Astronauts and cosmonauts biographical and statistical data

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Astronauts and cosmonauts biographical and statistical data report prepared for the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-fourth Congress, second session, by the Science Policy Research Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress
Series Title:
Serial no. 94-HH
Physical Description:
v, 180 p. : ports. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Library of Congress -- Science Policy Research Division
Smith, Marcia S
Publisher:
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:
Edition:
Rev. 1976.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Astronauts -- Biography   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by Marcia Smith, July 1976.
General Note:
At head of title: Committee print.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 025881109
oclc - 02433184
lccn - 76602896
System ID:
AA00024850:00001

Full Text
Af .tso : rv-.tHi


COMMITTEEE PRINT]


ASTRONAUTS AND COSMONAUTS
BIOGRAPHICAL AND STATISTICAL DATA
[Revised-May 31, 1976]



REPORT
PREPARED FOR THE
.. COMMITTEE ON
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
"U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
NINETY-FOURTH CONGRESS
SECOND SESSION
BY THE


SCIENCE POLICY RESEARCH DIVISION
CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVyE
LIBRARY OF CONGRES114 ,. A


Serial IH


JULY 1976


Printed for -the use of the Committee on Science and Technology


U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1976


73-750


- ler l bbeB the t omdet tDoemmaz u.s. GovementPrints Off
Wahngtaa, D.C. mw Pe st.u .e


.... ", i!L...,...........


r
ely


/


..
Is












. i '..i.. ..


... ......

. : i ... ..


A. W: :::::
: :EE..:.- : "E
71.5..:. .
. Ij
Iq: . .
tta.,.:::n i"
% H:: i


COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


OLIN E. TEAGUE, Texas, Chairman


KEN HECHLER, West Virginia
THOMAS N. DOWNING, Virginia
DON FUQUA, Florida
JAMES W. SYMINGTON, Missouri
WALTER FLOWERS, Alabama
ROBERT A. ROE, New Jersey


CHARLES A. MOSI
ALFHONZO BELL
JOHN JARMAN, 01
JOHN W. WYDLEB
LARRY WINN, JR.,
LOUIS FREY, JL.,


MIKE McCORMACK, Washington BARRY M. GOLDV
GEORGE E. BROWN, JB., California MARVIN L. ESCH,
DALE MILFORD, Texas JOHN B. CONLAN,
RAY THORNTON, Arkansas GARY A. MYERS,
JAMES H. SCHEUER, New York DAVID F. EMERY,
RICHARD L. OTTINGER, New York LARRY PRESSLE
HENRY A. WAXMAN, California
PHILIP H. HAYES, .Indiana
TOM HARKIN, Iowa
JIM LLOYD, California
JEROME A. AMBRO, New York
CHRISTOPHER J. DODD, Connecticut
MICHAEL T. BLOUIN, Iowa
TIM L. HALL, Illinois
ROBERT (BOB) KRUEGER, Texas
MARILYN LLQX.D, Teppessee
JAMES JjTLANWHAR1, 1io.ig.an
TIMOTIS ;t iTr, C~orpdd 1.
S.: iatf4p. SWIOERT, Jr., Executive Director
S -A %W&4,JLD A. GOuLD, Deputy Director
7.8- TsxxB. YzAGEo Csel
'X..*I9 R. HAUMMILL, Jr., Cbumd
? ; c* 9j jA"di WnAON, Technical Consultant
; ". CT'*
I#/ I. 'hRAdi RATCnFOoD, Science Cbnsuiant
#. *. Q*V 3L.'HOLMFLD, SCWie Connlst
<'-. .RArnhN. READ, Teical oCbuaMiutaB
*'1 J~.m.. **' '^ SloBERT C. KXTCi AM, C(pw gel
i. ,, ,,,, .' \ REOINA ADATISV, Chief Cerk
S" M -RAL A. Snn(RATA, Minority Cbusel

(U)


TER, Ohio
, California
dahoin
, New York
,Kansas
Florida
FATER, JI., California
Michigan
, Arizona
Pennsylvania
,Maine
R, South Dakota


a1i i
.,, .. ., .

1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ** : :. ..






**:: ;: ** :, .. .. .. *' : ; ii*: :ii .. :.: ..
... *: **V~i "..::::: :.... .^ i ./,,1 ::^ ^^^^ : ,


.." i.'" ":





.'.





-.::.


k .. *




i :' **'* !!i i!i!

:.









LETTER OF SUBMITTAL


THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS,
CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE,
Washington, D.C., May 27, 1976.
Hon. OLIN E. TEAGUE,
Fdairmn, Committee on Science and Technology,
U.S. House of Representatives,
WasAiwgton, D.C.
DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: Pursuant to discussions with your committee
staff, the enclosed revised version of "Astronauts and Cosmonauts:
Biographical and Statistical Data" is transmitted herewith. The year
k976 not only marks the 200th anniversary of our Nation, but the
15th anniversary of our first manned space voyage, that of Alan
Shepard on May 5, 1961.
Every effort has been made to update information on all the present
and former astronauts of NASA, the X-15 joint NASA-Air Force
program, the Air Force X-20 Dyna-Soar program and the Air Force
Manned Oribiting Laboratory program, as well as the Soviet cosmo-
nauts. Inevitably, a few records may be out of date despite this
effort, especially for the cosmonauts since information is so difficult to
obtain, but the report is current to May 31, 1976 to the best of our
knowledge.
The report was again prepared by Ms. Marcia Smith, Analyst in
Science and Technology, Science Policy Research Division. She appre-
ciates the assistance of Charles Vick, Maarten Houtman of the Nether-
lands, and the Air Force in obtaining some of the photographs used.
Sincerely,
Sincerely, NORMAN BECKMAN,
Acting Director.
(M)























: .: .: : : .: === ================ .::
1::
















"": : r i ii...i : !: ::
..::::*:;. T .A" "..:.lll:


.. ".:: .: .::" .EE
* ,-::. : EE.. :EEEE" ... :E E

..... m.. ":!i

**~ .:::, :: ..

i ~ ~ 1 1110**;: il


*~~ ~ "" *. *




.:" ".: .a

~ ~ .. fsc i.



.... *
". : .*






















'1 1
.... .',I .,


I j: [
..:N M



'1

... .






















CONTENTS

Page
Letter of Submittal ----------------------------------------------- i
1. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Astronauts ----------- 1
Table 1-1: Status of Astronauts by Group----------------------- 1
Biographies of Astronauts ----------------------------------- 3
Table 1-2: Summary of NASA Astronauts ---------------------- 76
2. The X-15, X-20 Dyna-Soar and Manned Orbiting Laboratory Pro-
grams ------------------------------------------------------- 81
Biographies of X-15, X-20 Dyna-Soar and MOL Astronauts- - 83
Table 2-1: Summary of X-15, X-20 and MOL Astronauts --------- 114
S. Soviet Cosmonauts---------------------------------------------- 117
Table 3-1: Probable Soviet Cosmonaut Corps Groups ----------- 118
Biographies of Soviet Cosmonauts- --------------------------- 120
Table 3-2: Summary of Soviet Cosmonauts--------------------- 160
4. Comparative Data on American and Soviet Spaceflights -------------- 163
Table 4-la: U.S. and U.S.S.R. Manned Spaceflights ------------ 164
Table 4-1b: Time Line of U.S. and U.S.S.R. Manned Space mis-
sions ----------------------------------------- 170
Table 4-2a: U.S. Manned Spaceflight Crew Members by Program- 171
Table 4-2b: U.S.S.R. Manned Spaceflight Crew Members by Pro-
gram----------------------------------------- 174
Table 4-3: Comparative Time Spent on Space Missions---------- 176
Table 4-4: Manned Spaceflights by Program------------------- 178
Table 4-5: Summary Table of U.S. Astronaut Program_ ------- 179
Table 4-6: List of Deceased Astronauts and Cosmonauts-------- 180






















































"


i


.!*
:*







































:
:









i









CHAPTER ONE

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
ASTRONAUTS

There have been seventy-three astronauts chosen by NASA since
Arilt 1959. As of May 1975 there will be twenty-eight on active duty,
thity-four resigned, three on inactive status, and eight deceased.
Those classified inactive in this report (Allen, Schweickart, and
Swigert) are so identified by NASA and remain a part of the astronaut
corps as long as they work for the Government and continue their
flying status.
The astronauts were chosen in groups, and to date there have been
seven groups selected: Group I, April 9, 1959, 7 chosen; Group II,
September 17, 1962, 9 chosen; Group III, October 18, 1963, 14 chosen;
Group IV, June 28, 1965, 6 chosen; Group V, April 4, 1966, 19 chosen;
Group VI, August 4, 1967, 11 chosen; Group VII, August 14, 1969,.
7 transfers from the cancelled Manned Orbiting Laboratory program.
TABLz 1-1
STATUS OP AeSTRONAUTS BY GROUP
Group 1-1959 (Mercury pilots)
aM ter------------------------------- Resied.
Cooper---------------------------------eDo.
Gl .... ------------------------------- Do.
(rianom-------------------------------- Deceased (Apollo 204).
hin ------------ ..--------------- Resiied.
---------------------------- Vo.
Slayton- ----------------------------- Active.
Group II-1962 (pilot-astronauts)
Armtrong ----------------------------- Resied.
an -an--------------------------- o.
CO ------------------------------ Do.
Love-lL--------------------------------- Do.
M Vitt -------------------------------- Do.
SQ... ----.------------------------------ Deceased (T-38 crash).
Stafford---------------------------------- Resigned.
White-------------------------------- Deceased (Apollo 204).
Young-------------------------------- Active.


