Humanitarian assistance to earthquake victims in Italy

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Title:
Humanitarian assistance to earthquake victims in Italy a staff report
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v, 24 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
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United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on the Judiciary. -- Subcommittee to Investigate Problems Connected with Refugees and Escapees
Publisher:
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
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Washington
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Subjects / Keywords:
Earthquakes -- Italy   ( lcsh )
Disaster relief -- Italy   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
prepared for the use of the Subcommittee to Investigate Problems Connected with Refugees and Escapees of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-fourth Congress, second session, September 10, 1976.
General Note:
At head of title: Committee print.

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 025958642
oclc - 02819200
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AA00024857:00001

Full Text
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T89/t-


[COMMITTEE PRINT]


HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE TO
EARTHQUAKE VICTIMS
IN ITALY




A STAFF REPORT
PREPARED FOR THE USE OF THE

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE PROBLEMS
CONNECTED WITH REFUGEES AND ESCAPEES
OF THE

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY
UNITED STATES SENATE
NINETY-FOURTH CONGRESS
SECOND SESSION


SEPTEMBER 10, 1976


U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1976


77-2260


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COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY


JAMES 0. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman
JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska
PHILIP A. HART, Michigan HIRAM L. FONG, Hawaii
EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts HUGH SCOTT, Pennsylvania
BIRCH BAYH, Indiana STROM THURMOND, South Carolina
QUENTIN N. BURDICK, North Dakota CHARLES McC. MATHIAS, JR., Maryland
ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia WILLIAM L. SCOTT, Virginia
JOHN V. TUNNEY, California
JAMES ABOUREZK, South Dakota


SUBCOMMITTEE To INVESTIGATE PROBLEMS CONNECTED WITH
REFUGEES AND ESCAPEES

EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts, Chairman
JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas HIRAM L. FONG, Hawaii
PHILIP A. HART, Michigan CHARLES McC. MATHIAS, JR., Maryland
JAMES ABOUREZK, South Dakota
DALE S. DE HAAN, Staff Director
JERRY M. TINKER, Staff Consultant
JAN ALBERGHINI, Chief Clerk

(II)























CONTENTS


Page
Preface: By Senator Edward M. Kennedy, Chairman ------------------- v
Introduction---------------------------------------------------- 1
Tragedy strikes-------------------------------------------------- 3
Emergency relief -------------------------------------------------- 10
Rehabilitation and reconstruction----------------------------------- 12
A. Italian Government program-------------------------------- 12
B. U.S. assistance------------------------------------------- 13
C. Other assistance------------------------------------------- 16
Recommendations ------------------------------------------------- 18
APPENDIXES
I. Text of letters of agreement exchanged between the United States and
the Government of Italy-------------------------------------- 21
II. AID's status report on the earthquake in Italy, July 30, 1976--------- 24
(M)













































Disaster strikes the Friuli region leaving tens of thousands homeless.


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Wit4 homes destroyed, thousands face a long winter in tents.
-photos courtesy of A.I.D.


(IV)












PREFACE

(By Senator Edward M. Kennedy, Chairman)
In early May, one of the most destructive earthquakes to hit cen-
tral Europe struck the Friuli region of Northeastern Italy-leaving
behind an awesome trail of human misery and destruction, and great
personal tragedy for thousands of Italian families.
Nearly 1,000 people lost their lives, well over 2,000 more were in-
jured. And within minutes, some 100,000 dazed people were homeless.
Since then, the sturdy and spirited survivors of the earthquake
have been assessing their plight, and taking their first steps on the
long road of normalizing their lives. Emergency relief needs have
generally been met, and the time for rehabilitation and reconstruc-
tion has begun.1
As in the case of other natural disasters, the United States responded
immediately to human need in Italy. And some $25 million has been
made available by Congress to assist the recovery programs in the
towns and villages of the earthquake stricken area.
To learn more of the human tragedy in Friuli, and following hear-
ings before the Subcommittee on Refugees in early June, I dispatched
a special team to Italy. The report that follows review.- the team's
findings in the field, and suggests the kind- of efforts Americnn assist-
ance can best support to help the people of Friuli in normalizing their
lives.
"In mid-September, new tremors struck Friuli. In 'Irldition to heavy damage in some
areas, additional deaths and injuries were reported.
(V)




