Technology transfer to the Middle East O.P.E.C. nations and Egypt, 1970-1975

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Title:
Technology transfer to the Middle East O.P.E.C. nations and Egypt, 1970-1975 background study
Series Title:
Serial - House, Committee on Science and Technology ; no. 94-UU
Physical Description:
vii, 174 p. : ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Schacht, Wendy H
United States -- Congress. -- House. -- Committee on Science and Technology. -- Subcommittee on Domestic and International Scientific Planning and Analysis
Library of Congress -- Science Policy Research Division
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U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
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Washington
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Subjects / Keywords:
Technology transfer   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Statement of Responsibility:
prepared for the Subcommittee on Domestic and International Scientific Planning and Analysis of the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-fourth Congress, second session by Wendy H. Schacht the Science Policy Research Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.
General Note:
At head of title: Committee print.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 025989387
oclc - 02819511
System ID:
AA00024872:00001

Full Text

[COMMITTEE PRINT]




TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO THE
MIDDLE EAST O.P.E.C. NATIO{ YPT
1970-1975 4


1976 -\
BACKGROUND 97B
PREPARED FOR TH AP
SUBCOMMITTEE EN
DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONALV"
SCIENTIFIC PLANNING AND ANALYSIS OF THE
COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
NINETY-FOURTH CONGRESS SECOND SESSION
BY THE
SCIENCE POLICY RESEARCH DIvIsION CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Serial UU






SEPTEMBER 1976

Printed for the use of the Committee on Science and Technology

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 77-695 WASHINGTON : 1976

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402 Price $1.S5













COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

OLIN E. TEAGUE, Texas, Chairman KEN HECHLER, West Virginia CHARLES A. MOSHER, Ohio
THOMAS N. DOWNING, Virginia ALPHONZO BELL, California
DON FUQUA, Florida JOHN JARMAN, Oklahoma
JAMES W. SYMINGTON, Missouri JOHN W. WYDLER, New York
WALTER FLOWERS, Alabama LARRY WINN, JR., Kansas
ROBERT A. ROE, New Jersey LOUIS FREY, JR., Florida
MIKE McCORMACK, Washington BARRY M. GOLDWATER, JR., California
GEORGE E. BROWN, JR., California MARVIN L. ESCH, Michigan
DALE MILFORD, Texas JOHN B. CONLAN, Arizona
RAY THORNTON, Arkansas GARY A. MYERS, Pennsylvania
JAMES H. SCHEUER, New York DAVID F. EMERY, Maine
RICHARD L. OTTINGER, New York LARRY PRESSLER, South Dakota
HENRY A. WAXMAN, California PHILIP H. HAYES, Indiana TOM HARKIN, Iowa JIM LLOYD, California JEROME A. AMBRO, New York CHRISTOPHER J. DODD, Connecticut MICHAEL T. BLOUIN, Iowa TIM L. HALL, Illinois ROBERT (BOB) KRUEGER, Texas MARILYN LLOYD, Tennessee JAMES T. BLANCHARD, Michigan TIMOTHY E. WIRTH, Colorado JOHN L. SWIGERT, Jr., Fxecutive Director HAROLD A. GOULD, Deputy Director PmI B. YEAGER, Counsel FRANK R. HAMMILL, Jr., Counsel JAMES E. WILSON, Technical Consultant J. THOMAS RATCHFORD, Science Consultant JOHN D. HOLMFELD, Science Consultant RALPH N. READ, Technical Consultant ROBERT C. KETCHA, Counsel REGINA A. DAVIs, Chief Clerk MICHAEL A. SUPERATA, Minority Counsel



SUBCOMMITTEE ON DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC PLANNING AND ANALYSIS

RAY THORNTON, Arkansas, Chairman ROBERT A. ROE, New Jersey JOHN B. CONLAN, Arizona
DALE MILFORD, Texas JOHN JARMAN, Oklahoma
JAMES H. SCHEUER, New York GARY A. MYERS, Pennsylvania
HENRY A. WAXMAN, California JEROME A. AMBRO, New York JAMES J. BLANCHARD, Michigan
(I)









LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


HousE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY,
Washington, D.C., September 28, 1976.
Hon. OLIN E. TEAGUE,
C?4irman, Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C.
DEAR CHAIRMAN TEAGIJE: I am glad to submit to you a study of "Technology Transfer to the Middle East OPEC Nations and Egypt, 1970-1975." This study was initiated by our Subcommittee following our hearings in October 1975 on "Technology Transfer to the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries". Those hearings yieldYed a comprehensive overview of the policies and the organizational arrangements within the U.S. Government for dealing with this subject. However, the hearings did not provide the needed information concerning what kinds of technology transfer actually takes place and the extent of it.
The study which was done by the Library of Congress, covers technology transfer to the Middle East OPEC nations and Egypt from all sources, including the United States, Western Europe, the Soviet Union, the Eastern Bloc Countries, and Japan and China. The study was done by Ms. Wendy H. Schacht, Analyst in Science and Technologyv with the Science Policy Research Division of the Congression a"R ese arch Service.
I believe that this study provides a solid factual basis for our evaluation of technology transfer activities to the Middle Eastern countries and Its impact on American science, technology, and industry. I commend it to your attention, and to the attention of the Members of the Committee on Science and Technology and of the House.
Sincerely yours,RA TH N O ,

Chairman, Subcommittee on Domestic and International Scientific Planning and Analysis.
(M)_


















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http://archive.org/details/tectransf00unit












LETTER OF SUBMITTAL


THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS,
CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE, Washington, D.C., March 26, 1976.
Hion. RAY THORNTON,
Chairman, Subcommittee on Domestic and International Scientific
Planning and Analysis, Committee on Science and Technology, U.S.
House of Representatives, W~ashington, D.C.
DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: I am pleased to forward this report entitled "Technology Transfer to the Middle East OPEC Nations and Egypt, 1970-1975)1 prepared at the request of the Subcommittee on Domestic and International Scientific Planning and Analysis.
This study examines technology transfer activity to Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. It is 'designed to illustrate the content and extent of technology acquired by these countries and to denote the trends developed over the six years from 1970 to 1975. This was a period of changing attitudes towards, and in, the Middle East, which brought about a reassessment of -policies in the region. The following work reflects the changes in transfer activity and provides a guide for determining the competition the United States faces in this area.
Included is a general analysis of the area-wide transfer effort, along with country-by-country analyses. Following these are individual, in-depth studies of transfer activities to the nine countries and a categorical listing of the transactions (including agreements, protocols, committees and commissions) arranged by receiver nation, supplier country, type and date.
This study was prepared by W endy 1-. Schacht, Analyst in Science and Technology. Help in organizing the categorical listings was provided by Karen J. Guarisco, Analyst in Science Policy. The manuscript was reviewed by Walter A. Hahn, Assistant Chief of the Science Policy Research Division and Senior Specialist in Science and Technology.
On behalf of the Congressional Research Service, I would like to express my appreciation for the oppor-tunity to undertbake this timely and challenging assignment.
Sincerely,
NORMAN BECKMAN,
Act ing Director.
(V)














CONTENTS

Page
Letter of Transmittal ---------------------------------------------- iff
Letter of Submittal ------------------------------------------------ v
Contents --------------------------------------------------------- vii
Preface ----------------------------------------------------------- 1
Methodology and approach ------------------------------------- 1
Analytical overview ------------------------------------------------ 5
Types of Technology Transfers ----------------------------------- 5
Technology Transfer Activities of Individual Countries ------------- 6
The nature, level, and degree of transfer activity ------------------ 7
Six year reviews --------------------------------------------------- 13
Abu Dhabi --------------------------------------------------- 13
Algeria ------------------------------------------------------- 13
Egypt -------------------------------------------------------- 14
Iran --------------------------------------------------------- 14
Iraq --------------------------------------------------------- 15
Kuwait ------------------------------------------------------- 16
Libya -------------------------------------------------------- 16
Qatar -------------------------------------------------------- 17
Saudi Arabia -------------------------------------------------- 17
Year-by-year analysis ---------------------------------------------- 19
Abu Dhabi --------------------------------------------------- 19
Algeria ------------------------------------------------------- 20
Egypt -------------------------------------------------------- 26
Iran --------------------------------------------------------- 30
Iraq --------------------------------------------------------- 37
Kuwait ------------------------------------------------------- 44
Libya -------------------------------------------------------- 46
Qatar -------------------------------------------------------- 49
Saudi Arabia -------------------------------------------------- 50
Categorical listings of individual technology transfer transaction --------- 55
Average yearly exchange rates conversion table -------------------- 55
1970 --------------------------------------------------------- 56
1971 --------------------------------------------------------- 68
1972 --------------------------------------------------------- 80
1973 --------------------------------------------------------- 94
1974 --------------------------------------------------------- 106
1975 --------------------------------------------------------- 126
Appendix I-Agreements and protocols ------------------------------- 159
Appendix II-Committees and commissions -------------------------- 171
(VU)















PREFACE


This paper is an analysis of technology transfer to the Middle Eastern nations of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (O.P.E.C.) and Egypt. The nations surveyed include Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, and Saudia Arabia. Egypt is incorporated because of its leadership position in the region and the overriding factor of third party technology transfer.
The time span covered in the analysis is 1970 to 1975, a period of rapid change in the attitudes towards and in the Middle East. The discovery of the use of oil as an inducement to insure favorable actions following the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war, brought about a profound reassessment in the policies toward the oil producing countries.

METHODOLOGY AND APPROACH
What is presented here is a compilation of individual technology transfers which took place between the Middle Eastern OPEC nations and Egypt and the Western and Eastern bloc countries and Japan. The data was obtained from information contained in reports of the Middle East Economic Digest, the Foreign Broadcast Information Service,
and newspapers. Because there is no one comprehensive source for the reporting of transfer activity in the private sector, or in the governmental sector in the case of the Communist countries, there are inevitably certain limitations in the gathering, synthesis and analysis of the data. Therefore, it is necessary to delineate the parameters of this study and to define its limitations and accomplishments.
Due to the small amount of material covering transfer activity to this area of the world there is no assurance that all transactions have been recorded or included. What is presented is representative of the major transfers effected-if not a complete listing. The monetary values of the transaction are not always provided or are designated in a foreign currency. The fluctuating exchange rates make conversion difficult. In addition, any quantitative analysis based on the monetary value of the transfer would be inaccurate and misleading due to exclusion of those transactions to which no monetary figure is attached. This necessitates a relative approach in analyzing the transfer activity undertaken. Quantities are designated "large" or "small" in relation to the average or that which has preceded. "Large" and "small" in this case are determined by the number of transfers, not by the monetary value of the transactions.
In this study, technology transfer is defined as a transaction which effects a transmittal of any form of technical knowledIge from one country to another. This is a broad definition which includes; hardware,
(1)






2

software, goods, services, and information. Also included *in the analysis are development loans which make possible the purchase of a technology or technical equipment, agreements which lead the way to acquisition of new technologies, and committees formed to promote transfer activity. The analysis encompasses only one-way transfers to the Middle East. These, with the exception of agreements and committees, are business transactions requiring monetary exchange Words used to describe these transfer rs- "furnished," "provided,' "supplied," et cetera-should be understood in this context. When a Western country is designated as the supplier it should be understood that in most cases a firm within the country is in actuality the executor of the transfer. However, this is not the case in the Easit-ern bloc nations where businesses are held by the respective governments.
Further considerations must be pointed out concerning the extent of the data involving the Eastern bloc countries. Since the sources available are Western in origin, the information on the Communist countries is somewhat limited and therefore, but not necessarily, may be biased due to omissions in source reporting or lack of detail in the information. What is provided is the most complete listing of transfer activity effected by these nations given the available, yet admittedly limited, resources.
The report is organized in a way that permits taking several different approaches to the question of technology transfer. The first section begins with a general analysis of the transfer activity to the entire area. This includes several matrices delineating the trends in technology transfer and the emphases placed on various types of technology by the subject countries. Following this are a group of six year summaries covering each country and characterizing the ..general trends which took shape over that time period. Year-by-year analyses comprise the next section. These are designed to provide the interested reader with more detailed data about the technology transfer activity of each nation. They provide a look at technology acquisition as. a function of time and point to the yearly variations in transfer transactions.
The second section contains the categorical listing of the actual transfers. This compilation is arranged by year, by recipient country, by supplier nation and by the type of transfer effected. This necessitated the classification of the transactions which took place. Unfortunately not every action can be placed in a mutually exclusive category, and thus there may be some overlap. However, each transaction is listed only once in that area where it has been deemed most appropriate. All development loans, all committees and commissions, and all agreements and protocols are grouped together regardless of the purpose for which the loans were made available, the form of committee established, or the type of agreement signed.





3

The categorical listings-with a brief description if necessary-are as follows:
Agreements and protocols
Agriculture
Arms-military hardware
Aviation-commercial Building and housing
Committees and commissions
Communications-telex, telephone, satellites, et cetera
Computers
Development loans
Gas
Industrial facilities
Industrial processing facilities
Irrigation-desalination plants, water supply and storage, land
reclamation
Machinery and equipment-products and parts
Mining-studies, surveys and development
Nuclear technology
Oil
Planning studies
Power-stations, equipment, and networks
Shipping and ports
Technical assistance
Technical training
Transportation-land
Following this section are the appendices which list by year and by country (1) the agreements and protocols ratified and (2) the committees and commissions formed to promote technology transfer and cooperation. These involve the public sectors of both the supplier and receiver countries.















ANAL YTICAL OVERVIEW
This analysis covers, the years 1970 to 1975, a period of rapid change in the Middle East. The oil boycott following the October 1973 Arab-Israeli War demonstrated the emerging power of the oil producing countries and brought about a reassessment of attitudes and policies towards this area of the world. Primarily as a result of these changes, the extent of technology transfer activity to the region increased. The reasons for the increases in technology transfer appear to be threefold. First, the increases in the price of oil shipped abroad generated large quantities of foreign funds and surpluses in the balance of payments. These surpluses of "petrodollars" stimnulated an interest in new undertakings and investments. Second, the mostly underdeveloped, agricultural economies of the region were receptive to the advances of foreign countries to provide technical expertise and hardware in exchange for oil. And finally, recognizing the opportunities inherent in technology transfer, the -Middle Eastern nations were, and are, receptive to and supportive of, efforts to diversify their economies in anticipation of the time when their oil reserves will be depleted.

TYPES OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFERS
Various factors have influenced the types of technology transferred to the Middle East. Most of them are related to the physical na ture of the region-the arid land, the sparsely settled and widespread distribution of the population, and the large underground oil reserves. Until the discovery of oil in the area, most of the countries were agricultural and labored under severe limitations of rainfall and water resources. Oil has brought money into the region, stimulating an interest in improving agricultural production and in establishing an industrial sector.
An analysis of the six years from 1970 to 1975 shows the principal emphasis of transfer activity to be on industrially related technology.% In anticipation of the depletion of their oil reserves, these nations are attempting to diversify their economic base by focusing on the transfer of industrial facilities and industrial process-ingr plants. T1he petrochemical industry received added impetus to development a,,, did other oil and gas related areas. Thus, the surpluses in foreign exchange and in the balance of payments derived from the inlcrea.se in oil prices subsequent to the 1973-74 oil boycott have spurred the' improvement of industrial capabilities and the expansion of the agricultural economy.
As a consequence of the push for industrialization, the countries, in this study have shown an interest in the expansion and im prove ment of the power producing and the communication sectors which are both necessary factors in a program of industrialization. Electricall power is essential to the establishment of all factory and processingjj






6

facilities and must be sufficient before any extension of present capacity can be made. A viable communications network is necessary to make a successful informational or industrial transfer possible, and to attract investment.
The large oil reserves in these countries and the desire to develop them have prompted efforts to acquire oil related technology. Thus, a large portion of the transfer activity undertaken in the region was aimed at new developments in the oil field and the provision of oil recovery equipment and processing facilities. In addition to foreign oil companies, various other foreign firms provided technical expertise and machinery to supplement the work and knowledge of the producincr countries.
As discussed previously, the and nature of the land was a.'determining factor in the type of much of the technology transferred. The lack of water resources necessitated the most productive utilization of the available supplies, leading to a strong interest in irrigation technology. There has been a constant and pr:olonged interest by the Middle Eastern countries in land reclamation, drainage, irrigation, and water supply and storage in an effort' to compensate for the scarcity of water and improve its supply to the population.
Shipping and. port development were other areas for frequent technology acquisition. The transportation of oil and the importation of goods from foreign countries necessitates the provision of adequate facilities. Industrialization requires that sufficient means for transport of supplies and finished products be provided. Thus, transfer activity often concentrated on port construction and/or expansion and the supply of tankers, freighters and cargo ships. Rail transportation also was the subject of transfer activity designed to improve the rail network and the associated facilities.
Military technology was furnished to the Middle Eastern countries principally by the United States, Britain, France, Italy and the Soviet Union. The United States supplied arms to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Abu Dhabi, and was the major supplier of. military hardware to Iran. In other instances, the supply of U.S. equipmentwas effected through a third country. France furnished military equipment to Iraq, Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Libya and Kuwait. Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Kuwait received arms from Britain, and Italy supplied Iran and Libya. The Soviet Union provided military technology to Iraq, Egypt, Libya and Kuwait. The specific hardware involved in the transfers are discussed in the yearly analyses, but it appears evident that France and the Soviet Union provided more, advanced technology weaponry than the other countries.
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFERACTIVITIES OF INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES
Certain countries were more active in technology transfer than others. Iran was most vigorous in its pursuit of technology transfer and this trend appears to be a continuing phenomenon. Algeria was the next most active country followed d by Iraq, Egypt and Libya. Iran, Aleeria, Iraq, and to a lesser extent Egypt and Libya, were the beneficiaries of a large quantity of technology transfer, while Qatar and Abu Dhabi acquired a lesser amount. All the nations studied sought investment by outside countries and companies but the level of activity varied considerably.




7

British and French companies are the major source of competition to American firms in the transfer of technology to the Middle East. Japanese and West German companies are becoming increasingly involved with transfer activity in the region. The Soviet Union is the primary supplier of technology to countries which look toward the Communist bloc for investment. These include prianarily Iraq, Libya and Algeria.
Transfer activity became most pronounced and shifts in dependence most often occurred in 1974. Egypt acquired technology primarily from the Soviet Union in the years between 1970 and 1972. However, by 1975 this pattern had changed. France, Britain, and the United States had become the major sources of transfer to Egypt. Similarly, Iran has altered its dependence from the Soviet Union and Britain to the United States, France and Britain beginning in 1974. Japan increased its transfer involvement in 1975 fAlong with increases by American, French and British firms. Algeria also obtained technology primarily from Britain and the United States and by 1975 West Germany and Japan were actively participating in transfer projects. Russian technology transfer peaked to Algeria in 1972 and has declined since.
The Soviet Union has been a constant source of technical expertise for Iraq. In 1974, Russia was joined by Hungary in providing technology. The non-Communist countries became major participants in technology transfer to Iraq in 1974 when France and Japan became active. Britain joined Japan and France in increasing transfer activity the following year. Libya did not show any preferences in origin of technology acquisition until 1975 when technology was received primarily from the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, Britain, West Germany, and Italy.
Britain was the principal source of transfer to Saudi Arabia until 1974 at which point American and Japanese companies increased their involvement in the area. British firms were also the primary suppliers of technology to Qatar and Abu Dhabi during the period from 1970 to 1975. In 1975 the United States and Britain became the most active participants in transfer to Kuwait.
THENATURE, LEVEL, ANDDEGREE OFTRANSFERACTIVITY
The following tables are a series of matrices designed to show (1) the nature of the transfer activity, (2) the level of transfer activity, and (3) the degree of activity as a function of time for the period 1970-1975. Each is constructed from the standpoint of the supplier nation with separate tables for the Western countries and the Eastern bloc nations. Again it should be noted that increasing and decreasing quantities axe based on the number of transactions effected rather than their monetary values. The determinations of transfer levels is also relative, and is based on the number of transfers undertaken. Blank boxes within the matrix indicate an insufficient number of transactions on which to make an analysis.
The number of transfers effected by the Eastern bloc nations, with the exception of the Soviet Union, are siglilificantly less flian the number of transactions involving the non-Communist countries.
The first table is intended to indicate primary emphasis (enipliases) of the transfer activity over the six year time span. The second table






8

in each section is designed to show changes in the levels of transfer activity. Upward pointing axrows denote an increase in the number of transactions effected over the six years. Downward arrows designate a decline and the horizontal lines indicate that the level of activity has remained relatively constant over time. The third table relates the relative intensity of the transactions undertaken. The comparisons are made within a single receiving nation and between the supplier countries, that is, Britain took an active role in technology transfer to Iran in relation to Belgium's sporadic participation in transfer aCtjV4 t-N-. The symbols used are as follows: an "11" denotes a high (relative) level of transactions in the transfer process; an "-NP indicates a medium level of activity; and an "L" expresses a low number of transfers effected.
These matrices demonstrate the emphasis placed by the Middle Eastern nations on industrialization and also indicate the sources of military assistance. They suggest a pattern of increasing levels of technology transfer originating in the West. The number of transactions by the Eastern countries are also increasing in regard to Iraq and Libya and to some extent Algeria. However, transfer activity by the Communist nations is declining markedly to Egypt and to some extent to Iran and Aloeria.











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TABLE 2.-CHANGES IN THE LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ACTIVITY BY THE WESTERN NATIONS TO
THE MIDDLE EASTERN OPEC COUNTRIES AND EGYPT AS A FUNCTION OF TIME FOR THE PERIOD 1970-75

Abu Saudi
Dhabi Algeria Egypt Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Qatar Arabia

United States --------------- 11 t ---------Belgium ---------------Britain ----------- ;f t
Canada -------------------- --------------------- -----------------------------------------------Denmark------- -------France --------------------- -t t
Holland ---------------------------------------I taly ----------------------- t t I ---------- t ---------Japan ---------------------- t t t -------------------- t
Spa' -------------------Swed n -------------------- -------------------Switzerland ------- ----------------West Germany-------------- t ---------Key:
t-Increasing levels.
relatively constant.
Blanks indicate an insufficient number of transfers to ana.yze.