Group III-1963 (pilot-astronauts)


Aldrin -------- ------
Ande.m ------------------------
Basmett ----------- ----
Bean -------------
Cernan----------------------------------_
Chaffee ------------- ------
Coi -----------------
mnnhngham ------------------------------
Eiaele- -
i eman- -----------------------------
Gordon--------------------------------
Sehweicwkart- ---------------------
&0# --t-----------------------------------
WilIam-B-----------------------------
(1) '


Resided.
DO.
Deceased (T-38 crash).
Active.
Resigned.
Deceased (Apollo 204).
Reaged.
Do.
Deceased (T-38 crash).
Resigned.
Inactive.
Resigne(T-38 crash)
Deceased (T-38 crash).










Group IV-1965 (stcitestronauts)


Garriott-------------------------------
Gibson ---------------------------
Graveline-------------------------------
Kerwin --------- ------------ ---- ---
Michel -----------------------
Schmitt -------------------- --------


Active.
Radtzve

Active.
Resigned.


Group V-1966 (pilot-astronauts)

Brand---------------------------------- Active.
Bun---------------------------------- Reasignec
Carr------------------------------------- Active.
Duke------------------------------------ Resignec
Engle ------------------------------------ Active.
Evans ----------------------------- --- Do.
Givens---------------------------------- Deceasei
Haise------------------------------------ Active.:
Irwin------------------------------------ Resignec
Lind--------- ------------------------Active.
Lousma---------------------------------- -Do.
Mattingly -------------------------------- Do.
McCandless ------------------------------- Do.
Mitchell- ------------_------------------ Resignec
Pogue----------------------------------- Active.
Roosa --------------------------------Resignec
Swigert----------------------------------- Inactive
Weitz -------------------------------Active.
Worden ------------------------------- Resignec


.1
ji


1. 4 e.:..' *

> ::." :E
... E: r
*:.,.# ,: : .;
i (autoac. ..enj).



I.
...:: hJ [ :; *:. :


jI.
I.
1.il


Group VI-1967 (scientist-astronauts)
Allen---------- ----------------------- Inactive.
Chapman------- ----------------------- Resigned.
England---------------------------------- Do.
Henize----------------------------------- Active.
Holmquest------------------------------- Resigned.
Lenoir----------------------------------- Active.
Llewellyn--------------------------------- Resigned.
Musgrave -----------------------------Active.
O'Leary----------------------------------Resigned.
Parker -----------------------------------Active.
Thornton-------------------- ------------- Do.


.. .. . : ... .
.. .* ,,
- .. .. ..:"o... .. ,'
. .:..::r" .:
:E", EE:! :.i. : ...


:: s.:: ::; .

,. .: i "i :
... : .: ....L

*... :...:

.:.. ./ "
.: =...:.. :.

"" : .** "
:.. '




.. .. .. "!...'!.
f *


Group VII-1969 (ex-MOL astronauts)


Bobko -------------------
Crippen---------------------------------
Fullerton ---------------------
Hartefleld ---------- -------
Overmyer_--------------
Peterson-------------------------
Truly--------- --------------


Active.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.





Im 3

























fl U|.. ..9








qwi "SBuzz" Eugene Aldrin, Jr.; Colonel, USAF (Retired); born
I JatUary 20, 1930, Montclair, New Jersey; divorced, three children,
subsequently remarried.
Received bachelor of science degree from the U.S. Military
Academy (1951), doctor of science in astronautics from the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1963), and was chosen
with the third group of astronauts in 1963. Colonel Aldrin was
Backup pilot for Gemini 9, pilot for Gemini 12, backup command
Module pilot for Apollo 8, and lunar module pilot for Apollo 11
(second man to walk on Moon). He retired from NASA in July
1971 to become commandant of the Aerospace Research Pilots'
School at Edwards Air Force Base, California. On March 1, 1972
he retired from the Air Force and is now President of Research
and Engineering Consultants in California. His book, Return to
Earth, describes some post-flight experiences and problems en-
countered by many astronauts.





4%


Joseph Percival Alien IV; civilian; born June 27, 1937, Crawfordsvflie,
Indiana; married, two children.
Received bachelor of arts degree in math-physics from DePauw
University (1959), master of science in physics from Yale Uni-
versity (1961), doctorate of nuclear physics from Yale (1965), and
was chosen with the sixth group of astronauts in 1967. He was
mission scientist for Apollo 15 and took a temporary leave from
NASA in 1973 to serve on the staff of the President's Council on
International Economic Policy. He participated in the Outlook
for Space study and currently is Assistant Administrator for
Legislative Affairs at NASA headquarters.
















































*,lln?


m Alisun Anders; Colonel, USAFR; born October 17, 1933,
Xppg C&ina; married, six children.
beein bcbaelor f science degree from U.S. Naval Academy
) Master of science in nuclear engineering from the Air
ndftitute of Technology (1962), an" was chosen with the
d kroup of atrmaautea mJ93. Colonel, Anders was backup
Ret f: einxhi 11, lunar module pilot for Apollo 8, and backup
ommaid a phoaIe forApollo 11. He retired from the Air
a.rca Seoetmber 1969 a.d1. beme Executive Secretary of the
national Aeronutics and Space Council. In 1973 he joined the
Mif neW .rCo mason, sid with its reorganization i4 1974,
sNf. sbairmmn of thekIjuclear Regulatory Commission. He
Sa osmo t q:nspring of 1976 and was recently
aUR.8. Ambassador to: o


. ..:: .. ...
. . "...... .......... .. .
:::EEE:. :EE::EEEEEE:p.
a:::E E.:.: .EE~i'' !" ,.. '=


liij' Mith .. ,


"i;;, .







































Neil Alden Armstrong; civilian; born August 5, 1930, Wapakonita,
Ohio; married, two children. I
Received bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering
from Purdue University (1955), was an aviator in the U.S. Navy,
received master of science in aerospace engineering from the
University of Southern California (1970), and was chosen with
the second group of astronauts in 1962. Prior to his selection,
Mr. Armstrong was engaged in the X-15 program. He was
backup command pilot for Gemini 5, command pilot for Gemini 8,
backup command pilot for Gemini 11, backup commander for
Apollo 8, and commander for Apollo 11 (first man to walk on
Moon). In July 1970 he became Deputy Associate Administrator
for Aeronautics at NASA. In August 1971 he resigned that
position and is currently Professor of Aeronautical Engineering
at the University of Cincinnati.






































brles Arthur Baasett FI; Major, USAF; born December 30, 1931,
"ayton, Ohio; died February 28, 1966 near St. Louis, Missouri
in the crash of a T-38 jet"was married, two children.
Received a bachelor of science in electrical engineering from
Texas Technological College and was selected with the third
group of astronauts. Major Bassett had been chosen to pilot
Gemii 9.















































Alan LaVeri Bean; Captain, USN, mi. Mah 1i 1, Allx ."
Texas; married, two children. .
Received a bachelor. of science degree in aeronautical ep
ing from the University of Texas (1955), and was c .os.hl .
the third group of astronauts in 1963. Captain Bean was b.
command pilot for Gemini 10; backup lunar module aiotf.
Apollo 9, lunar module pilot for Apollo 12 (fourth man.ft1 Btl
on Moon), commander for Skylab 3, and was backup co'm driin
for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. He is currently assie to
space shuttle development. '

^N
.. : ..


4.X





I


r-













Off


Kfli Joueph Bobko; Lieutenant Colonel, USAF; born December 23,
1937, New York, New York; married, two children.
M Received bachelor of science degree from the U.S. Air Force
Academy (1959), master of science in aerospace engineering from
Sthe University of Southern California (1970), and transferred
into the astronaut corps from the MOL program in 1969. He
was a crew member of the Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude
Test aad was part of the support crew of .the Apollo-Soyuz Test
SPrject. He is currently assigned to space shuttle development.
* .. i .. s .-.* *
'*, I. *
.. ..






10




..~.. .....








!Q























Frank Borman; Colonel, USAF (Retired); born March 14, 1928,
Gary, Indiana; married, two children.
Received bachelor of science degree from the U.S. Military
Academy (1950), master of science in aeronautical engineering
from the California Institute of Technology (1957), and was
chosen with the second group of astronauts in 1962. Colonel
Borman was backup command pilot of Gemini 4, command pilot
for Gemini 7, and commander for Apollo 8. In May 1967 he
became Field Director of the Long-Term Space Station Program
at NASA. He resigned from NASA and the Air Force on July 1,
1970 to become Senior Vice-President, Operations Group for
Eastern Airlines, and was recently promoted to President and
chief operating officer.











































Yace DeVoe Brand; civilian; born May 9,1931, Longmont, Colorado;
married, four children.
Received bachelor of science degree in business administration
from the University of Colorado (1953), bachelor of science in
aeronautical engine eering from the University of Colorado (1960),
master of business administration from the University of Cali-
fornia at Los Angeles (1964), served as an aviator with the U.S.
Marine Corps, and was chosen with the fifth group of astronauts
in 1966. Mr. Brand was back command module pilot of Apollo
15, backup commander for Skylab 3 and Skylab 4, and was
command module pilot for the Apo o-Soyuz Test Project. He is
currently assigned to ppace shuttle development.


T2-250 0 Y76- 2









































John Sumter Bull; Lieutenant Commander, USN (Retired); born
September 25, 1935, Memphis, Tennessee; married, one child.
Received a bachelor of science degree in mechanical engineering
from Rice University (1957) and was chosen with the fifth group
of astronauts in 1966. Commander Bull withdrew from the astro-
naut program and the Navy in 1968 due to a rare pulmonary
disease. He is currently working toward a doctorate at Stanford
University










































inkislm Scott Carpenter; Commander, USN (Retired); born May
1, 1925, Boulder, Colorado; divorced, four children, subsequently
remarried.
SAttended University of Colorado although not graduating
(awarded an earned degree in engineering after his space flight),
and was chosen in the first group of astronauts in 1959. Com-
mpander Carpenter was backup pilot for Mercury-Atlas 6 (Friend-
ship 7), and the pilot of Mercury-Atlas ,7 (Aurora 7). An elbow
injury from a motorbike accident in Bermudi in 1964 removed
him from flight status, and he resigned from NASA in August
1967 to join the U.S. Navy Project Sealab. He retired from the
Navy on July 1, 1969 and is in private business in Los Angeles,
California.






