that the farmer produces and the price he receives often is determined largely by price support program criteria-which in turn are affected by food program operations. Alternatively, food program impacts on producers of nonbasic commodities tend to have increased in small annual increments which have been built into the overall demand structure. Impacts would be readily discernible only in instances when food programs were discontinued without replacement.

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