TABLE 3.-DEGREE OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ACTIVITY BY THE WESTERN NATIONS TO THE MIDDLE EASTERN
OPEC COUNTRIES AND EGYPT AS A FUNCTION OF TIMt FOR THE PERIOD 1970-75

Abu Saudi
Dhabi Algeria Egypt Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Qatar Arabia

United States (1) ------- High----- Medium_ High----- ------- Medium_ Low ----- ------- H igh.
Belgium --------- Q) ------- Low ----- (1) ------- Low ----- ------- (1) ------- (1) ------- ------- (1).
Britain ----------- High----- High----- H igh ----- High----- Medium-- High----- Medium-- High----- High.
Canada---------- Q) ------- Low----- (1) ------- (1) ------- (1) ------- (1) ------- (1)
Denmark --------- (1) ------- (1) ------- (1) ------- (1) ------- (1) ------- (1) ------France ----------- (1) ------- High----- High----- High----- High----- Low ----- High----- (1) ------- Medium.
Holland---------- Q) ------- (1) ------- (1) ------- (1) ------- (1) ------- (1) ------- (1) ------- (1) ------- (9Italy ------------- (1) ------- Medium_ Low----- Medium-- Medium-- (1) ------- Medium-- ------- Low.
Japan ----------- Q) ------- High----- Low ----- Medium-- Medium-- Low ----- (I) ------- ------- Medium.
Spain ------------ Q) ------- Low ----- (1) ------- Low ----- ------- ------- ------- 0.
Sweden---------- (1) ------- Low----- (1) ------- ------- Low----- ------- ------- ------Switzerland ------ Low----- ------- Low ----- ------- ------West Germany---- Q) ------- High----- High----- Medium-- Low----- Medium-- ------- Medium.

I Insufficient number of transfers to analyze.

TABLE 4 -NATURE OF THE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ACTIVITY BY THE EASTERN BLOC NATIONS TO THE
MIDDLE EASTERN OPEC COUNTRIES AND EGYPT FOR THE PERIOD 1970-75

Abu Saudi
Dhabi Algeria Egypt Iran I raq Kuwait Libya Qatar Arabia

U.S.S.R -------------------- Indus- Indus- Indus- I rri ga- Mix'----- Arms -----------------------trial. trial. trial. tion,
oil,
arms.
Bulgaria ------------------- Mix 1 --------------- Indus- Mix I --------------- Mix I ------------------------trial.
China -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Czechoslovakia ------------ Mix Indus- Indus -------------------------------------------------trial. trial.
East Germany --------------- Indus- Indus ---------- Mix I --------------------------------------------trial. trial.
Hungary ------------------- Mix'----- Mix --------------- Indus ---------- Mix 1 ------------------------trial,
oil.
Poland --------------------- Mix' ----- Mix --------------- Machin- Mix'----- Mix' ------------------------ery,
industrials.
Rumania ------------------- Mix'----- Mix'----- Mix' -------------------------- Mix I -----------------------Yugoslavia --------------------------- Mix'----- Mix'----- Power _. Irrigation_ Power -------------------irrigation.

I Mix-a mixture of technologies, not one predominant.







TABLE 5. THE LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ACTIVITY BY THE EASTERN BLDG NATIONS TO THE MIDDLE
EASTERN OPEC COUNTRIES AND EGYPT AS A FUNCTION OF TIME FOR THE PERIOD 1970-75

Abu Saudi
Dhabi Algeria Egypt Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Qatar A raDia

U.S.S. R_ -11 t
Bul garia ---------China -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Czechoslovakia- -------------------------------------------------East Germany--------------- t ---------- t ---------------------------------------Hungary------------------- 4 ---------- t ---------- t
Poland --------------------- t
t
Yugoslavia --------------------------- -------------------Key:
=increasing levels of technology transfer.
= relatively constant levels of technology transfer.
=decreasing levels of technology transfer.

TABLE 6.-DEGREE OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ACTIVITY BY THE EASTERN BLOC NATIONS TO THE MIDDLE
EASTERN OPEC COUNTRIES AND EGYPT AS A FUNCTION OF TIME FOR THE PERIOD 1970-75

Abu Saudi
Dhabi Algeria Egypt I ran I raq Kuwait Li bya, Qatar Arabia

U S S R_ ------- Medium-- High----- Medium_ High----- Low ------ Low----- ------- -----Bulgaria --------- ------- Medium-- (1) ------- Low ----- Medium_ (1) ------- Low----- ------- -----China------------ ----------------- (1) ------- 0 ------- (1) ------- (1) ------- (1) ------- (1) ------- (1) -----Czechoslovakia --- ------- Low ----- Low ----- Low - - (1) ------- ------- ------- ------- -----East Germany ----- ------- Low ----- Low ------ ------- High----- ------- ------- (1) ------- -----Hungary --------- Q) ------- Low ----- Med i um-_ ------- Low ----- (I)--- -_ -_ Low----- ------- -----Poland ----------- ------- Low ----- Low ----- Low ----- Low----- Low ----- -----Rumania --------- ------- Low ----- Low ----- Low----- (1) ------- (1) ------- Low_ -_ ------- -----Yugoslavia------- ------- Q) ------- Low ----- Low ----- Low----- Low ----- High----- -----, Insufficient number of transfers to analyze.















S1'IX-YEAR REVIEWS
The following are reviews of technology transfer activity to each of Zthe nine middle eastern nations over the six years from 1970 to 1975. They are general in character and delineate the overall trends which have developed. More detailed information on which these analyses are based is provided in the subsequent section.

ABU DHABI
Technology transfer to Abu Dhabi has been minimal over the six years. That which has occurred has been effected primarily between Abu Dhabi and non-Communist countries. Britain was the major source of technical assistance with American involvement developing mainly in 1975. Due to an increase in population brought about by rapid immigration, interest in the areas of power and communications technology transfer arose as shortages developed.
Oil related technology was imported to improve and develop the nation's primary source of income. France and the United States provided military technology -as an increasing interest in arms technology developed over the six year period. Irrigation projects were also sought to foster improved water supplies and land use. In contrast to the other Middle Eastern nations, there was no concerted effort to increase the industrial capacity of the country.

ALGERIA
The major thrust of technology transfer to Algeria was focused on increasing and improving the industrial capacity of that country. Mainly an agricultural nation, the 1970-73 and the 1974-77 Four-Year Plans both emphasized the development of an industrial base and the promotion of the capital-intensive sector. There was heavy investment in oil pipelines, processing plants and tankers. The iron and steel industries, essential to the improvement of other industries, were the focus of transfer activity over the entire six years. The Algerians were willing to promote economic cooperation with any state regardless of its political ideology or persuasion, and thus transfer activity involv-ed both Communist and non-Communist nations.
In 11970 Britain and France were the major suppliers of technology to Algeria. But the following year, their involvement dropped off dramatically as problems arose between the two countries and Algeria over the nationalization of oil interests. The total amount of transfer activity from those countries declined. At the same time, attention was given to the establishment of joint commissions and committees, especially with the Communist countries. The involvement of the United States increased( in 1972 at the -same time that agreements and protocols between Algeria and the Eastern bloc countries prolif eratecl.
(132)





14

A large increase in transfer activity took place in 1973. The United States and Britain were heavily involved in providing Algeria with technical expertise. Japan emerged as a major source of technology transfer. Agreements continued to be signed with the Communist countries to provide for technical, trade, economic and industrial cooperation. The following yeax, activity by the Western nations increased with a concentration on development loans from Britain and the U.S. Industrial technology transfer continued to be the major thrust of Algerian interest, with a growing involvement in communications technology; 1975 saw the reinforcement of these trends.
EGYPT
Egypt is not a member of OPEC, but is a major recipient of technology transfer to the Middle East. Egypt is also an important source of influence in the region. These factors coupled with the possibilities of third party technology transfer, make a study of transfer activity to Egypt essential. The period from 1970 to 1972 was a time of increasing dependence by Egypt on the Soviet Unio4 and, to a lesser extent, the East European states. The transfers effected during that period and the large number of protocols and agreements signed are illustrative of this. However, in 1973 the amount of transfer activity declined. The expulsion of Russian technicians the previous year, while it did not cause a total Soviet/Egyptian split, strained relations, a factor that contributed to the lag in transfers the following year. That same year the Western nations increased their involvement in the provision of industrial technology to Egypt.
As a result of the 1973 Arab-Israeliwar, relations between Egypt and the West improved. In the aftermath of the war, there was an increase in Western and Japanese involvement in technology transfer, beginning in 1974. The United States expanded its transfer activity, especially in 1975. At the same time, there was a corresponding decrease in the acquisition of technology from the Eastern bloc countries.
The principal thrust of technology transfer has been towards the improvement and expansion of the'Industrial sector of the Egyptian economy. Oil technology was a factor in 1971, but gave way to an emphasis on industrial processing plants. In 1974 nuclear technology transfer emerged as a factor. The acquisition of military technology gained in importance in 1975 when the British, French and Russians supplied armaments.
IRAN
Iran has actively sought technology transfer over the six-year span covered by this study. Close ties have been maintained with the Western countries as the Iranians have attempted to improve their industrial base. Oil is the major industry and the reserves of natural gas are plentiful, second only to those of the Soviet Union. Nevertheless, the Iranians are attemDting to become an industrial power in anticipation of the time when their oil resources are depleted. The development of raw materials, including petrochemicals, has been encouraged. Communications technology has been fostered to compensate for the transportation-related problems brought on by the topography of the country.






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The primary thrust of technology transfer activity to Iran was in the development of industry and a viable p wer system. The events surrounding the 1973 war led to an increase in transfer in 1974, especially by the Western nations. That year, nuclear technology as well as military assistance and hardware became prominent in technology transfer. Transfer activity accelerated again in 1975 along the same lines as the previous year, but with an increased concentration on shipping and Rort technology. Britain and the United States have become the principal suppliers of technology to Iran and her primary sources of military technology. IRAQ

Iraq is a traditionally agricultural country with a small population. Because only six percent of the land is potentially arable, there is an extended interest in flood controli- water storage and irrigation to insure the most productive use of the land. Due to the small size of the population, Iraq is not overly anxious to promote industrialization because of concern that it may overextend the population's working capacity. Whereas a large population needs the support provided by industrialization, Iraq does not have such needs and the lack of skilled employees serves as a barrier to increased industrialization. Starting in 1973 and subsequent to the Arab oil boycott, there was an added emphasis on industrial technology, but the six-year survey shows that oil, irrigation and power-related technology transfer received the primary emphasis. In 1972 and beyond, communications technology also became a concern for transfer activity from the West.
Over the years, friendly relations have continued between Iraq and the Eastern bloc nations, especially the Soviet Union. The U.S.S.R. is the primary supplier of military equipment and the major source of the transferred technology. Poor relations have existed between Iraq and the United States, and the amount of transfer activity reflects this state of affairs. Since 1974 the most pronounced increase in transfer activity was by Japan.
After the Arab oil boycott, the amount of technology transfer to Iraq *increased substantially. The country was opposed to OPEC's policies of oil production cuts and, instead, increased their sales to friendly countries, while raising the price of the oil sold. The increased revenues resulting from this action have stimulated the increase in transfer activity as the government attempted to expend the accumu.lating funds. Thus, the growth of a modest industrial base was encourazed and the generation and consumption of electricity increased.
In 1970 lonly, i small amount of technology was acquired by Iraq and the major portion originated in the Soviet Union." The emphasis was on oil related technology, a. situation that continued through the following year. A growing interest *in power generation and irrigation was also manifest. Technology transfer *in 1972 did not differ significantly from the previous years. The Communist countries continued to domiate the transfer activities, but the West became involved *in communications transfer.
1973 saw a decline 'in the amount of technology transferred although the areas of concentration continued to follow the trends established the previous years-including oil, *industrial, and communication-,, technology. An increase in transfer activity occurred the following






16

year. In 1974 there was increased participation in the transfer process by both the Communist and non-Communist countries, especially Japan and France. Again the primary areas of transfer were industry, communications, oil and irrigation. In 1975 the amount of technology transfer activity continued to expand, with the increase being greatest from the Western nations. There was no change in emphasis regarding the types of technology transferred.

KUWAIT
Kuwait is a desert country with a sparse water supply. Until the discovery of oil reserves, the country did not have a developed economy. Now it relies on the oil industry for its economic well-being. A recent increase in population has precipitated a need for increased public works, and a survey of technology transfer shows a continuing concern for the acquisition of technology in the, areas of irrigation, power and shipping.
The amount of technology transferred to Kuwait was small over the six-year span, but a marked increase is discernable in 1974. The country played a leading role in the oil embargo following the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, and the increase in transfer after its termination shows a determination to diversify the economy through deals tied to the exchange of oil. In 1974 arms technology emerged as a candidate for transfer, a situation which was reinforced the following year by the supply of military hardware from the United States, Britain, France and the Soviet Union. Industrial technology transfer constituted a major force in 1975.
LIBYA
Libya had an agriculturally based economy until the discovery of oil. Because of the and nature of much of the country and the iinportance attached to agriculture, there has been a continuous interest in irrigation technology. Today the oil industry plays a major role in the country's economy, although agriculture still receives a large share of the government's attention. The afterinath of the 1973 Arab-Israeli war showed the value of using oil as an *inducement for foreign investment in the Libyan economy. Until the 1973-74 period, there was only a small manufacturing sector in the country, but through the use of oil-for-technology transactions and contracts, mainly With West European firms, there has been a concerted effort to diversify the economic base.
Libya has not formed a close relationship with either Communist or non-Communist countries. The involvement of any country in the technology transfer process appears to depend on what can be achieved in return. The recent efforts to diversify the economy are seen as a precautionary measure for the time when oil reserves run out. The Three Year Plan, which extended from March 1972 through March 1975, called for the development and growth of the economy in terms of industry, power, housing, transportation and communications. The transfer activity during those years reflects the emphasis contained in this plan.
The amount of transfer effected remained relatively constant between 1970 and 1973. During that tiane there were a number of disputes





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over oil rights and political intervention by Libya (especially on behalf of Britain and Italy), which may have been responsible for the small amount of transfer activity. Irrigation was the primary area of transfer, with France and the Soviet Union also supplying military hardware. In 1973 transfer rose slightly with a concentrated effort in the expansion of power capabilities. The number of transfers increased dramatically in 1974 and 1975. Oil-for-technology exchanges played a major part in the transfer activity, as the Libyans attempted to imnprove the industrial sector of the economy.

Q ATAR
Qatar is a small, barren area which has no suitable water supplies. The amount of technology transfer to the country was minimal. Oil is the major industry, but efforts have been underway to encourage, the development of other industries. Thus the primary emphasis of the transfer activity has been in the industrial arena, with a secondary concern for irrigation-related assistance. Britain has been the major source of transfer.
SAUDi ARABIA
Saudi Arabia is a country in the early stages of modern industrial development. Oil is the most important industry and the country produces more oil than any other Middle Eastern country. Thus the aim of the Saudi government is to diversify the economy with industry partly based on petro-chemicals. The increased money flow into the country, due to the rise in oil prices, has been used to finance this industrialization. Traditionally, the Saudis have enjoyed good relations with the 'West but these relations deteriorated with the 1973 October war and the resulting oil boycott. However, the Saudi government pressed for a resumption of oil supplies in early 1974 because there was concern about economic repercussions from those nations instrumental in Saudi development. As a result, the provision of oil became tied to industrial and economic support.
Technology transfer has only occurred between the Saudis and the Western nations. The level of activity was low until 1973, but had increased enormously by 1975. Efforts were concentrated in the areas of irrigation, communications, power, and industrial technology )y. Industrial technology received its greatest emphasis in 1975 although it was evidently of concern over the entire six years. Arms and military assistance were provided by the French, the British, and the Am ericans.
The primary concern of technology transfer activity in 1970 was irrigation. The next, year, communications technology received attenltion along with irrigation-related activity. In 1972 there was a continuation of the level of transfer which had been established the previous year, again, with the emphasis on communications. Th'lroughout this time, Britain was the principal source of technology transfer. The amount of transfer undertaken began to increase in 1973 and 19J74 until in 1975 a large jump in activity occurred. Uniited States iinvolvement increased significantly in 1974 and continued through 1975.















YEr1[2AR-BY-YEAR ANALYSIS
This section provides a year-by-year analysis of the technology transfer activity over the six years from 1970 through 1975. It is designed to provide a discussion of transfer within each year and as a function of time. It includes most of the basic information from which the preceding section was derived. The introductory paragraphs for each of the nine countries-delineating the physical and economic nature of each nation-are based upon information contained in the National Basic.Intelligence Faetbook published in January 1976 by the Central Intelligence Agency and Countries of the World published in 1974 by the Gale Research Co. in Detroit which includes the official background notes of the U.S. Department of State.

Anu DHABI
Abu Dhabi is one of the United Arab Emirates, a federation of seven states on the eastern Arabian Peninsula. Almost all desert, Abu Dhabi has large petroleum reserves which account for the major portion of its industry and exports. The lack of water makes agriculture difficult, but there are efforts to foster irrigation to improve agricultural development. (Precise figures can not be provided because they are given for the UAE as a whole rather than by state.)
Technology transfer activity to Abu Dhabi remained at a Minimal level throughout the six years studied. Britain was the major source of transfer effected with none originating in the Communist countries. Interest was primarily in the areas of power, oil and communications technology. Irrigation related projects were also undertaken with assistance from outside Abu Dhabi.
1970.-In 1970 Britain provided for oil storage tanks, a power station and the supply of radio-telephone communications equipment. Japan contracted for the construction of an oil export terminal and an oil refinery study.
1971 .-The following year, Britain agreed to furnish a desalination plant, a g~as-sweetening unit and a crude oil hydrogen sulphide removal plant. Holland provided a radio transmitter.
1972.-In 1972, Britain contracted to build a harbor and another desalination plant, and for the provision of telephone equipment. France agreed to construct an off-shore oil facility and to supply Mirage fighter planes.
1973.-1973 saw Britain increase her involvement in oil related technology transfer by providing for the construction of a refinery, storage tanks, and an off-shore water injection and production facility. British firms also contracted for a power network and a port breakwater. A development loan was made available to be applied towards '(-he construction of an oil refinery. Japan furnished nineteen tankers.
1974.-An increase in technology transfer activity occurred in 1974. Power related technology received added attention. Britain (1.9)





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furnished two electric generating turbines, France installed power cables and Switzerland agreed to construct two transmission stations. Britain also provided for telephone exchanges and another water injection system for oil recovery. A petro-chemical complex and a gas liquefaction and bottling plant were built by France who also furnished thirty-two Mirage jet fighters. Japan provided for four color television studies.
1975.-The increase in technology transfer activity continued in 1975 with Britain again leading in transfers undertaken. Irrigation technology transfers were furnished by France which provided a desalination plant, and Poland which provided a water pumping station and equipment. The United States signed an economic cooperation agreement and furnished military hardware worth $10 million including two Hercules C-130 transport aircraft. Britain contracted for the construction of a sulphur pelletising plant, the installatioD of an air traffic control radar and information system, and the provision of two electricity generators and a supertanker.
ALGERIA .
Algeria is located in the northwestern section of Africa borderm*g on the Mediterranean Sea. Its population is approximately 17 million the majority of which are engaged in agricultural pursuits. The 1974 GNP was $12.1 billion with exports totalling $4,600 million and imports totaling $4,049 million. Crude petroleum accounted for 87 percent of the exports. Capital goods comprised, 35 percent of the
S, semi-finished goods 28 percent, and foodstuffs 23 percent.
The country comprises 950,000 square miles of which 3 percent is cultivated, 16 percent is pasture, and 80 percent is desert or urban. The major industries are petroleum, natural gas, mining, petrochemical and other light industries. Forty-seven percent of the nation derives its income from agriculture, 8 percent from industry, and the remaining workers are employed by the military, the police or the civil service, etc.
1970.-1970 was an active year for technology transfer from the Western countries to Algeria. Britain and France provided for the major portion of the industrial technology transferred. Among the types of industrial facilities designed, built, equipped and operated by these two countries were a paper plant, a rolling mill, two. liquid petroleum gas recovery plants, an oxygen plant, a gas separation plant, an auto plant and a phosphate-cleansing plant. Two development loans were made available for the construction of a gas separation plant and two gas recovery facilities. A feasibility study for an aluminum smelting complex was performed by a British company. Other industrial facilities provided by European countries included three cement plants, two canming plants and a motorcycle manufacturing facility. Japan established a gas processing plant and the United States provided the technical expertise for an agricultural machinery manufacturing facility.
Interest in ships and ports was manifested in numerous instances of technology transfer. Port development projects were undertaken with expertise from West Germany, Spain and France. At the time same, ships were built by Spain and France for use by the Algerians. Spain






AM1

provided a methane tanker and France agreed to sign an order for twenty trawlers.
Other instances of transfer came in the areas of aviation, machinery, power, mining, transportation and technical training and assistance. The United States furnished two Boeing 727's and twenty-nine diesel-electric locomotives and contracted to perform subterranean exploration. A development loan was made available, for the purchase of locomotives. Britain provided heaters for a petrochemical complex and machinery for a paper mill. Advisory, services for the exploitation of coal deposits were also undertaken by British firms. France contracted to build telephone exchange centers and a power station. Equipment for a thermal power station was furnished by a French firm in conjunction with a Czechoslovakian company. Six technological institutes were established by the French and French teachers and technical advisors were made- available to the Algerians.
The Eastern bloc countries participated in similar types of transfer but to a decidely lesser extent. However, the number of agreements and protocols signed with Algeria far exceeds that of the Western countries. Trade agreements were ratified between Algeria and the U.S.S.R. and Bulgaria. Bulgaria also signed a technical cooperation agreement. Yugolsavia and Poland signed trade protocols. Algeria and Yugoslavia established a Joint Committee on Scientific and Technical Cooperation and the Algerian-Buloparian Joint Committee on Economic, Technical and Scientific Cooperation held its sixth session.
The Soviet Union furnished cargo helicopters, and oil rigs along with training on their use. Aid for the construction of an iron-ore concentration plant was provided. Bulgaria made available a development loan for industrial and agricultural projects. Czechoslovakia, in conjunction with France, provided equipment for a thermal power station.
The construction of an engineering complex was agreed to by East Germany who also furnished trawlers and locomotives and contracted f or the development of a program for the utilization of coal reserves. Hungary furnished a cannmg factory and Rumania provided technical aid in oil exploration and the training of Algerian oil field technicians. 0
1971 .-The amount of technology transferred appeared to decline in 1971 as compared with the previous year. This was especially, y true in regard to transfer from British and French firms. Industrialization continued to be the basis of the major efforts in transfer. Industrial facilities and industrial production plants were contracted for by the Algerians from the Western nations and Japan. Among the types of facilities acquired were two gas liquefaction plants from the United States, a pipe plant from Italy and a building materials facility from Sweden. West Germany furnished a battery manufacturing plant, an electrical goods factory, and a diesel and tractor production facility. A petrochemical complex was, constructed by Japan, and Britain agreed to build a cement plant.
In additional transfer tran actionss, the United States furnished trains, Boeing airplanes and a development loan for the purchase of g .opbysical exploration equipment. The supply of ball valves for cras pipelines was pro-6ded by Britain, and West Germany performed a ]pollution study and contracted for the supply of four cargo slips.