14



: "d.1
*7"T11.00
.. ...... .... ..~~. ..... ....... ...: 'ii, ,



iii:
































Gerald Paul Carr; Colonel, USMC (Retired); hor August 22, 1932,
Denver, Colorado; married, six children.
Received bachelor of science degree in mechanical engineering
from the University of Southern California (1954), bachelor of
science in aeronautical engineering from the U.S. Naval Post-
graduate School (1961), master of science in aeronautical enki-
neering from Princeton University (1962), and was chosen with
the fifth group of astronauts in 1966. Colonel Carr was instru-
mental in the development of the lunar roving vehicle used by
the Apollo astronauts, and was commander of Skylab 4. Cur-
rently he is assigned to space shuttle development.










































gene Andrew Cernan; Captain, USN; born March 14, 1934,
Chicago, Illinois; married, one child.
Received bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering
from Purdue University (1956), master of science in aeronautical
engineering from Purdue ands the Naval Postgraduate School
(1961), and was chosen in the third group of astronauts in 1963.
He became the pilot for Gemini 9 upon the death of a prime crew
member, was backup pilot for Gemini 12, backup lunar module
pilot for Apollo 7, lunar module pilot for Apollo 10, backup com-
mander for Apollo 14, and commander for Apollo 17 (eleventh
man to walk on Moon). Captain Cernan was Deputy Director of
the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, and will resign from NASA
on July 1, 1976.








































Roger Bruce Chaffee; Lieutenant Commander, USN; born February
15, 1935, Grand Rapids, Michigan; died January 27, 1967 in the
Apollo 204 fire at Cape Kennedy, Florida; was married, two
children.
Received bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering
from Purdue University (1957), and was chosen in the third group
of astronauts in 1963. He had been selected as lunar module pilot
for the first manned Apollo flight.







































* I. Keayon Chapman; civilian; born March 5, 1935, Melbourne,
Ap--tralia; became U.S. citizen May 8, 1967; married, two children.
Received bachelor of science degree in physics and mathematics
Jii66m Sydney University (1956), served nm the Royal Australian
Air Force Reserve, received master of science in aeronautics and
astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(1964), doctorate in instrumentation from MIT (1967), and was
..' chosen in the sixth group of astronauts in 1967. Dr. Chapman
resigned from NASA in September 1972 and took a position with
AVCO Everett Research Laboratories in Everett, Massachusetts
and is also a senior research associate at the MIT Measurement
Systems Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts.








































Michael Collins; Major General, USAFR; born October. 31,i IA.
Rome, Italy; married, three children.
Received bachelor of science from the U.S. Military Acowy
(1952) and was chosen in the third group of astronauts in 1963.
Colonel Collins was backup pilot for Gemini 7, pilot for Gemini 10,
assigned to Apollo 8 but removed to undergo surgery, and com-
mand module pilot for Apollo 11. In November 1969 .he remigned
from NASA and the Air Force and was appointed Assistant
Secretary of State for Public Affairs. In April 1971 he became
Director of the National Air and Space Museuim at the Smith-
sonian Institution. His book, Carrying the Fire describeA his
selection into the astronaut program and his experiences on
Gemini 10 and Apollo 11.








































Charles "Pete" Conrad, Jr.; Captain, USN (Retired); born June 2,
19390 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; married, four children.
Received bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from
Princeton University in 1953 and was chosen with the second
group of astronauts min 1962. Captain Conrad was pilot of Gemini
5, backup command pilot of Gemini 8, commander pilot for
Gemini 11, backup commander for Apollo 9, command for
Apollo 12 (third man to walk on the Moon), and commander of
Skylab 2. He resigned from both NASA and the Navy on
February 1, 1974 to become Vice President and Chief Operating
Officer of the American Television and Communications Corpora-
tion, a cable T.V. firm in Denver, Colorado. He has since taken a
position as a vice president of McDonnell-Douglas Corporation.






20

~~. ..." ..... .::".
...... :.." .:. ..







or.







0 AM















Leroy Gordon Cooper, Jr.; Colonel, USAF (Retired) boru MaA ft
1927, Shawnee, Oklahoma; divorced, two children, subsequetly
remarried.
Received bachelor of science degree in aeronautical egneWl
from the Air Force Institute of Technology (195(^" mad
chosen in the first group of astronauts in 1959. Colonel Cop
was backup pilot for Mercury-Atlas 8, pilot for MereuyA^
(Faith 7), command pilot for Gemini 5, backup c tni~rg lj.4
for Gemini 12, and backup commander for Apollo 10. He' retie
from NASA and the Air Force in July 1970 to form Gordon
Cooper Associates in Hialeah, Florida. He is currently. .i:e.
President for Research and Development for Walt Drisiey
Productions.
4 .:".:::

":q







re a ri d -"" ,E: .. .
Received bachelor~.. ofsinedge naeoat.lexiAb
from ,z the Air Foc Inttt f:ehooy.15 a
chose intefrtgru:fatonusi.99.ClnlC
was .... back..up pilo o eruyAls',pltfo ec
(Faih:7,':.. coman.plotfo Gmin:5:bcku.c:u'.
for Gemini,:.... 12 an.bckpcomade.orApll 0.Her.e
from NASA..:...i::., and th"Ar ore n ul"170tofom:or:
Cooper~...... :. Asscite inHaeh loia ei cretyV







Peroductidons.oeJ. ooeUSF(eie) 0" 6








































Rebut Larel Crippen; Commander, USN; born September 11, 1937,
Beaumont, Texas; married, three children.
Received bachelor of science degree in aerospace engineering
from the University of Texas (1960), and transferred into the
NASA astronaut corps from the MOL program in 1969. He was
commander of the Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test
and waspart of the support crew for the Apollo-Soyuz Test
Project. He is currently assigned to space shuttle developmenL




: ....... :E

22
.. ... ..
', .'=: ::" i *^


















.. .......= .::


















Ronnie Walter Cunningham; ci-v.le; brn March.. 1:6, -132 ,
Iowa; married, two chil"dtn.
Flew as an aviator in the U.S. Marine Corps, received ."
of arts degree (1960) and master of art (1961).in phyj fran
University of Califoriiia at Los Angeles imd was cios nii
third group of astronauts in 1963. He was lunar module pitn
Apollo 7. Mr. Cunningham resigned from NASA in Aggust ,
and is currently President of the Hydro-Tech Delobtflt
Company, Houston, Texas. 'H





























. .... ........ ..... ......












Chre osDuke, Jr.; Colonel, USAF; born October 3, 1935,
1:ph'_Mariotte, North Carolina; married, two children.
td,1 ..... Received bachelor of science from the U.S. Naval Academy
Li(1-957), master of -science in aeronautics and astronautics from
1::r te assachusetts. Institute of Technology (1964), and was chosen
i ith the fifth group. of astronauts in 1966. He was backup lunar
Module pilot on Apollo 13, lunar module pilot for Apollo 16 (tenth
I man to walk on -the Moon), and backup lunar module pilot for
-A-plo- 17... He resigned -from NASA -Jan. 1, 19.76 to become a
i tlbutor for.Coors Beer in San. Anxtonio, Texas.
., ~ iii.: :i .

il *1






CI Ur~ Moas Duke, .Jr.; Colonel, USAF; born October 3, 1935,

i w yreeiedbch:elo;r df cincf o iltheUS aa Academy
, (1957.), master of science in aeronautics and astronautics from
S the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1964), and was chosen
with the fifth group of astronauts in 1966. He was backup lunar
.,,module pilot on Apollo 13, lunar module pilot for Apollo 16 (tenth
...man to walk on the Moon), and backup lunar module pilot for
N .Apo~llo 17., H, resigned from NASA Jan. 1, 19.78 to become a.
distributor fur Coors Beer isi San Antonio, Texas.






24


... ..









41 A
.. . .... j T ..:" 7 . .















N
st A.,,X r












Donn Fulton Eisele; Colonel, USAF (Retired); born June 23, 1930,
Columbus, Ohio; divorced, four children, subsequently remarried
Received bachelor of science degree from the U.S. NAval
Academy (1952), master of science in astronautics from the Air
Force Institute of Technology (1960), and was chosen with the
third group of astronauts in 1963. He was command module pilot
of Apollo 7 and backup command module pilot for Apollo 10.
Colonel Eisele left the astronaut corps in June 1970 to become
Technical Assistant (Manned Flight), NASA Langley Research
Center in Hampton, Virginia. He retired from NASA and the Air
Force in July 1972 to become Peace Corps Director in Thailand.
He has since resigned and now lives in Williamsburg, Virginia.




VI


tluine E.gland; civilian; born May 15, 1942, Indianapolis,
ka, married, two children.
,inved bachelor and master of science degrees in geology and
WIts from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1965),
tNte in earth and planetary sciences from MIT (1970), and
Stehbsen with the sixth group of astronauts in 1967. Dr.
iland was the mission scientist for Apollo 16. He resigned from
AW'in August 1972 and accepted a position with the U.S.
mologikal Survey, based in Denver, Colorado.