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013














http://archive.org/details/humanassi00unit












INTRODUCTION


On May 6, about 9 o'clock in the evening, a devastating earthquake
struck the Friuli region of Northeast Italy.
In keeping with its longstanding humanitarian concern over the
victims of both natural and manmade disasters, on the following day
the subcommittee consulted with appropriate officials in the executive
branch and elsewhere, and the chairman urged in the Senate that no
effort be spared by our Government in helping to meet the emergency
needs of the Italian people. The Chairman stated in part:
* while the immediate and longer term effects of the earthquake are not
fully known, all sources confirm that a close friend of the United States has suf-
fered great tragedy, and that emergency relief needs, let alone rehabilitation and
reconstruction, are urgent and massive.
As chairman of the Subcommittee on Refugees, I want to express my deep
personal sympathy and concern to the people and Government of Italy. And I
am hopeful that our Government in concert with * the international com-
munity will spare no effort in responding to any appeals for help from the Italian
Government * *.
Officials in the Office of Disaster Relief in AID informed me this morning that
our Government has already moved * *. Private American relief organizations
are also lending their support. And I am confident that our country's response to
the human tragedy in Italy will fully reflect our traditional concern for people
in need.
The chairman also introduced and cosponsored emergency legisla-
tion, including an amendment to a pending appropriations bill to
provide $25 million in humanitarian assistance, which was speedily
enacted into law. Shortly thereafter, on May 19, the subcommittee
received testimony from the Honorable Daniel Parker, the Adminis-
trator of the Agency for International Development (AID) and the
President's Special Coordinator for International Disaster Assistance.
Mr. Parker had just returned from the Friuli region of Italy and
testified on his findings and recommendations for U.S. assistance.
Given the considerable congressional and public interest in the
programing and use of U.S. assistance, and the apparent debate on
these matters within the executive branch, in early June the chairman
dispatched a team to the Friuli region for a first-hand look at the
disaster area and humanitarian needs. The team-compoeed of Dale S.
de Haan, staff director of the subcommittee, and Wells Klein, a
special consultant to the subcommittee and the executive director of
the American Council for Nationalities Services in New York City-
arrived in Udine, in the earthquake area, on June 5. Accompanied by
members of a special AID survey team based in Udine, Messr,.
de Haan and Klein traveled extensively in the earthquake area. Ger-
mona, Venzone, Osoppo, San Daniele, Maiano, Buia, and the surround-
ing countryside were among the pIlaces visited. Also visited were a
number of devastated villages-including Resiutto, Resiai and San
Giorgio-in the mountainous areas approaching the Aust inn-
Yugoslav border. In addition to extensive conversations with members.
(1)








of the AID survey team, Messrs. de Haan and Klein also met with
earthquake victims and local officials, and in Trieste with the President
of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia regional government. During a brief stay
in Rome, additional conversations were held with appropriate officials
in the Italian Government's Ministry of Interior and with officials
at the U.S. Embassy. Mr. de Haan also traveled to Geneva for
meetings with officials at the United Nations Disaster Relief Office
(UNDRO), which was established by the U.N. General Assembly in
1971 to "be the focal point in the United Nations system for disaster
relief matters."
As suggested in the chairman's preface, this report-based mainly
on the recent field study-is part of the subcommittee's continuing
effort to underscore the importance of humanitarian concerns in U.S.
foreign policy, and especially the importance of meaningful U.S.
assistance to the thousands of earthquake victims in Italy.














TRAGEDY STRIKES


In driving north from Udine, along the main roads toward the
Austrian border, the green and picturesque Friuli countryside belies
the intensity of the tragedy which struck the area about 9 o'clock in
the evening of May 6. Flowers are blooming along the roads. The
cafes and shops are busy. And the traffic is heavy, with carloads of
vacationers from Austria and other countries heading for or returning
from the resort areas along the Adriatic.

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Earthquake affected area.

The only visible indications of the earthquake are smashed and
shattered buildings here and there, and piles of rubble along the
roadside. The multiple encampments of brightly colored tents, which
dot the countryside and shelter the homeless, look more like summer
jamboree settings than camps for victims of the inatural (disaster.
But a short distance off these main roads lie destroyed or heavily
damaged villages and towns. In early June, these villages and towns
were often roped off to the curious and guarded by soldiers

(3)













































Map of Italy and earthquake area.
and police. And they were often deserted, except for stray cats
and for workmen removing rubble, repairing buildings, or retrieving
religious artifacts and valued art work and sculpture from shattered
churches and public buildings.
Nearly all of the destruction occurred in Udine and Pordenome
Province. Official sources indicate that 41 communes or townships
were declared "disaster" areas-29 in Udine and 12 in Pordenome.
Some 45 more were declared gravely damaged-39 in Udine and 6 in
Pordenome. And some 33 more communes were declared damaged-
29 in Udine and 4 in Pordenome.

























Tragedy strikes-leveling tens of thousands of homes.
-photo courtesy of A.I.D.
The towns of Germona and Venzone were especially hard hit and
virtually completely destroyed. An early evening, after curfew visit
to Venzone on June 7 was a poignant reminder of the devastation
and tragedy instantaneously produced by the earthquake and its
aftershocks. Guards were posted at the gates of this old walled
town, and many of its former inhabitants had wandered from a tent
city, or tendopili, nearby and were aimlessly walking outside its
damaged walls. Inside the walls was eerie silence. The workmen had
left for the day and no one was there. But by walking through the
deserted streets and collapsed buildings, and by climbing over the
huge piles of rubble everywhere present, the massive reconstruction
needs of the area were dramatically underscored, and so were the
complexities involved in restoring retrievable monuments to a proud
heritage, which in Venzone is the heavily damaged medieval cathedral,
whose spire stood tall over the smashed town below.
Visiting Venzone and other areas also sharply underscored the human
tragedy produced by the earthquake. Homes were in ruins. Gardens
were in disarray. The streets and rubble were strewn with clothing,
toys, books, beds, chairs, and other personal and household effects.
And in one town, where people were still reported missing, the stench
of death hung in the air.
The Friulians of the affected villages and towns were subjected to
one of the most sudden, unexpected, and traumatic of all national
disasters. One moment there was laughter and light. The next instant
all was dark-with collapsing buildings and deafening noise, death and
injury, and confusion and fear.
The personal tragedy of Friulian families is very real. It is seen
and understood in someone's recounting that the earthquake struck
as people were leaving the theater in Gemona, where the collapsing
building took the lives of 30 persons. It is seen and understood in an
Osoppo family's recounting the death of their daughter and sister, and






















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Hardest hit were proud homes built over 100 years ago.