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Transfer between Algeria and the Communist bloc countries was sparse and the principal activity consisted of signing various technical and trade agreements, and the establishment of joint commissions. Hungary and Czechoslovakia ratified technical cooperation agreements while Hungary and China signed trade agreements. The Bulgyarian,-Algerian Mixed Commission on Economic, Scientific, and Technical Cooperation held its seventh session. A Hungarian-Algerian Scientific and Technical Cooperation Committee was established as well as a Joint Commission with the Soviet Union on Scientific and Technical Cooperation.
The U.S.S.R. entered into a large number of irrigation projects calling for the building of twenty-six dams throughout the country. Technical assistance involving hydraulics experts was provided by both the Soviet Union and Rumania. A development loan to be used in the building of dams was made available by China.
Poland signed an agreement for the design of a shipyard and Rumania contracted for the supply of locomotives. The Soviet Union furnished a development loan to increase the capacity of one of the Algerian steel facilities and signed a contract for the performance of geological surveys to determine the mineral wealth of the country.
1972.-U.S. involvement in the transfer of technology to Algeria increased in 1972, especially through the provision of development loans by which Algeria could finance the acquisition of new technologies. Development loans were advanced for use in agricultural and industrial technology, gas pipeline feasibility studies and in aviation.
The level of 'technology transfer from the Western nations was again low following the lead of the previous year. The amount of industrial technology transferred was significantly smaller than before. British firms contracted for the construction of a paper mill, and a French company agreed to the building of an auto plant. Gas and oil pipeline technology was sought. The United States undertook a gas pipeline feasibility study, Britain contracted for a pier pipeline, France agreed to the provision of a telecommunications system for a pipeline, and Italy furnished the construction of two gas pipelines.
There was a new interest in computer technology which was -provided by American and British firms. The U.S. furnished Boeingaircraft and locomotives while contracting for an irrigation project. Italy supplied trains and Belgium signed a technical aid agreement. Spai and Algeria ratified an economic cooperation agreement.
Soviet involvement in technology transfer to Algeria continued to expand. Technical assistance was made available in the area of mining, and a hydro-electric power plant was designed and built. The construction of a mercury refining facility was contracted for as was the improvement of a steel plant. Hungary and China worked on irrigation projects and Bulgaria furnished tractors.
Algeria continued to sign a large number of agreements with the COMECON countries. Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union ratified trade agreements. Hungary ratified a trade protocol, in accordance with the 1971 trade agreement, as well as a scientific cooperation agreement. Czechoslovakia entered into an economic cooperation agreement and East Germany into a technical cooperation agreement. More joint committees were established. Romania set up a Joint Commission for Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation as





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did the U.S.S.R. East Germany established an Economic, Scientific and Technical Committee.
1978.-In 1973 an increase in tl ,e technology transfer effort took place especially on behalf of the Western nations. Industrialization again was the key motivation. Industrial processing facilities that were acquired included a hydrocarbon plant from the United States and two liquified natural gas facilities from Britain. British companies also provided for consulting work on a petrochemical complex and a development loan to cover the costs. The construction of a foundry and four brick and tax plants were also undertaken. Japan agreed to provide an additional petrochemical complex and West Germany contracted for the building of an iron parts plant and an agricultural machinery factory. Another petrochemical complex was furnished by Italy and Switzerland undertook the development of a brass foundry.
Loans for development projects grew in number from the previous years. The U.S. provided loans for transportation, drilling, irrigation and aviation, among others. Great Britain advanced a loan for a petrochemical complex, Japan for a communications project and Canada for general development. The area of commu-ni nations technology also received emphasis in 1973. Earth satellite stations were built by the United States and Japan. Telephone equipment and expertise were made available by Sweden, and Japan agreed to provide another satellite station as part of a telecommunications network.
Technology transfer to Algeria from the United States again increased. In addition to the above mentioned transactions, American firms furnished locomotives, natural gas tankers, Boeing airplanes, mineral exploration equipment and water drilling equipment. Britain also increased the amount of transfer activity in which it participated. Additional transfers included metal work machinery, pipes and the construction of twenty bridges. France furnished power hammer machinery and numerous vans. A power station was built by a Swedish company and Italy provided tractors, trains and a gas pipeline.
Agreements and protocols continued to proliferate between Algeria and the Eastern bloc countries. A scientific protocol was signed with Russia, trade agreements were ratified with Romania and with Poland, and an industrial cooperation agreement was signed between Algeria and Hungary. Both Romania and Hungary signed scientific and technical cooperation agreements. In terms of committees that met or were established during the year, Romania set up a Joint Commission for Economic Cooperation, and Hungary instituted a Joint Algerian-Hungarian Cooperation Commission.
Industrial technology transfer which originated in the Communist countries included a steel manufacturing plant from the Soviet Union, a textile mill from Poland and machinery for a, canning factory from Hungary. Other transfers from the Eastern nations *included drilling equipment and instruction on its use furnished by the U.S.S.R.
An international bank development loan was secured and the United Nations provided technical training in Algeria.
1974.-A marked increase occurred in 1974 in the amount of technology transferred to Algeria from the Western countries, especially from Britain, the United States and West Germany. Communications related technology received increased emphasis. The United States and Japan agreed to provide fourteen earth satellite





24

stations, and West Germany provided the expertise for a telex center. France participated in the installation of telephone, cables and the establishment of telephone exchange centers as did Spain and Sweden. Japan set up a communications transmission network throughout Algeria.
Industrial technology continued to be transferred. A gas liquefaction plant, a plastics complex, and a chloride plant were among the industrial processes transferred. A paper pulp factory, equipment for an electronics plant, an incandescent light bulb complex, and four cement plants were all established with Western expert ise and participation. Technical assistance was provided by Britain on an iron and steel works project and on a gas liquefaction plant. The United States furnished assistance on computer utilization, geological studies, and technical training for electronic factory personnel. West Germany assisted in textile industry training and Japan provided technical aid to a locristic, control center.
Transfer also occurred in the areas of aviation with four U.S. Boeing airplanes and three Fokker F27 Friendship airplanes from Holland; in gas production technology with twelve turbine compressors and three compressor stations from Britain; in oiltechnology with a refinery from Italy; and in ships with a natural-gas tanker and four gas tankers from France. Machine related transfers included medical equipment, lift trucks, control systems, and industrial and mill equipment from Great Britain, and textile machinery from West Germany.
Development loans were secured from Britain for consulting work on iron and steel plants and on a gas liquefaction plant. The United States furnished development loans for agricultural development and the purchase of Boeing aircraft. At the same time a technical and scientific agreement was signed with Spain and an industrial, scientific, and technical cooperation agreement with Sweden was ratified. A Mixed Commission on Industrial, Scientific and Technical Cooperation was established with Sweden to administer the agreement.
The transfer activities of the Communist countries continued to focus on the ratification of agreements and the establishment of committees. Russia signed an economic and technical cooperation protocol and Bulgaria and Hungary ratified scientific and technical agreements. Czechoslovakia entered into a trade agreement and Bulgaria a trade p otocol. The U.S.S.R. set up a Permanent Intergovernmental Commission for Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation. The Algerian-Hungarian Intergovernmental Committee for Economics, Scientific and Technical Cooperation held its third meeting and the Bulgarian-Algerian Joint 'Commission held its ninth session.
Communication technologies were the principal form of technology transferred from the Eastern countries. Rumania and Hungary.furnished telecommunications equipment while East Germany provide d. telecommunications links. Rumania offered technical assistance in the field of communications. Hungary supplied the technical aid for the design and construction of two technical institutes and for the training of t e students. Rumania contracted for the building of a dam.
A World Bank development loan was provided for application to transportation and energy development.
1975.-Technology transfer activity continued to increase in 1915 following the trends established the previous year. The non-Commu-





25

Rist countries were the major sources of transfer -and they' concenli. treated their efforts on the areas of industrialization and communica.&. tions. The United States, France, West Germany and Japan were the most active in the transfer of technology.
The, focus of technology acquisition was industrial technology. The United States contracted for the construction of a rock salt refinery and for an ammonia plant in conjunction with France. French firm's, agreed to provide two cement plants and three textile plants along with a scrap iron processing plant, a coke-oven gas facility and a barytes processing plant. West Germany furnished numerous industrial facilities including a dynamite factory, a wood stripping plant and a box factory, a plaster plant, a paper mill and a synthetic leather facility. French companies also supplied a textile complex, two cleaning agent and bottling plants, and a steel rolling mill jointly with Japan. In addition, Japan furnished an auto plant and a cement factory. The expansion of an iron and steel complex was undertaken by British firms as was the construe-ion of a flour mill and the modernization of a food processing plant. Italy contracted for the construction and design of a tire plant, three detergent plants, two food processing facilities and a paper processing plant as well as the expansion of two flour mills. Sweden built two cereal mills, Switzerland supplied a food processing facility and Belgium furnished a paint factory.
In the area of communications, the United States provided for a telecommunications station and transmitter equipment. France furnished telephone equipment and West Germany supplied the expertise for a color television system. Japan was most involved in communications technology and provided an earth satellite ground station, a satellite telecommunications station, an antenna station and two Hertzien-type antenna stations. A telecommunications complex, a telephone equipment manufacturing plant and the installation of telephone lines were undertaken by Spain. Sweden furnished telecom. munications equipment and the installation of telephone lines.
The United States was involved in additional forms of technology transfer. Four Boeing airplanes were sold to Algeria, as was compacting equipment and a gas treatment plant. Water drilling equipment was provided for by American firms and the United States agreed to undertake water resource development.. Development loans were made available for computer equipment, aircraft purchases and earth telecommunications stations and equipment. French companies were involved in power related technology transfer through the provision of three power stations and numerous electricity generators. Electrical equipment and four high-pressure water injection stations for the recovery of oil were supplied. France also undertook the development of iron mines.
West Germany performed studies for mineral development projects and furnished gas turbines, electricity generators, and 1,200 buses, in addition to the above mentioned technology ies. Freighters and building machinery were supplied by Japan which also agreed to exploit Algerian iron ore reserves. Development loans were made to finance telecommunications projects and for the purchase of freighters. Britain contracted for the construction and design of an oil refinery in eonjlinction with Italy and offered technical assistance in that area. Other British companies furnished biscuit manufacturing equipment and low

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temperature insulation for a natural gas plant. Italy undertook road-. way design, while Sweden -provided 1,200 heavy trucks. Transformers were supplied by Belgium and Spain signed a technical agreement which provided for technical training in public health and medicine.
The Communist countries were also involved in industrial technology transfer but to a much lesser extent than the Western nations. The Soviet Union furnished a blast furnace for an Algerian iron and steel works and Hungary agreed to build. and equip two flour mills. East Germany contracted for the construction and design of a steel plant and an iron and steel foundry. An industrial complex, a pump manufacturing facility, and two canning factories were also provided by East German firms.
The Soviet Union signed two protocols both relating to financial, technical training and scientific cooperation. A scientific and technical cooperation agreement was also ratified. East Germany signed an economic,' industrial and scientific agreement, while Poland signed -a trade agreement, and Romania ratified a cultural and scientiflcr agreement.
Irrigation related activity was undertaken by Bulgaria which pro.k vided experts and studies for a series of irrigation projects, construction of -a dam, and work on another irrigation -project. Poland furnished transformers for a power network, undertook mineral exploration and the construction of a shipyard. East Germany provided technical traiig.
The World Bank furnished a development loan to be applied to rural development projects.
EGYPT
Egypt stretches over 368,200 square miles of country in northern Africa. Cultivated land comprises 2.8 percent of the country with 96.5 percent desert, waste or urban. The economy is basically agricultural with approximately half the population working in this sector. Cotton is the main cash crop. The 1974 GNP for Egypt was $9 billion and this is increasing at a rate of 4 to 5 percent since the 1973 Arab-Israeli war. Petroleum, chemicals, cement, food processing, textiles and construction are the major industries. Forty-five to fifty percent of the labor force is in agriculture, 10 percent is in industry, and 10 percent in,trade and finance. There is a shortage of skilled labor..
1970.-The Soviet Union was the principal supplier of technology to Egypt in 1970. A small but varied effort was made by the Western, nations, but there was no involvement by the United States. France~ provided expertise for two off-shore petroleum installations, Britain furnished insect control, health and pharmaceutical equipment and computers, and Japan participated in oil drilling and explorationl. Italian projects included the installation of a submarine cable, land reclamation work, and natural gas exploitation. .As stated above, the involvement of the U.S.S.R. in the transfer of technology was greater than that of the other countries involved in this study. Military technology in the form of SAM anti-aircraft missiles and military advisors were made available to the Egyptians. Additional technology transfer took place in the form of an artificial satellite tracking station, twenty Tuploev airplanes and two Antonowr planes, thirty-two ships, and technical aid for the construction of six





27

other ships, new oil rigs, and a steel complex. In addition, a trade protocol, an industrial protocol, a trade agreement and an economic agreement were all signed.
Numerous other agreements and protocols were ratified between the Eastern bloc and Egypt. East Germany signed three technical cooperation agreements, a trade agreement and a trade protocol. Czechoslovakia, Poland and Rumania ratified trade protocols and Hungary signed a trade agreement. Industrial technology transfer from Czechoslovakia provided a petrochemical complex-and equipment for the production of nitric acid. East German y furnished expertise in the building and design of a polyethylene plant and the establishment, of a technical center for the control of industrial production. A drinking water station was also provided by Czechoslovakia.
1971 .-1971 provided a continuation of the trends of the previous year. Non-Communist participation in technology transfer occurred on few occasions and was directed predominantly towards the support of oil related developments. Eight European countries and Japan furnished financing for the Sumned pipeline. The United States agreed to supply floating oil hose for the pipeline. France provided training for scientists and technicians on French petroleum equipment to be installed in Egrypt.
The Soviet ZnUnion continued to be the major source of technology transfer and assistance. Two electrification projects were undertaken as well as a series of major dams on the Nile. Technical training was made available for rural electrification projects. Twelve Illyushin-62 and Tupolev-154 airplanes were also furnished and the construction of an aluminium factory was begun. A trade cooperation agreement, an economic cooperation agreement, a technical cooperation agreement and a technical cooperation protocol were ratified.
Industrial technology transfer originated'in Bulgaria with the expansion of a ferrosilicon plant in Czechoslovakia with a petrochemical complex in Poland with a calcium-silicate brick and glass works, and in East Germany with a petrochemical complex. Mining assistance was provided by Rumania and Poland. A variety of machine and equipment transfers took place. Czechoslovakia provided automatic packaging machinery, Poland agreed to supply textile machines, Hungary furnished signaling equipment, and Yugoslavia participated in the building of a ship and the construction and design of an oil refinery.
The pattern of agreements between Egypt and the Communist bloc countries was reinforced. In addition to those signed by the Soviet, Union and mentioned above, trade protocols were ratified by Poland, Rumania, China, and East Germany. Hungary signed an agricultural cooperation agreement, a technical cooperation ag-reement, and two economic cooperation agreements. Poland ratified an industrial protocol and established an Egyptian-Polish Economnic and Techniical Cooperation Committee. The World Bank furnished two development loans; one for transportation and one for irrigation. The United Nations also provided a loan for general development in the area.
1972.-In 1972 technology acquisition continued on the same low level as before, but the emphasis appeared to be on industrial technology from the Eastern bloc countries. French participation began to increase from its previous low level. A sulphuric acid plant wiis furnished as well as computer systems and technical training in the





28a

'computer field. A scientific cooperation agreement was ratified which provided for collaboration in the areas of nuclear and solar energy. West Germany provided for the building and design of another sulphuric acid facility and Spain built a vehicle plant.
In other development areas, Britain contracted to provide telephone cables, while Italy furnished a development loan for the establishment of a telephone system. The United States supplied four Boeing airplanes, and Eng-land provided technical training in aviation. Japanese transfer centered on oil drilling facilities.
Industrial facilities built from technology ori ginating in the Communist countries included a sulphuric, acid plant from Rumania and a sanitary equipment and cast iron fittings factory from Czechoslovakia. East Germany furnished a prefabricated housing plant. A phosphorus processing facility, an aluminum plant, a textile mill, a glass and tile factory, and a cement plant to be built in Egypt were contracted for by the Soviet Union.
Other transfer activities involving the Eastern countries included ships and marine equipment from the U.S.S.R. and technical assistance in agricultural mechanization from East Germany. Trade agreements were made by Bulgaria and Russia. Trade protocols were ratified by Poland, Hungary and the Soviet Union. Bulgaria and Hungary signed agricultural cooperation protocols and Poland agreed to an industrial and technical protocol. The Polish-Egyptian Committee for Industrial Cooperation met in its third session and an East German-Egyptian Committee for Trade and Economic Cooperation 'was established.
An international development loan from Western Europe and Japan was furnished for the Sumed oil pipeline. The United Nations provided technical aid to f urther agricultural development.
1973.-The following year, 1973, saw a decline in the degree of transfer activity. The technology acquired was predominately industrial although the numbers were decidedly smaller than before from the European countries. British firms provided a weaving mill and technical assistance in the form of consultation work on a fertilizer plant. West Germany furnished a spinning Iand weaving machine plant, while France agreed to the building of an underground railroad system. A five year technical cooperation agreement was signed with West Germany.
Industrial facilities designed and constructed with technical expertise from the Communist countries included the expansion of an iron and steel complex from the U.S.S.R., twelve silicate concrete and brick factories from Poland, and nine sand brick factories from China. Additional transfer brought locomotives and industrial motors from the Soviet Union and crop spraying planes and electrical equipment from Poland.
Trade protocols were sined between Egypt and the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia. Rumania ratified an industrial protocol and established a Commission on Economic, Technical, and Scientific Cooperation. East Germany also signed an industrial cooperation
p rotocol and set up a, Joint Committee for Technical and Economic Cooperation. A scientific and technical cooperation protocol was agreed to by Hungary, and Yugoslavia signed an industrial agreement.








TheWorld Bank made a development loan available for application to sewer drainage project. Technical assistance in engineering, as
wel expertise for a miineral survey, was furnished by the United
1974.-1974~ saw an increased propensity towards the 'West in technology trtisfer activity. The events -following the October
Mide East War and the Arab oil boycott made it beneficial for the Western nations to increase the level of transfer undertaken. A new interest developed in4 nuclear technology, and 1974 saw the involvement of Canada, the U.S.S.R., and the emergence of the United States in this area. In June of that year, the, United States and Egypt agreed to the establishment of a Joint Cooperation Commission and to theO discussion of nuclear energy cooperation. Canada signed a nucleear cooperation agreement and contracted for the construction of a nuclear powerplant. The Soviet Union agreed in principle to provide at nuclear reactor. 1
Additional Non-Commnunist, technology transfer came from the United States in the form of electrical equipment and DC-9 airplanes. French companies provided for traffic control equipment, power station equipment, a petrochemical complex, a truck and bus manufacturing plant, Mirage jet fighter airplanes, and a development loan for the purchase of these technologies. West Germany furnished a powerplant, Italy an oil pipeline, and Britain signed a technical cooperation agreement.
The Soviet Union was active in transferring industrial technologies inu the form of a cement plant, a tile factory, and an iron plant. Equipment and machinery for a steel plant and the technical expertise and equipment for the expansion of an aluminum factory were also furnish~ed by the U.S.S.R. An industrial agreement was ratified and assistance was provided in the field of minig.
Yugoslavia furnished the machinery and technical expertise for subterranean water resource and phosphate development. Rumania provided assistance ini transportation while Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia ratified trade protocols. Poland signed an industrial protocol and a scientific and technical agreement.
The World Bank made-a development loan available for canal development, and the United Nations provided technical assistance fo~r an electronic R. & D. center.
1I975.-I-J 1975, there continued to be an increase in technologyT transfer activity, especially by the Western nations. The United States, Bitain, and France were the major suppliers of technology transferreK to Egypt. Britain, France, and Russia provided military technology. Britain furnished Hawk fighter-trainers, helicopters, anti-aircraft missiles, Chieftati tanks, and Gazell helipeoters, in conjunction with France. The French provided a variety of military equipment, including Mirage jots, and technical expertise in setting up an arm& industry in Egypt9 They also furnished helicopters in conjunction with Britain. L1Gfgtr eemd vial oEytb h
Soviet Union. I iheswr aeavial oEytb h
The United States and Egypt set up a Joint Committee for Investment. U.S. banks also furnished a development loan of $80 million for industrial and agricultural equipment and a loan of $40 million for








electrification and roads. An oil-fired powerplant and ten Boeing airplanes were made available. Technical assistance in the form of grants for technical consultants, feasibility studies, and land development was furnished as was an aluminum sheet plant. British firms supplied power generating and lighting equipment for the railroads and undertook the -design of a vehicle tunnel under the Suez canal. A metering station for an oil terminal and machine tools were furnished by British companies, and a trade protocol was signed.
The French agreed to supply a nuclear powerplant, to perform an oil resources survey, and to design and construct a brick factory and a prefabricated housing plant. Seven hundred trucks were furnished and a development loan was made available for a power station, communi-L cations work, and chemical projects. In the area of communications, French companies provided technical training and information exchange in telecommunications research. West Germany agreed to furnish commercial vehicles and a development loan to be applied to a transformer station, an agro-industrial complex and irrigation projects.
A sea platform and pipeline were provided by Italy, while the Netherlands agreed to the establishment of a television manufacturing plant. Denmark contracted for the construction of a cement plant. Austria provided technical expertise on building a tunnel under the Suez canal and Sweden signed an -economic, industrial and technical agreement. Japan furnished a $50 million development loan and contracted for the construction of a motorcycle. plant, a car factory and tram cars. Various other technical, economic, industrial, and/or trade agreements were signed.
In addition to the delivery of military hardware,' the Soviet Union ratified a trade agreement and two economic and industrial protocols. Poland, Rumania and Czechoslovakia signed trade agreements with Egypt. East Germany signed an industrial and technical agreement as did Yugroslavia.
The World Bank furnished a development loan to be applied to the improvement of the railroad network and for a transportation study.

IRAN
Iran is located in southwestern Asia bordering the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf. Of its 636,000 square miles, 14 percent is employed in agriculture, another 16 percent can be cultivated with irrigation and 51 percent is desert or urban. The economy is primarily agricultural with oil being the principle industry. The 1974 GNP was $36.4 billion and growing. Exports totaled $24 billion, 97 percent of which were
p etroleum related. Non-military imports amounted to $5.7 billion. Forty-one percent of the labor force is engaged in agriculture and 20 percent in manufacturing. There is a shortage of skilled labor.
Iran is one of the OPEC nations most involved in the transfer of technology. There was, and is, a great willingness on the part of the Iranian government to promote the transfer of technical expertise to that country. There is a marked increase i the extent of technology transfer over the six years covered in this study, as the following analysis shows.