25





26


Joe Henry Engle; Colonel, USAF; born August 26, 1932, Abilep.
Kansas; married, two children.
Received bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering
from the University of Kansas (1955), and was chosen in, the
fifth group of astronauts in 1966. Prior to his selection,, Colonel
Engle had qualified for the astronaut title in the X-i5 program.
He was backup lunar module pilot for Apollo 14 and is now
assigned to space shuttle development. He has been chosen as one
of the pilots for the shuttle approach and landing tests.




































t.viMs; Captam, USN (Ret'red); brn 6ovember 10,
t..I FraiuCs, Kansas; married, two children.
iahl. *.dah of science in electrical engineering from the
.............. . h.l
:'beiii, eity df'Kansas (1956), master of science in aeronautical
> eig from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School (1964), and
": senh'with the fifth group of astronauts in 1966. Captain
U..3mans was backup command module pilot for Apollo 14, com-
IrliiaiMc module pilot for Apollo 17, and was backup command
module pilot for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. He retired from
the Navy on April 30, 1976 and is currently assigned to space
shuttle development.


72-250 0 76 3










































"::" 4 . t.
.. ,": :. ** '' "* v
Theodore Cordy Freeman; Captain, USAF; born February i8, 1930,
Haverford, Pennsylvania;- died October 31, 1964 in a Tr-38 jet
crash at Ellington Air Force Base, Texas; was married, one ohild.
Received bachelor of science from the U.S. Naval Academy
(1953), master of science in aeronautical engineering from the
University of Michigan (1960), and was chosen with the third
group of astronauts in 1963.





29


Gi fies 'Gordon Fullerton; Lieutenant Colonel, USAF; born Octo-
| ; .e11, 1936, Rochester, New York; married, one child.
h-.r! ,1]eeeived..,bachelor of science (1957) and master of science
.i (.M8) in mechanical engineering from the California Institute
Sof Technology, and transferred into the NASA astronaut corps
f rom, the MOL program in 1969. He is currently assigned to
; stace shuttle development and has been chosen as one of the
pilots for the shuttle approach and landing tests.







L.............









































Owen Kay Garriott; civilian; born November 22, 1930, i,
Oklahoma; married, four children.
Received bachelor of science in electrical engineering from the
University of Oklahoma (1953), master of science in electrical
engineering from Stanford University (1957), doctorate in
electrical engineering from Stanford (1960), and was chosen
in the fourth group of astronauts in 1965. He was science pilot
for Skylab 3 and is currently on sabbatical at Stanford Uni-
versity. He is scheduled to return to NASA in the fall of 1976.







t ." :. .. .
' l:!"" .:.. "* .*


.. .'p ." k ..





Diwatt e.rge Gibson; civilian; born November 8, 1936, Buffalo,
New York; married, four children.
*Yfla' -JBecuive4 bachelor of science in engineering from the Uni-
yIN vetity of Rochester (1959), master of science in engineering
from the California Institute of Technology (1964), doctorate
f, engineering from the California Institute of Technology
(1964), and was chosen with the fourth group of astronauts in
1965. He was science pilot for Skylab 4. Dr. Gibson resigned from
NASA in November 1974 to join the Aerospace Corporation
as senior staff scientist, specializing in the interpretation of
solar data gathered during the Skylab program. He currently
serves as a senior consultant for Spacelab operations for VFW
Fokker/ERNO in Europe.





32



i~ i ...... .... ull



.. .










I*i












Edward Galen Givens, Jr.; Major, USAF; born January 5, 1930,
auanah, Texas; died June 6, 1967 in an automobile accident near
ouston, Texas; was married, two children.
Received bachelor of science from the U.S. Naval Academy
(1952) and was chosen with the fifth group of astronauts in 1966.






Uu


AN .l i n -?."
Ii Pi *
amo.....; mAried,, watchldren .. .
dnd :Muskingum Oolege, entered Nival Aviation Cadet
tip. am (1942), om~~sasionedin the Marine Corps (1943) and
"; bposen with the first group of astronauts in 1909. He was
.. fap pilot f Mere... -Redstoe, 3 (Feedom 7) mud Mercury-
;n:,;i: 9(me L4 0ty Bell 7), and was the first American to miae
oflbibjjligh in M- rcury-Atlas 6 (Friends h.7). HIe retired
^ mN|fl and the4anine (qCrps mi 1964,to join thie Royal
ola -o. a-d to tej politics. He waa elected U.S. Senator
,t ^L o O ..
L..I the Stateof. Ohio 1w Novemberi.B7t4,+ ....,..,
*.... ... . ** : " "" * 4 .." .
.: .. :


.... ...::










































Richard Francis Gordon, Jr.; Captain, USN (Retired); born October
5, 1929, Seattle, Washington; married, six children.
Received bachelor of science in chemistry from the University
of Washington (1951) and was chosen with the third group of
astronauts in 1963. Captain Gordon was backup pilot for Gemini
8, pilot for Gemini 11, backup command module pilot for Apollo
9, command pilot for Apollo 12, and backup commander for
Apollo 15. He retired from NASA and the Navy on January 1,
1972 and is now Executive Vice President of the New Orleans
Saints of the National Football League.











































ZKan4ei.; civilian; born March 2,1931, Newport, Vermont;
,dp~4$, purchildren.
I MiRceintd bachelor of science degree from the University of
.1xA...t, doctor of medicine degree from the University of
&iaxt MninMedical School (1955), master of science in public health
*ji frm Johne HoplOns University (1958), served in the. U.S. Air
SForce, and was chosen with the fourth group of astronauts in
1065. Dr. Graveline resigned from NASA in August 1965 for
i pe7nal reasons and currently works with the State of Vermont
; eartment of Health in Winooski, Vermont.
: ..
.?* ]: .: "









































Virgil "Gus" Ivan CGri adom u I a.. Sw :18.....i...
3, 1926, Mitchell, Indiana; died January 27 1967 in the Ap1i. |
fire at Cape Kennedy, Florida; was married, two cudfe l U^. .
Received bachelor of science in mechanical engineer'%g fn
Purdue University (1950) and was chosen in the first wgrw.
astronauts in 1959. He was the pilot for Mercury-Red.toj 4
(Liberty Bell 7), command pilot for Gemini 3, backup sn'n
pilot for Gemini 6 and had been selected to be comrahd.r.ok the
first manned Apollo flight. '
. .' . i
:* .. ..- ;' t" ** ^






97


l v ... : .jJ ,, .. S ," I
Fred Walace HaiS, Jr.; civilian: born November 14, 1933, Biloxi,
'*A sippi; married, fourchildren. .....
L3 REbeived bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering
l3&6 m the Univeytity of Oklahoma (1959), served as an aviator in
bo t e .S. Marine Cops and the 'US. Air Force, *nd was
chosen in the fifth group o astronauts in 1966. Mr. Haise was
backup lunar module pilot for Apollo 8 and Apollo 11, lunar
module pilot for Apollo 13, and backup commander for Apollo 16.
He is currently assigned to space shuttle development and has
been chosen as one of the pilots for the shuttle approach and
landing tests.




38












BII.
.... ....... .....
















Henry Warren Hartsfield, Jr.; Colonel, USAF; born November 21,
1933, Birmingham, Alabama; married, two children. :
Received bachelor of science degree in phliysics from Auburn
University (1954), master of science in engineering science from
the University of Tennessee (1971), and transferred into the
astronaut corps from the MOL program in 1969. He, is currently
assigned to space shuttle development.









































Kar Gordon Henize; civilian; born October 17, 1926, Cincinnati,
,; puwied. Jour childr en.
Received bachelor of arts degree in math from the University
" .of Virginia (1947), master of arts in astronomy from the Uni-
yn:ty .of Virginia (1948), doctorate in astronomy from the
S university of Michigan (1954), served in the U.S. Naval Reserve,
"aqd was chosen in the sixth group of astronauts in 1967. He was a
,*j jriwpas investigator for ultraviolet astronomy experiments for
,,the kylab program2 and is currently assigned top space shuttle
*" deveopment.
1 '* : .. .






40


Donald Lee Holmquest; civilian; born April 7, 1939, Dallas, Tdxhs;
divorced, one child, subsequently remarried. :
Received bachelor of science in electrical engineering from
Southern Methodist University (1962), doctor of medicimedegree
from Baylor University College of Medicine (1967), doctorate in
physiology from Baylor (1968), and was chosen in the sixth group
of astronauts in 1967. Dr. Holmquest took a leave of abstIce i
May 1971 to hold the position of assistant professor of Radiology
and Physiology at Baylor College of Medicine. He resigned from
NASA in September 1973 and currently is Associate Dean of the
Medical School at Texas A&M University.






41


lae bBu Iit; ,Oblonel, USAF (Retired); born March 17, 1930,
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; married, four children.
i 'Rleoei ved bachelor of science from the U.S. Naval Academy
(S11.),master of science in aeronautical and instrumentation
a waenginesrisg from the University of Michigan (1957) and was
the Ulki rty AfMi
;, '* tcN e wit thet fifth group of astronauts in 1966. He was backup
.. lunarm odtulpilot for Apollo2 and lunar module pilot for Apollo
i. 15,. (eighth man tW walk on Moon). Colonel Irwin resigned from
NASA and the Air Force in July 1972 to form an organisation
named High Flight located in Colorado Springs, Colorado. He is
currently engaged in religious work. His book, To Rul te Night,
describes his early life, selection into the astronaut program, and
his experiences on Apollo 15.









































Joseph Peter Kerwin. Captain, USN; born February 19, 1952, Oak
Park, Illinois; married, three children.
Received bachelor of arts degree in philosophy from the College
of the Holy Cross (1953), doctor of medicine from Northwestern
University Medical School (1957), and was chosen with the fourth
group of astronauts in 1965. He was the science pilot for Skylab 2,
participated in the Outlook for Space study and is currently -as-
signed to space shuttle development. He is also Chief of the Life
Sciences Astronaut Office. k /







43






.......