Walls collapse, while stocks on shelves remain intact.
-photo courtesy of Stuart do Haan


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the loss of their home and prized possessions. And it is seen and under-
stood in a teenager's concern about his schooling and future, in the
absence of laughter and play among the children, in the somber
demeanor of many adults, and in the coping of homeless families with
the communal atmosphere and pervasive lack of privacy inevitable
in the tendopoli of the Friuli countryside.

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Within 2 days, bulldozers work to clean the rubble from the streets.
-photo courtesy of Stuart de Haan
In cold statistical terms, nearly 1,000 people lost their lives. A few
more are still missing. Well over 2,000 people were injured and hos-
pitalized, and many of these victims are permanently crippled and
incapacitated.
Close to 15,000 housing units were completely destroyed. Some
30,000 more were gravely damaged, and many of these will probably
have to be replaced. And another 50,000 units were less seriously
damaged and will probably be repaired. In purely human terms, this
means, according to Italian Government officials, that well over one
third of the Friuli region's population of 800,000 people was directly
affected by the earthquake-including up to 100,000 people who were
completely homeless, and, in early June, an additional 150-200,000
people who needed repairs on their homes, a good share of which were
at that time unhabitable.
Many schools, hospitals, clinics, community centers, churches, city
halls, and other public buildings were also destroyed or heavily dam-
aged. Included are several medieval or very old structures of historic










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Friulan communities sm
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Two residents view the crumbled remains of their home.
-photo courtesy of A..D.
and artistic value, which have always been a source of great pride to
Friulian communities.
With the possible exception of tourism and some agriculture
sectors, the economic base of the area, which is heavy in light an
cottage industries, was apparently not seriously disrupted. The
disruption varies, of course, from community to community. But the
experience of Osoppo seems fairly typical. According to local officials
in early June, nearly two-thirds of the local workers were still em-
ployed, and the remaining workers were busy clearing up the rubble







and repairing damaged buildings. However, the Friuli region, having
historic places and lying on the main route between Austria and the
Adriatic resorts, has always derived significant income from summer
tourists. This year, at least, considerable losses are expected in
tourism, because some tourist facilities were destroyed and most of
those that were damaged could not speedily be repaired.
There can be no doubt that the people of Friuli have suffered great
personal and collective tragedy, and that their torn social fabric and
the physical devastation of their land and communities will take many
months and even years to renew and rebuild. But given their long
history of exposure to armies and disaster, and their reputation as
sturdy and industrious stock, there can also be no doubt that the
people of Friuli have the will and capacity to normalize their lives.












EMERGENCY RELIEF


The Government of Italy and the Italian Red Cross in the Friuli
region responded quickly and compassionately to the massive human
needs produced by the earthquake. All available resources were mo-
bilized to evacuate victims caught in the rubble; to search and care
for the injured; to bury the dead; to provide temporary shelter and
sanitation facilities for the homeless; to provide food and water and
medicine and clothing for all those in need; to clear rubble; and to
repair damaged roads, communications, and public utilities. The
Government also established a special system of financial assistance
for the elderly, injured, the unemployed and others without ample
resources, and of death benefits for the family survivors of those who
lost their lives. Such immediate relief measures are a matter of record
and are discussed in the subcommittee's published hearing of May 19.
As of early June, during the subcommittee team's visit to Friuli,
emergency relief needs were in the main being adequately met. There
were some local complaints about social services and about the slow
movement of funds to those eligible for special financial assistance
and death benefits. But the tendopoli were orderly, and, although some
were crowded, there appeared to be little discomfort and no lack of
food and water and medical care. The lack of privacy common to tent
cities in any disaster area, however, was readily observed in the
tendopoli of Friuli. And there was growing apprehension on the part
of the homeless over a long stay in tents and over the possibility of
having to cope with the rain and cold come September. But the
Italian Government, let alone the Friulians themselves, clearly has
the capacity and will to meet the care and maintenance needs that
continue, as rehabilitation and reconstruction efforts get underway.
Although Italy drew on its own considerable resources to carry out
the emergency relief operations, modest contributions also came from
other countries, mostly in kind. Austria, for example, provided some
cash assistance, relief personnel, trucks, tents, mattresses, sheets, and
other supplies. Switzerland provided similar items. Australia, Sweden,
Yugoslavia, and the European Economic Community (EEC) provided
some modest cash assistance. The Soviet Union contributed. Canada
sent a field hospital, engineering personnel, helicopters, water puri-
fication units, and other supplies. And several NATO members also
contributed to the relief effort.
The American response to emergency relief needs was immediate
and generous. In addition to tents, food, blankets, medicine, and
similar relief supplies, the United States made available helicopter
and communication support, rubble and earth-moving equipment,
and various kinds of personnel, including disaster specialists. U.S.
emergency assistance approached $1 million.
Emergency relief contributions also came through private channels.
The League of Red Cross Societies (LICROSS) in Geneva, for
example, made a cash donation of $886,000. Private organizations in
(10)