31

1970.-Much of the transfer that occurred in 1970 resulted from transactions between Iran and Great Britain. Power generating equipment, radio equipment, commercial vehicles, desalination and medical equipment as well as lightweight aircraft refueling vehicles and trailers and extension of an auto plant were all provided by British firms. Oil and gas, related technologies were advanced through the transfer of pipeline pumps, the construction of a lube oil plant, the cathodic protection of the trans-Iranian gas pipeline transmisson main and gathering lines, and the construction of a gas compressor station. A variety of military equipment was furnished including lowlevel missiles and several mobile air defense radar and communications systems. A development loan was made available for various development and industrial projects.
Communications technology was a major item of technology transfer in 1970, especially from the non-Communist countries. Japan provided for the establishment of a communications research center and was part of an international telecommunications group which included the United States and West Germany and which contracted to build a communications network covering the whole of Iran. Canada furnished a computerized supervisory system and microwave facilities for a telecommunications network.
The United States made available two development loans, one for the purchase of diesel electric locomotives from an American company and the other for the financing of part of a telecommunications network. Transport helicopters and Boeing airplanes were also furnished. A contract to design, engineer and build a lube oil complex was agreed to.
The other participants in the technology transfer process included Italy who made available sixteen helicopters to the Army and Navy and revived the Iranian-Italian Chamber of Commerce. French companies provided the expertise and equipment for two dams, while West Germany, in addition to the above mentioned communications project, provided a development loan for industry. Belgium signed an industrial cooperation agreement.
The amount of technology transferred from the Eastern bloc countries was small and varied. The Soviet Union furnished a development loan for use in the communication and transportation areas. The Soviet Union also agreed to the development and expansion of several ports and ratified a trade agreement. Bulgaria signed a trade protocol to provide for the supply of crop spraying aircraft. Poland ratified an economic and trade cooperation agreement under which she would supply three complete industrial plants, and a five year trade agreement to provide for a joint project to build various manufacturing plants. Poland further contracted for the production of concentrated zinc and signed a three year Irano-Polish Scientific and Technical Cooperation Agreement which involved the exchange of experts and training in industrial, technical and scientific fields. Czechoslovakia provided turbo-generators for a power station. Yugoslavia conducted a copper survey and won a contract for equipment, machinery and construction of numerous slaughterhouses.
1971.-kn 1971 there was a decrease in technology transfer activity from the previous year. The concentration of activity took place in






"n

the area of industrialization and included power development and development loans. Among those industrial facilities furnished aq
r at of the transfer process were a garbage processing plant from B~itain, an oil cracking plant and three pumping stations from Italy, rolling mills from West Germany, Switzerland and Japan and a carbon black production plant from the United States. Other industrial projects include a thermal power station built by British firms and power generation and transmission equipment from West Ger-. many. The United States provided development loans for the con, struction of a gas trunkline, an oil pipeline and a telecommunications network.
Other forms of transfer included gas trunkline compressors and a pickling and burnishing line for the treatment of coinage blanks from Britain, -and a refrigerator and cold storage ship from Belgium. Britain. also provided the military technology for an air defense system plus numerous tanks. An industrial cooperation protocol was signed between Iran and Belgium and an economic cooperation agreement was signed with Japan.
.The Communist countries signed numerous agreements but effected only a small amount of technology transfer. The U.S.S.R. furnished fishing boats, and building equipment, and ratified a technical cooperation agreement. Rumania signed an industrial cooperation protocol, an economic cooperation agreement, and a technical cooperation agreement on various water and electricity projects. A Joint Committee on Economic and Technical Cooperation met. A copper exploration project was undertaken and machinery and equipment for grain1 silos was furnished. Yugoslavia agreed to the construction of an oil refinery and set up a Joint Chamber of Commerce with Iran. Bulgaria ratified a trade agreement and an agricultural cooperation protocol, while Hungary agreed to three agro-industrial joint ventures.
The World Bank furnished two development loans; one for the expansion of a power network and the other for five development projects.
1972.-A large increase in the amount of technology transferred to IranR occurred in 1972, both from the Western countries and the Soviet Union. The United States and Great Britain4 were heavily involved in arms technology transfer and the primary thrust of the transfer activity was towards improving the industrial capabilities of Iran.
In the area of military technology, the United States provided aircraft, laser-guided bombs, and Cobra helicopters. Britain furnished missile equipped destroyers, tanks, reconnaissance vehicles, communications equipment, ships, patrol boats, mobile radio equipment and a hovercraf t.
Industrial development was furthered by a variety of technology transfers. British firms furnished a gas dehydration plant, a drum manufacturing plant, and power control equipment. Italy provided electrical equipment for a thermal power station and a hydrocracker for an oil refinery. Belgium agreed to construct and supply an oil refinery. Japanese companies furnished a petrochemical plant and a plasticiser plant, agreed to cooperate in industrial investment, and provided technical training for a telecommunications research center..







Otertypes of technology transfer took place. In addition to its
arsshipments, the United States established a Joint American,rnan Corporation for Economic Cooperation, provided a developmet loan and set up a trade development center. Britain provided bussa.sldge kiln, medical equipment and, jointly with France, two Cocrle plans. The A-nglo-Iranian Joint Economic Commission held its first meeting. In addition to the two Concordes, France furnished
.techial training through its participation in a Science and Technogy University. Japan was involved in copper exploration and

A scientific and technical agreement was sined with Italy. Belgium raifedan industrial protocol and the Irano -Belgian Commission for Jit Economic and Technical Cooperation held its second meeting. Canada signed a technical cooperation agreement on the peaceful fuses of atomic energy.
The Soviet Union was also actively engaged in technology transfer to Iran. In the area of industrial technology the U.S.S.R. participated in two steel plant expansion operations, built a polyisoprene plant and
topower stations, and furnished technical training for the steel industry. The Soviet Union also agreed to the construction of two dam and the digging of deep water wells. A Joint Irano-Soviet Ministerial Committee for Trade and Economic Cooperation was established and a trade agreement and protocol were signed. A scintific cooperation agreement was ratified as well as an industrial and technical protocol pertaining to the steel and. housing industries.
Other industrial technology included a machine tool plant from .Czchslovakia, while Rumania contracted to supply a power station, and Yugoslavia supplied cooling installations and a development loan for machinery and equipment.
Rumania, Yugoslavia and Bulgaria signed trade agreements with Iran. Bulgaria ratified an industrial agreement, and the BulgarianIranian Committee for Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation met. An industrial protocol and an economic and technical cooperation agreement were signed by Rumania. The RumanianIranian Joint Sub-Commission for Economic and Technical Cooperation met in its second session. The Yugoslavian government ratified a technical and scientific agreement and Hungary signed a trade and industrial protocol.
The World Bank made available a development loan to finance a, powerline network.
.t973.-In 1973 there was a continuation of the trends established ,the previous year although the overall number of transfers appear to have declined slightly. Again industrial and power related technology were predominant. The United States took the lead in arms transfers, making available F-14 fighters, F-5 interceptors, F-4 fighter bombers, Cobra helicopter gunboats, and transport helicopters. In the first three months of the year alone, over $200 miillion in arms was provided. Italy also furnished numerous helicopters.
Industrial technology acquisition covered many areas and originated in various countries. In the West, Britain was a major exporter of this type of technology. Among the technologies transferred were a sul.phui acid plant, a inonoammoniuin phosphate plant, a manufactur-





'QA

9 complex producing amino-plastic molding materials, urea formaldehyde, adhesive resins and formaldehyde, a cold steel mill, a bus plant, a tractor plant, a heavy engineering complex, and a power transmission line. The United States furnished a refractory plant and thelmachinery for a cotton emning factory. West Germany provided a steel mill, Austria a petrochemical complex, and Japan a petrochemical plant.
Other technology transfers from the Western countries included oil refineries from the United States and West -Germany. In addition, the United States provided a development loan for the purchase of commercial aircraft, nine Boeing airplanes, and numerous locomotives. A British firm furnished two hundred buses, and French companies agreed to the development of a telephone network and the exploration and exploitation of copper reserves. Belgium offered technical training and Japan provided two tankers. Spain signed an economic cooperation agreement and a trade agreement.
Industrial facilities were also acquired from the Communist countries. The Soviet Union provided two, cement plants, Poland supplied two cotton spmining mills and Rumania built a prefabricated housing materials plant. The U.S.S.R. was also active in power related technology transfer through the establishment of a hydroelectric Plant and the supply of diesel generators. Hungary provided numerous transformers for use in the power system.
The Soviet Union agreed to the construction and design of a dam and signed two industrial agreements. The Soviet-Iranian Economic Cooperation Committee held its fourth meeting. Poland was involved in ship related technology transfer and provided fifty combine harvesters. Trade protocols were signed with Yugoslavia and East Germany.
A consortium of international banks furnished a development loan for the construction of a carbon black plant.
1974.-In 1974 there was an acceleration of Western. involvement in technology transfer to Iran which can be attributed to the events following the Fall 1973 oil boycott and the subsequent imbalance of the monetary flow between the West and the oil producing countries. As the political balance moved towards the West there was a decline in Eastern bloc transfer activity. Industrial technology transfer maintained its predominance as emphasis was placed on communications and nuclear technologies., An especially apparent increase in activity occurred in technoloev transfer from the United States. I Industrial technoGgy transfer took many forms. American firms, provided a petrochemical plastics factory, an aluminum smelter, a, synthetic fiber plant, two pipe plants, and an electronics factory. British companies furnished an ammonia plant, an auto plant expansion, a biscuit factory, the expansion of a fertilizer complex, conveyers, and anticorrosion systems for ductile iron and steel pipework. A gas liquefaction complex, a petrochemical plant, a switch gear factory, two steel mills, and a refractory plant were made availible from France. Italy supplied an industrial complex and a steel
while West Germany agreed to provide an iron oxide pellet plant
and an agro-industrial complex. A petrochemical complex and an auto, assembly plant were provided -by Japan, Denmark provided a food, processing and packaging facility, Norway a cement plant, and Austria a railroad rolling stock manufacturing plant.







Communications technology was also an important item for transfer to Iran in 1974. Among the technologies acquired by Iran from the United States were a telephone cable system, a ground satellite station, a microwave communications system and the supply of balloonborne broadcasting services. Transmission lines were supplied by Britain.
Nuclear technology was exported by the United States, France and West Germany. Iran acquired two nuclear reactors and uranium from the U.S., two nuclear power plants and five nuclear power stations from France, and two additional nuclear plants from West Germany. In the area of 'arms transfer the United States made available F-14 fighters, Cj-90 tankers, and Chokar II and Sheldock target drones. Britain provided technical assistance to the Army and Navy traiig colleges and a variety of naval equipment including cruisers, vertical takeoff fighters and anti-submarine helicopters. Twelve missile-firing naval escort ships were supplied by France and numerous U.S.-made Chinook helicopters were exported by Italy..
Additional technology transfer occurred in various forms. The United States provided locomotives, gas pipeline installation, tractortrucks, commercial airplanes and the loans to pay for them, oil loading facilities, and an oil pipeline. Britian supplied tugboat equipment, and agreed to undertake the expansion of a water treatment plant, while France provided the machinery for a textile plant and a foundry. France also signed a technical and industrial agreement and protocol, and established a Franco-Iranian Commission on Economic Cooperation.
An industrial cooperation agreement was ratified by Italy, who also contracted for the construction of an oil refinery. Austria furnished aid in the form of engineering planning and provided railroad cars. Denmark signed an economic, technical and scientific agreement; Sweden an economic cooperation protocol, and Canada an economic and technical agreement. Canada also made a development loan available for a forestry complex.
As stated previously, the Communist bloc participation in technology transfer to Iran in 1974 was markedly below that of the past. The Soviet Union provided two flour mills, fire fighting equipment, compressors, and the construction and design of a power station. Agreements and protocols Were signed by Hfungary, Bulgaria, and Poland. Czechoslovakia ratified a trade and industrial agreement, a scientific cooperation agreement and a trade agreement.
The World Bank furnished two development loans, one for commercial agriculture and the other for general development projects.
1976.-Technology transfer activity increased again in 1975. The transfer was concentrated on industrial, communications and shippin technology. Britain and the United States were the major sources of technology with a marked increase in the involvement of Japan. Military technology was transferred primarily from the United States with some additional transfer from Britain*'.
In the communications field, the United States contracted for the installation of a computer controlled telephone network and for electronic telephone switching systems. The design of a telephone and telecommunications system was prepared and an American firm undertook the establishment of a telecommunications planning and







engineering company in I-ran. British companies provided telephone
exchngeconsultant work, telephone network advising and closed circuit television systems. A color television system was installed by France, and Sweden undertook a telephone systems survey.
Industrial technology was transferred by France who furnished two steel plants, a petrochemical plant, an ammonic factory and an ammonia plant. West Germany provided seven cement plants. A petrochemical complex was contracted for by Japan which also agreed to the construction of a vinyl chloride pipe and board manufacturing facility. Sweden provided for the desig and construction of chemical plants, Holland supplied the technical expertise for a sugar refinery and a hydrogen plant, and Italy furnished a steel smelting complex. An agreement was made with Austria for participation in eighteen indus trial proj ects.
Ports and shipbuilding were areas in1 which the Iranian Government solicited technology. West Germany participated in the expansion of one -port, furnished freighters and built a ship yard. Liquified natural gas tankers were supplied by French firms, and Holland worked ou the expansion of a harbor. Spain furnished ,ships, as did Norway, and Italy agreed to the construction of another port.
The United States was the major supplier of military technology. Among the items transferred were mine sweeping helicopters, torpedoes, radar aircraft, three submarines, and six destroyers equipped with aircraft defense systems. Also provided were Boeing airplanes to be converted for military transport, training of Iranian troops and aid in the established of helicopter manufacturing production plant. Britain furnished 1,200 Chieftain tanks and the tracked version of the Rapier low-level missile defense system. The French supplied patrol boats for the Navy.
Oil-related technology transfer was effected by the United States which agreed to the design and construction of two refineries, one in conjunction with West Germany, a pipeline, and the provision of oil rigs. An American firm contracted to provide computer operated process control equipment for a refinery. Britain furnished equipment for a refinery West Germany built two refinery facilities and Italy contracted for the construction of a pipeline. Another refinery was to be built by Japan.I
Additional technology transfer by various Western countries strengthened the economic and industrial base of Iran. The United States furnished a total of eleven Boeing passenger airplanes, plus earthmoving equipment and trucks. The construction of three pipelines was undErtkn by American firms, while technical training was provided to the Iranians by other groups. An economic and trade cooperation agreement was signed. Training in nuclear power engineering was provided and an agreement was made to supply up toi eight nuclear reactors.
Britain was also extremely active in technology transfer to Iran.' Among the transfer activities relating to transportation were the .provision of trucks and railroad cars, the construction of a motorway And a highway, and the design and electrification of the railroad network. Technical assistance was offered in the production of biscuits and in manpower consultations. A computer based power distribution 'system, a computer automative system and a computer system to






37,
ue the information obtained through the Earth Resources TechuologY Satellite (now Landsat) were also furnished. British firms pied a gas compressor station, gas turbines for power generation, air conditioning equipment, desalination equipment, construction equipment, and oil burners: Options on two Concordes were signed by Britain in association with France along with contracts with air oargo equipment. A trade protocol was signed, as were two nuclear assistance agreements for teaching and training in the nuclear field.
France and Iran established a Joint Ministerial Commission for cooperation. French companies also furnished railroad facilities and, as noted, two Concordes jointly with Britain. The construction of three gas pipelines was undertaken and there was agreement on the construction of a desalination plant over the next ten years. Cooperation was established to set -up nuclear plants. West Germany furnished a power station and transformers. Italy undertook highway construction and the provision of a gas pipeline. Holland signed an economic agreement which covered shipping and power stations. Dutch firms also agreed to the development of gas reserves and to provide 1,000 trucks.
Japan furnished a gas pipeline, high speed railroad vehicles, container cranes and prefabricated housing units. Equipment was also made available for technical training centers. Sweden provided power transformers, and Spain supplied industrial, electrical and railway equipment. Denmark agreed to undertake numerous agro-industrial rejects, and Canada supplied 2,000 tractors. A Joint Canadianranian Ministerial Commission was established and a trade and economic agreement was ratified.
The Eastern bloc countries were also involved in the transfer of industrial technology but to a lesser extent than the West. The Soviet Union contracted to supply a cotton mill and for the expansion of a machine tool plant, a steel mill, and a steel sheet plant. Bulgaria supplied a brickworks and three hydrochenical plants. Czechoslovakia furnished a cement plant and Poland a cotton mill.
Various agreements and protocols were signed. The Soviet Union ratified an economic protocol, as did Romania. Trade protocols were signed between Iran and Hungary, East Germany, and Poland. Romania ratified a trade agreement, Yugoslavia signed a trade and economic protocol, and Bulgaria signed a trade and agro-industrial agreement.
The Soviet Union agreed to provide technical training as well as a railway network and 1,000 cars. An Irano-Rumanian Committee was established and Rumania contracted for the provision of power lines. Bulgaria supplied food processing equipment. The Yugoslavian Joint Commission on Economic Cooperation met in its sixth session and the Czechoslovakian-Iranian Joint Economic Committee also convened.
IRAQ
Iraq haq an area of 172,000 square miles located in the near eastern section of the region. Eighteen percent of the land is cultivated, while 68 percent is desert, waste, or urban. The economy is primarily agricultural with petroleum being the major industry, providing over 60 percent of the country's revenue. Iraq is the third largest producer of








crude petroleum in the Middle East With revenues for 1974 estimated at $7.1 billion. The labor force is principally engaged in agriculture (70 percent) with 6.5 percent working in industry, and 6.7 percent Working for the government. There is a severe shortage of technically skilled personnel. The 1975 estimated GNP was $13 billion. Exports in 1974 totalled $7.4 billion and imports amounted to $2.9 billion.
1970.-The extent of technology transfer activity in 1970 was small and the Soviet Union was the major source. Western activity was at a minimum and the United States did not actively participate. The greatest emphasis was on oil related technology from both the Communist and non-Communist countries and numerous transfers were effected involving various types of machinery and equipment, especially related to agriculture.
In the field of oil, British firms provided pumping equipment and France supplied an oil pipeline. Industrial facilities included an asbestos factory and a cigarette plant from Italy. A bus assembly plant was contracted for and an industrial cooperation agreement on, thie use and operation of gas facilities was contracted for by French companies. Other transfers from Western countries include fire fighting equipment cars and hot-rolled steel sections for commer cial vehicles from Britain, and tankers from Spain.
Oil technology was also provided by various Communist block countries. Hungary made available geological experts to conduct oil surveys, Czechoslovakia supplied an oil refinery and refinery equ~ipmnt, and the U.S.S.R. furnished air in oil drilling and in the training of Iraq oil technicians.
The Soviet Union was a major participant in the small amount of transfer activity which took place. In addition to the oil related. technology mentioned above, the Soviet Union furnished seismological equipment, heavy machinery-, vehicles, agricultural equipment, road building ma 'chinery, harvesters, and ships, and undertook the construction of a shipyard. Russian equipment was furnished for a technical traininMg center. An Ira qi-Soviet Permanent Economic-Technical Committee was established and an economic and trade protocol signed.
East Germany was active in power development providing fortyfour power stations and an electrification project. Other transfers included the design, construction, and operation of a plastics factory, and the provision of industrial machinery. Hungary furnished factory equipment and buses while Czechoslovakia, in addition to the oil refinery and equipment, supplied tractors. Poland supplied digging equimet and Yugoslavia provided. a power plant. Bulgaria signed a, tehial agreement,. an economic and industrial cooperations protocol, and an economic and technical agreement.
1971.-The dominance of the Communist bloc countries, and especially the Soviet Union, in transfer activity continued in 1971. The European countries, the United States and Japan undertook little in the way of transfer. Again the major emphasis was on oil related technology with a growing interest in power generation.
France furnished deep water loading facilities for Iraqi oil development, and Italy undertook a pipeline survey. Oil tankers were supplied by Spanish companies. British firms provided chlorination equiipment to aid the Iraqis in water related matters. Other transfers included






39

computers from the United States, and a development loan for the purchase of ships and a spiral tube mill from Spain. A feasibility study for a gas liquefaction plant was made by Switzerland and a Swedish firm contracted for the provision and installation of telephone land cables as part of a communication system. Britain supplied television broadcasting equipment, defense diesel generation sets, and hot,. rolled steel window sections. A Japanese company supplied technical aid in the manufacturing of sugar from dates.
Both Hungary and the Soviet Union provided oil related technology., A Hungarian firm agreed to drill numerous oil wells in Northern, Iraq, and the U.S.S.R. participated in the development of these oil fields in addition to furnishing an oil refinery. Technical assistance was provided in laying an oil pipeline. A development loan was made
-available for oil development and pipeline installation.
The Soviet Union also furnished a development loan covering the construction of two hydro-electric power stations, and a contract was signed for the expansion of a power plant. Another power station was designed and constructed by East Germany, and Yugoslavia provided technical expertise in an electrification project.
Numerous additional instances of technology transfer from the Soviet Union developed. An irrigation survey was undertaken and the construction of a darn was agreed upon. Canal planning assistance was furnished, as were instructors for an agricultural and construction training. center. Trucks, agricultural machinery and digging equipment were provided. A technical cooperation agreement was signed, military cooperation was agreed upon, and a Soviet-Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission was established. The Standing Committee for SovietIraqi Economic and Technical Cooperation held its second meeting.
East Germany participated in technology transfer by furnishing a laxge number of railway coaches. Trade, economic, and technical protocols were signed. Bulgaria offered a development loan, provided general technical assistance, and ratified an economic protocol. The Joint Bulgarian-Iraqi Economic and Technical Committee met in its fourth session. Poland provided tankers. Hungary participated *in the construction and design of a light bulb processing plant and signed a technical cooperation agreement. A Hungarian-Iraqi Committee was formed to implement economic, trade and technical agreements.
China ratified a trade cooperation agreement and an economic cooperation agreement.
The World Bank offered a development loan for telecommunications projects.
1972.-In 1972, East European domination of transfer activity continued to be the distinguishing factor Nvith specially strong participation by the Soviet Union. Technology transfer from Western countries continued on a smaller scale. The emphasis in transfer activity turned to irrigation technology and to communications technology originating in the West.
Western activity in technology transfer was again small in comparison to that undertaken by the COMECON nations. Britain, France, and Japan were active in communications technology. The British furnished mobile television units, airport radio equipment, radio-telephone equipment, switchgears, and television transmitters.