.... ....: ... "."












.: .




IVMN Benjamin Lenoir; civilian; born March 14, 1939, Miami,
Florida; married, two children.
i.:.Received bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering
(61 .' 6), master of science in electrical engineering (1962), doctorate
i In electrical engineering (1965) all from the Massachusetts Insti-
1: .| titute of Technolog, and was chosen with the sixth'group of
S.I. astronauto in 1967.-He was backup pilot for Skylab 3 and Skylab
i 4, and ib currently assigned to space shuttle development.
1*: .. : :.. *. .


72-250 0 76 4




I

44
I



































Don Leslie Lind; civilian; born May 18, 1930, Midvale,: Utah; masrri ,
six children. ,
Received bachelor of science in physics from the University of
Utah (1953), served as an aviator in the U.Sh Naval Reserve,
received doctorate in high energy physics from the University of
California at Berkeley (1964), and was chosen with the fifth group
of astronauts in 1966. He was backup science pilot for Skylab 3
and Skylab 4 and is currently on sabbatical leave. at the University
of Alaska. He is expected to return to NASA in the fall of 1976.












































W NW.... . ... .. ..... ... ; :. .. I : .. .. ;..; n ':" . . .. ; .. : "
"" *' P. .. ..*..I. b: ... a
..Lh, .' H i.... b n 1 22. .. .C ...ariff
leS; e U.S. citizen February 17, 1966; married, three

Received bachelor of science (1955) and doctorate (1958) in
c.ahoistry from University College, Cardiff, Wales, and was
-r:1 dBnn with the sixth group of astronauts in 1967. He withdrew
.a .fRmm the program on September 6, 1968 for personal reasons and
Aresentl is a professor in the Department of Energy Conversion
. nd Mechabical Design, College of Engineering, University of
14 Boath Florida.







.... .. ....... ... ..






46


i:. '* J
Jack Robert Lousma; Lieutenant Colonel, USMC; born February
29, 1936, Grand Rapids, Michigan; married, three children.
Received bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering.from
the University of Michigan (1959), degree of aeronautical :engi-
neer from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School (1965)., and was
chosen with the fifth group of astronauts in 1966. He was pilot
for Skylab 3 and backup docking module pilot for the Apollo-
Soyuz Test Project. He is currently assigned to space shuttle
development.






































Jr. a n retired ) bo March 25,
". ......" ..".i..' .. , .:: ,",.:Q..:.: ... . .,9./ .... ... :,,..
.... Cleveland, Ohio; married, four children.
<4W" tw ,e.:: " 1
Ti :frc lfdr bsfelo : of science from .he lx S" NatS *Aademy
1952. and was chosen with the second group of astronauts in
.I jBl'-. He ..was: backup pilot for .Genmrn 4, pilot for Gemini 7,
1to ;ritcpcoimand pilot for emini 9, command pilot for Gemini
fiiji command module, pilot for Apollo 8, backup commander
nslu.or: Apdb. 1, -and commander for Apollo 15.-In'May 1971 he
,Cle$i*became, Deputy: Director of Science and Applications at the
v.l:ohnson Spae OCenter. Captain Lovell *tirid from NASA and
the Navy in March 197Sand isaow President atd Chief Executive
Officer of the Bay-Houston Towing Company, Houston, Texas.






48


Thomas Kenneth Mattingly II; Commander, US'; born Aehi7,
Thomas Kenneth Mattingly II; Commander, LTSN; born $arch 17,
1936, Chicago, Illinois; married, one child.
Received bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from
Auburn University (1958) and was chosen in the fifth, group of
astronauts in 1966. He was scheduled to be command module
pilot on Apollo 13 but was replaced by his back-up 72 hours before
launch when it was discovered he had been exposed to measles,
and was command module pilot for Apollo 16. He is currently
assigned to space shuttle development.












































i@BC i'S:"I;t e:.uomm de USN'; born June 8, 1937, Boston,
: frnao usetta: married, two children.
n1 41e99 muited bachelor of science from the U.S. Naval Academy
master of science in electrical engineering from Stanford
IMAYu-Jvervi'y (19,65) and was chosen with the fifth group of astro-
I,F.atsin.1966. He was backup pilot for Skylab 2 and is currently
-P A iiga to space shuttle development.
a..|.i.JJ .. 'J I .
* o t ^L~, .b- . ** *
. :. ..
't ..I". .! /; : ">












































1A
James Alton McDivitt; Brigadier General, USAF (Retired); born
June 10, 1929, Chicago, Illinois; married, four children. '
Received bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from
the University of Michigan (1959) and was chosen in the second
group of astronauts in 1962. He was command pilot of Gemini 4
and commander for Apollo 9. General McDivitt managed the
Apollo Spacecraft Program at Johnson Space Center from
September 1969 to August 1972. He then resigned from NASA
and the Air Force and now is Vice President, Pullman, Inc. of
Chicago, Illinois.

















































-. I; -;- .; ..
1.3l'10047 i ".: . ... '".. "
f i. I*ts Michel; civilian; born June 5, 1934, La Crosse, Wiscon-
a$iumewd, two children.
Snot Received bachelor of science degree in physics (1955), doctorate
bi pysites (1962) from the California Institute of Technology,
i W *erredtas an aviator in the U.S. Air Force Reserve and was
ichoen with the fourth group of astronauts in 1965. Dr. Michel
a nesied from the 'astronaut corps in August 1969 to become a
.... ,|: profsso of physics at Rice University. H is currently chairman
6! i &te Spac Physics and Astronomy Program there.
S......

S* I .
'a.oy 4





























J









Edgar Dean Mitchell:; Captain, USN (Retired);sbornauis
1930, Hereford, Texas; divorced, two childrer4 "Sn
rem arrived. N.. !b!iii.......:
Received bachelor of science in industrial managernnfr.oz
Carnegie Institute of Technology (1952), bachelor of scdeteI
aeronautical engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgradiate
School (1961), doctorate in aeronautics and astronautics from
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1964), and was chosen
with the fifth group of astronauts in 1966. He was backup lunar
module pilot for Apollo 10, lunar module pilot for Apollo 14
(sixth man to walk on the Moon), and backup lunar module
pilot for Apollo 16. Captain Mitchell retired from the Navy and
NASA in October 1972 and founded the Institute of Noetic
Sciences, Palo Alto, California, of which he is currently chairman,
and is also President of Edgar D. Mitchell and Associates in
Atherton, California. He has written a book entitled Psychic
Exploration: A Challenge for Science.







































NO Muagrave; civilian; born August 19, 1935, Boston,
setts; married, five children.
ied bachelor of science degree in math and statistics from
S.Oni ity (1958), master of business administration in
*I ak ysis and computer programming from the Uni-
OW .aifornia at Los Angeles (1959), bqcheldr of arts in
Strcii Marietta College (1960), doctor of medicine from
a University (1964), master of science in biop1hysics from
etsiy of Kentucky (1966), is working toward a doctorate
aDoogy from the University of Kentucky, has served in
v U.. Maxine Corps and the U.S. Navy, and was chosen
ie sith group of astronauts in 1967. He was the backup
pilot for Sk-,ylab 2 ad is curretly. assigned to space






54


Brian Todd O'Leary; civilian; born January 27, 1940, Bpston, MaaW-
chusetts; married, two children. ,
Received bachelor of arts degree in physics from WT'iams
College (1961), master of arts in astronomy from Georgetown
University (1964), doctorate in astronomy from University of
California at Berkeley (1967), and was chosen with the sixth
group of astronauts in 1967. He resigned from NASA in,! 968
for personal reasons and took a position on the Cornell University
staff. He was an assistant professor of astronomy and science
policy assessment at Hampshire College, Amherst, Massachu-
setts, became a special consultant on nuclear energy matters
for the Committee on the Interior, U.S. House of Representatives,
and is currently working on plans for space colonization with
Gerard O'Neill at Princeton. He has written an autobiographical
work, The Making of an Ex-Astronaut.








































WAJFnkyu Overmyer; Lieutenant Cblonel, USMC; born Jduly
I 14, 36, Lorain, Ohio; married, thee children.
a:iMd bachelor of science degree in physics fr6m Baldwin-
... eCollege (1958) master of scieftnce in aeronautics at the
7o 'TIavPos tgaduate School (1964), and transferred-into the
tItont corps frm the MOL program in 1969. He was part of
M.(I thesnapport crew for the A io-Soyuz Test Project, and is
bin outretlyiassigred to space shuttle development.






56


Robert Allan Ridley Parker; civilian; born December 14, 19N%,.NO
York, New York; married, two children.
Received bachelor of arts degree in astronomy an&dphysics
from Amherst College (1958), doctorate in astronomy from the
California Institute of Technology (1962), and was chosen with
the sixth group of astronauts in 1967. He was mission scientist
for Apollo 17 and chief scientist for the Skylab missions. Dr.
Parker is currently assigned to space shuttle development and
is Chief of the Science and Applications Astronaut Office.




















































* *.. ..
i*:


V, ..,.,,* : . .......... = "
61. ts ,:r br October: 22, 193,
ad, three children.


e ived bachelor of science from the U.S. Military Academy
), master of science in nuclear engineering from the Air Force
ute of Technology (1962) and transferred into the astronaut
from thi MOL program in 1969. HeA is currently assigned to
shuttle development.


ifi
'* H
t *'...:1


a 0






58








E. ..i, ... i .. EEE .:' : .. ..















........ ,















William Reid Pogue; Colonel, USAF (Retired); born January 23,1930,
Okemah, Oklahoma; married, three children.
Received bachelor of science degree in education from Oklahoma
Baptist University (1951), master of science in math from
Oklahoma State University (1960), and was chosen with the
fifth group of astronauts in 1966. He was pilot of Skylab 4.
Colonel Pogue resigned from NASA Sept. 1, 1975 to become a
Vice President of High Flight, Colorado Springs, Colorado. He
returned to NASA April 18, 1976 as an astronaut assigned to the
Earth Resources Program Office.




