11

various countries also contributed modest amounts. And, in keeping
with their long tradition of responding to emergency humanitarian
needs in all parts of the world, the American people have been con-
tributing significantly through the established voluntary relief
agencies, such as Catholic Relief Services, or through special relief
organizations established specifically to assist the earthquake victims
in Friuli. The latter organizations include a number of spontaneous
relief committees created by Americans of Italian descent, and others
who share their concern over humanitarian needs in Friuli.


'~pI *


Tent cities ("tendopoli") have become the home for tens of thousands of Friuli
citizens.
-photo courtesy of A.I.D.












REHABILITATION AND RECONSTRUCTION


A month following the earthquake, emergency relief needs were
in the main being adequately met, and the attention of the Italian
Government-especially at the regional and local levels in the affected
area-was increasingly turning from the emergency operation to
rehabilitation and reconstruction. Concerned officials were clearly
sensitized to the needs of the area and to the objectives of rebuilding
devastated communities and of helping people to normalize their
lives. But, especially at the regional and local levels of the Italian
Government, officials were also acutely aware of the immense planning
and purely human problems that confronted them and the people
of Friuli in pursuing these ends.
Fortunately, meeting emergency needs was not a major problem,
and the economy of the area was not seriously disrupted, except for
the tourist business. But given the massive social disruption and
physical devastation caused by the earthquake, let alone the personal
trauma of the affected population, there is clearly much to do in re-
habilitating the people and reconstructing the area. And there are
no easy answers, no tidy solutions, and no quick remedies for the
problems and issues and needs created by the disaster of May 6.
The process of rebuilding will require much time and effort and
patience-and a cooperative spirit on the part of all concerned.

A. GENERAL PROGRAM OF THE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT
As noted earlier in this summary report, the Italian Government
responded quickly and compassionately to the emergency humani-
tarian needs created by the disaster of May 6. In mobilizing its
national resources to meet these needs, the Government established
a special commission to direct and oversee the emergency operation,
and also allocated some $450 million for immediate relief and longer-
term rehabilitation purposes in Friuli.
Beyond this, however, the Italian Government moved slowly in
the early days and weeks of the tragedy, and this was evidenced by
some grumbling in the affected area. Undoubtedly, there were several
factors contributing to this, including the massive scope of the
tragedy, the complexity of rehabilitation and reconstruction, and
some ambivalence over what level of Government-national or
regional-should assume the primary role in the rehabilitation and
reconstruction process. But the overriding factor, at least in the early
days, was the simple fact that the disaster occurred at a time of politi-
cal uncertainty in Italy, and in the midst of an indecisiveness which
often precedes and immediately follows a national election. The na-
tional election in late June and the subsequent forming of a new
Government have presumably mitigated this situation, and, although
they are mixed, recent reports from the field do suggest that some
greater attention is now being given to the long-term needs of the
(12)





13


earthquake stricken area and to the decisions required for getting on
with the task of normalizing life in Friuli.
Italian officials suggest that total costs for the rehabilitation and
reconstruction phases in Friuli may run as high as $3 billion and take
up to 5 years. Although these phases cannot be neatly divided in
terms of time, the Government's current stress, of course, is on
rehabilitation.
Given the wet and cold winters in Friuli, of urgent importance has
been the provision of adequate temporary housing for families still
living in tents or similar shelter. There is no clear estimate of the
numbers of people involved, but it is considerably less than the 100,000
or more people initially displaced by the earthquake. Many of these
people have been able to repair their homes. Others are living with
relatives or friends. And still others have left the area. Nevertheless,
adequate temporary housing for many thousands of families remains
an urgent need, and Government planning to meet this need has in-
volved both the construction of temporary housing and the utilizing
of nearby hotels and other suitable buildings. Such arrangements will
inevitably pose many problems for the people involved, including such
things as easy access to their jobs, schooling for their children, medical
care, and the like. But these are also the kinds of problems facing
much of the Friuli population affected by the disaster of May 6.
And in all of these problems, and more, the Friuli people and their
Government-especially at the regional and local levels-are making
every effort to bring at least a semblance of normality to their daily
lives during the weeks and months immediately ahead.1
In the meantime, efforts have also been getting underway for
longer term reconstruction. Geological and other kinds of surveys;
general planning for the overall reconstruction of destroyed villages
and towns; and structural planning for new housing, schools, medical
facilities, old people's homes, and community centers, are the kinds of
things being pursued.
B. U.S. ASSISTANCE
The speedy enactment of legislation to provide $25 million in
humanitarian assistance to Italy expressed a genuine concern on the
part of all Americans over the human tragedy in Friuli. The U.S.
contribution to emergency relief totaled close to $1 million-and
some $24 million still remains for rehabilitation and reconstruction
purposes.
In late May, following a hearing before the Subcommittee on
Refugees, a special AID technical field team, under the able and
sensitive leadership of a senior AID officer (Arturo Costantino),
traveled to Italy. Its purpose was twofold: (1) to conclude a bilateral
agreement with the Government of Italy, which would provide a
basis for the delivery of U.S. assistance to any level of the Italian
Government or to private organizations recognized by the Govern-
ment of Italy; and (2) to help identify specific needs and projects
for U.S. assistance.
An agreement was signed in Rome on June 16, with an exchange of
letters between the U.S. Ambassador and the Italian Minister for
'The new tremors which struck Friuli in mid-September seriously compounded current
rehabilitation efforts. In addition to heavy damage, some 20,000 people were newly
displaced.