4a

French firms provided television transmitter's and signed a technical. agreement on telecommunications. Japan supplied telephone cables and established a radio-telephone communications network.
France further advanced technical transfer by making available hydraulic excavators and a water treatment plant. Finland also paxticipated in irrigation related transfer by agreeing to the design and construction of a dam. Britain supplied technical training for railway related operations and a cable car-cabin lift. A development loan for industry was furnished by Spain, and Swedish companies provided an auto manufacturing plant and the exportation of trucks. Japan undertook a port expansion feasibility study, the United States provided computer technology, and Canada performed a geophysical survey. Belgium supplied electrical equipment.
Irrigation technology transfer took place primarily through the auspice es of- the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, and East Germany. The U.S.S.R. undertook irrigation studies, signed two economic and technical cooperation protocols under which irrigation projects would be established, and ratified a technical and industrial cooperation agreement for aid in irrigation. East Germany furnished water pumping equipment and Bulgaria signed a. technical protocol for joint cooperation'In irrigation.
Transfer in the area of oil technology was made possible throughactivity undertaken by the Russians and the Bulgarians. The Soviet Union built an 1011 processing plant, performed a pipeline study and agreed to participation in oilfield development. Bulgaria engaged in oil well drilling.
Agreements and protocols proliferated in addition to those already mentioned. The U.S.S.R. signed an industrial protocol and an eco-, nomic agreement. East Germany ratified a trade agreement as did Poland and Bulgaria. An economic and trade cooperation protocol was also signed by East Germany. Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria ratified economic and technical cooperation agreements.
Russian involvement that year included the provision of cargo ships and fishing boats, road bull ding, farm and corn m racial machinery and electrical equipment, an auto manufacturing plant, and technical assistance in car servicing. The Iraqi-Soviet Permanent Committee, met. East Germanv furnished traffic planning assistance and numerous railroad vehicles. Yugoslavia provided for the design and construction of a power station and agreed to cooperation on industrial projects. Tractors were supplied by Czechoslovakia, and buses and a refrigerator plant were furnished by Hungary. Poland provided cement making machinery, a development loan and planning for the construction of a bridge.
The World Bank made a development loan available for application to irrigation proJects, and the United Nations agreed to provide general technical assistance.
1973.-1973 saw a decline in the amount of transfer activity by the Communist nations and a continuation of the small amount of transfer from the West. In both groups oil technology proved to bepredominant. In addition, industrial and communications technology transfer took place from the West. The United States agreed to furnish an oil terminal and submarine ]pipelines, and Japan providedfor the: construction of an oil refinery. The Soviet Union prepared to give






41

fisistncein oil field development and supply oil related machinery, and equpment. Bulgaria was involved in oil exploration and drilling, andRumaila participated in identification and development of oil
resourcS.
Industrial technology transfer was furthered by the actions of the Wetrn nations. The Uniited States furnished five gas-oil separation 9tationFrance constructed and equipped a steel works, and Britainsplied' boring equipment. A gas liquefaction plant was built by 8h Swis, and a Japanese company provided a chemical fertilizer pat. Italy agreed to build and equip a auto tire manufacturing plant.
Communications tedinology was also a focus of transfer by the n~on-ommunist countries. The installation of telex services was undertaken by Italy, France provided for switchboard equipment for a microwave communications station and a British firm furnished television transmitters. Part of 'a telephone cable network was providd.by a Swedish company, and Japan worked on a microwave telephone lnks network.
Other instances of technology transfer involved ships from Spain and Japan. Spain also signed an economic and technical cooperation agreement, and a Joint Franco-Iraqi Economic Commission was established.
The Communist bloc countries were participants in a small amount of transfer other than oil related technology. The Soviet U-nion fuirished technical aid for irrigation as well as drilling equipment. A development loan was made available for irrigation and indu's trial projects. The Iraqi-Soviet Joint Economic Committee met and an economic and technical cooperation agreement was ratified. Bunlgaila made cranes available and Hungary agreed to construct a, bus body plant and to provide ten refrigerator trucks. Rumania sigedan economic and technical cooperation agieement. East Germany ratified a scientific and technical agreement and also provided work on a dock yard and on electrical wire and cable plant machinery.
The World Bank made a development loan available for agriculture.
1974.-An overall jump in transfer activity occurred in 1974.. Both the Western nations, with the exception of the United States, and the Communist countries experienced an increase in the extent of the technology transfer undertaken. Japan began the development. of an active transfer program. The four major areas of transfer, continuing the previous years' trend, were industry, communications, QiI, and irgtion.
Indust technol ogy acquisition from the West included undertkngs by France, Italy, Sweden, West Germany, Sw-itLzerland, Britain and Denmark. France provided two sponge iron plants, ain aluminum smelter, a steel works, a factory for prefabricated housing units, and a bus plant in conjunction with Hungary. Italy equipped a tire plant and Sweden undertook a laminated plastic boards proj.ect.
Wet (Germany supplied a textile mill and Switzerland agree to
buil a ppermill. A piling plant was built by a British company, and
Deumrk urnished a cement plant.
A water supply network was constructed by France and Britain set up a water treatment plant. In the area of oil technolo gy, West Germany agreed to provide a pipeline system, as did Japan, which
77-695--76---4





42

also furnished storage tanks for oil. Britain Supplied gas turbines for the -pumping of crude oil Technical assistance on communications systems were provided by Italy in connection with a pipeline telecommunications system, and by Japan on an earth satellite station and a coaxial communications system.
France provided port equipment and a development loan: An economic and technical agreement was ratified and the Joint Committee on Economic Cooperation met. The Italian-Iraqi Joint Committee also met and both an economic and a technical agreement were signed. Technical assistance in the form of railroad design was furnished. West Germany exported 10,000 trucks, and Japan supplied fuel and oil tankers. Japanese firms also helped in bridge construction and supplied road building machinery. An economic and technical agreement was ratified.
Hungary, Poland, Yugoslavia, and the Soviet Union contributed industrial technology. Four brickworks and a lime processing plant were provided by Hungary. Poland furnished a cement factory, two silicate brick works, a concrete plant and a fiber board works. Russia signed an industrial protocol, and Yugoslavia ratified an industrial agreement.
Oil related transfer was effected by the Soviet Union which furnished a -processing plant and equipment. East Germany undertook the drilling of numerous wells as did Hungary. Bulgaria provided expertise in the performance of seismic surveys as well. as undertaking the drilling of wells. In the area of irrigation the U.S.S.R. furnished equipment for the sinking of water wels, technical assistance in dam siting and pumping surveys, as well as undertaking the drilling of wells. Hungary agreed to the exchange of information on irrigation, and Poland constructed a water tower. Yugoslavia worked on land reclamation and the planning of dams while Rumania supplied a large number of water pumping units for use in irrigation. projects.
The Soviet Union participated in communications technology trans-' fer through telephone and telegraph system studies and by making available to Iraq experts in comm uni cations and training.. Hungary agreed to work on a communications system.
Additional technology transfer was undertaken by the Soviet Union through its participation in the building of a power station, in mineral and hydrogeological resource exploration, in conducting seismic surveys, and throu gh the provision of geophysical equipment and agricultural machinery. A trade protocol was signed. The East Germans and Iraqis established a Permanent Committee for Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation and signed an economic and technical protocol. East Germany also furnished trucks and road building machinery. A Joint Iraqi-Hungarian Committee on Irrigation met and Hungary provided various types of food processing machinery.
Transportation related technology transfers were undertaken' by Poland, Yugoslavia, Rumania and Czechoslovakia. Poland provided freight cars and railroad cars for the shipment of sulphur. Yugoslavia aided in the construction of various bridges, while Czechoslovakia and Rumania furnished diesel-electric locomotives. Yugoslavia signed an economic and technical cooperation agreement and Czechoslovakia, ratified a trade agreement -as did Bulgaria..





A3

1975.-A continued increase in the amount of technology trans.ferred to Iraq took place 'in 1975. Activity on behalf of the West. increased more than that of the Communist countries and the involvement of Japan continued to grow. Technology was concentrated in the areas of industrialization, irrigation, and power. Transfer involving nuclear energy occurred between Iraq and France and Russia. These two countries were also the major suppliers of military technology.
France was involved in the transfer of industrial technology through
-the provision of various iron, steel and aluminum plants and factories. French firms also agreed to the construction of a auto assembly plant ,and a prefabricated housing factory. Japan built a chemical fertilizer plant and a petrochemical complex along with a textile plant. Another textile plant was furnished by West German companies, which also provided a paper mill in conjunction with Switzerland, and a cement factory. A calculator and electrical equipment plant and a paper mill were contracted for by Switzerland.
In the area of irrigation the United States supplied water drilling pumps, and France contracted for a water supply project to one Iraqi city. A British company undertook consultant work on rural water
-supply. Irrigation and land reclamation work was contracted for by .an Italian firm. Power technology was transferred by Japan in the
-form of two gas powered generating stations. Switzerland furnished
- equipment for an electrical metering plant. West Germany provided
-design and construction for two additional power stations, and Sweden built thirteen uigh-voltagre electricity substations.
The French Government, signed a nuclear coo peration agreement which also called for the construction of an atomic power plant and training in the nuclear area, both of which were undertaken. Various
-computers and computer systems were supplied by French firms as
-was a color television system. A technical training center was con-tracted for and milk processing plant machines were made available. In the area of military hardware, the French provided Mirage jet fighters and various types of armor including tanks.
Britain was active in transportation related technology transfer, undertaking the' design and construction of bridges and the; supply of buses andR 'over vehicles. Industrial metering equipment, electrical engieerig machinery and air conditioning systems were furnished.-Other British companies provided turbines for oil pipeline pumps and consulting work in port development. A feasibility study was made and plans drawn for use of Iraqi natural gas, and flight training equipment was made available.
A development loan was'extended by Jap an for application to oil development. Excavators and cranes were furnished. Japanese firms contracted f or the construction of a pier and the provision of eight cargo ships. West Germany supplied 19,000 trucks. Agricultural machinery was furnished by Italy which also. provided consulting work for a petroleum pipeline and the processing and transport of liquefied natural gas. Holland furnished dredging equipment, and Sweden contracted for to provide a large number of diesel trucks and buses.
Among the Communist countries, the Soviet Union was the major :source of technology transfer. The primary types of transfer effected






41

from these 'nations were related to irrigation and power. A dam and hydroelectric complex was contracted for by the Soviet Union which also agreed to build a power station. Yugoslavia installed a cable network at another power station. Three transformer stations were, designed and supplied by Polish firms, while Hungary furnished sixty-five electricity substations.
The largest military hardware transaction ever made between Iraq and Russia was accomplished when the U.S.S.R. agreed to furnish artillery, TMIG fighter-bombers and surface-to-surface missiles, and other equipment. A gas isolation plant and a crude pumping plant were also made available. Agricultural and road building machinery, railroad equipment and oil field machinery were furnished by Soviet companies as well as an iron sheet plant and a number of technical training centers. An agreement on the peaceful uses of atomic energy was signed, as was a trade agreement aTid an industrial, technical and agricultural cooperation protocol which specifies aid in power engineering, industry and irrigation and technical trainingEast Germany, provided railroad cars and designed and installed signaling and telecommunications equipment on the Iraqi railroad network. The East Germans performed computerized selsmologica1 exploration for oil and contracted for the drilling of other oil wells. A five-year tra& agreement was ratified. Yugoslavia contracted for port construction and Poland furnished railroad related equipment. The Polish-Iraqi Joint Commission met to discuss cooperation and projects between the two countries, and Iraq ratified a multilateral economic, scientific and technical cooperation agreement. Various other trade, economic, industrial, scientific and/or technical agreements were signed, between the Eastern bloc nations and Iraq.
KUWAIT
Kuwait is a small. country located 14 the n northeastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula, bordering on the Persian Gulf. The country is 6,200 square miles, mostly desert. Because of the and nature of the land there is almost no agriculture. Approximately 75 percent of the drinking water is either desalinated sea water or imported. Crude petroleum production is the major industry, accounting for 98 percent ,in exports. Imports totaled $1,550 million, of the $10,741 million '
excluding imports by the oil company, Forty-one percent of the population is engaged in manufacturing, 25 percent in services, 22 percent in government and professions, and 9 percent in commerce.
1970.-A minimal amount of technology transfer took place in 1970 and the overriding emphasis was on irrigation technology. The United States provided equipment. -for a water distribution project. A West German firm agreed tot bad a water pumping station. Czechoslovakia was involved in work on a water tower and a water supply system, while Yugoslavia contracted for the construction of a water tower. In other transfer developments, Britain furnished aircraft parts and security equipment. West Germany agreed to expand Kuwait's salt, caustic soda, and chlorine factory.
1971.-Little in the way of transfer activity took place in 1971, and there was no Westem participation. Yug"Oslavia, established' water pumping station and the Soviet Union supplied cargo vessels.







Hungary 'set up at scientific cooperation program, and furnished
,etrical equipment and buses. Czechoslovakia signed a scientific
cooeraionagreement with Kuwait.
197.--Slipping and power-related technology was transferred to Kuwait in 1972. A Japanese company constructed a power station, and Britain contracted to install an electric cable and to sell diesel geneators. Britain also furnished ships, as did the Soviet Union which prvided fishing trawlers and cargo vessels. Sweden provided technical assistance in road building and West Germany contracted for a detergents plant. Bulgaria signed a scientific agreement for the exchange of teachers and technical programs. Russian exports to Kuwait amounted to $13 million, half of which were ships, machinery, light vehicles, and trucks.
1973.-Jrrigation and shipping projects again were the focus of attention in 1973. West Germany -furnished storm water and sanitary drains and Japan constructed a desalination plant. Britain provided multipurpose carriers and cargo ships. Other technologies transferred included new town planning by Britain, road construction by West Germany, and building and equipment, for new towns from Yugoslavia. A France-Kuwaiti Committee was established for general cooperation between the two countries and an industrial and economic cooperation agreement was signed. Also ratified were two technical agreements, one for technical training in France, and the other for professorial and information exchange.
1974.--A large increase in technology transferred occurred in 1974, subsequent to the oil boycott. Interest in arms technology was strong as was interest in technology related to power. The United States furnished ground-to-air missiles and thirty-six Skyhawk jets. France provided Mirage interceptors, Puma heavy helicopters, light helicopters, Mirage F-1 fighters, and Jaguar aircraft jointly with British. Britain was involved with the transactions concerning the AngloFrench Jaguar aircraft. Yugoslavia contracted for the construction of two military bases.
In the area of power technology the United States provided gas turbines. West Germany agreed to the construction of a thermal power station, as did Japan. Other technologies transferred included communications facilities from the United States and a ground-to-air, long range communications system for airplanes from Britain. French firms furnished liquid gas tankers and a petrochemical complex. Italy and Kuwait formed a Joint Economic Cooperation Committee, a4nd Belgium signed an economic and technical cooperation agreement. The Soviet Union ratified a scientific cooperation agreement and Rumania signed an economic agreement.
1975.-The transfer of military technology was significant in 1975 and comprised the major portion of the technology acquired. France, the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union aill participated in this area. Mirage jets, surface-to-air missiles, and electronic equipment were supplied by France. The United States furnished C-9B, aircraft, parts and support equipment, as well as training in surfaceto-air missile systems. Britain agreed to construct a naval base and provide naval ships. The Soviet Union furnished additional military e&lfipment.
The United States was also active in industrial technology transfer. Contracts were signed for an aromatics complex, and for equipment





146

and compressing stations for liquefied natural gas processing plants,. In addition, a Boeing'airplane was made available. Britain provided,, technology in the form of electrical equipment for a gas turbine station and a baggage handling system. A feasibility study on the use of computers in telecommunications was undertaken, and training in thenuclear field was furnished. West Germany provided liquified natural gas processing equipment and a satellite communications center. Finland furnished a cold storage plant, Belgium signed a contract forthe expansion of a fertilizer plant, an d Japan agreed to construct a. new town.
The Soviet Union, in addition to the, provision of military equip-ment, ratified a cultural and scientific agreement. Industrial machinery and equipment were furnished by Poland who also signed two economic agreements, and economic and technical cooperation agree-ment and a trade agreement. Hungary ratified a scientific cooperation, and trade agreement.
LIBYA
Libya is situated on the north central coast of Africa, bordering onl the Mediterranean Sea. Six percent of the 679,000 square miles is. agricultural and 93 percent is desert, waste, or urban. Petroleum is. the principal component of the economy. It accounts for over 99, percent of the $3.358 million of exports in 1974. The GNP was ap-proximately $6.5 billion,~ with imports totaling $ 1.723 million. Agricul-ture is the second most important factor in the Libyan economy with
-61 percent of the labor force engaged in work in this area.
1970.-1970 was a year of modest but varied technology transferactivity. Industrial technology was provided primarily by the Western nations. The major portion of military hardware transferred originated in France and the Soviet Union. One hundred Mirage jets were furnished by the French including fighter-bombers, interceptorfighters, and training and reconnaissance jets. France also agreed totrain Libyan Air Force pilots in the use and upkeep of these jets. The Soviet Union provided arms to Libya including tanks, field guns, antiaircraft artillery, amphibious vehicles, other tracked vehicles, andtransporters.
In the area of industrial technology, an Italian company furnished a pharmaceutical plant, and a British firm agreed to design and construct a petrochemical complex. The United States supplied amethanol processing facility and machinery, and Britain made-available power generating equipment.
The French set up a Joint Commission for Economic, Technical andCultural Cooperation and agreed to cooperation in petroleum use and resource development. Cooperation was also agreed upon in the areas of telecommunication and television projects, training, land reclamation, and. irrigation. Yugoslavia furnished hospital equipment and undertook the installation of a power transmission line.
1971 .-In 1971 the level of transfer continued as before. Irrigation, technology transferred included a desalination plant built with, American expertise, and feasibility studies conducted by Yugoslavia, for the construction of three dams. Britain agreed to tramn commercial pilots, and the United States made available commercial Boeing:






.4

aircraft. Additional British transfers included diesel generating sets and medical equipment. The French supplied technical training in oil related areas and training jets for the Libyan Air Force. France was also involved in the exploitation of iron-ore deposits and signed a technical cooperation agreement. An Italian firm contracted for the construction of a flour mill and another agreed to the construction of a refinery and a lube oil plant. An arms deal between Libya and Italy provided for the supply of tanks, personnel carriers, and armored car3
The U.S.S.R. loaned oil experts to work with and train the Libyans. Yugoslavia furnished buses and signed an industrial cooperation agreement. Bulgaria ratified two technical and trade protocols and signed three technical and trade agreements.
1972.-A small amount of transfer activity took place in 1972. Thiscan, in all probability, be attributed to political differences between Libya and Italy, Britain, and other countries. West Germany provided for communications technology transfer making available. shortwave transmission equipment, and Britain furnished television transmission equipment. France continued to train pilots in there operation of Mirage jets and Spain agreed to construct a steel pipe factory.
Irrigation technology again came from the Soviet Union in the form of a desalination plant. Russia also ratified an industrial agreement which covered mining, oil, and power projects. Bulgaria contracted to build an airport runway, and Yugoslavia agreed to provide general technical assistance.
1973.-An increase in the amount of technology transferred occurred in 1973. This increase was pricipally by the Western countries. The major areas of concentration were power and irrigation. TheFrench provided transformers for a power system. Italy furnished cables and undertook the construction of a power station. West Germany also built and equipped a power station. Both the United States and Japan contracted to provide power plants. In the area of irrigation, Italy furnished a desalination plant as did the United States, Japan, and West Germany. Yugoslavia agreed to construct a dam.
The United States undertook the construction of a concrete block factory in addition to its activities mentioned above. A West German company contracted for an ammonia factory and a British firm built a compost plant. Britain also furnished flight training, slipway winches, and two biumen storage and heating tanks. Technical assistance to the Libyan Oil Institute was provided by the French who also furnished a radio transmitter and prefabricated housing units.
Poland engaged in planning and agricultural consultant work, involving raw materials and grain storage. Yugoslavia established a radio network, supplied tankers and conducted a geological survey.
1974.-The largest increase in the amount of technology acquired by Libya occurred in 1974. Numerous oil-for-technology deals were, made involving France, Sweden, Italy, the Soviet Union, Poland, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. Other countries provided technology with the expectation of receiving oil and/or oil money in return.
Communications and ship related technologies came from the West. French firms supplied communications technology through their-





48
transfer of technical assistance for submarine cables and television broadcasting connection equipment. 1rance also participated in telecommunications training. West Germany built a shortwave transmission station, and Sweden contracted to provide telephone equipment and machinery.
Port expansion design was undertaken by a British firm. Sweden made a technological contribution by furnishing tankers and other merchant ships in an oil-for-tankers deal. Four other oil tankers were provided for in separate contracts. Poland supplied six floating docks.
Numerous additional transfers took place. In the area of irrigation, the United States constructed a desalination complex and undertook consulting work on sewage treatment plant. West Germany contracted for the building of a series of dams. Other instances of transfer from the U.S. include the provision of commercial aircraft and the building of a phenyl plant and a methanol plant. France agreed to conduct oil exploration and participate in refining. A transportation study and design planning as well as agricultural consulting were furnished by British companies. Italy and Libya established a number of' supervisory committees for cooperation in economics, industry, communications, electronics, and oil, and the two countries also signed an industrial agreement. West Germany undertook vocational technical training and the construction of one cement plant and the expansion of another. A West German firm contracted to supply a methanol plant. Technical assistance in oil, agriculture, and industry, was agreed to by Sweden who also provided medical equipment and signed an industrial cooperation agreement.
The Soviet Union provided for the supply of arms in an oil4ortechnology deal they concluded with the Libyans. An Intergovernmental Commission on Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation was established and an economic and technical agreement ratified. Also signed were a trade otocol and a trade agreement. Yugoslavia furmshed storage tanks For edible oil, agreed to an oil-fortechnology deal involving the supply of tankers, and signed a technical agreement The Bulgarian-Libyan Committee for Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation held its fourth meeting and Bulgaria ratified two economic, technical and scientific agreements. Hungary signed an economic and technical agreement, Czechoslovakia a scientific and technical agreement, and Rumania a trade agreement. A Rumamian-Libyan Joint Commission was established and met.
1975.-The increase in technology transfer activity continued through 1975. West Germany, Britain, and Italy contributed the major share of transfer from the Western countries. However, the Eastern nations showed the greatest increase in transfer activity over the previous years, Again the type of transfer was varied but power related projects constituted a major part of the transfer from the Western nations and Yugoslavia. Britain agreed to design and construct a power/desalination plant and to provide switch gear units for another power station. France and West Germany built another power/desalination facility. Belgium furnished a power station, and West Germany contracted to lay power cables. Yugoslavia built three such stations and undertook the expansion of another plant and of the power network.






49

The United States provided a number ofBoeing airplanes. Britain undertook a road study and a design project, and furnished refrig'era-.
tio oppressors and irrigation pumps. British firms agreed to con struct a petrochemical complex and an ethylene plant. Italy provided patrol boats, an. oil refinery, and agreed to expand another refining lAant. She also provided a brick factory, equipment for a furniture Factory, and cold storage units. Technical assistance wvas gvnt Libyan oceanographic research station, and a scientific and technical protocol was signed. In addition to the power related projects, West
Grany contracted to build a cement plant, an iron and steel com-. plex, the laying of telephone lines, and the provision of oil rigs. An economic and technical agreement was ratified. IFrance furnished Libya with various tankers for both water and oil and conducted a water resources survey. Military hardware, in the form of Mirage F-I jet fighters, was also provided by the French. Spain signed three trade agreements, Holland furnished Fokker airplanes, and Austria supplied ninety buses. Japanese companies agreed to construct temporary wharfs and to provide an oil tanker.
The Soviet Union concluded a massive arms transaction with Libya which furnished between $800 million and $1,000 million worth of equipment including aircraft, missiles, tanks, and armored personnel carriers. In addition, a nuclear reactor was contracted for and two protocols were signed, one for economic and technical cooperation and the other for industrial and technical cooperation. Rumania participated in the building of two housing projects, the construction of an oil refinery, and a land reclamation project. Yugos. lavia drilled water wells and furnished experts for technical assistance in the industrial, oil, and development areas. That country also undertook the construction of seven ports and a harbor, as well as the power stations as mentioned previously. A Joint Commission for Planning and Development was established.
Hungrary signed a scientific and technical agreement and an industrial agreement. She also furnished five ferry boats and performed a railroad technical design study. The drilling of water wells was undertaken by Bulgraria, and Poland furnished technical expertise through bridge and road building, and also supplied cable. East Germany ratified an economic, industrial and scientific agreement and a trade agreement.