/ I
V
Ii.
~ I


*1*


'I'
Ii


-Bn lese; Colonel, USAF; born August 16, 1933, Durango,
d4um'arriMed; four children. '
received bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from
Pnu ersity of Colorado (1960) and was chosen with the fifth
i astronauts in 1966. He was the command module pilot
6pW 14, and backup command module pilot lor Apo o 16
jollto 17. Cqloiel Roosa resigned from NASA on February
M .
.... :, **.'


1T-250 0 76 5


L1 #
...tUY






-I


":" xi:E:x::xi:




rx


00





... : : ..::: ...:.: .... :












... .............




a 7.









"E.. ........ ....
.. .:. :. .. .. .. .










Walter Marty Schirra, Jr.; Captain, 18(WRetired);
1923, Hackensack, New Jersey; married, two children,.
Received bachelor of science from, the US. Naval 'A" y
(1945) and was chosen in the first group of astronaUts in 9. II
He was backup pilot for Mercury-Atlas 7 (Aurora 7), pilot of
Mercury-Atlas 8 (Sigma 7), backup command pilotof Gemini 3,
command pilot of Gemini 6, and commander of Apollo 7.: C.5tain
Schirra retired from the Navy and NASA in July 1969 a bd ame
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Evirotymn tal
Control Company, Englewood, Colorado, and Chairman, Serco,
Inc. He is presently Director of Technology Purchases at Johns-
Manville Corp., Denver, Colorado.


mm I



































Jack" Hagan Schmitt; civilian; born July 3, 1935, Santa
wMexico.; single.
.... .. oeived bachelor of science degree in science from the C&Wfor-
bi.i tmitte of Technology (1957), doctorate in galogy at
...trv&, Universiy (1964) and was chosen with the fourth
i.flpf astroputa n 1965. He was backup lunar module pilot
4ijl:4|U 145, and .lunar module pilot for Apollo 17 (twelfth
oAjiflt c o.Ce was chief of th scientist-ostro-
Li"j MSmR!.e t ohnesoa Space Center before being named NASA's
qA AsaI Administrator for Energy Pxogrsms in May 1974, a
Sposition he resigned August 30, 1975 to enter polite. :


ii..::: .i .. ".H"
..:." qiL



iL>k~, ..




r


62


".. "' .:', : "::" v i. iB.r
Russell Louis Schweickart; civilian; born October 25, 1935, Ne1Mne,
New Jersey; married, five children.
Received bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering (1956)
and master of science in aeronautics and astronautics (1963)
from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, served :in the
U.S. Air Force as an aviator, and was chosen with the third
group of astronauts in 1963. He was lunar module-pilot on Apollo
9 and backup commander for Skylab 2. Mr. Schweickart is
presently NASA's Director of User Affairs in the Office of Ap-
plications.










I









Ii


















q.,h Scph Sott; Colonel, USAF (Retired); born June 6, 1932,
A.$.:Ani0, Texas; married, two children.
!i!~!.. "p Received bachelor of science degree from the U.S. Military
O 4c.le. y(1954), master of science m aeronautics and astro-
..... ... ..d an engineer of aeronautics and astronautics degree
p .i. theMassachusetts Institute of Technology, and was chosen
t tht group of astronauts in 1963. He was pilot of
command module pilot of Apollo 9, backup cofitmander
12, and copnander of A o015 (seventh mail to walk I.
e.6Mon). In'July 1972, colonell Scott became. Special p
A'l. itant for Mission Operations for the Apolto-Souyuz Test
Project and in April 1975 wasappointed Director, NASA Flgt,
.R~.:th CnteAadwajrds, Caiornia.






64


Elliot McKay See, Jr.; civilian; born July 23, 1927, Dallas, T&&,t
died February 28, 1966 in the crash of a T-38 jet near St. Louis,
Missouri; was married, three children.
Received bachelor of science degree from the U.S. Merchant
Marine Academy (1949), served as an aviator in the U.S. Navy,
received master of science in engineering from the University of
California at Los Angeles (1962), and was chosen in the second
group of astronauts in 1962. He was backup pilot for Gemini 5
and was slated to be command pilot for Gemini 9 at the time
of his death.










































rlt3-St1e Shepard, Jr.; Rear Admiral, USN (Retired); born
SNovember 18, 1923, East Derry, New Hampshire; married, two

rf !!Received bachelor of science degree from the U.S. Naval
LIh Academy (1944) and was chosen with the first group of astronauts
i' : i 1959. He was pilot of Mercury-Redstone 3 (Freedom 7)
r becomingg America's first man in space, backup pilot for Mercury-
t1I Atlas 9, was subsequently grounded due to an inner ear ailment
r' intil May 7, 1969 duringg which time he served as chief of the
!ii Astronaut Office), commander of Apollo 14 (fifth man to walk
-ow i theMeon), and in June 1971 resumed duties as chief of the
, A tronaut Orffie. He retired from NASA and the Navy in July
1i. 1974 to join the Marathon Colstruction Company of Houston
as partner and chairman.











































Donald "Deke" Kent Slayton; Major, USAF (Retired); bom hMuri1,
1924, Sparta, Wisconsin; married, one child. '
Received bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering frma
the University of Minnesota (1949) and was chosen with the
first group of astronauts in 1959. He was chosen as command
pilot for Mercury-Atlas 7 but was removed due to detection of a
heart murmur. He resigned his commission as an Air Force
Major in November 1963 but continued as an active member
of the astronaut team, becoming Director of Flight Crew Opera-
tions, a position he held until February 1974. Mr. Slayton
returned to flight status in March 1972 and was docking module
pilot for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. He is currently Deputy
Director of Flight Operatioms for Shuttle Approach and Landing
Tests.




- rlll:": ". ******"************* ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ** ^"


6ftki nPStaffOrd; Major General, USAF; born September 17,
,.Weatherford, Oklahoma; married, two children.
&6ejyed bachelor of science degree from the U.S. Naval
ademy (1952) and was chosen with the second group of astro-
uts i1*1962. He was backup pilot for Gemini 3, pilot for Gemini
became command pilot for Gemini 9 upon. the death of a
me crew member, backup commander for pollo 7, commander
k pofll 10, 'and commander of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.
ral Stafford was chief of the Astronaut Office from August
9 to May 1911 and was subsequently named Deputy Director
SFlght Crew Operations. He resigned from NASA on Novem-
S1; 1i5 to become commander-of the USA Flight Test
afar, Edwards Air Force Base, California.




S:....:
68
































.. . : .
John Leonard Swigert, Jr.; civilian; born. August. 80, 1i9 1 $S01
Colorado; single. .r
Received bachelor of science degree in mechanical gi ri
from the University of Colorado (1953), served 8s;i8 ator
the U.S. Air Force, received master of science in p.o..... e
science from Rensselaer Polytechni Institte (1965), mast
of science in business administration from the Utv iyet
Hartford (1967), and was chosen with the fifth group .fp troA
nauts in 1966. He was scheduled to be backup conmnd module
pilot for Apollo 13 but became co6tand module pilot 72 hours
prior to launch when a prime crew member as exposed to
German measles. Mr. ,Swigert took a leoye of absnp from NASA
in April 1973 to become executive Drctor of thb C nmmittee
on Science and Technology, IU.S. Hbuse of RePresenthtlves.










































c. 'IM : ...
Wili Edgar Thornton; civilian; born April 14, 1929, Faison, North
0 Ca: 4oina; married, two children.
S:::: Received bachelor of science degree in physics (1952 )and doctor
ot medicine (1963) from the University of North Carolina, served
in the U.S. Air Force, and was chosenwith the sixth group of
4 astronauts ii 1967. He was a crew member of the Skylab Medical
Lr; Elperiments Altitude Test and is currently assigned to space
shuttle development.




*w

70












. .:...


i!I


















Fayette, Mississippi; married, three children.
Received bachelor of aeronautical engineering degree frqp the
Georgia Institute of Technology (1959) and transferred; into the
astronaut corps from the MOL program in 1069, He was a member
of the astronaut support crew or the Apollo-Soyuz Test .Poject,
and is currently assigned to space shuttle development. He has
been chosen as, one of the pilots for the shuttle approach and
landing tests.























































p~iii: ii:.. ...it
Weiti; Captain, USN; born July 25, 1932, Erie, Penn-
VAa; married, two children.
: Received bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering
from Pennsylvania State University (1954), master of science in
aeronautical engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate
School (1964) and was chosen with the fifth group of astronauts
-in 1966. He was pilot for Skylab 2 and is currently assigned to
space shuttle development.
,.::-'.. .. *


hi
*1
II
LI
I

4...