Foreign Affairs.2 In an unusual departure from the normal pattern of
such bilateral agreements, the exchange of letters permits the United
States to provide assistance "to the Government of Italy or its
agencies, to regional, provincial or municipal governments, or-upon
agreement with the Italian Government-to any other public or
quasi-public body or organization, to an appropriate credit institution,
or to a voluntary, nonprofit organization of Italian, United States, or
international character." The agreement also states that "the pur-
pose, amounts and other terms and conditions relating to assist-
ance * will be detailed by common accord between the U.S.
Government and such entities."
As to identifying needs and projects for U.S. assistance, the AID
team, which had a questionable composition, clearly had some prob-
lems. A major problem was that the team seemed to be functioning
under contradictory policy statements and recommendations by ad-
ministration officials in the initial planning for U.S. assistance. For
example, in justifying a $25 million appropriation by Congress in
early May, the President and AID officials heavily stressed purely
humanitarian and people oriented assistance. A May 10 AID justifica-
tion paper for a $25 million appropriation allocated some $8 million
for emergency relief purposes and close to $17 million for rehabilita-
tion purposes, including self-help projects and the reconstruction of
homes, schools, clinics, public buildings, and so forth. The justification
also indicated support for the needs of voluntary agencies which fit
into program objectives. Although the AID justification recognized
that the suggested allocation of funds was only illustrative, and that
some programs may be added or dropped "* * following consulta-
tion with the Government of Italy," the justification was, nevertheless,
people oriented and for the most part in line with the intent of Con-
gress in appropriating the $25 million.
But in his testimony before the Subcommittee on Refugees on
May 19, the Administrator of AID all but ignored people needs and
the human dimensions of the tragedy in Friuli, and heavily stressed
technical and scientific assistance. His testimony stated in part:
Our overall strategy is to devise a package of programs which are both qualita-
tive and quantitative in nature and which serve to catalyze certain aspects
of the Italian and other donor assistance efforts. We see definite promise in the
following areas:
Technical assistance to assess structural damage to determine which houses,
factories, public buildings and cultural and historic structures can be saved for
renovation and which must be razed;
Technical assistance in structural engineering, especially for building footings
and foundations;
Provide small-scale technology concrete block production units to assist
local populations to begin on-site reconstruction of dwellings;
Provide suitable roofing and structural support materials for the reconstruction
of dwellings in a more earthquake-resistant manner;
Provide small tractors and wagons to community governments to be used for
community efforts in removal of debris and in transportation of building materials
and livestock feed;
Provide communications equipment for community use, to permit community
leaders to exchange instructions and information with outlying smaller
communities;
The use of a field computer terminal, hooked up to Washington and perhaps
the capitals of other major donors, to accelerate the planning/logistical process;
2 For the text of these letters, see Appendix I.