QATAR
Qatar is a small arid country juttinor into the Persian Gulf. The majority of its 4,000 square miles is desert, waste, or urban. Oil is the main component of the economy, accounting for $2.0 billion in revenue in 1974. The GNP for 1974 was $1.6 billion. The primary export was crude oil (see above figure) and non-oil ox ports estimated for 1974, amounted to $19 million. Imports totaled $265 milhln There is farmingr on a limited scale and commercial fishing is incr-easing, i~n importance. z
Technology transfer to Qatar was minimal over the six years studied, Britain was the major participant in all transfer activities and the pri.. mary emphasis of the transfers was in industrial technology.
1970-- Transfer activity in 1970 was undertaken by Britain which poided anti-aircraft missiles, a desalination plant, water pumps,






50

loading equipment, plant motors, steel building materials, and heat ,exchangers and compressor intercoolers for a fertilizer complex. British
-firms also contracted for the construction of a jetty and the development of the country's telephone system.
1971.-In 1971 Britain furnished the expertise for the design and ,construction of a cement plant.
1972.-In 1972, a British firm agreed to build and equip a natural
-gas facility.
1973.-1973 saw the involvement of the British in the expansion of a cement plant, and the involvement of the Japanese in the
-construction of a transmission station.
1974.-Italian firms worked as consultants on three water study projects in 1974. Britain furnished patrol boats to Qatar and provided technical training in the use and maintenance of this equipment.
1975.-There was a small increase in the extent of technology transferred in 1975 but again the amount was minimal. Britain was the major source of technology and furnished planning and designs for an oil refinery, the expansion of an urea and ammonia plant, .and the installation of an automatic telex exchange. Japan was involved in land reclamation work, and the United States agreed to construct a steel plant. Switzerland contracted to install electricity switching gear including nineteen substations and thirty-four transformers.
SAUDIARABIA
Saudi Arabia covers about four-fifthis of the Arabian Peninsula and encompasses approximately 900,000 square miles. One percent ,of the land is used in agriculture, and 98 percent is desert, waste or urban. The GNP is growing at an annual rate of approximately 30 p~ercent. Petroleum production is the major industry with cement, steel and light industries expanding. Estimated 1974 exports totaled
-$31.4 billion, 99 percent of which were petroleum or petroleum products. Imports amounted to $3.6 billion. Forty percent of the labor force is engaged in agricultural work, 12 percent in construction, 11 percent in commerce, 12 percent in services and 12 percent in government.
1970.-The major thrust of technology transfer activity in 1970 was irrigation. France furnished equipment for the construction of a water network and Italy contracted for the design and construction of a desalination plant. Another desalination plant was agreed to by a, West German firm and the United States contracted to build two other such facilities.
Britain was involved in aviation-related technology transfer. British firms provided technical assistance for commercial aviation operations and supplied various aircraft and parts. Lightning jet fighters were furnished and the building of runways and the provision of technical facilities at various defense sites were undertaken. 'Britain also furnished a sewage treatment plant, electrical equipment, a power station, and conducted a study for a comprehensive development plan for the western area of Saudi Arabia. Belgium contracted for the supply and installation of a telex network, and the United ,States provided a sulphur processing plant.






51

The United Nations offered support for technical training and research.
1971.-In 1971 there were transfers of technologies in the area of
-irrigation by Britain, West Germany and Italy. One British company .completed work on an irrigation and drainage project and another firm contracted for the design of a drink-ing water system. West Germany supplied water pumping equipment for a pumping station,
-and an Italian company agreed to construct a dam.
In the area of communications, France worked on a telephone net-work, and Norway participated in the preparation of a coaxial cable telecommunications system. Military technology was acquired from France which supplied tanks, and from the United States which furnished two squadrons of jet fighters.
British firms participated in additional aspects of technology transfer. An electrical power system for a university campus and
-another system for a hospital were made available by British companies. Machine valves were supplied, a mining survey undertaken, and technical assistance in locust control was offered. West Germany provided technical training and the United States furnished cornmerical airplanes and made a development loan available to finance their purchase.
1972.-The level of transfer in 1972 remained the same as the preceding years. In the communications field, the United States set up a television network system, as did the British. Sweden contracted to supply a telephone network. Contrary to the previous years there were no instances of irrigation technology transfer.
Strikemaster jet trainers were furnished by Britain for training of the Saudi Air Force. British firms also supplied industrial equipment, a power grid system, electrical equipment, and numerous power substations. Technical assistance in the locating of locusts by satellite was made available. The United States provided computers and a development loan for application to oil drilling equipment. Drilling
-equipment was also furnished by Dutch companies who, in addition, agreed to perform a planning survey. Both West Germany and Italy undertook the construction of roadways.
The United Nations provided technical aid for new town planning.
1973.-An increase in the amount of technology transferred took place in 1973. Japan emerged as a participant in transfer activity, although that country did not get fully involved until the following year. Again the interest in irrgato adcmunicain eae
technologies continued.
France participated in the transfer of irrigation technology by providing for the installation of water carrying pipes. Britain furnished sewage pumping equipment and the United States contracted to provide a sewage treatment plant and a water supply network. Four pumping stations and a sewage project were undertaken by West German companies. Canada conducted a water resources planning project. Communications technology was made available by Britain in the form of radio transmission equipment and by Italy which furnished a microwave, coaxial cable project.
The British supplied helicopters for military use, an air defense .support system, and four diesel engines for four power stations.







Italy built a tire retreading plant and West Germany performed technical and design studies for gas pipelines. A transportation study was executed by Norway and a power station was contracted for from Switzerland. The United States furnished Phantom jet fighters, and conducted a petrochemical complex feasibility study and a transportation study. Technical assistance for agricultural services was furnished. Canada installed an instrument landing system for commercial aircraft, A Japanese firm constructed a petrochemical complex, and a JapaneseSaudi Joint Economic Cooperation Committee was established.
197.-Tn 1974 the levels of technology transfer continued to increase. Among the countries which showed the greatest expansion of transfer activity were the United States and Japan. Communications and irrigation technology continued to elicit interest, and the United States and France became the major suppliers of military technology.
Irrigation projects were undertaken by a British company which contracted for the construction of one such project on the Wadi Jizan plain, and by a West German firm which furnished a desalination plant. In the area of communication, the United States performed a telecommunication study which resulted in a five year plan, and provided technical assistance to the Saudi's for a ground communications system. France furnished the expertise and equipment for a color television system and Japan contracted for the construction of two ground stations.
The United States furnished numerous types of military hardware. Included in the transfers were guns, missiles, troop carriers, and howitzers. France also supplied arms including tanks, armored cars, antitank and anti-aircraft missiles, and Mirage jets.
Other types of technology transfers also took place. American firms agreed to design and equip a lube oil plant, an oil refinery, and three flour and feed mills. An airport was built with American expertise and two airbuses were furnished. An economic, technical and industrial agreement was signed. France conducted a railroad development survey in conjunction with the United States and Britain provided power generation equipment. Geological and mineral experts were made available to Saudi Arabia -by the Canadians, and Japan agreed to aid in mineral development. Japan also contracted to construct a petrochemical complex and a.pipe plant. Economic and technical cooperation agreements were signed by Finland and by Japan. Denmark ratified an industrial, technical and scientific agreement.
1975.-The levels of technology transfer from the Western countries continued to increase in 1975. Industrial and power related technology continued to receive the major attention as did irrigation technology. Military technology was furnished by the United States and Britain. The United States provided F-5E Tiger II jet fighters, built a military base, agreed to the expansion of the Saudi Navy, and furnished additional fighter planes with backup training and maintenance. The British supplied Air Force support equipment and flight trainers.
Industrial technology was transferred from numerous Western nations. The United States contracted for the construction and design of a petrochemical plant, a sulphur recovery plant, and an electric





53

and telephone cable factory. Another American company undertook a feasibility study for an aluminum plant. The design of a cable factory and the construction of a plant to renew commercial tires were furnished by Great Britain. West Germany undertook the building of three cereal mills and a vehicle assembly plant, while France supplied a cement factory. Another cement plant was provided by Switzerland, and Holland agreed to establish a petrochemical complex. Japan built a pipe manufacturing factory.
Technology for power production was also a major area of transfer activity. A gas turbine power plant, a steam generation facility and power machinery were furnished by the United States which also contracted to design and construct a power/desalination project. Britain agreed to expand a power/desalination plant. West Germ an and Japanese companies worked together on a power/desalination plant. West Germany also provided equipment for power stations and agreed to expand two power networks. Japan supplied eighity-six generating units, and Switzerland furnished gas turbines for power generation.
Britain was the prime source of irrigation technology. Two water supply projects, an irrigation project, the engineering of a desalination plant, the design and construction of another, and pumping and drainage equipment were all furnished by British firms. West Germany set up a water pumping station and an irrigation/power project. A French firm undertook the design of a desalination plant. Japan agreed to construct another desalination plant along with the establishment of an irrigation/power project in conjunction with West Germany.
The United S-tates provided for various other technology transfers. In the gas related area, American firms furnished compressors f or a gas gathering and processing network and engineering work on a gas development program. A computer and microfilm information sy stem was establishedI and a port congestion study was -performed. A U.S.Saudi Commission on Cooperation was established, and a technical cooperation agreem ent signed. The British furnished aviation services, a mining survey was conducted, and engineering services for an oil pipeline and pumping station were made available. Britain also conducted a port construction study, a port expansion study and agreed to the design and construction of another port. Dock cranes, road building machinery and excavators were also furnished.
France contracted to provide two nuclear reactors, and for the expansion of one Saudi port. Britain and France jointly contracted to provide two Concorde airplanes. An oil tanker and maintenance platforms were furnished by Japanese companies while the Japanese government signed an economic and technical agreement. Holland undertook the design of an airport and the construction of an oil refinery while Italy ratified an economic agreement.













CATEGORICAL LISTINGS OF INDIVIDUAL TECHNOLOGY TRANFER TRANSACTIONS
This section contains a categorical listing of the actual transfers. It is arranged by year, by recipient- country, by supplier nation and by the 4ype of transfer affected. It should be noted that the transactions may overlap in various categories, but are only listed once in that area which is deemed most appropriate.
To reiterate, the categorical listings are as follows:
Agreements and protocols
Agriculture
Arms-military hardware, training, and assistance
Aviation-commercial
Building and housing
Committees and commissions
Communications-telex, telephone, satellites, and so forth
Computers
Development loans
Gas
Industrial facilities
Industrial processing. facilities
Irrigation-desalination plants, water supply and storage, land
reclamation
Machinery and equipment-products and parts
Mining-studies, surveys, and development
Nuclear technology
Oil
Planning-studies
Power-Stations, equipment, and networks
Shipping and ports
Technical assistance
Technical training
Transportation-land
The monetary values of the transfer transactions are shown where available. To assist in conversions to U.S. currency the following table is provided:
AVERAGE YEARLY EXCHANGE RATES CONVERSION TABLE t
1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975
British pound (X) (U.S. dollars per pound)..------- 2.3960 2.4441 2.5018 2.4522 2. 3390 2.2218
Egyptian pound (EE) (U.S. dollars per pound)---- 2. 3000 2. 3000 2. 3000 2. 5343 2. 5556 2. 5b56
Iraqi dinar (ID)2 (U.S. dollars per dinar) ---------- 2. 8000 3.0400 3.0400 3. 3778 3. 3778 3. 3778
Kuwaiti dinar (KD) (U.S. dollars per dinar) -------- 2. 8000 2.8200 3.0472 3.3919 3. 4,04 3. 4483
Libyan dinar (LD)'Pound (.LLIB)2 3 (U.S. dollars per dinar/pound)--------------------- 2.8030 3.0400 3.0400 3. 3778 3.3778 3. 3778
Saudi Arabian riyal 2 riyalss per U.S. dollar)-. ------ 4. 5000 4.4708 4.1500 3.6900 3. 5500 3. 5176
I International Financial Statistics, vol XXIX, No. 6. Washington, D.C., International Monetary Fund IJune 1976]. I Average exchange rate on the last working day of the year. I The Libyan Government altered its currency terminology from Libyan pound to Libyan dinar on Sept. 1, 1971.
(55)





56

1970
ABU DHABI-1970 Britain
Oil:
Order for fabricated materials for two crude-oil storage tanks*
(Sep)
Power:
Power station. (Jul)
Communications:
Contract for the supply of mobile HF SSB radio-telephone
equipment for police and security forces. (Dec) Japan
Oil:
Contract for export terminal. (Jan) Oil refinery feasibility study. (Apr)
ALGERIA-1970
United States
Aviation:
Order for two Boeing 727s. (Feb)
Development Loans:
$8,038,392 lent to finance purchase of locomotives. (Oct)
Industrial Facilities:
Contract for an agricultural machinery production plant.
(Jan)
Mi nin
Contract to carry out subterranean exploration. (Oct)
Transportation:
Purchase of 29 diesel-electric locomotives. (Sep) Belgium
Agreements:
Economic and technical cooperation agreement sipe& (Mar)
Industrial Facilities:
16.4 million glass plant. (Mar)
Technical Assistance:
Technical aid for economic development. (Apr) Britain
Development Loans:
96 million loan for construction of two gas recovery plants.
(Jun)
zC5.76 million loan for gas separation plant. (Nov)
Industrial Facilities:
zC20 million contract for design and construction of a cold
rolling mill. (Apr)
zC1.5 million contract for design and construction of paper
and board mill. (Apr)
Industrial Process Facilities:
Two liquid petroleum gas recovery plants. (Feb)
Contract for an oxygen plant for an liron and steel complex.
(Jun)
zC9.6 million gas separation plant. (Oct)






57

Machinery and Equipment:
155,000 contract for three direct-fire process heaters for a
petrochemical complex. (Jan)
1.75 million contract for supply of paper mill machinery.'
(Jan)
Mining:
Provision of advisory services for the exploitation of coal
deposits. (Apr)
Planning:
A feasibility study for an aluminum smelting complex. (Feb) Canada
Industrial Facilities:
Contract for cement plant. (Feb) France
Communications:
C757,575 contract for building of telephone centers. (Jul)
Industrial Facilities:
60 million automobile factory. (Jul)
Industrial Process Facilities:
2.4 million contract for a phosphate-cleansing plant. (Jum)
Power:
Supply of a complete and operable power station. (Sep)
Equipment for a thermal power station with Czechoslovakia :

Ships:(Ag
Construction of a gas tanker port with West Germany and
Spain. (May)
Supply of a methane tanker. (Nov)
Technical Training:.
Helped to set up six technological institutes to offer training
in public works, building, electromechanics, topography
and planning. (Oct)

Italy Support of French teachers and technical advisors. (Sep)
Industrial Facilities:
2.1 million contract to build two vegetable and fruit

Spain canning factories. (Aug)
Ships:
Construction of a gas tanker port with West Germany and
France. (May)
Japan Order for twenty trawlers. (Jun)
Gas:
Construction of a 4.5 million liquefied gas storage center.
(Sep)
Sw~itzerl and
Industrial Facilities:
Contract for the expansion of a cement plant. (Sep)
77-695-76--5





58

West Germany
Industrial Facilities:
SuDDly and construction of a motorcycle and engine plant.
b)
96.8 million contract to provide and install equipment for a
Ships: cement plant. (Oct)
Construction of a gas tanker port with France and Spain.
(May)
V.S.S.Re'
Agreements:
Trade agreement for supply of power station, mme, iiron
smelting and steel making equipment, drills and tankers for
the petroleum industry. (Jan)
Aviation:
Two Mi-6 helicopters for cargo operations. (May)
Industrial Process Facilities:
Aid for the construction of an iron-ore concentration plant.
(Sep)
Oil..
Supply of oil rigs and trammg of Algerians in their use. (Jun) Bulgaria
Agreements:
scientific and technical cooperation agreement was signecl
under which Bulvaria will send experts to Algeria. (Jul)
trade agreement was signed. (Jul)
Committees:
The Algerian-Bulgarian Joint Committee on Economic, Technical and Scientific Cooperation held its sixth session. (Jul)
Development Loans:
$40 million loan provided for industrial and agricultural
development projects.. (Jul) Czechoslovakia
Power:
Equipment for a thermal power station with France. (Aug) East Germany
Industrial Facilities:
Building of an Z11 million engineering complex. (Mar)
Mini ng:
9144)000 contract to develop a program for the maximum
utilization of coal reserves.
Ships:
Supply of twenty trawlers. (Jul)
Transportation:
;C4 million contract for supply of thirty-two electric locomotives. (Jun)
Hungary
Industrial Facilities:
Construction of a canning factory. (Oct)





59

Poland
Agreements:
A trade agreement for machinery and pharmaceuticals signed Rumania
Oil:
Technical aid in oil exploration. (Nov)
Technical Training:
Training of Algerian technicians in the oil field. (Nov) Yugoslavia
Agreements:
A trade protocol was signed. (Jul)
Committees:
Meeting of the Algerian-Yugoslavian Joint Committee on
Scientific and Technical Cooperation. (Jul)
EGYPT--1970
Britain
Computers:
Supply of a 1.25 million computer. (Apr)
Machinery and Equipment:
Supply of insect control machinery. (Oct)
Order for pharmaceutical equipment. (Dec) France
Oil:
Two contracts to survey petroleum offshore installations'.
(Jan)
Italy
Development Loans:
$35 million loan for development projects. (Jun)
Gas:
Work on the exploitation of natural gas.
Irrigation:
JLand reclamation project. Japan
Oil:
Offshore oil drilling contract. (Dec) Spain
Development Loans:
$35 million loan for engineering services, and transportation
and other equipment. (Nov) U.S.S.R.
Agreements:
A trade protocol was signed. (Jan)
An industrial protocol was signed for Soviet aid in development. (Jul)
A long-term trade and economic cooperation agreement
was ratified. (Dec)
'Arms:
SAM-3 anti-aircraft missiles arrived in Egypt. (Mar)
Increase in Soviet arms shipments including amphibious
equipment. (Jul)






60

US.S.R.-Continued
Aviation:
Twelve Tupolev airplanes ordered. (May)
Ten commercial aircraft were purchased for delivery in
1971-1973. (Jun)
Communications:
An artificial satellite tracking station was set up. (Feb)
Industrial Process Facilities:
Contract for the first stage of the construction and design
of the Helwan steel complex. (Sep)
Oil:
Three oil rigs. (Jul)
Technical Assistance:
Technical aid on the construction of six cargo ships and
four trawlers. (Apr)
Ships:
Aid and materials for the construction of thirty-two ships.
(Jun)
Czechoslovakia
Agreements:
A trade protocol was signed to include industrial machinery
and chemical and metallurgical products. (Jan)
Industrial Process Facilities:
Design of a nine-plant petrochemical complex. (Jul)
Irrigation:
MgA f1. 7 million drinking water station. (Nov)
Machinery and Equipment:
Order for 500,000 worth of equipment for the production
of concentrated nitric acid. (Jun)
Power:
Supply of equipment for a thermal power plant. (Jul) Eas Germany
Agreements:
A five-year agreement on scientific and technological cooperation was signed. (Jum)
A trade protocol was ratified. (Jun)
A long-term trade agreement was signed. (Dec)
A technical and scientific agreement was signed. (Dee)
A trade protocol was ratified. (Dec)
Industrial Process Facilities:
Contract for polyethylene plant to be built as part of a
petrochemical complex. (FYeb)
Technical Assistance:
Help in the establishment of a technical center for the control
of industrial production. (Apr) Hfungary
Agreements:
A trade agreement providing for mahinr, engineering installations, and medical and textile industry equipment
was signed. (Nov)
Transportation:
Order for buses. (Nov)
Order for 25 1,000 h.p. diesel-electric locomotives. (Nov)






61

Poland
Agreements:
A trade protocol was ratified. (Aug) Rumania
Agreements:
A trade agreement for the period 1970/71 to 1975/76 was
ratified. (Mar)
A trade protocol was signed which provides for cooperation
in oil prospecting and processing and the production of
industrial goods. (Mar)
A trade protocol was signed for machinery and goods for
the chemical, food and oil industries. (Jul) China (PROC)
Agreements:
A trade protocol was signed. (Max) World Bank
Development Loans: $26 million loan for transportation and
irrigation. (Oct)
IRAN-1970
United States
Aviation:
$18.5 million order for three Boeing 737s. (Jul)
51 million order for 30 Hercules transport aircraft. (Nov)
Communications:
$175 million contract to build communications network;
U.S. in part recipient of contract. (Feb)
Development Loans:
$15.2 million lent to purchase 15 diesel-electric locomotives'
(Apr)
$14.7 million lent to finance part of telecommunications
Oil:system. (Nov)
Company awarded contract to design, engineer and build
Belgium $28 million lubricating oil complex. (Aug)
Agreements:
Industrial and economic cooperation agreement signed.
(Jum)
Britain
Arms:
Multi-million pound contract for mobile air defense radar
and communications systems. ( Jun)
47 million contract for low-level missiles. (Jum)
Aviation:
316,000 order for lightweight aircraft refueling vehicles
and trailers. (Oct)
Cormmniations: $800,000 contract for radio equipment to
improve communications. (May)
Development Loans:
25 million loan for purchase of British capital goods"
(Jun)








Britain-Continued
Gas:
C1,500,000 contract for construction of gas compressor
station. (Sep)
Irrigation:
1.4 million total of orders for desalination, medical, and
other units. (Jul)
Machinery and Equipment:
C50,000 order for 576 10-ton screw jacks for aluminum
plant. (Jul)
C141,000 order for purchase of 50 refuse-collection units.
Oil:(Aug)
500,000 order for eight pump sets. (Jun)
C500,000 contract for protection of the trans-Iranian gas
pipeline transmission main and gathering lines. (Jul)
6.9 million contract to supply equipment to build a lube
oil plant. (Jul)
Power:
C3 million contract to supply power generating equipment.
(Jul)
Transportation:
1.5 million for three orders for commercial vehicles. (Jan) 80 million for extension of car production capacity. (Mar) Can ada
Communications:
$5.4 million contract for provision of microwave facilities
and a computerized supervisory system. (Apr) Trance
Irrigation:
,40 million contract for construction of a dam. (Jan)
Dam site study. (Aug) Italy
Arms:
Order for 16 Boeing-Vertol Chinook Helicopters for Army
and Navy. (Nov)
Committees:
Iran-Italian Chamber of Commerce to be revived. (Dee) Japan
Communications:
$175 million contract to build communications network;
Japan is part recipient of contract. (Feb)
$900,000 contract for creation of communications research
center. (Aug) West Germany
Communi cations:
$175 million contract to build communications network;
West Germany is part recipient of contract. (Feb)
Development Plans:
DM50 million loan for the promotion of small-scale industries. (May)
Industrial Cooperation:
Participation in 18 joint industrial investment projects.
(Aug)






63

U.S.S.R.
Agreements:
Trade and payments agreement signed. (Aug)
Cooperation agreement in developing and expanding ports
ratified. (Nov)
Development Loans.Sixteen million ruble loan for development of communications and laying of.railway tracks. (Mar) Bulgaria
Agreements:
Trade protocol signed; to include supplying farm machinery
and food-processing plants. (Jan)
Aviation:
Supply of crop spraying aircraft under trade protocol of
1970. (Jan)
Czechoslovakia
Power:
Contract to supply two 60-megawatt turbo-gen6rators., Poland
Agreements:
Five-year trade and payments agreement signed. (Jan)
Iran-Polish scientific and technical cooperation agreement
signed; covering cooperation in exchange of experts and
teachers. (Jan)
Economic and trade cooperation' agreement covering the
purchase of three industrial plants. (Nov) Rumania
Transportation:
Supply of railway wagons,* Yugoslavia
Machinery and Equipment:
$19 million contract for equipment and machinery and the
building of over 60 slaughterhouses. (Dec)
Mining':
$5 million contract to conduct survey of copper belt. (Feb) World Bank
Development Loans:
$6 million loan for expansion of electrical power distribution
system. (Nov)
$36 million loan for telecommunications project. (Nov)
IRAQ-1970
Britain
Machinery and Equipment-,
L365,000 order for hot-rolled steel sections for window
frames, doors, and wheels for commercial vehicles. (Apr)
945,200 order for fire fighting and protection equipment.
(Apr)
Oil:
X70,000 order for oil pumping equipment. (Jan)
Transport a tion:
C685,000 order for cars and commercial vehicles. (Apr.)