72

















". ~ ~ .. . ." .E: .: E: : .. .... ..... : "q

















Edward Higgins White, II; Lieutenant Colonel, USAF; bqai Z rme
ber 14, 1930, San Antonio, Texas; died January 27, 1967 i! the
Apollo 204 fire at Cape Kennedy, Florida; was married, four
children.
Received bachelor of science degree from the U.S. Military
Academy (1952), master of science in aeronutiaoal engineeri
from the University of Michigan (1959), and was chosen with
the second group of astronauts in 1962. He was pilot of Gemini
4 (first American to walk in space), backup command pilot for
Gemini 7, and had been selected to be command module pilot
for the first manned Apollo flight.
















































WWi.S tmis Williams, Jr.; Major, USMC; born September 26, 1932,
I[ AJbama; died October 5, 1967 in the crash of a T-38 jet
'i -iar ahassee, Florida; was married, one child.
_.. ._, ved bachelor of science in mechanical engineering from
\' i *L.'.University and was chosen with the third group of
4W:U-, 3i't@ in 1963. He had been seficted as backup pilot for
114 i rt: .: "* .' i .... ."" 3
d.AIG4 .1 10.
i. :h i i ": i, :: ': : : :" i ": .... < :. .. ,.
:,..1 .. . : ":. : *., >. i .
:w T::". .'. .' . .. ,* . . .
:,, 5 i S.. II/.
.HQ.
.., .. ..
i i",.; : ": . l ::"
. ..ia'i t i ".i A i. f l' .., .. h .... ........: :- '
I p jl.iN ~i 'T i i'fd :: ::;: ': ... r": i ** -- .-..:i.: *'.':* J
Ij t lf b j .::' i'. . ,, .... ,'i :.. . .. ** **. ;i ;**. **i.... .,.


-IPq






74
... .. ... M.... ~


















.~... .. .EE".... .:






















Alfred Merrill Worden; Lieutenant Colonel, USAF; born Februry 7,
1932, Jackson, Michigan; divorced, two children, subsequently
remarried.
Received bachelor of science degree from the U.S. Military
Academy (1955), master of science degrees in astronauticil/
aeronautical engineering and instrumentation engineering from
the University of Michigan (1963) and was chosen with the fifth
group of astronauts in 1966. He was backup command module
pilot for Apollo 12 and command module pilot for Apollo 15.
In September 1972 Colonel Worden was assigned to NASA Ames
Research Center, Mountain View, California as Director of
Advanced Research and Technology. He resigned from NASA
on September 1, 1975 and is now Vice President of High Flight,
Colorado Springs, Colorado. He has written a book of poetry
entitled Hello Eartk: Greetings from Endeavor, and a children's
h%'& Ai Vl'1 A 1 4.n-^ A./T A






































II





Hm at Towug; Captain, USN; born September 24, 1930, San
MMalif divorced, twn chilr subsequently re-
qzived bachlobr of science degr0 in aeronautical engineering
from the Georgia Institute of Te ologo (1952) and was chosen
1wth the second group of astronauts in 1962. He was pilot of
:. (Iemii0 38, bckiip pilot for Gemini 0, command pilot for Gemini
iPh= command module pilot for Apoib?, command
...... ...... ... .::for A pollo 10 ..:e 3
*i'f^f Jbawkip cou der for Apollo 13,
**a^:^:|^N A ofl Apnituo 4an to palk on the Moon), and
--eu f nmne oI Acl Cuet is ciefd of the
Opertions Astronaut Office and assigned to space shuttle
drdopm..**ent.HA0 ? *f









76


a
a


* 0



~4a
4-W
Liii


CMw
Cd






4



0


0




CDc
041




i





gi
m cm
- I

^ d
0'











! I
~oj











* I"
I,
Ii










ii

Cl
Cd
* is


I !
* a




* I
I !
! I
l I
* I


'a













I
'-4

U
44^


I I I I Ii I I I '% : :":q"I L: | '

I I I a i ".I".I I!*T .. ;. l "
Vi
i iI i ...: 4.i PJ

S ^ -* cr ^ ^~ i15*

1 ::0 A 1
Wk.
m. +. ..* .** < ** .. *'.::.:... : :,".] .



:-a J' ,A.. ,. :I.. ;.
O I V .- .,



I I I 1 *.. :NC.' l .0:i
li ,ii i ii 11 ,-I I: .. *1 *.+ .


Ei0 11 0 m 2 i 0 .



I i I i i l Q '. ," "4
mM I"' I Q i *' 1 C S :' ii'








*i" o' c5ci *5'?2 2 ^v
;s "tt 7 i0
0 r3R
I I i t .,.. ;,:






lI ii m liiiz I ",I ia ", .
i 1 i i


10i 1-d 1 ii- I I i *







I I I I I I I I I I I I I
S I I I I I I I I I I I I I







I I I I i I i I " :
co c03 A o s_ of c
,^ 4 ,^ 'r^ :'^-^ ^ C+.' ii "^ : +.:+ +:.].! ... ^






mi ii l.=9 0 Ii" I ii I I + 1 ", .:"

10 Cw S
S- .I -. m
. -.. ,. .... .4 .. -
I I cc. :'m CIO M. C40 +

I I I I I I I I I I i I I I i -. "+ I

i ii 1,11I~~l ii I a *i4 *i I.:


I I I 1 I I I I I I I 4 I i I I "
IOi IOII I I I I I-I 7
iC I m I I l I I = I o I I IAD

imi m II II I I II I I. I ItI
I i l I l I I I I I I I 1 ... Af., ..


I I I I



di W 0 *0 i .0 0
I II 1," l I


ii
10
I I
I I
I I

I-

10

m m

:


I -
51
040
a 4D




400
i









...
cc
'I
II








I O
4a
!4 I
! I





!Q !
00




S'I
.- I-








a1
0'
I I
I I




gel


Si







77


, .5 a
04A
PC a


4a m a
V.i1

0 10
S1a.




t.i
02.3 3
*9 S C



aOp 8-
00


. S" S IIi" r' ...... i* u i
!:it i : I I I
I. i 1 I 1 1
ti I I I"I II
F tI I I. I1 **4
I "i i. Ia" I' l a.
l .I..I II I Iqi ...i o I














tw 1.:;:ca Ul -:to LO I
. ;':l'h 1 . I U ;


Iw I : :.4 m II
. ....i..4: I? "- 9 !


I 'l, n I '4 I-I j C












1-l bm P. a ^ *'C 0'



11M.
!S.l -ii III 0 S <*< G
i .,<- ..* r ._ .


1 1 I : i I. I I i I
., i:, : *. I II l, ,











I
wIl I Ii I I
I l I. ** I ~I I I I I I II I *a
it 1 I S I I I I I .III / I


~i,!n o iin *l * a, n g I a
i I I, .. a : i ll *i ii I
:":"i:t " 'ijM i s d '






I I I I II, iIVl *I
;:: 1" "oi:" ... 5 < .aiiu

-.'i ifi, i i^ , i i
I I I I I I? 1I I I I I
I I : I I Q -






i S I I I I I I I I I I
Itt I II 1 I I I.l I I I I II







,~m ~ I I It I
,.:." ): .-. t +





I:t*tt I
r:(;iI 0CC
, .. C - o-. ,- -, C



:I ; -"; 'i. i" fl' a " "=



iii : .! ri u iS i i i i~ 0 0 i i i i M iB
S 3 II" I u i i i i I I uI I
iii :1 3*a 5 I I n I u I I I I I I I I I
i i,,, J i 11 1 I I i n ill I I Ii
i 1, 1.i. "I II* I..


Ii *: i. n o i i l U ,
lib I li: I. I. A s' I i I i i
il., i I. I i I i I I I i I I i 'i

iiiI 1 .. :.gii


lo5
,II "I

liI I I

I I I
I I I


I I I
I I
I I
I I I
I I
* I I










I ,
IS I I
I I


If I
I5 5












I a
go -
*g C



0 >_ 0





4. 0
t3g1




A !


cA a
a


Ig I0 I"

IC05SI
o11o







'0 -
* I
^of-
-00"0
I m

rco



I l I
I I I
I I IM
I I I+
II I +

o I c
4a'


goo
t-' "2



II I
II


m0 m '




e I











A0.
0.1
- -i


iI I
I3 I
I I
IS& I

- -35-V
I^ I I
IQQ I QI








U
jr ^


. i 4, '
S_ o o









II I IIII I I~ || I1 Is
I I IoI I tI .'c a.E t.
o I I3 oo Q I I I

I I 0s I l cI t









IIII I Ii |ir I |I
Ia asI i i | I I i




1'1 I a1 O I eIcI .
A1A

'" o Aqo olS '0




* p a e" o*o t c 2 ^ + ^









I,,I I w-lI I I I Ii I'
> u~~ u-0 > <^














IIA .1
II I III II i
III 1 I*II I I II *I
I SI I III II II I

IsI I II I I I I I I
'0 Ot* I

.1I I I _1II I I I I I


I 0 I I I I I I I I
I- I i I n I -- I:
-*C ..i I 1I is il *



0 NJ
4 a 5 QW -W.:













II I I I I I
I_ I ~ I. I I I I






I I I I I In

I1 I *r l
, 1 ::: :














' '= U" .c ^."- Q " 13 i
II| I I III .1 I I I





I I I IIl I I i i I
I I I I I I I I 1 I I





* I I I-ta IB
)t3 00 042 m6 &





















i o*
Ia I I I I I I
I IQ I I I I

1S Sgo SOBl,










w, -i o^ -" "'- *so :
a -.,c

qm 'd 0 'A 0


I I *|1| || |I
'~ ~ 0 *< 1 Ki

*S *Ii Ig II4
C. 04 1 4 or







II I I



I 1 1 1 g
4a :g -4

-44CCa -@
p4~ ~~~ -4 0 -r *-







i 79



on w. r. r,;




1. 0 a Kg1 P0 .
... i 5M Ii i I i
~ ~ P 08C 0 4
; a 0 C D
I I i40 I 0 l 1
<. CD So 0 Po A "0
0. 00
2 I? a P-c
Ai @ A OI l I4 I I -I

-"a o ) a. I^ o *00 I
IMq A0 t4 4a 1








D o *

S m o 4 .4:








.I | I II I 1 I I | I
1 c0 rnOc 0 0D to0

0 0.1E L *O 0 CD CL
s y ^












1j 4i |
I I i I 0
I I I II il I (
5 aI ion s--0i0 3 i










I': i I I iI ri" i ,

;; J ~- 0 g -.
kaIi Ia. IsIi
ij ipd 4) '











11 IM
LzI I:I II

1 i qI r l i II I l







l 4 i I '

3 Q QQ GG1- 4
R~I* "1 00I I I I0 mm3.
C~ b CO 0 Co M
ZZZE> 1-OZli E0
I I iI I I I I i






4 U
I ~r- ii i I I I I l i

AS iJ a
'eIC C..C o o aC
oo Co Q) C




rl


4























4-











IF



















.14
























r


C,


tj








..... .... ... ...
S ,"i .. : ., .