The use of high altitude photography combined with LANDSAT imagery
to develop a complete picture of the relationship of the communities to their
environment. There is in the area a shortage of certain building materials and
we may be able to identify both mineral and building resources which the local
areas may not be aware of; and
Extremely sophisticated geologic assessment to identify faults, major areas
of sliding, areas prone to subsidence and slippage . . In order to carry out
this strategy, we plan to send in a small, highly specialized AID team to work
with the Italians in the development of projects. With the help of this team, which
can tap other U.S. Government agencies' capabilities, we plan to concentrate
on the following areas:
1. Technology resources.-Our hope is to be able to identify U.S. experts who
have worked in applying geology, structural engineering, high resolution aerial
photography, and satellite imagery to small areas. The challenge is to transfer
high technology to meet fundamental needs.
2. Social and public infrastructure assistance and planning capability.-At
this point our course of action is to offer computer modeling services in the field
of earthquake relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction; determine forms of shelter
which might be acceptable to the affected population; and identify a variety of
transportation and construction equipment which can be used on a small scale
to assist the people in their efforts to rebuild their homes with their own hands.
Throughout most of his testimony, the AID Administrator stressed
what he called "high technology" U.S. assistance. He suggested that
this was in accord with the wishes of the central Italian Government
in Rome and the local authorities in Friuli, and cited similar aid
elsewhere to confirm the usefulness of his recommendations.
In questioning the AID Administrator, the subcommittee chairman
expressed concern over the rather significant difference in emphasis
between AID's justification paper of May 10, and the Administrator's
subsequent report to the President and testimony before the sub-
committee. And the chairman also indicated reservations over the
Administrator's recommendations. Apparently the Administrator also
had some reservations; because toward the end of his testimony he
said that "I just don't know at this point how to say where our assist-
ance ought to be *."
In the minds of most observers, however, there was no question as
to the purpose of U.S. assistance. Given AID's initial justification for
U.S. assistance, the intent of Congress in appropriating $25 million,
and the expressed wishes of the earthquake victims and officials at all
levels of the Italian Government, it was clear that U.S. assistance
should be based on purely humanitarian objectives and geared to
normalizing life in Friuli communities devastated by the disaster of
May 6. And only people oriented projects, not high technology,
would really help accomplish this end. Field study by the subcom-
mittee delegation, as well as the AID team, fully confirmed and
supported this approach, which is now being reflected in the planning
for the allocation of U.S. assistance.
Allocating U.S. assistance, even for people oriented projects, is not
an easy matter. It is even more difficult, given the fact that $25
million is a very limited amount of assistance as compared to total
need. Suffice it to state, however, that a number of options have been
open to the United States, including token allocations in several
sectors of need or allocations in a single sector such as schools or
medical facilities. An early August. AID status report, following the
AID team's return from the field, stated the following ,convlulsiofn:
In late May a team of U.S. experts was dispatched to Italy to identify ways in
which the United States could assist in reconstruction of the devastated area.






16


After intensive analysis and extensive consultations with central, regional, and
municipal government officials it was concluded that the United States could best
help by providing assistance primarily to rebuild schools in selected communities;
to build facilities for care of the elderly, many of whom have been displaced as a
result of the earthquake; to restore one or more municipal centers which will
serve as a catalyst for community reconstruction efforts; and, to fund a small
technical exchange program in seismic geology. This program is in line with
regional and local priorities and has the endorsement of the U.S. Ambassador to
Italy, Mr. Volpe, and Italian officials.
This program which has been approved by the Administrator of AID will
take a year or more to complete. Mr. Arturo Constantino, a senior AID officer
has been designated Director of the U.S. Earthquake Assistance Program for
Italy. He is now in Italy concluding the project agreements necessary to begin
U.S. reconstruction assistance.
The breakdown of the recommended program in early August
was approximately as follows:
(1) Homes for the elderly------------------------------------- $4,000,000
(2) Schools-------------------------------------------------- 9,000,000
(3) Restoration of multiple purpose historic buildings------------ 2,000,000
(4) Technical exchange programs------------------------------- 500, 000
(5) Reserve for other humanitarian projects---------------------7, 500, 000
(6) Operating costs for U.S. assistance-------------------------- 1, 200, 000
(7) Obligated for emergency relief------------------------------ 1, 000, 000
Since, then, and following additional consultations with the Italian
Government at all levels, the program above has been revised, and as
of early September nearly all U.S. money available will apparently
be allocated for homes for the elderly and schools. The subcommittee
understands that efforts are now underway to finalize this allocation
of U.S. assistance.
The developing U.S. assistance program deserves the full support
of all concerned, and is clearly in line with the expressed wishes of
the earthquake victims and officials at all levels of the Italian Govern-
ment. There are, however, some areas of legitimate public and con-
gressional concern.
The lack of progress in identifying specific projects and the slow
obligation of U.S. funds is one of them. There is growing concern
that of the $25 million appropriated by Congress last May, some
$24 million still remains. There is also concern over how U.S. funds
will be programed and disbursed. For example, will this be a relatively
simple operation which respects Italian pride and capabilities, or
will it be an operation bogged down with conditions and redtape and
the kinds of bureaucratic insensitivity which has marked the use of
similar humanitarian assistance for other countries? And there are
other concerns as well, including the possibility of additional U.S.
assistance.
The subcommittee and its chairman will continue an active interest
in U.S. assistance to Italy, and the recommendations of this report
comment on some immediate concerns.

C. OTHER ASSISTANCE

The Government and people of Italy will inevitably be carrying
the bulk of the costs for rehabilitation and reconstruction. As sug-
gested earlier, estimates on total costs run as high as $3 billion.





17

Although a significant number of countries contributed to emergency
relief needs, there only have been a few offers of rehabilitation and
reconstruction assistance. Apart from the U.S. assistance discussed
above, the only assistance of record is some $50 million from the
European Economic Community and some $4 million from Saudi
Arabia. Important amounts are also coming from various private
voluntary agencies and other humanitarian organizations. These
included Catholic Relief Services and several ad hoc earthquake
relief groups in the United States.












RECOMMENDATIONS


For the purpose of this report, the chairman makes the following
recommendations regarding U.S. assistance to the people and towns
in the Friuli region of northern Italy.