64

France
Industrial Facilities:
Contract signed for building of an assembly plant for buses.
(Ar)
Industrial Process Facilities:
Protocol signed for operation of petroleum gas plant, utiliOil Ization of liquid gas, and use of pipeline. (Jul)

Spain Contract for construction of oil pipeline. (Jun)
Ships:
Contract to build seven 35,000-dwt oil tankers. (Jum) U.S.S.R.
Agreements:
Protocol on trade and economic cooperation signed for increased cooperation in establishing industrial projects.
(Aug)
Committees:
Agreement signed for formation of Iraqi-Soviet EconomicTechnical Committee to study economic, technical and
trade realtions. (Aug)
Machinery and Equipment:
One million ruble contract signed for supply of roadbuilding machines and grain harvesters. (Jan)
ID 1.1 million agreement signed for supply'for heavy machinery, agricultural equipment vehicles, and spare parts.
(Aug)
Seismological information center equipped by Soviets opened.
(Nov)
$20 million deal to supply Iraq with agricultural equipment.
Oil:(Nov)
Contracts signed for seismological and drilling equipment
Shis:worth $11 million. (May)
Two agreements for surveying of shipping channel and
building of shipyard announced. (Jan)
ID 5 million order for four ships. (Dee)
Technical Traiing:
Oil engineers and technicians arrive in U.S.S.R. for training
courses. (Jan)
ID 125,000 contract signed for training center and trang
of technical staff in U.S.S.R. (Nov) Bulgaria
Agreements:
Agreement signed for scientific, technological, and economic
assistance for industrial installations. (Oct)
Economic and industrial cooperation protocol signed. (Oct)






65

aJeclhoslovakid
Machinery and Equipment:
Oi .Agreement signed for tractor and tractor parts. (Feb)
Agreement signed for the buildn of an ID 22 million oil
refinery. (Apr) East Germanyj
Industrial Facilities:
Contract signd to build a plastic container factory.
Machinery andlEquipment:
Agreements signed for ID 1.6 million worth of industrial
PowI machinery and equipment. (Dec)
Work to begin on ID 2 million electrification project. (Oct) Delivery of 44 power stations equipped with diesel units.
(Dec)
Hungary
Agreements:
Agreement signed to advance credits for purchase of maOil: chinery and factory equipment. (May)
Geologists arrive for oil, survey work. (Jun)
Transportation:
Agreement signed for purchase of 200 buses. (Dee) Poland
Machinery and Equipment:
Polish equipment used in exploitation of sulphur deposits.
(Feb)
YugoslaVi
Power:
ID 392,224 contract signed for supply of electric power.
(Aug)
LIBYA-1970
United States
Industrial Process Facilities:
Joint project to build 1,000-ton-a-day methanol plant. (Jul) Britain
Industrial Process Facilities:
C9 million contract to design and engineer offsite facilities
for a petrochemical complex. (Oct)
Machinery and Equipment:
216,000 contract for supply of mobile generating equipment. (Jul)








France
Agreements:
Agreement to increase cooperation in irrigation, land reclamation, telecommunications, television. (Feb)
Armis:
Purchase of 50 aircraft and announcement of plans to purchase 50 more including bombers, fighters, and reconnaissance jets. (Jan)
Committees:
Joint Commission to promote, economic, technical and cultural cooperation established. (May)
Mining:
CLib 2,253,000 contract for survey of soil and water resources. (Jul)
CLib 2.3 million contract to carry out soil and water studies.
(Oct)
Technical Training:
France to train Libyan Air Force pilots. (Jan) Italy
Industrial Facilities:.
Supply of equipment and know-how towards building of
pharmaceuticals plant. (Mar) U.S.S.R.
Arms:
Deliveries of large quantities of Soviet arms. (Jul)' Yugoslavia
Machinery and Equipment:
Contract to equip medical and scientific institutions. (Mar)
Power:
$9 million contract to build 270-kilometer transmission line.
(Sep)
KUWAIT-i 970 United States
Irrigation:
1 million contract for water equipment for water distribution project. (Aug) Britain
Aviation:
C12,129,000 purchase made for aircraft and parts. (Feb.)
Machinery and Equipment:
126,000 order for security equipment. (Mar) West Germany
Irrigation:
KD 6,233,268 contract for supply of pumping and blending
stations and control center for water distriution project.
(Mar)
Czechoslovakia
Irrigation:
Work started on $10.5 million water tower and water supply
system contract. (Feb)





67

Yugoslavia
Irrigation:
Water tower contract signed. (Feb)
QATAR-1970
Britain
Arms:
Zi million order for Tiger Cat anti-aircraft missiles. (Jan)
Communications:
Proposals submitted for long-term development of telephone
system. (Sep)
Irrigation:
9400,000 contract for installation of desalination plant.'
(Jul)
Machinery and Equipment:
9400,000 order for large circulating water pump. (Jul)
English company to supply two motors for process com.pressor for fertiliser plant. (Jul)
Ll million contract for export and import conveyor systems.
(Sep)
9650,000 order for steelwork and buildings for use in fertilizer
complex. (Oct)
9400,000 order for heat exchangers and compressor intercoolers. (Nov)
Ships: L2 million contract for construction of deep-water jetty.
(Mar)
SAUDI ARADIA-1970 tainted States
Industrial Process Facilities:
Contract for design and construction of sulphur plant. (May)
Irrigation:
SR 55,846,106 contract for operation and maintenance of desalination and generating stations. (Jun)
Contract for supply and installation of equipment for desalination, plant. (Oct) Belgium
Communications:
SR 4,745,178 contract for supply and installation of telex
network. (May) Britain
Arms:
Delivery of three lightning jet fighters for Saudi Air Force.
(Feb)
Aviation:
920 million contract for building runways and accommodations and providing technical facilities. (Jul)
Contract renewed for technical services at several locations.
(Jul)
E4 million purchase of aircraft and parts. (Dee)
Industrial Facilities:
L13 million sewerage system planned. (Nov)





M

Britain-Continued
Machinery and Equipment:
Electrical services contract for hotel and conference center.'
(Jun)
Planning:
9625,000 contract for comprehensive development plan.
(Dec)
Power:
One-year survey on electric power from desalting plant. (Jun) France
Irrigation:
Agreement for supply of pipes for water network. (Oct) Italy
Irrigation:
Design and consulting for desalination plant. (Oct) West Germany
Irrigation:
SR 55 million contract for construction of desalination plant.'
(Oct)
F nited Nations
Technical Training:
Aid in development center for technological research and
training institute. (Feb)
1971
ABU DHABI-1971
Britain
Industrial Process Facilities:
;C350,000 order for design and supply of a gas sweetening
unit & a crude oil hydrogen sulphide removal plant for
new installation. (Jan)
Irrigation:
;C3 million contract for engineering and construction work
of desalination unit. (May) Holland
Communications:
Contract for supply of 120-kilowatt short-wave radio transmitter. (Apr)
ALGERIA-1971
United States
Aviation:
Two Boeing 727-200 aircraft delivered. (Apr)
Development Loans:
$5 million loan received to finance purchase of geophysical
exploration equipment. (Mar)
Industrial Process Facilities:
Contract signed for building of gas liquefaction plant. (Apr)
Transportation:
$10 million agreement for purchase of 29 diesel locomotives.
(Jun)






69

Belgium
Committees:
Mixed commission with Belgium and Algeria met. Britain
Industrial Facilities:
4 million contract awarded for engineering, procurements
construction and commissioning of cement plant. (Dee)
Machinery and Equipment:
130,000 contract to supply ball valves for gas pipelines
(May)
Power:
3 million order for package power plant. (Apr) Italy
Industrial Facilities:
Contract to build seamless-tube plant. (Apr) Japan
Industrial Process Facilities:
$93 million contract to build petro-chemical complex. (Oct)
Ships:
Arrival of tug boats built in Japan. (Jun) West Germany
Industrial Facilities:
Contract to build dry battery manufacturing plant. (Mar)
Plant to produce diesel engines, tractors, etc. to be built
(May)
DM 250 million contract to build electrical goods factory
(Aug)
Planning:
Contract for a pollution study. (Nov)
Ships:
Contract for four cargo ships. (Apr) Sweden
Industrial Facilities:
Two contracts for construction of building-materials factory'
(Jan)
U.S.S.R.
Committees:
Meeting of Joint Commission with Soviet Union on Scientifie
and Technical Cooperation. (Nov)
Industrial Facilities:
Increase in capacity of steel works. (Nov)
Irrigation:
Protocol signed for cooperation in water and irrigation proj.
ects and building of six dams. (Jan)
Mining:
Seven-year contract for geological surveys, completion of
geological surveys, completion of geological maps and establishment of inventory of Algerian mineral wealth.
(May)
Technical Cooperation:
Contract to provide 120 hydraulics engineers. (Jun)






70

Bulgaria
Committees:
Seventh session held of Mixed Commission on Economic,
Scientific, and Technical Cooperation. (Oct) Czechoslovakia
Agreements:
Agreement signed for cultural and technical exchange. (Jun) Hungary
Agreements:
Scientific and technical cooperation agreement signed providing equipment and tr ining for variety of projects.
(Nov)
Committees:
Scientific and Technical Cooperation Committee set up.
(Dee)
Poland
Ships:
Agreement signed for design of shipyard. (Jan) Rumania
Technical Assistance:
.50 Rumanian hydraulics experts to begin work. (May)
Transportation:
Order for two locomotives to improve transportation. (Apr) Phina (PRC)
Agreements:
Long-term trade agreement signed. (Nov)
EGYPT--1971
United States
Oil:
X 1. 5 million contract for supply of floating oil hose for
tanker terminals. (Aug), Britain
Agreements:
Technical cooperation agreement signed. (Dec) France
Technical Training:
15 scientists and technicians to receive training in use of
French equipment. (Aug) Italy
Oil:
$30 million pledge of the cost of oil pipeline confirmed. (Feb)
-Japan
Oil:
Ei ht European countries and Japan COMDlete final plans
for financing construction of oil pipeline. -Nov)






71

West Germany
Transportation:
Manufacture of engines, lories and buses. (Apr) U.S.S.R.
Agreements:
1175 million agreement on economic and technical cooperation. (Mar)
Economic and technical cooperation 'protocol signed. (Dee)
Trade cooperation agreement.
Aviation:
National airline to receive 12 Soviet-made Ilysuhin 62s and
TU 154s. (Dee)
Development Loans:
280 million roubles to finance most projects 1%in Egypt's
third five-year plan. (Mar)
Industrial Facilities:
LE 65 million aluminum plant. (Nov)
Irrigation:
Soviet technicians to be used to Iconstruct series of major
dams. (Apr)
Power:
Soviet aid for electrification of rural areas and land recla ma-.
tion. (Jan)
Contract signed for equipment for rural electrification scheme
worth 15 million roubles. (Apr)
Technical Cooperation:
Technical experts expected to investigate two cement factories. (Apr)
Technical Training:
Russian technicians- expected under rural electrification
program. (Jan) Bulgar ma
Agreements:
Protocol signed for cooperation in heavy industry. (Dec) Czechoslovakia
Industrial Process Facilities:
Plans for petrochemical complex supplied. (May)
Machinery and Equipment:
Contract signed for 20 automatic tea-packing machines and
two loose material packers. (Feb) East Germany
Agreements:
Trade protocol signed-under protocol supply of machines
and equipment for textile and metallurgical industries,
agriculture and road building. (Dee)
Industrial Process Facilities:
Preparation of detailed technical designs of projected
petro-chemical complex. (Jul)





72

Hiungary
Agreements:
Five-year economic cooperation agreement signed. (Jan)
Five-year agricultural cooperation agreement signed. (Dec) Two-year technological and scientific cooperation agreement
signed. (Dee) g
Protocol on development of industrial and economic cooperation signed. (Dec)
Committees:
Intergovernmental mixed economic' cooperation committee
met.
Machinery and Equipment:
$750,000 contract for supply of electric signalling system for
Sluice system and for construction of three further complete
sluice systems. (Nov) Po rand
Agreements:
Trade protocol signed providing for more trade in machinery
and installations. (Mar)
'Industrial Cooperation:
Assistance in construction of industrial projects and expansion of economic cooperation. (Jun)
M in in g:
$30 million worth of mining equipment under phosphate
mining scheme. (Jan)
Technical Cooperation:
Expansion of trade and technical cooperation. (Jun) Rumania
Agreements:
$30 million trade protocol signed to supply Egypt with
machinery and equipment. (Dec)
Development Loans:
$100 million loan for financing development projects. (Dec),
Technical Cooperation:
Cooperation in scientific research and exchange-of technical
skills. (Jun)
Mining:
Agreement on cooperation in phosphate mining. (Feb) China (PRO)
Agreements:
Trade protocol signed and instruments for extension of the
trade and payments agreements exchanged. (Aug) Yugoslavia
Oil:
Cooperation with oil refining, loading and unloading, and
shipbuilding. (Apr) United Nations
Development Loans:
$2 million grant for equipment and technical assistance for
rural development. (May)





73

World Bank
Development Loans:
$26 million loan to finance drainage system. (Jan)
$30 million loan for updating railway system. (May)
IRAN-1971
United States
Development Loans:
$27 million loan for the purchase of American goods and
services for expansion of national telecommunications
system. (Jun)
$30,306,856 loan for sale of U.S. equipment for crude oil
pipeline. (Aug)
$3.6 million loan for purchase of three compressor units.
(Dee)
Belgium
Agreements:
Protocol on industrial cooperation signed. (Jan)
Ships:
Ship for national shipping lines launched from Belgium.
(Jul)
Britain
Arms:
Decision to sell Z20 million worth of Chieftain tanks. (Jan).
180 million chieftain battle tanks deal. (Jul)
1500,000 contract for Clansman system which will form
part of an integrated air defense system. (Oct)
Industrial Facilities:
$4.2 million contract for building of garbage-processing
plant. (Feb)
Machinery and Equipment:
Order for three compressor units. (Dee)
Supply of pickling and burnishing line for treatment of
coinage blanks for mint. (Dee)
Power:
110 million contract for supplying a 145-megawatt thermal
Italy power station. (Jul)
Industrial Facilities:
Oil: Announcement to build cracking plant. (Dee)
Contract to build three pumping stations. (Dee) Japan
Agreements:
Agreement to cooperate *in oil gas machine, building, iron
and steel, forestry and mil"11 Dr)
Industrial Facilities: I ,
AnD uncement of IR 2,000 million steel plant agreement
with companies from West Germany, Japan, Switzerland.
(Jan)
77-695--76 6






074

West Germany
Industrial Facilities:
Announcement of IR 2,000 million steel plant agreement
with companies from West Germany, Japan, Switzerland.
(Jan)
Power:
13 million contract for supply of power generating and
transmission equipment. (Sep) Switzerland
Industrial Facilities:
Announcement of IR 2,000 million steel plant with companies from West Germany, Japan, and Switzerland. (Jan) U.S.S.R.
Agreements:
Scientific and technical cooperation agreement signed for
exchange of scientists, technological specialists and lecturers aind scientific and technical information. (Mar)
Machinery and Equipment:
Dispatch of 3,000 tons of metal girders to metallurgical
works. (Dee)
Ships:
Delivery of six fishing boats. (Dee) Bulgaria
Agreements:
Trade agreement signed. (May)
Protocol on agricultural cooperation signed. (May) Czechoslovakia
Power:
Order of three sing-cylinder condensing turbines with generators for power station. (Dec) Hungary
Agriculture:
Plans for three agro-industrial joint ventures. (Apr.) Rumania
Agreements:
Technical cooperation agreement signed on various water
and electricity projects. (Mar)
Decisions to expand economic and technical cooperation in
mining, petroleum forestry, electric power generating and
industrial production. (Aug)
Protocol signed providing closed cooperation for manufac-,
ture of electric motors and in planning for establishment
of food-processing factories. (Sep)
Draft agreement signed on two general. economic cooperation
programs. (Dec)
Committees:
Joint committees on economic and technical cooperation met.
Machinery and Equipment:
$1.2 million contract for machinery and equipment for
installation in six grain silos. (Jul) C








Mining:
Joint venture with Rumania for copper exploration and
exploitation. (Aug) Yugoslavia
Committees:
Announcement of joint chamber of commerce to increase
economic cooperation between the two countries. (Dee)
Oil:
Tentative agreement for* construction of oil refinery. (Nov) World Bank
Development Loans:
$60 million loan to meet foreign exchange requirements of
projects for expanding electric power network. (Jan)
$175 million loan for five development projects. (Dec)
IRAQ-1971 United States
Computer:
ID 850,000 contract for computer for use in nuclear research. (Sep) Britain
Arms:
000 contract for suppl' of 27 diesel generating sets
as part of defense contract. (Oct)
Communications:
S250,000 in contracts for supply of television broadcasting
equipment. (Mar)
Irrigation:
,960,000 order for supply of chlorinators for public water
supplies. (Oct)
Machinery and Equipment:
E2.25 million order for supply of hot-rolled steel window
sections. (Jan) France
Oil:
Plan approved for deep-water loading terminal in Gulf.
(May)
Italy
Industrial Facilities:
Contract for construction of cigarette factory. (Sep)
ID 500,000 agreement for construction of asbestos factory.
(Dee)
Oil:
Completion of prelinunary pipeline survey. (Sep) Japan
Technical Assistance:
Technical aid in manufacturing sugar from dates. (Jan)






76

Spain
Development Loans:
$20,251,000 loan to finance partial cost of three ships being
built. (Jul)
Industrial Facilities:
Agreement for supply of spiral tube mill., (Oct)
Ships:
Plans approved for purchase of seven dwt tankers for use
in transporting crude oil. (Jun) Swame
Communications:
ID 1,165,000 contract for installation of telephone land
cables. (Nov)
Switzerland
Industrial Process Facilities:
Completion of technical surveys of $300 million gas exploitation project. (N~ov). U.S.S.R.
Agreements:
&.Technical cooperation protocol signed. (Sep)
Arms:
Military cooperation agreement signed. (Dec)
Committees:
2nd session of standing committee for Soviet-Iraqi Economic
and Technical Cooperation.
Development Loans:
200 million ruble loan to finance Russian built projects-oil
refinery, oil pipeline,' power stations, phosphate mine,
fertilizer plant. (Apr)
Irrigation:
Completion of studies for construction of dam. (Mar)
Machinery and Equipment:
$20 million purchase of equipment for roadbuilding, agri-.
culture, irrigation and land reclamation. (Feb)
ID 1, 173,1000 order for spare parts for agricultural equipment.
(Mar)
Protocol signed for supply of equipment and materials,
transport cranes and spare parts. (Jul)
ID 1,300,000 contract for excavators to complete digging
of canal (Nov)
Minning:
Evaluation of work -on geological and -topographical surveys
Oil:for dam done by Soviet organization. (May)
Soviets, to build oil refinery. (Aug)
Protocol of cooperation for development of oil-field and
construction of canal. (Aug)
Planning:
Engineers to prepare technical studies for building of canal.
(Oct)
Power:
ID 11 million contract for expansion of power plant. (Nov)






77,

Technical Assistance:
30 Soviet oil experts arrived to give technical assistance in
laying oil pipeline. (Jan)
Technical Traiing:
Soviet aid in setting up training center for training machine
operators in agriculture, and to provide specialists to
assist in training Iraqi instructors. (Sep)
Transportation:
Contract to deliver 40 Maz-503 trucks. (Oct) Bulgaria
Agreements:
Economic protocol signed. (Oct)
Committees:
4th session of Joint Bulgarian-Iraqi Economic and Technical Committee.
Development Loans:
E5 million loan for technical aid in the search for minerals.
(Jan)
East Germany
Agreements:
Trade protocol signed. Protocols signed for implementing a
Powr:technical and economic cooperation agreement. (Dec)
ID 2,241,429 supply of materials and equipment for power
network (Feb)
Transportation:
HunaryID 2 million supply of 770 railway wagons. (Jan)
Agreements:,
Technical and scientific cooperation agreement signed to give
assistance with industrial development. (Jan)
Committees:
Joint high-level committee decided on to supervise implementation of economic, trade and technical agreements.
(Dee)
Industrial Facilities:
ID 1.38 million contract signed for electric light bulb factory.
(Dec)
Oil:
PolandHungarian organization to begin oil drillig. (May)
Ships:
$3.43 million contract for 200 railway tankers to transport
Yugslaialiquid sulphur. (Feb)
Power:
Completion of $3.65 million erection of two power lines. (Mar) China (PRO)
Agreements:
Trade and economic cooperation agreement signed. (Jun) World Bank
Development Loans:
$27.5 million loan for expansion of telecommunications
network. (Sep)