N y1'" i i.: ,,,,"! :: :* ..::..,^
A" i'r. 'CHAPTER TWO

tifsLB'ii, X-20 DYNA-SOAR AND MANNED ORBITING
S .LABORATORY PROGRAMS
.... .. :.
-15
~~, X.-15 was a sophisticated research aircraft that would fly at
.nic speeds (over 4500 miles per hour) as well as attain high
P (over 350,000 feet). The X-15 program was a joint NASA-
.4 Force project which had its origins in the summer of 1952.
rn, the National Advisory Council on Aeronautics (NACA)
its laboratories to study concepts for a very high altitude
ic .manned flight, the problems associated with it, and
s for fully exploring the problem areas.
._light research program for the X-15-consisted of a series of
sve steps to higher speeds and higher altitudes to obtain new
4 qr confirm theoretical or wind tunnel data on characteristics
rp..ame performing in a very advanced flight regime. The first
L-4EWas completed and moved to Edwards Air Force Base in
Miober .1958. On June 8, 1959, pilot Scott Crossfield made the first
S glide flight in the plane. Three months later, Crossfield
copleted the first powered flight. By the summer of 1963, all the
major research objectives of the X-15 had been achieved. There
rwmaned continuing detailed research work which the X-15 conducted
1Wtil the program was cancelled in December 1968.
S. X-20 DYNA-SOAR
The Dyna-Soar was a joint Air Force-NASA project financed and
ministered by the Department of Defense. The program aimed at
.d dvei.pment of a small, piloted glider which could be boosted into
Slight and which would be capable of maneuverable reentry
:A orbit to a conventional controlled landing. Primarily a manned
ii. y space research vehicle, the Dyna-Soar was to achieve orbital
~i-v, ~and thereby be able to explore the problems and conditions
olesnimc flight beyond the range of the X-15 research aircraft.
I e project was imtiated in 1961 and six pilots were chosen on
lptember 20, 1962, but when the Manned Orbiting Laboratory
S(MOL) program began in 1963, the Air Force and NASA decided to
teminate the X-20. It had limited utility as an in-space test facility
Sand the Defense Department believed that exploration of the hyper-
sonic flight regime and development of maneuverable reentry and
recovery techniques could be more economically conducted in a
Program of unmanned lifting reentry vehicles.
S,(81)



ii ..






82


MANNED ORBMITING LABoBnTo (MOL)


The Department of Defense Manned Orbiting Lmboram :y
originated in 1963. The program was first conceived se&i
determine the military usefulness of man in space. After :.
of the MOL program, study by Air Frce and the N
in broader program goals and a wider definition of arem nfl.
interest. MOL was to: a) learn more tboutoii At
space and how that ability could be'sd for 4d n
develop the technology and equipment which would h4.
manned and unmanned space flight; and c) experiai et
technology and equipment.
The Manned Orbiting Laboratory as to bO' et
modate two men in orbit for thirty dayj. The D
selected a total of seventeen astamats f tht prpi m .
men were military test pilots andt-'adiltw. of the
Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, alfoti.
i." TW : """.:::i:::
candidates were selected in three groups: Group ...': .
8 chosen; Group 2, June 17, 1966, chosen; Ooupi ...
: : ... .. .. ...
chosen. : ; '- :. '/:.
The Department of Defense cancelled the MOLh png*ro:'
1969. Among the contributing factors .e . ..
significantly reduce the DOD budget and 2) the
annual investments which would hmve beeu 81
gram progress. DOD tried to assurtuseful Ic I W
portion of the investment in the MOL by M
and hardware to laboratories, NASA' and de ed ...
agencies. ] 1:: 4 ...

... .. . ... .. *. -' ....j :i*:i
":: ::" ":::
* .. * .. .. .. :* '** A I" "v i.;.:...: ''y i [ii


4: Tr t4~ e([e
*: *& flrn*, *qwb
.... ....... .... ....
.: I ..vi I' ..... S
: ... ***: .. ..... a .I.. ..... .. .......a..........
A ..... .......
... .. .. ... .... .... ... ..... .. ..
pP.
S .n ... : + : '' ..... .* :.. '' '".-. e *... ...
. : 0..
.. . ... ..!
'




.*. .t L-.:.r u *..i j I itL"
,: :*:'..i ...- .. .... r. r h ..... . .... ...


)~~ A: i''
S .: .4. .i R:. : iil" I L llt. r l !1:: 14 i
L :: : 4: :' :. E.. J A. . A :
... ....... ...... . ..
1 : :. .... T .: ... ..4


71






83


Je. s.A. Abrahamion, MOL; Brigadier General, USAF; born May 19,
1833, Inglewood, California; married, two children.
Received bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering
i fomm the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, master of science
in aerospace engineering from the University of Oklahoma, and
S was chosen for the MOL Programin 1967 (Group III). After the
MOL was cancelled, he became a staff member of the National
Aeronautics and Space Council. When the Council was dissolved
in 1973, he returned to active duty with the Air Force and is
currently Inspector General, Air Force Systems Command, An-
drews ATB, Maryland.








84


:p .. Jo:. 4q.04H I
Michael James Adams, MOL, X-15; Major, USAF; born Ma
1930, Sacramento, California: diid .:Novembr 5,4S9.n iEbb
wards Air Force Base, California in ai X-15 ca ul*
three children. p t : : o S':M .) i........
Received bachelor of science degree in i
.. .. .. .. 7.. .: . ."6 ... ... ..
from Oklahoma Umniversity a195 adiw.
gram m.in 1965 (Gnrup IT) MO ea:
15. *." .. ... .. ..e fts
.. ... .. .. .. ... .. . . .. . . .
"I Ni H*
1 *^ .;. p i Li ... ....... ....
7 ...... .... .... ..i.. .
2% Ti
fr............










7'i








en AdenArm~ngX-1, NSA. iogphyunde NAA atro







86


Karol Joseph Bobko, MOL, NASA. Biography under NAS
nauts.


I.
I jH P










































ibert H. Crews, Jr., X-20 Dyna-Soar, MOL; Colonel, USAF; born
March 23, 1929; El Dorado, Arkansas; married, three children.
Received bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering
from the University of Southern Louisiana (1950), master of
science in aeronautical engineering from the Air Force Institute of
Technology, and was named to pilot the X-20 Dyna-Soar in 1962.
He was chosen for the MOL program in 1965 (Group I), and after
its cancellation transferred to the NASA Flight Crew Operations
Directorate at the Johnson Space Center.







88


Robert Laurel
astronauts.


Crippen, MOL,


NASA. Biography: tmder N4kA


t. -


I I










































Albert Scott Cromfield, X-15; civilian; born October 2,1921, Berkeley,
California; married, six children.
Received bachelor of science degree (1949) and master of
science (1950) in aeronautical engineering from the University of
Washington. He was an X-15 pilot from 1959 to 1960 and made
the first glide flight as well as the first powered flight. After the
X-15 was turned over to NASA and the Air Force in 1960, he
continued at North American Aviation as director of test and
quality assurance. Mr. Crossfield has also directed research and
development programs for Eastern Airlines, and currently resides
near Washington, D.C.




WNW-




























WHIiam Ho' Dana, X-45;
pasaimay V Irda; mgnied,
-R *4'bvholoig'ot,
Academy ('1959), uia-of-sowoe
;Croju the U sity of, 8046km
Am- PRID Vullflew dl x4t,
aircrak to au'altitude, of "a
astotLaut title., He is, inOw
'Center, Edwirds,Ca orma.





i-A


























































.-:!.. :.:.. .. .. .. .:. ..,.
bi gIe1, X-15, NASA. Biography under NASA astronauts.




. " .. '* *'...



* -











.76-7






92


John Lawrence Finley, MOL; Captain, U.S. Navy, born December A
1935, Winchester, Massachusetts; married, two children.
Received bachelor of science degree from the U.S. Navyl
Academy (1957) and was chosen for the MOL program in 1961
(Group I). After cancellation of the program, Commander Finley
returned to operational flying duty with the Navy. He is currently
Commander of an attack carrier, Air Wing 5, FiO San Francisco.


.... .. : ... .......::.
.:.'. ... ..























































CalesGardon. Fulerton, MOL, NASA. Biography under NASA

i '. i "". f SI.










































f.. ... .. ....
... ^ :...!. ..........: ii ":,J i ..:iii:' i;: i':i^ ^ ^ ^ ^ H
N k:. ......... ..:. ..;:: i :, : '.. .....i ~
i! ..... .... ...... ... ...... .... ..

Henry C. Gordon, X-20 .Dy.. a-So.r; 5.on4..W...
December 23, 1925, Valparaiso, Inian; red,
.........
Received bachelor of science degi i eromati .ifl
from Purdue University (1950) and was chosen to pilot he XSO
Dyna-Soar while assigned to the Air Force Plihttst C trt
Edwards, California. When the program was cancledMP he
remained on active duty with the Air Force and is now retired.


.A::..;.."!;,,^