U.S. ASSISTANCE MUST RESPOND TO "PEOPLE") NEEDS
U.S. assistance to the earthquake victims in Italy must be purely
humanitarian, rehabilitative in character, and fully responsive to
helping the people of Friuli normalize their lives.
Homes for the elderly, schools, health facilities, day care centers,
support for renewing the area's cottage industries, and perhaps help
in restoring some historic buildings, many of which mean so much to
the people of the area, reflect the kinds of priorities which must govern
the allocation of U.S. assistance.
Regrettably, the administration's early planning and recommen-
dations for U.S. assistance neglected such priorities, and heavily
stressed such things as technical assistance, communications equipment
a field computer terminal, and high-altitude photography, among
others.
Justifications for such kinds of assistance were never forthcoming,
and in recent weeks the administration's initial planning and recom-
mendations have apparently been pushed aside-hopefully, in favor
of people oriented assistance. This would not only be in line with the
intent of Congress in appropriatiig funds for Italy, but it would also
be in line with the needs and the wishes of the Friulian people
themselves.

EXPENDITURES AND FLEXIBLE PROGRAMING OF U.S. ASSISTANCE-NO
AID MISSION IN ITALY
U.S. assistance ot the earthquake victims in Italy should be allo-
cated as expeditiously as possible, and should be administered in a
simple and flexible way.
This assistance does not involve a routine bilateral arrangement for
economic development, but humanitarian help for people in need.
This assistance should reflect, therefore, the more flexible kinds of
programing expected by Congress and the American prople in helping
to meet international disaster relief and rehabilitation needs.
The programing of U.S. earthquake assistance might include, there-
fore, some cash grants for specific projects to Italian Government
units or voluntary organizations-and any contractual arrangements
undertaken by the Agency for International Development (AID)
with Italian Government units, voluntary organizations, or others
should be simply drawn, involving Italian personnel to implement the
project.
(18)





19


Officials in AID must avoid the redtape, bureaucratic insensitivity,
and cumbersome program requirements which have needlessly hamp-
ered the effective use of other humanitarian assistance made available
by Congress in the recent past. And establishing an AID mission in
Italy to administer U.S. earthquake assistance must also be avoided.

SUPPORT FOR VOLUNTARY AGENCIES AND EFFORTS
U.S. assistance for the earthquake victims in Italy is limited, and
the great bulk of it should go through Italian Government channels.
Voluntary self-help projects among the earthquake victims, how-
ever, should not be neglected. Individual projects often involve
modest sums. And the administration should seriously consider sup-
porting appropriate projects, including those which may be associated
with established American voluntary agencies.
In this connection, the administration should also appropriately
facilitate the efforts of other private American groups that are still
assisting the people of Friuli. These groups include those interested
in supporting the restoration or reconstruction of treasured art work
and historic buildings in the earthquake stricken area.

ADDITIONAL FUNDING FOR ITALY
The United States is currently contributing $25 million for re-
habilitation and reconstruction purposes in the earthquake stricken
area of Italy.
Field reports indicate, however, that, over the coming year or two,
additional sums could be used effectively, and Congress and the
executive branch should seriously consider providing an additional
$15 million to help the people of Friuli normalize their lives.

SPECIAL IMMIGRATION MEASURES FOR EARTHQUAKE VICTIMS
In keeping with our national humanitarian tradition, and within
the context of present law, the administration should establish special
immigration measures to facilitate the movement to the United States
of earthquake victims who apply for visas-especially those with
family members in this country.
















APPENDIX I

TEXT OF LETTERS OF AGREEMENT EXCHANGED BETWEEN THE
UNITED STATES AND THE GOVERNMENT OF ITALY

(NOTE.-The following exchange of correspondence between U.S. Ambassador
to Italy, Hon. John A. Volpe, and the Italian Minister for Foreign Affairs, His
Excellency Mariano Rumor, constitute the bilateral umbrella agreement with the
Government of Italy providing the basis for the delivery of U.S. assistance to
any level of government in Italy or, subject to Government of Italy clearance, to
private foundations recognized by the Italian Government.)


UNITED STATES EMBASSY,
Rome, June 9, 1976.
His Excellency MARIANO RUMOR,
Minister for Foreign Affairs, Rome.
EXCELLENCY: I have the honor to refer to the conversations which have re-
cently taken place between representatives of our two governments with respect
to the human suffering and physical devastation caused by the recent earthquakes
in the Friuli region of Italy. The United States wishes to assist and cooperate with
the Government of Italy in alleviating the suffering caused by the tragedy. To this
end, the U.S. Congress has authorized the provision of assistance to the earth-
quake victims of Italy in the context of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as
amended, and related legislation.
In this context, the Government of the United States desires to define further
those conditions and understandings between the two Governments which would
permit and facilitate the effective use of U.S. assistance in the afflicted areas of
Italy. In accordance therewith I am confining the following understandings reached
as a result of the above mentioned conversations.
1. The U.S. Government undertakes to make available to the Government of
Italy or its agencies, to regional, provincial or municipal governments, or-upon
agreement with the Italian Government-to any other public or quasi-public
body or organization, to an appropriate credit institution, or to a voluntary,
nonprofit organization of Italian, United States, or international character,
commodities, services or funds for the carrying out of programs of relief and
rehabilitation or other assistance. In the event that the U.S. Government intends
to make available resources, as described above, to the above-mentioned non-
governmental entities, it will notify the Italian Government, in order to obtain
the agreement of the latter. The Italian Government undertakes to communicate
its own position on the matter within 20 days.
2. The purpose, amounts, and other terms and conditions relating to assistance
which is intended to be furnished will be detailed by common accord between
the U.S. Government and such entities.
3. The United States cannot furnish any assistance, the provision of which
would not be in accord with the applicable laws or regulations of the United
States, or with Italian laws or regulations.
4. The U.S. Government will furnish the names of the personnel to whom,
within the framework of the Embassy, will be entrusted the special task of the
implementation of the transactions relating to the present agreement.
5. Any supplies, materials or equipment financed by the U.S. Government
which are introduced into Italy for the above purposes as well as any legal instru-
ments and other transfers of resources for such purposes, shall enjoy all exemptions,
from tariffs, taxes, duties or other levies accorded by Italian law and by the law
of the European Community for the Friuli disaster or as subsequently amplified
as well as any other exemption or facility accorded by Italian law.
6. The Government of Italy and the U.S. Government shall, upon the request
of either, consult regarding any matter relating to the application of this under-
standing or to activities carried out hereunder. Either the Government of Italy
(21)