78

KUWAIT-1971 U.S.S.R.
Ships:
Ocean-going dry-cargo vessel built for Kuwait. (Dee) CZechoslovakia
Agreements:
Agreement signed on educational, scientific and cultural
cooperation. (Jul) Hungary
Agreements:
Cultural and scientific cooperation agreement signed. (Jun)
Machinery and Equipment:
$2 million contract for equipment for five electricity substations. (May)
Transportation:
$4 million contract for supply of 200 buses. (Jul), Yugoslavia
Irrigation:
Completion of work on construction of pumping station..
(Se .p)
LIBYA-1971 United States
Aviation:
Delivery of two 727-200 Boeing aircraft. (Mar)
Irrigation:
Contract to build desalination plant. (Nov) Britain
Aviation:
C200,000 contract signed to train 30 pilots. (Apr)
Machinery and Equipment:
Order for medical equipment worth 96,000. (Jul)
Power:
,265,000 contract for 21 generators for mobile hospitals.
(Oct)
France
Arms:
IDelivery of four Mirage-IJIB training aircraft. (Apr)
Mining:
Contract signed for exploitation of iron-ore deposits. (Jun)
Technical Training:'
Ital Training of personnel for oil industry. (Jul)
Industrial Facilities:
tLib 1. 1 million contract for construction of flour mill. (Mar)
Oil:
CLib 24,852,185 contract for construction of refinery and
U.S..R.lube oil plant. (Jun)
Technical Assistance:
Soviet oil experts arrive to analyze oil reserves. (Oct);






791

Bulgaria
Agreements:
Two agreements and three protocols providing increased
.,cooperation in trade and technical assistance signed. (Mar) Yugoslavia
Irfigati*oll:,
Feasibility study for construction of three dams. -(Sep)
Transportation:
Contract for purchase of 60 buses. (Mar)
QATAR-1971
Britain
Industrial Facilities:
Contract for the construction of a cement plant.
SAUDI ARABIA-1971 United States
Arms:
E146 million contract for two squadrons of American
Northrop F-5-jet fighters. (Jul)
Aviation:
Contract signed for delivery of five Boeing 737s. (Jul)
Development Loans:
Biitain $13.4 million loan for purchase of five Boeing 737s. (Oct)
Irrigation:
Completion of work on second stage of irrigation drainage
project. (May)
Machinery and Equipment:
X1.20,000 orders for supply of steel gate valves. (Dee)
Mining:
X200,000 two-year contract for survey work and installation
of tide guages and magnetic monitors. (Aug)
Power:
E750,000 contract for installations involving lighting and
power for 12 buildings, a translation system, laboratory
installations, external works. (Jul)
Two contracts worth Z 1.75 million for electric services.
(Sep)
Technical Assistance:
Experts to be provided to carry out research in locust control and extermination. (Jan) France
Arms:
Purchase plans for French AMX-30 medium tanks. (Oct)
Communications:
SRI 11) 531,650 five-year contract for maintenance, operation
and repair of telephone exchanges. (Sep)






80

Italy
Irrigation:
SR 24.7 million contract to build dam. (Aug) Norway
Communications:
Contract for preparation of specifications for 'cable telecommunications project. (Oct) West Germany
Machinery and Equipment:
Contract for supply of mechanical and electrical equipment
for water, pumping station and reservoir. (Sep)
Technical Trainin~g:
36 students return from two-year technical training course.
(Jan)
1972
ABU DHABI-1972 Britain
Communications:
Supply of two 10,000, 200-line private telephone exchanges.
Irrigation:
Contract awarded for supply of a sea-water distillation

Ships: plant. (June)
C18 million harbor, planned by British firm of consultants,
opened. (June) France
Arms:
Purchase of 12 Mirage-5 fighter bombers worth $15 million.
(Jul)
Oil:
$10 million contract for development of off-shore facilities.
(Sept)
ALGERIA-1972
United States
Aviation:
Delivery of fourth Boeing aircraft, convertible 73 7-200.
(Nov)
Computers:
Purchase of computer hardware systems, software and
technical services worth $5.8 million. (Feb)
Development Loans:
$524,115 loan for economic and technical feasibility study
on construction of pipeline to carry natural gas. (Jan)
$2,465,000 loan to finance purchase of computer hardware and software systems and technical services. (Feb)
$ 1,534,650 loan to finance part of cost of feasibility study
for agricultural and industrial projects. (Sept)
$2.8 million loan to finance 40% of cost of Boeing 737-200.
(Dec)








Irrigation:
US firm to undertake iriation scheme worth $50 million.
Gas:(May)
Completion of feasibility study of pipeline project. (Oct)
Transportation:
Contract for supply of 25 diesel-electric locomotives. (Dee) Belgium
Agreements:
Technical aid agreement signed. (Jul) Britain~
Computers:
18,000 contract for installation of environmental control
systems for computer -equipment being installed. (Feb)
Industrial -Facilities:
215 million contract to build pulp and paper mill awarded to
British and French firms. (Mar)
Oil:
10,000 contract to install monitoring equipment on
oil pipelines. (Feb)
Ships:
500,000 contract for installation of pipework on main pier
France at port. (June)
Communications:
Contract to suply telecommuniations, system for gas
pipeline being built(D)
Industrial Facilities:
15 million contract to build pulp and paper mill awarded
to British and French firms. (Mar)
Machinery and Equipment:
Contract for supply of 200 dump trucks. (Aug)
Transportation:
Inauguration of work on car plant to be built by French
firm. (Oct)
Italy,
Gas:
Italian firm main contractor for pipeline project. (Apr) Italian companies to construct pipeline to carry natural gas.
(Oct) I
Transportation:
Contract for supply of 23 diesel-powered passenger coaches.

Spain (May)
Ageements.Economic and financial cooperation agreement signed. (Jul) U.S.S.R.
Agreements:
Three-year trade agreement signed under which Algeria will
import machinery and equipment and other products.
(Feb)






82

U.S.S.R.-Continued
Committees:
Economic, Technical, Scientific Cooperation Commission
met.
Industrial Facilities:
U.S.S.R. to begin work on increasing capacity of steel
plant. (Sep)
Industrial Process Facilities:
Soviet technicians expected to put lead and zinc plant into
operation. (Nov)
Completion of work on mercury-refining works. (Nov)
Minig:
Agreement for technical aid in geological research and prosPowr:pecting schemes. (Dec)
U.S.S.R. to help in construction of hydro-electric schemes
which will involve building of 21 dams. (Sep)
Transportation:
Contract for further supply of 2,000 cars. (Aug) Bulgaria
Machinery and Equipment:
Purchase of 302 caterpillar tractors. (Apr) Czechoslovakia
Agreements:
Economic cooperation agreement signed. (Mar)
Trade agreement signed. (Oct) East Germany
Agreements:
Agreement on commercial exchanges and scientific and technical cooperation signed. (Gct)
Committees:
Joint Algerian-East German committee to increase economic,
Hungaryscientific and technical cooperation formed. (Nov)
Agreements:
Trade agreement ratified and a protocol which designates
trade increases within 2-year period signed. (Jan)
Scientific and cultural cooperation agreement signed. (June)
Irrigation:
Agreement on cooperation in hydraulics was reached. (May) Rumania
Committee:
Agreement dealing with establishment of Joint Commission
for Economic, Scientific, and Technical Cooperation signed.
(Mar)
Mining:
Mineral experts working in Algeria. (Mar) China (PRO)
Irrigation:
Agreement reached for China to search for water and to
drill water wells. (Aug)






83'

EGYPT-i1972
United States
Aviation:
BriainPurchase of four Boeing-707 airliners. (Oct)
Communications:
Opening of 5.5 million submarine telephone cable built by
British company. (Jan)
Technical Assistance:
Agreement concluded recommending increased cooperation
in civil aviation, including exchanges of experts and the training of Egyptian aircraft maintenance workers in
Bri tish7 plants. (Mar) Erane
Computers:
Protocol signed providing for cooperation in preparing for
use in computers. (Apr)
C5.5 million contract for purchase of French computer
system. (Apr)
Industrial Facilities:
Contract signed for supply of sulphuric acid plant by
Rumanian, French, West German, and British firms.
(Jun)
Technical Traiming:
Under agreement signed French will organize series of tramn.Italying courses for Eyptian policemen and technicians. (Apr)
Development Loans:
Long-term loan to finance submarine telephone cable
scheme. (Jan) Japan
Oil:
,Spain $6.65 million contract for drilling 14 oil wells. (Dec)
Agreements:
Three trade protocols signed-one for import of capital
equipment required for development projects, another for purchase of raw materials and. construction goods, and
third for purchasing equipment for pipeline. (Jul)
Industrial Facilities:
Contract to build large-scale bus and lorry manufacturing
plant. (Mar) 'West Germany
Industrial Facilities:
Contract for the supply of a sulph uric acid plant. (Jun) U.S.S.R.
Agreements:
Long-term tradetprotocol signed providing for increase in
trade between te two countries. (Jan)
Agreement signed under which scientists from Egypt and
Soviet Union are to cooperate in field of solar energy,
electronics, metallurgy and fisheries. (Apr)








US.S..-Continued
Agreements-Continued
Protocol on Soviet aid to industrial developm ent signed.
(Jun)
Further protocol on Soviet aid to industrial development
signed. (Jun)
Protocol regulating implementation of power projects in
Egypt with Soviet aid signed. (Sep)
Industrial Facilities:
Soviet Union to supply Egypt with four fine-cotton spinnn
plants and a textile complex for spinning, weaving, dyeing
and finishing. (Nov)
Contracts for supply of factory for production of glazed
tiles and factory for crystal glass. (Nov)
Contracts for setting up new cement plants. (Nov)
Industrial Process Facilities:
Agreement reached to provide Egypt with phosphorous
plant. (May)
Agreement reached for speeding up completion of iron and
steel complex and construction of aluminum plant and
Shis:phosphorous complex. (May)
Agreement signed for technical assistance to Egypt in
building 20 cargo ships and 20 fishing vessels*. (Feb)
Agreement signed under which Soviet Union will supply
marine units such as barges and cranes and shipbuilding

Bulgaria equipment. (Feb)
Agreements:
Loan agreement and economic, scientific and technical
cooperation agreement signed. (Mar)
Protocol for cooperation in agriculture and food industry
signed. (Oct)
Development Loans:
$40 million loan to finance agricultural projects and chemical,
machine-tool and food-processing industries. (Feb) C/zechoslovakia
Industrial Facilities:
fE1.5 million contract for construction of factory for production of sanitary equipment and cast-iron fittings. (Jan) East Genmany
Committees:
Meeting of the Joint Committee for Trade and Economic
Cooperation. (Nov)
Industrial Facilities:
1.25 million contract for supply of factory for production of
pre-fabricated houses. (Dec)
Technical Assistance:
East German institute playing major part in mechanization
of agriculture on reclaimed land. (Nov)







Hungary
Agreements:
Protocol on agricultural cooperation signed. (Jun)
Trade protocol signed calling for supply of aluminum, reinforcing iron bar's, buses, and spare parts, film, chemicals, dyes and tanning- materials, canal locks and railway rolling stock, including 30 diesel locomotives and 20 pasPoland senger cars. (Nov)
Agreements:
Protocol for industrial and technical cooperation in miig
projects signed. (Jun)
Trade protocol to long-term trade agreement signed. (Jul)
Committees:
Polish-Egyptian Committee for industrial cooperation (third
Rumaniameeting).
Industrial Facilities:
Contract signed for supply of sulphuric acid plant by
.Rumania, French, West German, and British firms. (Jun)
International Banks
Development Loans:
Loan for financing of oil pipeline by Western European and
Japanese banks. (May)
United Nations
Technical Assistance:
$9 million worth of technical aid.' (3dl)
IRAN-1972
United States
Arms:
Agreement to supply F-14 and F-15 fighter aircraft and laserguided bombs. (3dl)
Committees:Announcement of formation of a Joint American-Iranian
Corporation to stimulate economic cooperation between
the two countries. (Jan)
Development Loans:
$2.9 million to support sale of US equipment, machinery,
Belgium materials #and related services to Iran. (Aug)
Committees:
Second meeting of the Irano-Belgian Commission for Joint
Economic and Technical Cooperation. (Nov)
Industrial Facilities:
Industrial cooperation to include establishment of aluminum
plant, in return for construction of petrochemical plant in
OR: Belgium to be supplied by Iran.
Irano-Belgian oil refinery project approved. (Dee)





86

Britain
Arms:
Supply of four hovercraft worth more than L5 million. (Feb) 5 million contract for supply of mobile military radio
equipment. (Mar)
Delivery of two missile-equipped destroyers built in Britain.
(Aug)
Orders totalling 100 million including light tanks and
reconnaissance vehicles, communications equipment, corvette support ships and patrol boats and two support
ships. (Aug)
Aviation:
Preliminary purchase order for two Concorde aircraft. (Oct)
Committees:
First meeting of Anglo-Iranian Joint Economic Commission
to discuss commercial and industrial cooperation. (May)
Industrial Facilities:
Contract for supply of two complete production lines for
manufacture of drums. (May)
Industrial Process Facilities:
Contract for design and supply of dehydration plant. (Sep)
Machinery and Equipment:
180,000 order for complete lime sludge kiln. (Aug)
Order for concentrator and multiple-effect evaporator
system worth 500,000. (Sep)
50,000 contract for supply of medical equipment. (Sep)
Power:
65,000 contract for supply of visual display units and
display control -equipment to be used in electricity grid
control system. (Apr)
Transportation:
3.9 million order for supply of 200 double-decker buses
and parts. (Mar) Canada
Agreements:
Agreement signed on peaceful uses of atomic energy. (Jan) France
Aviation:
Order for Anglo-French Concorde airliner. (Jun)
Technical Training:
Announcement of proposed Irano-French Scientific and
Technical University, under which French will assist in drawing up curriculum and supply technical equipment.
(Feb)
Italy
Agreement:
Agreement for expanded cooperation on scientific and
technical matters and exchange of scientists and students
signed. (Mar)
Oil:
Completion of hydrocracker for oil, refinery under construction. (Mar)





87

Power:
$12.5 million contract to supply and install electrical engmeering equipment for construction of third unit of
thermal power station. (Jul) Japan
Industrial Facilities:
Agreement reached to form joint company which will produce
petrochemical products. (Dee)
Industrial Process Facilities:
Contracts signed for building of new petrochemical plant.
(Feb)
Agreement to establish joint company to produce plasticiser.
(Dec)
M *in *g:
Joint project for exploitation of copper mine. (Jun)
Technical Training:
New telecommunications research center opened, the building of which was done with cooperation of Japanese
U.S.S.R. agency under agreement previously signed. (Sep)
Agreements:
Protocol for trade signed. (Jan)
Protocol signed expanding cooperation. (Aug)
Agreements signed for purchase of machinery and equipment and for related technical services. (Aug)
Economic treaty signed. (Oct)
Five-year cultural and scientific cooperation agreement
signed. (Oct)
Committees:
Joint Irano-Soviet Ministerial Committee for Trade and
Economic Cooperation meeting. (Aug)
Industrial Facilities:
Expansion plans for steel mill approved, the plans calling
for construction of three more blast furnaces. (Feb)
Soviet institute working out design for expansion of steel
mill's sintering plant. (Nov)
Irrigation:
Soviets assist in drilling of deep-water wells. (Feb)
Iran and U.S.S.R. jointly will build two darns. (Jun)
Power:
A second hydro-engineering complex to be built with Soviet
cooperation on frontier river. (Dee)
Technical Training:
Iranians to go to Soviet Union for training in steel industry.
(Feb)
U.S.S.R. to provide variety of training centers and equipment. (Apr)
Bulgaria
Agreements:
Economic and trade agreement signed providing for *increase
of commercial exchanges between the two countries, expanded economic cooperation and conclusion of longterm agreements in these field. (Nov)






88

Bulgaria-Continued
Agreements-Continued
Trade agreement signed under which.Bulgaria is to supply
complete factories, machinery, equipment and chemicals
in exchange for Iranian products. (Dec)
Committees:
Economic delegation arrive for session of Bulgarian-Iranian
Committee for Economic, Scientific .and Technological
Cooperation. (Dec) Czechoslovakia
Industrial Facilities:
Opening of machine-tools plant which was built with cooperation of Czechoslovakia. (Sep) Ilungray
Agreements.Protocol sged calling for joint ventures in selected industries, notably textiles and medical-instrument production.
(Oct)
Rumania
Agreements:
Agreement signed calling for expanded economic and
technical cooperation within the framework of their
development projects. (Jun)
Five-year trade agreement signed. (Gct)
Protocol signed for joint construction of railway wagon
manufacturing plant. (Oct)
Committees:
Second session of Rumanian-Iranian Joint Sub-Commission
for Economic and Technical Cooperation. (Sep)
Power:
Agreement on power engineering signed. (Sep) Yugoslavia
Agreements:
Jrano-Yugoslav trade agreement signed providing for
cooperation in construction of oil refinery, and technical and scientific cooperation to include exchange of specialists, joint research projects and exchange of documents. (Sep)
Development Loans:
$600,000 loan to enable Iran to purchase Yugoslav machinery
and equipment. (Jun) World Bank
Development Loans:
$51 million loan for construction of power line to supply
electricity to industries. (Oct)

IRA Q-1972
United States
Computers:
Contract for NCR Century-200 computer, magnetic tape
encoders and other associated software and services. (Apr )





v89

Britain
Communications:
ID 80,000 contract to equip television station with mobile
unit. (Jan)
ID 50,000 contract to provide airport with radio equipment.
(May)
Two British firms win orders worth 300,000 for radiotelephone equipment and switchgear. (Jun)
Machinery and Equipment:
70,000 contract for supply of four-seater cabinlift. (Jan)
Technical Training:
Group of engineers to go to Britain to train on maintenance
and repair of cranes. (Jun) Belgium
Machinery and Equipment:
Agreement reached for supply or equipment to electrical
company.(Feb) Finland
Irrigation:
Finnish firm of consultant engineers preparing designs for
ID70 million dam project. (Jul) France
Communications:
Contract for supply of two television transmitters. (Jan) Agreement on technical cooperation for development of
telecommunications, wireless and post services signed.
(Jul)
Irrigation:
Contract for a water treatment plant.
Machinery and Equipment:
ID 1.5 million contract for supply of 200 hydraulic excavators. (Aug)
Japan
Communications:
ID 200,000 contract to implement project to provide direct
radio telephone communications. (May)
Japanese firm to supply telephone cables. (Aug)
Ships:
Feasibility studies conducted on multi-million project for
construction of oil storage and shipping terminal. (Jul) Spain
Ships:
Delivery of oil tankers being built by Spanish firm. (Mar)

Industrial Facilities:
Swedish firm to build plant for assembly of lorries and
buses. (May)
Contract for supply of 50 32-ton lorries. (May) Switzeerland
Technical Training:
Group of Iraqi engineers to tram on maintaining speed
gauges of diesel-electric engines in Switzerland. (Jun)
77-695--76-----7






90

U.S.S.R.
Agreements:
New economic agreement signed providing for development
of trade and economic relations between countries. (Jun)
Protocol for economic and technical cooperation signed. (Jul) Agreement concerning economic cooperation in industry,
exploitation of mineral resources, irrigation and agriculture signed. (Sep)
Protocol calling for implementation of oil and industrial
development signed. (Mar)
Committees:
Iraqi-Soviet Permanent Committee on Cooperation met.
Irrigation:
9Agreement on economic and technical cooperation in irrigation, drainage and hydro-electric projects signed. (Sep)
Soviet technical team arrives to carry out studies on implementation of irrigation projects. (Dec)
Machinery and Equipment:
Agreement for supplies of equipment to two companies
reached. (Feb)
$1.4 million contract for road-building and farm machinery
and vehicles. (Oct)
Oil:
Agreement on second stage of development of oilfield. (Mar) Agreement reached for building of an oil-processing plant.
(Sep)
Power:
Agreement reached to undertake Jointly with Yugoslav
firm construction of thermo-electric power plant. (Jul)
Ships:
Delivery of four high-speed dry cargo vessels. (Jun)
ID 800,000 contract to provide two fishing boats. (Sep)
Transportation:
Iraq to import passenger cars and motor vans and minibuses. (May)
Technical Assistance:
Agreement on technical assistance in servicin vehicles to
be imported from Soviet Union Signed. (May) Bulgaria
Agreements:
Trade agreement signed. (Sep)
Amendment of economic and technical cooperation agreement of 1967 providing for extension of agreement by
three years to 1977. (ep)
Protocol for cooperation in irrigation and land reclamation
signed. (Nov)
Czechoslovakia
Agreements:
Economic and technical cooperation agreement signed.
(Mar)
Machinery and Equipent:
Czechoslovak firm to help *produce 650 tractors. (Feb)






91

East Germany
Agreements:
Agreement on developing trade signed. (Nov)
Protocol providing for development of economic and tech.
nical cooperation signed. (Nov)
Irrigation:
ID 59,000 contract to supply equipment to irrigation pumpina station. (Oct)
Transportation:
East Germany to supply 770 railway wagons. (Jun) Hungary
Industrial Facilities:
ID 5 million contract for building of refrigeration plant. (Sep)
Transportation:
Shipment of 100 buses. (Aug)
20 Hungarian buses ordered from contract with ID 1257510.
(Oct)
Poland
Agreements:
Trade agreement signed providing for repayment in goods.
(Dee)
Development Loans:
$100 million loan used to finance projects under development plan. (Sep)
Industrial Facilities:
Contract for expansion of cement works. (Apr)
Machinery and Equipment:
Contract for supply of machinery and equipment for cement
plant. (Oct)
Planning:
Contract with firm of Polish engineering consultants for
studies for projected bridge. (Jul) Yugoslavia
Power:
Agreement reached to undertake jointly with Soviet organization construction of thermo-electric power plant. (Jul) United Nations
Technical Assistance:
$15 million aid in form of experts, consultants, equipment
and scholarships. (Oct) World Bank
Development Loans:
$40 million loan to finance irrigation project. (Xlay)
KTJWAIT-1972
Britain
Power:
El million contract for supply and installation of underground
cables and accessories to extend electricity network. (Apr)
S275,000 contract to supply five diesel generators on semitrailers. (Dec)






92

Japan
Power:
$33 million order for supply of generation facilities for power
station. -(May) Sweden
Transportation:
Contract to build road, to carry out services, and to build
drains. (Dec) West Germany
Industrial Facilities:
West German company to build detergents plant. (Aug) U.S.S.R.
Ships: o
Supply of20 fishing trawlers and building of ships for merchant marine. (Mar)
Order for three ships from Soviet shipbuilders. (Mar) Bulgaria
Agreements:
Agreement on cultural and scientific matters signed, under
which exchanges of teachers and technical programs will
take place. (Oct)

LIBYA-1972 Britain
Communications:
100,000 contract to supply television transmission equipment. (Sep) France
Technical Training:
Frenchmen in Libya training Libyans to fly and maintain
aircraft. (Aug) Spain
Industrial Facilities:
LD3,242,O00 contract signed for building of steel-pipe
factory. (Sep) West Germany
Communications:
LD265,000 contract for the supply and installation. of shortwave tranmison equipment. (Nov) U.S.S.R.
Agreements:
Agreement signed for aid for hydrocarbon industry, providing
for cooperation in prospecting, extracting and refining oil, in developing power generation and prospecting for mineral
and gas deposits and training of workers. (Mar)
Irrigation:
Agreements to build two water desalination plants and toj
carry out technical study for unification of Egyptian and
Libyan power systems. (Jul)