22


or the U.S. Government shall provide such information relating to the purposes
and implementation of this understanding, as the other may request.
7. The Government of Italy understands that the U.S. Government will
require assurances in subsequent accords with the entities described in para-
graph 1 with respect to its right of access to the books, records, and other relevant
documents relating to assistance projects and programs financed by the United
States. Nothing in this understanding is intended to restrict in any way the right
of the Government of Italy itself to conduct such inspections in accordance with
its laws and regulations.
I would appreciate receiving your confirmation of these understandings at
your earliest convenience.
Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of my highest consideration.
JOHN A. VOLPE

[Embassy Rome translation]
THE MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS,
Rome, June 9, 1976.
EXCELLENCY: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of Your letter dated
June 9, 1976, reading as follows:
"Excellency:
"I have the honor to refer to the conversations which have recently taken place
between representatives of our two governments with respect to the human
suffering and physical devastation caused by the recent earthquakes in the
Fruili region of Italy. The United States wishes to assist and cooperate with the
Government of Italy in alleviating the suffering caused by the tragedy. To this
end, the U.S. Congress has authorized the provision of assistance to the earth-
quake victims of Italy in the context of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as
amended, and related legislation.
"In this context, the Government of the United States desires to define further
those conditions and understandings between the two Governments which would
permit and facilitate the effective use of United States assistance in the afflicted
areas of Italy. In accordance therewith I am confirming the following under-
standings as a result of the above mentioned conversations.
"1. The U.S. Government undertakes to make available to the Government
of Italy or its agencies. to regional, provincial or municipal governments, or-
upon agreement with the Italian Government-to any other public or quasi-
public body or organization, to an appropriate credit institution, or to a voluntary,
nonprofit organization of Italian, United States, or international character,
commodities, services or funds for the carrying out of programs of relief and
rehabilitation or other assistance. In the event that the U.S. Government intends
to make available resources, as described above, to the above-mentioned non-
governmental entities, it will notify the Italian Government, in order to obtain
the agreement of the latter. The Italian Government undertakes to communicate
its own position on the matter within 20 days.
"2. The purpose, amounts and other terms and conditions relating to assistance
which is intended to be furnished will be detailed by common accord between
the U.S. Government and such entities.
"3. The United States cannot furnish any assistance the provision of which
would not be in accord with the applicable laws or regulations of the United
States, or with Italian laws or regulations.
"4. The U.S. Government will furnish the names of the personnel to whom,
within the framework of the Embassy, will be entrusted the special task of the
implementation of the transactions relating to the present agreement.
"5. Any supplies, materials or equipment financed by the U.S. Government
which are introduced into Italy for the above purposes as well as any legal instru-
ments and other transfers of resources for such purposes, shall enjoy all exemptions
from tariffs, taxes, duties or other levies accorded by Italian law and by the law
of the European Community for the Friuli disaster or as subsequently amplified
as well as any other exemption or facility accorded by Italian law.
"6. The Government of Italy and the U.S. Government shall, upon the request
of either, consult regarding any matter relating to the application of this under-
standing or to activities carried out hereunder. Either the Government of Italy
or the U.S. Government shall provide such information, relating to the purposes
and implementation of this understanding, as the other may request.






23

"7. The Government of Italy understands that the U.S. Government will
require assurances in subsequent accords with the entities described in para-
graph 1 with respect to its right of access to the books, records, and other relevant
documents relating to assistance projects and programs financed by the United
States. Nothing in this understanding is intended to restrict in any way the
right of the Government of Italy itself to conduct such inspections in accordance
with its laws and regulations.
"I would appreciate receiving your confirmation of these understandings at
your earliest convenience.
"Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurances of my highest consideration."
I take pleasure to make known to Your Excellency the consensus of the Italian
Government to the above-mentioned proposals.
Please accept, Excellency, the expression of my highest consideration.
MAU1ANO RUMOX1.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

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